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1

Effect of Paclobutrazol on Soluble Sugars and Starch Content of de novo Regenerating Potato Stem Explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the content of soluble sugars and starch were determined during the first phase of de novo organogenesis in stem internode segments (SIS), taken either from control plants or from the plants grown on medium with 10-8 M paclobutrazol (PBZ). Transient accumulation of soluble sugars was observed in both variants during the first two days. Control SIS accumulated higher

M. Grospietsch; H. Lipavská; J. Opatrná

2000-01-01

2

[Effects of simulated acid rain and its acidified soil on soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings].  

PubMed

The study showed that the cation release of simulated rain caused soil acidification and base ions release. With the decrease of simulated acid rain pH from 5.6 to 2.5, the acid rain-leached soil pH decreased from 6.06 to 3.41, and its total amount of exchange base ions decreased from 56.5 to 41.1 mmol x kg(-1). Spraying simulated acid rain on the shoots of wheat seedlings planted on such acidified soils caused a rapid decrease in the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings, and reduced some of their physiological activities. The effect of spraying simulated acid rain on the soluble sugar, nitrogen, and chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic rate of wheat stems and leaves was larger than that of acidified soil, while the effect of the latter on the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents and the physiological activity of NR and GOGAT in root system of wheat seedlings was larger than that of the former. The intensive acid rain of pH < or = 3.0 and the corresponding acidified soil had an obvious harm to the growth and physiological activity of wheat seedlings. PMID:16262064

Tong, Guanhe; Liang, Huiling

2005-08-01

3

Differential adaptation of high- and low-chill dormant peaches in winter through aquaporin gene expression and soluble sugar content.  

PubMed

Plants have their own mechanisms for overcoming various stresses. In cold regions, plants are subject to stress and must enter an inherent dormancy, through several complex mechanisms, if they are to continue to exist. In winter, regulation of tonoplast and plasma membrane aquaporin genes differed in the bud cushions of the high-chill peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cv. Kansuke Hakuto and the low-chill peach cv. Coral. In December and January, when the temperature was lowest (around 2 degrees C), the increased expression of Pp-gammaTIP1 and Pp-PIP1 seen in the bud cushions of Kansuke Hakuto may have been related to the concomitant high-soluble sugar content of the cushions of this cultivar. This relationship may have made the cells highly stable and relatively unaffected by low-temperature stress owing to the presence of "glasses" that prevented ice nucleation. However, a simpler form of cold protection regulation seemed to occur in Coral, in which there was no winter increase in Pp-gammaTIP1 and Pp-PIP1 mRNA and a slow decline in total soluble sugar content in December and January. These results suggested that Pp-gammaTIP1 and Pp-PIP1, respectively, play important roles in intra- and intercellular membrane transport, enhancing cold resistance in the bud cushions of high-chill cultivars. In addition, Pp-deltaTIP1 and Pp-PIP2 mRNA increased at the end of endodormancy in both cultivars. This change may be induced by endodormancy-release signals and the resumption of bud activity in both cultivars. PMID:19760270

Yooyongwech, Suravoot; Sugaya, Sumiko; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko; Gemma, Hiroshi

2009-11-01

4

Light exposure during storage preserving soluble sugar and l-ascorbic acid content of minimally processed romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.var. longifolia).  

PubMed

Minimally processed romaine lettuce (MPRL) leaves were stored in light condition (2500lux) or darkness at 4°C for 7d. Light exposure significantly delayed the degradation of chlorophyll and decrease of glucose, reducing sugar, and sucrose content, and thus preserved more total soluble solid (TSS) content at the end of storage in comparison with darkness. While, it did not influenced starch content that progressively decreased over time. The l-ascorbic acid (AA) accumulated in light-stored leaves, but deteriorated in dark-stored leaves during storage. The dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) increased in all leaves stored in both light and dark condition, of which light condition resulted in less DHA than darkness. In addition, the fresh weight loss and dry matter significantly increased and these increases were accelerated by light exposure. Conclusively, light exposure in applied intensity effectively alleviated MPRL quality deterioration by delaying the decreases of pigments, soluble sugar, TSS content and accumulating AA. PMID:23017423

Zhan, Lijuan; Hu, Jinqiang; Ai, Zhilu; Pang, Lingyun; Li, Yu; Zhu, Meiyun

2013-01-01

5

Changes in starch and soluble sugar concentrations in winter squash mesocarp during storage at different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of storage at 5, 10 or 15°C for 6 months on the concentrations of starch and soluble sugar in winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) cultivar ‘TC2A’ fruits were examined. Starch contents were significantly lower at 15°C than at the other temperatures, although concentrations decreased throughout the storage period at all temperatures. Total soluble sugar contents increased during the

Daisuke Kami; Takato Muro; Keita Sugiyama

2011-01-01

6

Soluble sugars--Metabolism, sensing and abiotic stress  

PubMed Central

Plants are autotrophic and photosynthetic organisms that both produce and consume sugars. Soluble sugars are highly sensitive to environmental stresses, which act on the supply of carbohydrates from source organs to sink ones. Sucrose and hexoses both play dual functions in gene regulation as exemplified by the upregulation of growth-related genes and downregulation of stress-related genes. Although coordinately regulated by sugars, these growth- and stress-related genes are upregulated or downregulated through HXK-dependent and/or HXK-independent pathways. Sucrose-non-fermenting-1- (SNF1-) related protein pathway, analogue to the protein kinase (SNF-) yeast-signalling pathway, seems also involved in sugar sensing and transduction in plants. However, even if plants share with yeast some elements involved in sugar sensing, several aspects of sugar perception are likely to be peculiar to higher plants. In this paper, we have reviewed recent evidences how plants sense and respond to environmental factors through sugar-sensing mechanisms. However, we think that forward and reverse genetic analysis in combination with expression profiling must be continued to uncover many signalling components, and a full biochemical characterization of the signalling complexes will be required to determine specificity and cross-talk in abiotic stress signalling pathways.

Rosa, Mariana; Prado, Carolina; Podazza, Griselda; Interdonato, Roque; Gonzalez, Juan A; Hilal, Mirna

2009-01-01

7

Sugar Content and Activity of Sucrose Metabolism Enzymes in Milled Rice Grain  

PubMed Central

Most rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars grown in the United States were selected for endosperm starch properties and not soluble sugar content. The minor pool of soluble sugar may affect the qualities of rice as a food. Some cultivar variation in soluble sugar content was detected in milled grain, essentially the starchy endosperm, of long grain varieties. Milled grain of cultivars Lemont and Texmati had a soluble sugar content of 0.21 and 0.35% (w/w), respectively, on a fresh weight basis. The dorsal portion of the milled grain contained the greatest amount of soluble sugar, approximately tenfold the amount found in the central core of the grain. Extracts of the milled grain contained sucrose-phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.1.14) and sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) activities, which were separated by anion exchange chromatography. The presence of sucrose-phosphate synthase in the rice endosperm suggested a mechanism for sucrose accumulation which might be involved in carbon partitioning during grain development. Images Figure 3

Smyth, Douglas A.; Prescott, Henry E.

1989-01-01

8

Seasonal patterns of reserve and soluble carbohydrates in mature sugar maple ( Acer saccharum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees exhibit seasonal patterns of production, accumulation, and utilization of nonstructural carbohydrates that are closely correlated with phenological events and (or) physiological processes. The simultaneous seasonal patterns of both reserve and soluble carbohydrates in the leaves, twigs, branches, and trunks of healthy mature sugar maple trees were characterized. The concentrations of starch and soluble sugars

B. L. Wong; K. L. Baggett; A. H. Rye

2003-01-01

9

So Sweet: Predict Sugar Content in Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will predict how much sugar is in familiar cereals and then use Nutrition Fact Labels to find out. Which cereals are the healthiest? Which has the least sugar? Learners also discuss whether advertisers are likely to tout or hide the amount of sugar in their foods. Variations include trying this basic activity with different foods and with salty snacks. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

10

Contents and compositions of the aroma in "Wasanbon" sugar.  

PubMed

"Wasanbon" sugar is handmade sugar which has been manufactured traditionally in Japan by a unique refining procedure, and is used in the making of Japanese traditional confectionary. No reports have been published on the substances responsible for the unique aroma of "Wasabon" sugar. In this paper, the contents and compositions of the aroma in "Wasabon" sugar and refinery final molasses are reported as studied by column chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and sensory evaluation. The samples are the first press-off molasses ("Ara-mitsu" molasses) refinery final molasses, "Shiroshita" sugar (prerefined sugar) and "Wasabon" sugar. The summarized results are as follows: In the acidic fraction, the aroma of 3-phenylpropionic acid is similar to the stored aroma of "Wasabon" sugar, whereas the aroma of its methyl ester was not similar to that aroma. Although aroma contents of the weakly acidic fraction in "Wasabon" sugar and refinery final molasses are 8.5 to 8.7% of those of the acidic fraction, and their main components are cyclotene and maltol, which are formed by thermal degradation of sugar. These components show a higher preference than other weakly acidic fraction aromas, by a paired preference test. Cyclotene and maltol increased about 3.7 and 1.5 times, respectively, by the heating of "Shiroshita" sugar. PMID:7334426

Matsui, T; Kitaoka, S

1981-01-01

11

Content of starch and sugars and in vitro digestion of starch by ?-amylase in five minor millets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five varieties of minor millets were studied for their amylose, soluble amylose, amylopectin, soluble amylopectin, reducing sugar, total sugar and starch contents. Pure starch was isolated from each variety and the enzymic degradation of starch by porcine pancreatic a-amylase were examined with and without gelatinisation. Gelatinised sample ofEchinochloa frumentacea (var. K2) showed minimal hydrolysis and gelatinised sample ofPanicum miliaceum (var.

S. Krishnakumari; B. Thayumanavan

1995-01-01

12

Seasonal variations in soluble sugars and starch within woody stems of Corms sericea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrate composition changed seasonally in red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) stem tissues. Starch concentration was highest in fall and decreased to a minimum in midwinter. Coincident with the breakdown of starch in fall, there was an increase in the concentrations of soluble sugars. Soluble sugars were present in highest concentrations in midwinter. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose were the

E. N. ASHWORTH; V. E. STIRM; J. J. VOLENEC

13

Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release  

PubMed Central

The primary obstacle to producing renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass is a plant's recalcitrance to releasing sugars bound in the cell wall. From a sample set of wood cores representing 1,100 individual undomesticated Populus trichocarpa trees, 47 extreme phenotypes were selected across measured lignin content and ratio of syringyl and guaiacyl units (S/G ratio). This subset was tested for total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis alone as well as through combined hot-water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using a high-throughput screening method. The total amount of glucan and xylan released varied widely among samples, with total sugar yields of up to 92% of the theoretical maximum. A strong negative correlation between sugar release and lignin content was only found for pretreated samples with an S/G ratio < 2.0. For higher S/G ratios, sugar release was generally higher, and the negative influence of lignin was less pronounced. When examined separately, only glucose release was correlated with lignin content and S/G ratio in this manner, whereas xylose release depended on the S/G ratio alone. For enzymatic hydrolysis without pretreatment, sugar release increased significantly with decreasing lignin content below 20%, irrespective of the S/G ratio. Furthermore, certain samples featuring average lignin content and S/G ratios exhibited exceptional sugar release. These facts suggest that factors beyond lignin and S/G ratio influence recalcitrance to sugar release and point to a critical need for deeper understanding of cell-wall structure before plants can be rationally engineered for reduced recalcitrance and efficient biofuels production.

Studer, Michael H.; DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Davis, Mark F.; Sykes, Robert W.; Davison, Brian; Keller, Martin; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Wyman, Charles E.

2011-01-01

14

A method for routine measurements of total sugar and starch content in woody plant tissues.  

PubMed

Several extraction and measurement methods currently employed in the determination of total sugar and starch contents in plant tissues were investigated with the view to streamline the process of total sugar and starch determination. Depending on the type and source of tissue, total sugar and starch contents estimated from samples extracted with 80% hot ethanol were significantly greater than from samples extracted with a methanol:chloroform:water solution. The residual ethanol did not interfere with the sugar and starch determination, rendering the removal of ethanol from samples unnecessary. The use of phenol-sulfuric acid with a phenol concentration of 2% provided a relatively simple and reliable colorimetric method to quantify the total soluble-sugar concentration. Performing parallel sugar assays with and without phenol was more useful for accounting for the interfering effects of other substances present in plant tissue than using chloroform. For starch determination, an enzyme mixture of 1000 U alpha-amylase and 5 U amyloglucosidase digested starch in plant tissue samples more rapidly and completely than previously recommended enzyme doses. Dilute sulfuric acid (0.005 N) was less suitable for starch digestion than enzymatic hydrolysis because the acid also broke down structural carbohydrates, resulting in overestimates of starch content. After the enzymatic digestion of starch, the glucose hydrolyzate obtained was measured with a peroxidase-glucose oxidase/o-dianisidine reagent; absorbance being read at 525 nm after the addition of sulfuric acid. With the help of this series of studies, we developed a refined and shortened method suitable for the rapid measurement of total sugar and starch contents in woody plant tissues. PMID:15294759

Chow, Pak S; Landhäusser, Simon M

2004-10-01

15

Nondestructive inspection of melon's sugar content based on impedance characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study is to establish a model between the impedance characteristics and the sugar content of internal quality index of melons. The equivalent series resistor and equivalent series capacitor of melon are measured over the frequency from 1 KHz to 100 KHz by a LCR meter and an airtight shielding case. Then the impedance is calculated. Through

Yong-Bo Yao; Zhen-Hong Jia; Mei Liu; Xiao-Hui Huang

2011-01-01

16

NON-STARCH, SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDES OF SUGA'R CANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-starch polysaccharides of sugarcane include the cel­ lulose and hemicellulose fractions, and several water-soluble compounds: cellwall polysaccharides, indigenous sugarcane polysaccharide (I.S.P.), sarkaran and sarkaran-like polysac­ charides, and other glucans. Emphasis in this paper is on the soluble species. Structures of the compounds, including the recently identified low molecular weight glucan, are re­ viewed. Roles of the soluble polysaccharides in plant

FREDERICK W. PARRISH

17

Verticillium dahliae Modifies the Concentrations of Proline, Soluble Sugars, Starch, Soluble Protein and Abscisic Acid in Pepper Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to study the levels of some organic solutes, such as total protein, total soluble sugars, starch and proline in leaves, as well as abscisic acid concentration in xylem of pepper plants inoculated with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Healthy and inoculated plants were always kept well watered. Measurements were made at time intervals after inoculation. Leaf

N. Goicoechea; J. Aguirreolea; S. Cenoz; J. M. García-Mina

2000-01-01

18

Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.  

PubMed

Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats. PMID:17354417

Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

2005-01-01

19

Soluble Sugars and Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes Related to Cold Acclimation of Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grafted on Different Rootstocks  

PubMed Central

The bark tissues were collected from 4-year-old sweet cherry trees cvs. 0900 Ziraat and Lambert grafted on Gisela 5 and Mazzard rootstocks in cold-acclimated (CA) and nonacclimated (NA) stages. Bark tissues subjected to 4°C and ?5°C injured to a limited extent in both stages. However, more than 50% injury occurred by temperatures equal to or colder than ?15°C only in NA period. Total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars, and sucrose contents were higher in CA than those in NA stages in all samples. The activities of acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and sucrose synthase (SS) (EC 2.4.2.13) enzymes were higher in NA stage than those in CA stage. Considering the rootstocks, reducing sugars were higher in both cultivars grafted on Gisela 5 whereas sucrose contents were higher in both cultivars grafted on Mazzard. However, the enzyme activities of both cultivars were higher on Mazzard rootstock than on Gisela 5. In conclusion, cold hardiness of sweet cherry graft combinations was suggested by increasing their TSS, reducing sugars, and sucrose contents significantly in the CA stage. Moreover, acid invertase and SS are down regulated during cold acclimation. Indeed the results suggested that Mazzard is more cold-hardy rootstock than Gisela 5.

Turhan, Ece; Ergin, Sergul

2012-01-01

20

Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.  

PubMed

Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273

Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

2012-06-01

21

A method for routine measurements of total sugar and starch content in woody plant tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Several extraction and measurement methods cur- rently employed in the determination of total sugar and starch contents in plant tissues were investigated with the view to streamline the process of total sugar and starch determination. Depending on the type and source of tissue, total sugar and starch contents estimated from samples extracted with 80% hot ethanol were significantly greater

PAK S. CHOW; SIMON M. LANDHÄUSSER

22

Potential for improvement by selection for reducing sugar content after cold storage for three potato populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to examine the expected response to selection for reducing-sugar content after cold storage in three hybrid populations, to determine whether these populations included clones low in reducing sugars, and to investigate the effectiveness of indirect selection for chip colour based on selection of sugar content after cold storage. The three hybrid populations included: a

A. da S. Pereira; G. C. C. Tai; R. Y. Yada; R. H. Coffin; V. Souza-Machado

1994-01-01

23

Evaluation of Antioxidant Compounds and Total Sugar Content in a Nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] Progeny  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC) were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population “Venus” × “Big Top” nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and ripening index (RI) were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability.

Abidi, Walid; Jimenez, Sergio; Moreno, Maria Angeles; Gogorcena, Yolanda

2011-01-01

24

Candidate genes and QTLs for sugar and organic acid content in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].  

PubMed

The identification of genes involved in variation of peach fruit quality would assist breeders in creating new cultivars with improved fruit quality. Major genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for physical and chemical components of fruit quality have already been detected, based on the peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cv. Ferjalou Jalousia((R)) (low-acid peach) x cv. Fantasia (normally-acid nectarine) F(2) intraspecific cross. Our aim was to associate these QTLs to structural genes using a candidate gene/QTL approach. Eighteen cDNAs encoding key proteins in soluble sugar and organic acid metabolic pathways as well as in cell expansion were isolated from peach fruit. A single-strand conformation polymorphism strategy based on specific cDNA-based primers was used to map the corresponding genes. Since no polymorphism could be detected in the Ferjalou Jalousia((R)) x Fantasia population, gene mapping was performed on the almond [ Prunus amygdalus ( P. dulcis)] cv. Texas x peach cv. Earlygold F(2) interspecific cross from which a saturated map was available. Twelve candidate genes were assigned to four linkage groups of the peach genome. In a second step, the previous QTL detection was enhanced by integrating anchor loci between the Ferjalou Jalousia((R)) x Fantasia and Texas x Earlygold maps and data from a third year of trait assessment on the Ferjalou Jalousia((R)) x Fantasia population. Comparative mapping allowed us to detect a candidate gene/QTL co-location. It involved a cDNA encoding a vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase ( PRUpe;Vp2) that energises solute accumulation, and QTLs for sucrose and soluble solid content. This preliminary result may be the first step in the future development of marker-assisted selection for peach fruit sucrose and soluble solid content. PMID:12582572

Etienne, C.; Rothan, C.; Moing, A.; Plomion, C.; Bodénès, C.; Svanella-Dumas, L.; Cosson, P.; Pronier, V.; Monet, R.; Dirlewanger, E.

2002-07-01

25

Soluble protein content in minimally processed vegetables during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble protein content (SPC) and electrophoretic protein profile in minimally processed broccoli, Dutch carrot and Cos lettuce were determined after 0, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 days of storage at 12 °C and 95±2% relative humidity. An increase in SPC in broccoli tissues (florets, stems and whole) was observed on day 3, followed by a slight fluctuation thereafter. Similar observations

Lata Masih; Hubert Roginski; Robert Premier; Bruce Tomkins; Said Ajlouni

2002-01-01

26

Simultaneous GC-MS quantitation of acids and sugars in the hydrolyzates of immunostimulant, water-soluble polysaccharides of basidiomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The simultaneous quantitation of acids and sugars as their trimethyl silyl (TMS) derivatives has been extended in order to\\u000a identify and quantitate the simple acid and sugar constituents in the hydrolyzates of various immunostimulant, water-soluble\\u000a polysaccharides obtained from various Basidiomycetes, such as Armillariella mellea, Auricularia auricula-judae, Coriolus versicolor,\\u000a Flammulina velutipes, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune,

I. Boldizsár; K. Horváth; Gy. Szedlay; I. Molnár-Perl

1998-01-01

27

The Effect of Xylem Age on Volume Yield and Sugar Content of Sugar Maple Sap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seasonal sap volume yield and mean seasonal sap-sugar percentage are both correlated with the mean age of 1-inch segments of the xylem, and the relationships confirm the findings of others who worked solely with taphole depth. Evaluation of the sap volume...

C. B. Gibbs

1969-01-01

28

Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

1975-01-01

29

Visible injury and nitrogen metabolism of rice leaves under ozone stress, and effect on sugar and protein contents in grain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of ozone on the visible injury, nitrogen metabolism of rice leaves, and sugar and protein contents in rice grain was carried out by the open-top chamber. The results indicated that ozone stress caused obvious injury in rice leaves. The increase in ozone concentration had significant influence on the nitrate reductase activity in rice leaves. At the ozone concentration of 40, 80 and 120 nL L-1, the nitrate reductase activities in rice leaves in the tillering stage, the jointing stage, the heading stage and milk stage were separately reduced by 25.3-86.3%, 57.4-97.8%, 91.0-99.3% and 89.5-96.7% compared with those in the control treatment. As ozone concentration increased, the contents of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in rice leaves were obviously reduced. Ozone stress also had an influence on the contents of sugar and protein in rice grain. The stress of high ozone concentration (120 nL L-1) caused the starch content in grain to reduce by 15.8% than that in the control treatment, but total soluble sugars in grain was actually enhanced by 47.5% compared to that in the control treatment. The contents of albumin and glutenin in rice grain increased with increasing the ozone concentration, and prolamin and crude protein contents in rice grain increased only at the higher ozone concentration. Under ozone concentration of 120 nL L-1, the contents of albumin, glutenin and crude protein in rice grain were increased respectively by 23.1%, 21.0% and 21.1% compared with those in the control treatment. The result suggested that ozone tress has an influence on nitrogen metabolism of rice leaves and grain quality.

Huang, Y. Z.; Sui, L. H.; Wang, W.; Geng, C. M.; Yin, B. H.

2012-12-01

30

Influence of Microgravity Environment on Root Growth, Soluble Sugars, and Starch Concentration of Sweetpotato Stem Cuttings  

PubMed Central

Because sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] stem cuttings regenerate very easily and quickly, a study of their early growth and development in microgravity could be useful to an understanding of morphological changes that might occur under such conditions for crops that are propagated vegetatively. An experiment was conducted aboard a U.S. Space Shuttle to investigate the impact of microgravity on root growth, distribution of amyloplasts in the root cells, and on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch in the stems of sweetpotatoes. Twelve stem cuttings of ‘Whatley/Loretan’ sweetpotato (5 cm long) with three to four nodes were grown in each of two plant growth units filled with a nutrient agarose medium impregnated with a half-strength Hoagland solution. One plant growth unit was flown on Space Shuttle Colombia for 5 days, whereas the other remained on the ground as a control. The cuttings were received within 2 h postflight and, along with ground controls, processed in ?45 min. Adventitious roots were counted, measured, and fixed for electron microscopy and stems frozen for starch and sugar assays. Air samples were collected from the headspace of each plant growth unit for postflight determination of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene levels. All stem cuttings produced adventitious roots and growth was quite vigorous in both ground-based and flight samples and, except for a slight browning of some root tips in the flight samples, all stem cuttings appeared normal. The roots on the flight cuttings tended to grow in random directions. Also, stem cuttings grown in microgravity had more roots and greater total root length than ground-based controls. Amyloplasts in root cap cells of ground-based controls were evenly sedimented toward one end compared with a more random distribution in the flight samples. The concentration of soluble sugars, glucose, fructose, and sucrose and total starch concentration were all substantially greater in the stems of flight samples than those found in the ground-based samples. Carbon dioxide levels were 50% greater and oxygen marginally lower in the flight plants, whereas ethylene levels were similar and averaged less than 10 nL·L ?1. Despite the greater accumulation of carbohydrates in the stems, and greater root growth in the flight cuttings, overall results showed minimal differences in cell development between space flight and ground-based tissues. This suggests that the space flight environment did not adversely impact sweetpotato metabolism and that vegetative cuttings should be an acceptable approach for propagating sweetpotato plants for space applications.

Mortley, Desmond G.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Williams, Carol S.; Davis, Ceyla F.; Williams, John W.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Petersen, Barbara V.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

2009-01-01

31

The relationship between growth and soluble sugar concentration of Aloe vera plants grown under three levels of irradiance  

SciTech Connect

The CAM plant Aloe vera was vegetatively propagated and grown under three irradiances: full sun, partial and deep shade (30% and 10% of ambient light, respectively) to determine the effect on growth, biomass allocation, and sugar concentration. After one year, the plants were harvested to determine final dry weight and the sugar concentration of the leaf mucilaginous gel. Plants grown under full sun produced twice the total dry weight of those grown under partial shade, with the difference equally partitioned between the shoot and root. Plants grown under full sun also produced thicker leaves, and more numerous and large auxiliary shoots. The dry weight of plants grown under deep shade was 8.6% that of plants grown under full sun, which was directly proportional to the irradiance received. Partial shade increased the number and length of leaves produced on the primary shoot, but the allocation of carbon to roots was the lowest of all treatments. Partial shade reduced the total sugar concentration of the leaf gel matrix to 34% that of plants under full sun, due to reductions in all sugars measured. Glucose was the most abundant soluble sugar, with its relative contribution to the total pool increasing under shade. In summary, the proportional effects of partial shading were greater on soluble sugar concentrations than on the total plant biomass produced.

Paez, A.; Gebre, G.M.; Tschaplinski, T.J. (Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela))

1994-06-01

32

Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectric property sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500MHz at 25°C. Dielectric constants of pure honeys and water-added honey samples decreased monotonically with increasing frequency, and increased with increasing water content.

Wenchuan Guo; Xinhua Zhu; Yi Liu; Hong Zhuang

2010-01-01

33

Carbon content variation in boles of mature sugar maple and giant sequoia.  

PubMed

At present, a carbon (C) content of 50% (w/w) in dry wood is widely accepted as a generic value; however, few wood C measurements have been reported. We used elemental analysis to investigate C content per unit of dry matter and observed that it varied both radially and vertically in boles of two old-growth tree species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Bucholz). In sugar maple there was considerable variation in tree ring widths among four radii for particular annual layers of xylem, revealing that the annual rate of C assimilation differs around the circumference and from the base of each tree to its top, but the observed variation in C content was unrelated to diameter growth rate and strongly related to the calendar year when the wood was formed. Carbon content in sugar maple wood increased in an approximately linear fashion, from < 50 to 51% from pith to cambium, at both the base and top of the boles. In giant sequoia, C was essentially constant at > 55% across many hundreds of years of heartwood, but it declined abruptly at the sapwood-heartwood boundary and remained lower in all sapwood samples, an indication that heartwood formation involves anabolic metabolism. Factors that may be responsible for the different C contents and trends with age between sugar maple and sequoia trees are considered. Tree-ring data from this study do not support some of the key assumptions made by dendrochronology. PMID:16414925

Lamlom, Sabah H; Savidge, Rodney A

2006-04-01

34

Rapid determination of sugar content in corn stover hydrolysates using near infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy provides rapid determination method for biomass characterization. The objective of this study is to use NIR to model and predict contents of monosaccharides in biomass hydrolysates. A uniform distribution of pretreatment conditions was used to generate representative samples that cover wide ranges of sugar concentration for model development. The formation of glucose, xylose, and arabinose was studied via response surface methodology and 3D models were provided to show the effects of pretreatment conditions. The NIR models developed with partial least squares are able to provide excellent and good prediction for glucose and xylose concentration in biomass hydrolysates, respectively. Data transformation did not increase model performance, but the reduced wavelength range improved model prediction for all the sugar contents. The NIR method significantly reduced the time and cost of sugar determination. PMID:24001558

Xu, Feng; Wang, Donghai

2013-11-01

35

COMUNICAÇÃO QUANTIFICAÇÃO DE AÇÚCARES SOLÚVEIS TOTAIS, AÇÚCARES REDUTORES E AMIDO NOS GRÃOS VERDES DE CULTIVARES DE MILHO NA COLHEIT A Quantification of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars and starch in immature kernels of corn cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total soluble sugars (TSS), reducing sugars (RS), moisture and starch directly influence flavor and consumption. In this work, TSS, RS and starch were determined at harvest in young kernels of nine corn cultivars. The experiment was carried out in Ponte Nova, MG, Brazil. To determine chemical characters of young kernels a sample was obtained of three cobs from each experimental

Fernanda Fátima Caniato; João Carlos; Cardoso Galvão; Fernando Luiz Finger; Mário Puiatti; Denilson Alves de Oliveira; Juliano Lino Ferreira

36

Rapid determination of sugar content in biomass hydrolysates using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Large populations of potential cellulosic biomass feedstocks are currently being screened for fuel and chemical applications. The monomeric sugar content, released through hydrolysis, is of particular importance and is currently measured with time-consuming HPLC methods. A method for sugar detection is presented here that employs (1)H NMR spectra regressed against primary HPLC sugar concentration data to build partial least squares (PLS) models. The PLS2 model is able to predict concentrations of both major sugar components, like glucose and xylose, and minor sugars, such as arabinose and mannose, in biomass hydrolysates. The model was built with 65 samples from a variety of different biomass species and covers a wide range of sugar concentrations. Model predictions were validated with a set of 15 samples which were all within error of both HPLC and NMR integration measurements. The data collection time for these NMR measurements is less than 20 min, offering a significant improvement to the 1 h acquisition time that is required for HPLC. PMID:23042514

Gjersing, Erica; Happs, Renee M; Sykes, Robert W; Doeppke, Crissa; Davis, Mark F

2013-03-01

37

Influence of processing on the content of sugars in green Arabica coffee beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analyses of low molecular sugars in green coffees (Coffea arabica L. var. Acaià) that were processed in parallel either by the traditional wet or the traditional dry method, revealed a close correlation between the kind of post-harvest treatment and the contents of fructose and glucose. While in washed coffee beans (wet processing) only low amounts of these both hexoses

Sven Knopp; Gerhard Bytof; Dirk Selmar

2006-01-01

38

Effects of ascorbic acid and sugars on solubility, thermal, and mechanical properties of egg white protein gels.  

PubMed

The effects of reducing sugars (fructose, glucose, ribose, and arabinose), sucrose, and ascorbic acid were studied on thermo-mechanical properties and crosslinking of egg white proteins (EWP) through Maillard reaction. Sugars (0%, 1%, 5%, and 10%) and ascorbic acid (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 2.5%) were added to EWP solutions. Thermal denaturation and crosslinking of EWP were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Mechanical properties (failure strength, failure strain and Young's modulus) of modified and unmodified EWP gels were evaluated by texture analyzer. Ascorbic acid decreased thermal denaturation temperature of EWP, but the reducing sugars increased the denaturation temperature. DSC thermograms of EWP showed that ascorbic acid exhibited an exothermic transition (?110 °C) which was attributed to Maillard crosslinking of the protein. The reduction in pH (from 7.21 to ?6) and protein solubility of egg white protein gel (from ?70% to ?10%) provides further evidence of the formation of Maillard cross-linking. Reactive sugars (ribose and arabinose) increased the mechanical properties of EWP gels, whereas ascorbic acid decreased the mechanical properties. Generally, the effect of ascorbic acid was more pronounced than that of various reducing sugars on the thermal and mechanical properties of egg white proteins. PMID:24099933

Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Tabatabaei, Ramin H; Pashania, Bita; Rajabi, Hadiseh Z; Karim, A A

2013-11-01

39

[Fast detection of sugar content in fruit vinegar using NIR spectroscopy].  

PubMed

For the fast and exact detection of sugar content of fruit vinegar, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique combined with least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) algorithm was used to build the prediction model of sugar content in the present research. NIR spectroscopy is a nondestructive, fast and accurate technique for the measurement of chemical compo nents based on overtone and combination bands of specific functional groups. The pivotal step for spectroscopy technique is how to extract quantitative data from mass spectral data and eliminate spectral interferences. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a method which has been widely used in the spectroscopic analysis, and LS-SVM is a new data mining algorithm developed from the machine learning community. In the present study, they were used for the spectroscopic analysis. First, the near infrared transmittance spectra of three hundred samples were obtained, then PCA was applied for reducing the dimensionality of the original spectra, and six principal components (PCs) were selected according the accumulative reliabilities (AR). The six PCs could be used to replace the complex spectral data. The three hundred samples were randomly separated into calibration set and validation set. Least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) algorithm was used to build prediction model of sugar content based on the calibration set, then this model was employed for the prediction of the validation set. Correlation coefficient (r) of prediction and root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) were used as the evaluation standards, and the results indicated that the r and RMSEP for the prediction of sugar content were 0.9939 and 0.363, respectively. Hence, PCA and LS-SVM model with high prediction precision could be applied to the determination of sugar content in fruit vinegar. PMID:18975809

Wang, Li; Li, Zeng-fang; He, Yong; Liu, Fei

2008-08-01

40

Spatial–temporal analyses of lycopene and sugar contents in tomatoes during ripening using chemical shift imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the ripening process, fruit and vegetables undergo physico-chemical changes which affect their color, texture, aroma, and sugar content, etc. For tomatoes, color change is the main index of ripening stages, and it is associated with metabolized lycopene. In order to detect the internal changes of sugar and lycopene contents in tomatoes during ripening, chemical shift imaging (CSI) and high

Yu-Che Cheng; Tsu-Tsuen Wang; Jyh-Horng Chen; Ta-Te Lin

2011-01-01

41

In vitro hydrolytic digestion, glycemic response in dogs, and true metabolizable energy content of soluble corn fibers.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to measure in vitro hydrolytic digestion, glycemic and insulinemic responses in dogs, and true ME (TMEn) content of select soluble corn fibers (SCF) in roosters. The first generation (G1) SCF included hydrochloric acid-treated corn syrup (G1-CS-HCl), an SCF with an increased total dietary fiber (TDF) content (G1-SCF-HCl), an SCF that was spray-dried (G1-SCF-SD), and a hydrogenated SCF (G1-SCF-hydrog). The second generation (G2) SCF included those prepared using phosphoric acid catalyzation in both a liquid [G2-SCF-phos (Lq)] and powder [G2-SCF-phos (Pw)] form, and SCF that were prepared using hydrochloric acid catalyzation in both a liquid [G2-SCF-HCl (Lq)] and powder [G2-SCF-HCl (Pw)] form. Also, in the G2 set of samples were SCF prepared using the same method, but in 3 separate batches, all of which contained 70% TDF and 15% sugars. Two were in liquid form [G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Lq1)] and [G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Lq2)], and one in powder form ([G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Pw)]. A lower sugar form (80% TDF and 5% sugar) of SCF was also evaluated (G2-SCF-low sugar). Glucose was the major free sugar and bound monosaccharide in all SCF except for G1-SCF-hydrog that had greater concentrations of sorbitol. All SCF had intermediate to low amounts of monosaccharides released as a result of in vitro hydrolytic digestion, with glucose being the primary sugar component released. The G1-SCF were more digestible in vitro (approximately 50%) compared to G2-SCF (approximately 32%). All SCF had attenuated glycemic responses in adult dogs compared to a maltodextrin control (P < 0.05). The G2-SCF, on average, had lower glycemic responses and TMEn values in roosters than G1-SCF. All SCF had low free sugar concentrations with varying degrees of resistance to digestion, reduced caloric content, and attenuated glycemic and insulinemic responses in adult dogs. These ingredients are potential candidates for inclusion in reduced calorie and low glycemic canine diets. PMID:24867932

de Godoy, M R C; Knapp, B K; Parsons, C M; Swanson, K S; Fahey, George C

2014-06-01

42

Clinitest: A simple technique for estimation of reducing sugar content of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clinitest method, originally devised to test urine of diabetic patients, proved to be effective for estimating reducing\\u000a sugar content of tuber juice. Data obtained by the Clinitest method correlated well with data obtained from the same tubers\\u000a by the analytical dinitrophenol method and by chip color numbers as determined by Agtron ranges. Simplicity in operation,\\u000a low cost, and quick

Victor Otazu; Gary A. Secor

1980-01-01

43

Iron solubility related to particle sulfur content in source emission and ambient fine particles.  

PubMed

The chemical factors influencing iron solubility (soluble iron/total iron) were investigated in source emission (e.g., biomass burning, coal fly ash, mineral dust, and mobile exhaust) and ambient (Atlanta, GA) fine particles (PM2.5). Chemical properties (speciation and mixing state) of iron-containing particles were characterized using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and micro-X-ray fluorescence measurements. Bulk iron solubility (soluble iron/total iron) of the samples was quantified by leaching experiments. Major differences were observed in iron solubility in source emission samples, ranging from low solubility (<1%, mineral dust and coal fly ash) up to 75% (mobile exhaust and biomass burning emissions). Differences in iron solubility did not correspond to silicon content or Fe(II) content. However, source emission and ambient samples with high iron solubility corresponded to the sulfur content observed in single particles. A similar correspondence between bulk iron solubility and bulk sulfate content in a series of Atlanta PM2.5 fine particle samples (N = 358) further supported this trend. In addition, results of linear combination fitting experiments show the presence of iron sulfates in several high iron solubility source emission and ambient PM2.5 samples. These results suggest that the sulfate content (related to the presence of iron sulfates and/or acid-processing mechanisms by H(2)SO(4)) of iron-containing particles is an important proxy for iron solubility. PMID:22621615

Oakes, M; Ingall, E D; Lai, B; Shafer, M M; Hays, M D; Liu, Z G; Russell, A G; Weber, R J

2012-06-19

44

Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and a specialist avian nectarivore.  

PubMed

Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation. PMID:24095723

Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

2014-01-01

45

Analysis of genotypic variation in fruit flesh total sugar content via an ecophysiological model applied to peach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model of the evolution of total sugar content ( C TS) in fruit was developed in order to describe the within- and between-genotype variation of C TS observed in a peach ( Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) breeding population. The parameter k defines the ratio of carbon used for synthesizing compounds other than sugars for each genotype. Model input

B. Quilot; M. Génard; J. Kervella; F. Lescourret

2004-01-01

46

Effects of auxins on soluble carbohydrates, starch and soluble protein content in Aechmea blanchetiana (Bromeliaceae) cultured in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the content of soluble carbohydrates, starch and soluble proteins after treatment with auxins indole-3-butylic acid (IBA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) during the development of Aechmea blanchetiana (Bromeliaceae) plantlets cultured in vitro, to determine the contribution of these compounds in plant propagation. Fresh and dry mass of roots increased more than fivefold with NAA (5.37 and 16.11?M) compared to

Edison Paulo Chu; Armando Reis Tavares; Shoey Kanashiro; Patricia Giampaoli; Erika Szeibel Yokota

2010-01-01

47

Atmospheric carbon dioxide changes photochemical activity, soluble sugars and volatile levels in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).  

PubMed

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration is an environmental factor currently undergoing dramatic changes. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of doubling the ambient CO(2) concentration on plant photochemistry as measured by photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), soluble sugars and volatiles in broccoli. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased qP values in leaves by up to 100% and 89% in heads, while glucose and sucrose in leaves increased by about 60%. Furthermore, in broccoli heads elevated CO(2) concentration induced approximately a 2-fold increase in concentrations of three fatty acid-derived C(7) aldehydes ((E)-2-heptenal, (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal), two fatty acid-derived C(5) alcohols (1-penten-3-ol, (Z)-2-pentenol), and two amino acid-derived nitriles (phenyl propanenitrile, 3-methyl butanenitrile). In contrast, concentrations of the sulfur-containing compound 2-ethylthiophene and C(6) alcohol (E)-2-hexenol decreased. Finally, elevated CO(2) concentration increased soluble sugar concentrations due to enhanced photochemical activity in leaves and heads, which may account for the increased synthesis of volatiles. PMID:20158238

Krumbein, Angelika; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Schonhof, Ilona; Schreiner, Monika

2010-03-24

48

Relationship between Water Soluble Carbohydrate Content, Aphid Endosymbionts and Clonal Performance of Sitobion avenae on Cocksfoot Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Aphids feed on plant phloem sap, rich in sugars but poor in essential amino acids. However, sugars cause osmotic regulation problems for aphids, which they overcome by hydrolysing the sugars in their gut and polymerising the hydrolysis products into oligosaccharides, excreted with honeydew. Aphids harbour primary bacterial endosymbionts, which supply them with essential amino acids necessary for survival. They also harbour secondary (facultative) endosymbionts (sfS), some of which have a positive impact on life history traits, although it is not yet known whether they also play a role in providing effective tolerance to differing levels of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs). We investigated the relationship between WSC content of cocksfoot cultivars and performance of clones of the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae F. We evaluated how clone genotype and their sfS modulate performance on these different cultivars. We therefore examined the performance of genetically defined clones of S. avenae, collected from different host plants, harbouring different sfS. The performance was tested on 10 Dactylis glomerata L. cultivars with varying WSC content. D. glomerata is known as a wild host plant for S. avenae and is also commercially planted. We found that high WSCs levels are responsible for the resistance of D. glomerata cultivars to specific S. avenae clones. The minimum level of WSCs conferring resistance to D. glomerata cultivars was 1.7% dw. Cultivars with a WSC content of 2.2% or higher were resistant to S. avenae and did not allow reproduction. Our results further indicate that sfS modulate to some extend host plant cultivar adaptation in S. avenae. This is the first study revealing the importance of WSCs for aphid performance. Cocksfoot cultivars with a high content of WSCs might be therefore considered for aphid control or used for resistance breeding in this and other grass species, including cereals.

Alkhedir, Hussein; Karlovsky, Petr; Vidal, Stefan

2013-01-01

49

Potato composition: II. Tissue selection and its effects on total sugar, total reducing sugar, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total sugar, reducing sugar, glucose, fructose, and sucrose were determined in three parts (bud-end, stem-end, and core) of\\u000a tubers of White Rose, Red La Soda, Kennebec, Russet Burbank, Norchip and Lenape. Tubers were sampled at harvest, after storage\\u000a for 2 and 4 mo at 7 C, and after reconditioning for 3 wk at 20 C after each storage period. The

M. L. Weaver; H. Timm; M. Nonaka; R. N. Sayre; R. M. Reeve; R. M. Cready; L. C. Whitehand

1978-01-01

50

Selection of processing tomato genotypes with high acyl sugar content that are resistant to the tomato pinworm.  

PubMed

Acyl sugars are allelochemicals present at high concentrations in leaves of accessions of the wild tomato Solanum pennellii; they confer resistance to a large number of arthropod pests, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). Accession 'LA716', with high contents of acyl sugars in the leaves, was used as a source of resistance to start a genetic breeding program of processing cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum. We selected plants of the F? generation of an interspecific cross (S. lycopersicum cv. 'Redenção' x S. pennellii 'LA716') for extremes of concentrations (high and low) of acyl sugars in the leaves and evaluated the resistance of selected genotypes to the tomato pinworm, compared with plants of the parental and F? generations. The concentrations of acyl sugars present in the genotypes selected for high contents were close to those of S. pennellii 'LA 716', while the genotypes with low concentrations of acyl sugars were close to cultivar 'Redenção'. The F? hybrid ('Redenção' x 'LA716') had intermediate concentrations of acyl sugars, but was closer to Redenção, indicating that the inheritance of this type of character is due to a recessive major gene, along with minor genes with additive effects. There was a direct association between high contents of acyl sugars and non-preference for oviposition and suppression of larval development, indicating that the allelochemical acts through mechanisms of non-preference for oviposition and through antibiosis. Genotypes with high contents of acyl sugars were more effective in reducing the damage caused by the tomato pinworm. Genotypes RVTA-2010pl#94 and RVTA-2010pl#31, selected for high contents of acyl sugars, showed a good level of resistance to T. absoluta, similar to the wild genotype LA716. These genotypes are promising for use in a breeding program for developing commercial processing tomatoes. PMID:23420362

Dias, D M; Resende, J T V; Faria, M V; Camargo, L K P; Chagas, R R; Lima, I P

2013-01-01

51

Expression analysis and functional characterization of apple MdVHP1 gene reveals its involvement in Na +, malate and soluble sugar accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (VHP) is a proton pump, which energizes transport across the tonoplast. The contributions of VHP to ion, organic acid and sugar storage are unclear in fruit. Here we characterized the role of an apple vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase gene (MdVHP1) in Na+, malate and soluble sugar accumulation. MdVHP1 expression was consistent with VHP activities in apple fruits at most

Yu-Xin Yao; Qing-Long Dong; Chun-Xiang You; Heng Zhai; Yu-Jin Hao

2011-01-01

52

Seasonal Variations in Sugar Contents and Microbial Community Behavior in a Ryegrass Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil is a complex mixture of numerous inorganic and organic constituents that vary in size, shape, chemical constitution and reactivity, and hosts numerous organisms. Total sugars have been estimated to constitute 10% (average) of soil organic matter, occurring in living and decaying organisms, as well as in extracellular materials. The role of sugars in soils is attributed to their influence on soil structure, chemical processes, plant nutrition and microbial activity. The sources of sugars in soils are: a) plants (the primary source); b) animals (the minor source), and c) microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, algae), which decompose the primary plant and animal material, and synthesize the major part of soil carbohydrates. A particular soil sample provides a momentary glimpse into a dynamic system (continuous addition, degradation and synthesis) that might, except for seasonal variations, be in equilibrium. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the major sugars in a grass soil and characterize the relationship between their concentration variations and soil microbial behavior over an annual cycle. Soil samples were collected monthly in a ryegrass field close to Corvallis, Oregon, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as total silylated extracts for sugar composition, and by gas chromatography-flame ionization as fatty acid methyl esters derived from phospholipids and neutral lipids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively). The preliminary results of the first six-month experiment (from January to June, 2004) show that as the ambient temperatures increase the sugar concentrations (glucose, fructose, sucrose and trehalose) also tend to increase in the soil. A decrease is observed in March when precipitation was low during the whole month. The same trend is observed for the active biomass of fungi and bacteria estimated by their fatty acids derived from phospholipids. Fatty acids 18:2? 6c and 18:3? 6c are used as fungal biomarkers. Branched (15:0i, 15:0a, 16:0i) and monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1? 7c) are used as biomarkers for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. The contents of 18:2? 6c and 18:3? 6c from neutral lipids, which are used as an index of fungal storage, have a significant increase in June, similarly to the disaccharide trehalose. This increase in fungal lipid storage may have occurred in response to the large input of detrital carbon into the soil from cutting the grass early in that month.

Medeiros, P. M.; Fernandes, M. F.; Dick, R. P.; Simoneit, B. R.

2004-12-01

53

Changes in sugar content and activity of vacuolar acid invertase during low-temperature storage of potato tubers from six Japanese cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storage of potato tubers at low temperatures leads to the accumulation of sugars in a process called “low-temperature sweetening.” To understand this phenomenon, we measured the sugar contents and the activity of acid invertase over several months in tubers of six Japanese cultivars stored at 4°C or 20°C. At 20°C , few changes in sugar contents took place in

Chie Matsuura-Endo; Akira Kobayashi; Takahiro Noda; Shigenobu Takigawa; Hiroaki Yamauchi; Motoyuki Mori

2004-01-01

54

Elemental content in ground and soluble\\/instant coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of thirty-four elements in twelve coffee brands has been measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples investigated included four brands of commercially available ground coffee and eight brands of soluble\\/instant coffee. The elements measured were Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc,

H. R. Vega-Carrillo; F. Y. Iskander; E. Manzanares-Acuña

2002-01-01

55

Total and Soluble Metal Contents in Flux-Cored Arc Welding Fumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and solubility of metals in welding fumes is thought to be related to the welder health but is not well characterized. We quantified and compared the total (insoluble + soluble) and soluble metal contents in fumes from flux-cored arc welding using non-stainless steel (FCAW\\/NSS) and stainless steel (FCAW\\/SS) wire. Welding was performed in an American Welding Society

Chung Sik Yoon; Nam Won Paik; Jeong Han Kim; Hyun Byung Chae

2009-01-01

56

Influence of 2-phenyl alkane and tetralin content on solubility and viscosity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud and clear points and viscosities of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) have been determined as a function of 2-phenyl\\u000a alkane and\\/or tetralin content over a wide interval. While the 2-phenyl content significantly affects the solubility, tetralins\\u000a have a marked depressive effect on viscosity. The investigation has established that LAS solubility can be explained by assuming\\u000a eutectic types of isomer and

L. Cohen; R. Vergara; A. Moreno; J. L. Berna

1995-01-01

57

A holistic high-throughput screening framework for biofuel feedstock assessment that characterises variations in soluble sugars and cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor  

PubMed Central

Background A major hindrance to the development of high yielding biofuel feedstocks is the ability to rapidly assess large populations for fermentable sugar yields. Whilst recent advances have outlined methods for the rapid assessment of biomass saccharification efficiency, none take into account the total biomass, or the soluble sugar fraction of the plant. Here we present a holistic high-throughput methodology for assessing sweet Sorghum bicolor feedstocks at 10 days post-anthesis for total fermentable sugar yields including stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall saccharification efficiency. Results A mathematical method for assessing whole S. bicolor stalks using the fourth internode from the base of the plant proved to be an effective high-throughput strategy for assessing stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall composition and allowed calculation of total stalk fermentable sugars. A high-throughput method for measuring soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose using partial least squares (PLS) modelling of juice Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be highly accurate with each sugar attaining a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.99 with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 11.93, 5.52, and 3.23 mM for sucrose, glucose, and fructose, respectively, which constitutes an error of <4% in each case. The sugar PLS model correlated well with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and brix measures. Similarly, a high-throughput method for predicting enzymatic cell wall digestibility using PLS modelling of FTIR spectra obtained from S. bicolor bagasse was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be accurate with an R 2 of 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.64 ?g.mgDW-1.h-1. Conclusions This methodology has been demonstrated as an efficient and effective way to screen large biofuel feedstock populations for biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall digestibility simultaneously allowing a total fermentable yield calculation. It unifies and simplifies previous screening methodologies to produce a holistic assessment of biofuel feedstock potential.

2013-01-01

58

Sugar Sugar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the required amount of sugar to pour into a mug or mugs. The game has 30 stages of increasing complexity.

Bonte, Bart

2012-01-01

59

Contents and digestibility of carbohydrates of mung beans ( Vigna radiata L.) as affected by domestic processing and cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of common processing and cooking methods on sugar and starch contents and starch digestibility (in vitro) of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) were investigated. Soaking reduced the level of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch and improved starch digestibility, significantly. Cooking (both ordinary and pressure cooking) increased the concentrations of the sugars and digestibility of starch

Anita Kataria; B. M. Chauhan

1988-01-01

60

Expression analysis and functional characterization of apple MdVHP1 gene reveals its involvement in Na(+), malate and soluble sugar accumulation.  

PubMed

The vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase (VHP) is a proton pump, which energizes transport across the tonoplast. The contributions of VHP to ion, organic acid and sugar storage are unclear in fruit. Here we characterized the role of an apple vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase gene (MdVHP1) in Na(+), malate and soluble sugar accumulation. MdVHP1 expression was consistent with VHP activities in apple fruits at most developmental stages, and highly significantly correlated with Na(+) concentration during fruit development. In apple fruits treated in vitro (i.e., fruit-bearing branches were cultured in Hoagland solution containing each of salt, malate and sucrose, respectively, or irradiated by blue light), MdVHP1 expression was significantly correlated with Na(+) and malate transporter genes MdNHX1 and MdtDT, while subunit A of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (MdVHA-A) was significantly correlated with MdtDT and sucrose transporter gene (MdSUT1). In addition, MdVHP1 overexpression noticeably promoted Na(+) and malate accumulation, but slightly increased soluble sugar accumulation in transgenic apple callus and tomato fruit, partially by regulating transporter genes MdNHX1, MdtDT and MdSUT1. Taken together, it appears that MdVHP1 favorably contributes to Na(+), malate and soluble sugar accumulation in apple fruit. PMID:21696976

Yao, Yu-Xin; Dong, Qing-Long; You, Chun-Xiang; Zhai, Heng; Hao, Yu-Jin

2011-10-01

61

Deconstruction of Lignocellulose into Soluble Sugars by Native and Designer Cellulosomes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Lignocellulosic biomass, the most abundant polymer on Earth, is typically composed of three major constituents: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The crystallinity of cellulose, hydrophobicity of lignin, and encapsulation of cellulose by the lignin-hemicellulose matrix are three major factors that contribute to the observed recalcitrance of lignocellulose. By means of designer cellulosome technology, we can overcome the recalcitrant properties of lignocellulosic substrates and thus increase the level of native enzymatic degradation. In this context, we have integrated six dockerin-bearing cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, into a chimeric scaffoldin engineered to bear a cellulose-binding module and the appropriate matching cohesin modules. The resultant hexavalent designer cellulosome represents the most elaborate artificial enzyme composite yet constructed, and the fully functional complex achieved enhanced levels (up to 1.6-fold) of degradation of untreated wheat straw compared to those of the wild-type free enzymes. The action of these designer cellulosomes on wheat straw was 33 to 42% as efficient as the natural cellulosomes of Clostridium thermocellum. In contrast, the reduction of substrate complexity by chemical or biological pretreatment of the substrate removed the advantage of the designer cellulosomes, as the free enzymes displayed higher levels of activity, indicating that enzyme proximity between these selected enzymes was less significant on pretreated substrates. Pretreatment of the substrate caused an increase in activity for all the systems, and the native cellulosome completely converted the substrate into soluble saccharides.

Morais, Sarah; Morag, Ely; Barak, Yoav; Goldman, Dan; Hadar, Yitzhak; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Wilson, David B.; Bayer, Edward A.

2012-01-01

62

Physical characters and antioxidant, sugar, and mineral nutrient contents in fruit from 29 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars and hybrids.  

PubMed

Fruit physical and chemical characters of 29 apricot cultivars of Greek and American origin and their hybrids were evaluated using correlation and principal component analysis. A remarkable variation was observed in the total phenol content (0.3-7.4 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) FW) and total antioxidant capacity (0.026-1.858 mg ascorbic acid equivalent g(-1) FW), with the American origin cultivars Robada and NJA(2) and the new cultivar Nike exhibiting the greatest values. The cultivar Tomcot and hybrid 467/99 had the highest content of total carotene (37.8 microg beta-carotene equivalent g(-1) FW), which was up to four times greater as compared with the rest of studied genotypes. The dominant sugar in fruit tissue was sucrose, followed second by glucose and third by sorbitol and fructose-inositol. The new cultivars Nike, Niobe, and Neraida contained relatively higher contents of sucrose and total sugars, while Ninfa and P. Tirynthos contained relatively higher contents of K, Ca, and Mg. Correlation analysis suggested that late-harvesting cultivars/hybrids had greater fruit developmental times (r = 0.817) and contained higher sugar (r = 0.704) and less Mg contents (r= -0.742) in fruit tissue. The total antioxidant capacity was better correlated with the total phenol content (r = 0.954) as compared with the total carotenoid content (r = 0.482). Weak correlations were found between the fruit skin color and the antioxidant contents in flesh tissue. Multivariate analysis allowed the grouping of variables, with more important variables being the harvest date, fruit developmental time, skin Chroma, sorbitol, and total sugar, K and Mg contents. Plotting the genotypes in a dendrogram revealed cases of homonymy between parents and hybrids, although independent segregation of the measured traits after hybridization was also found. PMID:18975966

Drogoudi, Pavlina D; Vemmos, Stavros; Pantelidis, Georgios; Petri, Evangelia; Tzoutzoukou, Chrysoula; Karayiannis, Irene

2008-11-26

63

Climate-Induced Changes in Grapevine Yield and Must Sugar Content in Franconia (Germany) between 1805 and 2010  

PubMed Central

When attempting to estimate the impacts of future climate change it is important to reflect on information gathered during the past. Understanding historical trends may also aid in the assessment of likely future agricultural and horticultural changes. The timing of agricultural activities, such as grape harvest dates, is known to be influenced by climate and weather. However, fewer studies have been carried out on grapevine yield and quality. In this paper an analysis is undertaken of long-term data from the period 1805–2010 on grapevine yield (hl/ha) and must sugar content (°Oe) and their relation to temperature. Monthly mean temperatures were obtained for the same time period. Multiple regression was used to relate the viticulture variables to temperature, and long-term trends were calculated. Overall, the observed trends over time are compatible with results from other long term studies. The findings confirm a relationship between yield, must sugar content and temperature data; increased temperatures were associated with higher yields and higher must sugar content. However, the potential increase in yield is currently limited by legislation, while must sugar content is likely to further increase with rising temperatures.

Bock, Anna; Sparks, Tim H.; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

2013-01-01

64

Solubility-insolubility interconversion of sophoragrin, a mannose/glucose-specific lectin in Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda tree) bark, regulated by the sugar-specific interaction  

PubMed Central

Sophoragrin, a mannose/glucose-specific lectin in Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda tree) bark, was the first lectin found to show self-aggregation that is dependent on the sugar concentration accompanying the interconversion between solubility and insolubility [Ueno, Ogawa, Matsumoto and Seno (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 3146–3153]. The interconversion is regulated by the concentrations of Ca2+ and specific sugars: mannose, glucose or sucrose. The specific glycotopes for sophoragrin were found in the sophoragrin subunit and an endogenous galactose-specific lectin, B-SJA-I (bark S. japonica agglutinin I), and the lectin subunit that binds to the glycotope was identified by photoaffinity glycan probes. Remarkably, the insoluble polymer of sophoragrin is dissociated by interaction with B-SJA-I into various soluble complexes. Based on these results, self-aggregation of sophoragrin was shown to be a unique homopolymerization due to the sugar-specific interaction. An immunostaining study indicated that sophoragrin localizes mainly in vacuoles of parenchymal cells coincidently with B-SJA-I. These results indicate that sophoragrin can sequester endogenous glycoprotein ligands via sugar-specific interactions, thus providing new insights into the occurrence and significance of the intravacuolar interaction shown by a legume lectin.

2004-01-01

65

Cold-season patterns of reserve and soluble carbohydrates in sugar maple and ice-damaged trees of two age classes following drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of summer drought on the composition and profiles of cold-season reserve and soluble carbohydrates in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees (50-100 years old or-200 years old) in which the crowns were nondamaged or damaged by the 1998 ice storm. The overall cold season reserve carbohydrate profiles in twig wood tissue of drought-stressed (DS) trees

B. L. Wong; K. L. Baggett; A. H. Rye

2009-01-01

66

Rhythms during extended dark periods determine rates of net photosynthesis and accumulation of starch and soluble sugars in subsequent light periods in leaves of Sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning in leaves of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench exhibited a cyclic dependence on the duration (10–62 h) of dark periods inserted prior to bright light test periods (550 µmol·s-1·m-2, photosynthetic photon flux). Maximum rates of net photosynthesis and of accumulation of starch and soluble sugars were, in the order given, two-, three- and fourfold greater than minimum

Steven J. Britz; Wayne E. Hungerford; David R. Lee

1987-01-01

67

Comparing density and NIR methods for measurement of Kiwifruit dry matter and soluble solids content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density and near infrared (NIR) predictions of dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC) have been made on kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Fergusion var. Hayward). The data set consisted of 360 kiwifruit harvested unripe, late in the commercial harvest period, from four orchards and examined either immediately or after ripening. Density measurements were made

V. Andrew McGlone; Robert B Jordan; Richard Seelye; Paul J Martinsen

2002-01-01

68

Different effects of galactose and mannose on cell proliferation and intracellular soluble sugar levels in Vigna angularis suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cells utilize various sugars as carbon sources for growth, respiration and biosynthesis of cellular components. Suspension-cultured\\u000a cells of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) proliferated actively in liquid growth medium containing 1% (w\\/v) sucrose, glucose, fructose, arabinose or xylose, but did\\u000a not proliferate in medium containing galactose or mannose. These two latter sugars thus appeared distinct from other sugars\\u000a used as

Aki Kato; Hiroshi Tohoyama; Masanori Joho; Masahiro Inouhe

2007-01-01

69

Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigate what makes something soluble by exploring the effects of intermolecular attractions and what properties are necessary in a solution to overcome them. Interactive models simulate the process of dissolution, allowing you to experiment with how external factors, such as heat, can affect a substance's solubility.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

70

Effects of solids content, settling temperature, and liquor source on tall oil solubilities  

SciTech Connect

Tall oil soap solubility in black liquors obtained from cooking pine and sweet gum, and in mixture of these liquors, was studied. As expected, solids content had a significant effect on the amount of soap remaining in settled liquors obtained from pine. Concentrating these liquors to about 30% solids reduced the soap concentration to approximately 0.8% of solids. Increasing the temperature at which the liquors were settled also increased residual tall oil soap content. Although mass balance calculations on mixtures of black liquors obtained from pine and gum show that the percentage recovery (solids basis) varies little with the inclusion of 12 to 50% hardwood black liquor, absolute recovery is increased with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. This is the result of decreased soap solubility with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. No discernable effect was observed on the proportion and composition of the acids and neutrals of the dissolved tall oil with respect to the solids content of the liquors.

Rousseau, R.W.; Kassebi, A.; Zinkel, D.F.

1984-01-01

71

Lysine and arginine content of proteins: computational analysis suggests a new tool for solubility design.  

PubMed

Prediction and engineering of protein solubility is an important but imprecise area. While some features are routinely used, such as the avoidance of extensive non-polar surface area, scope remains for benchmarking of sequence and structural features with experimental data. We study properties in the context of experimental solubilities, protein gene expression levels, and families of abundant proteins (serum albumin and myoglobin) and their less abundant paralogues. A common feature that emerges for proteins with elevated solubility and at higher expression and abundance levels is an increased ratio of lysine content to arginine content. We suggest that the same properties of arginine that give rise to its recorded propensity for specific interaction surfaces also lead to favorable interactions at nonspecific contacts, and thus lysine is favored for proteins at relatively high concentration. A survey of protein therapeutics shows that a significant subset possesses a relatively low lysine to arginine ratio, and therefore may not be favored for high protein concentration. We conclude that modulation of lysine and arginine content could prove a useful and relatively simple addition to the toolkit available for engineering protein solubility in biotechnological applications. PMID:24283752

Warwicker, Jim; Charonis, Spyros; Curtis, Robin A

2014-01-01

72

The Science of Sugaring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sugar content and sap volume within and among trees speces can vary considerably. The introductory material describes the process of maple sugaring. The associated field exercise is intended to enhance students field experimental design, data collection, and analysis through examining the variability of trees sap volume and sugar content for sugar maple trees.

Baer, Nicholas

73

Analysis of genotypic variation of sugar and acid contents in peaches and nectarines through the Principle Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotypic variations and correlations were estimated for sugar and acid contents on afresh flesh weight basis in peach and\\u000a nectarine genotypes derived from a clone of a wild peach (Prunus davidiana) by three generations of crosses with commercial nectarine varieties. 107genotypes were studied in Avignon (France), 40 in\\u000a Gotheron (France), and 18 of them were common to both locations. Considerable

Benhong Wu; B. Quilot; J. Kervella; M. Génard; S. Li

2003-01-01

74

Effect of chitosan and chitooligosaccharide lactate on free lipids and reducing sugars content and on wheat bread firming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of free lipids and reducing sugars as well as crumb color for wheat bread samples containing different amounts\\u000a of chitosan and chitooligosaccharide lactate have been determined. Firmness of bread containing various contents of low molecular\\u000a weight chitosan and chitooligosaccharide lactate was studied as a function of storage time. Possible mechanisms of redistribution\\u000a of free and bound lipids during

Tatjana RakcejevaKaspars Rusa; Kaspars Rusa; Lija Dukalska; Garry Kerch

2011-01-01

75

Conversion of a non-water soluble potato starch waste into reducing sugars under non-conventional technologies.  

PubMed

In this exploratory work, the comparison of the utilisation of different non-conventional technologies (ultrasound and microwave irradiations) for the depolymerisation of a complex industrial starch-based waste into reducing sugars was investigated. Reducing sugars could then be converted into higher value-added compounds such as higher alcohols. The experiments were performed on three different starting materials named as 'Potato flour', 'Wet potato sludge' and 'Dry potato sludge'. The conversion of 'Potato flour' into reducing sugars reached in acidic conditions 61% within an hour under microwave irradiation, 70% and 84% within 120 min under low and high frequency ultrasonic irradiation, respectively. PMID:23399259

Hernoux, Audrey; Lévêque, Jean-Marc; Lassi, Ulla; Molina-Boisseau, Sonia; Marais, Marie-France

2013-02-15

76

Analysis of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber contents in school meal  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to estimate the contents of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber in school meal. Samples of the school meals were collected from May to June in 2008. Three elementary schools and three middle schools around Masan area were selected for analysis. Dietary soluble and insoluble fibers in the school meals were analyzed directly by the AOAC method. From the initial experiment phase, we used cellulose and pectin as a standard of dietary fiber, and average recovery rate of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber was calculated. The recovery rate was observed, the cellulose 109.7±11.7% (range 90~150%) and pectin 77.8±10.8% (range 64.7~96.7%), respectively. The amounts of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber were analyzed in the total of 66 dishes, which included 7 kinds of cooked rice (bab) made with some cereal products and vegetables, 19 kinds of soup (guk) made with meats or vegetables, 11 kinds of kimchi, 21 kinds of entrées or side dishes, and 8 special dishes. Conclusively the school meal, per serving size, would provide above 75% KDRI of total dietary fibers through mainly soups and special menu, with the exception to fruits. In addition, it might be expected that children could consume more soluble fiber from the meals with the special dishes than from the regular ones.

2012-01-01

77

Content and vacuole extravacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids, and anthocyanin in protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutral sugar, free amino acid, and anthocyanin levels and vacuole\\/extravacuole distribution were determined for Hippeastrum and Tulipa petal and Tulipa leaf protoplasts. Glucose and fructose, the predominant neutral monosaccharides observed, were primarily vacuolar in location. Glutamine, the predominant free amino acid found, was primarily extravacuolar. ..gamma..-methyleneglutamate was identified as a major constituent of Tulipa protoplasts. Qualitative characterization of Hippeastrum petal

G. J. Wagner

1979-01-01

78

Not All Secretory Granules Are Created Equal: Partitioning of Soluble Content Proteins  

PubMed Central

Secretory granules carrying fluorescent cargo proteins are widely used to study granule biogenesis, maturation, and regulated exocytosis. We fused the soluble secretory protein peptidylglycine ?-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) to green fluorescent protein (GFP) to study granule formation. When expressed in AtT-20 or GH3 cells, the PHM-GFP fusion protein partitioned from endogenous hormone (adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone) into separate secretory granule pools. Both exogenous and endogenous granule proteins were stored and released in response to secretagogue. Importantly, we found that segregation of content proteins is not an artifact of overexpression nor peculiar to GFP-tagged proteins. Neither luminal acidification nor cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains play essential roles in soluble content protein segregation. Our data suggest that intrinsic biophysical properties of cargo proteins govern their differential sorting, with segregation occurring during the process of granule maturation. Proteins that can self-aggregate are likely to partition into separate granules, which can accommodate only a few thousand copies of any content protein; proteins that lack tertiary structure are more likely to distribute homogeneously into secretory granules. Therefore, a simple “self-aggregation default” theory may explain the little acknowledged, but commonly observed, tendency for both naturally occurring and exogenous content proteins to segregate from each other into distinct secretory granules.

Sobota, Jacqueline A.; Ferraro, Francesco; Back, Nils; Eipper, Betty A.

2006-01-01

79

Phenolic composition, sugar contents and antioxidant activity of Tunisian sweet olive cultivar with regard to fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Dhokar olive cultivar growing in the south of Tunisia is an unusual olive tree which is characterized by the sweet taste of its fruit. We were particularly interested in the phenolic compounds of this cultivar in comparison to Chemlali cv. During the different maturation stages of olive fruits, the phenolic composition, sugar content, antioxidant activity and enzymatic change were examined. The phenolic composition was studied by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by LC-MS and GC-MS analysis. Oleuropein, the major olive fruit biophenolic compound, decreased significantly during all the ripeness stages, and its level decreased from 3.29 g/kg fresh olive (July) to 0.16 g/kg (October) in Dhokar cv. and from 5.7 g/kg (July) to 3.75 g/kg (October) in Chemlali cv. This decrease inversely correlated with hydroxytyrosol concentrations until September. DPPH and ABTS assays show that the more important antioxidant capacity of olive extracts was found at the last stage of maturation. beta-Glucosidase and esterase activities were evaluated during the ripening stage. The data obtained during the ripening indicate that polyphenol content and composition, in particular the oleuropein concentration, were in correlation with the measured enzymatic activities. Glucosidase and esterase showed their maximum values in September reaching 179.75 and 39.03 U/g of olive pulp, respectively. In addition, sugar content was quantified using colorimetric and chromatographic methods and was compared to its concentration in Chemlali olive fruit cultivar. Glucose and mannitol were the main sugars; they reached their highest level at the last stage of ripening: 8.3 and 79.8 g/kg respectively. PMID:19334763

Jemai, Hedya; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami

2009-04-01

80

Content and Vacuole/Extravacuole Distribution of Neutral Sugars, Free Amino Acids, and Anthocyanin in Protoplasts 1  

PubMed Central

Neutral sugar, free amino acid, and anthocyanin levels and vacuole/extravacuole distribution were determined for Hippeastrum and Tulipa petal and Tulipa leaf protoplasts. Glucose and fructose, the predominant neutral monosaccharides observed, were primarily vacuolar in location. Glutamine, the predominant free amino acid found, was primarily extravacuolar. ?-Methyleneglutamate was identified as a major constituent of Tulipa protoplasts. Qualitative characterization of Hippeastrum petal and vacuole organic acids indicated the presence of oxalic, malic, citric, and isocitric acids. Data are presented which indicate that vacuoles obtained by gentle osmotic shock of protoplasts in dibasic phosphate have good purity and retain their contents. Images

Wagner, George J.

1979-01-01

81

Near Infrared Spectral Linearisation in Quantifying Soluble Solids Content of Intact Carambola  

PubMed Central

This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR) spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC) of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP) = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.

Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

2013-01-01

82

Evaluation of Spanish Pomegranate Juices: Organic Acids, Sugars, and Anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars belonging to the ‘Mollar’ group were evaluated under homogeneus growing conditions. Chemical parameters, such as sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanin contents, and other quality parameters, including fruit weight, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and colour, were evaluated. Fruit weight was not significantly affected by cultivar. The highest TSS content was detected in juice

P. Legua; P. Melgarejo; J. J. Martínez; R. Martínez; F. Hernández

2012-01-01

83

EVALUATION OF SPANISH POMEGRANATE JUICES: ORGANIC ACIDS, SUGARS AND ANTHOCYANINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars belonging to the ‘Mollar’ group were evaluated under homogeneus growing conditions. Chemical parameters, such as sugars, organic acids, anthocyanin contents and other quality parameters including fruit weight, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and colour were evaluated. Fruit weight was not significantly affected by cultivar. The highest TSS content was detected in juice from

P. Legua; P. Melgarejo; J. J. Martínez; R. Martínez; F. Hernandez

2011-01-01

84

Identification of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying water soluble protein content in soybean.  

PubMed

Water soluble protein content (SPC) plays an important role in the functional efficacy of protein in food products. Therefore, for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SPC, 212 F(2:9) lines of the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross of ZDD09454 × Yudou12 were grown along with the parents, in six different environments (location × year) to determine inheritance and map solubility-related genes. A linkage map comprising of 301 SSR markers covering 3,576.81 cM was constructed in the RIL population. Seed SPC was quantified with a macro-Kjeldahl procedure in samples collected over multiple years from three locations (Nantong in 2007 and 2008, Zhengzhou in 2007 and 2008, and Xinxiang in 2008 and 2009). SPC demonstrated transgressive segregation, indicating a complementary genetic structure between the parents. Eleven putative QTL were associated with SPC explaining 4.5-18.2 % of the observed phenotypic variation across the 6 year/location environments. Among these, two QTL (qsp8-4, qsp8-5) near GMENOD2B and Sat_215 showed an association with SPC in multiple environments, suggesting that they were key QTL related to protein solubility. The QTL × environment interaction demonstrated the complex genetic mechanism of SPC. These SPC-associated QTL and linked markers in soybean will provide important information that can be utilized by breeders to improve the functional quality of soybean varieties. PMID:23052024

Lu, Weiguo; Wen, Zixiang; Li, Haichao; Yuan, Daohua; Li, Jinying; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Zhongwen; Cui, Shiyou; Du, Weiijun

2013-02-01

85

[Application of NIR quantitative analysis to nondestructive detection of loquat soluble solid content].  

PubMed

The objective of the present research was to evaluate the potential of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a way for nondestructive measurement of loquat soluble solid content of three varieties harvested from two orchards. According to the analysis, it was shown that the correlation coefficient of curves was relatively high in the two regions of 1400-1500 nm and 1900- 2000 nm. Statistical models were developed using partial least square regression (PLSR), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principal component regression (PCR) methods in the full spectral region from 800 to 2500 nm and in the combined region of 1400-1500 nm and 1900-2000 nm. The results of PLSR model in the full spectral region were better than those of other models. The modeling results based on derivative spectra were not as good as those based on original spectra. Finally, a model was established based on the original spectra with 17 points smoothing for all the three varieties in the full spectral region by PLSR method. The correlation coefficients of calibration and validation were 0.96 and 0.95, respectively. The results indicate that it is feasible to use NIR spectroscopy technique for quantitative analysis of loquat soluble solid content. PMID:17112027

Li, Jian-Ping; Fu, Xia-Ping; Zhou, Ying; Ying, Yi-Bin; Xie, Li-Juan; Niu, Xiao-Ying; Yan, Zhan-Ke; Yu, Hai-Yan

2006-09-01

86

Carbohydrate content and its roles in alternate bearing in olive.  

PubMed

Changes in the soluble carbohydrate content of olive were determined during fruit ripening in on-and off-years. Soluble sugars increased up to 90 days after fruit set and decreased during fruit ripening. In on-year, a marked temporary increase was evident at the beginning of fruit color changes. Glucose, fructose and mannitol were the main sugars of soluble fraction of fruits. The content of glucose was higher than the other sugars in fruits. In leaves, mannitol, glucose and fructose were the major components of soluble sugars. Mannitol was higher than the other sugars and the content of mannitol in off-year was lower than that of on-year. PMID:19070095

Nejad, Mansour Seyyed; Niroomand, Azadeh

2007-08-15

87

[Contents of free amino acids and water-soluble carbohydrates in safflower plant at different stages of growth].  

PubMed

As closely related to the development of plant organs, the contents of free amino acids and water-soluble carbohydrates in safflower plant vary with the course of growth. The ratio of the two contents rise with the growing periods, reaching maxima in the later stages of growth. PMID:7945879

Li, L Y; Liao, G P; Zhang, Y

1994-06-01

88

Use of cane condensed molasses solubles in feeding broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean composition of condensed molasses solubles (vinasse or stillage) obtained from the three alcohol fermentation plants of the sugar cane industry including proximate constituents, inorganic components and amino acid composition was obtained. Mean solids content was 620 g kg?1. Vinasse found to be low in fat and fiber but high in ash and different carbohydrate contents. Potassium content of

K. N. Waliszewski; A. Romero; V. T. Pardio

1997-01-01

89

Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.  

PubMed

Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound. PMID:21413793

Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

2011-04-27

90

Sugar regulation of plastid interconversions in epicarp of citrus fruit.  

PubMed

Seasonal transformations between chloroplasts and chromoplasts, as measured by changes in chlorophyll content, in the epicarp of degreening and regreening Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv Valencia fruit closely parallelled the accumulation and later loss of soluble sugars. At any stage of development, reversing the relative soluble sugar content in the epicarp by culturing pericarp segments on agar media with low (15 millimolar) or high (150 millimolar) sucrose concentrations reversed the direction of change in chlorophyll content. Fruit of C. madurensis Lour., which mature year around and do not regreen, also accumulated soluble sugars in the pericarp as degreening was initiated.The epicarp of C. sinensis fruit accumulated nitrogen, but total nitrogen concentrations and amino acid concentrations changed little, during degreening and regreening of C. sinensis fruit. Cessation of nitrogen fertilization reduced the tendency of pericarp segments to regreen in vitro during subsequent years, but regreening tendency was restored by inclusion of KNO(3) in the media.It is concluded that chloroplasts become chromoplasts and citrus fruit degreen partially in response to the accumulation of sugars in the epicarp and that the reverse transformation accompanying regreening of certain citrus species occurs when accumulated sugars disappear. Change in nitrogen flux to the fruit is probably not a factor in regulating seasonal transformations, but an abundance of nitrogen in the epicarp diminishes the effects of high sugar concentrations in inducing transformation of chloroplasts to chromoplasts, thereby retarding degreening and promoting regreening. PMID:16663837

Huff, A

1984-10-01

91

The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha-1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed

D. Kurasiak-Popowska; J. Szukal; K. Gulewicz

92

Seed Quality, and Fatty Acid and Sugar Contents of Pepper Seeds (Capsicum annuum L.) in Relation to Seed Development and Drying Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out in order to determine the effects of drying temperature (25, 35, and 45 °C) and the developmental stage (55, 65, 75, and 85 days after anthesis (DAA)) on germination, vigor, and the sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and fatty acid contents of pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.) over 2 consecutive years. In seeds harvested at 75

Aziz TEK?N; Z. Aytanga ÖKMEN; Gamze OKÇU; Burcu B. KENANO?LU

2008-01-01

93

Malate Plays a Crucial Role in Starch Metabolism, Ripening, and Soluble Solid Content of Tomato Fruit and Affects Postharvest Softening[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Despite the fact that the organic acid content of a fruit is regarded as one of its most commercially important quality traits when assessed by the consumer, relatively little is known concerning the physiological importance of organic acid metabolism for the fruit itself. Here, we evaluate the effect of modifying malate metabolism in a fruit-specific manner, by reduction of the activities of either mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase or fumarase, via targeted antisense approaches in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). While these genetic perturbations had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield, they had dramatic consequences for fruit metabolism, as well as unanticipated changes in postharvest shelf life and susceptibility to bacterial infection. Detailed characterization suggested that the rate of ripening was essentially unaltered but that lines containing higher malate were characterized by lower levels of transitory starch and a lower soluble sugars content at harvest, whereas those with lower malate contained higher levels of these carbohydrates. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase revealed that it correlated with the accumulation of transitory starch. Taken together with the altered activation state of the plastidial malate dehydrogenase and the modified pigment biosynthesis of the transgenic lines, these results suggest that the phenotypes are due to an altered cellular redox status. The combined data reveal the importance of malate metabolism in tomato fruit metabolism and development and confirm the importance of transitory starch in the determination of agronomic yield in this species.

Centeno, Danilo C.; Osorio, Sonia; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Bertolo, Ana L.F.; Carneiro, Raphael T.; Araujo, Wagner L.; Steinhauser, Marie-Caroline; Michalska, Justyna; Rohrmann, Johannes; Geigenberger, Peter; Oliver, Sandra N.; Stitt, Mark; Carrari, Fernando; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2011-01-01

94

Changes in ratio of soluble sugars and free amino nitrogen in the apical meristem during floral transition of tobacco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a modification of the nutrient diversion hypothesis, we propose that an inequality in carbohydrate and nitrogen translocation to the apical meristem may be a controlling factor in floral transition. Experiments were conducted in controlled-environment chambers to determine the associations between microscopic characteristics of the transition from vegetative to floral stages of the apical meristem of flue-cured tobacco and to assimilate concentrations in the plant and apical meristem. Low temperature, nitrogen withdrawal, and restriction of nitrogen uptake were used as treatment variables. In all of these stress treatments, flowering occurred at a lesser number of leaves than in control treatments. Low temperature stress accelerated the time of transition to the floral stage as compared with a high temperature control; however, nitrogen stress did not accelerate the time of transition. All stress treatments affected the levels of nitrogen and carbohydrate in whole plants. Most notable was an increase in the percentage of starch and a decrease in the percentage of total soluble carbohydrate induced by the stress treatments. These data indicate that tobacco plants under stress accumulate excess carbohydrate in the form of starch. An apparent inequality in the relative concentrations of carbohydrate and nitrogen in the apical meristem was observed in all treatments at the time of floral transition and is in support of the nutrient diversion hypothesis.

Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Miner, G. S.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

95

Changes in ratio of soluble sugars and free amino nitrogen in the apical meristem during floral transition of tobacco.  

PubMed

Under a modification of the nutrient diversion hypothesis, we propose that an inequality in carbohydrate and nitrogen translocation to the apical meristem may be a controlling factor in floral transition. Experiments were conducted in controlled-environment chambers to determine the associations between microscopic characteristics of the transition from vegetative to floral stages of the apical meristem of flue-cured tobacco and to assimilate concentrations in the plant and apical meristem. Low temperature, nitrogen withdrawal, and restriction of nitrogen uptake were used as treatment variables. In all of these stress treatments, flowering occurred at a lesser number of leaves than in control treatments. Low temperature stress accelerated the time of transition to the floral stage as compared with a high temperature control; however, nitrogen stress did not accelerate the time of transition. All stress treatments affected the levels of nitrogen and carbohydrate in whole plants. Most notable was an increase in the percentage of starch and a decrease in the percentage of total soluble carbohydrate induced by the stress treatments. These data indicate that tobacco plants under stress accumulate excess carbohydrate in the form of starch. An apparent inequality in the relative concentrations of carbohydrate and nitrogen in the apical meristem was observed in all treatments at the time of floral transition and is in support of the nutrient diversion hypothesis. PMID:11537504

Rideout, J W; Raper, C D; Miner, G S

1992-01-01

96

Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison.  

PubMed

Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400-1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR. PMID:22302428

Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

2012-02-01

97

[Prediction analysis of soluble solids content and moisture in honey by near infrared spectroscopy].  

PubMed

A new method for the analysis of soluble solids content (SSC) in honey by near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was developed, and moisture was also analyzed. The partial least square regression models of SSC and moisture were built for different pretreatments of the raw spectra in different spectral range. Good predictions were always obtained for all models. The best models of SSC and moisture were obtained by using Norris (3,2) smoothing + first derivative + multiplicative signal correction in total spectral range. The coefficient of determination (R(CV)2) and root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), the coefficient of determination (R(p)2) and root mean square error of validation sets (RMSEP) were 0.9986, 0.190, 0.9985 and 0.127 respectively for SSC, while for moisture they were 0.9984, 0.187, 0.9986 and 0.125 respectively. NIR could be used to analyze SSC and moisture in honey. The result of this article was better than that of related documents for moisture. PMID:21105399

Li, Shui-fang; Zhang, Xin; Shan, Yang; Li, Zhong-hai

2010-09-01

98

Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison*  

PubMed Central

Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400–1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR.

Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

2012-01-01

99

Nondestructive evaluation of soluble solid content in strawberry by near infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper indicates the feasibility to use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) algorithms as a rapid nondestructive method to estimate the soluble solid content (SSC) in strawberry. Spectral preprocessing methods were optimized selected by cross-validation in the model calibration. Partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was conducted on the calibration of regression model. The performance of the final model was back-evaluated according to root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and correlation coefficient (R2 c) in calibration set, and tested by mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R2 p) in prediction set. The optimal siPLS model was obtained with after first derivation spectra preprocessing. The measurement results of best model were achieved as follow: RMSEC = 0.2259, R2 c = 0.9590 in the calibration set; and RMSEP = 0.2892, R2 p = 0.9390 in the prediction set. This work demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy and siPLS with efficient spectral preprocessing is a useful tool for nondestructively evaluation SSC in strawberry.

Guo, Zhiming; Huang, Wenqian; Chen, Liping; Wang, Xiu; Peng, Yankun

100

A reagent-free SIA module for monitoring of sugar, color and dissolved CO2 content in soft drinks.  

PubMed

This work presents a new sequential injection analysis (SIA) method and a module for simultaneous and real-time monitoring of three key parameters for the beverage industry, i.e., the sugar content (measured in Brix), color and dissolved CO(2). Detection of the light reflection at the liquid interface (the schlieren effect) of sucrose and water was utilized for sucrose content measurement. A near infrared LED (890+/-40 nm) was chosen as the light source to ensure that all the ingredients and dyes in soft drinks will not interfere by contributing light absorption. A linear calibration was obtained for sucrose over a wide concentration range (3.1-46.5 Brix). The same module can be used to monitor the color of the soft drink as well as the dissolved CO(2) during production. For measuring the color, the sample is segmented between air plugs to avoid dispersion. An RGB-LED was chosen as the light source in order to make this module applicable to a wide range of colored samples. The module also has a section where dissolved CO(2) is measured via vaporization of the gas from the liquid phase. Dissolved CO(2), in a flowing acceptor stream of water resulting in the change of the acceptor conductivity, is detected using an in-house capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The module includes a vaporization unit that is also used to degas the carbonated drink, prior the measurements of sucrose and color within the same system. The method requires no chemicals and is therefore completely friendly to the environment. PMID:20457301

Teerasong, S; Chan-Eam, S; Sereenonchai, K; Amornthammarong, N; Ratanawimarnwong, N; Nacapricha, D

2010-05-23

101

Use of molecular markers in breeding for soluble solids content in tomato — a re-examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through earlier breeding efforts, portions of the genome of the wild species Lycopersicon chmielewskii have been introgressed into the cultivated tomato (Rick 1974). These introgressed chromosomal segments have been reported to increase soluble solids in fruit of certain tomato varieties (Rick 1974). Recently, two of the introgressed segments have been identified with RFLP markers and tested for effects on soluble

S. D. Tanksley; J. Hewitt

1988-01-01

102

Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique.  

PubMed

Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values. Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 degrees Brix (QL); 0.58 degrees Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 degrees Brix (QL); 0.34 degrees Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra (Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a nondestructive way. PMID:17266185

Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan

2007-02-01

103

Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique*  

PubMed Central

Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values. Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 °Brix (QL); 0.58 °Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 °Brix (QL); 0.34 °Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra (Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a nondestructive way.

Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan

2007-01-01

104

Determination of soluble solid content and acidity of loquats based on FT-NIR spectroscopy*  

PubMed Central

The near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique has been applied in many fields because of its advantages of simple preparation, fast response, and non-destructiveness. We investigated the potential of NIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode for determining the soluble solid content (SSC) and acidity (pH) of intact loquats. Two cultivars of loquats (Dahongpao and Jiajiaozhong) harvested from two orchards (Tangxi and Chun’an, Zhejiang, China) were used for the measurement of NIR spectra between 800 and 2500 nm. A total of 400 loquats (100 samples of each cultivar from each orchard) were used in this study. Relationships between NIR spectra and SSC and acidity of loquats were evaluated using partial least square (PLS) method. Spectra preprocessing options included the first and second derivatives, multiple scatter correction (MSC), and the standard normal variate (SNV). Three separate spectral windows identified as full NIR (800~2500 nm), short NIR (800~1100 nm), and long NIR (1100~2500 nm) were studied in factorial combination with the preprocessing options. The models gave relatively good predictions of the SSC of loquats, with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 1.21, 1.00, 0.965, and 1.16 °Brix for Tangxi-Dahongpao, Tangxi-Jiajiaozhong, Chun’an-Dahongpao, and Chun’an-Jiajiaozhong, respectively. The acidity prediction was not satisfactory, with the RMSEP of 0.382, 0.194, 0.388, and 0.361 for the above four loquats, respectively. The results indicate that NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used to predict the SSC and acidity of loquat fruit.

Fu, Xia-ping; Li, Jian-ping; Zhou, Ying; Ying, Yi-bin; Xie, Li-juan; Niu, Xiao-ying; Yan, Zhan-ke; Yu, Hai-yan

2009-01-01

105

Determination of soluble solid content and acidity of loquats based on FT-NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique has been applied in many fields because of its advantages of simple preparation, fast response, and non-destructiveness. We investigated the potential of NIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode for determining the soluble solid content (SSC) and acidity (pH) of intact loquats. Two cultivars of loquats (Dahongpao and Jiajiaozhong) harvested from two orchards (Tangxi and Chun'an, Zhejiang, China) were used for the measurement of NIR spectra between 800 and 2500 nm. A total of 400 loquats (100 samples of each cultivar from each orchard) were used in this study. Relationships between NIR spectra and SSC and acidity of loquats were evaluated using partial least square (PLS) method. Spectra preprocessing options included the first and second derivatives, multiple scatter correction (MSC), and the standard normal variate (SNV). Three separate spectral windows identified as full NIR (800approximately2500 nm), short NIR (800approximately1100 nm), and long NIR (1100approximately2500 nm) were studied in factorial combination with the preprocessing options. The models gave relatively good predictions of the SSC of loquats, with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 1.21, 1.00, 0.965, and 1.16 degrees Brix for Tangxi-Dahongpao, Tangxi-Jiajiaozhong, Chun'an-Dahongpao, and Chun'an-Jiajiaozhong, respectively. The acidity prediction was not satisfactory, with the RMSEP of 0.382, 0.194, 0.388, and 0.361 for the above four loquats, respectively. The results indicate that NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used to predict the SSC and acidity of loquat fruit. PMID:19235270

Fu, Xia-ping; Li, Jian-ping; Zhou, Ying; Ying, Yi-bin; Xie, Li-juan; Niu, Xiao-ying; Yan, Zhan-ke; Yu, Hai-yan

2009-02-01

106

Pharmacokinetic interactions induced by content variation of major water-soluble components of Danshen preparation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To investigate the pharmacokinetic interactions induced by content variation of the main water-soluble components of Danshen injection in rats.Methods:Intravenous Danshen injection (control) or Danshen injection with danshensu (DSS), protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL), salvianolic acid A (Sal A) or salvianolic acid B (Sal B) were administered to female Sprague Dawley rats . Plasma concentrations of DSS, Sal A, PAL and its oxidative

Bo-bo Chang; Lin Zhang; Wan-wen Cao; Yuan Cao; Wen-liang Yang; Yan Wang; Yuan-cheng Chen; Xiao-quan Liu

2010-01-01

107

Sucrose metabolism during somatic and zygotic embryogeneses in Norway spruce: content of soluble saccharides and localisation of key enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in soluble carbohydrate compounds and their amounts were analysed during the somatic embryo maturation and seed development of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The data were correlated to the localisation of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism (invertase, EC 3.2.1.26; sucrose synthase, EC 2.4.1.13; phosphoglucomutase, EC 5.4.2.2). The decrease in total carbohydrate content as well as the accumulation of

Hana Konrádová; Helena Lipavská; Jana Albrechtová; Dick Vreugdenhil

2002-01-01

108

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in Diabetes Mellitus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hypoglycemia Patient information Patient information: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics) Author David ... Find Print Contents of this article LOW BLOOD SUGAR OVERVIEW WHY DO I GET LOW BLOOD SUGAR? ...

109

Increased Lysine Content Is the Main Characteristic of the Soluble Form of the Polyamide Cyanophycin Synthesized by Recombinant Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Cyanophycin, a polyamide of cyanobacterial or noncyanobacterial origin consisting of aspartate, arginine, and lysine, was synthesized in different recombinant strains of Escherichia coli expressing cphA from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308 or PCC 6803, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, or Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1. The molar aspartate/arginine/lysine ratio of the water-soluble form isolated from a recombinant strain expressing CphA6308 was 1:0.5:0.5, with a lysine content higher than any ever described before. The water-insoluble form consisted instead of mainly aspartate and arginine residues and had a lower proportion of lysine, amounting to a maximum of only 5 mol%. It could be confirmed that the synthesis of soluble cyanobacterial granule polypeptide (CGP) is independent of the origin of cphA. Soluble CGP isolated from all recombinant strains contained a least 17 mol% lysine. The total CGP portion of cell dry matter synthesized by CphA6308 from recombinant E. coli was about 30% (wt/wt), including 23% (wt/wt) soluble CGP, by using terrific broth complex medium for cultivation at 30°C for 72 h. Enhanced production of soluble CGP instead of its insoluble form is interesting for further application and makes recombinant E. coli more attractive as a suitable source for the production of polyaspartic acid or dipeptides. In addition, a new low-cost, time-saving, effective, and common isolation procedure for mainly soluble CGP, suitable for large-scale application, was established in this study.

Frommeyer, Maja

2013-01-01

110

Extraction of soluble fiber from distillers' grains.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using coproducts from dry grind corn ethanol production as a substrate for the production of soluble fiber was examined. Acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis experiments were performed using sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide to partially hydrolyze hemicellulose content of whole stillage, a precursor to distillers' grains, to soluble fiber. The influences of temperature, reaction time, and hydrolyzing agent concentration on the formation of soluble fiber were studied. Soluble fiber was recovered by precipitation in a 95% ethanol solution. Results indicate that appreciable quantities of soluble fiber may be extracted using either acid- or base-catalyzed reactions. The highest yield of soluble fibers was 13.2 g per 100 g-db of treated whole stillage using one weight percent sodium hydroxide at 80ºC for 1 h. HPLC analysis was used to quantify the amount of monomeric sugars which were formed during the hydrolysis procedures. PMID:22203395

Flodman, Hunter R; Boyer, Elizabeth J; Muthukumarappan, Arthy; Noureddini, Hossein

2012-02-01

111

Comparative effects of irradiation, fumigation, and storage on the free amino acids and sugar contents of green, black and oolong teas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food irradiation or chemical fumigation can be used to ensure the hygienic quality of teas. The comparative effects of gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) and fumigation (MeBr and PH3) were investigated on the amino acids and sugar contents of Camellia sinensis (green, black and oolong teas) during storage (15±12 °C). The major amino acids found in teas were theanine and glutamic acid. Irradiation increased amino acids such as, leucine, alanine, and glutamic acid, and decreased the histidine. PH3 fumigation resulted in a decrease of tyrosine content; however, the effect of MeBr fumigation was negligible. Storage showed no significant effect on the amino acid content of the irradiated and fumigated teas. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents significantly increased upon gamma irradiation (p?0.05). However, fumigation and subsequent storage did not affect the sugar contents. Irradiation could be a preferred alternative choice to address food safety problems as fumigation is restricted in many countries.

Kausar, Tusneem; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

2013-05-01

112

Added Sugars  

MedlinePLUS

... sweetened milk); and other grains (cinnamon toast and honey-nut waffles). Too much sugar isn't so ... molasses, cane sugar, corn sweetener, raw sugar, syrup, honey or fruit juice concentrates. Learn more about reading ...

113

Effects of CO 2 concentration and moisture content of sugar-free media on the tissue-cultured plantlets in a large growth chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic fluctuations of CO 2 concentration in the tissue culture growth chamber after transplantation of petunia, chrysanthemum and tomato plantlets were recorded with a real-time control system to determine the critical CO 2 concentration levels of 35 ?l l -1 at which CO 2 enrichment is needed. The experimental data showed that the tissue-cultured plantlets of petunia, chrysanthemum and tomato had the same CO 2 concentration dynamics. The results indicated that CO 2 enrichment was proper on the second day after transplantation. Petunia plantlets were used to conduct experiments under PPFD of 80 ?mol m -2 s -1, and CO 2 concentrations of 350 ± 50 ?l l -1, 650 ± 50 ?l l -1 and 950 ± 50 ?l l -1 as well as medium moisture contents of 60%, 70% and 80%, with the result that plantlets grew better under CO 2 concentration of 650 ± 50 ?l l -1 than under the other two concentrations with all the different media water contents. Three media water contents under the same CO 2 concentration produced plantlets with the same quality. The impacts of CO 2 concentrations on plantlets are more important than those of the media water contents. Sugar-free tissue culture, as compared with the conventional culture, showed that CO 2 enrichment to 350 ± 50 ?l l -1 can promote the growth of the cultured plantlets. Sugar-free tissue culture produced healthy plantlets with thick roots, almost equivalent to the common plantlets.

Qu, Y. H.; Lin, C.; Zhou, W.; Li, Y.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

2009-01-01

114

Canine Intestinal Contents vs . Simulated Media for the Assessment of Solubility of Two Weak Bases in the Human Small Intestinal Contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  This study was conducted to assess the relative usefulness of canine intestinal contents and simulated media in the prediction\\u000a of solubility of two weak bases (dipyridamole and ketoconazole) in fasted and fed human intestinal aspirates that were collected\\u000a under conditions simulating those in bioavailability\\/bioequivalence studies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  After administration of 250 mL of water or 500 mL of Ensure plus [both containing 10 mg\\/mL polyethylene

Lida Kalantzi; Eva Persson; Britta Polentarutti; Bertil Abrahamsson; Konstantinos Goumas; Jennifer B. Dressman; Christos Reppas

2006-01-01

115

Dependence of the toxic and protective properties of shale oils on their contents of water-soluble phenols  

SciTech Connect

Dependence of the Toxic and Protective Properties of Shale Oils on their Content of Water-Soluble Phenols. A large propertion of water-soluble phenols, which are valuable intermediates for synthesis of various high polymers, is now extracted from shale oil, which is largely used for impregnation of wood. Changes in the technology of production of shale impregnaing oil make it necessary to examine the rationality of removing water-soluble phenols from shale distillate oil in relation to changes in its physicochemical characteristics, toxicity, and protective action. Four samples of shale oil, physicochemical properties included, were investigated. The toxicity of the four oil samples and of water-soluble phenols was estimated by determination of the threshold absorption A/sub 95/ in accordance with State All-Union Standard specifications on a culture of one of the most active wood-destroying fungi, Coniophor cerebella. Pine sapwood spcimens were used. It was concluded that there is no definite correlation between the toxicity, which is the main indicator of the suitability of a given antiseptic for protecting wood against wood-destroying fungi, and the presence of water-soluble phenols in the shale oil. Experimental data showed no significant differences in destruction of wood impregnated with the shale oil and subjected to heat treatment. Experimental data was also included for the influence of washing out of shale oils from impregnated wood with water on destruction of the wood. All the protective properties of impregnating oils are a complex function of their composition and of the structure of their compounds. 3 tables. (DP)

Kucherenko, L.A.; Kamyshova, V.K.

1981-07-10

116

Identification of restriction fragment length polymorphisms linked to genes controlling soluble solids content in tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene(s) conferring high soluble solids (SS) in tomato fruit had been backcrossed previously from a wild tomato species, Lycopersicon chmielewskii LA1028 (~ 10% SS), into a L. esculentum cultivar, VF36 (~ 5% SS), to derive a BC5S5 line, LA1563, similar to ‘VF 36’ but with 7–8% SS. DNAs from these lines and a tomato breeding line, H2038, were screened for

T. C. Osborn; D. C. Alexander; J. F. Fobes

1987-01-01

117

Soluble carbohydrate content of soybean [ Glycine max (L.) merr.] somatic and zygotic embryos during development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Somatic and zygotic embryos of soybean cv. Jack were analyzed for soluble carbohydrate, total lipids, and protein during development.\\u000a Zygotic embryos accumulated trace amounts of fructose, galactose, and galactinol., whereas somatic embryos contained only\\u000a trace amounts of galactose. Somatic embryos accumulated much higher glucose levels than zygotic embryos. Both somatic and\\u000a zygotic embryos contain low levels of sucrose, myoinositol, and

Sermsiri Chanprame; T. M. Kuo; J. M. Widholm

1998-01-01

118

Sugar Regulation of Plastid Interconversions in Epicarp of Citrus Fruit 1  

PubMed Central

Seasonal transformations between chloroplasts and chromoplasts, as measured by changes in chlorophyll content, in the epicarp of degreening and regreening Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv Valencia fruit closely parallelled the accumulation and later loss of soluble sugars. At any stage of development, reversing the relative soluble sugar content in the epicarp by culturing pericarp segments on agar media with low (15 millimolar) or high (150 millimolar) sucrose concentrations reversed the direction of change in chlorophyll content. Fruit of C. madurensis Lour., which mature year around and do not regreen, also accumulated soluble sugars in the pericarp as degreening was initiated. The epicarp of C. sinensis fruit accumulated nitrogen, but total nitrogen concentrations and amino acid concentrations changed little, during degreening and regreening of C. sinensis fruit. Cessation of nitrogen fertilization reduced the tendency of pericarp segments to regreen in vitro during subsequent years, but regreening tendency was restored by inclusion of KNO3 in the media. It is concluded that chloroplasts become chromoplasts and citrus fruit degreen partially in response to the accumulation of sugars in the epicarp and that the reverse transformation accompanying regreening of certain citrus species occurs when accumulated sugars disappear. Change in nitrogen flux to the fruit is probably not a factor in regulating seasonal transformations, but an abundance of nitrogen in the epicarp diminishes the effects of high sugar concentrations in inducing transformation of chloroplasts to chromoplasts, thereby retarding degreening and promoting regreening.

Huff, Albert

1984-01-01

119

The influence of caffeine on energy content of sugar-sweetened beverages: ‘the caffeine–calorie effect’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Caffeine is a mildly addictive psychoactive chemical and controversial additive to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). The objective of this study is to assess if removal of caffeine from SSBs allows co-removal of sucrose (energy) without affecting flavour of SSBs, and if removal of caffeine could potentially affect population weight gain.Subjects\\/Methods:The research comprised of three studies; study 1 used three-alternate forced choice

R S J Keast; D Sayompark; G Sacks; B A Swinburn; L J Riddell; RSJ Keast

2011-01-01

120

Sugar Backgrounder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sugar title in the 2007 Farm Bill will determine how U.S. sugar policy is to be conducted. Currently, the U.S. sugar program uses domestic marketing allotments, price supports, and tariff-rate quotas to influence the amount of sugar available to the U...

M. Ali S. Haley

2007-01-01

121

Selected Articles on Sugar Beet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Scientific and technical progress in beet growing; Structure of sugar beet root under a different mineral nutrition regime; Characteristics of growth and cell division in high-sugar and high-yielding strains of sugar beet; Intake of root nutriti...

1976-01-01

122

[Determination of soluble solids content in navel oranges by Vis/NIR diffuse transmission spectra combined with CARS method].  

PubMed

Soluble solids content (SSC) is one of important internal quality index for navel oranges. In the present study, visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmission spectra of navel oranges were acquired using a QualitySpec spectrometer in the wavelength range of 350-1 000 nm, and CARS (competitive adaptive reweighted sampling) was used to select important variables related with SSC of navel oranges from spectra data, then was compared with other variable selection methods such as uninformative variables elimination (UVE) and successive projections algorithm (SPA). Finally, partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to develop calibration model for SSC of navel oranges using the 38 selected variables, and the calibration model was used to predict the SSC of 75 samples in the prediction set. The results indicate that CARS method is superior to other variable selection methods such as UVE and SPA, and can select the important variables for SSC efficiently. The calibration model of SSC developed by CARS-PLS is superior to that model developed by full-spectrum PLS, the correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square error (RMSE) in the calibration and prediction sets are 0.948, 0.347% and 0.917, 0.394%, respectively. So, Vis/NIR diffuse transmission spectra combined with CARS method is feasible to assess soluble solids content of navel oranges, and CARS method can simplify the prediction model and improve model prediction precision. PMID:23427541

Sun, Tong; Xu, Wen-Li; Lin, Jin-Long; Liu, Mu-Hua; He, Xiu-Wen

2012-12-01

123

Fermentation in traditional medicine: the impact of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers on the immunomodulatory activity, and the alcohol and sugar contents of Nimba arishta.  

PubMed

The impact of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers on the immunomodulatory activity, and alcohol and sugar contents of the ayurvedic drug 'Nimba arishta' was investigated by means of model preparations. The use of Woodfordia flowers in model preparations resulted in a substantial increase of the inhibition of both human complement activity and chemiluminescence generated by zymosan-stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It was established that the increased biological activity was not due to microbial interference, but to immuno-active constituents released from the Woodfordia flowers. It was also found that the flowers themselves are not the source of alcohol-producing microorganisms. Experiments performed with yeasts isolated from commercial Nimba arishtas showed, in agreement with empirical findings, significantly raised alcohol content upon addition of Woodfordia. An invertase activity exhibited by Woodfordia flowers may be causative of this effect. PMID:8133651

Kroes, B H; van den Berg, A J; Abeysekera, A M; de Silva, K T; Labadie, R P

1993-10-01

124

The relationship between estimated water content and water soluble organic carbon of PM10 at Seoul, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organic carbon (OC) in atmospheric aerosols can be divided in water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water insoluble organic carbon (WISOC). WSOC constitutes a significant fraction of the carbon mass of aerosols, ranging from 27% to 83% (Yu et al., 2004). WSOC and absorbed water in atmospheric aerosol can impact climate directly by scattering solar radiation. Also, these can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) (Saxena et al., 1995; Yu et al., 2004). The role of WSOC in water absorption is especially unclear. So, it is essential to understand the relevance of water content and WSOC. In this study, we have analyzed relationship between the measured WSOC concentrations and estimated aerosol water content of PM10 (particles in the atmosphere with a diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 ?m) for the period between September 2006 and August 2007 at Seoul, Korea. Water content of PM10 was estimated by using a gas/particle equilibrium model, SCAPE2 (Kim et al., 1993). WSOC and estimated water content showed a positive correlation when the ambient relative humidity (RH) was less than 70%. But when RH was higher than 70%, WSOC and estimated water content did not show a correlation. However, WISOC over OC showed negative correlation with estimated water content of PM10 when RH was less than 70%. It was found that WSOC was correlated well with NO3- that is a secondary component formed by photochemical oxidation. References Kim, Y. P., Seinfeld, J. H., Saxena, P., 1993, Atmospheric gas-aerosol equilibrium I. Thermodynamic model, Aerosol Science and Technology, 19, 157-181. Saxena, P., Hildemann, L. M., McMurry, P. H., Seinfeld, J. H., 1995, Organics alter hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100(D9), 18755-18770. Yu, J. Z., Yang, H., Zhang, H. and Lau, A. K. H., 2004, Size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon in ambient aerosols and its size-resolved thermal characteristics, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 1061-1071.

Lee, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Yi, S.

2011-12-01

125

Biodegradable water-soluble polycarboxylic acid design: Biodegradability and builder performance in detergent formulation of partially dicarboxylated polyuronide containing sugar residues in the backbone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially dicarboxylated polyuronide having a variable amount of unreacted sugar blocks as an enzymatically cleavable segment was prepared by the controlled oxidation of pectic acid and alginic acid. It was found that partially dicarboxylated polyuronides containing uronide blocks showed better biodegradability than those having no uronide block in the polycarboxylate chain. The rate of biodegradation varies according to the degree

Shuichi Matsumura; Kiminori Amaya; Sadao Yoshikawa

1993-01-01

126

[Contents of water-soluble vitamins in canned fish and seafood].  

PubMed

Data of contents of vitamins (B1 and B2, C, PP) in production from gidrobionts is given. Is established, that the process of sterilization of canned food from gidrobionts in to container provides significant (almost twofold) decrease (reduction) of vitamins B1 [symbol: see text] B2, smaller losses of vitamin C (less than 30%) and proves to be true sufficient stability (almost on 85-90%) to action of high temperatures (120 degrees C) of vitamin PP. The canned food from sea gidrobionts represent the certain interest basically as a source of vitamin PP, and canned food "Herring smoked in oil"--vitamin B2. The canned food "Skobljanka from cucumber and fish" can be considered as a source of vitamins B2, C, PP. PMID:11247165

Shmakova, S I; Shvidskaia, Z P; Dolbnina, L V

2000-01-01

127

Studies on dehydration of figs using different sugar syrup treatments.  

PubMed

The ripe fig (Ficus carica L) fruits of cultivar cv., 'Deanna' were steam treated at 90°C and 10 psi for 5 min in autoclave. Steamed fruits were dipped in sucrose, glucose, fructose and invert sugar syrups at 50°Brix for 24 h for getting desired total soluble solids content. The treated fruits were further dried to 20% moisture in a cabinet dryer at 50-55°C. Good quality and acceptable dried figs could be prepared by using invert sugar syrup treatment. Dried figs prepared using invert sugar and packed in aluminum foil pouch and stored at ambient (27 ± 2°C) as well as refrigerated (10 ± 2°C) temperature remained in excellent condition up to 6 months. PMID:23572667

Naikwadi, P M; Chavan, U D; Pawar, V D; Amarowicz, R

2010-08-01

128

Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.  

PubMed

This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93?wt?% of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. PMID:24706373

Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

2014-06-01

129

Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beet sugar and cane sugar constitute 25% and 75%, respectively, of the world sucrose production of about 145×10 6 ty ear ?1 .S ugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Döll) is grown mainly in Europe, producing 28×10 6 t beet sugar (hereof 20×10 6 t in the EU), North America (4.0×10 6 t) and Asia (2.5×10 6 t).

M. Joersbo

130

Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.  

PubMed

Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 ?m in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS but did not differ for indispensable AA between FC and wheat DDGS. The SID content of His, Ile, Leu, Met, and Phe was lower (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS. In conclusion, dry fractionation creates DDGS fractions with a differing chemical composition. Fine particle fractions contain less fiber and more CP than coarse particle fractions, but their AA digestibility was lower, likely due to most of the solubles being fine particles that are more susceptible to AA damage than protein entrapped in particles of larger size. PMID:24948649

Yáñez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

2014-08-01

131

Effects of increasing concentrations of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles on the egg production, internal quality of eggs, chemical composition and nutrients content of egg yolk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding high levels of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on egg production, internal quality of eggs, chemical composition and important nutrients content of egg yolk. Four diets were formulated to contain 0, 17, 35 or 50% corn DDGS in a corn and soybean meal base. A total

Hongyu Sun

2011-01-01

132

Study on for soluble solids contents measurement of grape juice beverage based on Vis/NIRS and chemomtrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the visible and near infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) technique for non-destructive measurement of soluble solids contents (SSC) in grape juice beverage. 380 samples were studied in this paper. Smoothing way of Savitzky-Golay and standard normal variate were applied for the pre-processing of spectral data. Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) with RBF kernel function was applied to developing the SSC prediction model based on the Vis/NIRS absorbance data. The determination coefficient for prediction (Rp2) of the results predicted by LS-SVM model was 0. 962 and root mean square error (RMSEP) was 0. 434137. It is concluded that Vis/NIRS technique can quantify the SSC of grape juice beverage fast and non-destructively.. At the same time, LS-SVM model was compared with PLS and back propagation neural network (BP-NN) methods. The results showed that LS-SVM was superior to the conventional linear and non-linear methods in predicting SSC of grape juice beverage. In this study, the generation ability of LS-SVM, PLS and BP-NN models were also investigated. It is concluded that LS-SVM regression method is a promising technique for chemometrics in quantitative prediction.

Wu, Di; He, Yong

2007-11-01

133

Predicting soluble solid content in intact jaboticaba [Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) O. Berg] fruit using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) as a rapid and non-destructive method to determine soluble solid content (SSC) in intact jaboticaba [Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) O. Berg] fruit. Multivariate calibration techniques were compared with pre-processed data and variable selection algorithms, such as partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS), a genetic algorithm (GA), a successive projections algorithm (SPA) and nonlinear techniques (BP-ANN, back propagation of artificial neural networks; LS-SVM, least squares support vector machine) were applied to building the calibration models. The PLS model produced prediction accuracy (R(2)=0.71, RMSEP=1.33 °Brix, and RPD=1.65) while the BP-ANN model (R(2)=0.68, RMSEM=1.20 °Brix, and RPD=1.83) and LS-SVM models achieved lower performance metrics (R(2)=0.44, RMSEP=1.89 °Brix, and RPD=1.16). This study was the first attempt to use NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive method to determine SSC jaboticaba fruit. PMID:24767082

Mariani, Nathália Cristina Torres; da Costa, Rosangela Câmara; de Lima, Kássio Michell Gomes; Nardini, Viviani; Cunha Júnior, Luís Carlos; Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

2014-09-15

134

Endogenous pH, Titratable Acidity and Total Soluble Solid Content of Mouthwashes Available in the Brazilian Market  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate in vitro the endogenous pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solid content (TSSC) of mouthwashes available in the Brazilian market. Methods: The study sample was composed of 10 commercial brands of mouthwashes based on different active ingredients: Cepacol®, Clinerize®, Equate®, Listerine Cool Citrus®, Oral-B®, Periogard®, Peroxyl®, Plax Overnight®, Prevident 220® and Sanifill®. The experiments were performed in triplicate. The endogenous pH was evaluated by potentiometry, titratable acidity was evaluated by the addition of 0.1N KOH increments to the mouthwashes, and TSSC readings were performed by Brix refractometry using the Abbé refractometer. Results: pH values ranged from 3.56 (Peroxyl®) to 7.43 (Cepacol®) and three mouthwashes presented pHs below 5.5. The titratable acidity values ranged from 0.007 (Periograd®) to 0.530 (Prevident®). Oral B® and Clinerize® presented the lowest (4.7%) and the highest (23.70%) TSSC, respectively. Conclusions: Some of the mouthwashes evaluated in this study presented low endogenous pH, even below the critical value for enamel dissolution (pH<5.5), high titratable acidity and high TSSC, and may be potentially erosive to the dental tissues if not properly used.

Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Ramos, Ianny Alves; Leite, Rafaela Bastos; da Costa Oliveira, Mariana; de Melo Menezes, Karynna; Fernandes, Ligia Virginio; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Vieira, Fernando Fernandes

2010-01-01

135

Rapid detection of soluble solid content in beer using spectroscopic technique based on LS-SVM algorithm model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For rapid detection of soluble solid content (SSC) in beer, visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectra of 360 beer samples were collected by using Vis/NIR spectroradiometer. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for reducing the dimensionality in order to decrease the overlapped information of raw spectral data, 6 principal components (PCs) were selected. The samples were randomly separated into calibration set and validation set, and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm was used to build calibration model of SSC in beer, then the model was employed for the prediction of the validation set. Correlation coefficient (r) of prediction and root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) were used as evaluation standards, and the results indicated that r and RMSEP for the prediction of SSC were 0.9829 and 0.1506. The precision of prediction was obviously higher than that of back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and partial least squares (PLS) models, hence PCA and LS-SVM algorithm model with high prediction precision could be applied to the determination of SSC in beer.

Wang, Li; He, Yong; Liu, Fei

2007-11-01

136

Application Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact citrus fruits*  

PubMed Central

Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of citrus fruits was developed using Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) measurements collected through optics fiber. The models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of citrus fruits were developed and evaluated. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this study. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of citrus fruits was analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, instrument noise, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and yielded optimal calibration models. A total of 170 NIR spectra were acquired; 135 NIR spectra were used to develop the calibration model; the remaining spectra were used to validate the model. The developed PLS model describing the relationship between SSC and NIR reflectance spectra could predict SSC of 35 samples with correlation coefficient of 0.995 and RMSEP of 0.79 °Brix.

Lu, Hui-shan; Xu, Hui-rong; Ying, Yi-bin; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan; Tian, Hai-qing

2006-01-01

137

The effects of NaCl on growth, water relations, osmolytes and ion content in Kochia prostrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) on growth, water relations, glycinebetaine, free proline, ion contents, stomata number and size of Kochia prostrata (L.) Schard were determined. Shoot and root fresh and dry matter, root and shoot length, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, relative water content, water use efficiency, soluble sugars and glycinebetaine contents were

G. Karimi; M. Ghorbanli; H. Heidari; R. A. Khavari Nejad; M. H. Assareh

2005-01-01

138

Color, sugars and organic acids composition in aril juices and peel homogenates prepared from different pomegranate accessions.  

PubMed

The current study describes differences in pomegranate fruit size and aril weight of 29 accessions grown in Israel. The contents of sugars and organic acids in their aril juices and peel homogenates, as well as color parameters, were determined. While the levels of total soluble solids (TSS) and soluble sugars in the aril juices differ only slightly, those of titratable acidity (TA) and citric acid changed significantly, suggesting that they are the main contributors to juice taste. In general, significant positive correlations were found between TA values and the red color parameters, and these two parameters, as well as TSS, appeared to be higher in the juices of accessions harvested late in the season. Peel homogenates exhibited lower levels of TSS, TA, soluble sugars and organic acids than aril juices. Some red color parameters, TA and citric acid were found to correlate significantly between the aril juices and peel homogenates. PMID:20232916

Dafny-Yalin, Mery; Glazer, Ira; Bar-Ilan, Igal; Kerem, Zohar; Holland, Doron; Amir, Rachel

2010-04-14

139

Intraspecies differences in cold hardiness, carbohydrate content and ?-amylase gene expression of Vaccinium corymbosum during cold acclimation and deacclimation.  

PubMed

Changes in cold hardiness, carbohydrate content and ?-amylase gene expression were monitored in the shoots of the highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars 'Sharpblue' and 'Jersey' during cold acclimation (CA) and deacclimation (DA). The seasonal patterns were similar in both cultivars, but the levels of cold hardiness determined by electrolyte leakage analysis were significantly different; 'Jersey' was hardier than 'Sharpblue'. Cold hardiness was closely related to total soluble sugar content (r?=?-0.98** and -0.99** for 'Sharpblue' and 'Jersey', respectively). In 'Jersey', more soluble sugars accumulated during CA. Of the detected soluble sugars, glucose, fructose and raffinose contents were significantly associated with cold hardiness in both cultivars. Sucrose was abundant in both cultivars, and stachyose content changed significantly during CA and DA. However, they were not associated with cold hardiness. A sharp decrease in starch contents in the middle of CA coincided with ?-amylase gene (VcBMY) expression, indicating the conversion of starch into soluble sugars. During CA, VcBMY was expressed up to twofold higher in 'Jersey' than in 'Sharpblue'. These results suggest that intraspecies differences in the cold hardiness of highbush blueberries are associated with total soluble sugar content, which is driven partly by differential expression of VcBMY. PMID:23135736

Lee, Jun Hyung; Yu, Duk Jun; Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Doil; Lee, Hee Jae

2012-12-01

140

Solubilization of hardly soluble iron and aluminum phosphates by the fungus Aspergillus niger in the soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some Brazilian soils present high contents of hardly soluble iron and aluminum phosphates and a high capacity for fixation\\u000a of soluble phosphates. This study evaluated the ability of the fungus Aspergillus niger F111 isolated from soil to solubilize Fe and Al phosphates. Iron, aluminum or calcium phosphate were added to soil samples and\\u000a inoculated with the A. niger F111. Sugar-cane

C. B. Barroso; E. Nahas

141

Changes in oil, sugars and nitrogenous components during germination of sunflower seeds, Helianthus annuus.  

PubMed

Since germination has been found to improve the nutritional quality of grains, sunflower seeds Helianthus annuus were germinated for up to five days, and the cotyledons were analyzed for oil, sugar, free amino acid, non-protein nitrogen, lysine, tryptophan and methionine contents. Protein was fractionated. Soaking and germination increased the non-protein nitrogen, total free amino acid, lysine and tryptophan contents. Protein content and dry weight decreased. The oil content decreased significantly after 72 hours of germination. The reducing sugars increased gradually until day 'five' of germination. The saline soluble albumin and globulin fractions decreased while the glutelin content increased during germination. No changes were noticed in the prolamin and methionine contents. PMID:9498696

Balasaraswathi, R; Sadasivam, S

1997-01-01

142

Association of Candidate Genes With Flowering Time and Water-Soluble Carbohydrate Content in Lolium perenne (L.)  

PubMed Central

We describe a candidate gene approach for associating SNPs with variation in flowering time and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content and other quality traits in the temperate forage grass species Lolium perenne. Three analysis methods were used, which took the significant population structure into account. First, a linear mixed model was used enabling a structured association analysis to be incorporated with the nine populations identified in the structure analysis as random variables. Second, a within-population analysis of variance was performed. Third, a tree-scanning method was used, in which haplotype trees were associated with phenotypes on the basis of inferred haplotypes. Analysis of variance within populations identified several associations between WSC, nitrogen (N), and dry matter digestibility with allelic variants within an alkaline invertase candidate gene LpcAI. These associations were only detected in material harvested in one of the two years. By contrast, consistent associations between the L. perenne homolog (LpHD1) of the rice photoperiod control gene HD1 and flowering time were identified. One SNP, in the immediate upstream region of the LpHD1 coding sequence (C-4443-A), was significant in the linear mixed model. Within-population analysis of variance and tree-scanning analysis confirmed and extended this result to the 2118 polymorphisms in some of the populations. The merits of the tree-scanning method are compared to the single SNP analysis. The potential usefulness of the 4443 SNP in marker-assisted selection is currently being evaluated in test crosses of genotypes from this work with turf-grass varieties.

Sk?t, Leif; Humphreys, Jan; Humphreys, Mervyn O.; Thorogood, Danny; Gallagher, Joe; Sanderson, Ruth; Armstead, Ian P.; Thomas, Ian D.

2007-01-01

143

Structure formation in sugar containing pectin gels - influence of tartaric acid content (pH) and cooling rate on the gelation of high-methoxylated pectin.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was the application of a recently published method, using structuring parameters calculated from dG'/dt, for the characterisation of the pectin sugar acid gelation process. The influence of cooling rate and pH on structure formation of HM pectin gels containing 65 wt.% sucrose were investigated. The results show that the structure formation process as well as the properties of the final gels strongly depended on both parameters. With increasing cooling rates from 0.5 to 1.0 K/min the initial structuring temperature slightly decreased and the maximum structuring velocity increased. The lower the cooling rates, the firmer and more elastic were the final gels. With increasing acid content (decreasing pH from 2.5-2.0) the initial structuring temperatures were nearly constant. The final gel properties varied visibly but not systematically. Gels with the lowest and highest pH were less elastic and weaker compared to those with medium acid concentrations. PMID:24099540

Kastner, H; Kern, K; Wilde, R; Berthold, A; Einhorn-Stoll, U; Drusch, S

2014-02-01

144

[Relationships between host preference of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) and nutrient and chlorophyll contents in host foliage].  

PubMed

The laboratory study with no free choice means showed that the host preference of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) adult differed significantly with test plants. Phaseolus vulgaris, Chrysanthemum coronarium and Cucurbita pepo were the most preferred, while Lycopersicum esculenturn and Brassica oleracea were the least. Correlative analysis indicated that the host preference of L. huidobrensis adult had a significant positive correlation with the content of soluble sugar, but less correlation with soluble protein and chlorophyll contents in host foliage. PMID:17552217

Gao, Jun-Ping; Pang, Bao-Ping; Meng, Rui-Xia; Wang, Juan

2007-03-01

145

Characteristics and antioxidant activity of water-soluble Maillard reaction products from interactions in a whey protein isolate and sugars system.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant activities of water-soluble MRPs (Maillard reaction products) from the reactions between whey protein isolate (WPI) and xylose (X), glucose (G), fructose (F), lactose (L), maltose (M) and sucrose (S) at different initial pH values (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). MRPs derived from the WPI-X system with increasing of pH rendered the highest browning, reducing power and DPPH radical-scavenging activity. SDS-PAGE analyses indicated formation of cross-linked proteins of large molecular mass produced from WPI-X systems. Results of FT-IR analysis indicated that the amide I, II and III bands of WPI from the WPI-X and WPI-G systems were changed by the Maillard reaction. CD spectroscopy showed that ?-sheet, ?-turns and random coil were increased while the ?-helix was decreased after the WPI-G and WPI-X system aqueous solutions were heated. In conclusion, MRPs obtained from the WPI-X system had high antioxidant activity. PMID:23561117

Wang, Wen-qiong; Bao, Yi-hong; Chen, Ying

2013-08-15

146

Regulation of plasma 1,25-(OH) 2 -D 3 by phosphate: Evidence against a role for total or acid-soluble renal phosphate content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to evaluate a possible role for tissue phosphate or phosphorylated compounds in mediating the increase in plasma\\u000a 1,25-(OH)2-D3 levels during dietary phosphate deprivation, measurements of total and acid-soluble renal cortical phosphate content have\\u000a been made in both intact and hypophysectomized (hypox) rats eating a normal diet and also after four days of dietary phosphate\\u000a deprivation. Similar measurements were

R. W. Gray; M. L. Haasch; C. E. Brown

1983-01-01

147

Non-destructive tests on the prediction of apple fruit flesh firmness and soluble solids content on tree and in shelf life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic impulse resonance frequency sensor and miniaturized VIS\\/NIR spectrometer were applied on apple fruit Malus domestica ‘Idared’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ (n=800) to predict fruit flesh firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) on tree and in shelf life. Partial least-squares calibration models on acoustic data and VIS spectra of ‘Golden Delicious’\\/‘Idared’ apple fruits on tree were built for predicting the fruit

Manuela Zude; Bernd Herold; Jean-Michel Roger; Veronique Bellon-Maurel; Sandra Landahl

2006-01-01

148

Lactic acid fermentation stimulated iron absorption by Caco-2 cells is associated with increased soluble iron content in carrot juice.  

PubMed

An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model was applied to explore the impact of lactic acid (LA) fermentation by Lactobacillus pentosus FSC1 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides FSC2 on the Fe bioavailability of carrot juice. The redox state of Fe in fermented carrot juice was also assessed as a crucial factor for absorption. LA fermentation was shown to improve mineral solubility to different extents at simulated physiological conditions: Mn (2-fold); Fe (1.5-1.7-fold); Zn (1.2-fold); Cu (1-fold). Soluble Fe2+ was increased about 16-fold by LA fermentation, and about one third of the Fe2+ remained soluble after in vitro digestion (about 4-5-fold higher than in fresh juice). Data on cell-line studies showed a 4-fold increase in the efficiency of Fe uptake, but not in transepithelial transfer by Caco2 cells, as a result of fermentation. The increases in Fe2+ level and the efficiency of cellular Fe uptake were strain-dependent. To sum up the effect on both Fe solubility and cellular uptake efficiency, the amount of cellularly absorbed Fe from Ln. mesenteroides FSC2-fermented juice was about 20 % higher than that from L. pentosus FSC1-fermented juice (22.7 v. 19.2 microg/l juice per mg protein). To conclude, LA fermentation enhanced Fe absorption by Caco-2 cells from carrot juice because of increases in not only Fe solubility after digestion, but also the efficiency of cellular Fe uptake. The fermentation-improved efficiency of Fe uptake was possibly due to the increased level of soluble Fe2+ rather than a being a strain-specific event. PMID:17010230

Bergqvist, Sharon W; Andlid, Thomas; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

2006-10-01

149

Managing your blood sugar  

MedlinePLUS

Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) Plan ...

150

Solubility and agronomic effectiveness of partially acidulated phosphate rocks as influenced by their iron and aluminium oxide content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR) has been shown to be an effective source of P for plants grown on acid soils. Less information in available, however, regarding the effect of the phosphate rock (PR) source on the solubility and agronomic effectiveness of PAPR.

L. L. Hammond; S. H. Chien; A. H. Roy; A. U. Mokwunye

1989-01-01

151

Reaction products of ammonium nitrate phosphate fertilizers of varying water-soluble phosphorus content in different Indian soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken on the isolation and identification of reaction products of ammonium nitrate phosphate (ANP) fertilizers containing 30, 50 and 70 per cent water-soluble phosphorus (WSP) of total phosphorus in representative soils of the vertisol, oxisol, alfisol, entisol, mollisol and aridisol groups of India. ANP fertilizers were applied in solid form to soil, and reaction products formed at and

BM Bhujbal; KB Mistry

1986-01-01

152

Implementation and evaluation of the pulse field gradient technique for the prediction of soluble solids content of fruit juices and soluble solids content and defects in apple tissue using a low frequency proton magnetic resonance sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulsed field gradient technique (PFG) was implemented in a 5.40 MHz $\\\\sp1$H-MR system. A quadrupole coil was used for applying 10 to 15 G\\/cm gradient pulses. The self-diffusion coefficient of water, $\\\\rm D\\\\sb{w},$ and spin-spin relaxation time, T$\\\\sb2,$ were measured in aqueous solutions of citric acid and\\/or Na-citrate buffer. Soluble solids of the solutions ranged from 0% to 16%.

Kevin Michael Keener

1996-01-01

153

Changes in carbohydrate content and related enzyme activity during Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendtn. fruit maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in sugar content and activities of invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) were measured throughout fruit development in tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendtn.). Fruit of C. betacea accumulated predominantly reducing sugars similar to Lycopersicon esculentum and in contrast to sucrose accumulation, which is characteristic of L. peruvianum. Soluble acid invertase, fructose and glucose were localized principally

R. M. Ordóñez; M. A. Vattuone; M. I. Isla

2005-01-01

154

Stable nanocolloids of poorly soluble drugs with high drug content prepared using the combination of sonication and layer-by-layer technology.  

PubMed

Stable nanocolloids of insoluble drugs with very high drug content (up to 90% wt) can be easily and reproducibly prepared through the application of the layer-by-layer (LbL) technology, alternate adsorption of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes on the surface of drug nanoparticles produced by ultrasonication of larger drug crystals. Such polymeric coating prevents drug nanoparticle aggregation and creates a firm polymeric shell on their surface. Drug release rate from such nanocolloidal particles can be easily controlled by assembling multilayer shells with variable shell density and thickness. Various additional functions, such as specific targeting ligands, can be easily attached to the surface on nanocolloidal particles of poorly soluble drugs by using a polymer with free reactive groups for the "outer" coating. This may represent a novel approach to preparing convenient dosage forms of poorly soluble drugs. PMID:18479772

Agarwal, Anshul; Lvov, Yuri; Sawant, Rishikesh; Torchilin, Vladimir

2008-06-24

155

Agroclimatic Zoning of Sugar Beets in Western Siberia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the primary tasks in sugar-beet production is to study the natural resources for the purpose of introducing sugar-beet growing in new areas and to increase the yield and sugar content of the beets. This especially concerns Siberia where sugar beet ...

L. S. Kelchevskaya

1965-01-01

156

Effects of land use and mineral characteristics on the organic carbon content, and the amount and composition of Na-pyrophosphate soluble organic matter in subsurface soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use and mineral characteristics affect the balance of organic carbon in surface as well as in subsurface soils and related feedbacks on soil functions like their potential to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Actually, there are less information about the effects of land use as well as soil properties on the amount and composition of organic matter (OM) for subsurface soils as compared to surface soils. Here we aimed to analyze the long-term impact of arable and forest land use and soil mineral characteristics on subsurface soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, as well as on amount and composition of OM sequentially separated by Na-pyrophosphate solution (OM(PY)) from subsurface soil samples. Seven soils different in mineral characteristics were selected within Germany. Soil samples were taken from subsurface horizons of forest and adjacent arable sites continuously used >100 years. The OM(PY) fractions were analysed on their OC content (OCPY) and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. A distinct influence of the long-term land use on the SOC contents could not be detected because only for four out of seven sites the forest subsurface soils showed larger SOC contents than the adjacent agricultural soils. A generally site independent enhanced OC sequestration in subsurface soils due to differences in land use cannot be expected in the long-term. Multiple regression analyses indicated for the arable subsurface soils significant positive relationships between the SOC contents and combined effects of the i) exchangeable Ca (Caex) and oxalate soluble Fe (Feox), and ii) the Caex and Alox contents. For the arable subsurface soils the increase of OCPY* (OCPY multiplied by the relative C=O content of OM(PY)) by increasing contents of Caex indicated that OM(PY) mainly interacts with Ca2+ cations. For the forest subsurface soils (pH <5), the OCPY contents were found to be related to the contents of Na-pyrophosphate soluble Fe and Al. The long-term arable and forest land use seems to result in different OM(PY)-mineral interactions in subsurfac soils. Based on this we hypothesize that a long-term land use change from arable to forest may lead to a shift from mainly OM(PY)-Ca2+ to mainly OM(PY)-Fe3+ and -Al3+ interactions if the pH of subsurface soils significantly decrease (i.e. <5).

Ellerbrock, R.; Kaiser, M.; Walter, K.; Sommer, M.

2010-12-01

157

Agronomical parameters, sugar profile and antioxidant compounds of "Catherine" peach cultivar influenced by different plum rootstocks.  

PubMed

The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1) on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of "Catherine" peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol) and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC). Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties. PMID:24496242

Font i Forcada, Carolina; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Moreno, María Ángeles

2014-01-01

158

Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of "Catherine" Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks  

PubMed Central

The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1) on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol) and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC). Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

Font i Forcada, Carolina; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Moreno, Maria Angeles

2014-01-01

159

Cloning, localization and expression analysis of vacuolar sugar transporters in the CAM plant Ananas comosus (pineapple)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In photosynthetic tissues of the CAM plant pineapple (Ananas comosus), storage of soluble sugars in the central vacuole during the daytime and their remobil- ization at night is required to provide carbon skeletons for nocturnal CO2 fixation. However, soluble sugars produced photosynthetically must also be exported to support growth processes in heterotrophic tissues. To begin to address how vacuolar sugar

Edna Antony; Tahar Taybi; Mikael Courbot; Sam T. Mugford; J. Andrew; C. Smith; Anne M. Borland

2008-01-01

160

Increased Expression of a Phloem Membrane Protein Encoded by NHL26 Alters Phloem Export and Sugar Partitioning in Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

The complex process of phloem sugar transport involves symplasmic and apoplasmic events. We characterized Arabidopsis thaliana lines ectopically expressing a phloem-specific gene encoding NDR1/HIN1-like26 (NHL26), a putative membrane protein. NHL26 overexpressor plants grew more slowly than wild-type plants, accumulated high levels of carbohydrates in mature leaves, and had a higher shoot biomass, contrasting with slower root growth and a lower seed yield. Similar effects were observed when NHL26 was overexpressed in companion cells, under the control of a companion cell–specific promoter. The soluble sugar content of the phloem sap and sink organs was lower than that in the wild type, providing evidence of a sugar export defect. This was confirmed in a phloem-export assay with the symplastic tracer carboxyfluorescein diacetate. Leaf sugar accumulation was accompanied by higher organic acid, amino acid, and protein contents, whereas analysis of the metabolite profile of phloem sap exudate revealed no change in amino acid or organic acid content, indicating a specific effect on sugar export. NHL26 was found to be located in the phloem plasmodesmata and the endoplasmic reticulum. These findings reveal that NHL26 accumulation affects either the permeability of plasmodesmata or sugar signaling in companion cells, with a specific effect on sugar export.

Vilaine, Francoise; Kerchev, Pavel; Clement, Gilles; Batailler, Brigitte; Cayla, Thibaud; Bill, Laurence; Gissot, Lionel; Dinant, Sylvie

2013-01-01

161

Solubility of Sulfur in Shergottitic Silicate Melts Up to 0.8 GPA: Implications for S Contents of Shergottites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shergottites have high S contents (1300 to 4600 ppm; [1]), but it is unclear if they are sulfide saturated or under-saturated. This issue has fundamental implications for determining the long term S budget of the martian surface and atmosphere (from mantle degassing), as well as evolution of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) Au, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Ir, and Os, since concentrations of the latter are controlled by sulfide stability. Resolution of sulfide saturation depends upon temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity (and FeO), and magma composition [2]. Expressions derived from experimental studies allow prediction of S contents, though so far they are not calibrated for shergottitic liquids [3-5]. We have carried out new experiments designed to test current S saturation models, and then show that existing calibrations are not suitable for high FeO and low Al2O3 compositions characteristic of shergottitic liquids. The new results show that existing models underpredict S contents of sulfide saturated shergottitic liquids by a factor of 2.

Righter, K.; Pando, K.M.; Danielson, L.

2009-01-01

162

Inhibition of bacterial adherence to a high-water-content polymer by a water-soluble, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drug.  

PubMed

Deposition and aggregation of lachrymal proteins on the contact lens surface can promote bacterial adherence. Lysozyme is the major tear protein and is also mainly responsible for the formation of protein deposits on contact lenses. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) prevent protein aggregation. The effect of a water-soluble NSAID drug on bacterial adherence to high-water-content/ionic disposable contact lenses was examined in a radiolabeling study. Dose-related inhibition of adherence of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on both pretreated lenses and after adding the drug to the medium was investigated. When the drug was added to the media, maximal inhibition of S. aureus adherence was observed in trypticase soy broth (59-98% at the lower and higher drug concentrations, respectively); inhibition progressively decreased in calf aqueous humor (48-75%), lysozyme (34-63%), and saline (12-20%) solutions. Inhibition of adherence varied with the three bacterial species; it was maximal with S. aureus, intermediate with S. epidermidis, and minimal with P. aeruginosa. When lenses were pretreated with the drug, consistent, and even higher, inhibitory effects were observed. The results suggest that water-soluble NSAIDs could be used in preventive treatments for conjunctivae and corneal infections in contact lens wearers, and may provide a clue as to which compounds might inhibit protein interaction and bacterial adhesion. PMID:9740000

Arciola, C R; Montanaro, L; Caramazza, R; Sassoli, V; Cavedagna, D

1998-10-01

163

[Reponses of sugar metabolism in seed germination of three various acid-fast plants to acid rain].  

PubMed

Responses of sugar metabolism during germination of rice (O. sativa ), wheat (T. aestivum) and rape (B. chinensis var. oleifera) seeds to simulated acid rain (pH 2.0, pH 2.5, pH 3.0, pH 3.5, pH 4.0, pH 4.5, pH 5.0) were investigated. The purpose was to clarify the mechanism of acid rain affecting seed germination. The results show that the alpha-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar of the rice, wheat and rape seeds decrease with increased stress level (pH 5.0 - 2.0), and are lower than CK. The response order of three indexes to stress level of acid rain is that rice (pH 3.5 - 4.0/53.88% - 77.7%) is smaller than wheat (pH 3.5 - 4.5/58.60% - 89.41%), and rape (pH 4.0 - 5.0/60.14% - 100%) is the smallest, alpha-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar of rice increase with prolonged stress time, but the three indexes of wheat and rape increase at first, and then decrease. In the same stress time (3 - 7 d), the three indexes of the three species for all treatment groups are lower than CK, and decrease with increased stress level. The stress time when the maximum damage of a-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar appeared is that rice (7 d, 7 d, 7 d) > wheat (7 d, 6 d, 5 d) > rape (3 d, 7 d, 5 d). Responses of three indexes to stress level and stress time of acid rain show that the ability of sugar metabolism resisting acid rain is that rice is stronger than wheat and rape is the worst, and the difference in sugar metabolism of 3 species is one of the internal reasons why the germination indexes behave differently. PMID:18649547

Wang, Li-Hong; Zhou, Qing; Zeng, Qing-Ling

2008-03-01

164

Nondestructive quantification of the soluble-solids content and the available acidity of apples by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This research evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to quantify the soluble-solids content (SSC) and the available acidity (VA) in intact apples. Partial least-squares calibration models, obtained from several preprocessing techniques (smoothing, derivative, etc.) in several wave-number ranges were compared. The best models were obtained with the high coefficient determination (r{sup 2}) 0.940 for the SSC and a moderate r{sup 2} of 0.801 for the VA, root-mean-square errors of prediction of 0.272% and 0.053%, and root-mean-square errors of calibration of 0.261% and 0.046%, respectively. The results indicate that the FT-NIR spectroscopy yields good predictions of the SSC and also showed the feasibility of using it to predict the VA of apples.

Ying Yibin; Liu Yande; Tao Yang

2005-09-01

165

[Simultaneous determination of instant coffee, plant fat and sugar content in liquid coffee beverage by diffuse reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy].  

PubMed

The diffuse reflectance near-infrared spectra of 20 liquid coffee beverage samples were collected by FT-NIR spectrometer combined with integral sphere in this thesis. The quantitative calibration models of instant coffee, plant fat and sugar were developed respectively. The result indicated that for the calibration models of instant coffee, plant fat and sugar, the dimensions of the calibration models are 4, 5 and 4 respectively; the determination coefficients (R2) are 98.97%, 99.94% and 99.18% respectively; the root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC) are 1.62, 0.42 and 1.58 respectively; the root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) are 2.12, 0.72 and 2.01 respectively. The result of F-test showed that a very remarkable correlation exists between the estimated and specified values for each calibration model. This research indicated that NIR spectroscopy can be applied in the rapid, accurate and simultaneous determination of the three main ingredients in liquid coffee beverage. This research can provide some references for the quality control of liquid coffee beverage and the determination of the substance with chemical-fixation composition in liquid formula food. PMID:22715767

Wang, Dong; Min, Shun-geng; Duan, Jia; Xiong, Yan-mei; Li, Qian-qian

2012-04-01

166

Analysis of the water-soluble organic content of submicron aerosols formed from the in-situ replication of marine bubble bursting processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both primary and secondary ocean-derived aerosols contribute significantly to the global aerosol population and thus to the Earth’s radiative budget. Primary marine aerosols are generated from sea spray. These primary marine aerosols contain sea salt as well as organic and inorganic matter from ocean biota incorporated into the aerosol during bubble-bursting processes near the ocean’s surface. Identifying and quantifying the sources and composition of the organic content in submicron primary marine aerosols will help in determining and modeling its climate impact related to aerosol direct radiative forcing and cloud nucleating properties. Onboard the RV Atlantis during the recent CalNex 2010 field mission, an attempt was made to measure in-situ the aerosols formed from bubble bursting processes in the ocean by bubbling particle-free air into the ocean through stainless steel frits. The resulting submicron aerosol samples were collected using a 2-stage impactor. Additionally, particulate organic carbon seawater samples representative of the local ocean water were collected. Both the seawater and simulated primary marine aerosol samples were analyzed for their water soluble organic content using liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The results were compared to gain knowledge about the direct transfer of organic matter from the ocean to the atmosphere. Ambient submicron aerosol samples were also collected throughout the research cruise and analyzed. Specific compounds targeted were carbohydrates, organic acids, and amines. Results from the analysis of seawater, aerosol generated from bubbled seawater, and ambient aerosol samples will be presented.

Dewitt, H.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Coffman, D. J.; Schulz, K.

2010-12-01

167

Soluble inhibitors\\/deactivators of cellulase enzymes from lignocellulosic biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid hot water, steam explosion, and dilute acid pretreatments of lignocellulose generate soluble inhibitors which hamper enzymatic hydrolysis as well as fermentation of sugars to ethanol. Toxic and inhibitory compounds will vary with pretreatment and include soluble sugars, furan derivatives (hydroxymethyl fulfural, furfural), organic acids (acetic, formic and, levulinic acid), and phenolic compounds. Their effect is seen when an increase

Youngmi Kim; Eduardo Ximenes; Nathan S. Mosier; Michael R. Ladisch

2011-01-01

168

Added Sugars  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: You can enter up to 10 e-mail addresses (separate with commas): * Send to: * Your e-mail: E-mail a copy to myself The information used on

169

What Variables Affect Solubility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

2003-01-01

170

Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products  

PubMed Central

Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was a general assumption that sweeteners and other ingredients would be added in place of sugars. However, there was little awareness of the level of sugar reduction and the associated calorie reduction in products when reduced sugars claims were made on pack. In focus groups, participants felt deceived if sugar reduction claims were being made without a significant reduction in calories. This was reinforced in the quantitative research which showed that respondents expected a similar and meaningful level of calorie reduction to the level of sugar reduction. The research also identified consumer confusion around the calorie content of different nutrients, including over-estimation of the calorie content of sugars. This is crucial to consumers' expectations as they clearly link sugar to calories and therefore expect a reduction in sugar content to deliver a reduction in calorie content.

Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

2012-01-01

171

Integrating alkaline extraction of proteins with enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose from wet distiller's grains and solubles.  

PubMed

Fractionation of distiller's grains into value added products may serve to improve the economic viability of dry grind corn ethanol facilities in the wake of variable corn and ethanol prices. This research is aimed at creating a high protein, high lysine product from the grain using alkaline protein extractions in conjunction with hydrolysis of the remaining fiber to sugars which are then fermented to ethanol. Alkaline extractions improved the lysine content in protein products, although protein solubility did not exceed 45% of the total protein. In addition, oligomeric carbohydrates, starch, and other water solubles were also extracted, leading to a low purity protein product. Resulting sugar yields following ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment were also lower for extracted distiller's grains. From these experiments, it does not appear likely that alkaline extraction is a useful tool for fractionation of distiller's grains. However, pretreatment and hydrolysis can be an effective tool for further fractionation of protein. PMID:19620002

Bals, Bryan; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce

2009-12-01

172

Hyperactivity and sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ... Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), ... and other behavior problems in children. They argue ...

173

Home blood sugar testing  

MedlinePLUS

Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. And some people need to check ...

174

High blood sugar  

MedlinePLUS

High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

175

Hydrophobic sugar holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

2008-03-01

176

Dietary fibre, sugar, starch and amino acid content of kale, ryegrass and seed of rape and field beans as influenced by S- and N-fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pot experiments, S-deficiency decreased the seed weight of rape from 4.30 to 2.44 g\\/1000 seeds at highest N-level. N\\/S ratios varied from 5.8 to 45.0 and from 3.7 to 21.6 in ryegrass and kale. S-deficiency tended to decrease the fat(oil) content. In kale and ryegrass, it was increased by N-applications, but decreased in rape. S-deficiency had very little effect

W. H. Eppendorfer; B. O. Eggum

1992-01-01

177

CONTENTS OF SOLUBLE, CELL-WALL-BOUND AND EXUDED PHLOROTANNINS IN THE BROWN ALGA Fucus vesiculosus , WITH IMPLICATIONS ON THEIR ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phlorotannins are ubiquitous secondary metabolites in brown algae that are phenotypically plastic and suggested to have multiple ecological roles. Traditionally, phlorotannins have been quantified as total soluble phlorotannins. Here, we modify a quantification procedure to measure, for the first time, the amount of cell-wall-bound phlorotannins. We also optimize the quantification of soluble phlorotannins. We use these methods to study the

RIITTA KOIVIKKO; JYRKI LOPONEN; TUIJA HONKANEN; VEIJO JORMALAINEN

2005-01-01

178

Sugar and Salt Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when sugar and salt are added to water? Pour in sugar, shake in salt, and evaporate water to see the effects on concentration and conductivity. Zoom in to see how different sugar and salt compounds dissolve. Zoom in again to explore the role of water.

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Reid, Sam; Moore, Emily; Chamberlain, Julia; Loeblein, Trish

2011-10-12

179

Storage Requirements for Sugar Maple Seeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2 and -10C) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significant...

C. M. Carl H. W. Yawney

1974-01-01

180

Interactive effects of phytase and xylanase supplementation with extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn in diets with adequate calcium and nonphytate phosphorus fed to broilers.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine the effects of extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn (PS) and exogenous enzyme supplementation on N, starch, and energy digestibility in broilers fed diets adequate in Ca and nonphytate P. Broilers were randomly distributed into floor pens (6 replicate pens per treatment) with 28 birds per pen at 1 d of age. Treatments consisting of 4 sources of corn varying in PS (A, 58.1; B, 54.2; C, 53.7; and D, 30.6 mg of BSA equivalent values) with or without phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg) and xylanase (0 and 16,000 units of xylanase activity/kg) were randomly assigned to each pen. Different sources of corn were provided from 1 to 9 and 24 to 29 d of age. However, enzyme treatments were provided throughout the experiment. From 1 to 9 d of age, no interactions were observed. Apparent ileal N digestibility (AIND) and apparent ileal digestible energy (IDE) of diets with the lowest PS (based on corn D) were lower (P ? 0.05) than those of diets with a higher PS. Phytase increased (P ? 0.01) AIND and IDE by 5 and 16%, respectively, and xylanase exerted the opposite effect (P ? 0.03). From 24 to 29 d of age, phytase and xylanase in combination resulted in reduced (P ? 0.05) AIND of diets with a low PS (based on corn D) compared with the basal diet in broilers. Broilers fed diets with the highest or lowest PS (based on corn A or D) had lower (3-way interaction; P ? 0.05) IDE when phytase and xylanase were supplemented in combination compared with either enzyme alone. In conclusion, responses to exogenous enzyme supplementation are not constant and are influenced by the source of ingredients as well as the age of broilers. The magnitudes of the responses to phytase on nutrient and energy digestibility were greater at 9 compared with 29 d of age. PMID:23776274

Gehring, C K; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

2013-07-01

181

Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it.  

PubMed

The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ in comparison to white grape juice (WGJ) sugars. Whole PJ decreased cellular peroxide levels in J774A.1 macrophage cell-line by 23% more than PJ polyphenol fraction alone. Thus, we next determined the contribution of the PJ sugar fraction to the decrease in macrophage oxidative state. Increasing concentrations of the PJ sugar fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrement in macrophage peroxide levels, up to 72%, compared to control cells. On the contrary, incubation of the cells with WGJ sugar fraction at the same concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent increment in peroxide levels by up to 37%. The two sugar fractions from PJ and from WGJ showed opposite effects (antioxidant for PJ and pro-oxidant for WGJ) also in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) from control as well as from streptozotocin-induced diabetic Balb/C mice. PJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice for 10 days resulted in a small but significant decrement in their peritoneal macrophage total peroxide levels and an increment in cellular glutathione content, compared to MPM harvested from control diabetic mice administrated with water. In contrast, WGJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice resulted in a 22% increment in macrophage total peroxide levels and a 45% decrement in cellular glutathione content. Paraoxonase 2 activity in macrophages increases under oxidative stress conditions. Indeed, macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity was decreased after PJ sugars supplementation, but increased after WGJ sugars supplementation. We conclude that PJ sugar fraction, unlike WGJ sugar fraction, decreases macrophage oxidative state under normal and under diabetic conditions. These antioxidant/antiatherogenic effects could be due to the presence of unique complex sugars and/or phenolic sugars in PJ. PMID:16332370

Rozenberg, Orit; Howell, Amy; Aviram, Michael

2006-09-01

182

Sugar regulation of harvest-related genes in asparagus.  

PubMed Central

The signals controlling the abundance of transcripts up-regulated (pTIP27, pTIP31, and pTIP32) or down-regulated (pTIP20 and pTIP21) after harvest in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears were examined. pTIP27 and pTIP31 are known to encode asparagine synthetase (AS) and a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) homolog, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of pTIP20, pTIP21, and pTIP32 were determined, and they encode histone 3, histone 2B, and an unknown product, respectively. Changes in respiration, soluble sugars, and abundance of the five mRNAs were similar in the tips stored as 30-mm lengths or as part of 180-mm spears. We previously hypothesized that sugars may regulate the level of AS transcripts in asparagus tissue. Asparagus cell cultures were used to test the role of sugar status may regulate the level of AS transcripts in asparagus tissue. Asparagus cell cultures were used to test the role of sugar status in regulating gene expression. Transcript abundance for AS, beta-gal, and pTIP32 was low in cells in sugar-containing medium but increased within 12 h after transferring cells to a sugar-free medium. Histone 3 and histone 2B transcripts were, in general, abundant in cells on sugar-containing medium but declined in abundance when transferred to sugar-free medium. When cells were returned to sugar-containing medium the abundance of transcripts for histone 3 and histone 2B increased, whereas that for AS, beta-gal, and pTIP32 decreased. Soluble sugar levels are known to decline rapidly in the tips of harvested spears. Metabolic regulation by sugar status may have a major influence on gene expression in asparagus spears and other tissue after harvest.

Davies, K M; Seelye, J F; Irving, D E; Borst, W M; Hurst, P L; King, G A

1996-01-01

183

9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 317.360 Section 317...360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product...

2009-01-01

184

21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. 101.60 Section... Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may...

2010-04-01

185

21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. 101.60 Section... Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may...

2013-04-01

186

21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. 101.60 Section... Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may...

2009-04-01

187

9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 317.360 Section 317...360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product...

2010-01-01

188

9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 381.460 Section 381...460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product...

2010-01-01

189

9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 381.460 Section 381...460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product...

2009-01-01

190

Controlling ammonia volatilization from urea surface applied to sugar beet on a calcareous soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of ammonia (NH3) volatilization from surface?applied urea to sugar beet and effects of NBPT [N?(n?butyl) thiophosphoric triamide] PG (phosphogypsum), PR (by?product?pyrite) and KCl (potassium chloride) on NH3 volatilization, nitrogen (N) content of leaf blades and petioles, sugar, amine N, and refined sugar contents, and root and refined sugar yields were determined in the field. Total NH3 loss varied

Fethi Bayrakli; Sait Gezgin

1996-01-01

191

Solubility Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

192

Sugar Crystal Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on surface area and how the shape of sugar crystals may differ as they are grown from sugars of different coarseness. Learners explore surface area, nanostructures, and work in teams and participate in hands-on activities. Safety: need an adult to handle the very hot water.

Ieee

2013-02-25

193

Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.  

PubMed

Synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. The objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. Sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arthropod pests. Dosage-mortality studies were conducted on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) on pear, tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) Blackman and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta [Johannson]) on tobacco, and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on apple in laboratory bioassays. These sugar esters were compared with insecticidal soap (M-Pede, Dow AgroSciences L.L.C., San Diego, CA), to determine how toxicologically similar these materials were against the arthropod pests. Substitutions in either the sugar or fatty acid component led to significant changes in the physical properties and insecticidal activity of these compounds. The sugar esters varied in their solubility in water and in emulsion stability, yet, droplet spread upon pear leaves occurred at low concentrations of 80-160 ppm and was strongly correlated with psylla mortalities (R2 = 0.73). Sequentially altering the sugar or fatty acid components from lower to higher numbers of carbon chains, or whether the sugar was a monosaccharide or disaccharide did not follow a predictable relationship to insecticidal activity. Intuitively, changing the hydrophile from sorbitol (C6) to xylitol (C5) would require a decrease in lipophile chain length to maintain hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) relationships, yet an increase in lipophile chain length was unexpectedly needed for increasing insecticidal activity. Thus, the HLB of these materials did not correlate with pear psylla mortalities. Initial insect bioassays and dosage-mortality data found significant differences among sugar ester compounds' toxicity to the range of arthropod species. Sucrose octanoate high in monoester content had the highest activity against the range of arthropod pests at low concentrations of 1200-2400 ppm. No single chemical structure for the xylitol or sorbitol esters were optimally effective against the range of arthropods we tested and sorbitol octanoate and xylitol decanoate had the highest insecticidal activity of this group. All of the sugar ester materials produced high T. urticae mortalities on apple at very low concentrations of 400 ppm. Overall, most of the sugar esters that were examined had superior insecticidal activity compared with insecticidal soap. Sugar ester chemistry offers a unique opportunity to design an insecticide or miticide specific to certain arthropod pests which would be valuable in crop integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Sucrose esters are currently used as additives in the food industry which makes them especially attractive as safe and effective insecticides. PMID:12852599

Puterka, Gary J; Farone, William; Palmer, Tracy; Barrington, Anthony

2003-06-01

194

Acid-catalyzed conversion of mono- and poly-sugars into platform chemicals: effects of molecular structure of sugar substrate.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis/pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass always produces a mixture of sugars with distinct structures as intermediates or products. This study tried to elucidate the effects of molecular structure of sugars on their acid-catalyzed conversions in ethanol/water. Location of carbonyl group in sugars (fructose versus glucose) and steric configuration of hydroxyl groups (glucose versus galactose) significantly affected yields of levulinic acid/ester (fructose>glucose>galactose). The dehydration of fructose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural produces much less soluble polymer than that from glucose and galactose, which results in high yields of levulinic acid/ester from fructose. Anhydrate sugar such as levoglucosan tends to undergo the undesirable decomposition to form less levulinic acid/ester. Catalytic behaviors of the poly-sugars (sucrose, maltose, raffinose, ?-cyclodextrins) were determined much by their basic units. However, their big molecular sizes create the steric hindrance that significantly affects their followed conversion over solid acid catalyst. PMID:23454803

Hu, Xun; Wu, Liping; Wang, Yi; Song, Yao; Mourant, Daniel; Gunawan, Richard; Gholizadeh, Mortaza; Li, Chun-Zhu

2013-04-01

195

CPPU elevates photosynthetic abilities, growth performances and yield traits in salt stressed rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica) via free proline and sugar accumulation.  

PubMed

Application of N-2-(chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenyl urea (CPPU) to salt susceptible cultivar of indica rice (cv. PTT1) effected on free proline and soluble sugar accumulation and regulated the physio-morphological responses when subjected to salt stress condition was firstly demonstrated in this study. Soluble sugars, including sucrose, glucose and fructose, in leaf blade and leaf sheath were enriched in 0.1 mM CPPU pretreated plants subsequently exposed to 16.6 dS m(-1) NaCl for 10 days. In the long period (15 days) salt stress, free proline content in the leaf blade and leaf sheath were evidently peaked to act as osmotic adjustment in the salt-stressed plants. In addition, the photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids, were maintained by the functional regulation of soluble sugar and free proline in the cellular levels, thereby leading to higher net photosynthetic rate. Further, the stomatal closure and transpiration rate in CPPU pretreated plants were retained under salt stress, thereby resulting in alleviation of growth performance and yield traits. This study suggested that exogenous application of CPPU may alternatively play effective role to improve the salt tolerant abilities of salt susceptible rice crop. PMID:24485312

Gashaw, Arega; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

2014-01-01

196

Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame  

MedlinePLUS

... sugar substitute. It is a combination of 2 amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 220 ... bodies are unable to metabolize one of the amino acids in aspartame, phenylalanine. Benefits of aspartame Does not ...

197

5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

198

Maufacture of raw cane sugar  

SciTech Connect

Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

199

Enhanced drought resistance in fructan-producing sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructans are soluble polymers of fructose that are produced by approximately 15 % of the flowering plant species. Production of bacterial fructans in tobacco has been shown previously to lead to improved biomass production under polyethylene glycol-mediated drought stress. Here, we used the same SacB gene from Bacillus subtilis to produce bacterial fructans in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The transgenic

Norman Terry; Tobin Sears; Kees van Dun

1999-01-01

200

Studies of sugar composition and starch morphology of baked sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).  

PubMed

Sugar composition of seven sweet potato cultivars was successfully analyzed. Fresh CYY95-26 sweet potatoes had the highest (8.41%) total sugar content while TNG73 had the lowest (4.5%). For these fresh sweet potatoes, maltose content was very low (0?~?0.39%). Because 49.92?~?92.43% of total sugars were sucrose, sucrose was the major sugar composition of fresh sweet potatoes. After the baking treatment, the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes was dramatically increased due to the formation of maltose. The maltose content significantly increased from 0?~?0.39% to 8.81?~?13.97% on dry weight basis. Therefore, maltose should be included in calculating the total sugar content. Electronic micrographs of fresh sweet potato samples showed that the size of starch granules was generally less than 20 ?m. After the baking treatment, starch granules completely gelatinized. PMID:24426034

Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lien, Ching-Yi; Liao, Wayne C

2013-12-01

201

Cell walls of Coccidioides immitis: neutral sugars of aqueous alkaline extract polymers.  

PubMed

The neutral sugar components of hydrolysates of the alkali-soluble and -insoluble fractions of an acid-extracted Coccidioides immitis mycelial cell wall preparation were examined by gas-liquid chromatography. The alkali-soluble fraction was separated into a neutral water-soluble (46% carbohydrate) and a neutral water-insoluble fraction (6% carbohydrate). Glucose was the major neutral sugar constituent of all fractions. Mannose appeared to be a second major component of the alkali-soluble, water-soluble fraction. 3-O-methylmannose was absent. Small amounts of other sugars, including galactose and pentoses, were tentatively identified. Borohydride reduction before alkaline extraction resulted in retention of almost half of the glucose and variable amounts of other components in the alkaline residue, indicating that solubilization of cell wall polymers by alkaline extraction results in significant degradation of the native cell wall polymers. PMID:832908

Wheat, R; Scheer, E

1977-01-01

202

Moisture solubility for differently conditioned transformer oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to monitor the moisture content of transformer oil in a transformer. One parameter of particular interest is the moisture solubility of transformer oil. It has been reported that transformer oils under different conditions have different solubility. Measurements of solubility for four different types of conditioned oil are presented in this paper: fresh Shell Diala AX oil, lab-aged

Y. DUI; A. V. Mamishev; B. C. Lesieutre; M. Zahn; S. H. Kang

2001-01-01

203

Recovery and characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins. Effect of defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment on solubility, digestibility, amino acid composition and sapogenin content.  

PubMed

In order to find alternative protein sources in African regions where protein deficiency in nutrition is prevailing, solubility, in-vitro digestibility, amino acid composition and chemical score of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins were investigated as a function of different processing steps including defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment. Air classification delivered a fine fraction of 58.1% of the total protein. Applying a wet sieving process, a protein concentrate of 72.9% protein content was achieved but the recovery was very low (35.6%). However, in case of isoelectric precipitation followed by aqueous ethanol treatment both protein content (78.2%) and recovery (53.7%) were high. Data concerning the chemical score revealed, that lysine content of the defatted kernel flour amounted to 74.2% of the recommended FAO/WHO standard level. In-vitro protein digestibility was found to be higher than of legume proteins. The digestible protein of the full fat flour, defatted flour, air classified and wet sieved fine fractions and protein concentrate were 91.9, 93.7, 82.0, 86.4 and 94.2%, respectively. The sapogenin content per 100 g protein of the investigated protein preparations was significantly lower (46% to 62%) than of the initial material (oilcake). PMID:10702992

Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E

2000-02-01

204

Aluminium reduces sugar uptake in tobacco cell cultures: a potential cause of inhibited elongation but not of toxicity  

PubMed Central

Aluminium is well known to inhibit plant elongation, but the role in this inhibition played by water relations remains unclear. To investigate this, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells (line SL) was used, treating them with aluminium (50 ?M) in a medium containing calcium, sucrose, and MES (pH 5.0). Over an 18 h treatment period, aluminium inhibited the increase in fresh weight almost completely and decreased cellular osmolality and internal soluble sugar content substantially; however, aluminium did not affect the concentrations of major inorganic ions. In aluminium-treated cultures, fresh weight, soluble sugar content, and osmolality decreased over the first 6 h and remained constant thereafter, contrasting with their continued increases in the untreated cultures. The rate of sucrose uptake, measured by radio-tracer, was reduced by approximately 60% within 3 h of treatment. Aluminium also inhibited glucose uptake. In an aluminium-tolerant cell line (ALT301) isogenic to SL, all of the above-mentioned changes in water relations occurred and tolerance emerged only after 6 h and appeared to involve the suppression of reactive oxygen species. Further separating the effects of aluminium on elongation and cell survival, sucrose starvation for 18 h inhibited elongation and caused similar changes in cellular osmolality but stimulated the production of neither reactive oxygen species nor callose and did not cause cell death. We propose that the inhibition of sucrose uptake is a mechanism whereby aluminium inhibits elongation, but does not account for the induction of cell death.

Abdel-Basset, Refat; Ozuka, Shotaro; Demiral, Tijen; Furuichi, Takuya; Sawatani, Ikuo; Baskin, Tobias I.; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko

2010-01-01

205

Water Solubility Enhancement Effects of Some Polychlorinated Organic Pollutants by Dissolved Organic Carbon from a Soil with a Higher Organic Carbon Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the role of a soil humic acid (HA) in the transport of polychlorinated organic pollutants (PCOPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and coplanar-polychlorinated biphenyls, their partition coefficients (Kdoc) into an HA were compared with their adsorption coefficients (KOC) for a soil with a higher organic carbon (OC) content. The soil sample (ando soil) used in the present

Masami Fukushima; Yasuaki Tanabe; Hikaru Yabuta; Fumiko Tanaka; Hiroyasu Ichikawa; Kenji Tatsumi; Akira Watanabe

2006-01-01

206

Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels  

MedlinePLUS

... sick days gain a better understanding of the impact of food, exercise, and medications on the blood sugar levels When and How Often How often you should test your child's blood sugar levels each day — and ...

207

Combination of sugar analysis and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to detect the use of artificial sugars in royal jelly production.  

PubMed

The effects of feeding bees artificial sugars and/or proteins on the sugar compositions and (13)C isotopic measurements of royal jellies (RJs) were evaluated. The sugars fed to the bees were two C4 sugars (cane sugar and maize hydrolysate), two C3 sugars (sugar beet, cereal starch hydrolysate), and honey. The proteins fed to them were pollen, soybean, and yeast powder proteins. To evaluate the influence of the sugar and/or protein feeding over time, samples were collected during six consecutive harvests. (13)C isotopic ratio measurements of natural RJs gave values of around -25 ‰, which were also seen for RJs obtained when the bees were fed honey or C3 sugars. However, the RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane sugar or corn hydrolysate (regardless of whether they were also fed proteins) gave values of up to -17 ‰. Sugar content analysis revealed that the composition of maltose, maltotriose, sucrose, and erlose varied significantly over time in accordance with the composition of the syrup fed to the bees. When corn and cereal starch hydrolysates were fed to the bees, the maltose and maltotriose contents of the RJs increased up to 5.0 and 1.3 %, respectively, compared to the levels seen in authentic samples (i.e., samples obtained when the bees were fed natural food: honey and pollen) that were inferior to 0.2% and not detected, respectively. The sucrose and erlose contents of natural RJs were around 0.2 %, whereas those in RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane or beet sugar were as much as 4.0 and 1.3 %, respectively. The combination of sugar analysis and (13)C isotopic ratio measurements represents a very efficient analytical methodology for detecting (from early harvests onward) the use of C4 and C3 artificial sugars in the production of RJ. PMID:22451177

Wytrychowski, Marine; Daniele, Gaëlle; Casabianca, Hervé

2012-05-01

208

The Maple Sugar Festival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

Johnston, Basil

1978-01-01

209

Sugar Cane Magic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

Mower, Nancy Alpert

210

Soluble and insoluble plant fiber in selected cereals and vegetables?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain soluble plant fibers have hypocholesterolemic effects. However, infor- mation about soluble fibers of most foods is not available. A modification of Southgate's method was used to separate plant fiber into soluble and insoluble fractions. Both fractions were hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid or trifluoracetic acid. Comparison of these two hydrolysis methods was discussed. The hydrolyzed sugars were measured by

Wen-Ju Lin Chen; James W. Anderson

211

Added versus accumulated sugars on color development and acrylamide formation in french-fried potato strips.  

PubMed

Added (glucose addition) versus accumulated (in situ sugar development via cold-temperature storage) sugar treatments were investigated in relation to acrylamide formation within fried potato strips at standardized levels of finish-fried color (Agtron color scores ranged from 36 to 84). The added sugar treatment exhibited a relatively reduced rate of acrylamide formation and generally possessed a lower and less variable acrylamide content (61-1290 ng/g) than the accumulated sugar scheme (61-2191 ng/g). In a subsequent experiment, added fructose applied to strip surfaces via dipping prior to frying favored acrylamide formation over color development relative to added glucose, for which the reverse trend was observed. Thus, where acrylamide differences were noted between added and accumulated sugar treatments (given equivalent Agtron color scores), this result was likely aided by the relative higher fructose content in strips of the accumulated sugar scheme rather than simply a greater relative concentration of total reducing sugars. PMID:22881236

Higley, Jeremy; Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C; Smith, Gordon

2012-09-01

212

Accumulation of the hydroxyl free radical markers meta-, ortho-tyrosine and DOPA in cataractous lenses is accompanied by a lower protein and phenylalanine content of the water-soluble phase.  

PubMed

Post-translational modifications of lens proteins play a crucial role in the formation of cataract during ageing. The aim of our study was to analyze protein composition of the cataractous lenses by electrophoretic and high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods. Samples were obtained after extracapsular cataract surgery performed by phacoemulsification technique from cataract patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM CAT, n = 22) and cataract patients without diabetes (non-DM CAT, n = 20), while non-diabetic non-cataractous lenses obtained from cadaver eyes served as controls (CONTR, n = 17). Lens fragments were derived from the surgical medium by centrifugation. Samples were homogenized in a buffered medium containing protease inhibitor. Soluble and insoluble protein fractions were separated by centrifugation. The electrophoretic studies were performed according to Laemmli on equal amounts of proteins and were followed by silver intensification. Oxidized amino acid and Phe content of the samples were also analyzed by HPLC following acid hydrolysis of proteins. Our results showed that soluble proteins represented a significantly lower portion of the total protein content in cataractous lenses in comparison with the control group (CONTR, 71.25%; non-DM CAT, 32.00%; DM CAT, 33.15%; p < 0.05 vs CONTR for both). Among the proteins, the crystallin-like proteins with low-molecular weight can be found both in the soluble and insoluble fractions, and high-molecular weight aggregates were found mainly in the total homogenates. In our HPLC analysis, oxidatively modified derivatives of phenylalanine were detected in cataractous samples. We found higher levels of m-Tyr, o-Tyr and DOPA in the total homogenates of cataractous samples compared to the supernatants. In all three groups, the median Phe/protein ratio of the total homogenates was also higher than that of the supernatants (total homogenates vs supernatants, in the CONTR group 1102 vs 633 micromol/g, in the DM CAT group 1187 vs 382 micromol/g and in the non-DM CAT group 967 vs 252 micromol/g; p < 0.05 for all). In our study we found that oxidized amino acids accumulate in cataractous lenses, regardless of the origin of the cataract. The accumulation of the oxidized amino acids probably results from oxidation of Phe residues of the non-water soluble lens proteins. We found the presence of high-molecular weight protein aggregates in cataractous total homogenates, and a decrease of protein concentration in the water-soluble phase of cataractous lenses. The oxidation of lens proteins and the oxidative modification of Phe residues in key positions may lead to an altered interaction between protein and water molecules and thus contribute to lens opacification. PMID:16298866

Molnár, Gergo A; Nemes, Vanda; Biró, Zsolt; Ludány, Andrea; Wagner, Zoltán; Wittmann, István

2005-12-01

213

High Blood Sugar (in Type 1 Diabetes)  

MedlinePLUS

... Control and Management / High Blood Sugar High Blood Sugar Definition and Symptoms High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, ... PDF version > What to Do About High Blood Sugar Levels The following recommendations are general treatments for ...

214

Purification and characterization of a soluble ?-1,4-glucan from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)-cultured cells dehabituated to dichlobenil.  

PubMed

Bean cells habituated to grow in the presence of dichlobenil exhibited reduced cellulose and hemicellulose content and an increase in pectic polysaccharides. Furthermore, following the extraction of pectins and hemicelluloses, a large amount of neutral sugars was released. These sugars were found to be part of a soluble ?-1,4-glucan in a preliminary characterization, as reported by Encina et al. (Physiol Plant 114:182-191, 2002). When habituated cells were subcultured in the absence of the herbicide (dehabituated cells), the release of neutral sugars after the extraction of pectins and hemicelluloses was maintained. In this study, we have isolated a soluble ?-1,4-glucan from dehabituated cells by sonication of the wall residue (cellulose fraction) remaining after fractionation. Gel filtration chromatography revealed that its average molecular size was 14 kDa. Digestion of the sample with endocellulase revealed the presence of cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose. Methylation analysis showed that 4-linked glucose was the most abundant sugar residue, but 4,6-linked glucose, terminal arabinose and 4-linked galactose for xyloglucan, and arabinogalactan were also identified. NMR analysis showed that this 1,4-glucan may be composed of various kinds of substitutions along the glucan backbone together with acetyl groups linked to the OH group of sugar residues. Thus, despite its relatively high molecular mass, the ?-glucan remains soluble because of its unique configuration. This is the first time that a glucan with such characteristics has been isolated and described. The discovery of new molecules, as this ?-glucan with unique features, may help understand the composition and arrangement of the polymers within plant cell walls, contributing to a better understanding of this complex structure. PMID:23455460

Alonso-Simón, Ana; Encina, Antonio E; Seyama, Tomoko; Kondo, Tetsuo; García-Angulo, Penélope; Álvarez, Jesús M; Acebes, Jose L; Hayashi, Takahisa

2013-06-01

215

Hydrogen Bonding between Sugar and Protein Is Responsible for Inhibition of Dehydration-Induced Protein Unfolding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the interaction responsible for the inhibition of protein unfolding and subsequent damage by sugars during dehydration is unclear. The relationship between sample moisture content measured by coulometric Karl Fischer titration and the apparent moisture content predicted by the area of the protein side chain carboxylate band at approximately 1580 cm?1in infrared spectra of dried protein–sugar samples was

S. Dean Allison; Byeong Chang; Theodore W. Randolph; John F. Carpenter

1999-01-01

216

Effect of ozone on permeability of leaves to sugar and subsequent metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young citrus plants exposed to low levels of ozone (0.15-0.25 ppm) for eight hours a day, 5 days a week did not exhibit typical ozone damage symptoms for the first several weeks. However, before damage did occur noticeable differences in sugar metabolism were observed. Reducing sugar content of the leaves was increased and starch content decreased by several fold. Leaf

W. M. Dugger; J. Koukol; R. I. Palmer

1965-01-01

217

Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2005-11-15

218

Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.  

PubMed

The waste materials from the carob processing industry are a potential resource for second-generation bioethanol production. These by-products are small carob kibbles with a high content of soluble sugars (45-50%). Batch and fed-batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations of high density sugar from carob pods were analyzed in terms of the kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition. In all the batch runs, 90-95% of the total sugar was consumed and transformed into ethanol with a yield close to the theoretical maximum (0.47-0.50 g/g), and a final ethanol concentration of 100-110 g/l. In fed-batch runs, fresh carob extract was added when glucose had been consumed. This addition and the subsequent decrease of ethanol concentrations by dilution increased the final ethanol production up to 130 g/l. It seems that invertase activity and yeast tolerance to ethanol are the main factors to be controlled in carob fermentations. The efficiency of highly concentrated carob fermentation makes it a very promising process for use in a second-generation ethanol biorefinery. PMID:22270889

Lima-Costa, Maria Emília; Tavares, Catarina; Raposo, Sara; Rodrigues, Brígida; Peinado, José M

2012-05-01

219

Salicylic acid-independent induction of pathogenesis-related protein transcripts by sugars is dependent on leaf developmental stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble sugars have been found to regulate a number of genes involved in functions associated with sink metabolism, defense reactions and photosynthesis. As viruses and pathogens induce the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes and have also been reported to lead to localized sugar accumulation in leaves, it was investigated whether a salicylic acid-independent but sugar-dependent pathway for PR-protein gene

Karin Herbers; Philippe Meuwly; Jean-Pierre Métraux; Uwe Sonnewald

1996-01-01

220

Sugar Cube Karst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to explore the way water moves through a porous, soluble substance and to observe the development of pits and channels as the substance dissolves in water. Students learn what karst is and how it is formed.

Mieras, Barb

221

Sugar production from barley straw biomass pretreated by combined alkali and enzymatic extrusion.  

PubMed

A pretreatment that combines a thermo-mechanical process (extrusion) with chemical and biological catalysts to produce fermentable sugars from barley straw (BS) biomass was investigated. BS was firstly extruded with alkali and then, the pretreated material (extrudate) was submitted to extrusion with hydrolytic enzymes (bioextrusion). The bioextrudate was found to have 35% (w/wdwb) of total solids in soluble form, partly coming from carbohydrate hydrolysis during bioextrusion. About 48% of soluble solids dry weight is comprised by sugars, mostly glucose and xylose. Further enzymatic hydrolysis of bioextrudate could be successfully carried out at high solid loading level of 30% (w/v), with sugar production yield of 32g glucose and 18g xylose/100g bioextrudate at 72h incubation (equivalent to 96 and 52g/l concentration, respectively). These results, together with the high level of integration of the process, indicate a great potential of this pretreatment technology for sugar production from lignocellulosic substrates. PMID:24607463

Duque, A; Manzanares, P; Ballesteros, I; Negro, M J; Oliva, J M; González, A; Ballesteros, M

2014-04-01

222

Review Of The Sugar End Disorder In Potato ( Solanum tuberosum , L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing quality has become increasingly important to the potato industry. A serious defect in product quality is the physiological\\u000a disorder known as sugar ends, also referred to as dark ends, jelly ends, translucent ends, and\\/or glassy ends. Symptoms of\\u000a the most common type of sugar end include relatively low starch and high sugar content in the basal end of the

Asunta L. Thompson; Stephen L. Love; Joseph R. Sowokinos; Michael K. Thornton; Clinton C. Shock

2008-01-01

223

"Clicked" Sugar-Curcumin Conjugate: Modulator of Amyloid-? and Tau Peptide Aggregation at Ultralow Concentrations  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of a water/plasma soluble, noncytotoxic, “clicked” sugar-derivative of curcumin with amplified bioefficacy in modulating amyloid-? and tau peptide aggregation is presented. Curcumin inhibits amyloid-? and tau peptide aggregation at micromolar concentrations; the sugar–curcumin conjugate inhibits A? and tau peptide aggregation at concentrations as low as 8 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively. In comparison to curcumin, this conveniently synthesized Alzheimer’s drug candidate is a more powerful antioxidant.

2011-01-01

224

"Clicked" sugar-curcumin conjugate: modulator of amyloid-? and tau peptide aggregation at ultralow concentrations.  

PubMed

The synthesis of a water/plasma soluble, noncytotoxic, "clicked" sugar-derivative of curcumin with amplified bioefficacy in modulating amyloid-? and tau peptide aggregation is presented. Curcumin inhibits amyloid-? and tau peptide aggregation at micromolar concentrations; the sugar-curcumin conjugate inhibits A? and tau peptide aggregation at concentrations as low as 8 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively. In comparison to curcumin, this conveniently synthesized Alzheimer's drug candidate is a more powerful antioxidant. PMID:22860163

Dolai, Sukanta; Shi, Wei; Corbo, Christopher; Sun, Chong; Averick, Saadyah; Obeysekera, Dinali; Farid, Mina; Alonso, Alejandra; Banerjee, Probal; Raja, Krishnaswami

2011-12-21

225

Effect of fat and sugar substitution on the quality characteristics of low calorie milk drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was undertaken to develop low calorie functional milk drinks using inulin and sucralose as fat and sugar substitutes,\\u000a respectively. Cardamom was incorporated as a flavouring ingredient. The milk fat varied from 0.5 to 1.0%, sugar replacement\\u000a from 0 to 100%, and inulin incorporation from 0 to 8%. The effect on total solids (TS), total soluble solids (TSS), specific

Shikha Mittal; Usha Bajwa

226

Antioxidant, sugar, mineral, and phytonutrient concentrations across edible fruit tissues of orange-fleshed honeydew melon (Cucumis melo L.).  

PubMed

Orange-fleshed, non-netted honeydew ( Cucumis melo L.) is a relatively new melon in the marketplace and has shown a lot of potential as an alternative to netted muskmelons (cantaloupes), which are often prone to surface contamination by enteric bacteria. Orange-fleshed honeydew is a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and non-netted, green-fleshed honeydew. This glasshouse study investigated the nutritional profile (phytonutrient and sugar contents) in different tissues of mature orange-fleshed honeydew melon fruit. The equatorial mesocarp of ripe fruit was segmented into hypodermal (subpeel), outer, middle, and inner (near the seed cavity) tissues and then assayed for total sugars, mineral nutrients, phytonutrients, total proteins, and enzymatic antioxidant activities. The concentrations of soluble solids, sucrose, total sugars, beta-carotene, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid increased in an inward direction from the subpeel mesocarp tissues toward the seed cavity. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase also increased in an inward direction. The concentrations of calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and sodium all decreased in the inward direction. When expressed on a dry weight basis, the concentrations of ascorbic acid, boron, copper, fructose, glucose, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc were higher in the subpeel region compared to the inner mesocarp tissues, but the reverse was true when data were expressed on a fresh weight basis. These data reveal that there is considerable variation in sugars, minerals, and phytonutrients across the mesocarp regions and that expressing the data on a fresh or dry weight basis can alter interpretations of the nutritional significance and health benefits of fruit. The data also confirm that orange-fleshed honeydew melon can be a rich source of many human health-related nutrients. PMID:18454549

Lester, Gene E

2008-05-28

227

Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet  

PubMed Central

National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

2014-01-01

228

Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.  

PubMed

National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

2014-05-01

229

Industry and Trade Summary: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a summary of the U.S. sugar market, covering the basic factors affecting trends in consumption, production, and trade, as well as those bearing on the competitiveness of U.S. industry in domestic and foreign markets. Sugar and its pro...

2001-01-01

230

Using Math With Maple Sugaring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)

Christenson, Gary

1984-01-01

231

Biotechnology Applications for Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop, being one of only two plant sources from which sucrose (i.e., sugar) can be economically produced. Despite its relatively short period of cultivation (ca. 200 years), its yield and quality parameters have been significantly improved by conventional breeding methods. However, during the last two decades or so, advanced in vitro

Ekrem Gurel; Songul Gurel; Peggy G. Lemaux

2008-01-01

232

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

233

1963 Sugar Beet Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1963 study had the broad objectives of determining the feasibility of growing sugar beets on selected soils in Central New York and to determine the extent of resources available in this proposed sugar beet growing area. More specific objectives relat...

N. C. Brady

1964-01-01

234

Sugar crops for fuel alcohol  

SciTech Connect

The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

Irvine, J.E.

1980-01-01

235

Water soluble oxidized starches by peroxide reactive extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation of starches of different amylose content was investigated to increase carboxyl and carbonyl content and to increase water solubility. Three types of cornstarches containing up to 70% amylose were oxidized by a reactive extrusion-drum drying process, using hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous–cupric sulfate catalyst. Increasing the peroxide level increased oxidation and solubility. Starches with higher amylose content gave reduced

R. E Wing; J. L Willett

1997-01-01

236

A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ) fruit soluble solids  

SciTech Connect

Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of ({sup 3}H)-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of ({sup 14}C)sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of ({sup 14}C)-(glycosyl)-1{prime}fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of ({sup 14}C) sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F{sub 2} population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes.

Damon, S.E.

1989-01-01

237

Sugar Concentrations in Guard Cells of Vicia faba Illuminated with Red or Blue Light 1  

PubMed Central

Concentrations of soluble sugars in guard cells in detached, sonicated epidermis from Vicia faba leaves were analyzed quantitatively by high performance liquid chromatography to determine the extent to which sugars could contribute to changes in the osmotic potentials of guard cells during stomatal opening. Stomata were illuminated over a period of 4 hours with saturating levels of red or blue light, or a combination of red and blue light. When stomata were irradiated for 3 hours with red light (50 micromoles per square meter per second) in a solution of 5 millimolar KCl and 0.1 millimolar CaCl2, stomatal apertures increased a net maximum of 6.7 micrometers and the concentration of total soluble sugar was 289 femtomoles per guard cell (70% sucrose, 30% fructose). In an identical solution, 2.5 hours of irradiation with 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light caused a maximum net increase of 7.1 micrometers in stomatal aperture and the total soluble sugar concentration was 550 femtomoles per guard cell (91% sucrose, 9% fructose). Illumination with blue light at 25 micromoles per square meter per second in a solution lacking KCl caused a maximum net increase in stomatal aperture of 3.5 micrometers and the sugar concentration was 382 femtomoles per guard cell (82% sucrose, 18% fructose). In dual beam experiments, stomata irradiated with 50 micromoles per square meter per second of red light opened steadily with a concomitant increase in sugar production. Addition of 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light caused a further net gain of 3.7 micrometers in stomatal aperture and, after 2 hours, sugar concentrations had increased by an additional 138 femtomoles per guard cell. Experiments with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) were performed with epidermis illuminated with 50 micromoles per square meter per second of red light or with 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light in solutions containing or lacking KCl. DCMU completely inhibited sugar production under red light, had no effect on guard cell sugar production under blue light when KCl was present, and inhibited sugar production by about 50% when guard cells were illuminated with blue light in solutions lacking KCl. We conclude that soluble sugars can contribute significantly to the osmoregulation of guard cells in detached leaf epidermis of V. faba. These results are consistent with the operation of two different sugar-producing pathways in guard cells: a photosynthetic carbon reduction pathway and a pathway of blue light-induced starch degradation. ImagesFigure 1

Poffenroth, Matthew; Green, David B.; Tallman, Gary

1992-01-01

238

Non-enzymatic glycation of melamine with sugars and sugar like compounds.  

PubMed

Melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) is employed in the manufacture of plastics, laminates and glues, yet, it has been found sometimes added illegally to dairy products to artificially inflate foods' protein content. In 2008, dairy products adulterated with melamine were blamed for the death of several infants in China, a situation that forced Beijing to introduce stricter food safety measures. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to investigate the susceptibility of the amine groups of melamine to glycation with D-galactose, D-glucose and lactose, sugars commonly found in milk, (2) to study the rate and extent of melamine's glycation with methylglyoxal, glyoxal and DL-glyceraldehyde, three highly reactive metabolites of D-galactose, D-glucose and lactose, and (3) to characterize, using mass spectrometry, the Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) of melamine with sugars found commonly in milk and their metabolites. Incubation of D-galactose, D-glucose and lactose with melamine revealed that D-galactose was the most potent glycator of melamine, followed by D-glucose, then lactose. Methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and DL-glyceraldehyde glycated melamine more extensively than D-galactose, with each yielding a broader range of AGEs. The non-enzymatic modification of melamine by sugars and sugar-like compounds warrants further investigation, as this process may influence melamine's toxicity in vivo. PMID:23247254

Liu, Weixi; Cohenford, Menashi A; Frost, Leslie; Seneviratne, Champika; Dain, Joel A

2013-02-01

239

34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

240

Edible films made from sodium casemate, starches, sugars or glycerol. Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of edible films, based on blends of sodium caseinate with starches of different origin (corn and wheat) plasticized with water, glycerol or sugars, were studied. An increase in water or sugar\\/glycerol content resulted in a considerable decrease in the modulus of elasticity and in the tensile strength of films. The tensile strength and the water vapor permeability

Ioannis Arvanitoyannis; Eleni Psomiadou; Atsuyoshi Nakayama

1996-01-01

241

FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

242

Phenylboronic acid functionalized SBA-15 for sugar capture.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials that selectively capture sugars from model biomass hydrolysis mixtures are reported. 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (PBA) groups that can reversibly form cyclic esters with 1,2-diols, and 1,3-diols including sugars are attached to mesoporous SBA-15 via different synthetic protocols. In the first route, a coupling agent is used to link PBA and SBA-15, while in the second route poly(acrylic acid) brushes are first grafted from the surface of SBA-15 by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization and PBA is then immobilized. The changes in pore structure, porosity, and pore size due to the loading of organic content are measured by powder X-ray diffraction and nitrogen porosimetry. The increase in organic content after each synthesis step is monitored by thermal gravimetric analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis are used to characterize the chemical compositions of the hybrid materials synthesized. D-(+)-Glucose and D-(+)-xylose, being the most commonly present sugars in biomass, are chosen to evaluate the sugar adsorption capacity of the hybrid materials. It is found that the sugar adsorption capacity is determined by the loading of boronic acid groups on the hybrid materials, and the hybrid material synthesized via route two is much better than that through route one for sugar adsorption. Mathematical modeling of the adsorption data indicates that the Langmuir model best describes the sugar adsorption behavior of the hybrid material synthesized through route one, while the Freundlich model fits the data most satisfactorily for the hybrid material prepared via route two. The adsorption kinetics, reusability, and selectivity toward some typical chemicals in cellulose acidic hydrolysis mixtures are also investigated. PMID:22023050

Zhao, Yong-Hong; Shantz, Daniel F

2011-12-01

243

Smashing Bubbles and Vanishing Sugar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science activities with soap bubbles for primary school children are described in this article. Another activity involves children in determining the whereabouts of sugar as it dissolves in water. (SA)

Ward, Alan

1979-01-01

244

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers  

MedlinePLUS

... Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood glucose (sugar) numbers in your target range can help ... a lab test that measures your average blood glucose level over the last 2 to 3 months. ...

245

Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.  

PubMed

From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes significant changes that lead to the end of shelf life. These products need to be protected from moisture uptake during storage. This review summarizes the concepts of water content, water activity, and glass transition and documents their importance to quality and shelf life of confections. PMID:20112158

Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

2010-02-01

246

Proceedings of the Sugar Processing Research Conference (1984), October 16-18, 1984, New Orleans, Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The performance of ion exchange resins in decolorising carbonated liquor; Sensory analysis of brown sugars and its correlation with chemical measurements; Recent observation on starch and sugarcane products; A glucan from sugarcane; Performance ...

1986-01-01

247

Background for 1990 Farm Legislation: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sugar support program and rapid adoption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) played important roles in transforming the U.S. sugar industry in the 1980s. While sugar output and productivity increased, consumption of sugar fell dramatically as HFCS disp...

R. D. Barry L. Angelo P. J. Buzzanell F. Gray

1990-01-01

248

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar...mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and...

2013-04-01

249

Solid fermentation of wheat bran for hydrolytic enzymes production and saccharification content by a local isolate Bacillus megatherium  

PubMed Central

Back ground For enzyme production, the costs of solid state fermentation (SSF) techniques were lower and the production higher than submerged cultures. A large number of fungal species was known to grow well on moist substrates, whereas many bacteria were unable to grow under this condition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate a highly efficient strain of Bacillus sp utilizing wheat bran in SSF and optimizing the enzyme production and soluble carbohydrates. Results A local strain Bacillus megatherium was isolated from dung sheep. The maximum production of pectinase, xylanase and ?-amylase, and saccharification content (total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars) were obtained by application of the B. megatherium in SSF using wheat bran as compared to grasses, palm leaves and date seeds. All enzymes and saccharification content exhibited their maximum production during 12–24 h, at the range of 40–80% moisture content of wheat bran, temperature 37-45°C and pH 5–8. An ascending repression of pectinase production was observed by carbon supplements of lactose, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch, respectively. All carbon supplements improved the production of xylanase and ?-amylase, except of lactose decreased ?-amylase production. A little increase in the yield of total reducing sugars was detected for all carbon supplements. Among the nitrogen sources, yeast extract induced a significant repression to all enzyme productivity. Sodium nitrate, urea and ammonium chloride enhanced the production of xylanase, ?-amylase and pectinase, respectively. Yeast extract, urea, ammonium sulphate and ammonium chloride enhanced the productivity of reducing sugars. Conclusions The optimization of enzyme production and sccharification content by B. megatherium in SSF required only adjustment of incubation period and temperature, moisture content and initial pH. Wheat bran supplied enough nutrients without any need for addition of supplements of carbon and nitrogen sources.

2014-01-01

250

Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods  

PubMed Central

Background Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa) and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation) regarding their 1) carbohydrate composition, 2) viscosity and water solubility index (WSI), and 3) sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low starch content that reduce the viscosity, increase the solubility, impart desirable sensory characteristics, and potentially avoid excessive energy and nutrient thinning.

Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Mutukumira, Anthony N.; Brough, Louise; Weber, Janet L.; Hardacre, Allan; Coad, Jane

2013-01-01

251

Consumption of added sugar among U.S. children and adolescents, 2005-2008.  

PubMed

Approximately 16% of children and adolescents’ total caloric intakes came from added sugars. Boys consumed more added sugars than girls. Preschool-aged children consumed the fewest calories from added sugars. Although girls consumed a smaller absolute amount of calories from added sugars than boys, their intakes were not that different from boys when the amounts are expressed as a percentage of total caloric intakes. Non-Hispanic white children and adolescents consumed a larger percentage of their calories from added sugars than Mexican-American children and adolescents. Also, Non-Hispanic black girls consumed a larger percentage of their calories from added sugars than Mexican-American girls. There was very little difference in added sugar consumption based on PIR. More of the added sugars calories came from foods as opposed to beverages. Previous research has demonstrated that sodas are the single leading food source of added sugars intakes among children, adolescents, and adults (2,4). Our results showed a little more than 40% of calories from added sugars came from beverages. Poti and Popkin (5) have suggested that eating location impacts daily energy intake in children and adolescents and that foods prepared away from home, are contributing to their increased total energy intake. Our results showed that more of the added sugars calories were consumed at home rather than away from home. A substantial percentage of calories in the diets of children and adolescents between 2005 and 2008 came from added sugars. According to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines "reducing the consumption of these sources of added sugars will lower the caloric content of the diet, without compromising its nutrient adequacy (3)." This strategy could play an important role in reducing the high prevalence of obesity in the United States (6) without compromising adequate nutrition. PMID:22617043

Ervin, R Bethene; Kit, Brian K; Carroll, Margaret D; Ogden, Cynthia L

2012-03-01

252

Diffusion of moisture in drying of sugar cane fibers and bundles  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane fibers and arrangements of fibers in cylindrical bundles were dried in a thermoanalyzer and their diffusive coefficients were calculated using the slope method. The effect of temperature, moisture content as well as structural changes were analyzed. Diffusion coefficients changed nonlinearly with moisture content and followed an Arrhenius-like functionality with temperature. The analysis of these effects suggested a liquid diffusion transport mechanism of moisture transfer inside sugar cane fibers and bundles.

Rodriguez-Ramirez, J.; Quintana-Hernandez, P.A.; Mendez-Lagunas, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, G.; Gonzalez-Alatorre, G.

2000-05-01

253

Self-assembly in sugar-oil complex glasses.  

PubMed

In aqueous systems, the hydrophobic effect drives the self-assembly of amphiphiles into a broad range of micellar, rod-like, bicontinuous and liquid-crystalline complex fluids. Many of these are relevant to biological matter or technological applications. However, amphiphilic self-assembly is not limited to aqueous systems. Replacement of water with supercritical carbon dioxide, for example, results in complex fluids that combine the properties of gases and liquids. Along this vein, we explore the self-assembly of surfactants in anhydrous sugars. Our study reveals that anhydrous powders of sugars and surfactants suspended in oil spontaneously form molten glasses with nanometre-size domains of sugar and liquid oil without mixing. The low cost, water solubility, low toxicity and stabilizing properties of glassy sugars make them ideal water replacements for many pharmaceutical, food and materials synthesis applications. The optical clarity and solid appearance of these glasses at room temperature belie their inclusion of more than 50% (vol.) oil, which confers liquid-like diffusivity. The unique combination of solid- and liquid-like properties may lead to applications in sensors and optical devices. PMID:17384636

Dave, Hiteshkumar; Gao, Feng; Lee, Jing-Huei; Liberatore, Matthew; Ho, Chia-Chi; Co, Carlos C

2007-04-01

254

Potential for generation of public electricity in cane sugar factories  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane is the most efficient crop for the conversion of solar energy into biomass. The possibility of conservation of energy in cane sugar producing countries by substituting bagasse for imported oil, was studied in Guyana, South America and financed by the World Bank. The concept of cogeneration was considered, where the heat energy generated by burning bagasse of high fiber content is converted into steam and used both for electricity generation and generation of internal power. Several methods of achieving energy efficiency in this process were discussed such as efficient generation and use of the steam by using high pressure boilers, drying and pelletization of bagasse, and using sugar cane trash as fuel. About 40% of the bagasse could be available for the generation of electric energy. A method for evaluation of the power potential showed that the quantity of public electricity produced, depended on certain important process parameters, fiber content, steam conditions and process steam. The cost effectiveness of the project increases with increasing fiber content in the sugar cane.

Torisson, T.

1984-04-01

255

Control of Photosynthesis, Allocation and Partitioning by Sugar Regulated Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of genes, whose products are involved in diverse metabolic pathways and cellular functions, are either induced or repressed depending on the availability of soluble sugars in higher plant cells. This metabolic regulation of gene expression can be viewed at two levels. Firstly, at the cellular level, changes in gene expression result in a modification of anabolic or catabolic

Ian A. Graham; Thomas Martin

256

Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols  

DOEpatents

The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

2010-08-10

257

76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary,...

2011-06-22

258

Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.  

PubMed

Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 °C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (? 300 mg/kg as P?O?), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (? 80%), increased the Mg (? 101%) and Si (? 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing. PMID:22364593

Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

2012-03-21

259

Volatile constituents of fermented sugar baits and their attraction to lepidopteran species.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds emanating from four fermented sugar baits, palm sugar, golden cane syrup, port wine, and molasses, were isolated by headspace sampling and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three classes of compounds including esters, alcohols, and aromatic compounds were identified in the headspace of the four fermented sugar baits. There was a high degree of qualitative similarity between the headspace contents of the four fermented sugar baits, although quantitatively they varied considerably. Ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutanol, ethyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl (E)-4-decenoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate were the major compounds identified in the headspace of the four fermented sugar baits. The efficacy of the four fermented sugar baits was investigated in field trapping experiments. Fermented palm sugar and golden cane syrup were superior in attracting significant numbers of moths as compared to port wine and molasses. Fermented molasses was the least attractive among the four baits. Over 90% of the insects caught were noctuids with Graphania mutans and Tmetolophota spp. being the main noctuids captured (over 55%) in the four fermented sugar baits. Male and female G. mutans were equally attracted to the four sugar baits. A number of tortricid species were also trapped. PMID:15713004

El-Sayed, A M; Heppelthwaite, V J; Manning, L M; Gibb, A R; Suckling, D M

2005-02-23

260

Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

261

Theory of Solubility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory of solubility.-(1) Statement. The theory of solubility advocated by the writer in a series of papers is restated. Raoult's law will be obeyed by any liquid mixture in which the internal forces of attraction and repulsion do not change with changing composition of the mixture. When this condition holds, the solubility of a gas may be calculated approximately from

Joel H. Hildebrand

1923-01-01

262

Metastable Equilibrium Solubility Behavior of Bone Mineral  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Previous studies have shown that carbonated apatites with a range of carbonate contents and crystallinities exhibit the phenomenon\\u000a of metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) distributions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the solubility\\u000a behavior of bone mineral using the concepts of MES and MES distributions and, together with crystallinity and chemical composition\\u000a data, examine the similarity of

A. A. Baig; J. L. Fox; Z. Wang; W. I. Higuchi; S. C. Miller; A. M. Barry; M. Otsuka

1999-01-01

263

The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.  

PubMed

Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. PMID:24359831

Avila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

2014-02-01

264

Production of sugar and sugar derivatives by pyrolysis of biomass  

SciTech Connect

Thermochemical conversion of biomass to sugar and sugar derivatives is hindered by the inhomogeneity of the substrate and the low specificity of the pyrolytic reactions. Recent analysis and investigation of these reactions have shown that they could be controlled and catalyzed to minimize the side reactions and increase the yield of individual compounds. These compounds include levoglucosan which could be obtained in high yields within the temperature range of 350-400/sup 0/C when the substrate has undergone previous acid treatment or a trace amount of acid is present. This phenomenon has been used for production of sugars from softwood and hardwood based on prehydrolysis and subsequent pyrolysis to a tar that could be posthydrolyzed to sugars. Acid-catalyzed pyrolysis of cellulosic materials, particularly waste paper, gives a pyrolyzate containing mainly levoglucosenone which has proved to be a highly reactive compound for production of a variety of carbohydrate derivatives. Pyrolysis of carbohydrates also provides several other furan and pyran derivatives that could be used as synthetic intermediates. 28 references, 22 figures, 11 tables.

Shafizadeh, F.

1983-01-01

265

75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...This applies to all domestic sugar marketed for human consumption in the United States from October 1, 2009, through...which apply to all domestic sugar marketed for human consumption in the United States from October 1, 2010,...

2010-10-01

266

Chemistry based on renewable raw materials: perspectives for a sugar cane-based biorefinery.  

PubMed

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

2011-01-01

267

Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfa, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

2011-01-01

268

Probing protein-sugar interactions.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the partial specific volumes (2) (ml/g), hydration, and cosolvent interactions of rabbit muscle aldolase by equilibrium sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge and by direct density increment (partial differential/partial differentialc(2))(mu) measurements over a range of sugar concentrations and temperature. In a series of sugars increasing in size, glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and alpha-cyclodextrin, (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu) decreases linearly with the solvent density rho(0). These sugar cosolvents do not interact with the protein; however, the interaction parameter B(1) (g water/g protein) mildly increases with increasing sugar size. The experimental B(1) values are smaller than values calculated by excluded volume (rolling ball) considerations. B(1) relates to hydration in this and in other instances studied. It decreases with increasing temperature, leading to an increase in (2) due to reduced water of hydration electrostriction. The density increments (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu), however, decrease in concave up form in the case of glycerol and in concave down form for trehalose, leading to more complex behavior in the case of carbohydrates playing a biological role as osmolytes and antifreeze agents. A critical discussion, based on the thermodynamics of multicomponent solutions, is presented.

Ebel, C; Eisenberg, H; Ghirlando, R

2000-01-01

269

Sugar recognition by human galactokinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical

David J Timson; Richard J Reece

2003-01-01

270

Health Tip: Cut Down on Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Health Tip: Cut Down on Sugar Watch how much you eat and drink (*this ... Kohnle Friday, February 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Carbohydrates (HealthDay News) -- Too much sugar in your diet ...

271

Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... Center > Treatment & Prevention > Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Print A A A Text Size What's in ... prevent future problems, you have to keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range. To do that, ...

272

ConcepTest: Sugar-Rock Analogy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water containing dissolved sugar evaporates to leave a deposit of sugar in the bottom of a glass. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a type of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary ...

273

When Blood Sugar Is Too Low  

MedlinePLUS

... Levels Treated? Can You Prevent Low Blood Sugar? Hypoglycemia (say: hi-po-gly-SEE-me-uh) is ... Back Continue Can You Prevent Low Blood Sugar? Hypoglycemia might sound a little scary, so you might ...

274

Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar Hyperglycemia Hypoglycemia Sick Days Most of the time, good diabetes ... the timing of insulin shots. Back to top Hypoglycemia When blood sugar levels are too low, this ...

275

Oxygen solubility in silicon-containing Fe-Co melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic analysis of the oxygen solutions in silicon-containing Fe-Co melts is performed. The equilibrium constant of silicon deoxidation of iron-cobalt melts, the activity coefficients for infinite dilution, and the interaction parameters for melts differing in composition are determined. The dependences of the oxygen solubility in the melts under study are calculated for different cobalt and silicon contents. The deoxidizing capacity of silicon increases substantially as the cobalt content in a melt increases. The curves of oxygen solubility in Fe-Co melts have a minimum; the minimum oxygen solubility shifts to a low silicon content as the cobalt content in the melts increases. The silicon contents for the minima in the curves of oxygen solubility and the minimum oxygen concentrations corresponding to the silicon contents are determined.

Aleksandrov, A. A.; Dashevskii, V. Ya.

2013-11-01

276

Variation in sugar levels and invertase activity in mature fruit representing a broad spectrum of Cucumis melo genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar accumulation is a very important physiological process that determines dessert-melon fruit quality. Considerable variation in the sugar content and composition in the mature flesh of Cucumis melo L. fruits was observed among 56 genotypes which represent the wide range of morphological and horticultural types found in this species. Sucrose accumulation was observed not only among 'dessert melons' of the

Asya Stepansky; Irina Kovalski; Arthur A. Schaffer; Rafael Perl-Treves

1999-01-01

277

The Sugar Industry's Structure, Pricing and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure, pricing, and performance of the U.S. sugar industry were studied with special emphasis on the industry's performance during the recent years of economic stress. The major causes of high U.S. sugar prices in 1974 were tight world sugar suppl...

R. Bohall F. Hulse C. Powe L. Angelo F. Gray

1977-01-01

278

Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

1986-01-01

279

Sugar Alcohols and Diabetes:A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many foods sweetened with sugar alcohols (also known as polyols), such as isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol, are available today. Because of concerns about possible harmful effects, we reviewed government regula- tions and scientific literature on sugar alcohols. Although some sugar alcohols do not raise plasma glucose (PG), no long-term benefits regarding their ingestion have been estab- lished

Thomas M. S. Wolever; Ana Piekarz; Marjorie Hollands; Katherine Younker; Ontario Toronto

2002-01-01

280

Sugar Substitutes: What You Need To Know  

MedlinePLUS

... in foods include: Erythritol – 0.2 calories per gram and 60% to 80% as sweet as sugar Isomalt - 2 calories per gram and 45% to 65% as sweet as sugar Lactitol – 2 calories per gram and 30% to 40% as sweet at sugar ...

281

Carbon solubility in mantle minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of carbon in olivine, enstatite, diopside, pyrope, MgAl 2O 4 spinel, wadsleyite, ringwoodite, MgSiO 3-ilmenite and MgSiO 3-perovskite has been quantified. Carbon-saturated crystals were grown from carbonatite melts at 900-1400 °C and 1.5 to ˜ 26 GPa in piston cylinder or multi-anvil presses using carbon enriched to > 99% in the 13C isotope. In upper mantle silicates, carbon solubility increases as a function of pressure to a maximum of ˜ 12 ppm by weight in olivine at 11 GPa. No clear dependence of carbon solubility on temperature, oxygen fugacity or iron content was observed. The observation that carbon solubility in olivine is insensitive to oxygen fugacity implies that the oxidation state of carbon in the carbonatite melt and in olivine is the same, i.e., carbon dissolves as C 4+ in olivine. Carbon solubility in spinel MgAl 2O 4, transition zone minerals (wadsleyite and ringwoodite), MgSiO 3-ilmenite and MgSiO 3-perovskite are below the limit of detection of our SIMS-based analytical technique (i.e., below 30-200 ppb by weight). The differences in carbon solubilities between the various minerals studied appear to correlate with the polyhedral volume of the Si 4+ site, consistent with a direct substitution of C 4+ for Si 4+. These results show that other, minor carbon-rich phases, rather than major, nominally volatile-free minerals, dominate the carbon budget within the bulk Earth's mantle. A significant fraction of total carbon could only be stored in silicates in a thin zone in the lowermost upper mantle, just above the transition zone, and only if the bulk carbon content is at the lower limit of published estimates. The carbon budget of the remaining mantle is dominated by carbonates and possibly diamond. The low melting point of carbonates and the high mobility of carbonate melts suggest that carbon distribution in the mantle may be highly heterogeneous, including the possibility of massive carbon enrichments on a local scale, particularly in the shallow subcontinental mantle.

Shcheka, Svyatoslav S.; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Frost, Daniel J.; Keppler, Hans

2006-05-01

282

Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar)  

PubMed Central

Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has been demonstrated to be effective on hardwood and herbaceous biomass, making it truly feedstock flexible. Conclusions Different options exist for integrating lignocellulosic sugar into sugar-using operations. A sugar conversion plant may be adjacent to a CLE Sugar plant, and the CLE Sugar can be concentrated from the initial 10% sugar as needed. Concentrated sugars, however, can be shipped to remote sites such as ethanol plants or other sugar users. In such cases, options for shipping a dense form of sugars include (1) pretreated biomass with enzyme addition, (2) lignocellulosic sugar syrup, and (3) lignocellulosic sugar solid. These could provide the advantage of maximizing the use of existing assets.

2013-01-01

283

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2010-01-01

284

7 CFR 1435.306 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.306 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.306 State cane sugar...

2009-01-01

285

The Effect of Water, Sugars, and Proteins on the Pattern of Ice Nucleation and Propagation in Acclimated and Nonacclimated Canola Leaves1  

PubMed Central

Infrared video thermography was used to observe ice nucleation temperatures, patterns of ice formation, and freezing rates in nonacclimated and cold acclimated leaves of a spring (cv Quest) and a winter (cv Express) canola (Brassica napus). Distinctly different freezing patterns were observed, and the effect of water content, sugars, and soluble proteins on the freezing process was characterized. When freezing was initiated at a warm subzero temperature, ice growth rapidly spread throughout nonacclimated leaves. In contrast, acclimated leaves initiated freezing in a horseshoe pattern beginning at the uppermost edge followed by a slow progression of ice formation across the leaf. However, when acclimated leaves, either previously killed by a slow freeze (2°C h?1) or by direct submersion in liquid nitrogen, were refrozen their freezing pattern was similar to nonacclimated leaves. A novel technique was developed using filter paper strips to determine the effects of both sugars and proteins on the rate of freezing of cell extracts. Cell sap from nonacclimated leaves froze 3-fold faster than extracts from acclimated leaves. The rate of freezing in leaves was strongly dependent upon the osmotic potential of the leaves. Simple sugars had a much greater effect on freezing rate than proteins. Nonacclimated leaves containing high water content did not supercool as much as acclimated leaves. Additionally, wetted leaves did not supercool as much as nonwetted leaves. As expected, cell solutes depressed the nucleation temperature of leaves. The use of infrared thermography has revealed that the freezing process in plants is a complex process, reminding us that many aspects of freezing tolerance occur at a whole plant level involving aspects of plant structure and metabolites rather than just the expression of specific genes alone.

Gusta, L.V.; Wisniewski, M.; Nesbitt, N.T.; Gusta, M.L.

2004-01-01

286

The effect of water, sugars, and proteins on the pattern of ice nucleation and propagation in acclimated and nonacclimated canola leaves.  

PubMed

Infrared video thermography was used to observe ice nucleation temperatures, patterns of ice formation, and freezing rates in nonacclimated and cold acclimated leaves of a spring (cv Quest) and a winter (cv Express) canola (Brassica napus). Distinctly different freezing patterns were observed, and the effect of water content, sugars, and soluble proteins on the freezing process was characterized. When freezing was initiated at a warm subzero temperature, ice growth rapidly spread throughout nonacclimated leaves. In contrast, acclimated leaves initiated freezing in a horseshoe pattern beginning at the uppermost edge followed by a slow progression of ice formation across the leaf. However, when acclimated leaves, either previously killed by a slow freeze (2 degrees C h(-1)) or by direct submersion in liquid nitrogen, were refrozen their freezing pattern was similar to nonacclimated leaves. A novel technique was developed using filter paper strips to determine the effects of both sugars and proteins on the rate of freezing of cell extracts. Cell sap from nonacclimated leaves froze 3-fold faster than extracts from acclimated leaves. The rate of freezing in leaves was strongly dependent upon the osmotic potential of the leaves. Simple sugars had a much greater effect on freezing rate than proteins. Nonacclimated leaves containing high water content did not supercool as much as acclimated leaves. Additionally, wetted leaves did not supercool as much as nonwetted leaves. As expected, cell solutes depressed the nucleation temperature of leaves. The use of infrared thermography has revealed that the freezing process in plants is a complex process, reminding us that many aspects of freezing tolerance occur at a whole plant level involving aspects of plant structure and metabolites rather than just the expression of specific genes alone. PMID:15247390

Gusta, L V; Wisniewski, M; Nesbitt, N T; Gusta, M L

2004-07-01

287

Application of mineral bed materials during fast pyrolysis of rice husk to improve water-soluble organics production.  

PubMed

Fast pyrolysis of rice husk was performed in a spout-fluid bed to produce water-soluble organics. The effects of mineral bed materials (red brick, calcite, limestone, and dolomite) on yield and quality of organics were evaluated with the help of principal component analysis (PCA). Compared to quartz sand, red brick, limestone, and dolomite increased the yield of the water-soluble organics by 6-55% and the heating value by 16-19%. The relative content of acetic acid was reduced by 23-43% with calcite, limestone and dolomite when compared with quartz sand. The results from PCA showed all minerals enhanced the ring-opening reactions of cellulose into furans and carbonyl compounds rather than into monomeric sugars. Moreover, calcite, limestone, and dolomite displayed the ability to catalyze the degradation of heavy compounds and the demethoxylation reaction of guaiacols into phenols. Minerals, especially limestone and dolomite, were beneficial to the production of water-soluble organics. PMID:22750499

Li, R; Zhong, Z P; Jin, B S; Zheng, A J

2012-09-01

288

75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2010-04-27

289

76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2011-04-12

290

75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2010-07-06

291

Kinetics of the lamellar gel?fluid transition in phosphatidylcholine membranes in the presence of sugars  

SciTech Connect

Phase diagrams are presented for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the presence of sugars (sucrose) over a wide range of relative humidities (RHs). The phase information presented here, determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), is shown to be consistent with previous results achieved by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both techniques show a significant effect of sucrose concentration on the phase behaviour of this phospholipid bilayer. An experimental investigation into the effect of sugars on the kinetic behaviour of the gel to fluid transition is also presented showing that increasing the sugar content appears to slightly increase the rate at which the transition occurs.

Lenné, Thomas; Garvey, Christopher J.; Koster, Karen L.; Bryant, Gary (ANSTO); (USD); (RMIT)

2010-08-04

292

Effect of ?-irradiation on the water soluble components of soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The losses of soluble components during water-soaking of ?-irradiated soybeans (0-20 kGy) were investigated. Water-soluble components such as total solids, nitrogen, sugars, and minerals were appreciably eluted in the highly-irradiated samples at above 10 kGy. However, the soaking-time reduction did offset this adverse effect. Free amino acids, such as threonine, glycine, alanine, valine and phenylalanine, were liberated during water soaking from the irradiated samples. The losses of fructose and raffinose, and of potassium, calcium and magnesium were also considerable.

Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Il-Jun; Mori, Tomohiko

293

Effect of ?-irradiation on the water soluble components of soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The losses of soluble components during water-soaking of ?-irradiated soybeans (0-20 kGy) were investigated. Water-soluble components such as total solids, nitrogen, sugars, and minerals were appreciably eluted in the highly-irradiated samples at above 10 kGy. However, the soaking-time reduction did offset this adverse effect. Free amino acids, such as threonine, glycine, alanine, valine and phenylalanine, were liberated during water soaking from the irradiated samples. The losses of fructose and raffinose, and of potassium, calcium and magnesium were also considerable.

Myung-Woo, Byun; Il-Jun, Kang; Mori, Tomohiko

1996-01-01

294

Effects of sugar, salt and water on soybean oil quality during deep-frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of flour dough components (water, sugar and salt) on soybean oil deterioration during deep-fat frying have been\\u000a investigated. Flour dough sheets made from flour and water were used as the carrier of salt and sugar. Several analyses, including\\u000a acid value, carbonyl value,p-anisidine value, color, dielectric constant, Fritest, total polar compounds and polymer content, were used to evaluate deterioration

Yan-Hwa Chu; Shiuan Luo

1994-01-01

295

Determination of reducing sugar in vegetables by Potassium Ferricyanide iron(III) chloride color system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium Ferricyanide is produced by reducing reaction of potassium ferricyanide by reducing sugar, then it reacts with iron(?? ) chloride to obtain Prussian blue, whose intensity is the linear with content of reducing sugar. The optimum conditions for color reaction were investigated, and the results shows that it exhibits good linear relationship within 0.8-4?g\\/ml, molar absorption coeffcient is 3.4ò 10

Cheng Huang; Hong Yin; Dicai Li

2011-01-01

296

Changes in carbohydrate content in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) under low temperature stress.  

PubMed

The postharvest handling of zucchini fruit includes low-temperature storage, making cold stress unavoidable. We have investigated the changes of soluble carbohydrates under this stress and its relation with weight loss and chilling injury in zucchini fruit during postharvest storage at 4 °C and 20 °C for up to 14 days. Two varieties with different degrees of chilling tolerance were compared: Natura, the more tolerant variety, and Sinatra, the variety that suffered more severe chilling-injury symptoms and weight loss. In both varieties, total soluble carbohydrates, reducing soluble carbohydrates and polyols content was generally higher during storage at 4 °C than at 20 °C, thus these parameters are related to the physiological response of zucchini fruit to cold stress. However, the raffinose content increased in Natura and Sinatra fruits during storage at 4 °C and 20 °C, although at 20 °C the increase in raffinose was more remarkable than at 4 °C in both varieties, so that the role of raffinose could be more likely related to dehydration than to chilling susceptibility of zucchini fruit. Glucose, fructose, pinitol, and acid invertase activity registered opposite trends in both varieties against chilling, increasing in Natura and decreasing in Sinatra. The increase in acid invertase activity in Natura fruit during cold storage could contribute in part to the increase of these reducing sugars, whose metabolism could be involved in the adaptation to postharvest cold storage. PMID:24467899

Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Lluch, Carmen; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

2014-03-01

297

Finding the Carbon in Sugar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about combustion and energy, learners observe a burning candle in a sealed jar and the burning of white sugar. The first part of the activity (candle burning) should be conducted as a demonstration. The second part may be conducted by learners working in groups of 2-4 or as a demonstration. This activity guide includes background information, questions for learners to think about, and bilingual (English/Spanish) handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Dresden, Judith

2011-01-01

298

Affinity chemiresistor sensor for sugars.  

PubMed

In this work, a non-enzymatic chemiresistive sugar sensor has been developed by combining a synthetic receptor with aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) device. Briefly, boronic acid as a multivalent sugar receptor was immobilized on carbon nanotubes through amide bond formation. The interaction between three common sugars (d-glucose, d-fructose and sucrose) and boronic acid modified SWNTs device was studied. The effect of pH on the receptor-ligand binding was examined and highest response was observed at pH 9. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited specific and reproducible detection with sensitivity over the concentration range of 1-20mM, 1-25mM, and 1-30mM for fructose, glucose, and sucrose, respectively. The sensor showed no interference from common electroactive compounds such as citric acid, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensor retained 97.4% of the initial value after five regeneration cycles with an acidic buffer at pH 5, thus ensuring good reusability. PMID:25059188

Tlili, Chaker; Badhulika, Sushmee; Tran, Thien-Toan; Lee, Ilkeun; Mulchandani, Ashok

2014-10-01

299

Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Depolymerization of cellulose offers the prospect of inexpensive sugars from biomass. Breaking the glycosidic bonds of cellulose to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily the anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG) whereas the presence of naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) in biomass strongly catalyzes ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates. Here, we show a method of significantly increasing the yield of sugars from biomass by purely thermal means through infusion of certain mineral acids (phosphoric and sulfuric acid) into the biomass to convert the AAEMs into thermally stable salts (particularly potassium sulfates and phosphates). These salts not only passivate AAEMs that normally catalyze fragmentation of pyranose rings, but also buffer the system at pH levels that favor glycosidic bond breakage. It appears that AAEM passivation contributes to 80?% of the enhancement in LG yield while the buffering effect of the acid salts contributes to the balance of the enhancement. PMID:22976992

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb; Dalluge, Dustin; Bai, Xianglan; Kim, Kwang Ho; Brown, Robert C

2012-11-01

300

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used...

2009-04-01

301

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used...

2010-01-01

302

Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models.

Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

2013-01-01

303

Applications of Solubility Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

2008-01-01

304

Solubility of C60  

Microsoft Academic Search

All the published data on the solubility of C60 in 140 organic and inorganic solvents are summarized and the critical features of the experimental techniques are treated. Data on die temperature dependence of solubility are also listed and analyzed. Experimental evidences on the molecular state of dissolved C60 as well as the interactions between the solute and solvents are discussed.

Mihály T. Beck; Géza Mándi

1997-01-01

305

The Production Values of the Different Sugar Beet Varieties with Special Reference to Leaf Spot Resistance (Prilog Poznavanju Proizvodne Vrijednosti Raznih Sorti Secerne Repe S Posebnim Osvrtom NA Otpornost Prema Prouzrokovacu Pjegavosti Lisca).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main characteristics of sugar beet as an industrial culture are given, i.e., root and leaf yields, sugar content, resistance to Cercospora, and, as the most important measure, of the value of the beet variety, the production of sugar per unit of area....

I. Matic D. Camprag

1970-01-01

306

Fermentation of hemicellulosic sugars and sugar mixtures by Candida shehatae  

SciTech Connect

In the experiments described here, batchwise fermentations were employed with Candida shehatae cells induced by growth on either glucose or xylose, and fermentation kinetic constants were determined. Results show that ethanol production rates were higher with xylose-grown inocula than with glucose-grown inocula. This comparison held true for all of the combinations of glucose and xylose tested. The ethanol production rate was highest for a fermentation of 6% xylose supplemented with 3% glucose by xylose-grown inoculum. The next highest rates were obtained with the fermentation of pure glucose and the glucose-xylose mixture by xylose-grown inoculum. Ethanol yields did not appear to be greatly affected by the sugars tested. The rates of mannose, glucose, xylose, galactose, and L-arabinose utilization by xylose-grown inocula were determined in a separate experiment. Mannose (6%) was used at a higher rate than any of the other sugars tested. Mannose also showed the highest rate of ethanol production. Most of the mannose taken up, however, could not be accounted for in the ethanol produced, so it is possible that significant amounts of mannitol were formed. The D-galactose was fermented at a significantly lower rate than glucose, xylose, or mannose. The L-arabinose was not consumed. The ethanol fermentation rate observed was much lower with an autoclaved acid hydrolysate than with the conditioned hydrolysate or a mixture of individual sugars. Contacting the hydrolysate with cells for an extended period of time prior to autoclaving greatly improved fermentability, but this strain of C. shehatae was still very susceptible to inhibition by components in the hydrolysate (Table III).

Jeffries, T.W.; Sreenath, H.K.

1988-04-05

307

Decolorization of sugar syrups using commercial and sugar beet pulp based activated carbons.  

PubMed

Sugar syrup decolorization was studied using two commercial and eight beet pulp based activated carbons. In an attempt to relate decolorizing performances to other characteristics, surface areas, pore volumes, bulk densities and ash contents of the carbons in the powdered form; pH and electrical conductivities of their suspensions and their color adsorption properties from iodine and molasses solution were determined. The color removal capabilities of all carbons were measured at 1/100 (w/w) dosage, and isotherms were determined on better samples. The two commercial activated carbons showed different decolorization efficiencies; which could be related to their physical and chemical properties. The decolorization efficiency of beet pulp carbon prepared at 750 degrees C and activated for 5h using CO2 was much better than the others and close to the better one of the commercial activated carbons used. It is evident that beet pulp is an inexpensive potential precursor for activated carbons for use in sugar refining. PMID:17826086

Mudoga, H L; Yucel, H; Kincal, N S

2008-06-01

308

Characterization of soluble organic matter of waste activated sludge before and after thermal pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave (MW) irradiation and conventional heating (CH) at 96°C was successful in disrupting the complex waste activated sludge (WAS) floc structure and releasing extra- and intra-cellular biopolymers, such as protein and sugars from activated sludge flocs into soluble phase along with solubilization of particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Soluble CODs of CH and MW-irradiated WAS were 361±45% and 143±34% higher

Cigdem Eskicioglu; Kevin J. Kennedy; Ronald L. Droste

2006-01-01

309

Effect of some syrup constituents on the solubility of sorbic acid.  

PubMed

The effects of sucrose, glucose, sorbitol, and saccharin on the aqueous solubility of sorbic acid at 20 and 37 degrees C were determined. Sucrose, glucose, and sorbitol decreased the solubility of sorbic acid with increasing concentrations at both temperatures. Increasing the concentrations of these sweetening agents resulted in decreases in the dielectric constants. Calculation of the free energy and enthalpy changes indicated that the dissolution process for sorbic acid became progressively unfavorable with increasing sugar concentration. PMID:3411471

Shihab, F A; Ezzedeen, F W; Stohs, S J

1988-05-01

310

What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

Hawkes, Stephen J.

1998-01-01

311

Sugar-free medicines are counterproductive.  

PubMed

Sugar in food and drinks is responsible for the poor dental health of many children and adults. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the small amount of sugar in medicines has been responsible for any dental problems. A recent British Heart Foundation survey found that nearly one in three UK children are eating sweets, chocolate and crisps three or more times a day. Hence it is futile administering sugar-free medicine to a child consuming lot of sweets. Moreover, sugar in medicines makes them palatable and bitter medicines inevitably affect compliance with the prescribed treatment. Poor compliance leads to inadequate treatment of illness and consequently increases the risk of complications from illness. Hence sugar-free medicines promoted as a public health policy could have actually caused more harm than any meaningful net benefit. There is an urgent need for a healthy debate and a fresh look at the policy of promoting sugar-free medicines. PMID:22955756

Sundar, S

2012-09-01

312

Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.  

PubMed

Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

2014-01-01

313

Sugar metabolism in relation to chilling tolerance of loquat fruit.  

PubMed

The relationship between chilling injury and sugar metabolism was investigated in loquat fruit stored at 1°C for 35days. No symptoms of chilling injury occurred in the fruit, of 'Ninghaibai' cultivar, during the whole storage whereas, in 'Dahongpao' fruit, severe chilling symptoms were observed after 20days of storage at 1°C. 'Ninghaibai' fruit had higher levels of glucose and fructose and higher activities of sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes, such as sucrose synthase-cleavage and invertase, than had 'Dahongpao'. Furthermore, the chilling resistant 'Ninghaibai' fruit also showed higher activities of hexokinase and fructokinase, involved in hexose phoshorylation and sugar signal generation. These results suggest that the higher content of hexoses and activities of hexose sensors were likely part of the mechanism for chilling tolerance of loquat fruit. PMID:23017404

Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Zheng, Yonghua

2013-01-01

314

Amino sugars in the glycoprotein toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.  

PubMed Central

The carbohydrate content of purified Bacillus thuriniensis subsp. israelensis crystal toxin was determined by six biochemical tests, column chromatography on an amino acid analyzer, and the binding of 11 fluorescent lectins. The crystals contained approximately 1.0% neutral sugars and 1.7% amino sugars. The amino sugars consisted of 70% glucosamine and 30% galactosamine. No N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) was detected. The presence of amino sugars was confirmed by the strong binding of fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin and the weak binding of fluorescent soybean agglutinin. These lectins recognize N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, respectively. The lectin-binding sites appeared evenly distributed among the protein subunits of the crystal. The sugars were covalently attached to the crystal toxin because wheat germ agglutinin still bound alkali-solubilized toxin which had been boiled in sodium dodecyl sulfate, separate by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. This study demonstrates the covalent attachment of amino sugars and indicates that the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis protein toxins should be viewed as glycoprotein toxins. The crystals used in the present study were purified on sodium bromide density gradients. Studies employing crystals purified on Renografin density gradients can give artificially high values for the anthrone test for neutral sugars. Images

Pfannenstiel, M A; Muthukumar, G; Couche, G A; Nickerson, K W

1987-01-01

315

China: An emerging sugar super power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane production in China has more than 3000 years of history. Prior to 1840 A.D., China dominated the world trade of\\u000a cane sugar but the sugar industry became very week since then due to long time of wars and unstable social conditions. It\\u000a has been developing rapidly again since early 1980s. China has become the third largest sugar producer in

Yang-rui Li

2004-01-01

316

78 FR 22518 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the Solubility of the Eight...assured without third party testing. B. Phthalate Concentrations in Plasticized Component...of the following chemicals: dibutyl phthalate (DBP); butyl benzyl...

2013-04-16

317

Quantification and identification of polysaccharide contents in Hericium erinaceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this study is to identify and quantify sugar and polysaccharide contents in locally grown Hericium erinaceus. Desig\\/methodolog\\/approach – The experiment is presented of chromatography methods to determine sugars in Malaysian–grown H. erinaceus. After the extraction, the crude polysaccharide solution was followed by hydrolysis with acid as well as enzymes reaction, respectively. Findings – In thin–layer

Choong Yew Keong; Badrul Amini Abdul Rashid; Young Swee Ing; Zakiah Ismail

2007-01-01

318

The impact of salt, fat and sugar levels on toddler food intake.  

PubMed

Understanding the early determinants of food intake, in particular the role of food sensory quality, is a necessary step to improve the prevention of unhealthy food habits. However, the extent to which food intake varies according to salt, fat and sugar content is imperfectly known. The present study aimed at evaluating whether toddler food intake varied during lunches or snacks in which salt, fat or sugar contents had been modified in common foods. Seventy-four children (30 (se 0·5) months old) participated in the study in their usual day-care centres. Every other week, they were served lunches composed, among other items, of green beans and pasta with varying salt (0, 0·6 and 1·2 % added salt) or fat (0, 2·5 and 5 % added butter) levels and afternoon snacks composed of fruit purée varying in sugar level (0, 5 and 10 % added sugar). During each meal, children could eat as much as they wanted from the target foods. Each food was weighed before and after the meal. Salt level had a positive impact on the intake of the target foods. On the contrary, no impact of added fat or added sugar levels was observed. This implies that fat and sugar addition could be avoided in foods for children without having an impact on palatability, allowing the energy density of children's diet to be limited. Salt addition should be limited, but its suppression in vegetables, whose intake is to be promoted, should be considered cautiously. PMID:21134329

Bouhlal, Sofia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

2011-02-01

319

Solubility of Organic Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines factors to be considered in choosing suitable solvents for non-electrolytes and salts of weak acids and bases. Describes how, in some simple situation, the degree of solubility can be estimated. (Author/DF)

James, K. C.

1972-01-01

320

Protein solubility modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

1999-01-01

321

RIPARIAN SILVER MAPLE AND UPLAND SUGAR MAPLE TREES SAP SUGAR PARAMETERS IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty two upland sugar maple trees and 59 riparian silver maples were tapped in 2003 to characterize their sap sugar parameters within the southern Illinois region. The mean sap sugar concentration (SSC) among all sugar maple trees was 2.03 percent (1.53 to 3.18 percent range) and the mean sap volume was 133.7 liters per tree or 44.6 liters per tap.

M. L. Crum; J. J. Zaczek; A. D. Carver; K. W. J. Williard; J. K. Buchheit; J. E. Preece; J. C. Mangun

322

Scientists Discover Sugar in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds. Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescop

2000-06-01

323

Influence of day length and temperature on the content of health-related compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).  

PubMed

Vegetables grown at different latitudes are exposed to various temperatures and day lengths, which can affect the content of health- and sensory-related compounds in broccoli florets. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted under controlled growth conditions, with contrasting temperatures (15/9 and 21/15 °C) and day lengths (12 and 24 h), to investigate the effect on glucosinolates, vitamin C, flavonols, and soluble sugars. Aliphatic glucosinolates, quercetin, and kaempferol were at their highest levels at high temperatures combined with a 12 h day. Levels of total glucosinolates, d-glucose, and d-fructose were elevated by high temperatures. Conversely, the content of vitamin C was highest with a 12 h day length combined with 15/9 °C. Our results indicate that temperature and day length influence the contents of health-related compounds in broccoli florets in a complex way, suggesting no general superiority of any of the contrasting growth conditions. PMID:24168154

Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Mølmann, Jørgen; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Johansen, Tor J

2013-11-13

324

Impact of presowing laser irradiation of seeds on sugar beet properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the experiment was to establish the influence of biostimulation on the sugar beet seeds. The seeds came from the specialized breeding program energ'hill or were irradiated by the laser in two doses. The impact of the biostimulation was analyzed by determining the nitrate reductase activity and the nitrate, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents in leaves, as well as, the dry matter and sugar concentration in mature roots. The field experiment was established for two sugar beet cultivars. Biostimulation by irradiation and a special seed breeding program energ'hill had a positive influence on some examined parameters (particularly on nitrate reductase activity in Ruveta and in numerous cases on photosynthetic pigments in both cultivars). Regarding the dry matter accumulation and sugar concentration this impact was more favourable for Tiziana than for Ruveta cultivar.

Saca?a, E.; Demczuk, A.; Grzy?, E.; Pro?ba-Bia?czyk, U.; Szajsner, H.

2012-07-01

325

Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m2 individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs.

Carvalho, G. G. P.; Garcia, R.; Pires, A. J. V.; Silva, R. R.; Detmann, E.; Filho, A. Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Carvalho, L. M.

2013-01-01

326

Physical properties of polyol-plasticized edible blends made of methyl cellulose and soluble starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous blends of methyl cellulose and soluble starch, plasticized with glycerol or sugars, were prepared by casting, or by extrusion and hot pressing. The mechanical (tensile and flexural mode), thermal (differential scanning calorimetry) and gas and water permeation properties of these blends were investigated, after their conditioning at various relative humidities. The observed Tg depression for these polymer blends was

Ioannis Arvanitoyannis; Costas G. Biliaderis

1999-01-01

327

Edible films made from gelatin, soluble starch and polyols, Part 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal and mechanical properties of edible films based on blends of gelatin with soluble starch plasticized with water, glycerol or sugars were investigated. Two different methods, known as ‘the high temperature’ and ‘the low temperature’ methods, consisting of casting aqueous solutions of blends at 60 and 20 °C, respectively, were employed for the preparation of films. With increasing water,

I. Arvanitoyannis; E. Psomiadou; A. Nakayama; S. Aiba; N. Yamamoto

1997-01-01

328

First experimental identification of Ras-inhibitor binding interface using a water-soluble Ras ligand  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining in the same molecule Ras-interacting aromatic moieties and a sugar, we prepared a water-soluble Ras ligand that binds Ras and inhibits guanine nucleotide exchange. With this compound it was possible to determine experimentally by a 15N-edited HSQC NMR experiment the ligand-Ras binding interface.

Alessandro Palmioli; Elena Sacco; Sherwin Abraham; Celestine J. Thomas; Alessandro Di Domizio; Luca De Gioia; Vadim Gaponenko; Marco Vanoni; Francesco Peri

2009-01-01

329

First experimental identification of Ras-inhibitor binding interface using a water-soluble Ras ligand.  

PubMed

By combining in the same molecule Ras-interacting aromatic moieties and a sugar, we prepared a water-soluble Ras ligand that binds Ras and inhibits guanine nucleotide exchange. With this compound it was possible to determine experimentally by a (15)N-edited HSQC NMR experiment the ligand-Ras binding interface. PMID:19515561

Palmioli, Alessandro; Sacco, Elena; Abraham, Sherwin; Thomas, Celestine J; Di Domizio, Alessandro; De Gioia, Luca; Gaponenko, Vadim; Vanoni, Marco; Peri, Francesco

2009-08-01

330

Background for 1995 Farm Legislation: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current U.S. sugar price support programs have their origin in 1981 legislation. The price support program has resulted in significant expansion of the industry in the last decade. Beet sugar production has expanded in many regions, but has contracted in ...

R. Lord

1995-01-01

331

Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

2008-01-01

332

Sugar profiles of Spanish unifloral honeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of various sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, maltulose, kojibiose, isomaltose, raffinose, erlöse and melezitose) as well as the glucose\\/fructose and glucose\\/water ratios were determined in different Spanish unifloral honey types (rosemary, orange blossom, lavender, sunflower, eucalyptus, heather, honeydew). Sugars were determined by gas chromatography of the trimethylsilyloxime derivatives. There were significant differences among the honey types in relation

Rufino Mateo; Francisco Bosch-Reig

1997-01-01

333

Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

334

Natural Product Sugar Biosynthesis and Enzymatic Glycodiversification**  

PubMed Central

Many biologically active small molecule natural products produced by microorganisms derive their activities from sugar substituents. Changing the structures of these sugars can have a profound impact on the biological properties of the parent compounds. This realization has inspired attempts to derivatize the sugar moieties of these natural products through exploitation of the sugar biosynthetic machinery. This approach requires an understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of each target sugar and detailed mechanistic knowledge of the key enzymes. Scientists have begun to unravel the biosynthetic logic behind the assembly of many glycosylated natural products, and have found that a core set of enzyme activities is mixed and matched to synthesize the diverse sugar structures observed in nature. Remarkably, many of these sugar biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases also exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. The promiscuity of these enzymes has prompted efforts to modify the sugar structures and/or alter the glycosylation patterns of natural products via metabolic pathway engineering and/or enzymatic glycodiversification. In applied biomedical research, these studies will enable the development of new glycosylation tools and generate novel glycoforms of secondary metabolites with useful biological activity.

Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Melancon, Charles E.; Liu, Hung-wen

2009-01-01

335

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

336

Epidemiology of rhizomania disease of sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizomania disease of sugar beet is caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae. The disease can cause severe losses in sugar yield, depending on the level of infestation in the soil, the environmental conditions during the growing season and the susceptibility of the beet cultivar. Several aspects of the

G. Tuitert

1994-01-01

337

Effect of cooking method, distiller's grains, and vitamin E supplementation on the vitamin content of value cuts from beef steers fed wet distiller's grains and solubles and supplemental vitamin E.  

PubMed

Vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) concentrations of flat iron steaks and petite tenders from steers fed finishing rations containing 0% and 40% corn wet distiller's grains and solubles (WDGS) with and without supplemental vitamin E were determined. Feeding treatment groups were: 0% WDGS with basal vitamin E, 0% WDGS with supplemental vitamin E (500 IU daily), 40% WDGS with basal vitamin E, and 40% WDGS and supplemental vitamin E. Cattle can be fed 40% WDGS diets more economically than corn diets. The incorporation of 40% WDGS, with and without vitamin E, was hypothesized to have little effect on the vitamin concentrations of these value meat cuts. Flat iron steaks and petite tenders were broiled and/or grilled to 70 degrees C internal temperature. Mean cooking yields ranged from 68.7% to 78.2%. The majority of the vitamin concentrations of broiled and of grilled meat were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of raw meat. Vitamin E concentrations of raw and cooked meat from steers that received supplemental vitamin E were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those fed basal vitamin E. Significant differences in thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) concentrations in raw flat iron steaks and in vitamin B(6) in raw petite tenders were observed by WDGS. Thiamin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) concentrations of broiled flat iron steaks were significantly different (P < 0.05) than grilled. A few differences in vitamin concentrations of the flat iron steaks and petite tenders were observed by WDGS, vitamin E supplementation, and cooking treatments, but most of the vitamin concentrations were statistically similar. PMID:20492221

Kim, Y N; Giraud, D W; Masrizal, M A; Hamouz, F L; Watanabe, K; Schnepf, M I; de Mello, A S; Erickson, G E; Calkins, C R; Driskell, J A

2010-03-01

338

15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

2010-01-01

339

15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

2009-01-01

340

7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998...

2010-01-01

341

7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998...

2009-01-01

342

Synthesis of novel water-soluble sulfonated cellulose.  

PubMed

Water-soluble sulfonated cellulose (SC) samples were synthesized by oxidizing hardwood kraft pulp with sodium periodate followed by the sulfonation reaction with sodium bisulfite. Six levels of oxidation/sulfonation were obtained by using different mmols (0.93-4.67) of periodate per gram of pulp. The aldehyde and sulfonic acid contents, surface morphology, and water solubility property of these treated fibers were characterized. It was found that carbonyl group content increased with the periodate charge and so did the sulfonic acid content in subsequent sulfonation step. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a significant change in surface morphology of the sulfonated samples. Solubility of sulfonated cellulose in water was determined from (1)H NMR spectra and a solubility of 28.57 g/L was found when cellulose was oxidized with 4.67 mmol periodate per gram cellulose followed by the sulfonation reaction. PMID:19959161

Rajalaxmi, Dash; Jiang, Nan; Leslie, Gelbaum; Ragauskas, Arthur J

2010-01-26

343

Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water  

SciTech Connect

Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%), was solubilized, while less than 10% of the cellulose entered the liquid phase. Moreover, recovery of the hemicellulose as monomeric sugars (after a mild posthydrolysis) exceeded 80%. Less than 5% of the hemicellulose was converted to furfural. Percolation beyond that needed to immerse the biomass in hot liquid water did not result in increased solubilization. The yield of lignocellulosic residue was also not sensitive to the form of the sugar cane used (bagasse or leaves) or its moisture content (8--50%). Commercial applications for this fractionation process include the pretreatment of lignocellulosics for bioconversion to ethanol and the production of pulp and paper products.

Allen, S.G.; Kam, L.C.; Zemann, A.J.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1996-08-01

344

Solubility of Mg-containing ?-tricalcium phosphate at 25 ?C  

PubMed Central

The equilibrium solubility of Mg-containing ?-tricalcium phosphate (?MgTCP) with various magnesium contents was determined by immersing ?MgTCP powder for 27 months in a CH3COOH–CH3COONa buffer solution at 25 °C under a nitrogen gas atmosphere. The negative logarithm of the solubility product (pKsp) of ?MgTCP was expressed as pKsp = 28.87432 + 1.40348C ? 0.3163C2 + 0.04218C3 ? 0.00275C4 + 0.0000681659C5, where C is the magnesium content in ?MgTCP (mol.%). The solubility of ?MgTCP decreased with increasing magnesium content owing to the increased structural stability and possible formation of a whitlockite-type phase on the surface. As a result, ?MgTCP with 10.1 mol.% magnesium had a lower solubility than that of hydroxyapatite below pH 6.0. ?MgTCP was found to be more soluble than zinc-containing ?-tricalcium phosphate given the same molar content of zinc or magnesium. The solubility of ?MgTCP and release rate of magnesium from ?MgTCP can be controlled by adjusting the Mg content by selecting the appropriate pKsp.

Li, Xia; Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Wang, Xiupeng; LeGeros, R.Z.

2008-01-01

345

75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2010-08-17

346

75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

2010-08-30

347

77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2012-09-17

348

76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2011-08-12

349

Sugar-rich sweet sorghum is distinctively affected by wall polymer features for biomass digestibility and ethanol fermentation in bagasse.  

PubMed

Sweet sorghum has been regarded as a typical species for rich soluble-sugar and high lignocellulose residues, but their effects on biomass digestibility remain unclear. In this study, we examined total 63 representative sweet sorghum accessions that displayed a varied sugar level at stalk and diverse cell wall composition at bagasse. Correlative analysis showed that both soluble-sugar and dry-bagasse could not significantly affect lignocellulose saccharification under chemical pretreatments. Comparative analyses of five typical pairs of samples indicated that DP of crystalline cellulose and arabinose substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses distinctively affected lignocellulose crystallinity for high biomass digestibility. By comparison, lignin could not alter lignocellulose crystallinity, but the KOH-extractable G-monomer predominately determined lignin negative impacts on biomass digestions, and the G-levels released from pretreatments significantly inhibited yeast fermentation. The results also suggested potential genetic approaches for enhancing soluble-sugar level and lignocellulose digestibility and reducing ethanol conversion inhibition in sweet sorghum. PMID:24968107

Li, Meng; Feng, Shengqiu; Wu, Leiming; Li, Ying; Fan, Chunfen; Zhang, Rui; Zou, Weihua; Tu, Yuanyuan; Jing, Hai-Chun; Li, Shizhong; Peng, Liangcai

2014-09-01

350

Cloning, localization and expression analysis of vacuolar sugar transporters in the CAM plant Ananas comosus (pineapple).  

PubMed

In photosynthetic tissues of the CAM plant pineapple (Ananas comosus), storage of soluble sugars in the central vacuole during the daytime and their remobilization at night is required to provide carbon skeletons for nocturnal CO(2) fixation. However, soluble sugars produced photosynthetically must also be exported to support growth processes in heterotrophic tissues. To begin to address how vacuolar sugar storage and assimilate partitioning are regulated in A. comosus, degenerate PCR and cDNA library screening were used to clone three candidate sugar transporters from the leaves of this species. Subcellular localization of the three transporters was investigated via expression of YFP-fusion proteins in tobacco epidermal cells and their co-localization with subcellular markers by confocal microscopy. Using this strategy, a putative hexose transporter (AcMST1) and a putative inositol transporter (AcINT1) were identified that both localized to the tonoplast, whereas a putative sucrose transporter (AcSUT1) was found to localize to prevacuolar compartments. A cDNA (AcMST2) with high similarity to a recently characterized tonoplast hexose transporter in Arabidopsis was also identified from an A. comosus fruit EST database. Analyses of transcript abundance indicated that AcMST1 was more highly expressed in fruits compared to leaves of A. comosus, whilst transcripts of AcINT1, AcSUT1, and AcMST2 were more abundant in leaves. Transcript abundance of AcINT1, the putative inositol transporter, showed day-night changes comparable to those of other CAM-related transcripts described in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. The results are discussed in terms of the role of vacuolar sugar transporters in regulating carbon flow during the diel cycle in CAM plants. PMID:18408220

Antony, Edna; Taybi, Tahar; Courbot, Mikaël; Mugford, Sam T; Smith, J Andrew C; Borland, Anne M

2008-01-01

351

Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.  

PubMed

Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading. PMID:24175878

LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

2013-01-01

352

Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.  

PubMed

Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology. PMID:24150836

Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

2014-03-01

353

Ozone Solubility in Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive and critical survey of the available data on ozone solubility in different liquids—in water and aqueous solutions, as well as in organic solvents has been made. Apart of comparing the data published by the various authors after 1981 for water and aqueous solutions, special attention has been paid to the effects of pH and the composition of the

Andrzej K. Bi?

2006-01-01

354

Soluble inhibitors/deactivators of cellulase enzymes from lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Liquid hot water, steam explosion, and dilute acid pretreatments of lignocellulose generate soluble inhibitors which hamper enzymatic hydrolysis as well as fermentation of sugars to ethanol. Toxic and inhibitory compounds will vary with pretreatment and include soluble sugars, furan derivatives (hydroxymethyl fulfural, furfural), organic acids (acetic, formic and, levulinic acid), and phenolic compounds. Their effect is seen when an increase in the concentration of pretreated biomass in a hydrolysis slurry results in decreased cellulose conversion, even though the ratio of enzyme to cellulose is kept constant. We used lignin-free cellulose, Solka Floc, combined with mixtures of soluble components released during pretreatment of wood, to prove that the decrease in the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis is due to a combination of enzyme inhibition and deactivation. The causative agents were extracted from wood pretreatment liquid using PEG surfactant, activated charcoal or ethyl acetate and then desorbed, recovered, and added back to a mixture of enzyme and cellulose. At enzyme loadings of either 1 or 25mg protein/g glucan, the most inhibitory components, later identified as phenolics, decreased the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis by half due to both inhibition and precipitation of the enzymes. Full enzyme activity occurred when the phenols were removed. Hence detoxification of pretreated woods through phenol removal is expected to reduce enzyme loadings, and therefore reduce enzyme costs, for a given level of cellulose conversion. PMID:22112958

Kim, Youngmi; Ximenes, Eduardo; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R

2011-04-01

355

Glycogenic effect of an alkali soluble fraction from sepia shell.  

PubMed

The alkali soluble fraction of the sepia shell possesses both anticonvulsant and hypoglycemic effect. The investigation regarding the fate of the blood sugar during the hypoglycemia revealed that the sepia shell extract acts as a glycogenic agent by mobilising the blood sugar towards liver glycogen reserve through the modulation of the enzymes glycogen phosphorylase a and ab in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. The glucose tolerance test (GTT) showed a depression in the GTT curve in experimental mice. The available literature on the biochemistry of the shell reveals that it contains glucosamines and some amino acid residues. The presence of amine group may resemble the sulfonylureas like tolbutamide which also possesses both anticonvulsant and hypoglycemic effect. PMID:7818587

Reddy, T N; Reddy, C P; Srinivas, V; Divan, P V; Reddy, P U

1994-10-01

356

Soluble organic matrices of aragonitic skeletons of Merulinidae (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).  

PubMed

Our interpretation of the overall taxonomy and evolution of the Scleractinia, the most important reef builders in tropical areas, has long depended exclusively on morphology of the calcareous skeletons. The reported series of physical and biochemical characterizations of skeletons and the mineralizing matrices extracted from the skeletons allow, for the first time, the level of biochemical diversity among corallites of the same family to be estimated. Similarities and differences observed in the micro- and nanostructures of the skeletons reflect those of the soluble organic matrices. Sulphur is mainly associated with sulphated acidic sugars. The role of sulphated sugars on the biomineralization processes is still underestimated. The resulting data suggest that environmental conditions may act on the mineralization process through the detailed compositions of the mineralizing matrices. PMID:18325807

Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Williams, C Terry

2008-05-01

357

Drought Resistance of Roots of White Ash, Sugar Maple, and Red Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of root bark tissues of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to withstand reduction of moisture content to low levels was determined by placing thin sections of tissue in jars a...

J. Parker

1968-01-01

358

Effects of Sugar Ingestion on the Classroom and Playgroup Behavior of Attention Deficit Disordered Boys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention deficit disordered (ADD) boys fasted overnight and then received a drink containing sucrose or a placebo of comparable sweetness for four days. Examination of classroom behavior, academic productivity and accuracy, noncompliance with adult requests and peer interactions offered no support for the contention that sugar ingestion adversely…

Milich, Richards; Pelham, William E.

1986-01-01

359

Fine structure, carbohydrates and photosynthetic pigments of sugar maize leaves under UV-B radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Zea mays were subjected to different scenarios of ultraviolet-B radiation in a sun simulator to determine the cellular vitality at the microscopic level and the contents of carbohydrates and photosynthetic pigments. The results show that the leaf morphology and fine structure of sugar maize leaves are only slightly affected by UV cut-off wavelengths down to 288 nm. At

Michael Barsig; Ralf Malz

2000-01-01

360

Sensitivity and feeding efficiency of the black garden ant Lasius niger to sugar resources.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate sources such as plant exudates, nectar and honeydew represent the main source of energy for many ant species and contribute towards maintaining their mutualistic relationships with plants or aphid colonies. Here we characterise the sensitivity, feeding response curve and food intake efficiency of the aphid tending ant, Lasius niger for major sugars found in nectar, honeydew and insect haemolymph (i.e. fructose, glucose, sucrose, melezitose and trehalose). We found that sucrose concentrations - ranging from 0.1 to 2.5M - triggered food acceptance by L.niger workers with their food intake efficiency being enhanced by sugar concentrations of 1M or higher at which points energy intake was maximised. The range of sucrose concentrations that elicit a feeding response by L. niger scouts thus overlaps with that of natural sugar resources. The response curves of feeding acceptance by scouts consistently increased with sugar concentration, except for trehalose which was disregarded by the ants. Ants are highly sensitive to sucrose and melezitose exhibiting low response thresholds. Sucrose, fructose and glucose share a same potential to act as phagostimulants as they had similar half feeding efficiency concentration values when expressed as the energetic content of sugar solution. Aphid-biosynthezised melezitose generated the highest sensitivity and phagostimulant potential. The feeding behavior of ants appears to be primarily regulated by the energy content of the food solution for the main sugars present in nectar and honeydew. However, feeding by scouts is also influenced by the informative value of individual sugars when it serves as a cue for the presence of aphid partners such as the aphid-biosynthesised melezitose. PMID:24667145

Detrain, Claire; Prieur, Jacques

2014-05-01

361

Bacterial production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids in seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after long-term bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations (32 days) with natural and artificial seawater, indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol%) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3-14 mol%). DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol%), followed by glucose (22 mol%) and the remaining neutral sugars (7-11 mol%). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural and artificial seawater samples, suggests that the microbial carbon pump also applies for neutral sugars and amino acids and that bacterially-produced biomolecules persist for long periods in the ocean.

Jørgensen, L.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, C. A.

2014-04-01

362

Correlated responses of root growth and sugar concentrations to various defoliation treatments and rhythmic shoot growth in oak tree seedlings (Quercus pubescens)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims To understand whether root responses to aerial rhythmic growth and contrasted defoliation treatments can be interpreted under the common frame of carbohydrate availability; root growth was studied in parallel with carbohydrate concentrations in different parts of the root system on oak tree seedlings. Methods Quercus pubescens seedlings were submitted to selective defoliation (removal of mature leaves, cotyledons or young developing leaves) at appearance of the second flush and collected 1, 5 or 10 d later for morphological and biochemical measurements. Soluble sugar and starch concentrations were measured in cotyledons and apical and basal root parts. Key Results Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices diminished during the expansion of the second aerial flush and increased after the end of aerial growth in control seedlings. Starch concentration in cotyledons regularly decreased. Continuous removal of young leaves did not alter either root growth or apical sugar concentration. Starch storage in basal root segments was increased. After removal of mature leaves (and cotyledons), root growth strongly decreased. Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices drastically decreased and starch reserves in the root basal segments were emptied 5 d after defoliation, illustrating a considerable shortage in carbohydrates. Soluble sugar concentrations recovered 10 d after defoliation, after the end of aerial growth, suggesting a recirculation of sugar. No supplementary recourse to starch in cotyledons was observed. Conclusions The parallel between apical sugar concentration and root growth patterns, and the correlations between hexose concentration in root apices and their growth rate, support the hypothesis that the response of root growth to aerial periodic growth and defoliation treatments is largely controlled by carbohydrate availability.

Willaume, Magali; Pages, Loic

2011-01-01

363

[Preliminary study on correlation between diversity of soluble proteins and producing area of Cordyceps sinensis].  

PubMed

To analyze the content and type of soluble proteins in Cordyceps sinensis from different producing areas and processed with different methods with bradford method and 2-DE technology, in order to discover significant differences in soluble proteins in C. sinensis processed with different methods and from different producing areas. The preliminary study indicated that the content and diversity of soluble proteins were related to producing areas and processing methods to some extent. PMID:23944072

Ren, Yan; Qiu, Yi; Wan, De-Guang; Lu, Xian-Ming; Guo, Jin-Lin

2013-05-01

364

The effect of water on accessory phase solubility in subaluminous and peralkaline granitic melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubilities of columbite, tantalite, wolframite, rutile, zircon and hafnon were determined as a function of the water contents in peralkaline and subaluminous granite melts. All experiments were conducted at 1035 °C and 2 kbar and the water contents of the melts ranged from nominally dry to approximately 6 wt.% H 2O. Accessory phase solubilities are not affected by the water content of the peralkaline melt. By contrast, solubilities are affected by the water content of the subaluminous melt, where the solubilities of all the accessory phases examined increase with the water content of the melt, up to ˜2 wt.% H 2O. At higher water contents, solubilities are nearly constant. It can be concluded that water is not an important control of accessory phase solubility, although the water content will affect diffusivities of components in the melt, thus whether or not accessory phases will be present as restite material. The solubility behaviour in the subaluminous and peralkaline melts supports previous spectroscopic studies, which have observed differences in the coordination of high field strength elements in dry vs. wet subaluminous granitic glasses, but not for peralkaline granitic glasses. Lastly, the fact that wolframite solubility increases with increasing water content in the subaluminous melt suggests that tungsten dissolved as a hexavalent species.

Linnen, Robert L.

2005-03-01

365

Added Sugars from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Estimated Regression Coefficients,  

Cancer.gov

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366

Added Sugars from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Estimated Regression Coefficients,  

Cancer.gov

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367

Changes in oil, sugars and nitrogenous components during germination of sunflower seeds, Helianthus annuus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since germination has been found to improve the nutritional quality of grains, sunflower seeds Helianthus annuus were germinated\\u000a for up to five days, and the cotyledons were analyzed for oil, sugar, free amino acid, non-protein nitrogen, lysine, tryptophan\\u000a and methionine contents. Protein was fractionated. Soaking and germination increased the non-protein nitrogen, total free\\u000a amino acid, lysine and tryptophan contents. Protein

R. Balasaraswathi; S. Sadasivam

1997-01-01

368

TryEngineering: Sugar Crystal Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry-based lesson plan that explores how nanostructures can influence surface area, as students work in teams to grow crystals from sugars of different grades of coarseness. The driving question of the lesson: If you dissolve sugars of different coarseness (granulated, powdered, cubes) in water and then grow sugar crystals, will the resulting crystals appear the same under a microscope, or will there still be a difference in appearance based on the initial coarseness of the sugar? The lesson follows a module format that includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information about the engineering connections. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

2012-12-27

369

Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... by mistake Not eating enough during meals or snacks after you have taken insulin or diabetes medicine ... your blood sugar levels. Make sure you have snacks with you. Ask your doctor or nurse if ...

370

19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to serve. They shall be provided by the owner of the premises on which they are located and shall be so situated that sugar, sirup, and molasses stored therein shall not be subjected to extremes of temperature or...

2013-04-01

371

Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process is claimed for the production of sugar, mainly glucose, by the enzymatic degradation of cellulosic materials, particularly cellulosic wastes, which comprises hydrolyzing the cellulosic material in the presence of cellulase enzyme to produce a su...

C. R. Wilke G. Mitra

1976-01-01

372

Red edge spectral measurements from sugar maple leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many sugar maple stands in the northeastern United States experienced extensive insect damage during the 1988 growing season. Chlorophyll data and high spectral resolution spectrometer laboratory reflectance data were acquired for multiple collections of single detached sugar maple leaves variously affected by the insect over the 1988 growing season. Reflectance data indicated consistent and diagnostic differences in the red edge portion (680-750 nm) of the spectrum among the various samples and populations of leaves. These included differences in the red edge inflection point (REIP), a ratio of reflectance at 740-720 nm (RE3/RE2), and a ratio of first derivative values at 715-705 nm (D715/D705). All three red edge parameters were highly correlated with variation in total chlorophyll content. Other spectral measures, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Simple Vegetation Index Ratio (VI), also varied among populations and over the growing season, but did not correlate well with total chlorophyll content. Leaf stacking studies on light and dark backgrounds indicated REIP, RE3/RE2 and D715/D705 to be much less influenced by differences in green leaf biomass and background condition than either NDVI or VI.

Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.; Moss, D. M.

1993-01-01

373

Sugar beet cellulose nanofibril-reinforced composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose was isolated from sugar beet chips, a by-product of sugar production, by wet chemistry. Further processing of the\\u000a cellulose with a high-pressure homogeniser led to the disruption of cell walls into nanofibrils. Cellulose sheets obtained\\u000a by casting and slow evaporation of water showed higher strength and stiffness when homogenised cellulose was used compared\\u000a to unhomogenised cellulose. These cellulose sheets

Johannes Leitner; Barbara Hinterstoisser; Marnik Wastyn; Jozef Keckes; Wolfgang Gindl

2007-01-01

374

A Perspective on Solubility Rules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

1984-01-01

375

Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits.  

PubMed

Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

Tandel, Kirtida R

2011-10-01

376

Generating Water-Soluble Noxious Gases: An Overhead Projector Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, inexpensive apparatus to generate and collect water-soluble noxious gases as an overhead projector demonstration can be made from two small beakers and a Petri dish. The detection and generation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are described. Sulfur dioxide dissolved in water is detected using an acid-base indicator, decolorizing of anthocyanin, or reduction of permanganate. The SO2 is generated by addition of sulfite or bisulfite to a strong acid or by the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid to sugars. Nitrogen dioxide is generated by mixing copper and nitric acid and detected using an acid-base indicator.

Solomon, Sally; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Hur, Chinhyu

1998-12-01

377

Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.  

PubMed

Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (?-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest ?-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid. PMID:25065829

Antonious, George F

2014-10-01

378

Aggregation and solubility behavior of asphaltenes and their subfractions.  

PubMed

Asphaltenes from four different crude oils (Arab Heavy, B6, Canadon Seco, and Hondo) were fractionated in mixtures of heptane and toluene and analyzed chemically, by vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), and by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Solubility profiles of the asphaltenes and their subfractions indicated strong cooperative asphaltene interactions of a particular subfraction that is polar and hydrogen bonding. This subfraction had lower H/C ratios and modestly higher N, V, Ni, and Fe contents than the less polar and more soluble subfraction of asphaltenes. VPO and SANS studies indicated that the less soluble subfractions formed aggregates that were considerably larger than the more soluble subfractions. In general, asphaltene aggregate size increased with decreasing solvent aromaticity up to the solubility limit, beyond which the aggregate size decreased with heptane addition. The presence of a low wavevector Q feature in the scattering curves at 25 degrees C indicated that the individual aggregates were flocculating; however, the intensity of the feature was diminished upon heating of the samples to 80 degrees C. The solubility mechanism for Canadon Seco asphaltenes, the largest aggregate formers, appears to be dominated by aromatic pi-bonding interactions due to their low H/C ratio and low nitrogen content. B6 and Hondo asphaltenes formed similar-sized aggregates in heptol and the solubility mechanism is most likely driven by polar interactions due to their relatively high H/C ratios and high nitrogen contents. Arab Heavy, the least polar asphaltene, had a H/C ratio similar to Canadon Seco but formed the smallest aggregates in heptol. The enhancement in polar and pi-bonding interactions for the less soluble subfraction indicated by elemental analysis is reflected by the aggregate size from SANS. The less soluble asphaltenes contribute the majority of species responsible for aggregation and likely cause many petroleum production problems such as pipeline deposition and water-in-oil emulsion stabilization. PMID:14554184

Spiecker, P Matthew; Gawrys, Keith L; Kilpatrick, Peter K

2003-11-01

379

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

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380

The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of solubility from Ksp values, and its converse have long been a part of general college chemistry textbooks. The agreement between actual solubility and simple calculations of solubility from Ksp values has been questioned many times. Incomplete dissociation, hydrolysis reactions, complex ion formation, ion pair formation and activity coefficients conspire to make such calculations crude at best. The

Roy W. Clark; Judith M. Bonicamp

1998-01-01

381

Inkjet application, chromatography, and mass spectrometry of sugars on nanostructured thin films.  

PubMed

Ultrathin-layer chromatography (UTLC) potentially offers faster analysis, reduced solvent and sample volumes, and lower costs. One novel technique for producing UTLC plates has been glancing angle deposition (GLAD), a physical vapor deposition technique capable of aligning macropores to produce interesting separation properties. To date, however, GLAD-UTLC plates have been restricted to model dye systems, rather than realistic analytes. This study demonstrates the transfer of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) sugar analysis methods to GLAD-UTLC plates using the office chromatography framework. A consumer inkjet printer was used to apply very sharp low volume (3-30 nL) bands of water-soluble analytes (lactose, sucrose, and fructose). Analytic performance measurements extrapolated the limits of detection to be 3-5 ng/zone, which was experimentally proven down to 60-70 ng/band, depending on the sugar. This qualitative analysis of sugars in a commercially available chocolate sample is the first reported application of GLAD-UTLC to food samples. The potential utility of GLAD-UTLC is further exemplified by successful coupling with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the first time to characterize underivatized sugars. PMID:23828209

Kirchert, Simone; Wang, Zhen; Taschuk, Michael T; Jim, Steven R; Brett, Michael J; Morlock, Gertrud E

2013-09-01

382

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor...Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime...sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section...

2009-07-01

383

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor...Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime...sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section...

2010-07-01

384

Nitrogen solubility in upper mantle minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen solubility in the upper mantle minerals forsterite, diopside, enstatite and pyrope has been quantified by SIMS measurements of nitrogen-saturated, synthetic samples. The crystals were grown in a 15N-H-O fluid buffered by Ni-NiO, Co-CoO, and Fe-FeO, at 1000-1300?°C and 15-35 kbar in a piston cylinder apparatus. Nitrogen solubility in minerals is significantly affected by temperature, pressure, mineral composition and, in particular, by oxygen fugacity. Nitrogen in all crystals buffered by Ni-NiO or Co-CoO is below detection limit or at most a few ?g/g at very high pressures. Concentrations of 5-24 ?g/g nitrogen have been quantified in diopside, enstatite and pyrope buffered by Fe-FeO at 1100?°C/15 kbar. Very high nitrogen solubility up to 100 ?g/g is observed at the Fe-FeO buffer in enstatite at high-temperature or in Al-bearing enstatite and diopside. The nitrogen solubility in forsterite at the Fe-FeO buffer also clearly increases with temperature and pressure; a maximum solubility of 10 ppm is obtained at 1300?°C/35 kbar. The strong enhancement of nitrogen solubility under reducing conditions may be related to nitrogen dissolution as either NH+4 or as N3- directly replacing O2-. Both mechanisms require some charge compensation, consistent with the enhancement of nitrogen solubility with Al content in enstatite. Our results demonstrate that the reduced lower part of the upper mantle has a large nitrogen storage capacity, and may store ˜20-50 times more nitrogen than the present atmosphere. Therefore, some 'missing' nitrogen may still be retained in the Earth's deep, reduced mantle. The calculated nitrogen partition coefficients between upper mantle minerals and silicate melt reveal that an oxidized mantle source would lose almost its entire nitrogen during partial melting, whereas under reducing conditions a considerable fraction of nitrogen could be retained in the residual solids. The high nitrogen solubility in upper mantle minerals at reducing conditions also suggests that solidification of the magma ocean on the early Earth should have retained significant nitrogen, yielding higher N/Ar and N/C ratios in the young upper mantle as compared to the young atmosphere.

Li, Yuan; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Shcheka, Svyatoslav; Keppler, Hans

2013-09-01

385

Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

2012-01-01

386

Sugar Alcohol Sweeteners as Alternatives to Sugar with Special Consideration of Xylitol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Dental caries is a diet-associated disease which continues to be a serious health problem in most industrialized and developing countries. Strategies to maximize caries prevention should automatically consider the use of sugar substitutes. It is important that public health authorities are made cognizant of the availability of new polyol-type sugar substitutes. Review Summary: Clinical studies have shown that xylitol,

Kauko K. Mäkinen

2011-01-01

387

Rapid analysis of sugars in honey by processing Raman spectrum using chemometric methods and artificial neural networks.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantify glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose contents of honey samples using Raman spectroscopy as a rapid method. By performing a single measurement, quantifications of sugar contents have been said to be unaffordable according to the molecular similarities between sugar molecules in honey matrix. This bottleneck was overcome by coupling Raman spectroscopy with chemometric methods (principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS)) and an artificial neural network (ANN). Model solutions of four sugars were processed with PCA and significant separation was observed. This operation, done with the spectral features by using PLS and ANN methods, led to the discriminant analysis of sugar contents. Models/trained networks were created using a calibration data set and evaluated using a validation data set. The correlation coefficient values between actual and predicted values of glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose were determined as 0.964, 0.965, 0.968 and 0.949 for PLS and 0.965, 0.965, 0.978 and 0.956 for ANN, respectively. The requirement of rapid analysis of sugar contents of commercial honeys has been met by the data processed within this article. PMID:23194547

Özbalci, Beril; Boyaci, ?smail Hakk?; Topcu, Ali; Kad?lar, Cem; Tamer, U?ur

2013-02-15

388

FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

Rios-Corripio, M. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Rojas-López, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.

2011-01-01

389

Quantitative analysis of sugars in wood hydrolyzates with 1H NMR during the autohydrolysis of hardwoods.  

PubMed

The focus of this work was to determine the utility of (1)H NMR spectroscopy in the quantification of sugars resulting from the solubilization of hemicelluloses during the autohydrolysis of hardwoods and the use of this technique to evaluate the kinetics of this process over a range of temperatures and times. Yields of residual xylan, xylooligomers, xylose, glucose, and the degraded products of sugars, i.e., furfural and HMF (5-hydroxymethyl furfural), were determined. The monosaccharide and oligomer contents were quantified with a recently developed high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis. This method provided precise measurement of the residual xylan and cellulose remaining in the extracted wood samples and xylose and glucose in the hydrolyzates. NMR was found to exhibit good repeatability and provided carbohydrate compositional results comparable to published methods for sugar maple and aspen woods. PMID:19674893

Mittal, Ashutosh; Scott, Gary M; Amidon, Thomas E; Kiemle, David J; Stipanovic, Arthur J

2009-12-01

390

Sugar metabolism and the plant target of rapamycin kinase: a sweet operaTOR?  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotes, the ubiquitous TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase complexes have emerged as central regulators of cell growth and metabolism. The plant TOR complex 1 (TORC1), that contains evolutionary conserved protein partners, has been shown to be implicated in various aspects of C metabolism. Indeed Arabidopsis lines affected in the expression of TORC1 components show profound perturbations in the metabolism of several sugars, including sucrose, starch, and raffinose. Metabolite profiling experiments coupled to transcriptomic analyses of lines affected in TORC1 expression also reveal a wider deregulation of primary metabolism. Moreover recent data suggest that the kinase activity of TORC1, which controls biological outputs like mRNA translation or autophagy, is directly regulated by soluble sugars.

Dobrenel, Thomas; Marchive, Chloe; Azzopardi, Marianne; Clement, Gilles; Moreau, Manon; Sormani, Rodnay; Robaglia, Christophe; Meyer, Christian

2013-01-01

391

New Hampshire Sugar Makers Participate in Climate Change Study of Acer Saccharum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dozen maple sugar producers in New Hampshire have participated for the past three years in a study of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its response to climate-related and other stress agents. A dominant tree in the northeastern temperate forest, the sugar maple is projected to lose 52% of its range in the United States due to climate change stresses in this century. The species is already severely stressed by acid deposition as well as a wide array of environmental predators and pathogens. Engaging the public in studies of climate change is of pressing importance. Climate change is ubiquitous and is expressed in a wide variety of phenomena—changing patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation, more severe storms, changing atmospheric chemistry, phenologic chemistry change, ecotone shifts and new invasive competitors and predators. Scientists need citizen partners who are trained observers and who are familiar with protocols for monitoring, reporting and questioning what they observe. There is also a growing need for a public that is informed about climate change and variability so citizens can understand and support policy changes as needed to address climate change. In New Hampshire, sugar makers have collected maple sap samples at four times early in the sap season each year since 2010. The samples are collected and stored according to strict chemical protocols. The sugar makers have provided UNH and U.S. Forest Service chemists with significant numbers of sap samples for analysis of their phenolic chemistry. Correlating the sap chemistry with high spectral resolution reflectance measures of maple foliage, we are exploring whether changes in sap phenolics may signal distress or of long-term health of the trees. In addition, the sugar makers have provided access to their sugar orchards for monthly sampling of leaves and buds, beginning in May and continuing through the Fall. The three years of data are building long-term evidence of changes in maple health in response to fluctuations in temperature and precipitation. The foliar study has discovered that loss of tree health can be detected in May in the rate at which young leaves produce chlorophyll and in the longevity of leaves in autumn. Long-term health and resilience can be seen in bud quality. Sharing sap house records, the sugar makers are also helping to identify long-term trends in sugar maple phenology and sap sugar content.

Rock, B. N.; Carlson, M.

2012-12-01

392

Jasmonates are essential factors inducing gummosis in tulips: mode of action of jasmonates focusing on sugar metabolism.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to know the mechanism of jasmonates to induce gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) shoots, especially on the focus of sugar metabolism. Gummosis in the first internode of tulip plants was induced by the application of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me, 1% w/w in lanolin) and jasmonic acid (JA, 1% w/w in lanolin) 5 days after application and strongly stimulated by the simultaneous application of ethylene-releasing compound, ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, 1% w/w in lanolin), although ethephon alone had little effect. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production of the first internodes of tulips, ethylene production increasing up to more than 5 times at day 1 and day 3 after the application. On the other hand, application of ethephon did not increase endogenous levels of jasmonates in tulip stems. Analysis of composition of tulip gums revealed that they were consisted of glucuronoarabinoxylan with an average molecular weight of ca. 700 kDa. JA-Me strongly decreased the total amount of soluble sugars in tulip stems even in 1 day after application, being ca. 50% of initial values 5 days after application, but ethephon did not. However, both JA-Me and ethephon had almost no effect on the neutral sugar compositions of soluble sugars mainly consisting of glucose, mannose and xylose in ratio of 20:2:1 and traces of arabinose. Both JA-Me and ethephon applied exogenously stimulated senescence of tulip shoots shown by the loss of chlorophyll. These results strongly suggest that the essential factor of gummosis in tulips is jasmonates affecting the sugar metabolism in tulip shoots. The mode of action of jasmonates to induce gummosis of tulip shoots is discussed in relation to ethylene production, sugar metabolism and senescence. PMID:15940867

Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

2005-05-01

393

Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants  

PubMed Central

Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transport efficiency predicts optimal concentrations of 23.5 per cent (if the pressure differential driving the flow is independent of concentration) and 34.5 per cent (if the pressure is proportional to concentration). Data from more than 50 experiments (41 species) collected from the literature show an average concentration in the range from 18.2 per cent (all species) to 21.1 per cent (active loaders), suggesting that the phloem vasculature is optimized for efficient transport at constant pressure and that active phloem loading may have developed to increase transport efficiency.

Jensen, Kaare H.; Savage, Jessica A.; Holbrook, N. Michele

2013-01-01

394

Cogeneration in the Hawaiian sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

For nearly a century the Hawaiian sugar industry has produced most of the steam and electricity needed to process sugarcane and to power its factories and irrigation pumps. Judicious use of bagasse and cane trash has made the Hawaiian sugar industry among the most efficient in the world in converting biomass into electricity --- in comparison with typical worldwide cane-to-electricity productivities of {approximately}10 kWh per ton of cane, Hawaiian sugar factories today generate, on average, about 60 kWh per ton of cane and, in some factories, 100 kWh or more. Plantations in Hawaii produce about 800 million kWh annually, and, after satisfying virtually all of their internal power requirements, export roughly 400 million kWh to public utility companies. To attain world prominence in generating and exporting power from bagasse, Hawaiian sugar companies have had to address numerous technical, operational, regulatory, and contractual issues relating to the production and distribution of steam and electricity. Prior to 1970 the development of electricity generation in the Hawaiian sugar industry was shaped almost entirely by technical developments --- better utilization of the available biomass resources; consolidation of steam-generation facilities into fewer, larger, and more efficient units; and increased operating pressures and temperatures of steam and electrical generating units and better heat recovery to achieve higher thermal efficiency in the cogeneration plant. In more recent years, however, non-technical issues have influenced electricity generation and sale more than technical factors. 20 figs., 5 tabs.

Kinoshita, C.M.

1990-01-01

395

Effect of Diabecon on sugar-induced lens opacity in organ culture: mechanism of action.  

PubMed

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Apart from ageing, diabetes has been considered to be one of the major risk factors of cataract. The high sugar levels in diabetes may cause tissue disruption and intumescences by osmotic changes induced via aldose reductase (AR) mediated polyol pathway. Therefore, agents that can inhibit AR and prevent sorbitol accumulation may be helpful to combat sugar-induced cataract. In the present study, AR inhibitory activity of Diabecon (an herbal drug used for diabetes) was studied together with its effect against sugar-induced lens opacity in organ culture. Diabecon aqueous extract (DAE) showed potential inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 10 microg/ml against rat lens AR. Incubation of goat lens with supraphysiological concentrations of glucose (100 mM) led to the loss of lens transparency associated with increased AR activity, decreased soluble protein and increased protein carbonyls and glycation. Addition of DAE (0.3 mg/ml) to the medium preserved transparency and ameliorated the decrease in lens soluble protein due to hyperglycemia and also prevented the formation of glycated protein. Interestingly DAE inhibited aldose reductase activity in lens incubated with 100 mM glucose. DAE decreased protein carbonyls, prevented the loss of beta(L)-crystallin against 100 mM of glucose. We have also demonstrated here that most of these effects are mainly due to Gymnema sylvestre, one of the constituent herbs of Diabecon. These results suggest that Diabecon protect the lens against sugar-induced cataract by multiple mechanisms. PMID:15707781

Moghaddam, M S; Kumar, P Anil; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Ghole, V S

2005-02-28

396

Physiological Aspects of Sugar Exchange between the Gametophyte and the Sporophyte of Polytrichum formosum  

PubMed Central

The sporophyte of bryophytes is dependent on the gametophyte for its carbon nutrition. This is especially true of the sporophytes of Polytrichum species, and it was generally thought that sucrose was the main form of sugar for long distance transport in the leptom. In Polytrichum formosum, sucrose was the main soluble sugar of the sporophyte and gametophyte tissues, and the highest concentration (about 230 mm) was found in the haustorium. In contrast, sugars collected from the vaginula apoplast were mainly hexoses, with traces of sucrose and trehalose. p-Chloromercuribenzene sulfonate, a nonpermeant inhibitor of the cell wall invertase, strongly reduced the hexose to sucrose ratio. The highest cell wall invertase activity (pH 4.5) was located in the vaginula, whereas the highest activity of a soluble invertase (pH 7.0) was found in both the vaginula and the haustorium. Glucose uptake was carrier-mediated but only weakly dependent on the external pH and the transmembrane electrical gradient, in contrast to amino acid uptake (S. Renault, C. Despeghel-Caussin, J.L. Bonnemain, S. Delrot [1989] Plant Physiol 90: 913-920). Furthermore, addition of 5 or 50 mm glucose to the incubation medium induced a marginal depolarization of the transmembrane potential difference of the transfer cells and had no effect on the pH of this medium. Glucose was converted to sucrose after its absorption into the haustorium. These results demonstrate the noncontinuity of sucrose at the gametophyte/sporophyte interface. They suggest that its conversion to glucose and fructose at this interface, and the subsequent reconversion to sucrose after hexose absorption by haustorium cells, mainly governs sugar accumulation in this latter organ.

Renault, Sylvie; Bonnemain, Jean Louis; Faye, Loic; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

1992-01-01

397

Potential of powdered activated mustard cake for decolorising raw sugar.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Carbon decolorisation has become customary in the food processing industries; however, it is not economical. Extensive research has therefore been directed towards investigating potential substitutes for commercial activated carbons which might have the advantage of offering an effective, lower-cost replacement for existing bone char or coal-based granular activated carbon (GAC). RESULTS: The physical (bulk density and hardness), chemical (pH and mineral content) and adsorption characteristics (iodine test, molasses test and raw sugar decolorisation efficiency) of powdered activated mustard cake (PAMC) made from de-oiled mustard cake were determined and compared to commercial adsorbents. Although the colour removal efficiency of the PAMC is lower than that of commercial materials, it is cost effective and eco-friendly compared to the existing decolorisation/refining processes. To reduce the load on GAC/activated carbon/charcoal, PAMC could be used on an industrial scale. A decolorisation mechanism has been postulated on the basis of oxygen surface functionalities and surface charge of the PAMC and, accordingly, charge transfer interaction seems to be responsible for the decolorisation mechanism. In addition, a complex interplay of electrostatics and dispersive interaction seem to be involved during the decolorisation process. CONCLUSION: A low-cost agricultural waste product in the form of de-oiled mustard cake was converted to an efficient adsorbent, PAMC, for use in decolorising raw as well as coloured sugar solutions. The physical, chemical, adsorption characteristics and raw sugar decolorisation efficiency of PAMC were determined and compared to those of commercial adsorbents. The colour removal efficiency of the PAMC is lower than that of commercial materials but it is cost effective and eco-friendly as compared to existing decolorisation/refining processes. The availability of the raw material for the production of PAMC further demands its use on an industrial scale. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:22700362

Singh, Kaman; Bharose, Ram; Verma, Sudhir Kumar; Singh, Vimalesh Kumar

2012-06-14

398

Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.  

PubMed

The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9?m), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties. PMID:25037392

Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

2014-10-13

399

Particle geometry affects differentially substrate composition and enzyme profiles by Pleurotus ostreatus growing on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Pleurotus ostreatus was analyzed on three particle sizes of sugar cane bagasse: 0.92mm and1.68mm in diameter, in addition to heterogeneous fibers (average 2.9mm in diameter). Specific growth rate on heterogeneous particles was lower (?=0.043h?1), although soluble protein production was maximal (809?g\\/g dry wt). Higher ? values were reached on the other two particles sizes (0.049–0.05h?1) with less

Isabel Membrillo; Carmen Sánchez; Marcos Meneses; Ernesto Favela; Octavio Loera

2011-01-01

400

Investigation of the Uranium Solubility and Absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles of uranium oxides were produced by combustion of depleted uranium (isotopic contents: 99.8% 238U, 0.2% 235U). Solubility of uranium oxides as well as solubility of metallic uranium in water of various pH values was investigated by x-ray spectroscopy. Also, eventual absorption of dissolved uranium oxides by plants from uranium contaminated ground was investigated. A thin uranium-oxide layer was spread on the soil planted with various vegetables. After a two-month vegetation period the uranium originated radioactivity in the vegetable samples were measured by x-ray spectroscopy and compared with the measurements of samples treated likewise, but in soil without addition of uranium. Due to low radioactivity of the vegetable samples, the spectra were analyzed using Bayesian inference, too.

Anicin, I.; Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Jokovic, D.; Udovicic, V.

2005-01-01

401

Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions  

PubMed Central

It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above ?0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar–membrane interactions offers a reconciliation of conflicting views in earlier reports on sugar-induced modulations of membrane properties.

Andersen, Heidi D.; Wang, Chunhua; Arleth, Lise; Peters, Gunther H.; Westh, Peter

2011-01-01

402

Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga  

SciTech Connect

The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

2003-02-11

403

CO 2 solubility and solubility mechanisms in silicate melts at high pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 solubility has a slight negative temperature dependence in olivine melilitite at 30 kb with 9% CO2 dissolved at 1,450 °C, 8.5% at 1,550 °C and 8.3% at 1,650° C. CO2 is dissolved as the carbonate molecule (CO32-) only. Feldspar melts (albite-anorthite) dissolve much less CO2 at 30 kb (around 2%) with a slight increase with increasing anorthite content. A

G. Brey

1976-01-01

404

Determination of stereoisomer in sugars by THz-TDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using dipole-antennas on LT-GaAs layers as THzemitter and detector with fs-fiber laser as the excitation light source was applied to determine the stereoisomer of sugars in carefully controlled environment with low humidity below 5% at 20°C. Commercially available ?-D-lactose including about 4% anomer and ?-D-lactose including below 30% anomer were used as stereoisomer samples. The absorption spectra of compounds by the ?-D- and ?-D-lactose powders with various ratios were successively deconvoluted to four spectra by Lorentzian and dependent on the composition ratio. Integrated absorptions due to ?-D-lactose and ?-D-lactose determined the decreasing rate (r?) and the increasing rate (r?) for the composition ratio of the ?-D-lactose powder, because the intensities were linearly dependent on the composition ratio. The net-composition ratio of ?-lactose and ?-lactose in the compounds was precisely evaluated by the ratio of the integrated intensities and the value of r? / r?, for example, the anomer-contents in commercially available ?-D-lactose and ?-D-lactose powders were disclosed as 3.9% and 29.1%, respectively. The demonstrated results indicate that THz-TDS is so useful not only for precise qualitativeanalysis but also for precise quantitative-analysis of stereoisomer in sugars with partially different molecular structure such as lactose.

Yamauchi, S.; Imai, Y.; Yokota, H.; Tonouchi, M.

2011-08-01

405

Comparative material balances around pretreatment technologies for the conversion of switchgrass to soluble sugars.  

PubMed

For this project, six chemical pretreatments were compared for the Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), dilute sulfuric acid (DA), lime, liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). For each pretreatment, a material balance was analyzed around the pretreatment, optional post-washing step, and enzymatic hydrolysis of Dacotah switchgrass. All pretreatments+enzymatic hydrolysis solubilized over two-thirds of the available glucan and xylan. Lime, post-washed LHW, and SO(2) achieved >83% total glucose yields. Lime, post-washed AFEX, and DA achieved >83% total xylose yields. Alkaline pretreatments, except AFEX, solubilized the most lignin and a portion of the xylan as xylo-oligomers. As pretreatment pH decreased, total solubilized xylan and released monomeric xylose increased. Low temperature-long time or high temperature-short time pretreatments are necessary for high glucose release from late-harvest Dacotah switchgrass but high temperatures may cause xylose degradation. PMID:21524908

Garlock, Rebecca J; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Pallapolu, V Ramesh; Lee, Y Y; Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R; Holtzapple, Mark T; Falls, Matthew; Sierra-Ramirez, Rocio; Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat A; Redmond, Tim; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E; Donohoe, Bryon S; Vinzant, Todd B; Elander, Richard T; Hames, Bonnie; Thomas, Steve; Warner, Ryan E

2011-12-01

406

Galactomannan, soluble sugar and starch mobilization following germination of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galactomannan reserves in the endosperm of intact fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds were mobilized in part by endo-?-D-mannanase (mannan endo-1,4-beta mannosidase, E?M, EC 3.2.1.78) activity. The hydrolytic products, mannose and galactose, applied to isolated endosperms at physiologically relevant concentrations enhanced E?M activity; but at higher concentrations, E?M activity and its secretion were inhibited. Increases in glucose, fructose, and sucrose in the

Lynnette M. A. Dirk; Alexander R. van der Krol; Dick Vreugdenhil; Henk W. M. Hilhors; J. Derek Bewley

1999-01-01

407

Study of the delignification of hardwood chips in a pulping process for sugar production.  

PubMed

Spent sulphite liquor is a lignocellulosic residue obtained in the acid sulphite pulping process after the digestion of hardwood chips, and composed mainly by lignosulphonates and hemicelluloses. The aim of this work is to study the main process variables at different digestion conditions: maximum temperature, heating rate, and total SO? content, which affect the delignification process of hardwood chips to obtain dissolving pulp and to increase the total amount of fermentable sugars and lignosulphonates presented in this lignocellulosic waste. The best results are 210.5 g/L of lignosulphonates and 47.26 g/L of total monosaccharides obtained at higher temperatures of 1.058T and 1.072T, low heating rates of 0.334R and 0.285R, and total SO? content of 6.20%. Furthermore, concentrate-acid hydrolysis of the liquor with sulphuric acid was performed in order to study the evolution of the sugar content and the release of the inhibitors. Temperature, acid concentration, acid/liquor ratio and time were modified, showing that acid/liquid ratio is the most influential variable. Although increase in the content of sugars in neither case, a notable furfural and acetic acid concentration decrease is registered, 97.88% and 36.57% respectively, at 20 °C, 60% (w/w) sulphuric acid and acid/sample ratio of 1/0.1 (v/v). PMID:22801518

Llano, Tamara; Rueda, Cristina; Quijorna, Natalia; Blanco, Alain; Coz, Alberto

2012-12-31

408

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

1998-01-01

409

Enhancement of Antioxidant Properties and Increase of Content of Vitamin D2 and Non-volatile Components in Fresh Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by ?-irradiation.  

PubMed

Agaricus bisporus is a popular culinary-medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, and ?-irradiation could extend its shelf life. Our objective was to study the content of vitamin D2 and the taste components and antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts from A. bisporus with various doses of ?-irradiation. After irradiation, the vitamin D2 content of 5-10 kGy irradiated mushrooms was in the range of 5.22-7.90 µg/g, higher than that of the unirradiated control (2.24 µg/g). For all treatments, the total content of soluble sugars and polyols ranged from 113 to 142 mg/g, and the monosodium glutamate-like components ranged from 6.57 to 13.50 mg/g, among which the 2.5 kGy irradiated sample has the highest content of flavor 5'-nucleotide. About antioxidant properties, 10 kGy irradiated samples exhibited lower EC50 values than did other samples. EC50 values were less than 5 mg/mL for ethanolic extracts. Total phenols were the major antioxidant components and the total content was 13.24-22.78 mg gallic acid equivalents/g. Based on the results obtained, ?-irradiation could be used to improve the vitamin D2 content and intensity of umami taste in fresh mushrooms. In addition, ?-irradiation not only maintained the antioxidant properties of mushrooms but also enhanced the antioxidant properties to some extent. PMID:24941035

Tsai, Shu-Yao; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Huang, Shih-Jeng

2014-01-01

410

Physical properties of water-soluble pectins in hot- and cold-break tomato pastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical properties of water-soluble pectins (HP and CP) obtained from hot- and cold-break tomato pastes, respectively, and purified by anion-exchange chromatography were compared on the basis of their viscosities. The differences in viscosities between HP and CP solutions depended, not only on the average molecular mass, but also on the chemical structure. Neutral sugar-rich pectin, CP, was more flexible than

Huajuan Lin; Koichi Aizawa; Takahiro Inakuma; Ryo Yamauchi; Koji Kato

2005-01-01

411

Production of ethanol from cellulose using a soluble cellulose derivative as an intermediate  

SciTech Connect

A new processing approach is described for hydrolyzing cellulose materials to fermentable sugars, and its application in converting cellulose to ethanol is discussed. The recalcitrance of cellulose generally causes a low hydrolysis reaction rate and yeild using cellulase enzymes and has discouraged commercial application of this technology. The objective of this investigation was to examine the feasibility of enhancing these process parameters by chemically modifying cellulose to form a water-soluble cellulose derivative, followed by homogeneously hydrolyzing this intermediate using cellulase enzymes.

Zabriskie, D.W.; Qutubuddin, S.A.S.M.; Downing, K.M.

1980-01-01

412

Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.  

PubMed

Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin. PMID:3417603

Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

1988-01-01

413

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

414

Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for `biodiesel' production.

Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N.; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

2005-11-01

415

Green chemistry: biodiesel made with sugar catalyst.  

PubMed

The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for 'biodiesel' production. PMID:16281026

Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

2005-11-10

416

Glycosylation reaction of unprotected sugars with hydroxyalkylthymine.  

PubMed

Under mild conditions (Lewis acid/solvent/room temperature), the reaction of unprotected glucose, deoxyribose or xylose with hydroxylalkylthymine gives selectively nucleoside analogs with a spacer arm between sugar and base moiety. Experimental conditions (Lewis acid, solvent) for this new strategy leading to nucleoside analogs synthesis are discussed. PMID:15281363

Zerrouki, Rachida; Billard, Luc; Granet, Robert; Krausz, Pierre

2004-05-01

417

Enzymatic saccharification of sugar-beet pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine commercial enzymatic preparations have been tested for their ability to release ferulic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, and galacturonic acid from sugar-beet pulp. SP 584, SP 585, and SP 342 from Novo Nordisk gave the highest release of ferulic acid, arabinose, and rhamnose. SP 584 and SP 585 degraded the pulp more rapidly than SP 342. Only SP 342 released free

V. Micard; C. M. G. C. Renard; J.-F. Thibault

1996-01-01

418

Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level  

MedlinePLUS

... glucose monitor (also called a home blood sugar meter, a glucometer, or a glucose meter) and know how to use it. Your doctor ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved meters that work without pricking your finger. But these ...

419

Saving energy at U. S. Sugar Corporation  

SciTech Connect

It is reported that the U.S. Sugar Corporation of Florida has saved the purchase of three million gallons of fuel oil by burning sugarcane bagasse to fuel electrical generators. The company has also entered into a joint venture with Savannah Foods and Industry Inc.; whereby each company will commit $1 million for research on conversion of bagasse to alcohol for gasohol.

Not Available

1980-12-01

420

Mapping sugar beet pectin acetylation pattern.  

PubMed

Homogalacturonan-derived partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates were recovered after enzymatic hydrolysis (endo-polygalacturonase+pectin methyl esterase+side-chain degrading enzymes) of sugar beet pectin followed by anion-exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Around 90% of the GalA and 75% of the acetyl groups present in the initial sugar beet pectin were recovered as homogalacturonan-derived oligogalacturonates, the remaining GalA and acetyl belonging to rhamnogalacturonic regions. Around 50% of the acetyl groups present in sugar beet homogalacturonans were recovered as partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates of degree of polymerisation 5 whose structures were determined by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MSn). 2-O-acetyl- and 3-O-acetyl-GalA were detected in roughly similar amounts but 2,3-di-O-acetylation was absent. Methyl-esterified GalA residues occurred mainly upstream 2-O-acetyl GalA. Oligogalacturonates containing GalA residues that are at once methyl- and acetyl-esterified were recovered in very limited amounts. A tentative mapping of the distribution of acetyl and methyl esters within sugar beet homogalacturonans is proposed. Unsubstituted GalA residues are likely to be present in limited amounts (approximately 10% of total GalA residues), due to the fact that methyl and acetyl groups are assumed to be most often not carried by the same residues. PMID:16024056

Ralet, Marie-Christine; Cabrera, Juan Carlos; Bonnin, Estelle; Quéméner, Bernard; Hellìn, Pilar; Thibault, Jean-François

2005-08-01

421

SUGAR METABOLISM AND PATHOGENICITY OF SPIROPLASMA CITRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Spiroplasma citri is a plant-pathogenic mollicute, phy- logenetically related to Gram-positive bacteria. Spiro- plasma cells are restricted to the phloem sieve elements and are transmitted by leafhopper vectors. Recent re- search has allowed depicting a unique scenario in S. citri pathogenicity, where sugar metabolism plays a major role. In vitro S. citri uses fructose, glucose, and trehalose, which are

J. Renaudin

2006-01-01

422

Effects of Sugar (Sucrose) on Children's Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of sugar on behavior of 45 preschool and elementary school children. Provided all children with basic breakfast that included drink containing either 50 g of sucrose, a comparably sweet placebo, or very little sucrose. Found some small behavior changes in high-sucrose group. All effects were small in magnitude and not considered…

Rosen, Lee A.; And Others

1988-01-01

423

Sugar: World Markets and Trade, May 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sugar production, raw value, for the 2011/12 marketing year is forecast at 168 million metric tons (MMT), up 8 MMT over the previous year. Changes in world production are highlighted by higher production in Brazil, China, India, Russia, and Thailand. Unit...

2011-01-01

424

Ferricyanide Reduction Method for Reducing Sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE ferricyanide reduction method and its modifications1-3 for the determination of reducing sugars are among the more commonly used techniques for this purpose. They depend on the spectrophotometric measurement of the amount of prussian blue formed when excess ferric iron is added to the reactant mixture.

Richard I. Mateles

1960-01-01

425

Moisture and Shelf Life in Sugar Confections  

Microsoft Academic Search

From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is

R. Ergun; R. Lietha; R. W. Hartel

2010-01-01

426

Solubility of LiCoO2 in molten carbonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of LiCoO2 was proportional to Pco2 3\\/2 and Po2-1\\/4 in (Li0.52 Na0.48)2CO3. It obeys the acidic dissolution mechanism. This result was the same dependence as that in (Li0.62K0.38)2CO3. The solubility of LiCoO2 in (Li0.52Na0.48) 2CO3 was about a half of that in (Li0.62K0.38)2CO3. The solubility of LiCoO2 decreased with Li content in Li-K carbonate system. The solubility of

M. Higashino; M. Yanagida; K. Tanimoto; T. Kojima; Y. Tamiya; H. Matsumoto; T. Asai; Y. Miyazaki; Y. Takigawa

1997-01-01

427

Analysis of Biomass Sugars Using a Novel HPLC Method  

SciTech Connect

The precise quantitative analysis of biomass sugars is a very important step in the conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuels and chemicals. However, the most accurate method of biomass sugar analysis is based on the gas chromatography analysis of derivatized sugars either as alditol acetates or trimethylsilanes. The derivatization method is time consuming but the alternative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method cannot resolve most sugars found in biomass hydrolysates. We have demonstrated for the first time that by careful manipulation of the HPLC mobile phase, biomass monomeric sugars (arabinose, xylose, fructose, glucose, mannose, and galactose) can be analyzed quantitatively and there is excellent baseline resolution of all the sugars. This method was demonstrated for standard sugars, pretreated corn stover liquid and solid fractions. Our method can also be used to analyze dimeric sugars (cellobiose and sucrose).

Agblevor, F. A.; Hames, B. R.; Schell, D.; Chum, H. L.

2007-01-01

428

Measurements of particulate sugars at urban and forested suburban sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral sugars (arabinose, fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose) in fine and coarse aerosols were measured at urban and forested suburban sites in Japan. The most dominant compound in the sugar group was glucose at both sites. Size partitioning of the sugars generally showed dominance in the fine mode range but shifted toward the coarse mode range in summer. Seasonal trends in the sugar concentrations in the fine and coarse mode ranges were opposite: higher concentrations of fine mode sugars were found in winter, although coarse mode sugars increased in summer. Fine mode glucose consisted dominantly of the combined form, whereas free glucose increased in the coarse mode range. Although the sources of the sugars in the aerosols remain largely uncertain, primary biogenic particles can be considered as candidates of main sources of the sugars in both coarse and fine mode ranges.

Tominaga, Sae; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Shigihara, Ado; Katono, Koichi; Igawa, Manabu

2011-04-01

429

UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase controls the activity of proceeding sugar-1-kinases enzymes  

PubMed Central

Plant cell wall synthesis requires a number of different nucleotide sugars which provide the building blocks of the different polymers. These nucleotide sugars are mainly provided by de novo synthesis but recycling pathways also contribute to the pools. The last enzyme of the recycling pathway is UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USP), a single copy gene in Arabidopsis, of which a knockout is lethal for pollen development. Here we analyze the dependency between USP enzyme activity and the upstream glucuronokinase. Gene silencing of USP by miRNA cause a concomitant reduction of USP and of glucuronokinase activity presumably to prevent the accumulation of sugar-1-phosphates interfering with normal metabolism and depleting the phosphate pool of the cell.

Geserick, Claudia; Tenhaken, Raimund

2013-01-01

430

Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

PubMed Central

Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar) levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants.

Papini-Terzi, Flavia S; Rocha, Flavia R; Vencio, Ricardo ZN; Felix, Juliana M; Branco, Diana S; Waclawovsky, Alessandro J; Del Bem, Luiz EV; Lembke, Carolina G; Costa, Maximiller DL; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel GA; Ulian, Eugenio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Glaucia M

2009-01-01

431

Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL  

SciTech Connect

The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility products, complex stability constants, and redox potentials for radionuclides in different oxidation states, form the underlying database to be used for those calculations. The potentially low solubilities of many radionuclides in natural waters constitute the first barrier for their migration from the repository into the environment. Evaluation of this effect requires a knowledge of the site-specific water chemistry and the expected spatial and temporal ranges of its variability. Quantitative determinations of radionuclide solubility in waters within the range of chemistry must be made. Speciation and molecular complexation must be ascertained to interpret and apply solubility results. The solubilities thus determined can be used to assess the effectiveness of solubility in limiting radionuclide migration. These solubilities can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of other retardation processes expected to occur once dissolution of the source material and migration begin. Understanding the solubility behavior of radionuclides will assist in designing valuable sorption experiments that must be conducted below the solubility limit since only soluble species participate in surface reactions and sorption processes. The present strategy for radionuclide solubility tasks has been to provide a solubility model from bulk-experiments that attempt to bracket the estimate made for this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) of water conditions on site. The long-term goal must be to develop a thermodynamic database for solution speciation and solid-state determination as a prerequisite for transport calculations and interpretation of empirical solubility data. The model has to be self-consistent and tested against known solubility studies in order to predict radionuclide solubilities over the continuous distribution ranges of potential water compositions for performance assessment of the site. Solubility studies upper limits for radionuclide concentrations in natural waters. The concentration in the aqueous phase is controlled by the radionuclide-bearing solid phase and by

C. Stockman

2001-01-26

432

Sugar effects on early seedling development in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugars affect a broad variety of processes, from growth and development to gene expression. Although it has already been shown\\u000a that sugars act as signaling molecules, little is known about the mechanisms by which plants respond to them. Much progress\\u000a has been made on understanding sugar sensing and signaling thanks to the analysis of mutants with abnormal sugar response.\\u000a Some

Sara Rognoni; Sheng Teng; Laura Arru; Sjef C. M. Smeekens; Pierdomenico Perata

2007-01-01

433

Counter-current extraction of sweet sorghum sugar for fermentation  

SciTech Connect

A small counter-current extractor in the form of a heated inclined screw was tested to remove residual sugar from the bagasse after sweet sorghum was passed through one roller mill. Roller milling alone recovered only 45% of total sugar. Combined efficiency of milling and extraction was 95%. Combined pressed juice (17% sugar) and extract (10% sugar) produces a 12.5% solids juice for fermentation.

Toledo, R.T.

1985-01-01

434

Calcite solubility in supercritical CO 2?H 2O fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extraction-quench apparatus was used to measure calcite solubilities in supercritical CO 2?H 2O mixtures. Experiments were conducted at 1 kbar and 2 kbar, between 240°C and 620°C and from XCO 2 = .02 toXCO 2 = .15 in order to determine the solubility behavior as a function of pressure, temperature and CO 2 content. The results indicate that calcite solubilities under these conditions behave similarly to previously investigated calcite solubilities at lower pressures and temperatures (SHARP and Kennedy, 1965). At constant XCO 2, the solubility increases with increasing pressure, but it decreases with increasing temperature. When the temperature and pressure are constant, the calcite solubility rises with increasing XCO 2 to a maximum value at XCO 2 between 0.02 and 0.05. For higher CO 2 contents, up to XCO 2 = .15, the calcite solubility decreases, probably due to the decrease of H 2O activities to values significantly below unity. The solubility behavior can be successfully modeled by making the assumption that Ca ++ is the dominant calcium species and that the carbon-bearing species are CO 2(aq) and HCO -3. Since for these dilute H 2O?CO 2 fluids, all activity coefficients can be assumed to not differ significantly from unity, ionization constants for the reaction H 2O + CO 2(aq) H + + HCO -3 can be calculated at 1 and 2 kbar between 250°C and 550°C. These calculated values are in good agreement with the low temperature determinations of the ionization constants for this reaction determined by Read (1975). Values of the molal Gibbs free energy of CO 2(aq) obtained in our study exhibit a much greater positive departure from ideality than those calculated with the modified Redlich-Kwong equations of either Flowers (1979) or Kerrick and Jacobs (1981) for dilute CO 2 aqueous solutions.

Fein, Jeremy B.; Walther, John V.

1987-06-01

435

Formation and Characterization of Marigranules from Tryptophan and Sugars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We found that molecular oxygen and aromatic amino acids such as tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine were essential for the formation of marigranules. Among aromatic amino acids, tryptophan gave the best yield of marigranules. Among indole derivatives, kynurenine gave the best yield of marigranules. Large marigranules (0.3 3 ?m in diameter) were formed from tryptophan in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+, and small marigranules (0.2 0.6 ?m in diameter) were produced in the absence of such divalent metal ions. Marigranules formed from tryptophan were partially solubilized with methanol and completely solubilized with dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl-formamide. The solubilized marigranules consisted of polymers with molecular weights of 2×103 and 105 107 daltons. The methanol-soluble fraction provided well-defined vesicles upon sonication. Marigranule-like particles were formed from D,L-glyceraldehyde, D-erythrose and D-ribose but they were not formed from glycolaldehyde, L-arabinose and D-glucose. Among sugars, D-erythrose gave the best yield of the particles.

Yanagawa, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yoko

1984-12-01

436

Sugar-based peptidomimetics inhibit amyloid ?-peptide aggregation.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the oligomerization and amyloid fibril formation of amyloid ?-peptide (A?). We describe a novel class of small water-soluble A? binding peptidomimetics based on two hydrophobic Ala-Val and Val-Leu dipeptides linked to a D-glucopyranosyl scaffold through aminoalkyl and carboxyethyl links in C1 and C6 positions. These compounds combine the targeting of hydrophobic recognition interfaces with an original hydrophilic sugar ?-breakage strategy. These molecules were shown, by fluorescence thioflavin-T assays, to dramatically slow down the kinetics of amyloid fibril formation even at a low peptidomimetics to A? ratio of 0.1:1. Electron microscopy images revealed that the peptidomimetics efficiently reduced the amount of typical amyloid fibrils. NMR saturation transfer difference experiments indicated that these molecules interact with A? aggregated species through their hydrophobic amino acid residues. This inhibition effect was found to be sequence-specific since these molecules did not alter the kinetics of aggregation of another amyloid peptide, IAPP, involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22027101

Dorgeret, Bertrand; Khemtémourian, Lucie; Correia, Isabelle; Soulier, Jean-Louis; Lequin, Olivier; Ongeri, Sandrine

2011-12-01

437

Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility provides an animated, visual interpretation of the different solubilities of related salts based on simple entropy changes associated with dissolution: configurational disorder and thermal disorder. This animation can also help improve students conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium before any quantitative interpretation of equilibrium constants is attempted.

438

The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

1998-01-01

439

Effect of indigestible sugars on nitrogen utilization in adult rabbits.  

PubMed

To determine the effects of indigestible sugars on the digestibilities of nutrients and utilization of nitrogen (N) in adult male rabbits, 12 rabbits with or without a collar that prevented cecotrophy were fed experimental diets for 8 days, comprising 3 days for adaptation and 5 days for collection of feces and urine. The experimental diets were formulated by adding D-mannitol or citrus pectin to a commercial diet at 60 g/kg. In the rabbits allowed cecotrophy, mannitol increased the absorption of crude ash but did not significantly alter the digestibilities of crude protein (CP), dry matter and acid-detergent fiber. By contrast, the digestibility of CP was decreased by pectin. The ratios of retained N to consumed N and absorbed N were elevated by mannitol. In the rabbits prevented from cecotrophy, mannitol had no effect on N retention, but increased the N content of cecotrophs (soft feces) and the ratio of the N content of cecotrophs to consumed N. Pectin did not have any significant influences on N retention and the N content of cecotrophs. These results suggest that D-mannitol stimulates cecal microbial proliferation, thereby improving N utilization in rabbits. PMID:21729209

Li, Xiao; Min, Xiao; Tsuzuki, Yuta; Sakaguchi, Ei

2011-04-01

440

The mechanism of sugar uptake by sugarcane suspension cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane cell suspensions took up sugar from the medium at rates comparable to or greater than sugarcane tissue slices or plants in the field. This system offers an opportunity for the study of kinetic and energetic mechanisms of sugar transport in storage parenchyma-like cells in the absence of heterogeneity introduced by tissues. The following results were obtained: (a) The sugar

E. Komor; M. Thorn; A. Maretzki

1981-01-01