Sample records for soluble sugar content

  1. Changes in germination, growth and soluble sugar contents of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seeds under various abiotic stresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabhjot Kaur Gill; Arun Dev Sharma; Prabhjeet Singh; Sukhdev Singh Bhullar

    2003-01-01

    The effect of various abiotic stresses on germination rate, growth and soluble sugar content in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. CSH 6 seed embryos and endosperm during early germination was investigated. Under stress conditions germination, water potential and tissue water content decreased markedly. Subsequently, this reduction resulted in marked decreases in fresh weight both in embryos and endosperm. Conversely, a

  2. Sugar profiles and soluble and insoluble dietary fiber contents of fruits in Thailand markets.

    PubMed

    Chareoansiri, Rin; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine sugar and dietary fiber contents in 37 varieties of Thai fruits. Sugars were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and dietary fiber values were measured by the enzymatic-gravimetric method. The total sugar (sucrose, fructose and glucose) content ranged from 4.5 g/100 g (strawberry) to 20.3 g/100 g (ripe banana; hawm variety) edible portion. All varieties of ripe banana provided good sources of glucose, fructose and total sugar. The total dietary fiber content ranged from 0.6 g/100 g (watermelon) to 11.5 g/100 g (sapodilla) edible portion. The rank of TDF contents per 100 g edible portion was sapodilla > durian > guava and strawberry > apple > Chinese pear > sugar apple > star fruit. Other fruits contained total dietary fiber values lower than 2.4 g/100 g edible portion, especially watermelon, which had the lowest total dietary fiber content (0.6-0.7 g/100 g edible portion). PMID:19255919

  3. [Effects of simulated acid rain and its acidified soil on soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings].

    PubMed

    Tong, Guanhe; Liang, Huiling

    2005-08-01

    The study showed that the cation release of simulated rain caused soil acidification and base ions release. With the decrease of simulated acid rain pH from 5.6 to 2.5, the acid rain-leached soil pH decreased from 6.06 to 3.41, and its total amount of exchange base ions decreased from 56.5 to 41.1 mmol x kg(-1). Spraying simulated acid rain on the shoots of wheat seedlings planted on such acidified soils caused a rapid decrease in the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings, and reduced some of their physiological activities. The effect of spraying simulated acid rain on the soluble sugar, nitrogen, and chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic rate of wheat stems and leaves was larger than that of acidified soil, while the effect of the latter on the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents and the physiological activity of NR and GOGAT in root system of wheat seedlings was larger than that of the former. The intensive acid rain of pH < or = 3.0 and the corresponding acidified soil had an obvious harm to the growth and physiological activity of wheat seedlings. PMID:16262064

  4. [Study on predicting total acid content and soluble sugar of tomato juice by near infrared optical fiber spectrometer technique].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Zhang, Bing-Xiu

    2014-02-01

    In order to explore a simple, rapid and efficient tomato quality detection method, in the present experiment near infrared spectroscopy and optical fiber sensing technology were applied to quickly measure the nutrition ingredient content in tomato juice samples. The main instrument used in this experiment was near infrared optical fiber spectrometer in a wavelength range from 900 to 2 500 nm, which measured the absorbance of the tomato juice samples; A collection of one hundred and sixty-four tomato juice samples were selected as the standard samples, the spectra and the corresponding chemical value were measured. Partial least squares (PLS) was adopted to establish the mathematical model of the total acid and soluble sugar content in tomato juice samples, and the regression equation was statistically analysed. The total acid in tomato juice prediction correlation coefficient was 0.967, calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) was 0.133, standard error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.103; the soluble sugar prediction correlation coefficient is 0.976, calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) was 0.463, and the standard error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0. 460. The above data achieved better forecasting results, which showed that the method of quantitative analysis of tomato fruit multicomponent content was feasible. The method is rapid, simple and can do multicomponent analysis on the same sample simultaneously. It is a promising sensor and gradually becoming a international research focus in sensor field. PMID:24822399

  5. Effect of macronutrients and pH on the growth, nitrogen fixation and soluble sugar content of water fern Azolla pinnata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. R. Subudhi; P. K. Singh

    1979-01-01

    Deficiency in Ca and P in mineral medium reduced the growth and nitrogen content ofAzolla pinnata but increased the content of soluble sugars in the plant; the deficiency in K and Mg was less effective in retarding the\\u000a growth. The pH of the medium from 5 to 8 encouraged the growth and nitrogen fixation, whereas acidic pH of 4 as

  6. Sensory profile, soluble sugars, organic acids, and mineral content in milk- and soy-juice based beverages.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José

    2015-04-15

    The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941 mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278 mg/L) and phosphate (51-428 mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers. PMID:25466130

  7. Solubility of sugars and sugar alcohols in ionic liquids: measurement and PC-SAFT modeling.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Aristides P; Held, Christoph; Rodríguez, Oscar; Sadowski, Gabriele; Macedo, Eugénia A

    2013-08-29

    Biorefining processes using ionic liquids (ILs) require proper solubility data of biomass-based compounds in ILs, as well as an appropriate thermodynamic approach for the modeling of such data. Carbohydrates and their derivatives such as sugar alcohols represent a class of compounds that could play an important role in biorefining. Thus, in this work, the pure IL density and solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in five different ILs were measured between 288 and 339 K. The ILs under consideration were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][DCA]), Aliquat dicyanamide, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate. Comparison with the literature data was performed, showing good agreement. With the exception of [bmim][DCA], the solubility of these sugar alcohols in the other ILs is presented for the first time. The measured data as well as previously published solubility data of glucose and fructose in these ILs were modeled by means of PC-SAFT using a molecular-based associative approach for ILs. PC-SAFT was used in this work as it has shown to be applicable to model the solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in ILs (Paduszy?ski; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 7034-7046). For this purpose, three pure IL parameters were fitted to pure IL densities, activity coefficients of 1-propanol at infinite dilution in ILs, and/or xylitol solubility in ILs. This approach allows accurate modeling of the pure IL data and the mixture data with only one binary interaction parameter k(ij) between sugar and the IL or sugar alcohol and the IL. In cases where only the pure IL density and activity coefficients of 1-propanol at infinite dilution in ILs were used for the IL parameter estimation, the solubility of the sugars and sugar alcohols in the ILs could be predicted (k(ij) = 0 between sugar and the IL or sugar alcohol and the IL) with reasonable accuracy. PMID:23952078

  8. Sugar Monomer and Oligomer Solubility 179 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 105108, 2003

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Sugar Monomer and Oligomer Solubility 179 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 105­108, 2003-2289/03/105-108/0179/$20.00 179 *Author to whom all correspondence and reprint requests should be addressed. Sugar Monomer to describe the aqueous solubility of sugar monomers and oligomers. In this work, we measured the solubili

  9. SUGAR CONTENT OF THE NECTARY EXUDATE EPIPACTIS ATROPURPUREA RAFIN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SUGAR CONTENT OF THE NECTARY EXUDATE OF EPIPACTIS ATROPURPUREA RAFIN MARIA SALOMÃ? S. PAIS, 1899 Lisboa Codex, Portugal ABSTRACT In order to study the sugar content of the nectary of raffinose was also found. Key-Words : Epipactis - Gas chromatography - Nectaries - Orchids - Sugars

  10. Seasonal variations in soluble sugars and starch within woody stems of Corms sericea L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. ASHWORTH; V. E. STIRM; J. J. VOLENEC

    Carbohydrate composition changed seasonally in red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) stem tissues. Starch concentration was highest in fall and decreased to a minimum in midwinter. Coincident with the breakdown of starch in fall, there was an increase in the concentrations of soluble sugars. Soluble sugars were present in highest concentrations in midwinter. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose were the

  11. Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release Michael H. Studera,b,1 , Jaclyn D fuels from lignocel- lulosic biomass is a plant's recalcitrance to releasing sugars bound in the cell and guaiacyl units (S/G ratio). This subset was tested for total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis

  12. Seasonal variations in soluble sugars and starch within woody stems of Cornus sericea L.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, E N; Stirm, V E; Volenec, J J

    1993-12-01

    Carbohydrate composition changed seasonally in red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) stem tissues. Starch concentration was highest in fall and decreased to a minimum in midwinter. Coincident with the breakdown of starch in fall, there was an increase in the concentrations of soluble sugars. Soluble sugars were present in highest concentrations in midwinter. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose were the predominant soluble sugars present in both bark and wood tissues. In early spring, the soluble sugar concentration decreased and the concentration of starch increased. The seasonal interchange between sugars and starch did not simply reflect a general quantitative shift in the balance between sugars and starch because qualitative changes in soluble sugars were also noted. The most striking changes involved the trisaccharide raffinose. Raffinose was barely detectable in summer and early fall, but increased to one fifth and one third of the total soluble sugars in January samples of bark and wood tissues, respectively. The potential physiological role of raffinose in overwintering red osier dogwood tissue is discussed. PMID:14969993

  13. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    PubMed

    K?vrak, ?brahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields. PMID:25169839

  14. So Sweet: Predict Sugar Content in Food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners will predict how much sugar is in familiar cereals and then use Nutrition Fact Labels to find out. Which cereals are the healthiest? Which has the least sugar? Learners also discuss whether advertisers are likely to tout or hide the amount of sugar in their foods. Variations include trying this basic activity with different foods and with salty snacks. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

  15. Solubility and Dissolution Enhancement of Etoricoxib by Solid Dispersion Technique Using Sugar Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abhisekh; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Panda, Satyabrata

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve solubility and dissolution of the poorly aqueous soluble drug, etoricoxib by solvent evaporation technique using various sugar carriers, such as lactose, sucrose, and mannitol. Etoricoxib solid dispersions and their respective physical mixtures using lactose, sucrose, and mannitol were prepared in different ratios by solvent evaporation technique. The percent yield, drug content, saturation solubility, and in vitro dissolution of etoricoxib solid dispersions and physical mixtures were analyzed. Etoricoxib solid dispersions were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, and DSC analysis. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the possibility of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in various solid dispersions. The XRD and DSC studies indicated the transformation of crystalline etoricoxib (in pure drug) to amorphous etoricoxib (in solid dispersions) by the solid dispersion technology. Both the aqueous solubility and dissolution of etoricoxib were observed in all etoricoxib solid dispersions as compared with pure etoricoxib and their physical mixtures. The in vitro dissolution studies exhibited improved dissolution in case of solid dispersion using lactose than the solid dispersions using both sucrose and mannitol. The in vitro dissolution of etoricoxib from these solid dispersions followed Hixson-Crowell model. PMID:22389861

  16. Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneous field-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was to quantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R); g 100g**-1 roo...

  17. Seasonal patterns of reserve and soluble carbohydrates in mature sugar maple (Acer

    E-print Network

    Constabel, Peter

    Seasonal patterns of reserve and soluble carbohydrates in mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum) B patterns of production, accumulation, and utilization of nonstructural carbohydrates that are closely of both reserve and soluble carbohydrates in the leaves, twigs, branches, and trunks of healthy mature

  18. Production of soluble sugar from cellulosic materials by repeated use of a reversibly soluble-autoprecipitating cellulase.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, M; Hoshino, K; Watanabe, K; Sugai, K; Fujii, M

    1992-02-01

    A reversibly soluble-autoprecipitating cellulase was prepared by covalently immobilizing Meicelase on an enteric coating polymer (AS-L, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate). The immobilized enzyme (M-AS) was reversibly soluble-insoluble depending on the pH of the reaction medium. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of M-AS, in a soluble state, for microcrystalline cellulose was higher than that of the conventional solid immobilized enzyme. On the other hand, M-AS, in an insoluble state, and good properties of self-sedimentation, and a large portion of M-AS spontaneously precipitated for about 15 min at pH 3.8. In the repeated hydrolysis of rice straw, delignified with sodium hydroxide using a bioreactor with a conical bottom, M-AS was separated batchwise from a production solution by self-sedimentation in a conical bottom of the bioreactor. When delignified, rice straw was hydrolyzed repeatedly by reuse of M-AS; the total amount of soluble sugar produced from 5 g of delignified rice straw was 2.7 g. Further, by the hydrolysis method with repeated removal of reaction inhibitors (soluble sugar), the time required for converting the same amount of delignified rice straw to soluble sugar was significantly reduced, as compared with that by the standard reaction method. PMID:18600944

  19. [Rapid determination of beet sugar content using near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Ren, Jian; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Zhao, Li-Ying; Li, Mao-Mao

    2014-10-01

    In order to classify and set different prices on basis of difference of beet sugar content in the acquisition process and promote the development of beet sugar industry healthily, a fast, nondestructive, accurate method to detect sugar content of beet was determined by applying near infrared spectroscopy technology. Eight hundred twenty samples from 28 representative varieties of beet were collected as calibration set and 70 samples were chosen as prediction set. Then near infrared spectra of calibration set samples were collected by scanning, effective information was extracted from NIR spectroscopy, and the original spectroscopy data was optimized by data preprocessing methods appropriately. Then partial least square(PLS)regression was used to establish beet sugar quantitative prediction mathematical model. The performances of the models were evaluated by the root mean square of cross-validation (RMSECV), the coefficient of determination (R2) of the calibration model and the standard error of prediction (SEP), and the predicted results of these models were compared. Results show that the established mathematical model by using first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate transformation (SNV) coupled with partial least squares has good predictive ability. The R2 of calibration models of sugar content of beet is 0.908 3, and the RMSECV is 0.376 7. Using this model to forecast the prediction set including 70 samples, the correlation coefficient is 0.921 4 between predicted values and measured values, and the standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.439, without significant difference (p > 0.05) between predicted values and measured values. These results demonstrated that NIRS can take advantage of simple, rapid, nondestructive and environmental detection method and could be applied to predict beet sugar content. This model owned high accuracy and can meet the precision need of determination of beet sugar content. This detection method could be used to classify and set different prices on basis of difference of beet sugar content in the acquisition process. PMID:25739216

  20. Soluble Sugars and Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes Related to Cold Acclimation of Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grafted on Different Rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    Turhan, Ece; Ergin, Sergul

    2012-01-01

    The bark tissues were collected from 4-year-old sweet cherry trees cvs. 0900 Ziraat and Lambert grafted on Gisela 5 and Mazzard rootstocks in cold-acclimated (CA) and nonacclimated (NA) stages. Bark tissues subjected to 4°C and ?5°C injured to a limited extent in both stages. However, more than 50% injury occurred by temperatures equal to or colder than ?15°C only in NA period. Total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars, and sucrose contents were higher in CA than those in NA stages in all samples. The activities of acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and sucrose synthase (SS) (EC 2.4.2.13) enzymes were higher in NA stage than those in CA stage. Considering the rootstocks, reducing sugars were higher in both cultivars grafted on Gisela 5 whereas sucrose contents were higher in both cultivars grafted on Mazzard. However, the enzyme activities of both cultivars were higher on Mazzard rootstock than on Gisela 5. In conclusion, cold hardiness of sweet cherry graft combinations was suggested by increasing their TSS, reducing sugars, and sucrose contents significantly in the CA stage. Moreover, acid invertase and SS are down regulated during cold acclimation. Indeed the results suggested that Mazzard is more cold-hardy rootstock than Gisela 5. PMID:22629228

  1. EFFECT OF VARIOUS ABIOTIC STRESSES ON THE GROWTH, SOLUBLE SUGARS AND WATER RELATIONS OF SORGHUM SEEDLINGS GROWN IN LIGHT AND DARKNESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabhjot Kaur Gill; Arun Dev Sharma; Prabhjeet Singh; Sukdev Singh Bhullar

    2001-01-01

    Summary. The effect of NaCl, PEG, heat and cold treatments on growth, water content, FW, DW and soluble sugar levels in 3 day old seedlings of Sorghum bicolor CSH-6 were studied. Under these stress conditions, RWC and water potential of seedlings decreased dramatically. Subsequently this reduction resulted in the markable decrease in FW of different parts of stress imposed seedlings.

  2. THE EFFECT OF FIBER SURFACE SUGAR CONTENT ON YARN PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work examining the effect of ageing on cotton fiber surface chemical and HVI properties, yarn processing performance, and yarn quality showed that cotton bales storage for at least two years exhibit signficant changes in a number of these variables including surface sugar content, HVI color...

  3. Countercurrent extraction of soluble sugars from almond hulls and assessment of the bioenergy potential.

    PubMed

    Holtman, Kevin M; Offeman, Richard D; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Bayati, Andre K; Orts, William J

    2015-03-11

    Almond hulls contain considerable proportions (37% by dry weight) of water-soluble, fermentable sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), which can be extracted for industrial purposes. The maximum optimal solids loading was determined to be 20% for sugar extraction, and the addition of 0.5% (w/v) pectinase aided in maintaining a sufficient free water volume for sugar recovery. A laboratory countercurrent extraction experiment utilizing a 1 h steep followed by three extraction (wash) stages produced a high-concentration (131 g/L fermentable sugar) syrup. Overall, sugar recovery efficiency was 88%. The inner stage washing efficiencies were compatible with solution equilibrium calculations, indicating that efficiency was high. The concentrated sugar syrup was fermented to ethanol at high efficiency (86% conversion), and ethanol concentrations in the broth were 7.4% (v/v). Thin stillage contained 233 g SCOD/L, which was converted to biomethane at an efficiency of 90% with a biomethane potential of 297 mL/g SCODdestroyed. Overall, results suggested that a minima of 49 gal (185 L) ethanol and 75 m(3) methane/t hulls (dry whole hull basis) are achievable. PMID:25693995

  4. Solubility Screening Kit Table of Contents

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    and insoluble proteins. RoboPop Solubility Screening Kit together with Novagen's RoboPop Purification Kits (2) allow rapid optimization of the host-vector combinations, expression conditions, and purification PopCulture in a room temperature water bath with gentle swirling or inversion to redissolve. Lysonase

  5. Study on fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt using Vis/NIR spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Feng, Shuijuan; Wu, Di; Li, Xiaoli

    2006-09-01

    In order to measuring the sugar content of yogurt rapidly, a fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt using Vis/NIR-spectroscopy techniques was established. 25 samples selected separately from five different brands of yogurt were measured by Vis/NIR-spectroscopy. The sugar content of yogurt on positions scanned by spectrum were measured by a sugar content meter. The mathematical model between sugar content and Vis/NIR spectral measurements was established and developed based on partial least squares (PLS). The correlation coefficient of sugar content based on PLS model is more than 0.894, and standard error of calibration (SEC) is 0.356, standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.389. Through predicting the sugar content quantitatively of 35 samples of yogurt from 5 different brands, the correlation coefficient between predictive value and measured value of those samples is more than 0.934. The results show the good to excellent prediction performance. The Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique had significantly greater accuracy for determining the sugar content. It was concluded that the Vis/NIRS measurement technique seems reliable to assess the fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt, and a new method for the measurement of sugar content of yogurt was established.

  6. Simultaneous GC-MS quantitation of acids and sugars in the hydrolyzates of immunostimulant, water-soluble polysaccharides of basidiomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Boldizsár; K. Horváth; Gy. Szedlay; I. Molnár-Perl

    1998-01-01

    Summary  The simultaneous quantitation of acids and sugars as their trimethyl silyl (TMS) derivatives has been extended in order to\\u000a identify and quantitate the simple acid and sugar constituents in the hydrolyzates of various immunostimulant, water-soluble\\u000a polysaccharides obtained from various Basidiomycetes, such as Armillariella mellea, Auricularia auricula-judae, Coriolus versicolor,\\u000a Flammulina velutipes, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune,

  7. USDA DATABASE FOR THE ADDED SUGARS CONTENT OF SELECTED FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The database contains carbohydrate, total sugar, and added sugar values for 2,038 foods. Values for total carbohydrate by difference and total sugar were taken from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18 (SR18). Values contain the same number of decimal places as tho...

  8. Prediction of soluble solids content of blueberries using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soluble solids content (SSC) is one of the most important quality parameters for blueberry, and it directly relates to the marketability and shelf life of fresh blueberries. Currently, color imaging technology is being used for color and size grading of fruits like blueberry. The technology is, howe...

  9. Influence of sugar cane burning on aerosol soluble ion composition in Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; da Rocha, G. O.

    Seasonal variability in the major soluble ion composition of atmospheric particulate matter in the principal sugar cane growing region of central São Paulo State indicates that pre-harvest burning of sugar cane plants is an important influence on the regional scale aerosol chemistry. Samples of particulate matter were collected between April 1999 and February 2001 in coarse (>3.5?m) and fine (<3.5?m) fractions, and analysed for HCOO-, CH3COO-, C2O42-, SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg and Ca. Results indicated that the principal sources of the aerosols investigated were local or regional in nature (scale of tens to a few hundreds of km), and that differences between air masses of varying origins were small. Fine particles were typically acidic, containing secondary nitrates, sulphates and organic species. Coarse fraction concentrations were mainly influenced by physical parameters (wind speed, movement of vehicles and surface condition) affecting rates of re-suspension, although secondary nitrate and sulphate were also present in the larger particles. Concentrations of all measured species except sodium and chloride were higher during the burning season. Although concentrations were lower than often found in polluted urban environments, the massive increases during much of the year, due to a single anthropogenic activity (sugar cane burning) are indicative of a very large perturbation of the lower troposphere in the region relative to the natural condition. These aerosols are suspected of promoting respiratory disease. They also represent an important mechanism for the tropospheric transport of species relevant to surface acidification (sulphates, nitrates, ammonium and organic acids) and soil nutrient status (potassium, nitrogen, ammonium, calcium), so their impact on fragile natural ecosystems (following deposition) needs to be considered.

  10. The relationship between growth and soluble sugar concentration of Aloe vera plants grown under three levels of irradiance

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, A.; Gebre, G.M.; Tschaplinski, T.J. (Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela))

    1994-06-01

    The CAM plant Aloe vera was vegetatively propagated and grown under three irradiances: full sun, partial and deep shade (30% and 10% of ambient light, respectively) to determine the effect on growth, biomass allocation, and sugar concentration. After one year, the plants were harvested to determine final dry weight and the sugar concentration of the leaf mucilaginous gel. Plants grown under full sun produced twice the total dry weight of those grown under partial shade, with the difference equally partitioned between the shoot and root. Plants grown under full sun also produced thicker leaves, and more numerous and large auxiliary shoots. The dry weight of plants grown under deep shade was 8.6% that of plants grown under full sun, which was directly proportional to the irradiance received. Partial shade increased the number and length of leaves produced on the primary shoot, but the allocation of carbon to roots was the lowest of all treatments. Partial shade reduced the total sugar concentration of the leaf gel matrix to 34% that of plants under full sun, due to reductions in all sugars measured. Glucose was the most abundant soluble sugar, with its relative contribution to the total pool increasing under shade. In summary, the proportional effects of partial shading were greater on soluble sugar concentrations than on the total plant biomass produced.

  11. A near infrared spectroscopic assay for stalk soluble sugars, bagasse enzymatic saccharification and wall polymers in sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Leiming; Li, Meng; Huang, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Hui; Zou, Weihua; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Ying; Fan, Chunfen; Zhang, Rui; Jing, Haichun; Peng, Liangcai; Feng, Shengqiu

    2015-02-01

    In this study, 123 sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) accessions and 50 mutants were examined with diverse stalk soluble sugars, bagasse enzymatic saccharification and wall polymers, indicating the potential near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assay for those three important parameters. Using the calibration and validation sets and modified squares method, nine calibration optimal equations were generated with high determination coefficient on the calibration (R(2)) (0.81-0.99), cross-validation (R(2)cv) (0.77-0.98), and the ratio performance deviation (RPD) (2.07-7.45), which were at first time applied by single spectra for simultaneous assay of stalk soluble sugars, bagasse hydrolyzed sugars, and three major wall polymers in bioenergy sweet sorghum. PMID:25484122

  12. Visible injury and nitrogen metabolism of rice leaves under ozone stress, and effect on sugar and protein contents in grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. Z.; Sui, L. H.; Wang, W.; Geng, C. M.; Yin, B. H.

    2012-12-01

    Effect of ozone on the visible injury, nitrogen metabolism of rice leaves, and sugar and protein contents in rice grain was carried out by the open-top chamber. The results indicated that ozone stress caused obvious injury in rice leaves. The increase in ozone concentration had significant influence on the nitrate reductase activity in rice leaves. At the ozone concentration of 40, 80 and 120 nL L-1, the nitrate reductase activities in rice leaves in the tillering stage, the jointing stage, the heading stage and milk stage were separately reduced by 25.3-86.3%, 57.4-97.8%, 91.0-99.3% and 89.5-96.7% compared with those in the control treatment. As ozone concentration increased, the contents of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in rice leaves were obviously reduced. Ozone stress also had an influence on the contents of sugar and protein in rice grain. The stress of high ozone concentration (120 nL L-1) caused the starch content in grain to reduce by 15.8% than that in the control treatment, but total soluble sugars in grain was actually enhanced by 47.5% compared to that in the control treatment. The contents of albumin and glutenin in rice grain increased with increasing the ozone concentration, and prolamin and crude protein contents in rice grain increased only at the higher ozone concentration. Under ozone concentration of 120 nL L-1, the contents of albumin, glutenin and crude protein in rice grain were increased respectively by 23.1%, 21.0% and 21.1% compared with those in the control treatment. The result suggested that ozone tress has an influence on nitrogen metabolism of rice leaves and grain quality.

  13. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  14. Gas Chromatographic Quantitation of Sugars and Nonvolatile Water-Soluble Organic Acids in Commercial Cheddar Cheese[1] and [2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte D. Harvey; Robert Jenness; H. A. Morris

    1981-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method was developed and tested for quantitating sugars as trimethylsilyl derivatives and nonvolatile water-soluble organic acids as methyl esters in extracts from Cheddar cheese. Twelve lots of commercial cheese ranging in age from 5 to 164 days con- tained 72 to 479 mg lactose, 2 to 147 mg galactose, .4 to 11 mg glucose, 1.0 to 1.6

  15. Deconstruction of lignocellulose into soluble sugars by native and designer cellulosomes.

    PubMed

    Moraïs, Sarah; Morag, Ely; Barak, Yoav; Goldman, Dan; Hadar, Yitzhak; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Wilson, David B; Bayer, Edward A

    2012-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, the most abundant polymer on Earth, is typically composed of three major constituents: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The crystallinity of cellulose, hydrophobicity of lignin, and encapsulation of cellulose by the lignin-hemicellulose matrix are three major factors that contribute to the observed recalcitrance of lignocellulose. By means of designer cellulosome technology, we can overcome the recalcitrant properties of lignocellulosic substrates and thus increase the level of native enzymatic degradation. In this context, we have integrated six dockerin-bearing cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, into a chimeric scaffoldin engineered to bear a cellulose-binding module and the appropriate matching cohesin modules. The resultant hexavalent designer cellulosome represents the most elaborate artificial enzyme composite yet constructed, and the fully functional complex achieved enhanced levels (up to 1.6-fold) of degradation of untreated wheat straw compared to those of the wild-type free enzymes. The action of these designer cellulosomes on wheat straw was 33 to 42% as efficient as the natural cellulosomes of Clostridium thermocellum. In contrast, the reduction of substrate complexity by chemical or biological pretreatment of the substrate removed the advantage of the designer cellulosomes, as the free enzymes displayed higher levels of activity, indicating that enzyme proximity between these selected enzymes was less significant on pretreated substrates. Pretreatment of the substrate caused an increase in activity for all the systems, and the native cellulosome completely converted the substrate into soluble saccharides. IMPORTANCE Cellulosic biomass is a potential alternative resource which could satisfy future demands of transportation fuel. However, overcoming the natural lignocellulose recalcitrance remains challenging. Current research and development efforts have concentrated on the efficient cellulose-degrading strategies of cellulosome-producing anaerobic bacteria. Cellulosomes are multienzyme complexes capable of converting the plant cell wall polysaccharides into soluble sugar products en route to biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels. Using a designer cellulosome approach, we have constructed the largest form of homogeneous artificial cellulosomes reported to date, which bear a total of six different cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium Thermobifida fusca. These designer cellulosomes were comparable in size to natural cellulosomes and displayed enhanced synergistic activities compared to their free wild-type enzyme counterparts. Future efforts should be invested to improve these processes to approach or surpass the efficiency of natural cellulosomes for cost-effective production of biofuels. PMID:23232718

  16. QTL Analysis in a Complex Autopolyploid: Genetic Control of Sugar Content in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Ray; Liu, Sin-Chieh; Moore, Paul H.; Irvine, James E.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2001-01-01

    QTL mapping in autopolyploids is complicated by the possibility of segregation for three or more alleles at a locus and by a lack of preferential pairing, however the subset of polymorphic alleles that show simplex segregation ratios can be used to locate QTLs. In autopolyploid Saccharum, 36 significant associations between variation in sugar content and unlinked loci detected by 31 different probes were found in two interspecific F1 populations. Most QTL alleles showed phenotypic effects consistent with the parental phenotypes, but occasional transgressive QTLs revealed opportunities to purge unfavorable alleles from cultivars or introgress valuable alleles from exotics. Several QTLs on homologous chromosomes appeared to correspond to one another–multiple doses of favorable ‘alleles’ at such chromosomal region(s) yielded diminishing returns–such negative epistasis may contribute to phenotypic buffering. Fewer sugar content QTLs were discovered from the highest-sugar genotype than from lower-sugar genotypes, perhaps suggesting that many favorable alleles have been fixed by prior selection, i.e. that the genes for which allelic variants (QTLs) persist in improved sugarcanes may be a biased subset of the population of genes controlling sugar content. Comparison of these data to mutations and QTLs previously mapped in maize hinted that seed and biomass crops may share a partly-overlapping basis for genetic variation in carbohydrate deposition. However, many QTLs do not correspond to known candidate genes, suggesting that other approaches will be necessary to isolate the genetic determinants of high sugar content of vegetative tissues. PMID:11731498

  17. AMINO ACID AND SUGAR CONTENT OF THE NECTAR EXUDATE FROM LIMODORUM ABORTIVUM (ORCHIDACEAE).

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AMINO ACID AND SUGAR CONTENT OF THE NECTAR EXUDATE FROM LIMODORUM ABORTIVUM (ORCHIDACEAE Monle da Caparica, Portugal SUMMARY The amino acid content of nectary exudates from two orchids, L chromatography. Amino acids were analyzed as the corresponding N-heptafluorobutyryl isopropyl esters. For each

  18. Contents of sugars in leaves of drying desiccation tolerant flowering plants, particularly grasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Ghasempour; D. F. Gaff; R. P. W. Williams; R. D. Gianello

    1998-01-01

    Sugar complements were analysed in extracts from leaves of desiccation tolerant species in the angiosperm families Cyperaceae, Gesneriaceae, Liliaceae, Poaceae and Velloziaceae. Total sugar content was higher in live air-dry leaves of all desiccation tolerant species (except the grass Eragrostiella nardoides; 22 µmoles\\/g dw) than in the dead air-dry leaves of the desiccation sensitive grass Sporobolus pyramidalis (36 µmoles\\/g dw).

  19. Changes in sugar composition and cellulose content during the secondary cell wall biogenesis in cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noureddine Abidi; Eric Hequet; Luis Cabrales

    2010-01-01

    Two cotton cultivars TX19 and TX55 (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv.) were planted in the greenhouse and fibers were harvested at different stages of development. The percentage of sugars\\u000a present on the fibers was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and the cellulose content was determined using\\u000a the anthrone method. The percentage of sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and galacturonic acid) showed

  20. Comparative Proteomics of Thellungiella halophila Leaves from Plants Subjected to Salinity Reveals the Importance of Chloroplastic Starch and Soluble Sugars in Halophyte Salt Tolerance*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Wang, Baichen; Wang, Dan; Li, Pinghua; Wang, Limin; Yi, Xiaoping; Huang, Qixing; Peng, Ming; Guo, Anping

    2013-01-01

    Thellungiella halophila, a close relative of Arabidopsis, is a model halophyte used to study plant salt tolerance. The proteomic/physiological/transcriptomic analyses of Thellungiella plant leaves subjected to different salinity levels, reported herein, indicate an extraordinary ability of Thellungiella to adapt to large concentrations of exogenous saline by compartmentalizing Na+ into cell vacuoles and accumulating proline and soluble sugars as organic osmolytes. Salinity stress stimulated the accumulation of starch in chloroplasts, which resulted in a greatly increased content of starch and total sugars in leaves. Comparative proteomics of Thellungiella leaves identified 209 salt-responsive proteins. Among these, the sequences of 108 proteins were strongly homologous to Arabidopsis protein sequences, and 30 had previously been identified as Thellungiella proteins. Functional classification of these proteins into 16 categories indicated that the majority are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, followed by those involved in energy production and conversion, and then those involved in the transport of inorganic ions. Pathway analysis revealed that most of the proteins are involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, carbon fixation, photosynthesis, and glycolysis. Of these processes, the most affected were starch and sucrose metabolism, which might be pivotal for salt tolerance. The gene expression patterns of the 209 salt-responsive proteins revealed through hierarchical clustering of microarray data and the expression patterns of 29 Thellungiella genes evaluated via quantitative RT-PCR were similar to those deduced via proteomic analysis, which underscored the possibility that starch and sucrose metabolism might play pivotal roles in determining the salt tolerance ability of Thellungiella. Our observations enabled us to propose a schematic representation of the systematic salt-tolerance phenotype in Thellungiella and suggested that the increased accumulation of starch, soluble sugars, and proline, as well as subcellular compartmentalization of sodium, might collectively denote important mechanisms for halophyte salt tolerance. PMID:23660471

  1. Comparative material balances around pretreatment technologies for the conversion of switchgrass to soluble sugars

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), dilute sulfuric acid (DA), lime, liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). For each world-wide production is derived from starch-based (e.g. corn) or sugar-based materials (e.g. sugar cane

  2. Profiling Sugars in Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Extracts Assayed for Total Water- and Ethanol-Soluble Carbohydrates: Relationship of Chromatographic to Spectrophotometric Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) of herbage are often quantified by spectrophotometric assays. To determine if quantifying individual sugars from chromatograms could yield results comparable to those obtained by the assays, WSC and ESC were extracted from fr...

  3. Effects of planting date and time of nitrogen application on yield and sugar content of sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Almodares, A; Mostafafi Darany, S M

    2006-07-01

    This experiment was conducted at Azad University experiment station to evaluate the effects of planting date and time of nitrogen application on yield and sugar content of sweet sorghum in 2003. Four planting dates (May 4, March 19, June 3 and June 18) and three stages of nitrogen application (3-5/8 leaf stage, boot stage and soft dough stage) were assigned to the main and subplots, respectively. Plant height and diameter, fresh stalk yield, total dry weight, brix value (soluble solids), sugar content and grain yield were affected by planting date. For all the characteristics, the maximum value was obtained by the first planting date. Only stem height, diameter and total plant dry weights were affected by time of nitrogen application. In these cases, nitrogen application at (3-5/8) leaf stage was superior to others. According to the results, sweet sorghum should be planted on the beginning of May and nitrogen be applied at (3-5/8) leaf stage. PMID:17402257

  4. Physical, chemical and microbiological changes in alcoholic fermentation of sugar syrup from cassava flour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. K. Ocloo; G. S. Ayernor

    Changes in alcoholic fermentation of sugar syrup produced from cassava flour with Saccharomyces cereviseae (baker's yeast) were investigated. Cassava flour paste was hydrolysed using rice malt to produce hydrolysate (sugar syrup), which was fermented at 28 - 30°C for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days. The fermented sugar syrup was analysed for alcohol content, reducing sugars, specific gravity, soluble

  5. Carbon content variation in boles of mature sugar maple and giant sequoia.

    PubMed

    Lamlom, Sabah H; Savidge, Rodney A

    2006-04-01

    At present, a carbon (C) content of 50% (w/w) in dry wood is widely accepted as a generic value; however, few wood C measurements have been reported. We used elemental analysis to investigate C content per unit of dry matter and observed that it varied both radially and vertically in boles of two old-growth tree species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Bucholz). In sugar maple there was considerable variation in tree ring widths among four radii for particular annual layers of xylem, revealing that the annual rate of C assimilation differs around the circumference and from the base of each tree to its top, but the observed variation in C content was unrelated to diameter growth rate and strongly related to the calendar year when the wood was formed. Carbon content in sugar maple wood increased in an approximately linear fashion, from < 50 to 51% from pith to cambium, at both the base and top of the boles. In giant sequoia, C was essentially constant at > 55% across many hundreds of years of heartwood, but it declined abruptly at the sapwood-heartwood boundary and remained lower in all sapwood samples, an indication that heartwood formation involves anabolic metabolism. Factors that may be responsible for the different C contents and trends with age between sugar maple and sequoia trees are considered. Tree-ring data from this study do not support some of the key assumptions made by dendrochronology. PMID:16414925

  6. Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectric property sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenchuan Guo; Xinhua Zhu; Yi Liu; Hong Zhuang

    2010-01-01

    The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500MHz at 25°C. Dielectric constants of pure honeys and water-added honey samples decreased monotonically with increasing frequency, and increased with increasing water content.

  7. Impact of genes and proportional contribution of parental genotypes to inheritance of root yield and sugar content in diploid hybrids of sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Stancic, Ivica; Zivic, Jelica; Petrovic, Sasa; Knezevic, Desimir

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of genes and proportional contribution of parental genotypes on the inheritance of root yield and sugar content in diploid hybrids of sugar beet. The survey included two diploid male-sterile monogerm lines and three single (SC) male-sterile hybrids as maternal components, while three multigerm diploids were used as pollinators. The partitioning of genotypic variance into additive and dominant components was performed by half sibling (HS) and full sibling (FS) covariance. The proportional contribution of individual components of crossbreeding (lines, testers, and interactions) was exhibited in the expression of certain characteristics of F1 generation. Genotypic variance components showed a significant effect of nonadditive gene action (dominance) in the inheritance of root yield and sugar content, while the additive effect of genes was less significant. Maternal components had a greater proportional contribution to root yield, while lines, pollinators, and their interactions had an equal contribution to sugar content. PMID:24600330

  8. COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSES OF VEGETABLE SOYBEAN GENOTYPES FOR SUGAR CONTENTS AND POD DIMENSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have evaluated vegetable soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) for individual sugar content when harvested at reproductive stage (R6-R7). Genetic information on combining ability and the type of gene action that governs the inheritance of seed traits can help in selection of suitable parents...

  9. Soluble carbohydrates content in tomato pollen and its variations along and between blooming periods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Carrizo García; Massimo Guarnieri; Ettore Pacini

    2010-01-01

    The soluble carbohydrates content in the mature (starchless) pollen of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Platense was studied at several moments of the blooming period in two consecutive years. The aim of the analysis was to evaluate if the content of soluble carbohydrates is relatively constant or if it can fluctuate along the blooming period. No significant variations in

  10. Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectrc property sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500 MHz at 25oC. Dielectric constants of pure honeys ...

  11. Spatial–temporal analyses of lycopene and sugar contents in tomatoes during ripening using chemical shift imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Che Cheng; Tsu-Tsuen Wang; Jyh-Horng Chen; Ta-Te Lin

    2011-01-01

    During the ripening process, fruit and vegetables undergo physico-chemical changes which affect their color, texture, aroma, and sugar content, etc. For tomatoes, color change is the main index of ripening stages, and it is associated with metabolized lycopene. In order to detect the internal changes of sugar and lycopene contents in tomatoes during ripening, chemical shift imaging (CSI) and high

  12. Apparatus automatically measures soluble residue content of volatile solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswalt, F. W.

    1969-01-01

    Solvent Purity Meter /SPM/ automatically measures the soluble residue in volatile solvents used in cleaning or extraction of oils, greases, and other nonvolatile materials. The SPM gives instantaneous and continuous readout of soluble contaminant residues in concentrations as low as one part per million of solution.

  13. A reliable and rapid method for soluble sugars and RFO analysis in chickpea using HPAEC-PAD and its comparison with HPLC-RI.

    PubMed

    Gangola, Manu P; Jaiswal, Sarita; Khedikar, Yogendra P; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2014-07-01

    A high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was optimised to separate with precision, accuracy and high reproducibility soluble sugars including oligosaccharides present in pulse meal samples. The optimised method within 20min separated myo-inositol, galactinol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose in chickpea seed meal extracts. Gradient method of eluting solvent (sodium hydroxide) resulted in higher sensitivity and rapid detection compared to similar analytical methods. Peaks asymmetry equivalent to one and resolution value ?1.5 support column's precision and accuracy for quantitative determinations of soluble sugars in complex mixtures. Intermediate precision determined as relative standard deviation (1.8-3.5%) for different soluble sugars confirms reproducibility of the optimised method. The developed method has superior sensitivity to detect even scarcely present verbascose in chickpea. It also quantifies myo-inositol and galactinol making it suitable both for RFO related genotype screening and biosynthetic studies. PMID:24518324

  14. Physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, organic Acid and sugar contents of 12 sweet cherry (prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2015-03-01

    Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among tested cultivars for pH, total soluble solid, hardness, color parameters, antioxidant activities and pomological measurements (P < 0.05). The color parameters were important tools for the determination of fruit maturity and anthocyanin contents. Belge cultivar showed the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanin, while Starks Gold contained the lowest level of anthocyanins. The darker cultivars, measured by ABTS(+•) , DPPH(•) and FRAP, exhibited higher antioxidant activities than the lighter ones. Bing (42.78 g/kg) and Sweetheart (40.53 g/kg) cultivars contained higher levels of malic acid, which was the most intense organic acid in sweet cherries. Four different sugars were observed in the samples and their concentrations ordered as glucose > fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars. PMID:25631389

  15. Relationship between Water Soluble Carbohydrate Content, Aphid Endosymbionts and Clonal Performance of Sitobion avenae on Cocksfoot Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Alkhedir, Hussein; Karlovsky, Petr; Vidal, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Aphids feed on plant phloem sap, rich in sugars but poor in essential amino acids. However, sugars cause osmotic regulation problems for aphids, which they overcome by hydrolysing the sugars in their gut and polymerising the hydrolysis products into oligosaccharides, excreted with honeydew. Aphids harbour primary bacterial endosymbionts, which supply them with essential amino acids necessary for survival. They also harbour secondary (facultative) endosymbionts (sfS), some of which have a positive impact on life history traits, although it is not yet known whether they also play a role in providing effective tolerance to differing levels of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs). We investigated the relationship between WSC content of cocksfoot cultivars and performance of clones of the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae F. We evaluated how clone genotype and their sfS modulate performance on these different cultivars. We therefore examined the performance of genetically defined clones of S. avenae, collected from different host plants, harbouring different sfS. The performance was tested on 10 Dactylis glomerata L. cultivars with varying WSC content. D. glomerata is known as a wild host plant for S. avenae and is also commercially planted. We found that high WSCs levels are responsible for the resistance of D. glomerata cultivars to specific S. avenae clones. The minimum level of WSCs conferring resistance to D. glomerata cultivars was 1.7% dw. Cultivars with a WSC content of 2.2% or higher were resistant to S. avenae and did not allow reproduction. Our results further indicate that sfS modulate to some extend host plant cultivar adaptation in S. avenae. This is the first study revealing the importance of WSCs for aphid performance. Cocksfoot cultivars with a high content of WSCs might be therefore considered for aphid control or used for resistance breeding in this and other grass species, including cereals. PMID:23342134

  16. Relationship between water soluble carbohydrate content, aphid endosymbionts and clonal performance of Sitobion avenae on cocksfoot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Alkhedir, Hussein; Karlovsky, Petr; Vidal, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Aphids feed on plant phloem sap, rich in sugars but poor in essential amino acids. However, sugars cause osmotic regulation problems for aphids, which they overcome by hydrolysing the sugars in their gut and polymerising the hydrolysis products into oligosaccharides, excreted with honeydew. Aphids harbour primary bacterial endosymbionts, which supply them with essential amino acids necessary for survival. They also harbour secondary (facultative) endosymbionts (sfS), some of which have a positive impact on life history traits, although it is not yet known whether they also play a role in providing effective tolerance to differing levels of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs). We investigated the relationship between WSC content of cocksfoot cultivars and performance of clones of the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae F. We evaluated how clone genotype and their sfS modulate performance on these different cultivars. We therefore examined the performance of genetically defined clones of S. avenae, collected from different host plants, harbouring different sfS. The performance was tested on 10 Dactylis glomerata L. cultivars with varying WSC content. D. glomerata is known as a wild host plant for S. avenae and is also commercially planted. We found that high WSCs levels are responsible for the resistance of D. glomerata cultivars to specific S. avenae clones. The minimum level of WSCs conferring resistance to D. glomerata cultivars was 1.7% dw. Cultivars with a WSC content of 2.2% or higher were resistant to S. avenae and did not allow reproduction. Our results further indicate that sfS modulate to some extend host plant cultivar adaptation in S. avenae. This is the first study revealing the importance of WSCs for aphid performance. Cocksfoot cultivars with a high content of WSCs might be therefore considered for aphid control or used for resistance breeding in this and other grass species, including cereals. PMID:23342134

  17. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-01-15

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

  18. SNPs in Genes Functional in Starch-Sugar Interconversion Associate with Natural Variation of Tuber Starch and Sugar Content of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown. PMID:25081979

  19. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ? 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:25308651

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy for sugar-content detection of Fuji apples using optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaping; Ying, Yibin; Liu, Yande

    2004-12-01

    In the near-infrared (NIR) region, every component is corresponding to specific absorption spectra characteristics. So NIR spectroscopy has gained wide acceptance in many research and application fields by virtue of its advantages over other analytical techniques. This study was about nondestructive sugar content detection of "Fuji" apples by means of NIR diffuse reflectance technique using optical fiber. Variance analysis of average absorbency and root mean square (RMS) noise of NIR spectra indicated that different testing positions had little influence on spectra acquisition while different testing distances had an opposite outcome. The relationship between sugar content and NIR spectra of apples was analyzed via multi linear regression (MLR) method using software SAS. Optimal single-wavelength (1453 nm), double-wavelength (1732 nm and 1790 nm), triple-wavelength (1453 nm, 1732 nm and 1790 nm) and quaternion-wavelength (1453 nm, 1732 nm, 1790 nm and 1931 nm) calibration equations were established. Correlation coefficients (R) of the calibration set were 0.754, 0.864, 0.907 and 0.921, respectively, standard error of calibration (SEC) were 1.439¦Brix, 1.103¦Brix, 0.922¦Brix and 0.851¦Brix, respectively. Of the prediction set, correlation coefficients (R) were 0.438, 0.687, 0.746 and 0.868, respectively, standard error of prediction (SEP) were 2.342¦Brix, 1.835¦Brix, 1.171¦Brix and 0.918¦Brix, respectively. The results show that NIR diffuse reflectance technique is a feasible method for nondestructive detection of apple fruit sugar content. Furthermore, this study lays a solid foundation for setting up the sugar content forecasting model of apples.

  1. [Nondestructive sugar content determination of peaches by using near infrared spectroscopy technique].

    PubMed

    Ma, Guang; Fu, Xia-ping; Zhou, Ying; Ying, Yi-bin; Xu, Hui-rong; Xie, Li-juan; Lin, Tao

    2007-05-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely studied and used for rapid and nondestructive measurement of internal qualities of fruits such as sugar content, acidity, firmness, etc. The objective of the present research was to study the potential of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a nondestructive method for the determination of sugar content of Jinhua peaches. NIR spectral data were acquired in the spectral region between 800 nm and 2500 nm using a FT-NIR spectrometer with a bifurcated optic fiber and an InGaAs detector. Statistical models were developed using partial least square regression (PLSR) method by TQ Analyst software. The results of PLSR models for peach flesh of different parts and juice indicated that the model based on average spectra of nine measurements in three different parts of each fruit and the corresponding sugar content obtained better results than those models based on the flesh of one part of each fruit (three measurements) or juice. Spectral data preprocessing of derivative and scattering correction was also discussed. The results showed that the models based on original spectra were better than those based on derivative spectra; and spectra scattering correction could improve the performance of PLSR models. Finally, two models were established based on spectra after multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) preprocessing. The correlation coefficients of calibration and leave-one-out cross-validation of the two models were the same, Rcal = 0.997 and Rcross-v = 0.939. These results show that it is feasible to use NIR spectroscopy technique for quantitative analysis of peach sugar content. PMID:17655101

  2. Changes in soluble sugars in relation to desiccation tolerance and effects of dehydration on freezing characteristics of Acer platanoides and Acer pseudoplatanus seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pukacka; P. M. Pukacki

    1997-01-01

    The role of soluble sugars in desiccation tolerance was investigated in seeds of two species from the genus Acer: Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) — tolerant and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) — intolerant to dehydration. During two years of observations it was found that seeds of Norway maple acquire desiccation\\u000a tolerance at the end of August i.e. about 125 days

  3. A holistic high-throughput screening framework for biofuel feedstock assessment that characterises variations in soluble sugars and cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A major hindrance to the development of high yielding biofuel feedstocks is the ability to rapidly assess large populations for fermentable sugar yields. Whilst recent advances have outlined methods for the rapid assessment of biomass saccharification efficiency, none take into account the total biomass, or the soluble sugar fraction of the plant. Here we present a holistic high-throughput methodology for assessing sweet Sorghum bicolor feedstocks at 10 days post-anthesis for total fermentable sugar yields including stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall saccharification efficiency. Results A mathematical method for assessing whole S. bicolor stalks using the fourth internode from the base of the plant proved to be an effective high-throughput strategy for assessing stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall composition and allowed calculation of total stalk fermentable sugars. A high-throughput method for measuring soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose using partial least squares (PLS) modelling of juice Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be highly accurate with each sugar attaining a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.99 with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 11.93, 5.52, and 3.23 mM for sucrose, glucose, and fructose, respectively, which constitutes an error of <4% in each case. The sugar PLS model correlated well with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and brix measures. Similarly, a high-throughput method for predicting enzymatic cell wall digestibility using PLS modelling of FTIR spectra obtained from S. bicolor bagasse was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be accurate with an R 2 of 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.64 ?g.mgDW-1.h-1. Conclusions This methodology has been demonstrated as an efficient and effective way to screen large biofuel feedstock populations for biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall digestibility simultaneously allowing a total fermentable yield calculation. It unifies and simplifies previous screening methodologies to produce a holistic assessment of biofuel feedstock potential. PMID:24365407

  4. Survey on some contaminants in white sugar from Serbian sugar beet refineries.

    PubMed

    Skrbi?, Biljana; Gyura, Julianna

    2006-01-01

    Refined white sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The main quality criteria used to indicate the content of these impurities are ash and colour. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the quality according to the EU sugar market regime and the content of iron, copper and zinc in white sugar samples from Serbian sugar beet refineries during the 2003 campaign. A total of 166 samples representative of the production of four Serbian sugar refineries were investigated. After wet digestion the concentrations of iron, copper and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean content of iron, copper and zinc in sugar samples was 0.37 mg/kg, 0.06 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg and was significantly different from the average content 0.28 mg/kg, 0.09 mg/kg and 0.07 mg/kg respectively in the analysed European sugar factories. The data were also compared with literature values for commercial white sugar samples from European sugar beet refineries and European legislation set for copper and zinc. Furthermore, the quality of produced sugar was evaluated according to the standards of the European Union indicating that 76% of all investigated Serbian samples belonged to the second sugar quality category. PMID:16393812

  5. Solubility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-19

    Investigate what makes something soluble by exploring the effects of intermolecular attractions and what properties are necessary in a solution to overcome them. Interactive models simulate the process of dissolution, allowing you to experiment with how external factors, such as heat, can affect a substance's solubility.

  6. Contents and digestibility of carbohydrates of mung beans ( Vigna radiata L.) as affected by domestic processing and cooking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Kataria; B. M. Chauhan

    1988-01-01

    Effects of common processing and cooking methods on sugar and starch contents and starch digestibility (in vitro) of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) were investigated. Soaking reduced the level of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch and improved starch digestibility, significantly. Cooking (both ordinary and pressure cooking) increased the concentrations of the sugars and digestibility of starch

  7. Deconstruction of Lignocellulose into Soluble Sugars by Native and Designer Cellulosomes

    PubMed Central

    Moraïs, Sarah; Morag, Ely; Barak, Yoav; Goldman, Dan; Hadar, Yitzhak; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Wilson, David B.; Bayer, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lignocellulosic biomass, the most abundant polymer on Earth, is typically composed of three major constituents: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The crystallinity of cellulose, hydrophobicity of lignin, and encapsulation of cellulose by the lignin-hemicellulose matrix are three major factors that contribute to the observed recalcitrance of lignocellulose. By means of designer cellulosome technology, we can overcome the recalcitrant properties of lignocellulosic substrates and thus increase the level of native enzymatic degradation. In this context, we have integrated six dockerin-bearing cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, into a chimeric scaffoldin engineered to bear a cellulose-binding module and the appropriate matching cohesin modules. The resultant hexavalent designer cellulosome represents the most elaborate artificial enzyme composite yet constructed, and the fully functional complex achieved enhanced levels (up to 1.6-fold) of degradation of untreated wheat straw compared to those of the wild-type free enzymes. The action of these designer cellulosomes on wheat straw was 33 to 42% as efficient as the natural cellulosomes of Clostridium thermocellum. In contrast, the reduction of substrate complexity by chemical or biological pretreatment of the substrate removed the advantage of the designer cellulosomes, as the free enzymes displayed higher levels of activity, indicating that enzyme proximity between these selected enzymes was less significant on pretreated substrates. Pretreatment of the substrate caused an increase in activity for all the systems, and the native cellulosome completely converted the substrate into soluble saccharides. PMID:23232718

  8. Seasonal Variations in Sugar Contents and Microbial Community Behavior in a Ryegrass Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, P. M.; Fernandes, M. F.; Dick, R. P.; Simoneit, B. R.

    2004-12-01

    Soil is a complex mixture of numerous inorganic and organic constituents that vary in size, shape, chemical constitution and reactivity, and hosts numerous organisms. Total sugars have been estimated to constitute 10% (average) of soil organic matter, occurring in living and decaying organisms, as well as in extracellular materials. The role of sugars in soils is attributed to their influence on soil structure, chemical processes, plant nutrition and microbial activity. The sources of sugars in soils are: a) plants (the primary source); b) animals (the minor source), and c) microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, algae), which decompose the primary plant and animal material, and synthesize the major part of soil carbohydrates. A particular soil sample provides a momentary glimpse into a dynamic system (continuous addition, degradation and synthesis) that might, except for seasonal variations, be in equilibrium. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the major sugars in a grass soil and characterize the relationship between their concentration variations and soil microbial behavior over an annual cycle. Soil samples were collected monthly in a ryegrass field close to Corvallis, Oregon, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as total silylated extracts for sugar composition, and by gas chromatography-flame ionization as fatty acid methyl esters derived from phospholipids and neutral lipids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively). The preliminary results of the first six-month experiment (from January to June, 2004) show that as the ambient temperatures increase the sugar concentrations (glucose, fructose, sucrose and trehalose) also tend to increase in the soil. A decrease is observed in March when precipitation was low during the whole month. The same trend is observed for the active biomass of fungi and bacteria estimated by their fatty acids derived from phospholipids. Fatty acids 18:2? 6c and 18:3? 6c are used as fungal biomarkers. Branched (15:0i, 15:0a, 16:0i) and monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1? 7c) are used as biomarkers for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. The contents of 18:2? 6c and 18:3? 6c from neutral lipids, which are used as an index of fungal storage, have a significant increase in June, similarly to the disaccharide trehalose. This increase in fungal lipid storage may have occurred in response to the large input of detrital carbon into the soil from cutting the grass early in that month.

  9. Sugar Sugar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bart Bonte

    2012-01-01

    This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the required amount of sugar to pour into a mug or mugs. The game has 30 stages of increasing complexity.

  10. Disruption of Amyloid Plaques Integrity Affects the Soluble Oligomers Content from Alzheimer Disease Brains

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, Javier; Sanchez-Mico, María; Torres, Manuel; Davila, Jose Carlos; Vizuete, Marisa; Gutierrez, Antonia; Vitorica, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The implication of soluble Abeta in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology is currently accepted. In fact, the content of soluble extracellular Abeta species, such as monomeric and/or oligomeric Abeta, seems to correlate with the clinico-pathological dysfunction observed in AD patients. However, the nature (monomeric, dimeric or other oligomers), the relative abundance, and the origin (extra-/intraneuronal or plaque-associated), of these soluble species are actually under debate. In this work we have characterized the soluble (defined as soluble in Tris-buffered saline after ultracentrifugation) Abeta, obtained from hippocampal samples of Braak II, Braak III–IV and Braak V–VI patients. Although the content of both Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptides displayed significant increase with pathology progression, our results demonstrated the presence of low, pg/µg protein, amount of both peptides. This low content could explain the absence (or below detection limits) of soluble Abeta peptides detected by western blots or by immunoprecipitation-western blot analysis. These data were in clear contrast to those published recently by different groups. Aiming to explain the reasons that determine these substantial differences, we also investigated whether the initial homogenization could mobilize Abeta from plaques, using 12-month-old PS1xAPP cortical samples. Our data demonstrated that manual homogenization (using Dounce) preserved the integrity of Abeta plaques whereas strong homogenization procedures (such as sonication) produced a vast redistribution of the Abeta species in all soluble and insoluble fractions. This artifact could explain the dissimilar and somehow controversial data between different groups analyzing human AD samples. PMID:25485545

  11. Multi-sensor Data Fusion for Improved Prediction of Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several nondestructive technologies have been developed for assessing the firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) of apples. Each of these technologies has its merits and limitations in predicting these quality parameters. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion, different sensors would work ...

  12. Comparison and fusion of four nondestructive sensors for predicting apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four nondestructive technologies (i.e., acoustic firmness, bioyield firmness, visible/near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and spectral scattering) have been developed in recent years for assessing the firmness and/or soluble solids content (SSC) of apples. Each of these technologies has its merits and...

  13. Optimal Wavelengths Selection for Hyperspectral Scattering Prediction of Apple Firmness and Soluble Solids Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral scattering is a promising technique for nondestructive quality measurement of apple fruit, and extraction of the most useful information from the hyperspectral scattering data is critical to accurate assessment of fruit firmness and soluble solids content (SSC). A hierarchical evolutio...

  14. Effect of Cooking on Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents in Selected Pakistani Vegetables and Beans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar; Beenish Israr; Nighat Bhatty; Amanat Ali

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of cooking on the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents in six different types of locally consumed vegetables and beans (spinach, carrots, beet root, white bean, red bean and soybean). The foods were cooked in water until they reached the soft consistency (12–15 min for vegetable and 2 h for beans). The raw and

  15. Analysis of Hyperspectral Scattering Characteristics for Predicting Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral scattering is useful for assessing the firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) of apples because it provides an effective means for characterizing light scattering in the fruit. This research compared three methods for quantifying the spectral scattering profiles acquired from ‘Golden Del...

  16. Effect of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles or sugar beet pulp on prevalence of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomson, L W; Pieper, R; Marshall, J K; Van Kessel, A G

    2012-12-01

    Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST) is of concern in the swine industry with relevance for animal health and consumer safety. Nutritional strategies might help to reduce ST infection and transmission. This study examined the potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) to alter intestinal microbial communities and ST shedding using a Trojan model. Weaned pigs (n = 105; 28.5 ± 3.5 d of age) were separated into 3 treatment groups (7 pigs/pen) and fed a wheat-based control diet or the control diet formulated with 15% wheat DDGS or 6% SBP inclusion. Following 12 d of diet adaptation, 2 pigs/pen were inoculated with 2 x 10(9) cfu ST, resistant to novobiocin and nalidixic acid. Fecal swabs were taken from infected pigs and pen-mates (contact pigs) for 9 d following challenge, enriched in nutrient broth for 24 h, and plated on selective media to determine prevalence of ST. The ranges of prevalence of ST in feces were from 90 to 100% in challenged pigs and 74 to 78% in contact pigs. No influence of treatment on rectal temperature and prevalence of ST in contact pigs were observed. Fifteen contact pigs were euthanized per treatment group on 9 and 10 d postchallenge to enumerate in intestinal contents (ileum, cecum, and proximal colon), Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridium clusters I, VI, and XVIa by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and to determine ST prevalence by selective culture. No significant effects of diet were observed with respect to ST prevalence in feces, ileum, cecum, colon, and lymph nodes of contact pigs. Compared with the control diet, DGGS and SBP diets showed a trend towards increased (P < 0.1) number of Lactobacillus species in the cecum and colon. Although both wheat DGGS and SBP tended to increase the Lactobacillus spp. neither of the feed ingredients affected ST prevalence. PMID:23365269

  17. Variability of sugars in staple-type sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars: The effects of harvest time and storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total soluble sugar content and composition was studied by high performance liquid chromatography in four high dry-matter sweet potato cultivars at 3, 4, and 5 months maturity. Total soluble sugar consisted of sucrose, glucose, and fructose, ranging from 4.10–10.82 g/100 g (dry-weight basis). At har...

  18. Blasting extrusion processing: The increase of soluble dietary fiber content and extraction of soluble-fiber polysaccharides from wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoguang; Ye, Ran; Chen, Ye

    2015-08-01

    In this study, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) content of wheat bran was significantly increased from 9.82±0.16 (w/w, %) to 16.72±0.28 (w/w, %) by a novel blasting extrusion processing with enhanced water retention capacity and the swelling capacity. In addition, a water-soluble polysaccharide (WBP) was isolated and extracted from extruded SDF. WBP was successfully purified from SDF by column chromatography systems with the average molecular weight (Mw) of 4.7×10(4)Da, containing arabinose, xylose, glucose, and galactose. With the molar ratio of 0.76:0.99:1.00:0.12. Our results suggest that WBP owned 1?2, 1?3, 1?2, 6 and 1?4, 1?4, 6 glycosidic bonds in the absence of 1?, 1?6 glycosidic bonds. In vitro antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS+ radical scavenging capacities, and ferric ion reducing capacity) demonstrated that WBP possesses good antioxidant capacity, and it could be potentially used as a natural antioxidant for use in functional food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25766807

  19. Raising the Sugar Content – Orchid Bees Overcome the Constraints of Suction Feeding through Manipulation of Nectar and Pollen Provisions

    PubMed Central

    Pokorny, Tamara; Lunau, Klaus; Eltz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Unlike most other bees, the long-tongued orchid bees ingest nectar using suction feeding. Although long tongues allow exploitation of flowers with deep spurs, the energy intake rate is optimal at 10–20% lower nectar sugar concentrations compared to that of lapping bees. This constraint might be compensated by a higher digestive throughput. Additionally, orchid bees might evaporate water from regurgitated droplets of crop contents. We found male Euglossa championi (n?=?10) and Euglossa dodsoni (n?=?12) to regularly regurgitate droplets of crop content to the base of their proboscis, generating a fluid film between the proximal parts of the galeae, glossa and labial palps. Rhythmic movements of the proboscis may help to increase convection. There was a significant change in sugar concentration between the initially imbibed solution and the resulting crop content (P<0.05) and the time individual bees had engaged in this liquid exposure behavior was positively correlated with the resulting crop sugar concentration. Female Euglossa townsendi and Euglossa viridissima showed the same behavior. Additionally, they manipulated their nectar-enriched pollen provisions for extensive periods of time before deposition in brood cells. The deposited pollen loads (n?=?14) showed a significantly higher sugar concentration than the sugar-water available to the bees (P<0.001). Thus, both male and female euglossines show behaviors that promote evaporative water loss from nectar. We suggest that the behaviors have evolved in concert with suction feeding on dilute nectar from deep floral tubes. PMID:25422945

  20. Effects of solids content, settling temperature, and liquor source on tall oil solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, R.W.; Kassebi, A.; Zinkel, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Tall oil soap solubility in black liquors obtained from cooking pine and sweet gum, and in mixture of these liquors, was studied. As expected, solids content had a significant effect on the amount of soap remaining in settled liquors obtained from pine. Concentrating these liquors to about 30% solids reduced the soap concentration to approximately 0.8% of solids. Increasing the temperature at which the liquors were settled also increased residual tall oil soap content. Although mass balance calculations on mixtures of black liquors obtained from pine and gum show that the percentage recovery (solids basis) varies little with the inclusion of 12 to 50% hardwood black liquor, absolute recovery is increased with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. This is the result of decreased soap solubility with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. No discernable effect was observed on the proportion and composition of the acids and neutrals of the dissolved tall oil with respect to the solids content of the liquors.

  1. Lysine and Arginine Content of Proteins: Computational Analysis Suggests a New Tool for Solubility Design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Prediction and engineering of protein solubility is an important but imprecise area. While some features are routinely used, such as the avoidance of extensive non-polar surface area, scope remains for benchmarking of sequence and structural features with experimental data. We study properties in the context of experimental solubilities, protein gene expression levels, and families of abundant proteins (serum albumin and myoglobin) and their less abundant paralogues. A common feature that emerges for proteins with elevated solubility and at higher expression and abundance levels is an increased ratio of lysine content to arginine content. We suggest that the same properties of arginine that give rise to its recorded propensity for specific interaction surfaces also lead to favorable interactions at nonspecific contacts, and thus lysine is favored for proteins at relatively high concentration. A survey of protein therapeutics shows that a significant subset possesses a relatively low lysine to arginine ratio, and therefore may not be favored for high protein concentration. We conclude that modulation of lysine and arginine content could prove a useful and relatively simple addition to the toolkit available for engineering protein solubility in biotechnological applications. PMID:24283752

  2. Development and in house validation of a new thermogravimetric method for water content analysis in soft brown sugar.

    PubMed

    Ducat, Giseli; Felsner, Maria L; da Costa Neto, Pedro R; Quináia, Sueli P

    2015-06-15

    Recently the use of brown sugar has increased due to its nutritional characteristics, thus requiring a more rigid quality control. The development of a method for water content analysis in soft brown sugar is carried out for the first time by TG/DTA with application of different statistical tests. The results of the optimization study suggest that heating rates of 5°C min(-1) and an alumina sample holder improve the efficiency of the drying process. The validation study showed that thermo gravimetry presents good accuracy and precision for water content analysis in soft brown sugar samples. This technique offers advantages over other analytical methods as it does not use toxic and costly reagents or solvents, it does not need any sample preparation, and it allows the identification of the temperature at which water is completely eliminated in relation to other volatile degradation products. This is an important advantage over the official method (loss on drying). PMID:25660872

  3. Physical characters and antioxidant, sugar, and mineral nutrient contents in fruit from 29 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Drogoudi, Pavlina D; Vemmos, Stavros; Pantelidis, Georgios; Petri, Evangelia; Tzoutzoukou, Chrysoula; Karayiannis, Irene

    2008-11-26

    Fruit physical and chemical characters of 29 apricot cultivars of Greek and American origin and their hybrids were evaluated using correlation and principal component analysis. A remarkable variation was observed in the total phenol content (0.3-7.4 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) FW) and total antioxidant capacity (0.026-1.858 mg ascorbic acid equivalent g(-1) FW), with the American origin cultivars Robada and NJA(2) and the new cultivar Nike exhibiting the greatest values. The cultivar Tomcot and hybrid 467/99 had the highest content of total carotene (37.8 microg beta-carotene equivalent g(-1) FW), which was up to four times greater as compared with the rest of studied genotypes. The dominant sugar in fruit tissue was sucrose, followed second by glucose and third by sorbitol and fructose-inositol. The new cultivars Nike, Niobe, and Neraida contained relatively higher contents of sucrose and total sugars, while Ninfa and P. Tirynthos contained relatively higher contents of K, Ca, and Mg. Correlation analysis suggested that late-harvesting cultivars/hybrids had greater fruit developmental times (r = 0.817) and contained higher sugar (r = 0.704) and less Mg contents (r= -0.742) in fruit tissue. The total antioxidant capacity was better correlated with the total phenol content (r = 0.954) as compared with the total carotenoid content (r = 0.482). Weak correlations were found between the fruit skin color and the antioxidant contents in flesh tissue. Multivariate analysis allowed the grouping of variables, with more important variables being the harvest date, fruit developmental time, skin Chroma, sorbitol, and total sugar, K and Mg contents. Plotting the genotypes in a dendrogram revealed cases of homonymy between parents and hybrids, although independent segregation of the measured traits after hybridization was also found. PMID:18975966

  4. Climate-Induced Changes in Grapevine Yield and Must Sugar Content in Franconia (Germany) between 1805 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Anna; Sparks, Tim H.; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

    2013-01-01

    When attempting to estimate the impacts of future climate change it is important to reflect on information gathered during the past. Understanding historical trends may also aid in the assessment of likely future agricultural and horticultural changes. The timing of agricultural activities, such as grape harvest dates, is known to be influenced by climate and weather. However, fewer studies have been carried out on grapevine yield and quality. In this paper an analysis is undertaken of long-term data from the period 1805–2010 on grapevine yield (hl/ha) and must sugar content (°Oe) and their relation to temperature. Monthly mean temperatures were obtained for the same time period. Multiple regression was used to relate the viticulture variables to temperature, and long-term trends were calculated. Overall, the observed trends over time are compatible with results from other long term studies. The findings confirm a relationship between yield, must sugar content and temperature data; increased temperatures were associated with higher yields and higher must sugar content. However, the potential increase in yield is currently limited by legislation, while must sugar content is likely to further increase with rising temperatures. PMID:23894395

  5. Effects of Soil Compaction, Water and Organic Matter Contents on Emergence and Initial Plant Growth of Cotton and Sugar Beet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Gemtos; Th. Lellis

    1997-01-01

    The effects of compaction on the emergence and initial growth of cotton andd sugar beet plants were studied in pots in a glasshouse experiment. Apart from compaction, the factors studied were two soil types, two initial soil water contents before compaction and the addition of 1% organic matter in the form of vinasse, an alcohol industry waste. Measurements were made

  6. QTLs detected for individual sugars and soluble solids content in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetness is one of the most important fruit quality traits in breeding programs, determining the overall quality and flavor-perception of apples. Selecting for this trait using conventional breeding methods is challenging due to the complexity of its genetic control. In order to improve the efficie...

  7. The Science of Sugaring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nicholas Baer

    The sugar content and sap volume within and among trees speces can vary considerably. The introductory material describes the process of maple sugaring. The associated field exercise is intended to enhance students field experimental design, data collection, and analysis through examining the variability of trees sap volume and sugar content for sugar maple trees.

  8. Effects of commercial processing on the fat- soluble vitamin content of menhaden fish oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Scott; J. D. Latshaw

    1991-01-01

    The effect of processing on the fat-soluble vitamin content of menhaden fish oil was studied. Menhaden oil samples were taken\\u000a during various steps in commercial processing. Samples included a crude oil, a bleached oil, a refined oil, a refined then\\u000a bleached oil, and a refined-bleached-deodorized-stabilized oil. The most processed oil had only about one-fifth as much vitamin\\u000a A and vitamin

  9. Determination of soluble solids content in apple products by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Guohui; Liu, Jianjun; Hong, Zhi

    2011-08-01

    Soluble solids content is an important index for fruit quality. One of the traditional methods in determining soluble solids content of fruits is refractometry which measures the refractive index in visible or near infrared. Here we reported the use of terahertz time-domain transmission spectroscopy (THz-TDTS) technique for the determination of soluble solids content in apple products. Not only the refractive index, but also the absorption coefficient is used in regression model. In method one, sucrose solutions were for the calibration set , root mean square of validation set (RMSEP) was 0.168% for absorption coefficient model, 0.741% for refractive index model. In method two, apple products were for the calibration set, RMSEP was 0.143% for absorption coefficient model, 0.648% for refractive index model. Less absolute error of 0.2% between predicted and refractometer value has been both obtained from two methods with absorption coefficient model. This result proved the THz-TDS technique is quite potential for nondestructive detection on food quality.

  10. Doubled sugar content in sugarcane plants modified to produce a sucrose isomer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Sucrose is the feedstock for more than half of the world's fuel ethanol production and a major human food. It is harvested primarily from sugarcane and beet. Despite attempts through conventional and molecular breeding, the stored sugar concentration in elite sugarcane cultivars has not been increased for several decades. Recently, genes have been cloned for bacterial isomerase enzymes that convert sucrose into sugars which are not metabolized by plants, but which are digested by humans, with health benefits over sucrose. We hypothesized that an appropriate sucrose isomerase (SI) expression pattern might simultaneously provide a valuable source of beneficial sugars and overcome the sugar yield ceiling in plants. The introduction of an SI gene tailored for vacuolar compartmentation resulted in sugarcane lines with remarkable increases in total stored sugar levels. The high-value sugar isomaltulose was accumulated in storage tissues without any decrease in stored sucrose concentration, resulting in up to doubled total sugar concentrations in harvested juice. The lines with enhanced sugar accumulation also showed increased photosynthesis, sucrose transport and sink strength. This remarkable step above the former ceiling in stored sugar concentration provides a new perspective into plant source-sink relationships, and has substantial potential for enhanced food and biofuel production. PMID:17207261

  11. Seasonal variations in sugar contents and microbial community in a ryegrass soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Medeiros; Marcelo F. Fernandes; Richard P. Dick; Bernd R. T. Simoneit

    2006-01-01

    The relationship among sugar concentrations, microbial community and physical variables (precipitation and soil temperature) was investigated in a ryegrass soil from January 2004 to January 2005. Mono- and disaccharide sugars were extracted using a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol and analyzed as their TMS derivatives by GC–MS. Changes in microbial community were assessed using phospholipid and neutral lipid fatty acids

  12. [Analysis of soluble Ca content in banana pulp based on pretreatment of digestion model in vitro].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Hua; Huang, Mao-Fang; Xu, Fei; Tang, Yong-Fu; Fu, Tiao-Kun

    2010-04-01

    In the present paper, soluble Ca content in banana pulp was analyzed with pretreatment of digestion model in vitro. All the samples were digested by strong acid (perchloric acid and nitric acid with 1 : 4 ratio) and determined by AA700 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). Meanwhile, the reproducibility of the analytical method was investigated. The results showed that (1) Content of Ca was 1.479 mg x g(-1) x DW in eighty percent maturity banana pulp. And the relative standard deviation was 4.12%. (2) Contents of Ca in the soluble and insoluble fractions were 1.108 and 0.412 mg x g(-1) x DW, respectively in eighty percent maturity banana pulp with pretreatment of digestion model in vitro. The extraction rate was 74.9% and the residue rate was 27.8%. (3) The relative standard deviations of the analytical results of Ca contents in those two fractions were 2.56% and 9.10%, respectively, in the reproducibility tests. It was showed that the digestion model in vitro did not affect the reproduction quality significantly. Moreover, the deviation between the theoretical value and the summation value of the extraction and the residue rates was only 2.7%, which showed good availability of the digestion model in vitro to be used as a pretreatment method in mineral element analysis process. (4) Relative standard deviation and recovery yield in the determination procedure were 0.11% (n = 9) and 99.2%, respectively. PMID:20545175

  13. Solubility of plutonium from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium- contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Barth; M. G. White; P. B. Dunaway

    1975-01-01

    Rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert ; vegetation at the Nevada Test Site were incubated in simulated bovine ; gastrointestinal fluids to study the alimentary solubility of plutonium. Trials ; were run during November 1973, and during February, May, July and August 1974. ; During the May and July trials, a large increase in plutonium solubility ; accompanied

  14. Metabolism of soluble sugars in developing melon fruit: a global transcriptional view of the metabolic transition to sucrose accumulation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Nir; Cohen, Shahar; Portnoy, Vitaly; Tzuri, Galil; Harel-Beja, Rotem; Pompan-Lotan, Maya; Carmi, Nir; Zhang, Genfa; Diber, Alex; Pollock, Sarah; Karchi, Hagai; Yeselson, Yelena; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Sahar, Uzi; Hovav, Ran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yakov; Granot, David; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A

    2011-05-01

    The sweet melon fruit is characterized by a metabolic transition during its development that leads to extensive accumulation of the disaccharide sucrose in the mature fruit. While the biochemistry of the sugar metabolism pathway of the cucurbits has been well studied, a comprehensive analysis of the pathway at the transcriptional level allows for a global genomic view of sugar metabolism during fruit sink development. We identified 42 genes encoding the enzymatic reactions of the sugar metabolism pathway in melon. The expression pattern of the 42 genes during fruit development of the sweet melon cv Dulce was determined from a deep sequencing analysis performed by 454 pyrosequencing technology, comprising over 350,000 transcripts from four stages of developing melon fruit flesh, allowing for digital expression of the complete metabolic pathway. The results shed light on the transcriptional control of sugar metabolism in the developing sweet melon fruit, particularly the metabolic transition to sucrose accumulation, and point to a concerted metabolic transition that occurs during fruit development. PMID:21387125

  15. Analysis of hyperspectral scattering profiles using a generalized Gaussian distribution function for prediction of apple firmness and soluble solids content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral scattering provides an effective means for characterizing light scattering in the fruit and is thus promising for noninvasive assessment of apple firmness and soluble solids content (SSC). A critical problem encountered in application of hyperspectral scattering technology is analyzing...

  16. Contents and digestibility of carbohydrates of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) as affected by domestic processing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Kataria, A; Chauhan, B M

    1988-01-01

    Effects of common processing and cooking methods on sugar and starch contents and starch digestibility (in vitro) of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) were investigated. Soaking reduced the level of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch and improved starch digestibility, significantly. Cooking (both ordinary and pressure cooking) increased the concentrations of the sugars and digestibility of starch of soaked as well a unsoaked seeds. Starch contents, however, were decreased. Germination decreased starch thereby raising the level of the soluble sugars. Starch digestibility was increased appreciably. PMID:3231594

  17. Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong

    2015-04-01

    Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding. PMID:25442527

  18. Near Infrared Spectral Linearisation in Quantifying Soluble Solids Content of Intact Carambola

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR) spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC) of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP) = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques. PMID:23584118

  19. Effects of sugar, protein and water content on wheat starch gelatinization due to microwave heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. ?umnu; M. K. Ndife; L. Bay?nd?rl?

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between sugar, starch, protein and water, which are the main components of a baked product,\\u000a will advance the development of high quality, microwaveable products. This paper presents a mathematical model describing\\u000a the quantitative relationships between water, sugar and protein on the gelatinization of wheat starch following 20?s of microwave\\u000a heat as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Addition

  20. [Comparison of PLS and SMLR for nondestructive determination of sugar content in honey peach using NIRS].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui-Rong; Wang, Hui-Jun; Huang, Kang; Ying, Yi-Bin; Yang, Cheng; Qian, Hao; Hu, Jun

    2008-11-01

    Nondestructive fruit quality assessment in packing houses can be carried out using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. However, in industrial process, some experimental conditions (e. g. temperature, fruit variety) cannot be strictly controlled and their changes would reduce the robustness of the NIR-based models. In the present paper, a total of 100 honey fruits from two super markets were used as experimental materials. Fifty honey fruits were stored at room temperature and the other fifty samples were stored at 0-4 degrees C. NIR diffuse reflectance spectra of the honey peaches were measured in the spectral range of 4 000-2 500 cm(-1) using InGaAs detector. After outlier diagnosis using leverage values and Dixon test and spectra data pretreatment with Norris derivative filter (segment length: 5, gap: 5), partial least square (PLS) regression with standard normal variate (SNV) transformation and stepwise multilinear regression (SMLR) with multiplicative scatter correction (MSV) were used to establish calibration models based on first derivative spectra. Comparing the two calibration methods of PLS and SMLR, the performances of the models developed by SMLR were found much better than that by PLS method. The best results for PLS models were: correlation coefficient of calibration (R(c)) = 0.965, root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC) = 0.3010 Brix, correlation coefficient of cross-validation (R(cv)) = 0.812, root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) = 0.67 degrees Brix and ratio of standard deviation to root mean square errors of cross-validation (RPD) = 1.72, which were slightly worse than those for SMLR: R(c) = 0.929, RMSEC = 0.424 degrees Brix of calibration and R(cv) = 0.887, RMSECV = 0.532 degrees Brix of cross-validation and RPD = 2.16. The RPD values for SMLR models in three different spectral regions 4 290-7 817, 7 817-10 725 and 4 290-10 725 cm(-1) were: 1.97, 1.89 and 2.16, respectively. The performance of the model developed by SMLR in the 4 290-7 817 cm(-1) region was much better than that in the 7 817-10 725 cm(-1) region. The results indicated that the SMLR method could develop a good calibration model by selecting wavelengths insensitive to temperature and NIR spectra could be used for sugar content prediction of fruit samples with varied temperature when developing a global robust calibration model to cover the temperature range. PMID:19271481

  1. Content and Vacuole/Extravacuole Distribution of Neutral Sugars, Free Amino Acids, and Anthocyanin in Protoplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, George J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutral sugar, free amino acid, and anthocyanin levels and vacuole/extravacuole distribution were determined for Hippeastrum and Tulipa petal and Tulipa leaf protoplasts. Glucose and fructose, the predominant neutral monosaccharides observed, were primarily vacuolar in location. Glutamine, the predominant free amino acid found, was primarily extravacuolar. ?-Methyleneglutamate was identified as a major constituent of Tulipa protoplasts. Qualitative characterization of Hippeastrum petal and vacuole organic acids indicated the presence of oxalic, malic, citric, and isocitric acids. Data are presented which indicate that vacuoles obtained by gentle osmotic shock of protoplasts in dibasic phosphate have good purity and retain their contents. Images PMID:16660921

  2. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound. PMID:21413793

  3. A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income New York City supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

    2014-09-01

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase. PMID:25168992

  4. Effect of drying of jujubes ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, ?-tocopherol, ?-carotene, and phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing-Han; Wu, Chun-Sen; Wang, Min; Xu, Bian-Na; Du, Li-Juan

    2012-09-26

    This study investigated the changes in sugars, organic acids, ?-tocopherol, ?-carotene, phenolic profiles, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant capacity of jujube fruits after four drying treatments (sun-, oven-, microwave- and freeze-drying). Sugar, organic acid, phenolic compounds, ?-tocopherol, and ?-carotene were qualitatived and quantitatived by high-performance liquid chromatography. The TPC and antioxidant activity of jujube samples were evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, respectively. Freeze-drying resulted in jujubes with higher antioxidant activity and was also a good choice for the preparation of ?-carotene from jujubes for the food industry. Microwave-dried jujubes had a higher content of protocatechuic acid, catechin, and epicatechin and maintained the same antioxidant capacity with the freeze-dried jujubes. The combination of microwave- and freeze-drying may be an efficient alternative with shorter processing time and, consequently, less impact on the nutritional value of the jujube. PMID:22958080

  5. Changes in ratio of soluble sugars and free amino nitrogen in the apical meristem during floral transition of tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Miner, G. S.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Under a modification of the nutrient diversion hypothesis, we propose that an inequality in carbohydrate and nitrogen translocation to the apical meristem may be a controlling factor in floral transition. Experiments were conducted in controlled-environment chambers to determine the associations between microscopic characteristics of the transition from vegetative to floral stages of the apical meristem of flue-cured tobacco and to assimilate concentrations in the plant and apical meristem. Low temperature, nitrogen withdrawal, and restriction of nitrogen uptake were used as treatment variables. In all of these stress treatments, flowering occurred at a lesser number of leaves than in control treatments. Low temperature stress accelerated the time of transition to the floral stage as compared with a high temperature control; however, nitrogen stress did not accelerate the time of transition. All stress treatments affected the levels of nitrogen and carbohydrate in whole plants. Most notable was an increase in the percentage of starch and a decrease in the percentage of total soluble carbohydrate induced by the stress treatments. These data indicate that tobacco plants under stress accumulate excess carbohydrate in the form of starch. An apparent inequality in the relative concentrations of carbohydrate and nitrogen in the apical meristem was observed in all treatments at the time of floral transition and is in support of the nutrient diversion hypothesis.

  6. Changes in soluble sugar, starch, and alcohol dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to N2 diluted atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Crispi, M. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1997-01-01

    Proper exchange of atmospheric gases is important for normal root and shoot metabolism in plants. This study was conducted to determine how restricted air supply affects foliar carbohydrates, while using the marker enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) to report on the oxygenation status of the rootzone. Fourteen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants grown singly in 7-ml tubes containing agarified nutrient medium were placed in coupled Magenta vessels and exposed for six days to either ambient air or one of six different air/nitrogen dilutions. Redox potential of the agar medium was measured immediately after harvesting and freezing leaf tissue, and then root systems were quickly extracted from the agar and frozen for subsequent analyses. Redox potential measurements indicated that this series of gas mixtures produced a transition from hypoxia to anoxia in the root zones. Root ADH activity increased at higher rates as the redox potential neared anoxic levels. In contrast, ADH mRNA expression quickly neared its maximum as the medium became hypoxic and showed little further increase as it became anoxic. Foliar carbohydrate levels increased 1.5- to 2-fold with decreased availability of metabolic gases, with starch increasing at higher concentrations of air than soluble carbohydrate. The results serve as a model for plant performance under microgravity conditions, where absence of convective air movement prevents replenishment of metabolic gases.

  7. Malate Plays a Crucial Role in Starch Metabolism, Ripening, and Soluble Solid Content of Tomato Fruit and Affects Postharvest Softening[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Centeno, Danilo C.; Osorio, Sonia; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Bertolo, Ana L.F.; Carneiro, Raphael T.; Araújo, Wagner L.; Steinhauser, Marie-Caroline; Michalska, Justyna; Rohrmann, Johannes; Geigenberger, Peter; Oliver, Sandra N.; Stitt, Mark; Carrari, Fernando; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that the organic acid content of a fruit is regarded as one of its most commercially important quality traits when assessed by the consumer, relatively little is known concerning the physiological importance of organic acid metabolism for the fruit itself. Here, we evaluate the effect of modifying malate metabolism in a fruit-specific manner, by reduction of the activities of either mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase or fumarase, via targeted antisense approaches in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). While these genetic perturbations had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield, they had dramatic consequences for fruit metabolism, as well as unanticipated changes in postharvest shelf life and susceptibility to bacterial infection. Detailed characterization suggested that the rate of ripening was essentially unaltered but that lines containing higher malate were characterized by lower levels of transitory starch and a lower soluble sugars content at harvest, whereas those with lower malate contained higher levels of these carbohydrates. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase revealed that it correlated with the accumulation of transitory starch. Taken together with the altered activation state of the plastidial malate dehydrogenase and the modified pigment biosynthesis of the transgenic lines, these results suggest that the phenotypes are due to an altered cellular redox status. The combined data reveal the importance of malate metabolism in tomato fruit metabolism and development and confirm the importance of transitory starch in the determination of agronomic yield in this species. PMID:21239646

  8. Integrated spectral and image analysis of hyperspectral scattering data for prediction of apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral scattering is useful for assessing the firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) of apples. In previous research, mean reflectance extracted from the hyperspectral scattering profiles was used for this purpose since the method is simple and fast and also gives relatively good predictions. T...

  9. Digestible energy content of corn- versus sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles in finishings pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 120 finishing pigs (avg initial BW of 111 kg) was used in a 19-day experiment to determine the digestible energy (DE) content of corn- vs sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The reference diet was 97.5% corn with vitamins, minerals, and amino acids added to meet o...

  10. [Effectively predicting soluble solids content in apple based on hyperspectral imaging].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Qian; Li, Jiang-Bo; Chen, Li-Ping; Guo, Zhi-Ming

    2013-10-01

    It is very important to extract effective wavelengths for quantitative analysis of fruit internal quality based on hyperspectral imaging. In the present study, genetic algorithm (GA), successive projections algorithm (SPA) and GA-SPA combining algorithm were used for extracting effective wavelengths from 400-1 000 nm hyperspectral images of Yantai "Fuji" apples, respectively. Based on the effective wavelengths selected by GA, SPA and GA-SPA, different models were built and compared for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of apple using partial least squares (PLS), least squared support vector machine (LS-SVM) and multiple linear regression (MLR), respectively. A total of 160 samples were prepared for the calibration (n = 120) and prediction (n = 40) sets. Among all the models, the SPA-MLR achieved the best results, where Rp(2), RMSEP and RPD were 0.950 1, 0.308 7 and 4.476 6 respectively. Results showed that SPA can be effectively used for selecting the effective wavelengths from hyperspectral data. And, SPA-MLR is an optimal modeling method for prediction of apple SSC. Furthermore, less effective wavelengths and simple and easily-interpreted MLR model show that the SPA-MLR model has a great potential for online detection of apple SSC and development of a portable instrument. PMID:24409747

  11. Nutrient composition, mineral content and the solubility of the proteins of palm weevil, Rhynchophorus phoenicis f. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Omotoso, O.T.; Adedire, C.O.

    2007-01-01

    Adult (ADS) and larva stages of palm weevil Rhynchophorus phoenicis were analyzed for their nutritional potentials using proximate and mineral contents as indices. The early larva stage (ELS) contains the highest moisture content of 11.94% while ADS has the least value of 4.79%. The late larva stage (LLS) has the highest protein content of 10.51% while ADS contains 8.43%. Ash content is highest in ELS with a value of 2.37% and lowest in ADS with a value of 1.43%. ELS and LLS have the highest (22.14%) and lowest (17.22%) fibre contents respectively. The values of potassium, magnesium and iron in ELS were (455.00±21.21), (60.69±2.57) and (6.50±3.40) mg/kg while LLS recorded (457.50±10.61), (43.52±1.37) and (6.00±1.10) mg/kg and ADS recorded (372.50±24.75), (53.31±1.88) and (22.90±3.70) mg/kg. Chromium, phosphorus, nickel, calcium, lead, manganese and zinc were also detected. Copper was not detected in any of the samples. In all the developmental stages the protein solubilities were pH dependent with the minimum protein solubilities occurring at acidic pH while the maximum protein solubilities occurred at alkaline pH. PMID:17542059

  12. Influence of monomer content on the viscoelasticity, water sorption and solubility of experimental fluorinated soft lining materials.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Minoru; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Akiba, Norihisa; Hibino, Yasushi; Nagasawa, Yuko; Sumi, Yasunori; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2015-02-01

    The influence of monomer content on the viscoelasticity, water sorption and solubility of experimental fluorinated soft lining materials was investigated. Changes in the viscoelastic properties of the materials were also examined after thermal cycling. Four fluorinated soft lining materials containing different amounts of methoxy diethylene glycol methacrylate (MDGMA) and tridecafluorooctyl methacrylate (13FMA) were prepared. The viscoelastic displacement for specimens containing 13FMA was found to be less than that without 13FMA (p<0.05), and the values tended to decrease with increasing 13FMA content. Reduction of the MDGMA content and addition of 13FMA caused a decrease of water sorption and solubility (p<0.05). Thermal cycling was found to affect the viscoelastic deformation of the specimens without 13FMA and those specimens with relatively large amounts of 13FMA. PMID:25748461

  13. Influences of organically and conventionally grown strawberry cultivars on anthocyanins content and color in purees and low-sugar jams.

    PubMed

    Bursa? Kova?evi?, Danijela; Putnik, Predrag; Dragovi?-Uzelac, Verica; Vah?i?, Nada; Babojeli?, Martina Skendrovi?; Levaj, Branka

    2015-08-15

    The objective of this study was to detect influences of cultivar, cultivation and processing on anthocyanin content and color in purees and low-sugar jams produced from strawberry cultivars (Elsanta, Maya, Marmolada, Queen Elisa), grown under conventional and organic cultivation. Color was determined by CIELab values while anthocyanins were quantified by HPLC-UV/VIS-PDA. Queen Elisa was the best cultivar for processing as it had highest total anthocyanin content (TAC) that was well preserved in processing. On average, processing purees to jams decreased TAC for 28% where pelargonidin-3-glucoside revealed most noticeable loss (53%) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside was best preserved in processing. Obtained results indicated that measurement of colorimetric parameters are strongly correlated with content of anthocyanins. In other words, loss of anthocyanins during processing was accompanied by noticeable decrease in lightness, red/yellow color and total color change. Results showed that change of color is useful predictor for estimating anthocyanins in strawberry purees and jams. PMID:25794726

  14. Soluble carbohydrate content of shoots of Arctic wetland plants that are consumed by lesser snow geese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Jefferies; Kate A. Edwards

    2008-01-01

    We recorded seasonal changes in the total amounts of soluble carbohydrates in shoots of salt- and fresh-water coastal plants at La Perouse Bay, northern Manitoba, to determine whether adult snow geese and their goslings selected forage rich in soluble carbohydrates during the breeding season. The selection of forage plants in spring and summer by adults and goslings was strongly linked

  15. Increased Lysine Content Is the Main Characteristic of the Soluble Form of the Polyamide Cyanophycin Synthesized by Recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Frommeyer, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Cyanophycin, a polyamide of cyanobacterial or noncyanobacterial origin consisting of aspartate, arginine, and lysine, was synthesized in different recombinant strains of Escherichia coli expressing cphA from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308 or PCC 6803, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, or Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1. The molar aspartate/arginine/lysine ratio of the water-soluble form isolated from a recombinant strain expressing CphA6308 was 1:0.5:0.5, with a lysine content higher than any ever described before. The water-insoluble form consisted instead of mainly aspartate and arginine residues and had a lower proportion of lysine, amounting to a maximum of only 5 mol%. It could be confirmed that the synthesis of soluble cyanobacterial granule polypeptide (CGP) is independent of the origin of cphA. Soluble CGP isolated from all recombinant strains contained a least 17 mol% lysine. The total CGP portion of cell dry matter synthesized by CphA6308 from recombinant E. coli was about 30% (wt/wt), including 23% (wt/wt) soluble CGP, by using terrific broth complex medium for cultivation at 30°C for 72 h. Enhanced production of soluble CGP instead of its insoluble form is interesting for further application and makes recombinant E. coli more attractive as a suitable source for the production of polyaspartic acid or dipeptides. In addition, a new low-cost, time-saving, effective, and common isolation procedure for mainly soluble CGP, suitable for large-scale application, was established in this study. PMID:23686266

  16. Increased lysine content is the main characteristic of the soluble form of the polyamide cyanophycin synthesized by recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Frommeyer, Maja; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Cyanophycin, a polyamide of cyanobacterial or noncyanobacterial origin consisting of aspartate, arginine, and lysine, was synthesized in different recombinant strains of Escherichia coli expressing cphA from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308 or PCC 6803, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, or Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1. The molar aspartate/arginine/lysine ratio of the water-soluble form isolated from a recombinant strain expressing CphA6308 was 1:0.5:0.5, with a lysine content higher than any ever described before. The water-insoluble form consisted instead of mainly aspartate and arginine residues and had a lower proportion of lysine, amounting to a maximum of only 5 mol%. It could be confirmed that the synthesis of soluble cyanobacterial granule polypeptide (CGP) is independent of the origin of cphA. Soluble CGP isolated from all recombinant strains contained a least 17 mol% lysine. The total CGP portion of cell dry matter synthesized by CphA6308 from recombinant E. coli was about 30% (wt/wt), including 23% (wt/wt) soluble CGP, by using terrific broth complex medium for cultivation at 30°C for 72 h. Enhanced production of soluble CGP instead of its insoluble form is interesting for further application and makes recombinant E. coli more attractive as a suitable source for the production of polyaspartic acid or dipeptides. In addition, a new low-cost, time-saving, effective, and common isolation procedure for mainly soluble CGP, suitable for large-scale application, was established in this study. PMID:23686266

  17. Effect of soluble dietary fibre on the viscosity of gastrointestinal contents and the acute glycaemic response in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cameron-Smith, D; Collier, G R; O'Dea, K

    1994-04-01

    The postprandial glycaemic response following a meal is reduced with the addition of soluble dietary fibre. The reductions in the glycaemia are thought to be due largely to increased viscosity of the gastrointestinal (GI) contents retarding digestion and absorption. The aims of the present study were to determine the effect that the GI tract has on the viscosity of meals containing different soluble fibres and to determine whether the glycaemic response of a meal (containing the soluble fibre) was predicted by the viscosity of the digesta in the small intestine. High carbohydrate diets containing 70 g soluble fibre guar gum, xanthan gum or methylcellulose)/kg or 70 g insoluble fibre (wheat bran)/kg were diluted in water to a final fibre concentration of 18 g/kg. Following dilution the wheat bran diet had no measurable viscosity, while the viscosities of the soluble fibre diets were elevated. When the diets were fed to male Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 weeks the viscosities of the stomach and small intestinal digesta were not predicted by the viscosity of the diets measured before ingestion. The action of the GI tract on the viscosity of the soluble fibres was investigated in vitro by dilution of the diets with acidic and neutralizing solutions, mimicking gastric and duodenal secretions. Dilution of diets with either acidic and neutralizing solutions or saline control significantly lowered the viscosity of all diets, while alterations in the pH of the diets had little impact on the resultant viscosity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8011609

  18. [Huanghua pear soluble solids contents Vis/NIR spectroscopy by analysis of variables optimization and FICA].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-li; Sun, Tong; Hu, Tian; Hu, Tao; Liu, Mu-hua

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model of the visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmission spectroscopy with fine stability and precise predictability for the non destructive testing of the soluble solids content of huanghua pear, through comparing the effects of various pretreatment methods, variable optimization method, fast independent principal component analysis (FICA) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) on mathematica model for SSC of huanghua pear, and the best combination of methods to establish model for SSC of huanghua pear was got. Vis/NIR diffuse transmission spectra of huanghua pear were acquired by a Quality Spec spectrometer, three methods including genetic algorithm, successive projections algorithm and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) were used firstly to select characteristic variables from spectral data of huanghua pears in the wavelength range of 550~950 nm, and then FICA was used to extract factors from the characteristic variables, finally, validation model for SSC in huanghua pears was built by LS-SVM on the basic of those parameters got above. The results showed that using LS-SVM on the foundation of the 21 variables screened by CARS and the 12 factors selected by FICA, the CARS-FICA-LS-SVM regression model for SSC in huanghua pears was built and performed best, the coefficient of determination and root mean square error of calibration and prediction sets were RC(2)=0.974, RMSEC=0.116%, RP(2)=0.918, and RMSEP=0.158% respectively, and compared with the mathematical model which uses PLS as modeling method, the number of variables was down from 401 to 21, the factors were also down from 14 to 12, the coefficient of determination of modeling and prediction sets were up to 0.023 and 0.019 respectively, while the root mean square errors of calibration and prediction sets were reduced by 0.042% and 0.010% respectively. These experimental results showed that using CARS-FICA-LS-SVM to build regression model for the forecast of SSC in huanghua pears can simplify the prediction model and improve the detection precision. PMID:25881418

  19. Acrylamide in Caribbean foods - residual levels and their relation to reducing sugar and asparagine content.

    PubMed

    Bent, Grace-Anne; Maragh, Paul; Dasgupta, Tara

    2012-07-15

    The acrylamide levels in commercial and homemade Caribbean foods were determined by pre-derivatisation of acrylamide to 2-bromopropenamide and analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric (GC/MS) detection. Over 100 Caribbean food samples were analysed for the presence of acrylamide. These samples include: biscuits, breakfast cereals, banana chips and home-prepared foods: breadfruit; Artocarpus altilis, banana fritters, and dumplings. The limit of detection (LOD) for the GC/MS method was found to be dependent on the type of column used for the GC/MS analysis. The DB-1701 and the DB-VRX columns gave LODs of 20 and 4 ?g/kg, respectively. Acrylamide has not been found in raw foods or foods which have been cooked by boiling. Its content in all other foods had concentrations in the range, 65-3,640 ?g/kg. The relationship between acrylamide levels and precursor concentration as well as the health implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:25683419

  20. Hydraulic lift and its influence on the water content of the rhizosphere: an example from sugar maple, Acer saccharum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven H. Emerman; Todd E. Dawson

    1996-01-01

    Hydraulic lift, the transport of water from deep in the soil through plant root systems into the drier upper soil layers, has been demonstrated in several woody plant species. Here the volume of water involved in hydraulic lift by a mature sugar maple tree is estimated. Twenty-four intact soil cores were collected from the vicinity of a sugar maple tree

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) clone with high free sugar content and novel starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Joaquim castelo branco carvalho; Claudia Regina Batista de souza; Julio César mattos De cascardo; Carlos Bloch Junior; Laura Campos

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the identification of a new class of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with a storage root showing unusual free sugar accumulation and novel starch. Twenty-seven clones high in free sugar were identified under cultivation in primitive rural community areas in the Amazon. Iodine test and glucose oxidase–peroxidase reagent strips were used, in the field, for identification of starch

  2. Flow properties of DDGS with varying soluble and moisture contents using Jenike shear testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants and are used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being p...

  3. 9 CFR 381.409 - Nutrition label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...sweeteners, sugars, or sugar alcohol content. Sugars shall be defined as...present in the product, sugar alcohol content shall be declared. For nutrition...present in the product. Sugar alcohol content shall be indented and expressed...

  4. 9 CFR 317.309 - Nutrition label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...sweeteners, sugars, or sugar alcohol content. Sugars shall be defined as...present in the product, sugar alcohol content shall be declared. For nutrition...present in the product. Sugar alcohol content shall be indented and expressed...

  5. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality. PMID:25236242

  6. Soluble solids content and firmness non-destructive inspection and varieties discrimination of apples based on visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yao

    2014-11-01

    For apples, soluble solids content (SSC) and firmness are two very important internal quality attributes, which play key roles in postharvest quality classification. Visible-near infrared hyper spectral imaging techniques have potentials for nondestructive inspection of apples' internal qualities, which will be used for the SSC and firmness non-destructive inspection and varieties discrimination of apples. Spectrums of 396 apples from four varieties were extracted. There were 264 apples used for calibration and the remaining 132 apples for prediction. After collecting hyper spectral images of calibration apples, the sugar meter and firmness tester was used to measure SSC and firmness's reference values of each calibration apples. Then the principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract effective wavelengths of calibration apples. The reference values and effective wavelengths' reflectance of apples can be used to set linear regression models based on partial least squares (PLS). Once the prediction model was established, in order to get the SSC and firmness's predicted values of apples, it only need achieve the effective wavelengths' reflectance of apples combing with the program of MATLAB. Finally, the SSC and firmness values of prediction set were used as independent variables of the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to realize varieties discrimination. The correlation coefficients were 0.9127 for SSC and 0.9608 for firmness values of prediction models. The accuracy of varieties discrimination was 96.97%. The results indicated that the methods to SSC and firmness non-destructive inspection and varieties discrimination of apples based on Vis-NIR hyper spectral imaging was reliable and feasible.

  7. [Application of characteristic NIR variables selection in portable detection of soluble solids content of apple by near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shu-Xiang; Huang, Wen-Qian; Li, Jiang-Bo; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Zhaq, Chun-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    In order to detect the soluble solids content(SSC)of apple conveniently and rapidly, a ring fiber probe and a portable spectrometer were applied to obtain the spectroscopy of apple. Different wavelength variable selection methods, including unin- formative variable elimination (UVE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and genetic algorithm (GA) were pro- posed to select effective wavelength variables of the NIR spectroscopy of the SSC in apple based on PLS. The back interval LS- SVM (BiLS-SVM) and GA were used to select effective wavelength variables based on LS-SVM. Selected wavelength variables and full wavelength range were set as input variables of PLS model and LS-SVM model, respectively. The results indicated that PLS model built using GA-CARS on 50 characteristic variables selected from full-spectrum which had 1512 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.962, 0.403°Brix respectively for SSC. The proposed method of GA-CARS could effectively simplify the portable detection model of SSC in apple based on near infrared spectroscopy and enhance the predictive precision. The study can provide a reference for the development of portable apple soluble solids content spectrometer. PMID:25739212

  8. Comparative effects of irradiation, fumigation, and storage on the free amino acids and sugar contents of green, black and oolong teas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausar, Tusneem; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-05-01

    Food irradiation or chemical fumigation can be used to ensure the hygienic quality of teas. The comparative effects of gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) and fumigation (MeBr and PH3) were investigated on the amino acids and sugar contents of Camellia sinensis (green, black and oolong teas) during storage (15±12 °C). The major amino acids found in teas were theanine and glutamic acid. Irradiation increased amino acids such as, leucine, alanine, and glutamic acid, and decreased the histidine. PH3 fumigation resulted in a decrease of tyrosine content; however, the effect of MeBr fumigation was negligible. Storage showed no significant effect on the amino acid content of the irradiated and fumigated teas. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents significantly increased upon gamma irradiation (p?0.05). However, fumigation and subsequent storage did not affect the sugar contents. Irradiation could be a preferred alternative choice to address food safety problems as fumigation is restricted in many countries.

  9. Chromatographic profiles of nonstructural carbohydrates contributing to the colorimetrically determined fructan, ethanol-soluble, and water-soluble carbohydrate contents of five grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonstructural carbohydrates in forages are often analyzed by colorimetric assays of water and ethanol extracts. Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) include polysaccharides (starch and fructan) and mono- and disaccharides. Ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) consist only of mono-, di- and oligosaccha...

  10. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a significant industrial crop of the temperate zone, the worldwide production of which exceeded 240 million tons in 2000. Worldwide, sugar from sugar beet provides about a third of all sugar consumed. Used as a sweetener in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals, sug...

  11. Rhizosphere microorganism effects on soluble amino acids, sugars and organic acids in the root zone of Agropyron cristatum, A. smithii and Bouteloua gracilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Klein; B. A. Frederick; M. Biondini; M. J. Trlica

    1988-01-01

    Three axenic and rhizosphere microorganism-inoculated shortgrass steppe plant species were evaluated for possible differences in residual organic carbon and nitrogen present as sugars, organic acids and amino acids. IntroducedAgropyron cristatum was compared toA. smithii andBouteloua gracilis, which are dominant species in the native shortgrass steppe. These plants, grown for 90 days in root growth chambers, showed differences in residual organic

  12. Seasonal and diurnal changes in starch content and sugar profiles of bermudagrass in the Piedmont region of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal and diurnal patterns of sugar accumulation in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) pastures were monitored in order to evaluate risk factors for pasture-associated laminitis of ponies and horses. Bermudagrass was collected in the morning and afternoon on a weekly basis, from mid-July until late...

  13. Profiling of sugar transporter genes in grapevine coping with water deficit.

    PubMed

    Medici, Anna; Laloi, Maryse; Atanassova, Rossitza

    2014-11-01

    The profiling of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genes under water deficit was specifically targeted to sugar transporters. Leaf water status was characterized by physiological parameters and soluble sugars content. The expression analysis provided evidence that VvHT1 hexose transporter gene was strongly down-regulated by the increased sugar content under mild water-deficit. The genes of monosaccharide transporter VvHT5, sucrose carrier VvSUC11, vacuolar invertase VvGIN2 and grape ASR (ABA, stress, ripening) were up-regulated under severe water stress. Their regulation in a drought-ABA signalling network and possible roles in complex interdependence between sugar subcellular partitioning and cell influx/efflux under Grapevine acclimation to dehydration are discussed. PMID:25261250

  14. Sucrose synthase activity and carbohydrates content in relation to phosphorylation status of Vicia faba root meristems during reactivation from sugar depletion.

    PubMed

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Ciereszko, Iwona

    2012-11-01

    Carbohydrate starvation of Vicia faba root meristems leads to readjustment of carbohydrate metabolism and blocks the cell cycle in two principal control points (PCP1/2). The cell cycle reactivation is possible after sucrose provision, although with a delay of about 12h. During this period, the cells are sensitive to 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) and okadaic acid (OA), inhibitors of protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether those inhibitors are involved in inhibition of cell cycle revival through interference with the activities of two sucrose-cleaving enzymes: sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13) and invertase (INV; EC 3.2.1.26). In sugar-starved cells, the in situ activity of both enzymes decreased significantly. Following supplementation of root meristems with sugar, INV remained inactive, but SuSy activity increased. Despite the lack of INV activity, glucose was present in meristem cells, but its content was low in cells treated with OA. In the latter case, the size of plastids was reduced, they had less starch, and Golgi structures were affected. In sugar-starved cells, SuSy activity was induced more by exogenous sucrose than by glucose. The sucrose-induced activity was strongly inhibited by OA (less by 6-DMAP) at early stages of regeneration, but not at the stages preceding DNA replication or mitotic activities. The results indicate that prolongation of regeneration and a marked decrease in the number of cells resuming proliferation (observed in previous studies) and resulting from the action of inhibitors, are correlated with the process of SuSy activation at the beginning of regeneration from sugar starvation. PMID:22770419

  15. Fermentation in traditional medicine: the impact of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers on the immunomodulatory activity, and the alcohol and sugar contents of Nimba arishta.

    PubMed

    Kroes, B H; van den Berg, A J; Abeysekera, A M; de Silva, K T; Labadie, R P

    1993-10-01

    The impact of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers on the immunomodulatory activity, and alcohol and sugar contents of the ayurvedic drug 'Nimba arishta' was investigated by means of model preparations. The use of Woodfordia flowers in model preparations resulted in a substantial increase of the inhibition of both human complement activity and chemiluminescence generated by zymosan-stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It was established that the increased biological activity was not due to microbial interference, but to immuno-active constituents released from the Woodfordia flowers. It was also found that the flowers themselves are not the source of alcohol-producing microorganisms. Experiments performed with yeasts isolated from commercial Nimba arishtas showed, in agreement with empirical findings, significantly raised alcohol content upon addition of Woodfordia. An invertase activity exhibited by Woodfordia flowers may be causative of this effect. PMID:8133651

  16. Added Sugars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, such as sugar-sweetened beverages. Just one 12-ounce can of regular soda contains eight teaspoons of sugar, or 130 calories and zero nutrition. How much is just right?

  17. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93?wt?% of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. PMID:24706373

  18. Sugarcane for water-limited environments. Genetic variation in cane yield and sugar content in response to water stress.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, J; Jackson, P A; Inman-Bamber, N G; Lakshmanan, P

    2012-10-01

    Water limitation is a major production constraint for sugarcane worldwide. However, to date, there has been little investigation of patterns of genetic variation in the response to water stress in sugarcane. Field experiments were conducted over 3 years under fully irrigated and managed water stress conditions at two locations in Northern Queensland in Australia. Eighty-nine genetically diverse clones were evaluated for their yield performance and sugar attributes. Water stress treatments reduced cane yield [tonnes of cane per hectare (TCH)] and total dry matter (TDM) by 17-52% and 20-56%, respectively, compared with irrigated treatments in the same experiments. Nevertheless, there was little genotype×environment interaction variation for TCH, TDM, or commercial cane sugar (CCS), and hence high genetic correlations between the irrigated and water stress treatments across environments. Both commercial and unselected clones performed poorly under severe stress environments, while the commercial clones outperformed the unselected clones under mild and moderate stress conditions. The results presented here highlight the contribution of intrinsic potential yields (yield under well-irrigated conditions) of some selected and unselected clones to maintain relatively high productivity in a range of moderate stress conditions imposed. The physiological basis for the high genetic correlations is at present unclear, but some explanations are hypothesized. The choice of stress levels in selection trials would not appear to be a critical issue for sugarcane breeding programmes, at least for the early phases of selection, where similar ranking clones across a range of moderate water stresses may be expected. PMID:22996675

  19. Predicting soluble solid content in intact jaboticaba [Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) O. Berg] fruit using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Nathália Cristina Torres; da Costa, Rosangela Câmara; de Lima, Kássio Michell Gomes; Nardini, Viviani; Cunha Júnior, Luís Carlos; Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) as a rapid and non-destructive method to determine soluble solid content (SSC) in intact jaboticaba [Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) O. Berg] fruit. Multivariate calibration techniques were compared with pre-processed data and variable selection algorithms, such as partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS), a genetic algorithm (GA), a successive projections algorithm (SPA) and nonlinear techniques (BP-ANN, back propagation of artificial neural networks; LS-SVM, least squares support vector machine) were applied to building the calibration models. The PLS model produced prediction accuracy (R(2)=0.71, RMSEP=1.33 °Brix, and RPD=1.65) while the BP-ANN model (R(2)=0.68, RMSEM=1.20 °Brix, and RPD=1.83) and LS-SVM models achieved lower performance metrics (R(2)=0.44, RMSEP=1.89 °Brix, and RPD=1.16). This study was the first attempt to use NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive method to determine SSC jaboticaba fruit. PMID:24767082

  20. Application Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui-shan; Xu, Hui-rong; Ying, Yi-bin; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan; Tian, Hai-qing

    2006-10-01

    Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of citrus fruits was developed using Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) measurements collected through optics fiber. The models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of citrus fruits were developed and evaluated. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this study. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of citrus fruits was analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, instrument noise, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and yielded optimal calibration models. A total of 170 NIR spectra were acquired; 135 NIR spectra were used to develop the calibration model; the remaining spectra were used to validate the model. The developed PLS model describing the relationship between SSC and NIR reflectance spectra could predict SSC of 35 samples with correlation coefficient of 0.995 and RMSEP of 0.79 degrees Brix. PMID:16972321

  1. Effects of photoperiod, growth temperature and cold acclimatisation on glucosinolates, sugars and fatty acids in kale.

    PubMed

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Rødven, Rolf; Hansen, Espen; Mølmann, Jørgen

    2015-05-01

    Curly kale is a robust, cold tolerant plant with a high content of health-promoting compounds, grown at a range of latitudes. To assess the effects of temperature, photoperiod and cold acclimatisation on levels of glucosinolates, fatty acids and soluble sugars in kale, an experiment was set up under controlled conditions. Treatments consisted of combinations of the temperatures 15/9 or 21/15 °C, and photoperiods of 12 or 24h, followed by a cold acclimatisation period. Levels of glucosinolates and fatty acid types in leaves were affected by growth conditions and cold acclimatisation, being generally highest before acclimatisation. The effects of growth temperature and photoperiod on freezing tolerance were most pronounced in plants grown without cold acclimatisation. The results indicate that cold acclimatisation can increase the content of soluble sugar and can thereby improve the taste, whilst the content of unsaturated fatty and glucosinolates acids may decrease. PMID:25529650

  2. Determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in high-sugar-content traditional Turkish foods by affinity column cleanup and LC fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Senyuva, Hamide Z; Cimen, Dilek; Gilbert, John

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of an affinity column cleanup procedure followed by LC with fluorescence detection was established for the determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in high-sugar-content traditional Turkish foods. Traditional foods, such as baklava (finely layered pastry filled with nuts and steeped in syrup), halvah (containing sesame paste and pistachios), cevizli sucuk (a confection made of grape juice boiled and dried on strings of nuts), Turkish delight (containing hazelnuts, pistachios, or walnuts), and pi?maniye (candy made of sugar, butter, and flour), were tested, and the performance of the method was established with spiked samples. To examine the robustness of the methodology, baklava was prepared from raw materials and spiked at the initial stage of dry ingredients and through subsequent stages of preparation of dough, after cooking, and after addition of syrup and nuts. For all products, the analytical method required grinding the composite foodstuff under liquid nitrogen to form a fine powder, which was then thoroughly mixed before subsampling. After vortex extraction into methanol-water (aflatoxins) and aqueous sodium bicarbonate (ochratoxin A), the sample was filtered, diluted with phosphate-buffered saline, and then passed through either an aflatoxin or ochratoxin A affinity column before HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection (using post-column bromination for the aflatoxins). In all the traditional Turkish products, the recovery of aflatoxin B1 ranged from 77 to 98%, and LODs were <0.1 microg/kg. For ochratoxin A, the recoveries were from 88 to 93% and LODs were similarly <0.1 microLg/kg. Despite the complex nature of these traditional Turkish foods, which frequently contain products from sugar caramelization, there was no evidence of any interfering co-extractives, and the method has proved to be robust enough to be used for food control purposes. PMID:19714981

  3. Evaluation of sugar content and composition in commonly consumed Korean vegetables, fruits, cereals, seed plants, and leaves by HPLC-ELSD.

    PubMed

    Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Kim, Su Yeon; Kim, Jung Bong; Kim, Heon Woong; Cho, Soo Muk; Kim, Se Na; Kim, So Young; Cho, Young Sook; Kim, Haeng Ran

    2013-10-18

    In the present investigation, evaluation of sugars viz. fructose, galactose, glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, and raffinose in commonly consumed raw Korean vegetables, fruits, cereals, seed plants, and leaves has been analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). Of the 58 samples analyzed, Onion showed the highest content of fructose (27.74g/100g) and glucose (31.80g/100g) and Chestnuts showed the highest content of sucrose (21.82g/100g). On the other hand, Glutinous sorghum (polished grain), Green tea leaves, and Paddy rice (well-polished rice) showed the lowest content of fructose (0.20g/100g), glucose (0.68g/100g) and sucrose (0.23g/100g), respectively. Glutinous barley (Hopimbori-whole grain) and Green tea leaves showed 0.17g/100g and 0.57g/100g of galactose and lactose respectively. Glutinous barley (Seodunchalbori-polished grain) and Black soybeans (Cheongjaho, dried) showed the highest content of maltose (0.51g/100g) and raffinose (1.82g/100g), respectively. In few samples, galactose, maltose, lactose, and raffinose were detected in trace quantities. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was also performed to discriminate the analyzed samples. PMID:24021435

  4. Evaluation of protein content, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins for gamma-irradiated semolina before and after milling of durum wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S. Azzeh; A. S. Amr

    2009-01-01

    Influenced of gamma irradiation (0, 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on total nitrogen, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins of semolina was studied. The effect of irradiation before and after milling on previous parameters was also investigated. Protein content of semolina was not affected with gamma irradiation before and after milling. Up

  5. [Relationships between host preference of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) and nutrient and chlorophyll contents in host foliage].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Ping; Pang, Bao-Ping; Meng, Rui-Xia; Wang, Juan

    2007-03-01

    The laboratory study with no free choice means showed that the host preference of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) adult differed significantly with test plants. Phaseolus vulgaris, Chrysanthemum coronarium and Cucurbita pepo were the most preferred, while Lycopersicum esculenturn and Brassica oleracea were the least. Correlative analysis indicated that the host preference of L. huidobrensis adult had a significant positive correlation with the content of soluble sugar, but less correlation with soluble protein and chlorophyll contents in host foliage. PMID:17552217

  6. Effect of different inclusion level of condensed distillers solubles ratios and oil content on amino Acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Xu, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, J D; Li, Q Y; Zhang, S; Ma, X K; Piao, X S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS. PMID:25557681

  7. Effect of Different Inclusion Level of Condensed Distillers Solubles Ratios and Oil Content on Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, P.; Xu, X.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J. D.; Li, Q. Y.; Zhang, S.; Ma, X. K.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS. PMID:25557681

  8. Improved Sugar Conversion and Ethanol Yield for Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Lines with Reduced Lignin Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is known to impede conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. In this study, forage sorghum plants carrying brown midrib (bmr) mutations, which reduce lignin contents, were evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks. The near isogenic lines evaluated were: wild-type, bmr-6, bmr-12, and bmr-6 bmr-12...

  9. Original article Nectar sugar production and honeybee

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Nectar sugar production and honeybee foraging activity in 3 species of onion; Nectar sugar content and solute concentration in the nectar of 3 Allium species were determined to assess and A cepa fistulosum there was resorption of nectar sugars after 72 and 144 h of flower opening, whereas

  10. Quality characteristics of no added sugar ready to drink milk supplemented with mango pulp.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Usha; Mittal, Shikha

    2015-04-01

    Removal of sugar as a sweetener and its replacement by a high potency sweetener introduces a number of sensory and technical challenges particularly diminution in mouthfeel. Thick consistency of pulpy fruits could be exploited to compensate for the loss of viscosity and mouthfeel in sugar substituted beverages. The investigation was undertaken to study the effect of mango pulp supplementation on the quality of flavoured low calorie milk drinks using sucralose as sugar substitute. The effect of 0.0 to 100 % sugar replacement on total solids (TS), total soluble solids (TSS), specific gravity, viscosity and sensory scores was studied. Sugar replacement considerably decreased TS, TSS, viscosity and sensory scores. The mango flavoured milk drinks(MFDs) prepared by replacing sugar with sucralose and adding 10 % mango pulp in milk of 0.5 % fat and 8.5 % milk solid-not-fat. MFD were pasteurized and stored at refrigeration temperature for shelf life studies. A significant (p?sugar content of pasteurized MFD was noticed during the storage period of 10 days at 5.0?±?0.1 °C. However, the titratable acidity increased to undesirable levels in MFD after 8 days which rendered it unacceptable. Standard plate count and yeast and mold count of MFDs increased during storage. The shelf life of the pasteurized MFD was found to be 8 days at 5.0?±?0.1 °C. PMID:25829591

  11. Sweeteners - sugars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and jellies. Enhance flavor in processed meats. Provide fermentation for breads and pickles. Add bulk to ice ... and galactose. Maltose (malt sugar) is produced during fermentation. It is found in beer and breads. Maple ...

  12. Sugar 101

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your local American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) ???? (Traditional Chinese) ???? ( ... calories you need to meet your nutrient needs. Select low-fat and no-sugar-added foods to ...

  13. Water solubility in aluminosilicate melts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. McMillan; John R. Holloway

    1987-01-01

    We have compiled water solubility data for a wide range of natural and synthetic aluminosilicate melts in a search for correlations between melt composition and solubility. The published data reveal some interesting systematics. For example, molar water solubility increases with decreasing silica content in binary and pseudobinary silicates, and much higher solubilities are associated with alkali systems compared to alkaline

  14. Sugar test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-06

    Metabolism is the conversion or breakdown of a substance from one form to another by a living organism for energy. Yeast is an indicator of how much sugar is in food. Yeast releases carbon dioxide and is a direct indicator of the rate of metabolism. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. Cereals contain sugars, which are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are chemicals that provide energy.

  15. SUGAR 3.0: A MEMS Simulation Program (User's Guide) Document Authors -David Bindel, Jason Clark, Ningning Zhou

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    SUGAR 3.0: A MEMS Simulation Program (User's Guide) Document Authors - David Bindel, Jason Clark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 April 2002 #12;Contents 1 Introducing SUGAR 1 1.1 What is SUGAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.3 Installing SUGAR

  16. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    Font i Forcada, Carolina; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Moreno, María Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1) on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol) and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC). Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties. PMID:24496242

  17. Varying Protein Content and Nitrogen Solubility for Pluriparous, Lactating Holstein Cows: Digestive Performance During Early Lactation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Janicki; J. B. Holter; H. H. Hayes

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-four pluriparous Holstein cows were used to examine effects of crude protein (15.3 vs. 13.6%, dry matter basis) and nitrogen solubility (39.7 vs. 47.9%) on digestibility, energy and protein balances, and related traits during early lactation. Cows were assigned randomly at parturition to treatments in a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement; measure- ments were during wk 6, 10, and 14

  18. Round-robin test on chloride analysis in concrete — Part II: Analysis of water soluble chloride content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Castellote; C. Andrade

    2001-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, general trends in the realisation of this Round Robin Test on chloride analysis in concrete (carried\\u000a out as part of the work developed by the Technical Committee TC 178-TMC), as well as the results corresponding to total chlorides\\u000a were given. The present paper reports the results corresponding to the extraction of water soluble chlorides.

  19. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World sugar production is around 160 Mt yearly with a per capita consumption of about 23 kg. Total utilization is increasing approximately 1.4% annually thanks to the improved standard of living in densely populated countries like China and India. About one-quarter of world production is extracted f...

  20. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  1. Increased Expression of a Phloem Membrane Protein Encoded by NHL26 Alters Phloem Export and Sugar Partitioning in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Vilaine, Françoise; Kerchev, Pavel; Clément, Gilles; Batailler, Brigitte; Cayla, Thibaud; Bill, Laurence; Gissot, Lionel; Dinant, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    The complex process of phloem sugar transport involves symplasmic and apoplasmic events. We characterized Arabidopsis thaliana lines ectopically expressing a phloem-specific gene encoding NDR1/HIN1-like26 (NHL26), a putative membrane protein. NHL26 overexpressor plants grew more slowly than wild-type plants, accumulated high levels of carbohydrates in mature leaves, and had a higher shoot biomass, contrasting with slower root growth and a lower seed yield. Similar effects were observed when NHL26 was overexpressed in companion cells, under the control of a companion cell–specific promoter. The soluble sugar content of the phloem sap and sink organs was lower than that in the wild type, providing evidence of a sugar export defect. This was confirmed in a phloem-export assay with the symplastic tracer carboxyfluorescein diacetate. Leaf sugar accumulation was accompanied by higher organic acid, amino acid, and protein contents, whereas analysis of the metabolite profile of phloem sap exudate revealed no change in amino acid or organic acid content, indicating a specific effect on sugar export. NHL26 was found to be located in the phloem plasmodesmata and the endoplasmic reticulum. These findings reveal that NHL26 accumulation affects either the permeability of plasmodesmata or sugar signaling in companion cells, with a specific effect on sugar export. PMID:23715470

  2. Modification of the Potassium Ferricyanide Reducing Sugar Test for Sugars from Extracts of Cotton Fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald E. Brushwood

    For many years the potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) standard sugar test-also known as the Perkins test-has been used by the textile industry to quantify the content of sticky sugars on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint. This test, however, is a reducing sugar test and does not detect non-reducing sugars, which are known to contribute to the stickiness potential of the lint.

  3. Sugar 1 2 3 Sugar 1 2 3

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    . . . . . . Sugar 1 2 3 . . . .. . . Sugar 1 CSPSAT 2008 8 21 Sugar #12;. . . . . . Sugar 1 2 3 .. Sugar Sugar (CSP) (SAT ) (encode) SAT SAT order encoding direct encoding support encoding http://bach.istc.kobe-u.ac.jp/sugar/ .. Web Sugar #12;. . . . . . Sugar 1 2 3 .. Sugar SAT (COP) MAX-CSP International CSP Solver Competition

  4. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

  5. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

  6. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

  7. Nondestructive quantification of the soluble-solids content and the available acidity of apples by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Yibin; Liu Yande; Tao Yang

    2005-09-01

    This research evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to quantify the soluble-solids content (SSC) and the available acidity (VA) in intact apples. Partial least-squares calibration models, obtained from several preprocessing techniques (smoothing, derivative, etc.) in several wave-number ranges were compared. The best models were obtained with the high coefficient determination (r{sup 2}) 0.940 for the SSC and a moderate r{sup 2} of 0.801 for the VA, root-mean-square errors of prediction of 0.272% and 0.053%, and root-mean-square errors of calibration of 0.261% and 0.046%, respectively. The results indicate that the FT-NIR spectroscopy yields good predictions of the SSC and also showed the feasibility of using it to predict the VA of apples.

  8. Solubility of Sulfur in Shergottitic Silicate Melts Up to 0.8 GPA: Implications for S Contents of Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.M.; Danielson, L.

    2009-01-01

    Shergottites have high S contents (1300 to 4600 ppm; [1]), but it is unclear if they are sulfide saturated or under-saturated. This issue has fundamental implications for determining the long term S budget of the martian surface and atmosphere (from mantle degassing), as well as evolution of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) Au, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Ir, and Os, since concentrations of the latter are controlled by sulfide stability. Resolution of sulfide saturation depends upon temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity (and FeO), and magma composition [2]. Expressions derived from experimental studies allow prediction of S contents, though so far they are not calibrated for shergottitic liquids [3-5]. We have carried out new experiments designed to test current S saturation models, and then show that existing calibrations are not suitable for high FeO and low Al2O3 compositions characteristic of shergottitic liquids. The new results show that existing models underpredict S contents of sulfide saturated shergottitic liquids by a factor of 2.

  9. Partnership Sugar Beet Growers

    E-print Network

    1 Partnership of: Sugar Beet Growers Michigan Sugar Company Monitor Sugar Company Michigan State-Farm Sugar Beet Research and Demonstration Report". This type of research could not be conducted without the financial support of Michigan and Monitor Sugar Companies and their Growers. Research priorities

  10. PHYSIOLOGY AND BIO – CHEMISTRY OF GERMINATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SEEDS – V PROTEIN AND SUGAR CONTENTS OF SEEDS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SPECTRAL BANDS OF LIGHT

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, A. K.; Boissya, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    The estimation of total protein and total sugars of cucumber, mango, paddy, radish and tomato seeds in dry, wet and germinating conditions were studied. Also the results are discussed in the light of possible physiological and bio – chemical change taking place inside the seeds during the process of absorption and germination. PMID:22557525

  11. Spermidine and related-metabolic inhibitors modulate sugar and amino acid levels in Vitis vinifera L.: possible relationships with initial fruitlet abscission.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Aziz

    2003-01-01

    The relationships between free polyamines (PAs), sugar and amino acid status were investigated in cuttings from two cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., Pinot noir (PN), a low abscising cultivar and Merlot (MRT), a high abscising one. In both cultivars free PAs decreased in inflorescences, but more drastically in MRT plants. Upon anthesis, this was associated with a decreased sugar content, especially sucrose, and an increase in total free amino acids. Thereafter, sucrose and amino acids showed opposite trends. In addition, darkening the PN plants at full flowering resulted in a dramatic decrease of PAs and sugars in inflorescences, but an increase in amino acid content, followed by high abscission. The concept that initial fruitlet abscission might be regulated by free PAs through changes in primary metabolites was hypothesized. Hence, the application of exogenous spermidine (Spd), but not putrescine (Put), prior to flowering markedly inhibits abscission. The Spd treatment also increased soluble sugar content but reduced amino acids in both leaves and inflorescences, while Put had no significant effect. By contrast, cyclohexylamine and beta-hydroxyethylhydrazine, as potent inhibitors of Spd synthase and PA-oxidases, respectively, exerted inverse effects on sugar, amino acid and abscission levels. Sucrose and free proline seemed to be highly sensitive to these treatments. This study suggests that Spd could regulate fruitlet abscission in grapevine by modulating, in a reverse way, the levels of sugars and amino acids in inflorescences. PMID:12493864

  12. Strategic Sugar Beet Germplasm Resource Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smooth-root varieties (SR) have been recognized as desirable since the 1940’s for their potential to reduce soil tare at harvest and at the factory. Until the 1990’s this germplasm had low sugar and was unacceptable. Since 2000, USDA-ARS SR germplasm releases increased sugar content to acceptable le...

  13. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation. Characterization of mutant and wild-type plants has revealed that sugars inhibit breakdown of seed storage lipids. In addition, high concentrations of exogenous sugars largely eliminate the development of mature chloroplasts by developing seedlings. Affymetrix GeneChip experiments have revealed that expression of many plant genes is partially regulated by sugar levels, with approximately two percent of genes exhibiting alterations in steady-state mRNA levels in response to changing sugar concentrations. Ultimately, a better understanding of plant sugar responses may allow improvements in rates of carbon fixation and manipulation of carbon partitioning. These improvements will be needed to help make production of energy from biomass more economically attractive.

  14. Simultaneous identification and quantification of the sugar, sugar alcohol, and carboxylic acid contents of sour cherry, apple, and ber fruits, as their trimethylsilyl derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Füzfai, Zsófia; Katona, Zsolt F; Kovács, Etelka; Molnár-Perl, Ibolya

    2004-12-15

    Our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method--developed for the simultaneous quantitation of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides, sugar alcohols, caboxylic and amino acids, measured as their trimethylsilyl-(oxime) ether/ester derivatives, from one solution by a single injection, prepared in the presence of the fruit matrix--has been extended/utilized for special purposes. The compositions of (i) freshly harvested and stored sour cherries (Prunus cerasus), (ii) apples obtained from organic and integrated productions (Malus domestica), and (iii) green and ripe bers (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) were compared. On the basis of earlier, basic researches (derivatization, quantitation, and fragmentation studies of authentic compounds), we demonstrate the reproducible quantitation of the main and minor constituents in a wide concentration range (approximately 1 x 10(-)(3) to >/=40%, in total up to < or =98%, calculated on dry matter basis of the fruit matrices). Reproducibility of quantitations, calculated on the basis of their total ion current values, provided an average reproducibility of 3.3 (sour cherries), 6.2 (apple), and 4.3 (ber) RSD %, respectively. PMID:15675786

  15. PECTIN ACETYLESTERASE - ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION FOR SUGAR BEET PECTIN UTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable technologies are being sought to provide new and higher-value coproducts from sugar beet pulp. Pectin is a complex plant cell wall polysaccharide that represents a major fraction of sugar beet pulp. One distinguishing feature of sugar beet pectin is a high content of C2 and C3 ace...

  16. Effect of seasonal changes on content and profile of soluble carbohydrates in tubers of different varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Laura; Liebhard, Peter; Praznik, Werner

    2007-11-14

    A high content (60-65% of dry mass DM) of water soluble carbohydrates was found in early harvested varieties (Bella and Bianka) and middle early varieties (Topstar and Gigant) harvested 22-25 weeks after plantation. In late varieties (Waldspindel, Violet de Rennes, Rote Zonenkugel) a similar amount was obtained (55-60% of DM) when harvested 29-33 weeks after planting. There was a distinctive impact on maturing process as well as frost period alterations which resulted in conversion of high polymer inulin to low polymer inulin as well as to sucrose. In early/middle early varieties a correlation between sucrose and inulin level (r = - 0.952**) with a linear regression of y = - 1.35x + 62.32 was observed, whereas the dpn of inulin decreased from 12-14 to 6-8. In late cultivars this correlation was not as exact (r = - 0.502**); dpn of inulin decreased from 12-16 to 7-10. This knowledge about carbohydrate profiles for different varieties of Jerusalem artichoke offers the possibility of selecting suitable cultivars and deciding the appropriate harvest time for an optimum processing of tubers for their application as prebiotic and novel food component. PMID:17941691

  17. Estimated length: 17.4 pages Running title (32 characters): Sugar metabolism in tomato fruit

    E-print Network

    1 Estimated length: 17.4 pages Running title (32 characters): Sugar metabolism in tomato fruit Full Title (150 characters): Model-assisted analysis of sugar metabolism throughout tomato fruit development localization of soluble sugars within the vacuole, together with organic acids, thus enabling the osmotic

  18. Ethanol from Sugar Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and relatively low profit for sugar are putting pressure on the sugar industry to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, mainly sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum, fit well into the emerging concept of a renewable car...

  19. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2015-03-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar. PMID:25745238

  20. Added Sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  1. [Effect of Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum on lectin activity of sugar beet calluses].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, L P; Korobkova, E S; Didenko, G V; Iastrebova, E V; Malinovskaia, L P

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of lectin activity of sugar beet calluses infected by mollicute Acholeplasma laidlawii var granulum str. 118 was studied. Activity of acid-soluble lectins of sugar beet cell cultures increased 4.5 times during some first hours after infecting by acholeplasma. At early stages of infecting by mollicute qualitative changes were also revealed in the protein spectra of acid-soluble lectins of sugar beet calluses. PMID:21442949

  2. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  3. Amino acid digestibility and energy content of deoiled (solvent-extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles for swine and effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jacela, J Y; DeRouchey, J M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Sulabo, R C; Thaler, R C; Brandts, L; Little, D E; Prusa, K J

    2011-06-01

    A study with 3 experiments was conducted to determine the AA digestibility and energy concentration of deoiled (solvent-extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (dDGS) and to evaluate its effect on nursery pig growth performance, finishing pig growth performance, and carcass traits. In Exp. 1, a total of 5 growing barrows (initial BW = 30.8 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) a diet with dDGS as the sole protein source, or 2) a N-free diet for determining basal endogenous AA losses in a crossover design at 68.0 kg of BW. Apparent and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of AA and energy concentration of dDGS were determined. In Exp. 2, a total of 210 pigs (initial BW = 9.9 kg) were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the effect of dDGS on nursery pig performance. Pigs were allotted to 5 dietary treatments (0, 5, 10, 20, or 30% dDGS) formulated to contain equal ME (increased added fat with increasing dDGS) and SID Lys concentrations based on the values obtained from Exp. 1. In Exp. 3, a total of 1,215 pigs (initial BW = 29.6 kg) were used in a 99-d experiment to determine the effect of dDGS on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Pigs were allotted to dietary treatments similar to those used in Exp. 2 and were fed in 4 phases. The analyzed chemical composition of dDGS in Exp. 1 was 35.6% CP, 5.29% ash, 4.6% fat, 18.4% ADF, and 39.5% NDF on a DM basis. Apparent ileal digestibility values of Lys, Met, and Thr in dDGS were 47.2, 79.4, and 64.1%, respectively, and SID values were 50.4, 80.4, and 68.9%, respectively. The determined GE and DE and the calculated ME and NE values of dDGS were 5,098, 3,100, 2,858, and 2,045 kcal/kg of DM, respectively. In Exp. 2, nursery pig ADG, ADFI, and G:F were similar among treatments. In Exp. 3, increasing dDGS reduced (linear; P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI but tended to improve (linear; P = 0.07) G:F. Carcass weight and yield were reduced (linear; P < 0.01), loin depth tended to decrease (linear; P = 0.09), and carcass fat iodine values increased (linear; P < 0.01) as dDGS increased. No difference was observed in backfat, percentage of lean, or fat-free lean index among treatments. In conclusion, dDGS had greater CP and AA but less energy content than traditional distillers dried grains with solubles. In addition, when dietary fat was added to diets to offset the reduced ME content, feeding up to 30% dDGS did not affect the growth performance of nursery pigs but did negatively affect the ADG, ADFI, and carcass fat quality of finishing pigs. PMID:21257785

  4. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-04-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction (WSOC), and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  5. High blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

  6. Hyperactivity and sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ... Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), ... and other behavior problems in children. They argue ...

  7. Home blood sugar testing

    MedlinePLUS

    Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. And some people need to check ...

  8. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track your blood sugar level. ... bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track your blood sugar level. ...

  9. Partnership Sugar Beet Growers

    E-print Network

    production decisions that will improve profitability of your sugar beet enterprise. In spite of the driest, we expect our sugar industry profits will continue to improve. As you study the 2001 research. Hilleshog has provided the last two years sugar analysis at no charge. We are certainly appreciative of our

  10. Effect of phosphorus application on the contents of amino acids and reducing sugars in the rhizosphere and VA mycorrhizal infection of white clover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keitaro Tawaraya; Kanehito Sasai; Tadao Wagatsuma

    1994-01-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizae accelerate the phosphorus (P) uptake and growth of plants especially in soils with low phosphorus content (Gerdemann 1968; Mosse 1973). Application of phosphate fertilizer to soil, on the contrary, decreases the percentage of infection of roots with VA mycorrhizal fungi (Daft and Nicolson 1966; Mosse and Bowen 1968; Hayman et al. 1975) and inhibit the ameliorating effect

  11. Association of sugar content QTL and PQL with physiological traits relevant to frost damage resistance in pea under field and controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Estelle; Fontaine, Véronique; Vuylsteker, Christophe; Sellier, Hélène; Bodèle, Sylvie; Voedts, Najia; Devaux, Rosemonde; Frise, Marlène; Avia, Komlan; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Bahrman, Nasser; Hanocq, Eric; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Delbreil, Bruno

    2009-05-01

    To increase yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.), autumn sowing would be preferable. Hence, frost tolerance of pea became a major trait of interest for breeders. In order to better understand the cold acclimation in pea, Champagne a frost tolerant line and Terese, a frost sensitive line, and their recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were studied. RIL frost tolerance was evaluated by a frost damage scale under field as well as controlled conditions. A quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach was used to identify chromosomal regions linked to frost tolerance. The detected QTL explained from 6.5 to 46.5% of the phenotypic variance. Amongst them, those located on linkage groups 5 and 6 were consistent with over all experiments, in field as well as in controlled environments. In order to improve the understanding of the frost tolerance mechanisms, several cold acclimation key characters such as concentration of sugars, electrolyte leakage, osmotic pressure, and activity of RuBisCO were assessed. Some of these physiological QTL colocalised with QTL for frost damage, in particular two raffinose QTL on LG5 and LG6 and one RuBisCO activity QTL on LG6, explaining 8.8 to 27.0% of the phenotypic variance. In addition, protein quantitative loci were mapped; some of them colocalised with frost damage and physiological QTL on LG5 and LG6, explaining 16.0-43.6% of the phenotypic variance. Raffinose metabolism and RuBisCO activity and its effect on photosynthesis might play a major role in cold acclimation of pea. PMID:19322559

  12. Coccidioides immitis vaccine: potential of an alkali-soluble, water-soluble cell wall antigen

    E-print Network

    Lecara, Grace

    1980-01-01

    COCCIOIOIDES IMMITIS VACCINE: POTENTIAL OF AN ALKALI-SOLUBLE, WATER-SOLUBLE CEI. L WALL ANTIGEN A Thesis by GRACE LECARA Aporoved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Head of Department) August l...930 ABSTRACT Coccidioides immitis Vaccine: Potential of an Alkali- Soluble, Water-Soluble Cell Wall Antigen. (August 1980) Grace Lecara, B. A. , M. T. , Trinity University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. R. B. Simpson An alkali-soluble, water...

  13. Moisture solubility for differently conditioned transformer oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. DUI; A. V. Mamishev; B. C. Lesieutre; M. Zahn; S. H. Kang

    2001-01-01

    It is important to monitor the moisture content of transformer oil in a transformer. One parameter of particular interest is the moisture solubility of transformer oil. It has been reported that transformer oils under different conditions have different solubility. Measurements of solubility for four different types of conditioned oil are presented in this paper: fresh Shell Diala AX oil, lab-aged

  14. Sugar and Other Sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godshall, Mary An

    Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

  15. Evaluation of prediction equations to estimate gross, digestible, and metabolizable energy content of maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for swine based on chemical composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to cross-validate prediction equations to estimate the concentration of gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), and metabolizable energy (ME) among sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with variable chemical composition in growing pigs. Publ...

  16. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...

  17. High sulfur content in corn dried distillers grains with solubles protects against oxidized lipids by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some sources of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during the production process. These oxidized lipids may negatively affect growth performance and metabolic oxidation status of pigs. The objective of ...

  18. SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary . ...... SAT , , 2013 7 24 SAT #12;SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary .. ...1 SAT SAT SAT SAT ...2 SAT (CSP) ...3 SAT Sugar Copris ...4 Copris ...5 SAT #12;SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary .. SAT SAT SAT #12;SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary .. SAT . ...... SAT (Boolean

  19. Use of green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract and water-soluble nanomicelles of green rooibos extract encapsulated with ascorbic acid for enhanced aspalathin content in ready-to-drink iced teas.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Elizabeth; Viljoen, Melvi; De Beer, Dalene; Malherbe, Christiaan J; Brand, D Jacobus; Manley, Marena

    2010-10-27

    Heat-induced changes in aspalathin, iso-orientin, and orientin content of ready-to-drink (RTD) green rooibos iced tea formulations were investigated. An organic-solvent-based aspalathin-enriched extract prepared from green rooibos was used "as-is" or encapsulated with ascorbic acid in a water-soluble nanomicelle-based carrier system. The common iced tea ingredients, ascorbic acid, and/or citric acid were added to the iced tea containing green rooibos extract. Only citric acid was added to the iced tea containing the nanomicelles. Heat treatments consisted of pasteurization (93 °C/5 min and 93 °C/30 min), normal-temperature sterilization (NTS; 121 °C/15 min), and high-temperature sterilization (HTS; 135 °C/4 min). Pasteurization had little or no effect on the flavonoid content. NTS and HTS induced significant losses in the flavonoids. The addition of citric and ascorbic acids improved the stability of the flavonoids, but encapsulation of green rooibos extract with ascorbic acid in nanomicelles did not offer additional stability. The only benefit of using the water-soluble nanomicelles was the improved clarity of the RTD product. Iso-orientin and orientin contents were substantially less affected than aspalathin by the heat treatments, partially because of conversion of aspalathin to these flavones, which countered losses. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a known dehydration product of hexoses under mild acidic conditions and also a degradation product of ascorbic acid, was observed in formulations containing citric and/or ascorbic acids. PMID:20923193

  20. CPPU elevates photosynthetic abilities, growth performances and yield traits in salt stressed rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica) via free proline and sugar accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gashaw, Arega; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2014-01-01

    Application of N-2-(chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenyl urea (CPPU) to salt susceptible cultivar of indica rice (cv. PTT1) effected on free proline and soluble sugar accumulation and regulated the physio-morphological responses when subjected to salt stress condition was firstly demonstrated in this study. Soluble sugars, including sucrose, glucose and fructose, in leaf blade and leaf sheath were enriched in 0.1 mM CPPU pretreated plants subsequently exposed to 16.6 dS m(-1) NaCl for 10 days. In the long period (15 days) salt stress, free proline content in the leaf blade and leaf sheath were evidently peaked to act as osmotic adjustment in the salt-stressed plants. In addition, the photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids, were maintained by the functional regulation of soluble sugar and free proline in the cellular levels, thereby leading to higher net photosynthetic rate. Further, the stomatal closure and transpiration rate in CPPU pretreated plants were retained under salt stress, thereby resulting in alleviation of growth performance and yield traits. This study suggested that exogenous application of CPPU may alternatively play effective role to improve the salt tolerant abilities of salt susceptible rice crop. PMID:24485312

  1. Transcript profiling of fructan biosynthetic pathway genes reveals association of a specific fructosyltransferase isoform with the high sugar trait in Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Parsons, Anthony J; Xue, Hong; Liu, Qianhe; Jones, Christopher S; Ryan, Geraldine D; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-04-15

    Lolium perenne cultivars with elevated levels of fructans in leaf blades (high sugar-content grasses) have been developed to improve animal nutrition and reduce adverse environmental impacts of pastoral agricultural systems. Expression of the high sugar trait can vary substantially depending on genotype×environment (G×E) interactions. We grew three potential high sugar-content and a control cultivar in three temperature regimes and quantified water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) and the expression of all functionally characterised L. perenne fructan pathway genes in leaf tissues. We also analysed the distribution, expression and sequence variation of two specific isoforms of Lp6G-FFT (fructan: fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase). Our study confirmed a significant G×E interaction affecting the accumulation of fructans in the high sugar-content cultivar AberDart, which accumulated higher levels of high DP (degree of polymerisation) fructans in blades compared to the control cultivar only when grown at 20°C (day)/10°C (night) temperatures. The cultivar Expo on the other hand accumulated significantly higher levels of high DP fructans in blades independent of temperature. Fructan levels in pseudostems were higher than in blades, and they increased markedly with decreasing temperature, but there was no consistent effect of cultivar in this tissue. The expression of the high sugar trait was generally positively correlated with transcript levels of fructosyltransferases. Presence and expression of only one of the two known 6G-FFT isoforms was positively correlated with high fructan biosynthesis, while the second isoform was associated with low fructan concentrations and positively correlated with fructan exohydrolase gene expression. The presence of distinct 6G-FFT sequence variants appears to be associated with the capacity of high sugar-content grasses to accumulate higher fructan levels particularly at warmer temperatures. These findings might be exploited for the selection and breeding of 'warm-effective' high sugar-content grasses to overcome some of the limitations of current high sugar-content ryegrass cultivars. PMID:24655383

  2. SAT Sugar Scala SAT ( ) SAT

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    1 28 (2011 ) SAT Sugar Scala SAT ( ) SAT SAT SAT Sugar Scala SAT Sugar SAT MiniSat SAT Copris DSL (Domain-Specific Language) Scala Sugar 1 (CSP; Constraint Satisfaction Prob- lem) (COP; Constraint (constraint solver) A SAT-based Constraint Solver Sugar and its Scala Interface. Naoyuki Tamura, , In

  3. Influence of lipid content of a liposome formulation used for solubilization of a poorly water-soluble drug on absorption through Caco-2 monolayers

    E-print Network

    Schneider, M.; Imanidis, G.

    2006-10-27

    by numerical solution of the differential equations (see Equations 1-7) and simultaneous fitting to apical and basal concentrations of both transport directions with the software EasyFit?. ?Papp for a given lipid concentration was independent of drug...Summary ? The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of liposomes used to solubilize poorly water soluble drugs on transport processes through Caco-2 cell monolayers. ?The influence of different lipid concentrations was investigated...

  4. A comparative study on Ca content and distribution in two Gesneriaceae species reveals distinctive mechanisms to cope with high rhizospheric soluble calcium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlong; Xu, Falun; Chen, Shixuan; Zhang, Zhennan; Zhao, Yan; Jin, Yukuan; Li, Meijing; Zhu, Yan; Liu, Yongxiu; Yang, Yi; Deng, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Excessive Ca is toxic to plants thus significantly affects plant growth and species distribution in Ca-rich karst areas. To understand how plants survive high Ca soil, laboratory experiments were established to compare the physiological responses and internal Ca distribution in organ, tissue, cell, and intracellular levels under different Ca levels for Lysionotus pauciflorus and Boea hygrometrica, two karst habitant Gesneriaceae species in Southwest China. In the controlled condition, L. pauciflorus could survive as high as 200 mM rhizospheric soluble Ca, attributed to a series of physiological responses and preferential storage that limited Ca accumulation in chloroplasts of palisade cells. In contrast, B. hygrometrica could survive only 20 mM rhizospheric soluble Ca, but accumulated a high level of internal Ca in both palisade and spongy cells without disturbance on photosynthetic activity. By phenotype screening of transgenic plants expressing high Ca-inducible genes from B. hygrometrica, the expression of BhDNAJC2 in A. thaliana was found to enhance plant growth and photosynthesis under high soluble Ca stress. BhDNAJC2 encodes a recently reported heat shock protein (HSP) 40 family DnaJ-domain protein. The Ca-resistant phenotype of BhDNAJC2 highlights the important role of chaperone-mediated protein quality control in Ca tolerance in B. hygrometrica. Taken together, our results revealed that distinctive mechanisms were employed in the two Gesneriaceae karst habitants to cope with a high Ca environment. PMID:25477893

  5. Changes in Juice Sugar Components during Sugarcane Ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is usually harvested from late October through early April in Florida. Although juice sucrose content and extractable sugar composition are directly associated with sucrose yield and quality, little is known about changes in juice sugar components (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) during ri...

  6. CSP Cream Sugar Copris CSP Cream Sugar Copris

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    CSP Cream Sugar Copris : 2011 6 6 2011 8 22 2012 6 24 2014 5 19 : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris 1 2 3 Cream Java OpenOffice.org Calc 4 Sugar SAT Scala : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris : #12;CSP Cream Sugar (unsatisfiable) : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris 4 X = {q0, q1, q2, q3} D(qi ) = {1, 2, 3, 4} (i = 0, 1, 2, 3) C

  7. Sugars as signaling molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen Sheen; Li Zhou; Jyun-Chyun Jang

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that, in a manner similar to classical plant hormones, sugars can act as signaling molecules that control gene expression and developmental processes in plants. Crucial evidence includes uncoupling glucose signaling from its metabolism, identification of glucose sensors, and isolation and characterization of mutants and other regulatory components in plant sugar signal transduction pathways. The emerging scenario points

  8. Sugar Crystal Challenge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-02-25

    This lesson focuses on surface area and how the shape of sugar crystals may differ as they are grown from sugars of different coarseness. Learners explore surface area, nanostructures, and work in teams and participate in hands-on activities. Safety: need an adult to handle the very hot water.

  9. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-08-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  10. "JCE" Classroom Activity #105. A Sticky Situation: Chewing Gum and Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes-Gonzalez, Ingrid; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.; Perez-Medina, Ilia E.; Montes-Berrios, Veronica; Roman-Lopez, Saurie N.

    2010-01-01

    In this Activity, students perform several solubility tests using common food items such as chocolate, chewing gum, water, sugar, and oil. From their observations during the Activity, students will initially classify the substances tested as soluble or insoluble. They will then use their understanding of the chemistry of solubility to classify the…

  11. Salts & Solubility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-27

    In this online interactive simulation, learners will add different salts to water and then watch the salts dissolve and achieve a dynamic equilibrium with solid precipitate. Learners will also compare the number of ions in NaCl to other slightly soluble salts, and they will relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. Learners will also learn how to calculate Ksp values. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 20 languages.

  12. Verticillium dahliae Causes Wilt on Sugar Beet Following Potato in Eastern North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wilt is a serious disease on sugar beet that decreases content and purity of sugar, but does not significantly decrease root yield. The disease is typically reported as caused by the microorganism Verticillium albo-atrum. The disease has not been previously reported on sugar beet in the Red River ...

  13. Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the rare lyxonic acid, and their relative abundances are in equilibrium proportions. In addition (in contrast to the above D-only excesses), some of the above acids are found in biology as the L enantiomer. Whether rare are common, all of the 6C sugar acids that are present in sufficient amounts to allow enantiomer analysis (Mannonic, gluconic, altronic, talonic, idonic, gulonic, and galactonic) also, apparently, possess significant D excesses.

  14. Sugar substitutes during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Answer Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25392440

  15. 4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  16. 5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  17. Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sugar substitute. It is a combination of 2 amino acids: aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 200 ... to metabolize phenylalanine, which is one of the amino acids in aspartame. If you are concerned that consuming ...

  18. Analysis of sugars and sugar polyols in atmospheric aerosols by chloride attachment in liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wan, Eric C H; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2007-04-01

    Sugars and sugar polyols are relatively abundant groups of water-soluble constituents in atmospheric aerosols. This paper describes a method that uses liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to analyze sugars and sugar polyols in atmospheric aerosols, ranging from C3 sugar alcohols to trisaccharides. Postcolumn addition of chloroform in acetonitrile was found to greatly enhance ionization of these compounds by forming chloride adduct ions in the negative-ion mode using electrospray ionization. A gradient elution program starting at 5%:95% H20/acetonitrile and ending at 30%:70% H2O/acetonitrile provides baseline separations of the sugars and sugar polyols on an amino-based carbohydrate column. The detection limits based on quantification of [M + 35Cl]- adduct ions were in the order of 0.1 microM. By eliminating the need for derivatization, this LC-MS based method provides a simpler alternative method to the commonly used and more laborious gas-chromatography based methods. It also has an additional advantage of being able to quantify trisaccharide sugars. The method was applied to analyze 30 ambient samples of fine particulate matter collected at a site away from urban centers in Hong Kong. The sugar compounds positively identified and detected in the ambient samples included four sugar alcohols (glycerol, erythritol, xylitol, and mannitol), three monosacchride sugars (xylose, fructose, and glucose), two disaccharides (sucrose, trehalose), two trisaccharides (melezitose, raffinose), and one anhydrosugar (levoglucosan). The sum of these sugar and sugar polyol compounds ranged from 38 to 1316 ng m(-3), accounting for an average of 1.3% organic carbon mass. Through the use of a principal component analysis of the ambient measurements, the mono- to trisactharide sugars and C3-C5 sugar polyols were identified to be mainly associated with soil/soil microbiota while the anhydrosugar (levoglucosan) was associated with biomass burning. PMID:17438800

  19. THE TASTE OF SUGARS

    PubMed Central

    McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Sugars evoke a distinctive perceptual quality (“sweetness” in humans) and are generally highly preferred. The neural basis for these phenomena is reviewed for rodents, in which detailed electrophysiological measurements have been made. A receptor has been identified that binds sweeteners and activates G-protein-mediated signaling in taste receptor cells, which leads to changes in neural firing rates in the brain, where perceptions of taste quality, intensity, and palatability are generated. Most cells in gustatory nuclei are broadly-tuned, so quality perception presumably arises from patterns of activity across neural populations. However, some manipulations affect only the most sugar-oriented cells, making it useful to consider them as a distinct neural subtype. Quality perception may also arise partly due to temporal patterns of activity to sugars, especially within sugar-oriented cells that give large but delayed responses. Non-specific gustatory neurons that are excited by both sugars and unpalatable stimuli project to ventral forebrain areas, where neural responses provide a closer match with behavioral preferences. This transition likely involves opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences by different subgroups of gustatory cells. Sweeteners are generally preferred over water, but the strength of this preference can vary across time or between individuals, and higher preferences for sugars are often associated with larger taste-evoked responses. PMID:18499254

  20. Ethylene Suppression of Sugar-Induced Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seok-Won; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Jeoung, Sae Chae; Song, Ji-Young; Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Kim, Woo Jung; Park, Yong Il; Yoo, Sang-Dong; Choi, Sang-Bong; Choi, Giltsu; Park, Youn-Il

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin accumulation is regulated negatively by ethylene signaling and positively by sugar and light signaling. However, the antagonistic interactions underlying these signalings remain to be elucidated fully. We show that ethylene inhibits anthocyanin accumulation induced by sucrose (Suc) and light by suppressing the expression of transcription factors that positively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis, including GLABRA3, TRANSPARENT TESTA8, and PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1, while stimulating the concomitant expression of the negative R3-MYB regulator MYBL2. Genetic analyses show that the ethylene-mediated suppression of anthocyanin accumulation is dependent upon ethylene signaling components responsible for the triple response. Furthermore, these positive and negative signaling pathways appear to be under photosynthetic control. Suc and light induction of anthocyanin accumulation was almost fully inhibited in wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia and ethylene (ethylene response1 [etr1-1]) and light (long hypocotyl1 [hy1], cryptochrome1/2, and hy5) signaling mutants treated with the photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. The transcript level of the sugar transporter gene SUC1 was enhanced in ecotype Columbia treated with the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver and in etr1-1, ethylene insensitive2 (ein2-1), and ein3 ein3-like1 mutants. In contrast, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea treatment reduced SUC1 expression, which indicates strongly that SUC1 represents an integrator for signals provided by sugar, light, and ethylene. SUC1 mutations lowered accumulations of anthocyanin pigment, soluble sugar content, and ethylene production in response to Suc and light signals. These data demonstrate that the suppression of SUC1 expression by ethylene inhibits Suc-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the presence of light and, hence, fine-tunes anthocyanin homeostasis. PMID:20876338

  1. The confusing world of dietary sugars: definitions, intakes, food sources and international dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jennifer; Latulippe, Marie E; Ayoob, Keith; Slavin, Joanne

    2012-05-01

    Government and health organizations worldwide have issued dietary guidelines for sugars. These guidelines vary considerably in the recommended or suggested intakes and the types of sugars specified. Despite access to the same published literature, recommendations vary greatly and create confusion for nutrition practitioners who offer dietary guidance. Some of the confusion in this field is linked to differences in definitions for sugar and methods to measure total sugars. Additionally, although dietary guidance typically recommends foods high in sugar, fruits and dairy products, other advice suggests strict limits on intake of "added sugar". Added sugar cannot be analytically determined and must be calculated so nutrient databases generally contain values for total sugar and do not differentiate between sugars naturally occurring in foods and those added in processing. This review defines sugars, provides the sugar content of major food sources, summarizes health concerns about dietary sugars, and compiles dietary guidelines for sugars issued by various organizations. Dietary recommendations from various health organizations are based on different means of assessment, and thus vary considerably. In general, the use of added sugars is cautioned, especially when it contributes to calories in excess of needs for an individual. PMID:22402777

  2. [Characteristics of rain season atmospheric PM2.5 concentration and its water-soluble ions contents in forest parks along an urban-rural gradient in Guangzhou City of South China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yi-Hua; Xi, Dan; Tong, Fu-Chun; Kuang, Yuan-Wen; Li, Jiong; Chen, Bu-Feng; Shi, Xin; Pei, Nan-Cai; Huang, Jun-Biao; Pan, Yong-Jun

    2013-10-01

    During the rainy season (April-September) of 2012, the atmospheric particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 mm (PM2.5) were sampled from the forest parks in the urban area, suburban area, and rural area of Guangzhou City. The mass concentration of PM2.5 and its water-soluble ions (SO4(2-), NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, F-, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+) contents were also measured. In the forest parks in the urban area, suburban area, and rural area, the diurnal variation of PM2.5 mass concentration was 21.8-161.7, 19.4-156.3, and 17.2-66.5 microg x m(-3), with an arithmetic average being 55.9, 49.8, and 44.4 microg x m(-3), respectively. SO4(2-), Na+, and NH4+ were the main components of water-soluble ions in the PM2.5, and the SO4(2-) had the highest content and decreased gradually from urban to rural forest parks. The contribution of the SO2 and NOx in the PM2.5 from coal combustion to the forest parks was larger than that from vehicle exhaust, but presented a decreasing trend from urban to rural forest parks, indicating that vehicle exhaust had a greater contribution to the atmospheric SO2 and NOx in the urban forest park. In the sampling period, the contribution of sea salt to the water soluble fractions (especially K+) of the PM2.5 was greater for the suburban forest park than for the other two parks. The equivalent concentration of the NH4+ in the PM2.5 was far less than those of the SO4(2-) and NO3-, with a neutralization ratio being much lower than 1.0, which suggested that the PM2.5 had a higher acidity. The PM2.5 acidity had an increasing trend from rural to urban forest parks. PMID:24483086

  3. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ruminal or fecal contents incubated with corn or wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Yang, H E; Yang, W Z; McKinnon, J J; Alexander, T W; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A

    2010-11-01

    Dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS) is a by-product of ethanol production, and its use as cattle feed has increased as a result of the expansion of the fuel ethanol industry. However, the inclusion of corn DDGS into feedlot diets may increase the shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This study investigated whether corn or wheat DDGS at 2 concentrations (20% or 40% vs. 100% barley grain) affected the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in incubations of ruminal digesta and feces. Neither the type nor the level of DDGS had any effect on fermentation or the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in ruminal digesta. However, there was a time by DDGS interaction (p < 0.05), where the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in feces did not differ after 4 or 12 h of incubation but were greater after 24 h in both 40% wheat and 40% corn DDGS as compared with other treatments. Additionally, after 24 h, the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were greater in fecal incubations with corn DDGS than with wheat DDGS (p < 0.05). The differences in the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were not attributable to changes in pH or in concentrations of volatile fatty acids in the media. These results suggest that the inclusion of high levels of corn or wheat DDGS in feedlot diets of cattle may encourage the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in feces. PMID:21076479

  4. Sugar receptors in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Slone, Jesse; Daniels, Joseph; Amrein, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Detection and discrimination of chemical compounds in potential foods are essential sensory processes when animals feed. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster employs 68 different gustatory receptors (GRs) for the detection of mostly non-volatile chemicals that include sugars, a diverse group of toxic compounds present in many inedible plants and spoiled foods, and pheromones [1–6]. With the exception of a trehalose (GR5a) and a caffeine (GR66a) receptor [7–9], the functions of GRs involved in feeding are unknown. Here, we show that the Gr64 genes encode receptors for numerous sugars. We generated a fly strain that contained a deletion for all six Gr64 genes (?Gr64) and showed that these flies exhibit no or a significantly diminished proboscis extension reflex (PER) response when stimulated with glucose, maltose, sucrose and several other sugars. The only considerable response was detected when Gr64 mutant flies were stimulated with fructose. Interestingly, response to trehalose is also abolished in these flies, even though they contain a functional Gr5a gene, which has been previously shown to encode a receptor for this sugar [8, 9]. This observation indicates that two or more Gr genes are necessary for trehalose detection, suggesting that GRs function as multimeric receptor complexes. Finally, we present evidence that some members of the Gr64 gene family are transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA, providing a mechanism for co-expression of multiple sugar receptors in the same taste neurons. PMID:17919910

  5. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePLUS

    ... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  6. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    PubMed

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism. PMID:23043616

  7. Genotypic response to re-growth of defoliated sugar beets after re-watering in a water-limited environment: effects on yield and quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Tsialtas; E. Soulioti; N. Maslaris; D. Papakosta

    Defoliation produced by abiotic factors and the subsequent re-growth can reduce sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) sucrose content and final sugar yield. Field experiments were conducted during 2003 and 2004 growing seasons in the farm of Hellenic Sugar Industry SA, Larissa factory, central Greece. Three sugar beet cultivars (Rival, Europa and Corsica) were ordinary irrigated till the beginning of July

  8. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    MedlinePLUS

    The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels (also known as blood glucose levels ) under control, checking them according to the diabetes management plan will ...

  9. What is sugar?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploratorium

    2004-01-01

    This reading, part of a site about the science of cooking, provides general scientific information about sucrose (white table sugar) together with explanations of the science behind some candy-making procedures. The general information includes the chemical formula of sucrose and a ball-and-stick model that illustrates that sucrose is made of fructose and glucose. Regarding candy, the reading describes how heating a sugar solution produces a supersaturated solution. A discussion about common techniques used to prevent sucrose from crystallizing follows. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  10. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA)

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  12. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2005-11-15

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  13. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  14. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. Relative ability of fat and sugar tastes to activate reward, gustatory, and somatosensory regions123

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kyle S; Yokum, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although the intake of high-fat and high-sugar food activates mesolimbic reward, gustatory, and oral somatosensory brain regions, contributing to overeating, few studies have examined the relative role of fat and sugar in the activation of these brain regions, which would inform policy, prevention, and treatment interventions designed to reduce obesity. Objective: We evaluated the effect of a high-fat or high-sugar equicaloric chocolate milkshake and increasing fat or sugar milkshake content on the activation of these regions. Design: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the neural response to the intake of high-fat/high-sugar, high-fat/low-sugar, low-fat/high-sugar, and low-fat/low-sugar chocolate milkshakes and a tasteless solution in 106 lean adolescents (mean ± SD age = 15.00 ± 0.88 y). Analyses contrasted the activation to the various milkshakes. Results: High-fat compared with high-sugar equicaloric milkshakes caused greater activation in the bilateral caudate, postcentral gyrus, hippocampus, and inferior frontal gyrus. High-sugar compared with high-fat equicaloric milkshakes caused greater activation in the bilateral insula extending into the putamen, the Rolandic operculum, and thalamus, which produced large activation regions. Increasing sugar in low-fat milkshakes caused greater activation in the bilateral insula and Rolandic operculum; increasing fat content did not elicit greater activation in any region. Conclusions: Fat caused greater activation of the caudate and oral somatosensory regions than did sugar, sugar caused greater activation in the putamen and gustatory regions than did fat, increasing sugar caused greater activity in gustatory regions, and increasing fat did not affect the activation. Results imply that sugar more effectively recruits reward and gustatory regions, suggesting that policy, prevention, and treatment interventions should prioritize reductions in sugar intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as DK092468. PMID:24132980

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allowance come from added sugars. For most American women, this is no more than 100 calories per ... sugars. Average daily consumption for men: 335 calories, women: 230 calories, boys: 362 calories, girls: 282 calories. ...

  17. Sugars tied to the spot 

    E-print Network

    Flitsch, Sabine L; Ulijn, Rein V

    2003-01-16

    The interactions of sugars and proteins underlie many biological processes, and cataloguing them is a daunting task. A technique for attaching sugars to microarrays offers a promising, high-throughput solution.

  18. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are absorbed into the bloodstream. As the sugar level rises, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin, which is ... are easily broken down and cause blood sugar levels to rise quickly. Complex carbs (found in whole grains), on ...

  19. SUGAR BEET QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than one third of the sucrose (sugar) consumed by humans is obtained from sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Sucrose extraction begins with the production of a dark opaque juice from strips of sugarbeet. This juice is purified with lime and carbon dioxide, thickened by evaporation, and crystallize...

  20. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and the foods you eat to manage your blood sugar during exercise and on sick days You should also live ... check with your doctor before starting any new exercise plans. Follow your meal plan. Take your medicines the way your doctor or nurse recommends.

  1. Sugar beet traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With rapidly changing agricultural practices, target environments, and biotic and abiotic stresses, plant breeders face the task of continually selecting plants with desirable traits with the goal to assemble advantageous combinations of genes in new varieties. Sugar beet has been selectively bred s...

  2. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  3. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  4. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  5. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  6. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  7. Molecular Mobility in Sugar Glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dries van den I. J

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar glasses. Sugar glasses are relevant as model systems for foods that contain sugars and

  8. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    MedlinePLUS

    Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood sugar (glucose) numbers in your target range can help you feel ... Prevention There are two ways to measure blood sugar. 1 The A1C is a lab test that ...

  9. SCIENTIFIC NAME Acer saccharum (sugar),

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    1 LIFE FORM Tree PART USED Sap SCIENTIFIC NAME Acer saccharum (sugar), Acer saccharinum (silver de arce MAPLE SYRUP S & S(Saps & Syrups)SPRING Above: Sugar bush, family style. Below left, Maine, Wisconsin and Pennsylvania. Maple sap is used to produce syrup, cream and sugar. HARVEST

  10. 7, 57695803, 2007 sugar-alcohols in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 5769­5803, 2007 Sugars and sugar-alcohols in ambient aerosols in Norway K. E. Yttri et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four Sugars and sugar-alcohols in ambient aerosols in Norway K. E. Yttri et al. Title Page Abstract

  11. Acetylation of Sugars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Nicholas; F. Smith

    1948-01-01

    THE acetylation of sugars has hitherto involved the use of acetic anhydride and a catalyst such as sodium acetate1, zinc chloride2, sulphuric acid3 or pyridine4. We have shown that glucose may be acetylated rapidly by means of a mixture of acetic anhydride and acetic acid if a small amount of perchloric acid is added to act as a catalyst5. No

  12. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  13. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Karagöz, Selhan

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52?wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-?-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C. PMID:24223500

  14. Sugar production from barley straw biomass pretreated by combined alkali and enzymatic extrusion.

    PubMed

    Duque, A; Manzanares, P; Ballesteros, I; Negro, M J; Oliva, J M; González, A; Ballesteros, M

    2014-04-01

    A pretreatment that combines a thermo-mechanical process (extrusion) with chemical and biological catalysts to produce fermentable sugars from barley straw (BS) biomass was investigated. BS was firstly extruded with alkali and then, the pretreated material (extrudate) was submitted to extrusion with hydrolytic enzymes (bioextrusion). The bioextrudate was found to have 35% (w/w dwb) of total solids in soluble form, partly coming from carbohydrate hydrolysis during bioextrusion. About 48% of soluble solids dry weight is comprised by sugars, mostly glucose and xylose. Further enzymatic hydrolysis of bioextrudate could be successfully carried out at high solid loading level of 30% (w/v), with sugar production yield of 32 g glucose and 18 g xylose/100g bioextrudate at 72 h incubation (equivalent to 96 and 52 g/l concentration, respectively). These results, together with the high level of integration of the process, indicate a great potential of this pretreatment technology for sugar production from lignocellulosic substrates. PMID:24607463

  15. Physicochemical characterization of a cellulosic fraction from sugar beet pulp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall L. Fishman; Hoa K. Chau; David R. Coffin; Peter H. Cooke; Phoebe Qi; Madhav P. Yadav; Arland T. Hotchkiss

    2011-01-01

    The residue of sugar beet pulp from which pectin and alkaline soluble polysaccharides have been removed by microwave assisted\\u000a extraction or conventional heat was treated with sodium monochloroacetate under alkaline pH to convert the residual cellulose\\u000a present to carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). Weight average molar masses ranged from about 96 to 220 × 103 Daltons, weight average intrinsic viscosity from 1.9 to

  16. Changes in sugars and organic acids in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit during development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Haoxia; Xi, Wanpeng; An, Wei; Niu, Linlin; Cao, Youlong; Wang, Huafang; Wang, Yajun; Yin, Yue

    2015-04-15

    Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34 days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86 mg g(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation. PMID:25466081

  17. Free sugar profile in cycads.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

  18. An update on sugar transport and signalling in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Kappel, Christian; Lecourieux, David; Serrano, Alejandra; Torres, Elizabeth; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Delrot, Serge

    2014-03-01

    In addition to their role as a source of reduced carbon, sugars may directly or indirectly control a wide range of activities in plant cells, through transcriptional and post-translational regulation. This control has been studied in detail using Arabidopsis thaliana, where genetic analysis offers many possibilities. Much less is known about perennial woody species. For several years, various aspects of sugar sensing and signalling have been investigated in the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry, an organ that accumulates high concentrations of hexoses in the vacuoles of flesh cells. Here we review various aspects of this topic: the molecular basis of sugar transport and its regulation by sugars in grapevine; the functional analysis of several sugar-induced genes; the effects of some biotic and abiotic stresses on the sugar content of the berry; and finally the effects of exogenous sugar supply on the ripening process in field conditions. A picture of complex feedback and multiprocess regulation emerges from these data. PMID:24323501

  19. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  20. Sugar Cube Karst

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barb Mieras

    The purpose of this activity is to explore the way water moves through a porous, soluble substance and to observe the development of pits and channels as the substance dissolves in water. Students learn what karst is and how it is formed.

  1. 14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. Stem sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum - activity and expression of sucrose metabolizing enzymes and sucrose transporters.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Hilal Ahmad; Paranjpe, Sharayu; Bhargava, Sujata

    2012-04-15

    Sugar metabolism was studied in sweet sorghum (SSV74) that is known to store sugars in the mature internodes and which is reported to give grain yields twice that of a grain sorghum variety (SPV1616). Comparison of sugar accumulation in these two varieties was carried out at three stages of growth and in the upper and lower internodes. In spite of large differences in the level of sugar accumulation, osmolarity of the sap did not vary as significantly in the two varieties. Significant contribution of variety, stage and internode position was seen for the variation observed in sugar content. Though the activities of sugar metabolizing enzymes namely sucrose synthase (in the synthesis and cleavage directions), sucrose phosphate synthase and invertase (cytoplasmic and vacuolar) also varied in a stage- and internode-specific manner in the two varieties, these enzymes did not contribute significantly to the variation observed in sugar content. Transcriptional expression of one sucrose synthase (SUC1), two sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS2 and SPS3) and a vacuolar invertase (INV3) gene were lower in sweet sorghum as compared to grain sorghum. Sweet sorghum also showed lower expression of two sucrose transporters (SUT1 and SUT4), which correlated to higher sugar accumulation in this variety. Differential expression of the sugar metabolizing enzymes and sucrose transporters in sweet and grain sorghum suggest a role for signaling molecules and transcription factors in regulating sugar accumulation observed in the mature internodes of sweet sorghum, which needs to be investigated. PMID:22325624

  3. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  4. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  5. Sugarcane Genotypic Variation in Juice Sugar Composition as Affected by Sampling Date

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida lasts more than 180 days from late October through mid April. Sugarcane juice sucrose content and extractable sugar composition are closely related to sucrose yield and quality. The objectives of this study were to determine dynamics of sugar componen...

  6. Usual Intake of Added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

  7. Biotechnology Applications for Sugar Beet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekrem Gurel; Songul Gurel; Peggy G. Lemaux

    2008-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop, being one of only two plant sources from which sucrose (i.e., sugar) can be economically produced. Despite its relatively short period of cultivation (ca. 200 years), its yield and quality parameters have been significantly improved by conventional breeding methods. However, during the last two decades or so, advanced in vitro

  8. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    MedlinePLUS

    ... right after an insulin shot Continue Signs That Blood Sugar Levels Are Low There are a bunch of symptoms ... so you start feeling better. How Are Low Blood Sugar Levels Treated? When blood sugar levels are low, the ...

  9. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  10. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    MedlinePLUS

    ... balancing act. Continue The Causes of High Blood Sugar In general, higher than normal blood glucose levels ... in your diabetes treatment plan. Signs That Blood Sugar Levels Are High People with high blood sugar ...

  11. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  12. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  13. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  14. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  15. High Blood Sugar (in Type 1 Diabetes)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Child or Teen Live with Type 1 Diabetes Insulin Delivery Methods Effects of Exercise, Illness, Stress, and Growth on Blood Sugar Levels What is Glucagon? Checking Blood Sugar Levels High Blood Sugar Low ...

  16. Soil amendments reduce trace element solubility in a contaminated soil and allow regrowth of natural vegetation.

    PubMed

    Madejón, Engracia; de Mora, Alfredo Pérez; Felipe, Efraín; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of three amendments (a biosolid compost, a sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) on trace element stabilisation and spontaneous revegetation of a trace element contaminated soil. Soil properties were analysed before and after amendment application. Spontaneous vegetation growing on the experimental plot was studied by three surveys in terms of number of taxa colonising, percentage vegetation cover and plant biomass. Macronutrients and trace element concentrations of the five most frequent species were analysed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil chemical properties and vegetation. All amendments increased soil pH and TOC content and reduced CaCl(2)-soluble-trace element concentrations. Colonisation by wild plants was enhanced in all amended treatments. The nutritional status of the five species studied was improved in some cases, while a general reduction in trace element concentrations of the aboveground parts was observed in all treated plots. The results obtained show that natural assisted remediation has potential for success on a field scale reducing trace element entry in the food chain. PMID:16005126

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

  18. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...iii) The sugars content has not been increased above the amount present in the ingredients by some means such as the use of enzymes, except where the intended functional effect of the process is not to increase the sugars content of a product, and a...

  19. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...iii) The sugars content has not been increased above the amount present in the ingredients by some means such as the use of enzymes, except where the intended functional effect of the process is not to increase the sugars content of a product, and a...

  20. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...iii) The sugars content has not been increased above the amount present in the ingredients by some means such as the use of enzymes, except where the intended functional effect of the process is not to increase the sugars content of a product, and a...

  1. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  3. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  4. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  5. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  6. Phenylboronic acid functionalized SBA-15 for sugar capture.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Hong; Shantz, Daniel F

    2011-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials that selectively capture sugars from model biomass hydrolysis mixtures are reported. 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (PBA) groups that can reversibly form cyclic esters with 1,2-diols, and 1,3-diols including sugars are attached to mesoporous SBA-15 via different synthetic protocols. In the first route, a coupling agent is used to link PBA and SBA-15, while in the second route poly(acrylic acid) brushes are first grafted from the surface of SBA-15 by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization and PBA is then immobilized. The changes in pore structure, porosity, and pore size due to the loading of organic content are measured by powder X-ray diffraction and nitrogen porosimetry. The increase in organic content after each synthesis step is monitored by thermal gravimetric analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis are used to characterize the chemical compositions of the hybrid materials synthesized. D-(+)-Glucose and D-(+)-xylose, being the most commonly present sugars in biomass, are chosen to evaluate the sugar adsorption capacity of the hybrid materials. It is found that the sugar adsorption capacity is determined by the loading of boronic acid groups on the hybrid materials, and the hybrid material synthesized via route two is much better than that through route one for sugar adsorption. Mathematical modeling of the adsorption data indicates that the Langmuir model best describes the sugar adsorption behavior of the hybrid material synthesized through route one, while the Freundlich model fits the data most satisfactorily for the hybrid material prepared via route two. The adsorption kinetics, reusability, and selectivity toward some typical chemicals in cellulose acidic hydrolysis mixtures are also investigated. PMID:22023050

  7. Solid fermentation of wheat bran for hydrolytic enzymes production and saccharification content by a local isolate Bacillus megatherium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Back ground For enzyme production, the costs of solid state fermentation (SSF) techniques were lower and the production higher than submerged cultures. A large number of fungal species was known to grow well on moist substrates, whereas many bacteria were unable to grow under this condition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate a highly efficient strain of Bacillus sp utilizing wheat bran in SSF and optimizing the enzyme production and soluble carbohydrates. Results A local strain Bacillus megatherium was isolated from dung sheep. The maximum production of pectinase, xylanase and ?-amylase, and saccharification content (total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars) were obtained by application of the B. megatherium in SSF using wheat bran as compared to grasses, palm leaves and date seeds. All enzymes and saccharification content exhibited their maximum production during 12–24 h, at the range of 40–80% moisture content of wheat bran, temperature 37-45°C and pH 5–8. An ascending repression of pectinase production was observed by carbon supplements of lactose, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch, respectively. All carbon supplements improved the production of xylanase and ?-amylase, except of lactose decreased ?-amylase production. A little increase in the yield of total reducing sugars was detected for all carbon supplements. Among the nitrogen sources, yeast extract induced a significant repression to all enzyme productivity. Sodium nitrate, urea and ammonium chloride enhanced the production of xylanase, ?-amylase and pectinase, respectively. Yeast extract, urea, ammonium sulphate and ammonium chloride enhanced the productivity of reducing sugars. Conclusions The optimization of enzyme production and sccharification content by B. megatherium in SSF required only adjustment of incubation period and temperature, moisture content and initial pH. Wheat bran supplied enough nutrients without any need for addition of supplements of carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:24758479

  8. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  9. Polysaccharides isolated from sugar beet pulp by quaternization under acidic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet pulp was extracted and chemically modified under acidic conditions using glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride in the presence of trifuoroacetic (TFA), HCl or H3PO4. The goal was to find out how the type of acid used and quaternization could affect the yield of soluble polysaccharide, its mo...

  10. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    PubMed

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes significant changes that lead to the end of shelf life. These products need to be protected from moisture uptake during storage. This review summarizes the concepts of water content, water activity, and glass transition and documents their importance to quality and shelf life of confections. PMID:20112158

  11. Consumption of added sugar among U.S. children and adolescents, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Ervin, R Bethene; Kit, Brian K; Carroll, Margaret D; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2012-03-01

    Approximately 16% of children and adolescents’ total caloric intakes came from added sugars. Boys consumed more added sugars than girls. Preschool-aged children consumed the fewest calories from added sugars. Although girls consumed a smaller absolute amount of calories from added sugars than boys, their intakes were not that different from boys when the amounts are expressed as a percentage of total caloric intakes. Non-Hispanic white children and adolescents consumed a larger percentage of their calories from added sugars than Mexican-American children and adolescents. Also, Non-Hispanic black girls consumed a larger percentage of their calories from added sugars than Mexican-American girls. There was very little difference in added sugar consumption based on PIR. More of the added sugars calories came from foods as opposed to beverages. Previous research has demonstrated that sodas are the single leading food source of added sugars intakes among children, adolescents, and adults (2,4). Our results showed a little more than 40% of calories from added sugars came from beverages. Poti and Popkin (5) have suggested that eating location impacts daily energy intake in children and adolescents and that foods prepared away from home, are contributing to their increased total energy intake. Our results showed that more of the added sugars calories were consumed at home rather than away from home. A substantial percentage of calories in the diets of children and adolescents between 2005 and 2008 came from added sugars. According to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines "reducing the consumption of these sources of added sugars will lower the caloric content of the diet, without compromising its nutrient adequacy (3)." This strategy could play an important role in reducing the high prevalence of obesity in the United States (6) without compromising adequate nutrition. PMID:22617043

  12. Smashing Bubbles and Vanishing Sugar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Science activities with soap bubbles for primary school children are described in this article. Another activity involves children in determining the whereabouts of sugar as it dissolves in water. (SA)

  13. The Ups and Downs of Blood Sugar

    E-print Network

    13090 60 180 The Ups and Downs of Blood Sugar You need just the right amount of sugar in your their blood sugar under control. l Whenyoufirstwakeupinthemorning,beforeyoueat breakfast,yourbloodsugarshouldbebetween90 and 30. l Try to keep your blood sugar between 90 and 30 as much of the time as possible. #12

  14. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Y. Yang; Rex Montgomery

    2007-01-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of

  15. Lipid dependencies, biogenesis and cytoplasmic micellar forms of integral membrane sugar transport proteins of the bacterial phosphotransferase system

    PubMed Central

    Aboulwafa, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Permeases of the prokaryotic phosphoenolpyruvate–sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) catalyse sugar transport coupled to sugar phosphorylation. The lipid composition of a membrane determines the activities of these enzyme/transporters as well as the degree of coupling of phosphorylation to transport. We have investigated mechanisms of PTS permease biogenesis and identified cytoplasmic (soluble) forms of these integral membrane proteins. We found that the catalytic activities of the soluble forms differ from those of the membrane-embedded forms. Transport via the latter is much more sensitive to lipid composition than to phosphorylation, and some of these enzymes are much more sensitive to the lipid environment than others. While the membrane-embedded PTS permeases are always dimeric, the cytoplasmic forms are micellar, either monomeric or dimeric. Scattered published evidence suggests that other integral membrane proteins also exist in cytoplasmic micellar forms. The possible functions of cytoplasmic PTS permeases in biogenesis, intracellular sugar phosphorylation and permease storage are discussed. PMID:23985145

  16. Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; da Silveira, M. A. G.; Gennari, R. F.; Garcia, I.; Medina, N. H.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

  17. Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future . . . .. . . Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver --Results Kobe University, Japan April 1, 2009 Naoyuki Tamura, Tomoya Tanjo, Mutsunori Banbara Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver --Results summary of #12;Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future Outline .. Sugar CSP

  18. 3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: South side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace (east) end to the smokestack (west) end of the boiling range. The sorghum pan sides are of redwood. The flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  19. 15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  20. CCN activation of fumed silica aerosols mixed with soluble pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalirian, M.; Keskinen, H.; Ahlm, L.; Ylisirniö, A.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Laaksonen, A.; Virtanen, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-09-01

    Particle-water interactions of completely soluble or insoluble particles are fairly well understood but less is known of aerosols consisting of mixtures of soluble and insoluble components. In this study, laboratory measurements were performed to investigate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of silica particles coated with ammonium sulphate (a salt), sucrose (a sugar) and bovine serum albumin known as BSA (a protein). In addition, the agglomerated structure of the silica particles was investigated by estimating the surface equivalent diameter based on measurements with a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and an Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer (APM). By using the surface equivalent diameter the non-sphericity of the particles containing silica was accounted for when estimating CCN activation. Furthermore, characterizing critical supersaturations of particles consisting of pure soluble on insoluble compounds using existing frameworks showed that the CCN activation of single component particles was in good agreement with Köhler and adsorption theory based models when the agglomerated structure was accounted for. For mixed particles the CCN activation was governed by the soluble components, and the soluble fraction varied considerably with particle size for our wet-generated aerosols. Our results confirm the hypothesis that knowing the soluble fraction is the key parameter needed for describing the CCN activation of mixed aerosols, and highlight the importance of controlled coating techniques for acquiring a detailed understanding of the CCN activation of atmospheric insoluble particles mixed with soluble pollutants.

  1. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids. PMID:24228787

  2. Relationship between Recrystallization Rate of Ice Crystals in Sugar Solutions and Water Mobility in Freeze-Concentrated Matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoaki Hagiwara; Richard W. Hartel; Shingo Matsukawa

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the relation between recrystallization rate and water mobility in freeze-concentrated matrix, isothermal ice recrystallization rates in several sugar aqueous solutions and self-diffusion coefficients of water component in corresponding freeze-concentrated matrix were measured. The sugars used were fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose. The sugar concentrations and temperature were varied so that ice contents for all samples were almost

  3. Sugar exudation by roots of kallar grass [ Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth] is strongly affected by the nitrogen source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tariq Mahmood; Markus Woitke; Hartmut Gimmler; Werner M. Kaiser

    2002-01-01

    Exudation of sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and that of cations and anions from intact roots of kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth] grown hydroponically with ammonium or nitrate (3 mM) as N source was investigated. In different experiments, plants grown on ammonium had slightly higher sugar contents than nitrate-grown plants, but their total sugar exudation during a 2-h period

  4. Learning about solubility.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Dino G; Reyes, Juan G

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed. PMID:25395353

  5. Solubility of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines factors to be considered in choosing suitable solvents for non-electrolytes and salts of weak acids and bases. Describes how, in some simple situation, the degree of solubility can be estimated. (Author/DF)

  6. Protein solubility modeling.

    PubMed

    Agena, S M; Pusey, M L; Bogle, I D

    1999-07-20

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. PMID:10397850

  7. Learning about Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

  8. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    PubMed

    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. PMID:24359831

  10. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  12. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages--The Facts Whatisasugar-sweetenedbeverage?

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    Sugar-Sweetened Beverages--The Facts Whatisasugar-sweetenedbeverage? A sugar-sweetened beverage is a drink with sugar added.Sugar has many names.To find out if a drink contains sugar,look for any of these words on the list of ingredients:sugar,high-fructose corn syrup, brown sugar,corn sweetener,corn syrup

  13. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  14. Boron deficiency causes a drastic decrease in nitrate content and nitrate reductase activity, and increases the content of carbohydrates in leaves from tobacco plants

    PubMed

    Camacho-Cristobal; Gonzalez-Fontes

    1999-10-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants were used to study connections between deficiency in boron and nitrate reduction. Boron deficiency caused a substantial decrease in shoot and, particularly, root weights that resulted in a notably high shoot/root ratio in comparison to boron-sufficient plants. One of the most important effects caused by boron deficiency was the strong decrease in leaf nitrate content. Leaf contents of magnesium, calcium and, especially, potassium also declined under this deficiency, but nitrate content decreased in a higher proportion than these cations. Nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) activity of boron-deficient plants declined from the beginning of the light period; this decline did not occur in boron-sufficient plants. This fact could be attributed to the faster decrease in transcript levels of Nia, the nitrate reductase structural gene, during the light period in boron-deficient plants. Leaf protein content of boron-deficient plants also declined in the course of light periods. Boron deficiency caused an appreciable accumulation of hexoses and sucrose in leaves. This build-up of soluble sugars might correct the osmotic imbalance elicited by the low content of nitrate and cations in plants subjected to boron deficiency. Boron-deficient plants had much higher starch contents than boron-sufficient ones, and there was an inverse relationship between the contents of nitrate and starch in leaves. PMID:10550635

  15. A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan

    1998-10-01

    There is current interest in and concern for the development of environmentally friendly bioprocesses whereby biomass and the biodegradable content of municipal wastes can be converted to useful forms of energy. For example, cellulose, a glucose polymer that is the principal component of biomass and paper waste, can be enzymatically degraded to glucose, which can subsequently be converted by fermentation or further enzymatic reaction to fuels such as ethanol or hydrogen. These products represent alternative energy sources to fossil fuels such as oil. Demonstration of the relevant reactions in high-school and undergraduate college laboratories would have value not only in illustrating environmentally friendly biotechnology for the utilization of renewable energy sources, such as cellulosic wastes, but could also be used to teach the principles of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter. Furthermore, it is shown that the renewable resource cellulose, in its soluble derivative from carboxymethylcellulose, as well as aspen-wood waste, is also a source of hydrogen if the enzyme cellulase is included in the reaction mixture.

  16. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  17. Universal Patterns of Equilibrium Cluster Growth in Aqueous Sugars Observed by Dynamic Light Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Sidebottom, D. L.; Tran, Tri D.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic light scattering performed on aqueous solutions of three sugars (glucose, maltose and sucrose) reveal a common pattern of sugar cluster formation with a narrow cluster size distribution. In each case, equilibrium clusters form whose size increases with increasing sugar content in an identical power law manner in advance of a common, critical-like, percolation threshold near 83 wt% sugar. The critical exponent of the power law divergence of the cluster size varies with temperature, increasing with decreasing temperature, due to changes in the strength of the intermolecular hydrogen bond and appears to vanish for temperatures in excess of 90 °C. Detailed analysis of the cluster growth process suggests a two-stage process: an initial cluster phase formed at low volume fractions, ?, consisting of non-interacting, monodisperse sugar clusters whose size increases ?1/3 followed by an aggregation stage, active at concentrations above about ? = 40%, where cluster-cluster contact first occurs. PMID:21243043

  18. Hydrothermal solubility of uraninite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, George A.; Pohl, Demetrius C.

    1988-04-01

    The solubility of UO 2 has been measured at temperatures from 100° to 300°C under 50 MPa H 2 in water solutions of HCl, NaOH, or LiOH at calculated pH values from 1 to 10. Fluoride contamination invalidated results in the pH range 2 to 4 and is probably responsible for a solubility maximum observed near pH = 3. At pH < 2, solubilities at 200°C and below agree, within combined experimental error, with measurements by NIKOLAEVA and PIROZKHOV (1978) and BRUNOet al. (1986a), and fall well within the range selected for amorphous and crystalline UO 2 by WOLER (1983). pH dependence suggests predominance of UOH 3+. Solubilities in alkaline media are much lower than measured or estimated by previous investigators at all temperatures, suggesting that the U(OH) -5 complex is very weak or non-existent and does not contribute to solubility significantly at any pH < 10. There are no published measurements of the solubility of UO 2 in the neutral pH range at subcritical temperatures. Existing thermodynamic data for the expected hydroxo complexes, U(OH) 4-nn ( n = 2, 3, 4), are estimated ( WOLER, 1983; LEMIRE and TREMAINE, 1980; LANGMUIR, 1978). When pH = 4 to 8, our measured solubilities are up to three orders of magnitude lower than calculated on the basis of the estimated thermodynamic data for temperatures exceeding 200°C, and up to two orders higher than predicted at lower temperatures. Temperature and pH dependence are statistically insignificant in the experimental results for all pH4, suggesting predominance of the single species U(OH) 4(aq), and the dissolution reaction. UO2 + 2 H2O = U( OH) 4( aq) for which, at all temperatures from 100° to 300°C, log ( Ks4 ) = -9.47 ± 0.3.

  19. Factors influencing water solubility and plant availability of mineral compounds in the tripartite fairy rings of Marasmius oreades (BOLT.: FR.) FR.

    PubMed

    Gramss, Gerhard; Voigt, Klaus-Dieter; Bergmann, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Fairy rings of M. oreades on pasture land were denoted by the dark-green vegetation. Grasses and rooted soils were analyzed to determine the influence of nonsymbiotic fungal mats on plant uptake of (heavy) metals. In soil colonized by M. oreades, degradation of 20-35% of plant roots in the presence of fungal laccase increased the content of dissolved organic carbon (3.74x), hexose sugar (3.75x), NH(3)/NH(4) (+) (5.1x), NO(3) (-) (11.1x), the number of aerobic bacteria (14.4x), and the formation of the phytochelators, oxalic, citric, and malonic acids. Soil pH diminished by 1.5 units mainly due to nitrification and carboxylic acid production. Although the solubility of trace elements increased (6.1x), plant roots had the same trace metal content as control plants, whereas the shoot content in Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Ti decreased by more than 50% due to inhibited root-to-shoot transfer. It is concluded that M. oreades and its associated bacteria increase the solubility of soil minerals significantly, but make them, due to presumed particularities in their complexation, less plant available and less re-complexable for the translocation into the plant vascular system. PMID:15678562

  20. Loading process of sugars into cabbage petiole and asparagus shoot apex cells by incubation with hypertonic sugar solutions.

    PubMed

    Jitsuyama, Y; Suzuki, T; Harada, T; Fujikawa, S

    2001-01-01

    The freezing tolerance of cabbage petioles and asparagus shoot apexes was increased by preincubation with 0.8 M sugar solutions. In cabbage petioles with an initial freezing tolerance of -3 degrees C (temperature for 50% cell survival), as determined by both electrolyte leakage and fluorescein diacetate vital staining, the freezing tolerance was increased to -13 degrees C by incubation with sorbitol solutions for 3 h. In meristematic cells of asparagus shoot apexes with an initial freezing tolerance of -7.5 degrees C, as determined by fluorescein diacetate vital staining, the freezing tolerance was increased to -30 degrees C by incubation with 0.8 M sugar solutions for 3 h, although other cells in the shoot apexes were killed by higher freezing temperatures. During incubation of both cabbage petioles and asparagus shoot apexes with sugar solutions, sugars were intracellularly taken up by osmotically induced fluid-phase endocytotic vesicles, as indicated by comovement of Lucifer Yellows carbohydrazide (LYCH) observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The amounts of intracellularly taken up sugars increased concomitantly with the formation of endocytotic vesicles depending on the time of incubation in parallel with a gradual increase of freezing tolerance. However, the endocytotic vesicles and their contents were retained not only after prolonged incubation after maximum freezing tolerance had been achieved but also after recovery of these tissue cells to isotonic conditions or after freeze-thawing. These results suggest that although sugars are intracellularly taken up by endocytotic vesicles, they might be sequestered within vesicles, casting doubt on their protective role to the plasma membranes as a main site of freezing injury. The pretreatment with 1 mM p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS), an inhibitor of sugar transport, reduced the amounts of intracellular sugar uptake without affecting the formation of endocytotic vesicles, suggesting that sugars were, at least partly, taken up by sugar transporters. In the pretreatment with PCMBS, the freezing tolerance of incubated tissues with sugar solutions was significantly reduced, although addition of PCMBS per se did not affect survival. These results suggest that sugars taken up by sugar transporters, rather than sugars taken up by endocytotic vesicles, are mainly responsible for the increased freezing tolerance of cabbage petioles and asparagus shoot apexes. Furthermore, we aimed to study the occurrence of fluid-phase endocytosis with LYCH in an isotonic condition. Our results indicated that uptake of LYCH by fluid-phase endocytotic vesicles was not detected microscopically in isotonic condition, although LYCH was spectrofluorimetrically taken up in isotonic condition. Spectrofluorimetric uptake of LYCH was inhibited by addition of probenecid, an anion transport inhibitor. These results suggest that in cabbage petioles and asparagus shoot apexes, LYCH is taken up by anion transport but not by fluid-phase endocytosis in isotonic condition, and uptake of LYCH by fluid-phase endocytosis is restricted to occur only in hypertonic condition. PMID:11732313

  1. Sugar signalling and gene expression in relation to carbohydrate metabolism under abiotic stresses in plants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anil K; Kaur, Narinder

    2005-12-01

    Sucrose is required for plant growth and development. The sugar status of plant cells is sensed by sensor proteins. The signal generated by signal transduction cascades, which could involve mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein phosphatases, Ca 2+ and calmodulins, results in appropriate gene expression. A variety of genes are either induced or repressed depending upon the status of soluble sugars. Abiotic stresses to plants result in major alterations in sugar status and hence affect the expression of various genes by down- and up-regulating their expression. Hexokinase-dependent and hexokinase-independent pathways are involved in sugar sensing. Sucrose also acts as a signal molecule as it affects the activity of a proton-sucrose symporter. The sucrose trans-porter acts as a sucrose sensor and is involved in phloem loading. Fructokinase may represent an additional sensor that bypasses hexokinase phosphorylation especially when sucrose synthase is dominant. Mutants isolated on the basis of response of germination and seedling growth to sugars and reporter-based screening protocols are being used to study the response of altered sugar status on gene expression. Common cis-acting elements in sugar signalling pathways have been identified. Transgenic plants with elevated levels of sugars/sugar alcohols like fructans, raffinose series oligosaccharides, trehalose and mannitol are tolerant to different stresses but have usually impaired growth. Efforts need to be made to have transgenic plants in which abiotic stress responsive genes are expressed only at the time of adverse environmental conditions instead of being constitutively synthesized. PMID:16388148

  2. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

  3. Changes in carbohydrate content in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) under low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Lluch, Carmen; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

    2014-03-01

    The postharvest handling of zucchini fruit includes low-temperature storage, making cold stress unavoidable. We have investigated the changes of soluble carbohydrates under this stress and its relation with weight loss and chilling injury in zucchini fruit during postharvest storage at 4 °C and 20 °C for up to 14 days. Two varieties with different degrees of chilling tolerance were compared: Natura, the more tolerant variety, and Sinatra, the variety that suffered more severe chilling-injury symptoms and weight loss. In both varieties, total soluble carbohydrates, reducing soluble carbohydrates and polyols content was generally higher during storage at 4 °C than at 20 °C, thus these parameters are related to the physiological response of zucchini fruit to cold stress. However, the raffinose content increased in Natura and Sinatra fruits during storage at 4 °C and 20 °C, although at 20 °C the increase in raffinose was more remarkable than at 4 °C in both varieties, so that the role of raffinose could be more likely related to dehydration than to chilling susceptibility of zucchini fruit. Glucose, fructose, pinitol, and acid invertase activity registered opposite trends in both varieties against chilling, increasing in Natura and decreasing in Sinatra. The increase in acid invertase activity in Natura fruit during cold storage could contribute in part to the increase of these reducing sugars, whose metabolism could be involved in the adaptation to postharvest cold storage. PMID:24467899

  4. Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals HealthDay February 2, ... many pre-packaged kids’ meals contain too much salt or sugar. The researchers looked at the nutrition ...

  5. ConcepTest: Sugar-Rock Analogy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water containing dissolved sugar evaporates to leave a deposit of sugar in the bottom of a glass. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a type of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary ...

  6. Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. Carbon Metabolism, Carbohydrates & Sugars

    E-print Network

    Constabel, Peter

    Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. Carbon Metabolism, Carbohydrates & Sugars 1. Introduction and overview on carbohydrate and sugars (handout) Carbohydrate [CHO] = polyhydroxyketones and polyhydroxyaldehydes - two types reducing power - integrated with sucrose and starch synthesis #12;Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. 2 2 Sucrose

  7. BIOLISTIC TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR BEET CELL SUSPENSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonproprietary sugar beet transformation methods are plagued by low transformation frequencies and lack of reproducibility. In efforts to optimize the methods, we established highly embryogenic sugar beet cell suspension cultures for transformation by the particle bombardment method. Callus obtain...

  8. Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder

    E-print Network

    Ang, Dexter W

    2005-01-01

    The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

  9. Effect of partial replacement of sugar with stevia on the quality of kulfi.

    PubMed

    Giri, Apurba; Rao, H G Ramachandra; V, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    Stevia is a natural sweetener obtained from the leaf of Stevia rebaudiana plant. Its refined extract powder is 130-300 times sweeter than sucrose. Besides, it prevents diabetes, decreases weight, prevents tooth decay, increases digestion etc. Dietetic kulfi was produced, in which 50, 60 and 70% sugar was replaced with 0.05, 0.06 and 0.07% refined stevia extract powder respectively. At higher levels of sugar replacement there was a significant decrease in specific gravity, melting rate, carbohydrate percentage and total calorie content and a significant increase in freezing point, hardness and fat, protein, ash and moisture percentage. Kulfi prepared by replacing half the sugar content with stevia was adjudged on par with the control in sensory characteristics. Above 50% sugar replacement resulted in bitterness, lack of brownish appearance and presence of icy texture. PMID:25114356

  10. A Karplus equation for 3JHCCN in amino sugar derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Coxon, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The 1H–15N coupling constants of a suite of organic-soluble amino sugar derivatives have been measured by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 1H/15N heteronuclear single quantum, multiple bond correlation (HSQMBC), and the values so obtained are compared with those measured by analysis of 1H spectra of 15N-labeled amino sugar derivatives. A number of bicyclic amino sugar models have been studied, including methyl 2- (and 3-)amino-4,6-O-benzylidene-2- (and 3-)deoxy-?-D-hexopyranosides in chair or skew conformations, and methyl 2,6-anhydro-3-deoxy-3-phthalimido-?-D-mannopyranoside in a locked, almost classical boat conformation. The magnitudes of the vicinal 1H–15N coupling constants 3JHCCN have been correlated with 1H/15N dihedral angles ? computed for the favored conformations by molecular dynamics with molecular mechanics energy minimization. Nonlinear regression of the coupling constants on the dihedral angles has yielded a Karplus equation: 3JHCCN = 3.1cos2? ? 0.6cos? + 0.4 The coefficients of the terms in this equation have been compared with those reported for 15 other pairs of nuclei, and the coefficient of the important cos2? term found to be numerically smallest for 3JHCCN. PMID:17368582

  11. Sugar Canes as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar cane crops currently being grown in the South can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for both renewable transportation fuel and food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service’s Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is g...

  12. Probing protein-sugar interactions.

    PubMed

    Ebel, C; Eisenberg, H; Ghirlando, R

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the partial specific volumes (2) (ml/g), hydration, and cosolvent interactions of rabbit muscle aldolase by equilibrium sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge and by direct density increment (partial differential/partial differentialc(2))(mu) measurements over a range of sugar concentrations and temperature. In a series of sugars increasing in size, glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and alpha-cyclodextrin, (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu) decreases linearly with the solvent density rho(0). These sugar cosolvents do not interact with the protein; however, the interaction parameter B(1) (g water/g protein) mildly increases with increasing sugar size. The experimental B(1) values are smaller than values calculated by excluded volume (rolling ball) considerations. B(1) relates to hydration in this and in other instances studied. It decreases with increasing temperature, leading to an increase in (2) due to reduced water of hydration electrostriction. The density increments (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu), however, decrease in concave up form in the case of glycerol and in concave down form for trehalose, leading to more complex behavior in the case of carbohydrates playing a biological role as osmolytes and antifreeze agents. A critical discussion, based on the thermodynamics of multicomponent solutions, is presented. PMID:10620302

  13. AMAZING PROPERTIES OF WATER These experiments demonstrate the concepts of buoyancy, density differences, solubility

    E-print Network

    Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

    powder onto the surface of the water. It should lie on the surface like powdered sugar on a cake. You canAMAZING PROPERTIES OF WATER These experiments demonstrate the concepts of buoyancy, density differences, solubility differences in water, surface tension, and surfactants. Materials Glasses Clear cups

  14. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  15. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  16. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  18. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  19. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  20. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  1. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  2. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  3. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  4. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  5. Root traits and yield in sugar beet: identification of AFLP markers associated with root elongation rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piergiorgio Stevanato; Daniele Trebbi; Massimo Saccomani

    2010-01-01

    Morpho-physiological and molecular analysis were conducted to identify useful root indexes of sugar beet nutrient uptake capacity\\u000a and productivity. Root architectural parameters, root elongation rate, sulfate uptake rate and glucose and fructose content\\u000a in the root apex, traits involved in the plant response to sulfate stress, were evaluated in 18 sugar beet genotypes characterized\\u000a by different root yield. Morpho-physiological traits,

  6. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies, (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)), are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies in rural and urban environments. In additi...

  7. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  8. Resugaring: Lifting Evaluation Sequences through Syntactic Sugar

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    Resugaring: Lifting Evaluation Sequences through Syntactic Sugar Justin Pombrio Brown University justinpombrio@cs.brown.edu Shriram Krishnamurthi Brown University sk@cs.brown.edu Abstract Syntactic sugar-specific lan- guages; and even to let programmers extend their language. Un- fortunately, syntactic sugar

  9. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  10. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  11. THE SHEARING BEHAVIOUR OF A SUGAR AGGREGATE

    E-print Network

    Bolton, Malcolm

    THE SHEARING BEHAVIOUR OF A SUGAR AGGREGATE Catherine A. Davy1 , M. D. Bolton2 , N. A. Fleck2, UK #12;Abstract To better understand the behaviour of sugar within industrial centrifuges or silos, drained triaxial tests were performed on loose, dry or moist sugar aggregates under low confining

  12. 12 Maple Syrup Digest SUGAR PROFILES

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    12 Maple Syrup Digest SUGAR PROFILES OF MAPLE SYRUP GRADES Abby van den Berg, Timothy Perkins it is generally accepted that the amount of invert sugar increases with decreasing syrup light transmission (from lighter to darker grades), the composition of sugars within different grades has not been adequately

  13. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  14. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  15. Chemical biology Antibacterial sugar-tipped

    E-print Network

    Davis, Ben G.

    Chemical biology Antibacterial sugar-tipped trees J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 4750­4751 (2004) Enzymes proteins in the bacterial cell walls, which bind to sugar (galactose) molecules. Rendle et al. figured on the proteases. Dendrons with two, three or four sugar tips give the enzyme a secure hold, with two tips being

  16. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has been demonstrated to be effective on hardwood and herbaceous biomass, making it truly feedstock flexible. Conclusions Different options exist for integrating lignocellulosic sugar into sugar-using operations. A sugar conversion plant may be adjacent to a CLE Sugar plant, and the CLE Sugar can be concentrated from the initial 10% sugar as needed. Concentrated sugars, however, can be shipped to remote sites such as ethanol plants or other sugar users. In such cases, options for shipping a dense form of sugars include (1) pretreated biomass with enzyme addition, (2) lignocellulosic sugar syrup, and (3) lignocellulosic sugar solid. These could provide the advantage of maximizing the use of existing assets. PMID:23356449

  17. Changes in Assimilated 13C Distribution and Soluble Acid Invertase Activity of Zinnia elegans Induced by Uniconazol, an Inhibitor of Gibberellin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong-Yul; Suzuki, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    The physiological aspects involved in the Uniconazol-induced morphological changes in Zinnia elegans Jacq. cv Red Sun were clarified biochemically by determining the distribution of assimilated 13C as well as the soluble acid invertase activity. The application of Uniconazol, (E)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-pentane-3-ol, reduced the growth of stems and leaves without affecting the roots. In addition, the translocation of assimilated 13C from leaf to other organs was inhibited, with the stem being more restricted than the root. These changes were matched by a corresponding decrease in the specific activity of soluble acid invertase. Subsequent treatment of GA3 counteracted these effects of Uniconazol. Moreover, the total and reducing sugar content was closely correlated with the soluble acid invertase activity in the stem. It is concluded that the reduction in invertase activity of stem is a biochemical manifestation of the retardation of stem growth induced by Uniconazol. PMID:16666756

  18. Understanding Solubility and Density

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Understanding Solubility and Density is a graduate-level professional development course designed to enhance your understanding and teaching of physical science. In two sessions, you will investigate physical science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.

  19. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

  20. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

  1. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

  2. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

  3. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime...18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially...

  4. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime...18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially...

  5. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

  6. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling...

  7. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime...18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially...

  8. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling...

  9. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling...

  10. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools

    PubMed Central

    Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. PMID:23498924

  11. Sugar, Uric Acid, and the Etiology of Diabetes and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L. Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Lanaspa, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructose metabolism that accounts for why fructose intake increases the risk for metabolic syndrome. Recent studies show that fructose-induced uric acid generation causes mitochondrial oxidative stress that stimulates fat accumulation independent of excessive caloric intake. These studies challenge the long-standing dogma that “a calorie is just a calorie” and suggest that the metabolic effects of food may matter as much as its energy content. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provides new insights into pathogenesis and therapies for this important disease. PMID:24065788

  12. Sugar, uric acid, and the etiology of diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard J; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y; Lanaspa, Miguel A

    2013-10-01

    The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructose metabolism that accounts for why fructose intake increases the risk for metabolic syndrome. Recent studies show that fructose-induced uric acid generation causes mitochondrial oxidative stress that stimulates fat accumulation independent of excessive caloric intake. These studies challenge the long-standing dogma that "a calorie is just a calorie" and suggest that the metabolic effects of food may matter as much as its energy content. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provides new insights into pathogenesis and therapies for this important disease. PMID:24065788

  13. IDENTIFICATION AND CONFIRMATION OF RAPD MARKERS AND ANDROMONOECIOUS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR SUGARS IN MELON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were to identify randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sucrose, total soluble solids (TSS), and sucrose percentage of total sugars (SPTS) using bulked segregant analysis in an F2 population from the melon (Cucumis melo L.) ...

  14. Total sugars in atmospheric aerosols: An alternative tracer for biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaramboni, C.; Urban, R. C.; Lima-Souza, M.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Cardoso, A. A.; Allen, A. G.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient aerosols were collected in an agro-industrial region of São Paulo State (Brazil) between May 2010 and February 2012 (n = 87). The atmosphere of the study region is highly affected by the emissions of gases and particles from sugar and fuel ethanol production, because part of the area planted with sugarcane is still burned before manual harvesting. This work proposes the quantification of total sugars as an alternative chemical tracer of biomass burning, instead of levoglucosan. The quantification of total sugars requires a small area of a filter sample and a simple spectrophotometer, in contrast to the determination of levoglucosan, which is much more complex and time-consuming. Total sugars concentrations in the aerosol ranged from 0.28 to 12.5 ?g m-3, and (similarly to levoglucosan) the emissions were significantly higher at night and during the sugarcane harvest period, when most agricultural fires occur. The linear correlation between levoglucosan and total sugars (r = 0.612) was stronger than between levoglucosan and potassium (r = 0.379), which has previously been used as a biomass burning tracer. In the study region, potassium is used in fertilizers, and this, together with substantial soil dust resuspension, makes potassium unsuitable for use as a tracer. On average, ca. 40% of the total sugars was found in particles smaller than 0.49 ?m. By including data from previous work, it was possible to identify from 35 to 42% of the total sugars, with biomass burning making the largest contribution. The high solubility in water of these sugars means that determination of their concentrations could also provide important information concerning the hydrophilic properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  15. Soluble inhibitors/deactivators of cellulase enzymes from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Ximenes, Eduardo; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R

    2011-04-01

    Liquid hot water, steam explosion, and dilute acid pretreatments of lignocellulose generate soluble inhibitors which hamper enzymatic hydrolysis as well as fermentation of sugars to ethanol. Toxic and inhibitory compounds will vary with pretreatment and include soluble sugars, furan derivatives (hydroxymethyl fulfural, furfural), organic acids (acetic, formic and, levulinic acid), and phenolic compounds. Their effect is seen when an increase in the concentration of pretreated biomass in a hydrolysis slurry results in decreased cellulose conversion, even though the ratio of enzyme to cellulose is kept constant. We used lignin-free cellulose, Solka Floc, combined with mixtures of soluble components released during pretreatment of wood, to prove that the decrease in the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis is due to a combination of enzyme inhibition and deactivation. The causative agents were extracted from wood pretreatment liquid using PEG surfactant, activated charcoal or ethyl acetate and then desorbed, recovered, and added back to a mixture of enzyme and cellulose. At enzyme loadings of either 1 or 25mg protein/g glucan, the most inhibitory components, later identified as phenolics, decreased the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis by half due to both inhibition and precipitation of the enzymes. Full enzyme activity occurred when the phenols were removed. Hence detoxification of pretreated woods through phenol removal is expected to reduce enzyme loadings, and therefore reduce enzyme costs, for a given level of cellulose conversion. PMID:22112958

  16. Compositional Analysis of Water-Soluble Materials in Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. F.; Mowery, R. A.; Scarlata, C. J.; Chambliss, C. K.

    2007-01-01

    Corn stover is one of the leading feedstock candidates for commodity-scale biomass-to-ethanol processing. The composition of water-soluble materials in corn stover has been determined with greater than 90% mass closure in four of five representative samples. The mass percentage of water-soluble materials in tested stover samples varied from 14 to 27% on a dry weight basis. Over 30 previously unknown constituents of aqueous extracts were identified and quantified using a variety of chromatographic techniques. Monomeric sugars (primarily glucose and fructose) were found to be the predominant water-soluble components of corn stover, accounting for 30-46% of the dry weight of extractives (4-12% of the dry weight of feedstocks). Additional constituents contributing to the mass balance for extractives included various alditols (3-7%), aliphatic acids (7-21%), inorganic ions (10-18%), oligomeric sugars (4-12%), and a distribution of oligomers tentatively identified as being derived from phenolic glycosides (10-18%).

  17. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Mark L

    2015-02-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  18. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  19. Finding the Carbon in Sugar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-09-19

    In this activity about combustion and energy, learners observe a burning candle in a sealed jar and the burning of white sugar. The first part of the activity (candle burning) should be conducted as a demonstration. The second part may be conducted by learners working in groups of 2-4 or as a demonstration. This activity guide includes background information, questions for learners to think about, and bilingual (English/Spanish) handouts.

  20. Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

    Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. In section 1, students first investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. In section 2, they analyze data collected by the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, in section 3, students use the data they have analyzed to determine how to create a solution that has a particular boiling point and is a cost-effective design.

  1. Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-03-20

    Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. First, they investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. Then they analyze data collected from the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, students use the data they have analyzed to design cost-effective solutions with particular boiling points---similar to the everyday work of chemical engineers.

  2. Biotechnological advances in UDP-sugar based glycosylation of small molecules.

    PubMed

    De Bruyn, Frederik; Maertens, Jo; Beauprez, Joeri; Soetaert, Wim; De Mey, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation of small molecules like specialized (secondary) metabolites has a profound impact on their solubility, stability or bioactivity, making glycosides attractive compounds as food additives, therapeutics or nutraceuticals. The subsequently growing market demand has fuelled the development of various biotechnological processes, which can be divided in the in vitro (using enzymes) or in vivo (using whole cells) production of glycosides. In this context, uridine glycosyltransferases (UGTs) have emerged as promising catalysts for the regio- and stereoselective glycosylation of various small molecules, hereby using uridine diphosphate (UDP) sugars as activated glycosyldonors. This review gives an extensive overview of the recently developed in vivo production processes using UGTs and discusses the major routes towards UDP-sugar formation. Furthermore, the use of interconverting enzymes and glycorandomization is highlighted for the production of unusual or new-to-nature glycosides. Finally, the technological challenges and future trends in UDP-sugar based glycosylation are critically evaluated and summarized. PMID:25698505

  3. ENZYME-MEDIATED PRODUCTION OF SUGARS FROM SAGO STARCH: STATISTICAL PROCESS OPTIMIZATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Long Wee; M. S. M. Annuar; S. Ibrahim; Y. Chisti

    2011-01-01

    Glucoamylase (?-amylase, EC 3.2.1.3) from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze the soluble sago starch to reducing sugars without any major pretreatment of the substrate. A 2 L stirred tank reactor was used for the hydrolysis. The effects of pH, temperature, agitation speed, substrate concentration, and enzyme concentration on the reaction were investigated in order to maximize both the initial reaction

  4. Fractionation and delignification of empty fruit bunches with low reaction severity for high sugar recovery.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin Young; Kim, Young Soo; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2013-10-01

    Fractionation and delignification of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was conducted in a series of two steps under low reaction severity with the aim of minimizing the neutralization of hydrolyzates. In EFB underwent acid fractionation, the glucan content was increased to 62.4%, at which point 86.9% of the hemicellulosic sugar and 20.5% of the lignin were extracted from the raw EFB. Xylose-rich hydrolyzate, indicating a high selectivity of 17.7 could be separated. Through the consecutive delignification of acid-fractionated EFB using sodium hydroxide, solid residue with a high glucan content (70.4%) and low hemicellulosic sugar content (3.7%) could be obtained, which indicated that 95.9% of the hemicellulosic sugar and 67.5% of the lignin were extracted based on raw EFB. The final pretreated solid residue was converted to glucose through enzyme hydrolysis, which resulted in an enzymatic digestibility of 76.9% was achieved. PMID:23933025

  5. ATP-DEPENDENT SUGAR TRANSPORT COMPLEXITY IN HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Jeffry; Carruthers, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Human erythrocyte glucose sugar transport was examined in resealed red cell ghosts under equilibrium exchange conditions ([sugar]intracellular = [sugar]extracellular). Exchange 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) import and export are monophasic in the absence of cytoplasmic ATP but are biphasic when ATP is present. Biphasic exchange is observed as the rapid filling of a large compartment (66% cell volume) followed by the slow filling of the remaining cytoplasmic space. Biphasic exchange at 20 mM 3MG eliminates the possibility that the rapid exchange phase represents ATP-dependent 3MG binding to the glucose transport protein (GLUT1; cellular [GLUT1] ? 20 ?M). Immunofluorescence activated cell sorting analysis shows that biphasic exchange does not result from heterogeneity in cell size or GLUT1 content. Nucleoside transporter mediated uridine exchange proceeds as rapidly as 3MG exchange but is monoexponential regardless of cytoplasmic [ATP]. This eliminates cellular heterogeneity or an ATP-dependent, nonspecific intracellular diffusion barrier as causes of biphasic exchange. Red cell ghost 3MG and uridine equilibrium volumes (130 fL) are unaffected by ATP. GLUT1 intrinsic activity is unchanged during rapid and slow phases of 3MG exchange. Two models for biphasic sugar transport are presented in which 3MG must overcome a sugar-specific, physical (diffusional) or chemical (isomerization) barrier to equilibrate with cell water. Partial transport inhibition using cytochalasin B or maltose depresses both rapid and slow phases of transport thereby eliminating the physical barrier hypothesis. We propose that biphasic 3MG transport results from ATP-dependent, differential transport of 3MG anomers in which Vmax/Km(app) for ?-3MG exchange transport is 19-fold greater than Vmax/Km(app) for ?-3MG transport. PMID:16928769

  6. 78 FR 23918 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC 2011-0081] Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the Solubility of the Eight Elements Listed in ASTM F963-11 Correction In notice document...

  7. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. PMID:23871368

  8. Quantitation of trans-aconitic acid in different stages of the sugar-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Guillermo; Londono, July; Cortes, Paola; Izquierdo, Olga

    2014-08-20

    The sugar cane industry has seen how biomass production in sugar mills would be converted to a readily available source of molecules besides sugar. Properly managed, byproducts would be transformed into a sustainable source of renewable and environmentally friendly chemical products. As a principal and more abundant organic acid in sugar cane juice, trans-aconitic acid (TAA) has been studied for use as a plasticizer in the polymer industry. However, up to now no industrial-scale application has been reported. As a reasonable approach to recover TAA from a sugar mill, first, an analytical method to determine its presence in all stages of the sugar-manufacturing process is needed. A new modern method was developed to measure TAA in seven stages in a sugar mill located in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The stages with higher content of TAA were syrup, with 3363.6 ± 589.3 mg/L, and honey (molasses), with 6110.05 ± 139.5 mg/L. PMID:25098840

  9. Nitrogen solubility in upper mantle minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Shcheka, Svyatoslav; Keppler, Hans

    2013-09-01

    Nitrogen solubility in the upper mantle minerals forsterite, diopside, enstatite and pyrope has been quantified by SIMS measurements of nitrogen-saturated, synthetic samples. The crystals were grown in a 15N-H-O fluid buffered by Ni-NiO, Co-CoO, and Fe-FeO, at 1000-1300?°C and 15-35 kbar in a piston cylinder apparatus. Nitrogen solubility in minerals is significantly affected by temperature, pressure, mineral composition and, in particular, by oxygen fugacity. Nitrogen in all crystals buffered by Ni-NiO or Co-CoO is below detection limit or at most a few ?g/g at very high pressures. Concentrations of 5-24 ?g/g nitrogen have been quantified in diopside, enstatite and pyrope buffered by Fe-FeO at 1100?°C/15 kbar. Very high nitrogen solubility up to 100 ?g/g is observed at the Fe-FeO buffer in enstatite at high-temperature or in Al-bearing enstatite and diopside. The nitrogen solubility in forsterite at the Fe-FeO buffer also clearly increases with temperature and pressure; a maximum solubility of 10 ppm is obtained at 1300?°C/35 kbar. The strong enhancement of nitrogen solubility under reducing conditions may be related to nitrogen dissolution as either NH+4 or as N3- directly replacing O2-. Both mechanisms require some charge compensation, consistent with the enhancement of nitrogen solubility with Al content in enstatite. Our results demonstrate that the reduced lower part of the upper mantle has a large nitrogen storage capacity, and may store ˜20-50 times more nitrogen than the present atmosphere. Therefore, some 'missing' nitrogen may still be retained in the Earth's deep, reduced mantle. The calculated nitrogen partition coefficients between upper mantle minerals and silicate melt reveal that an oxidized mantle source would lose almost its entire nitrogen during partial melting, whereas under reducing conditions a considerable fraction of nitrogen could be retained in the residual solids. The high nitrogen solubility in upper mantle minerals at reducing conditions also suggests that solidification of the magma ocean on the early Earth should have retained significant nitrogen, yielding higher N/Ar and N/C ratios in the young upper mantle as compared to the young atmosphere.

  10. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  11. Generating Water-Soluble Noxious Gases: An Overhead Projector Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Hur, Chinhyu

    1998-12-01

    A simple, inexpensive apparatus to generate and collect water-soluble noxious gases as an overhead projector demonstration can be made from two small beakers and a Petri dish. The detection and generation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are described. Sulfur dioxide dissolved in water is detected using an acid-base indicator, decolorizing of anthocyanin, or reduction of permanganate. The SO2 is generated by addition of sulfite or bisulfite to a strong acid or by the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid to sugars. Nitrogen dioxide is generated by mixing copper and nitric acid and detected using an acid-base indicator.

  12. A "SOLUBLE SPECIFIC SUBSTANCE" DERIVED FROM GUM ARABIC

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberger, Michael; Avery, Oswald T.; Goebel, Walther F.

    1929-01-01

    1. By partial acid hydrolysis a specific carbohydrate may be isolated from gum arabic (gum acacia). This carbohydrate is comparable in its precipitating activity for Type II (and Type III) antipneumococcus serum with the bacterial soluble specific substances themselves. 2. On hydrolysis this fraction yields galactose and two or more complex sugar acids, one of which appears to be a disaccharide add comparable with those isolated from the specific polysaccharides of the Type III pneumococcus and the Type A Friedländer bacillus. 3. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:19869586

  13. Glass transition and time-dependent crystallization behavior of dehydration bioprotectant sugars.

    PubMed

    Schebor, Carolina; Mazzobre, María Florencia; Buera, María del Pilar

    2010-01-26

    It has been suggested that the crystallization of a sugar hydrate can provide additional desiccation by removing water from the amorphous phase, thereby increasing the glass transition temperature (T(g)). However, present experiments demonstrated that in single sugar systems, if relative humidity is enough for sugar crystallization, the amorphous phase will have a short life. In the conditions of the present experiments, more than 75% of amorphous phase crystallized in less than one month. The good performance of sugars that form hydrated crystals (trehalose and raffinose) as bioprotectants in dehydrated systems is related to the high amount of water needed to form crystals, but not to the decreased water content or increased T(g) of the amorphous phase. The latter effect is only temporary, and presumably shorter than the expected shelf life of pharmaceuticals or food ingredients, and is related to thermodynamic reasons: if there is enough water for the crystal to form, it will readily form. PMID:19962131

  14. Effect of ozonation on the reactivity of lignocellulose substrates in enzymatic hydrolyses to sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben'ko, E. M.; Manisova, O. R.; Lunin, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    The efficiency of pre-treatment of aspen wood with ozone for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis into sugars is determined by the amount of absorbed ozone. The ozone absorption rate depended on the water content in the sample being ozonized and was maximum at a relative humidity of wood of ˜40%. As a result of ozone pre-treatment, the initial rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis of wood under the action of a cellulase complex increased eightfold, and the maximum yield of sugars increased tenfold depending on the ozone dose. The ozonation at ozone doses of more than 3 mol/PPU (phenylpropane structural unit of lignin) led to a decrease in the yield of sugars because of the oxidative destruction of cellulose and hemicellulose. The alkaline ozonation in 2 and 12% NaOH was inefficient because of the accompanying oxidation of carbohydrates and considerably decreased the yield of sugars.

  15. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

  16. Dietary Sugar and Ischaemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Howell, R. W.; Wilson, D. G.

    1969-01-01

    Comparison of the sugar intake of 1,158 men believed to be free of ischaemic heart disease failed to establish any real difference in intake when compared with 170 men with confirmed or possible ischaemic heart disease. In neither group was mere any significant correlation between sugar intake and serum cholesterol, white blood cell count, haemoglobin, E.S.R., ?-lipoprotein, or uric add; nor was there any correlation between total sugar intake and weight gain after the age of 25 years. These results suggest that considerably more confirmation is required before acceptance of Yudkm's hypothesis that high sugar intake is the chief dietary factor causing ischaemic heart disease. PMID:5792912

  17. Diets based on sugar cane treated with calcium oxide for lambs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, G G P; Garcia, R; Pires, A J V; Silva, R R; Detmann, E; Filho, A Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L S O; Carvalho, L M

    2013-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m(2) individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs. PMID:25049779

  18. Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, G. G. P.; Garcia, R.; Pires, A. J. V.; Silva, R. R.; Detmann, E.; Filho, A. Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Carvalho, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m2 individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs. PMID:25049779

  19. Changes in sugar composition during baking and their effects on sensory attributes of baked sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chin-Feng; Chiang, Chih-Ming; Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Kao, Shu-Chen; Liao, Wayne C

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of sugar composition on the sensory attributes of seven baked sweet potatoes. The sugar composition was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes increased significantly because of the formation of maltose. The maltose content dramatically increased after baking, and became the major sugar component of baked sweet potatoes. On the other hand, baked sweet potatoes were evaluated on a 7-point hedonic scale for sensory analysis. Overall acceptability results showed that the panelists preferred baked CYY95-26 and TNG66 over the other baked varieties. Because the correlation between overall acceptability and sweetness was the highest (r?=?0.69, p?sugar composition changed on baking, the overall acceptability of baked sweet potatoes was highly associated with the sucrose content. PMID:25477683

  20. SUGAR VERSION 1.01 MANUAL (still under construction)

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Page 1 SUGAR VERSION 1.01 MANUAL (still under construction) 1. INTRODUCTION SUGAR v1 implemented. 2. NETLIST PRIMER Basically, the netlist is your MEMS device. It tells Sugar how it's constructed with the beam. (2) Sugar does rotations in the order of {y, z, then x}. To better understand Sugar rotations

  1. Sugar-rich sweet sorghum is distinctively affected by wall polymer features for biomass digestibility and ethanol fermentation in bagasse.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Feng, Shengqiu; Wu, Leiming; Li, Ying; Fan, Chunfen; Zhang, Rui; Zou, Weihua; Tu, Yuanyuan; Jing, Hai-Chun; Li, Shizhong; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-09-01

    Sweet sorghum has been regarded as a typical species for rich soluble-sugar and high lignocellulose residues, but their effects on biomass digestibility remain unclear. In this study, we examined total 63 representative sweet sorghum accessions that displayed a varied sugar level at stalk and diverse cell wall composition at bagasse. Correlative analysis showed that both soluble-sugar and dry-bagasse could not significantly affect lignocellulose saccharification under chemical pretreatments. Comparative analyses of five typical pairs of samples indicated that DP of crystalline cellulose and arabinose substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses distinctively affected lignocellulose crystallinity for high biomass digestibility. By comparison, lignin could not alter lignocellulose crystallinity, but the KOH-extractable G-monomer predominately determined lignin negative impacts on biomass digestions, and the G-levels released from pretreatments significantly inhibited yeast fermentation. The results also suggested potential genetic approaches for enhancing soluble-sugar level and lignocellulose digestibility and reducing ethanol conversion inhibition in sweet sorghum. PMID:24968107

  2. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds. Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescop

  3. Sugar uptake into kernels of tunicate tassel-seed maize

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.; Felker, F.C.; Crawford, C.G. (USDA, Peoria, IL (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A maize (Zea mays L.) strain expressing both the tassel-seed (Ts-5) and tunicate (Tu) characters was developed which produces glume-covered kernels on the tassel, often born on 7-10 mm pedicels. Vigorous plants produce up to 100 such kernels interspersed with additional sessile kernels. This floral unit provides a potentially valuable experimental system for studying sugar uptake into developing maize seeds. When detached kernels (with glumes and pedicel intact) are placed in incubation solution, fluid flows up the pedicel and into the glumes, entering the pedicel apoplast near the kernel base. The unusual anatomical features of this maize strain permit experimental access to the pedicel apoplast with much less possibility of kernel base tissue damage than with kernels excised from the cob. ({sup 14}C)Fructose incorporation into soluble and insoluble fractions of endosperm increased for 8 days. Endosperm uptake of sucrose, fructose, and D-glucose was significantly greater than that of L-glucose. Fructose uptake was significantly inhibited by CCCP, DNP, and PCMBS. These results suggest the presence of an active, non-diffusion component of sugar transport in maize kernels.

  4. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars. PMID:25713277

  5. Checking Your Blood Sugar The only way to be sure your blood sugar is "just right" is to

    E-print Network

    Checking Your Blood Sugar The only way to be sure your blood sugar is "just right" is to check it. Your blood sugar can be high and you may feel fine. If your blood sugar is high, it is damaging your blood vessels and hurting your body, even if you feel fine. #12; How can you check your blood sugar? One

  6. Estimation of canopy average mesophyll conductance using ?(13) C of phloem contents.

    PubMed

    Ubierna, Nerea; Marshall, John D

    2011-09-01

    Conductance to CO(2) inside leaves, known as mesophyll conductance (g(m)), imposes large limitations on photosynthesis. Because g(m) is difficult to quantify, it is often neglected in calculations of (13)C photosynthetic discrimination. The 'soluble sugar method' estimates g(m) via differences between observed photosynthetic discrimination, calculated from the ?(13)C of soluble sugars, and discrimination when g(m) is infinite. We expand upon this approach and calculate a photosynthesis-weighted average for canopy mesophyll conductance ((c) g(m)) using ?(13)C of stem phloem contents. We measured gas exchange at three canopy positions and collected stem phloem contents in mature trees of three conifer species (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thuja plicata and Larix occidentalis). We generated species-specific and seasonally variable estimates of (c)g(m) . We found that (c)g(m) was significantly different among species (0.41, 0.22 and 0.09 mol m(-2) s(-1) for Larix, Pseudotsuga and Thuja, respectively), but was similar throughout the season. Ignoring respiratory and photorespiratory fractionations ((c)?(ef)) resulted in ?30% underestimation of (c)g(m) in Larix and Pseudotsuga, but was innocuous in Thuja. Substantial errors (~1-4‰) in photosynthetic discrimination calculations were introduced by neglecting (c)g(m) and (c)?(ef) . Our method is easy to apply and cost-effective, captures species variation and would have captured seasonal variation had it existed. The method provides an average canopy value, which makes it suitable for parameterization of canopy-scale models of photosynthesis, even in tall trees. PMID:21554329

  7. Sugar Ester Compounds for Arthropod Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar esters, also known as acyl sugars or polyol esters, are a class of compounds that are internationally recognized as food additives. They are commonly used in bakery goods, drugs, cosmetics, food packaging plastics, and in other applications because of their surfactant and emulsifying properti...

  8. DIRECT GENE TRANSFER TO SUGAR BEET LEAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet transformation methods in the public domain are not readily reproducible and yield low transformation frequencies. These methods utilize sugar beet cotyledons, shoot basal tissues, and hypocotyl callus generated in tissue culture for gene transfer experiments. We developed a particle bo...

  9. Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

  10. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

  11. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  12. Natural Product Sugar Biosynthesis and Enzymatic Glycodiversification**

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Melançon, Charles E.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2009-01-01

    Many biologically active small molecule natural products produced by microorganisms derive their activities from sugar substituents. Changing the structures of these sugars can have a profound impact on the biological properties of the parent compounds. This realization has inspired attempts to derivatize the sugar moieties of these natural products through exploitation of the sugar biosynthetic machinery. This approach requires an understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of each target sugar and detailed mechanistic knowledge of the key enzymes. Scientists have begun to unravel the biosynthetic logic behind the assembly of many glycosylated natural products, and have found that a core set of enzyme activities is mixed and matched to synthesize the diverse sugar structures observed in nature. Remarkably, many of these sugar biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases also exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. The promiscuity of these enzymes has prompted efforts to modify the sugar structures and/or alter the glycosylation patterns of natural products via metabolic pathway engineering and/or enzymatic glycodiversification. In applied biomedical research, these studies will enable the development of new glycosylation tools and generate novel glycoforms of secondary metabolites with useful biological activity. PMID:19058170

  13. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this can help you adjust your food choices. Exercise also can make your blood sugar levels fluctuate, so test them regularly when you' ... let you input information in addition to your blood sugar test results, like your food intake and daily exercise. If you like to keep track of your ...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF ARABIDOPSIS UDP-SUGAR PYROPHOSPHORYLASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UDP-sugars are critical substrates for synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in plants. We used a bioinformatics approach to clone and characterize an UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtUSP) that has high activity with UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA). AtUSP is predicted to be a...

  15. M&M's in Different Sugar Solutions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James H. Kessler

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners investigate whether having sugar already dissolved in water affects the speed of dissolving and the movement of sugar and color through the water. Learners design their own experiment and identify and control variables. This activity is a follow-up to the activity "Racing M&M Colors" (see related resources).

  16. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Grande-Grande, A.

    2011-01-01

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K2Cr2O7.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  17. Analysis of sucrose from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Sucrose is a product of photosynthesis and is a key carbohydrate resource for growth and metabolism in many organisms. Economic sources of sucrose include sugar cane and sugar beet, where fresh weight sucrose concentrati...

  18. [Effect of sugar beet saponins on the body of animals].

    PubMed

    Smoliar, V I; Sali?, N S; Tsapko, E V; Lavrushenko, L F; Pavliuchenko, O A

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of sugar beet saponins on motor activity of animals, energy, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, osmotic resistance of red blood cells, antitoxic liver function. The 50- and 100-fold increase of the initial dose gave rise to an elevation of motor activity, lowering of the content of pre-beta-lipoproteins and increase of the amount of alpha-lipoproteins in blood serum, reduction of the osmotic resistance of red blood cells, dissociation of the processes of oxidation and phosphorylation, and decline of the energy efficacy of respiration. PMID:4082523

  19. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  20. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  1. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

  2. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  3. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  4. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for...

  5. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for...

  6. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  7. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  8. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF CENTER, CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT, SEED TREATMENT PLANT TO LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  9. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  10. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  11. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.603 - Eligible sugar seller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible sugar seller. 1435.603 Section 1435...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Feedstock Flexibility Program § 1435.603 Eligible sugar seller. (a) To be considered an...

  13. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  14. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  15. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  16. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.401 - CCC sugar inventory disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CCC sugar inventory disposition. 1435.401 ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Disposition of CCC Inventory § 1435.401 CCC sugar inventory disposition. (a)...

  18. VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR BIN AND MILL IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  19. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for...

  20. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  1. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

  2. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  3. 4. View of castiron sugar kettle with mill ruins in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of cast-iron sugar kettle with mill ruins in background, looking S. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  4. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  5. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

  6. Water-soluble organic compounds in biomass burning aerosols over Amazonia1. Characterization by NMR and GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Bim; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Guyon, Pascal; Roberts, Gregory C.; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, M. Cristina; Artaxo, Paulo; Maenhaut, Willy; Köll, Peter; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2002-09-01

    As part of the European contribution to the Large-Scale Atmosphere-Biosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH), aerosols were sampled at representative pasture and primary rainforest sites in Rondônia, Brazil, during the 1999 ``burning season'' and dry-to-wet season transition (September-October). Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) within the samples were characterized using a combination of 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for chemical functional group analysis, and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) for identification and quantification of individual low-molecular-weight compounds. The 1H NMR analysis indicates that WSOCs are predominantly aliphatic or oxygenated aliphatic compounds (alcohols, carboxylic acids, etc.), with a minor content of aromatic rings carrying carboxylic and phenolic groups. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-?-D-glucose), a well-known cellulose combustion product, was the most abundant individual compound identified by GC-MS (0.04-6.90 ?g m-3), accounting for 1-6% of the total carbon (TC) and 2-8% of the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Other anhydrosugars, produced by hemicellulose breakdown, were detected in much smaller amounts, in addition to series of acids, hydroxyacids, oxoacids, and polyalcohols (altogether 2-5% of TC, 3-6% of WSOC). Most correlated well with organic carbon, black carbon, and potassium, indicating biomass burning to be the major source. A series of sugar alcohols (mannitol, arabitol, erythritol) and sugars (glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, sucrose, trehalose) were identified as part of the natural background aerosol and are probably derived from airborne microbes and other biogenic material. The bulk of the WSOCs (86-91% WSOC) eluded analysis by GC-MS and may be predominantly high-molecular weight in nature.

  7. [Distribution pattern of neutral sugar in forest soils along an altitude gradient in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Tian, Qiu-Xiang; Zhang, Bin; He, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Cheng, Wei-Xin

    2013-07-01

    In July 2010, soil samples were collected from five typical forests (Pinus koraiensis and broadleaved mixed forest, Picea and Abies forest, Larix and Abies forest, Betula ermanii forest, and alpine tundra) along an altitude gradient on the northern slope of Changbai Mountains to investigate the distribution and quantity of neutral sugar in the soils and related affecting factors. The origins of the neutral sugar were differentiated to probe into the biochemical accumulation mechanisms of soil organic matter. There was a significant difference in the neutral sugar content among the forest soils. The relative content of soil neutral sugar' s carbon to soil organic carbon ranged in 80.55-170.63 mg C x g(-1), and tended to be increased with elevated altitude. The multiple regression analysis showed that the mean temperature in growth season was the main factor affecting the relative content of soil neutral sugar, and low temperature was conducive to the accumulation of neutral sugar. The ratio of (galactose + mannose) / (arabinose + xylose) in the five soils was around 1.62-2.28, and had an increasing trend with elevated altitude, illustrating that the contribution of soil microbial neutral sugar to soil organic matter increased with elevated altitude. Soil microbial metabolic quotient declined significantly along elevated altitude, suggesting that in low temperature environment, soil microbial activity decreased but the carbon utilization efficiency enhanced. As a result, a significant portion of decomposed plant residues was transformed into microbial neutral sugar and accumulated stably in soil, and thus, increased the proportion of soil microbial neutral sugar. PMID:24175504

  8. Solubility Enhanced Oxidation of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boving, T. B.; Eberle, D. E.; Ball, R.

    2012-12-01

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a remediation technique considered to be effective at overcoming some of the limitations of conventional subsurface treatment processes for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminants (VOC, SVOC). ISCO reactions occur predominately in the aqueous phase and as a result, contaminant availability is a major limiting factor, i.e. contaminants with higher aqueous solubility's are typically more accessible for oxidation than more hydrophobic, sorbed compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a new integrated desorption-oxidation process for the remediation of contaminated waters and sediments. Specifically, this study examined the potential of using hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HPCD), a modified cyclic sugar, and a blend of oxidants commercially known as OxyZone® (U.S. patent No. 7,667,087) for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Laboratory scale batch experiments confirmed prior studies that HPCD increases the aqueous concentration of these contaminants, making a greater mass of contaminant available for subsequent oxidation. When exposed to the same amount of oxidant, the mass of PAH destroyed increased linearly with increasing HPCD concentration. Relative to PAH saturated solutions without HPCD, 11 times more PAH mass was destroyed when a PAH saturated 15 g/L HPCD solution was treated with the same mass of oxidant. Destruction of the aqueous phase contaminants followed first order exponential decay kinetics in both deionized water and HPCD solutions. However, the destruction of complexed PAH was slower than for uncomplexed PAH. The cause of this is likely due to the preferential destruction of the HPCD molecule by the oxidant, followed by the subsequent oxidation of the PAH. The destruction of the cyclodextrin was minimized by modifying the oxidant formulation. Overall, these findings establish the potential of utilizing HPCD and OxyZone® as an integrated desorption-oxidation process for the remediation of low solubility organic contaminants at the field scale.

  9. Equilibrium dialysis using chromophoric sugar derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis has been used to examine the binding affinity of ligands to proteins. It is a simple and reliable method, which requires only inexpensive equipment. For analysis of lectin-sugar interactions, the lectin and sugar are placed in the individual chambers separated by the membrane to allow the sugar to diffuse into the lectin chamber. After equilibrium has been reached, the concentrations of the sugar in both chambers are determined to evaluate the sugar-binding affinity of lectin. In this chapter, an example of the equilibrium dialysis experiment using the chromophoric derivatives of galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine is demonstrated, which reveals the difference in the affinity as well as specificities of two different carbohydrate-binding sites present in the B-chains of the plant lectin ricin. PMID:25117234

  10. Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced sugar chocolates formulated with natural sweeteners as sucrose alternatives.

    PubMed

    Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Dujmovi?, Marko; Karlovi?, Sven; Biški?, Matija; Brn?i?, Mladen; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    In this study, sugar alcohols, dietary fibers, syrups and natural sweeteners were used as sucrose alternatives in the production of reduced sugar chocolates (50% of cocoa parts) with enhanced bioactive profile. Formulated chocolates were evaluated for their physical (particle size distribution, texture) and sensory properties, sugar composition, polyphenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity. All produced reduced sugar chocolates ensured >20% lower calorific value than conventional chocolate (prepared with sucrose). Formulated chocolates containing stevia leaves and peppermint exhibited the best sensory properties (especially with regard to mouthfeel, sweetness and herbal aroma), as well as the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Particle size and hardness of chocolates increased in comparison to conventional chocolate, in particular when the combination of fructose and isomalt or lactitol was used. The bioactive profile of produced chocolates was enriched with phenolic acids, flavone (luteolin and apigenin) and flavonol (quercetin) derivatives, which were not identified in control chocolate. PMID:25148960

  11. Silencing of the tomato sugar partitioning affecting protein (SPA) modifies sink strength through a shift in leaf sugar metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Luisa; de Godoy, Fabiana; Baldet, Pierre; Demarco, Diego; Osorio, Sonia; Quadrana, Leandro; Almeida, Juliana; Asis, Ramón; Gibon, Yves; Fernie, Alisdair R; Rossi, Magdalena; Carrari, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Limitations in our understanding about the mechanisms that underlie source-sink assimilate partitioning are increasingly becoming a major hurdle for crop yield enhancement via metabolic engineering. By means of a comprehensive approach, this work reports the functional characterization of a DnaJ chaperone related-protein (named as SPA; sugar partition-affecting) that is involved in assimilate partitioning in tomato plants. SPA protein was found to be targeted to the chloroplast thylakoid membranes. SPA-RNAi tomato plants produced more and heavier fruits compared with controls, thus resulting in a considerable increment in harvest index. The transgenic plants also displayed increased pigment levels and reduced sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in leaves. Detailed metabolic and enzymatic activities analyses showed that sugar phosphate intermediates were increased while the activity of phosphoglucomutase, sugar kinases and invertases was reduced in the photosynthetic organs of the silenced plants. These changes would be anticipated to promote carbon export from foliar tissues. The combined results suggested that the tomato SPA protein plays an important role in plastid metabolism and mediates the source-sink relationships by affecting the rate of carbon translocation to fruits. PMID:24372694

  12. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    PubMed

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading. PMID:24175878

  13. Evaluation of several ultra- and nanofiltration membranes for sugar control in winemaking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. García-Martín; L. Palacio; P. Prádanos; A. Hernández; M. Ortega-Heras; S. Pérez-Magariño; D. C. González-Huerta

    2009-01-01

    Several membranes are here considered and studied in order to be applied to control of the sugar content of grape musts. This should allow decreasing somewhat the alcohol degree of wines that due to a warmer weather are being made from too mature grapes sometimes. This gives wines with a too high alcohol degree. Our objective is to reverse this

  14. Evaluating low lignin mutants of forage sorghum for increased conversion efficiency to sugars and ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced lignin near-isogenic lines of Atlas bmr-6, bmr-12, and bmr-6 bmr-12 forage sorghum (Sorghum biocolor (L.)) were evaluated as sources of biomass for conversion to sugars and ethanol. These mutants have the advantage of reduced lignin contents and high biomass yields. Field replicates of wil...

  15. Sugars and phenols in relation to Alternaria leaf blight of wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Sokhi; L. M. Joshi

    1973-01-01

    A number of commercial varieties of wheat were investigated with regard to the relationship between the degree of their susceptibilitv\\u000a toAlternaria triticina Prasada and Prabhu, and the sugar and phenol contents of their leaves. No correlation between these properties could be established.

  16. [Antioxidant effect and polyphenol content of Syringodium filiforme (Cymodoceaceae)].

    PubMed

    González García, Kethia L; Valdés Iglesias, Olga; Laguna, Abilio; Díaz Martínez, Maylín; González Lavaut, José Antonio

    2011-03-01

    The marine phanerogam Syringodium filiforme, known as "manatee grass", is a common species that grows in coastal areas associated to Thalassia testudinum. With the aim to describe some of its possible chemical characteristics, this study was performed with a sample of 1.2 kg, collected in March 2009, in Guanabo beach, Havana, Cuba. The sample was dried (less than 12% humidity) and a total extract prepared; other three extracts were prepared with the use of solvents of increasing polarity. The phytochemical screening and analytical determinations of each fraction were undertaken Total polyphenol content was determined using pyrogallol as reference's standard; chlorophyll a and b and anthocyanin content were also quantified. Total extract and fractions antioxidant activity were evaluated by using the free radical scavenging activity assay with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl reactive (knowing as DPPH's method). The phytochemical screening of the different extracts detected the presence of high concentrations of flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, antocyanins, reducing sugars and alkaloids. The total extract and methanol fraction showed significant free radical scavenging properties, while the petroleum ether fraction showed moderate activity, and the chloroform fraction and the aqueous soluble precipitate (residual salt) obtained didn't show antioxidant properties against free radicals. The results of this work confirmed the potentialities of this species for biological purposes. PMID:21516660

  17. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility products, complex stability constants, and redox potentials for radionuclides in different oxidation states, form the underlying database to be used for those calculations. The potentially low solubilities of many radionuclides in natural waters constitute the first barrier for their migration from the repository into the environment. Evaluation of this effect requires a knowledge of the site-specific water chemistry and the expected spatial and temporal ranges of its variability. Quantitative determinations of radionuclide solubility in waters within the range of chemistry must be made. Speciation and molecular complexation must be ascertained to interpret and apply solubility results. The solubilities thus determined can be used to assess the effectiveness of solubility in limiting radionuclide migration. These solubilities can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of other retardation processes expected to occur once dissolution of the source material and migration begin. Understanding the solubility behavior of radionuclides will assist in designing valuable sorption experiments that must be conducted below the solubility limit since only soluble species participate in surface reactions and sorption processes. The present strategy for radionuclide solubility tasks has been to provide a solubility model from bulk-experiments that attempt to bracket the estimate made for this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) of water conditions on site. The long-term goal must be to develop a thermodynamic database for solution speciation and solid-state determination as a prerequisite for transport calculations and interpretation of empirical solubility data. The model has to be self-consistent and tested against known solubility studies in order to predict radionuclide solubilities over the continuous distribution ranges of potential water compositions for performance assessment of the site. Solubility studies upper limits for radionuclide concentrations in natural waters. The concentration in the aqueous phase is controlled by the radionuclide-bearing solid phase and by

  18. On the solubility of yttrium in RuO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Music, Denis; Zumdick, Naemi A.; Hallstedt, Bengt; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2011-09-01

    We have investigated the solubility of Y in rutile RuO2 using experimental and theoretical methods. Nanostructured Ru-Y-O thin films were synthesized via combinatorial reactive sputtering with an O/metal ratio of 2.6 and a Y content of 0.3 to 12.6 at. %. A solubility limit of 1.7 at. % was identified using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Based on ab initio and thermodynamic modeling, the solubility of Y can be understood. Smaller Y amounts are incorporated into the lattice, forming a metastable film, with local structural deformations due to size effects. As the Y content is increased, extensive local structural deformations are observed, but phase separation does not occur due to kinetic limitations. Nanostructured RuO2 alloyed with Y might lead to enhanced phonon scattering and quantum confinement effects, which in turn improve the thermoelectric efficiency.

  19. Transcript profiles at different growth stages and tap-root zones identify correlated developmental and metabolic pathways of sugar beet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Bellin; Britta Schulz; Thomas Rosleff Soerensen; Francesco Salamini; Katharina Schneider

    2007-01-01

    Field-grown sugar beets were analysed for morpholog- ical characters, sucrose content, and reproducible transcript profiles by macroarray analyses with 11 520 unique sugar-beet cDNA targets in two different years. Seasonal differences were partly compensated by expressing sampling dates as thermal time. During early beet development the number of cambial rings, root length, and sucrose concentration had already achieved >40% of

  20. Antibacterial characteristics and activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ying-Chien; Yeh, Jan-Ying; Tsai, Cheng-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by Maillard reactions against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella typhimurium was examined. Relatively high antibacterial activity against various microorganisms was noted for the chitosan-glucosamine derivative as compared to the acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it was found that the susceptibility of the test organisms to the water-soluble chitosan derivative was higher in deionized water than in saline solution. Metal ions were also found to reduce the antibacterial activity of the water-soluble chitosan derivative on S. aureus. The marked increase in glucose level, protein content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was observed in the cell supernatant of S. aureus exposed to the water-soluble chitosan derivative in deionized water. The results suggest that the water-soluble chitosan produced by Maillard reaction may be a promising commercial substitute for acid-soluble chitosan. PMID:21989311

  1. Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility provides an animated, visual interpretation of the different solubilities of related salts based on simple entropy changes associated with dissolution: configurational disorder and thermal disorder. This animation can also help improve students conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium before any quantitative interpretation of equilibrium constants is attempted.

  2. The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  3. Bacterial production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, L.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, C. A.

    2014-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after long-term bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations (32 days) with natural and artificial seawater, indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol%) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3-14 mol%). DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol%), followed by glucose (22 mol%) and the remaining neutral sugars (7-11 mol%). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural and artificial seawater samples, suggests that the microbial carbon pump also applies for neutral sugars and amino acids and that bacterially-produced biomolecules persist for long periods in the ocean.

  4. Production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids by bacteria in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, L.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, C. A.

    2014-10-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of combined neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after 32 days of bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations with natural seawater (sampled from water masses originating from the surface waters of the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean) and artificial seawater indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol %) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3-14 mol %). DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol %), followed by glucose (22 mol %) and the remaining neutral sugars (7-11 mol %). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days, the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural (representing marine semi-labile and refractory DOM) and artificial (representing bacterially produced DOM) seawater samples, suggests that microbes transform bioavailable neutral sugars and amino acids into a common, more persistent form.

  5. Sensitivity and feeding efficiency of the black garden ant Lasius niger to sugar resources.

    PubMed

    Detrain, Claire; Prieur, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Carbohydrate sources such as plant exudates, nectar and honeydew represent the main source of energy for many ant species and contribute towards maintaining their mutualistic relationships with plants or aphid colonies. Here we characterise the sensitivity, feeding response curve and food intake efficiency of the aphid tending ant, Lasius niger for major sugars found in nectar, honeydew and insect haemolymph (i.e. fructose, glucose, sucrose, melezitose and trehalose). We found that sucrose concentrations - ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 M - triggered food acceptance by L.niger workers with their food intake efficiency being enhanced by sugar concentrations of 1M or higher at which points energy intake was maximised. The range of sucrose concentrations that elicit a feeding response by L. niger scouts thus overlaps with that of natural sugar resources. The response curves of feeding acceptance by scouts consistently increased with sugar concentration, except for trehalose which was disregarded by the ants. Ants are highly sensitive to sucrose and melezitose exhibiting low response thresholds. Sucrose, fructose and glucose share a same potential to act as phagostimulants as they had similar half feeding efficiency concentration values when expressed as the energetic content of sugar solution. Aphid-biosynthezised melezitose generated the highest sensitivity and phagostimulant potential. The feeding behavior of ants appears to be primarily regulated by the energy content of the food solution for the main sugars present in nectar and honeydew. However, feeding by scouts is also influenced by the informative value of individual sugars when it serves as a cue for the presence of aphid partners such as the aphid-biosynthesised melezitose. PMID:24667145

  6. Flowability Properties of Commercial Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the major coproduct from the corn-based fuel ethanol industry, is primarily used as livestock feed. Due to high protein, fiber, and energy contents, there is a high demand for DDGS. Flowability of DDGS is often hindered due the phenomenon of “caking”. S...

  7. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  8. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology. PMID:24150836

  9. Effect of nitrate and sulfate relative abundance in PM2.5 on liquid water content explored through half-hourly observations of inorganic soluble aerosols at a polluted receptor site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jian; Griffith, Stephen M.; Yu, Xin; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2014-12-01

    Liquid water content (LWC) is the amount of liquid water on aerosols. It contributes to visibility degradation, provides a surface for gas condensation, and acts as a medium for heterogeneous gas/particle reactions. In this study, 520 half-hourly measurements of ionic chemical composition in PM2.5 at a receptor site in Hong Kong are used to investigate the dependence of LWC on ionic chemical composition, particularly on the relative abundance of sulfate and nitrate. LWC was estimated using a thermodynamic model (AIM-III). Within this data set of PM2.5 ionic compositions, LWC was highly correlated with the multivariate combination of sulfate and nitrate concentrations and RH (R2 = 0.90). The empirical linear regression result indicates that LWC is more sensitive to nitrate mass than sulfate. During a nitrate episode, the highest LWC (80.6 ± 17.9 ?g m-3) was observed and the level was 70% higher than that during a sulfate episode despite a similar ionic PM2.5 mass concentration. A series of sensitivity tests were conducted to study LWC change as a function of the relative nitrate and sulfate abundance, the trend of which is expected to shift to more nitrate in China as a result of SO2 reduction and increase in NOx emission. Starting from a base case that uses the average of measured PM2.5 ionic chemical composition (63% SO42-, 11% NO3-, 19% NH4+, and 7% other ions) and an ionic equivalence ratio, [NH4+]/(2[SO42-] + [NO3-]), set constant to 0.72, the results show LWC would increase by 204% at RH = 40% when 50% of the SO42- is replaced by NO3- mass concentration. This is largely due to inhibition of (NH4)3H(SO4)2 crystallization while PM2.5 ionic species persist in the aqueous phase. At RH = 90%, LWC would increase by 12% when 50% of the SO42- is replaced by NO3- mass concentration. The results of this study highlight the important implications to aerosol chemistry and visibility degradation associated with LWC as a result of a shift in PM2.5 ionic chemical composition to more nitrate in atmospheric environments as is expected in many Chinese cities.

  10. Solubility of plutonium and waste evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    1993-10-22

    Chemical processing of irradiated reactor elements at the Savannah River Site separates uranium, plutonium and fission products; fission products and process-added chemicals are mixed with an excess of NaOH and discharged as a basic slurry into large underground tanks for temporary storage. The slurry is composed of base-insoluble solids that settle to the bottom of the tank; the liquid supemate contains a mixture of base-soluble chemicals--nitrates, nitrites aluminate, sulfate, etc. To conserve space in the waste tanks, the supemate is concentrated by evaporation. As the evaporation proceeds, the solubilities of some components are exceeded, and these species crystallize from solution. Normally, these components are soluble in the hot solution discharged from the waste tank evaporator and do not crystallize until the solution cools. However, concern was aroused at West Valley over the possibility that plutonium would precipitate and accumulate in the evaporator, conceivably to the point that a nuclear accident was possible. There is also a concern at SRS from evaporation of sludge washes, which arise from washing the base-insoluble solids ({open_quote}sludge{close_quote}) with ca. 1M NaOH to reduce the Al and S0{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} content. The sludge washes of necessity extract a low level of Pu from the sludge and are evaporated to reduce their volume, presenting the possibility of precipitating Pu. Measurements of the solubility of Pu in synthetic solutions of similar composition to waste supernate and sludge washes are described in this report.

  11. The high CO 2solubility of per-acetylated ?-, ?-, and ?-cyclodextrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay K Potluri; Andrew D Hamilton; Christos F Karanikas; Steven E Bane; Jianhang Xu; Eric J Beckman; Robert M Enick

    2003-01-01

    Per-acetylated cyclic hexa-, hepta-, and octa-saccharide, (?-cyclodextrin octadecaacetate, ?-cyclodextrin heneiicosaacetate and ?-cyclodextrin tetracosaacetate, respectively) exhibit melting point reduction and high solubility in dense CO2. Two-phase boundaries of the CO2-acetylated sugar mixtures were determined for per-acetylated cyclodextrin concentrations of 2–30wt.%. The dew-point locus of the CO2 per-acetylated cyclodextrin binary systems shifted to higher pressures as the number of saccharides in the

  12. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I. (East Setauket, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  13. How Much Sugar Is in Bubble Gum?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Some of the flavoring in bubble gum is due to the sugar or other sweetener it contains. As gum is chewed, the sugar dissolves and is swallowed. After a piece of gum loses its sweetness, it can be left to dry at room temperature and then the difference between its initial (unchewed) mass and its chewed mass can be used to calculate the percentage of sugar in the gum. This demonstration experiment is used to generate new questions about gums and their ingredients, and students can then design and execute new experiments based on their own questions.

  14. Investigation of the solubility enhancement mechanism of rebaudioside D using a solid dispersion technique with potassium sorbate as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shintaro; Ma, Changchu; Zhang, Naijie; He, Lili

    2015-05-01

    Rebaudioside (Reb) D is a high intensity, natural sweetener that shows great potential for substituting sugar in sweetened beverages. However, Reb D is poorly water soluble, and thus, a solid dispersion technique was recently established to enhance its solubility. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the solubility enhancement mechanism of this solid dispersion material by employing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Potassium sorbate (KS) was chosen as the carrier and two different concentration ratios were investigated as solid dispersions (SD) and as physical mixtures (PM). Our data demonstrated the possible mechanism for enhancing solubility through solid dispersion through increased surface area/volume ratio and hydrogen bonding between Reb D and KS. The interaction between the two components were also related to the different concentration ratios, therefore an optimisation of the ratio is important to produce a soluble and stable complex. PMID:25529720

  15. Red edge spectral measurements from sugar maple leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.; Moss, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Many sugar maple stands in the northeastern United States experienced extensive insect damage during the 1988 growing season. Chlorophyll data and high spectral resolution spectrometer laboratory reflectance data were acquired for multiple collections of single detached sugar maple leaves variously affected by the insect over the 1988 growing season. Reflectance data indicated consistent and diagnostic differences in the red edge portion (680-750 nm) of the spectrum among the various samples and populations of leaves. These included differences in the red edge inflection point (REIP), a ratio of reflectance at 740-720 nm (RE3/RE2), and a ratio of first derivative values at 715-705 nm (D715/D705). All three red edge parameters were highly correlated with variation in total chlorophyll content. Other spectral measures, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Simple Vegetation Index Ratio (VI), also varied among populations and over the growing season, but did not correlate well with total chlorophyll content. Leaf stacking studies on light and dark backgrounds indicated REIP, RE3/RE2 and D715/D705 to be much less influenced by differences in green leaf biomass and background condition than either NDVI or VI.

  16. [Quantitive variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in F1 generation of Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Ling-Shang; Si, Jin-Ping; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Using phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method of alcohol-soluble extracts, the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in 11 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the polysaccharides contents in samples collected in May and February were 32.89%-43.07% and 25.77%-35.25%, respectively, while the extracts contents were 2.81%-4.85% and 7.90%-17.40%, respectively. They were significantly different among families. The content of polysaccharides in offspring could be significantly improved by hybridization between parents with low and high polysaccharides contents, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Cross breeding was an effective way for breeding new varieties with higher polysaccharides contents. Harvest time would significantly affect the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The contents of polysaccharides in families collected in May were higher than those of polysaccharides in families collected in February, but the extracts content had the opposite variation. The extents of quantitative variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts were different among families, and each family had its own rules. It would be significant in giving full play to their role as the excellent varieties and increasing effectiveness by studying on the quantitative accumulation regularity of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in superior families (varieties) of D. officinale to determine the best harvesting time. PMID:24494555

  17. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H(+)/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5' regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  18. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5? regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  19. Knoevenagel Reaction of Unprotected Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrmann, Marie-Christine

    The Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars was investigated in the 1950s using zinc chloride as promoter. The so-called Garcia Gonzalez reaction had been almost forgotten for 50 years, until the emergence of new water tolerant catalysts having Lewis acid behavior. The reaction was thus reinvestigated and optimal conditions have been found to prepare trihydroxylated furan derivatives from pentose or ?-tetrahydrofuranylfuran from hexoses with non-cyclic ?-keto ester or ?-diketones. Other valuable compounds such as ?-linked tetrahydrobenzofuranyl glycosides or hydroxyalkyl-3,3,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione can be obtained using cyclic ?-dicarbonylic derivatives. Apart from one report in the 1950s, the Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected carbohydrate in basic condition has been studied only in the mid-1980s to prepare C-glycosyl barbiturates from barbituric acids and, later on, from non-cyclic ?-diketones, ?-C-glycosidic ketones. The efficient method exploited to prepare such compounds has found an industrial development in cosmetics.

  20. Added Sugars from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Estimated Regression Coefficients,

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  1. Sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in agricultural sustainability require expertise in many fields, and the contents of this book reflect that. The seventeen chapters came out of a symposium presented at the Spring 2010 meeting of the American Chemical Society, and represent contributions from a wide variety of authors with e...

  2. Phenylated Polyimides With Greater Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    In experiments, 3,6-diphenylpyromellitic dianhydride monomer prepared and polymerized with several different diamines. Polyimides with pendent phenyl groups along polymer backbones considerably more soluble than PMDA-based materials. Increased solubility eases processing, providing increased potential use in variety of applications. Because most polymers soluble in organic solvents, usable in microelectronics applications. Excellent thermal stabilities and high transition temperatures make them ideally suited. Many polymers extremely rigid and useful as reinforcing polymers in molecular composites. More flexible compositions useful as matrix resins in carbon-reinforced composites.

  3. Determination of saponin in sugar juices from sugar refining processes by stripping voltammetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Sancho; Rafael Pardo; Marisol Vega

    2000-01-01

    Saponins were determined as oleanolic acid in refined sugar and sugar juices from beet sugar refining processes by differential?pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry (DPCSV) at the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) after acidic hydrolysis of the saponin. Measurements were performed on diluted samples at the mg\\/1 level without further pretreatment. The optimised procedure allowed the determination of saponin at the mg\\/kg

  4. Leaf fructose content is controlled by the vacuolar transporter SWEET17 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chardon, Fabien; Bedu, Magali; Calenge, Fanny; Klemens, Patrick A W; Spinner, Lara; Clement, Gilles; Chietera, Giorgiana; Léran, Sophie; Ferrand, Marina; Lacombe, Benoit; Loudet, Olivier; Dinant, Sylvie; Bellini, Catherine; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; Krapp, Anne

    2013-04-22

    In higher plants, soluble sugars are mainly present as sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Sugar allocation is based on both source-to-sink transport and intracellular transport between the different organelles and depends on actual plant requirements. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as nitrogen limitation, carbohydrates accumulate in plant cells. Despite an increasing number of genetic studies, the genetic architecture determining carbohydrate composition is poorly known. Using a quantitative genetics approach, we determined that the carrier protein SWEET17 is a major factor controlling fructose content in Arabidopsis leaves. We observed that when SWEET17 expression is reduced, either by induced or natural variation, fructose accumulates in leaves, suggesting an enhanced storage capacity. Subcellular localization of SWEET17-GFP to the tonoplast and functional expression in Xenopus oocytes showed that SWEET17 is the first vacuolar fructose transporter to be characterized in plants. Physiological studies in planta provide evidence that SWEET17 acts to export fructose out of the vacuole. Overall, our results suggest that natural variation in leaf fructose levels is controlled by the vacuolar fructose transporter SWEET17. SWEET17 is highly conserved across the plant kingdom; thus, these findings offer future possibilities to modify carbohydrate partitioning in crops. PMID:23583552

  5. Development and storage study of reduced sugar soy containing compound chocolate.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Alka; Singh, Gurmukh

    2011-02-01

    Possibility of using full fat soy flour (FFSF) for replacer for whole milk powder (WMP), stevia-mannitol blend as replacer for sugar and soybean oil (SBO) as replacer for cocoa butter in chocolate manufacture without impairing the sensory quality characteristics of chocolate was explored. Data on the sensory evaluation of WMP, sugar and cocoa butter substituted chocolates revealed that 40% (w/w) of WMP, sugar and cocoa butter can be successfully substituted by FFSF, stevia-mannitol blend and SBO, respectively in the preparation of high protein and low sugar chocolate without impairing the sensory attributes. Lecithin was found to be optimum at 0.32% (w/w) level of chocolate mix. Protein content of optimized formulation increased by 21.8% over control. Storage study of the product indicated an increase in hardness, free fatty acid content, peroxide value, total plate count, yeast and mold count, whereas a decrease in moisture content, pH value and sensory scores. The optimized chocolate was found acceptable (score ?7.0) after 90 days of storage at 16?±?1°C and ~65% RH. PMID:23572719

  6. Nectar Sugar Production across Floral Phases in the Gynodioecious Protandrous Plant Geranium sylvaticum

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Sandra; Nuortila, Carolin; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Many zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering nectar as a reward. In gynodioecious plants (i.e. populations are composed of female and hermaphrodite individuals) nectar production has been repeatedly reported to be larger in hermaphrodite compared to female flowers even though nectar production across the different floral phases in dichogamous plants (i.e. plants with time separation of pollen dispersal and stigma receptivity) has rarely been examined. In this study, sugar production in nectar standing crop and secretion rate were investigated in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant species with protandry (i.e. with hermaphrodite flowers releasing their pollen before the stigma is receptive). We found that flowers from hermaphrodites produced more nectar than female flowers in terms of total nectar sugar content. In addition, differences in nectar production among floral phases were found in hermaphrodite flowers but not in female flowers. In hermaphrodite flowers, maximum sugar content coincided with pollen presentation and declined slightly towards the female phase, indicating nectar reabsorption, whereas in female flowers sugar content did not differ between the floral phases. These differences in floral reward are discussed in relation to visitation patterns by pollinators and seed production in this species. PMID:23614053

  7. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  8. Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A1C test, which reflects your blood sugar (or blood glucose) control over the past 2-3 months. Testing ... test is called SMBG, or self-monitoring of blood glucose. Using a blood glucose monitor to do SMBG ...

  9. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diabetes medicine Not eating enough during meals or snacks after you have taken insulin or diabetes medicine ... your blood sugar levels. Make sure you have snacks with you. Talk to your doctor about reducing ...

  10. For the topping : 3 Tablespoons sugar

    E-print Network

    together the egg, milk, yogurt, oil and lemon peel. 3. Sift the flour, sugar, baking powder and salt onto-pints) Sort, wash and drain the berries thoroughly. Crush berries one layer at a time. Add 2 tablespoons lemon

  11. Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes Type 1 35132 Keep On Track Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar Dangers of High and Low ... urge to eat more frequently Blurred vision In type 1 diabetes, hyperglycemia occurs when you don't take enough ...

  12. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    MedlinePLUS

    ... odor rapid, deep breathing confusion unconsciousness ("diabetic coma") Checking for DKA How do you know if you ... possible, which means following your diabetes management plan. Checking your blood sugar levels several times a day ...

  13. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section...Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations...sugar shall be so construed as to permit mixing together sugar of different classes,...

  14. January 2013 BEE CULTURE 23 Revisiting Powdered Sugar For

    E-print Network

    Delaplane, Keith S.

    January 2013 BEE CULTURE 23 Revisiting Powdered Sugar For Varroa Control On Honey Bees (Apis dust bees with powder sugar as a means of removing mites. Dusting with powder sugar was also gaining conducted a study which examined the efficacy of powder sugar and found it did not help in controlling

  15. Are sugar-free confections really beneficial for dental health?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nadimi; H. Wesamaa; P. Bollu; J. H. Meurman; S.-J. Janket

    2011-01-01

    Background Various sugar substitutes have been introduced and are widely used in confections and beverages to avoid tooth decay from sugar and other fermentable carbohydrates. One group of sugar substitutes are sugar alcohols or polyols. They have been specifically used in foods for diabetic patients because polyols are not readily absorbed in the intestine and blood stream, preventing post-prandial elevation

  16. Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease of Sugar Beet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George N. SkaracisOurania; Ourania I. Pavli; Enrico Biancardi

    2010-01-01

    Cercospora leaf spot, incited by the fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc., is the most widespread and damaging sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) foliar disease. Under favorable for the disease agro-climatic conditions, insufficient control of epidemics leads to\\u000a significant sugar yield reduction and consequent heavy economic losses. Disease control strategies basically rely on a combination\\u000a of fungicide applications, growing resistant cultivars, and

  17. Sugar metabolism and the plant target of rapamycin kinase: a sweet operaTOR?

    PubMed Central

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Marchive, Chloé; Azzopardi, Marianne; Clément, Gilles; Moreau, Manon; Sormani, Rodnay; Robaglia, Christophe; Meyer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the ubiquitous TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase complexes have emerged as central regulators of cell growth and metabolism. The plant TOR complex 1 (TORC1), that contains evolutionary conserved protein partners, has been shown to be implicated in various aspects of C metabolism. Indeed Arabidopsis lines affected in the expression of TORC1 components show profound perturbations in the metabolism of several sugars, including sucrose, starch, and raffinose. Metabolite profiling experiments coupled to transcriptomic analyses of lines affected in TORC1 expression also reveal a wider deregulation of primary metabolism. Moreover recent data suggest that the kinase activity of TORC1, which controls biological outputs like mRNA translation or autophagy, is directly regulated by soluble sugars. PMID:23641244

  18. Determination of free and total carbohydrate profile in soluble coffee.

    PubMed

    Prodolliet, J; Bruelhart, M; Lador, F; Martinez, C; Obert, L; Blanc, M B; Parchet, J M

    1995-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was evaluated for the determination of free and total carbohydrates in soluble coffee. Samples are solubilized in water for free carbohydrates or hydrolyzed with 1.00N hydrochloric acid for total carbohydrates. An aliquot of the sample solution is analyzed on a pellicular anion-exchange polystyrene-divinylbenzene column using pure water as the mobile phase. Carbohydrates are quantitated by a pulsed amperometric detector. All major carbohydrates found in soluble coffee are determined in a single run. The technique allowed the detection of fraudulent addition of coffee husks or parchments as well as cereals or caramelized sugar for the 63 commercial products analyzed. High levels of free mannitol, free fructose, free glucose, sucrose, total glucose, and total xylose are a good indication of adulteration. Data were compared with those obtained from separate enzymatic determinations and from a different LC procedure. A close agreement among the methods was observed. However, the original method was superior in precision and was the only procedure that enabled the quantitation of all major carbohydrates. The technique is, therefore, a very powerful tool for routine analysis and for purity assessment of soluble coffee. PMID:7756890

  19. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  20. Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srithawirat, T.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2008-12-01

    Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions are available for biomass combustion. Furfural and sugars were determined in coarse aerosols (>2.4?m aerodynamic diameter) and fine aerosols (<2.4?m aerodynamic diameter) collected in 24 hour periods during different seasons in the United Kingdom and PM10 collected from Thailand and Malaysia including haze episodes. Also total suspended particulate matter (TSP) samples were collected from Taiwan. Furfural and sugars dominated in fine fractions, especially in the UK autumn. Sugars were found at 5.96-18.37 nmol m-3 in fine mode and 1.36-5.75 nmol m-3 in coarse mode aerosols in the UK. Furfural was found at 0.18-0.91 nmol m-3 and 0.05-0.51 nmol m-3 respectively in the same aerosols. Sugars were a dominant contributor to aerosol derived from biomass burning. Sugars and furfural were about 10 and 20 times higher during haze episodes in Malaysia. Laboratory experimental simulation suggested furfural is more rapid destroyed by UV and sunlight than levoglucosan.