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1

OSMOTIC STRESS-INDUCED CHANGES IN GERMINATION, GROWTH AND SOLUBLE SUGAR CONTENT OF SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH SEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The effect of osmotic stress on germination, growth and soluble sugar content in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. CSH 9 seeds and seedling components (endosperm and embryos) during early germination was inves- tigated. Under stress conditions germination decreased markedly, whereas the control at the same time reached its maximum germination (99%). A high percentage (67%) of ungerminated seeds from

Prabhjot Kaur Gill; Arun Dev Sharma; Prabhjeet Singh; Sukdev Singh Bhullar

2002-01-01

2

[Effects of simulated acid rain and its acidified soil on soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings].  

PubMed

The study showed that the cation release of simulated rain caused soil acidification and base ions release. With the decrease of simulated acid rain pH from 5.6 to 2.5, the acid rain-leached soil pH decreased from 6.06 to 3.41, and its total amount of exchange base ions decreased from 56.5 to 41.1 mmol x kg(-1). Spraying simulated acid rain on the shoots of wheat seedlings planted on such acidified soils caused a rapid decrease in the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings, and reduced some of their physiological activities. The effect of spraying simulated acid rain on the soluble sugar, nitrogen, and chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic rate of wheat stems and leaves was larger than that of acidified soil, while the effect of the latter on the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents and the physiological activity of NR and GOGAT in root system of wheat seedlings was larger than that of the former. The intensive acid rain of pH < or = 3.0 and the corresponding acidified soil had an obvious harm to the growth and physiological activity of wheat seedlings. PMID:16262064

Tong, Guanhe; Liang, Huiling

2005-08-01

3

Ultraviolet-visible transmittance techniques for rapid analysis of sugar content and soluble solids content of fresh navel orange juices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar content (SC) and soluble solids content (SSC) are very important factors of navel orange internal quality and can be measured non-invasively by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. The feasibility and methods of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic techniques for rapid quantifying SC and SSC of navel orange fresh juices was investigated by its spectral transmittance. A total 55 juice samples were used to develop the calibration and prediction models. Different spectra correction algorithms (constant, multiplicative signal correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) were compared in our work. Three different kinds of mathematical spectra treatments (original, first derivative and second derivative) of spectra in the range of 200-800 nm and two kinds of reference standards were also investigated. Three kinds of models including partial least square regression (PLSR), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principle component regression (PCR) were evaluated for the determination of SC and SSC in navel orange juice. Calibration models based on the different spectral ranges were also compared. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of prediction set of samples. The correlation coefficients of calibration models for SC and SSC were 0.965 and 0.961, the correlation coefficients of prediction models for SC and SSC were 0.857 and 0.888, and the corresponding RMSEP were 0.562 and 0.492 respectively. The results show that ultraviolet-visible transmittance technique is a feasible method for non-invasive estimation of fruit juice SC and SSC.

Liu, Yande; Ouyang, Aiguo; Luo, Ji; Ying, Yibin

2005-11-01

4

Light exposure during storage preserving soluble sugar and l-ascorbic acid content of minimally processed romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.var. longifolia).  

PubMed

Minimally processed romaine lettuce (MPRL) leaves were stored in light condition (2500lux) or darkness at 4°C for 7d. Light exposure significantly delayed the degradation of chlorophyll and decrease of glucose, reducing sugar, and sucrose content, and thus preserved more total soluble solid (TSS) content at the end of storage in comparison with darkness. While, it did not influenced starch content that progressively decreased over time. The l-ascorbic acid (AA) accumulated in light-stored leaves, but deteriorated in dark-stored leaves during storage. The dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) increased in all leaves stored in both light and dark condition, of which light condition resulted in less DHA than darkness. In addition, the fresh weight loss and dry matter significantly increased and these increases were accelerated by light exposure. Conclusively, light exposure in applied intensity effectively alleviated MPRL quality deterioration by delaying the decreases of pigments, soluble sugar, TSS content and accumulating AA. PMID:23017423

Zhan, Lijuan; Hu, Jinqiang; Ai, Zhilu; Pang, Lingyun; Li, Yu; Zhu, Meiyun

2013-01-01

5

Effect of macronutrients and pH on the growth, nitrogen fixation and soluble sugar content of water fern Azolla pinnata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficiency in Ca and P in mineral medium reduced the growth and nitrogen content ofAzolla pinnata but increased the content of soluble sugars in the plant; the deficiency in K and Mg was less effective in retarding the\\u000a growth. The pH of the medium from 5 to 8 encouraged the growth and nitrogen fixation, whereas acidic pH of 4 as

B. P. R. Subudhi; P. K. Singh

1979-01-01

6

Sensory profile, soluble sugars, organic acids, and mineral content in milk- and soy-juice based beverages.  

PubMed

The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278mg/L) and phosphate (51-428mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers. PMID:25466130

Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José

2015-04-15

7

Soluble sugars—Metabolism, sensing and abiotic stress  

PubMed Central

Plants are autotrophic and photosynthetic organisms that both produce and consume sugars. Soluble sugars are highly sensitive to environmental stresses, which act on the supply of carbohydrates from source organs to sink ones. Sucrose and hexoses both play dual functions in gene regulation as exemplified by the upregulation of growth-related genes and downregulation of stress-related genes. Although coordinately regulated by sugars, these growth- and stress-related genes are upregulated or downregulated through HXK-dependent and/or HXK-independent pathways. Sucrose-non-fermenting-1- (SNF1-) related protein pathway, analogue to the protein kinase (SNF-) yeast-signalling pathway, seems also involved in sugar sensing and transduction in plants. However, even if plants share with yeast some elements involved in sugar sensing, several aspects of sugar perception are likely to be peculiar to higher plants. In this paper, we have reviewed recent evidences how plants sense and respond to environmental factors through sugar-sensing mechanisms. However, we think that forward and reverse genetic analysis in combination with expression profiling must be continued to uncover many signalling components, and a full biochemical characterization of the signalling complexes will be required to determine specificity and cross-talk in abiotic stress signalling pathways. PMID:19816104

Rosa, Mariana; Prado, Carolina; Podazza, Griselda; Interdonato, Roque; González, Juan A; Hilal, Mirna

2009-01-01

8

Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release  

E-print Network

Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release Michael H. Studera,b,1 , Jaclyn D fuels from lignocel- lulosic biomass is a plant's recalcitrance to releasing sugars bound in the cell and guaiacyl units (S/G ratio). This subset was tested for total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis

California at Riverside, University of

9

Seasonal variations in soluble sugars and starch within woody stems of Corms sericea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrate composition changed seasonally in red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) stem tissues. Starch concentration was highest in fall and decreased to a minimum in midwinter. Coincident with the breakdown of starch in fall, there was an increase in the concentrations of soluble sugars. Soluble sugars were present in highest concentrations in midwinter. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose were the

E. N. ASHWORTH; V. E. STIRM; J. J. VOLENEC

10

Seasonal variations in soluble sugars and starch within woody stems of Cornus sericea L.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate composition changed seasonally in red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) stem tissues. Starch concentration was highest in fall and decreased to a minimum in midwinter. Coincident with the breakdown of starch in fall, there was an increase in the concentrations of soluble sugars. Soluble sugars were present in highest concentrations in midwinter. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose were the predominant soluble sugars present in both bark and wood tissues. In early spring, the soluble sugar concentration decreased and the concentration of starch increased. The seasonal interchange between sugars and starch did not simply reflect a general quantitative shift in the balance between sugars and starch because qualitative changes in soluble sugars were also noted. The most striking changes involved the trisaccharide raffinose. Raffinose was barely detectable in summer and early fall, but increased to one fifth and one third of the total soluble sugars in January samples of bark and wood tissues, respectively. The potential physiological role of raffinose in overwintering red osier dogwood tissue is discussed. PMID:14969993

Ashworth, E N; Stirm, V E; Volenec, J J

1993-12-01

11

Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.  

PubMed

Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields. PMID:25169839

K?vrak, ?brahim

2015-03-01

12

Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneous field-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was to quantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R); g 100g**-1 roo...

13

Solubility and Dissolution Enhancement of Etoricoxib by Solid Dispersion Technique Using Sugar Carriers  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to improve solubility and dissolution of the poorly aqueous soluble drug, etoricoxib by solvent evaporation technique using various sugar carriers, such as lactose, sucrose, and mannitol. Etoricoxib solid dispersions and their respective physical mixtures using lactose, sucrose, and mannitol were prepared in different ratios by solvent evaporation technique. The percent yield, drug content, saturation solubility, and in vitro dissolution of etoricoxib solid dispersions and physical mixtures were analyzed. Etoricoxib solid dispersions were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, and DSC analysis. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the possibility of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in various solid dispersions. The XRD and DSC studies indicated the transformation of crystalline etoricoxib (in pure drug) to amorphous etoricoxib (in solid dispersions) by the solid dispersion technology. Both the aqueous solubility and dissolution of etoricoxib were observed in all etoricoxib solid dispersions as compared with pure etoricoxib and their physical mixtures. The in vitro dissolution studies exhibited improved dissolution in case of solid dispersion using lactose than the solid dispersions using both sucrose and mannitol. The in vitro dissolution of etoricoxib from these solid dispersions followed Hixson-Crowell model. PMID:22389861

Das, Abhisekh; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Panda, Satyabrata

2011-01-01

14

Sugar Monomer and Oligomer Solubility 179 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 105108, 2003  

E-print Network

Sugar Monomer and Oligomer Solubility 179 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 105­108, 2003 Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 105­108, 2003 cellulose are essential to achieve this end. Elucidation

California at Riverside, University of

15

Seasonal patterns of reserve and soluble carbohydrates in mature sugar maple (Acer  

E-print Network

Seasonal patterns of reserve and soluble carbohydrates in mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum) B patterns of production, accumulation, and utilization of nonstructural carbohydrates that are closely of both reserve and soluble carbohydrates in the leaves, twigs, branches, and trunks of healthy mature

Constabel, Peter

16

Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and sugar content of selected Thai health beverages.  

PubMed

This study was to determine antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and sugar content of 12 pasteurized and sterilized Thai health beverages, products of The Royal Chitralada Projects. The antioxidant capacities were analyzed using 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and the photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. Folin-Ciocalteu assay and Nelson's reducing sugar test were used to determine total phenolic compounds and sugar contents, respectively. Sacred lotus root drink showed the significantly highest antioxidant capacity in both equivalents to trolox and equivalents to ascorbic acid but not in the PCL test. In contrast, chrysanthemum drink and roselle drink showed the significantly highest values of both the total antioxidant capacity of water and lipid-soluble substances in the PCL assay. Bael fruit drink had the significantly highest total phenolic compounds. There were significant correlations between the total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity values of both assays (r = 0.4-0.5). PMID:17415958

Abdullakasim, Pajaree; Songchitsomboon, Sriwatana; Techagumpuch, Marasri; Balee, Nattaya; Swatsitang, Prasan; Sungpuag, Pongtorn

2007-02-01

17

Determination of Sugar Content in Sugar Solutions using Interdigital Capacitor Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel low-cost electronic tongue system for sugar content determination in sugar solutions is proposed. The system consists of a sine wave generator, a resistor, and an interdigital capacitor sensor forming a first-order electronic high-pass filter circuit. The interdigital capacitor sensor has the planar interdigital structure and the consecutive fingers are connected to positive and negative electrodes. The system has been assembled and the experiments were conducted. The experimental results show that the proposed system has a great potential to determine the sugar content in sugar solutions. It also provides an opportunity for the development of a microcontroller-based low-cost sensing system as an electronic tongue system.

Angkawisittpan, N.; Manasri, T.

2012-01-01

18

Soluble Sugars and Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes Related to Cold Acclimation of Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grafted on Different Rootstocks  

PubMed Central

The bark tissues were collected from 4-year-old sweet cherry trees cvs. 0900 Ziraat and Lambert grafted on Gisela 5 and Mazzard rootstocks in cold-acclimated (CA) and nonacclimated (NA) stages. Bark tissues subjected to 4°C and ?5°C injured to a limited extent in both stages. However, more than 50% injury occurred by temperatures equal to or colder than ?15°C only in NA period. Total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars, and sucrose contents were higher in CA than those in NA stages in all samples. The activities of acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and sucrose synthase (SS) (EC 2.4.2.13) enzymes were higher in NA stage than those in CA stage. Considering the rootstocks, reducing sugars were higher in both cultivars grafted on Gisela 5 whereas sucrose contents were higher in both cultivars grafted on Mazzard. However, the enzyme activities of both cultivars were higher on Mazzard rootstock than on Gisela 5. In conclusion, cold hardiness of sweet cherry graft combinations was suggested by increasing their TSS, reducing sugars, and sucrose contents significantly in the CA stage. Moreover, acid invertase and SS are down regulated during cold acclimation. Indeed the results suggested that Mazzard is more cold-hardy rootstock than Gisela 5. PMID:22629228

Turhan, Ece; Ergin, Sergul

2012-01-01

19

EFFECT OF VARIOUS ABIOTIC STRESSES ON THE GROWTH, SOLUBLE SUGARS AND WATER RELATIONS OF SORGHUM SEEDLINGS GROWN IN LIGHT AND DARKNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The effect of NaCl, PEG, heat and cold treatments on growth, water content, FW, DW and soluble sugar levels in 3 day old seedlings of Sorghum bicolor CSH-6 were studied. Under these stress conditions, RWC and water potential of seedlings decreased dramatically. Subsequently this reduction resulted in the markable decrease in FW of different parts of stress imposed seedlings.

Prabhjot Kaur Gill; Arun Dev Sharma; Prabhjeet Singh; Sukdev Singh Bhullar

2001-01-01

20

Soluble Sugar Concentrations Associated with Tuber and Winter Bud Sprouting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aquatic weeds rely on vegetative structures for surviv- al and propagation, rather than seeds. American pondweed ( Potamogeton nodosus Poiret) winter buds , and hydrilla ( Hydril- la verticillata (L.f.) Royle, monoecious and dioecious types) tubers were allowed to sprout in water in the dark. At two-to- three day intervals individual propagules and dependent shoots were analyzed for soluble

D. F. SPENCER; F. J. RYAN; L. AUNG; G. G. KSANDER

2001-01-01

21

Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.  

PubMed

Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats. PMID:17354417

Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

2005-01-01

22

Simultaneous determination of soluble sugars and organic acids as their trimethylsilyl derivatives in apricot fruits by gas-liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine a reliable procedure for the quantification of organic acids, alcohol soluble sugars and sugar alcohols in fruit fresh by means of a rapid GLC method, without resorting to methoximation of sugars and employing apricot as a model. The use of two internal standards, an accurate derivatization and a proper calibration of the

Francesco Bartolozzi; Gianpaolo Bertazza; Daniele Bassi; Graziella Cristoferi

1997-01-01

23

Enzymatic production of a soluble-fibre hydrolyzate from carrot pomace and its sugar composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the sugar composition of soluble dietary fibre from carrot pomace, a by-product from the carrot juice processing industry. Carrot pomace was treated with a mixture of 1% NaOH and 2% acetic acid, and the pretreated sample was hydrolyzed by edible snails crude enzyme. The supernatant portion was then treated with 85% ethanol and separated

Kyung Young Yoon; Myeonghwa Cha; Seung Ryeul Shin; Kwang Soo Kim

2005-01-01

24

Study on fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt using Vis/NIR spectroscopy techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to measuring the sugar content of yogurt rapidly, a fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt using Vis/NIR-spectroscopy techniques was established. 25 samples selected separately from five different brands of yogurt were measured by Vis/NIR-spectroscopy. The sugar content of yogurt on positions scanned by spectrum were measured by a sugar content meter. The mathematical model between sugar content and Vis/NIR spectral measurements was established and developed based on partial least squares (PLS). The correlation coefficient of sugar content based on PLS model is more than 0.894, and standard error of calibration (SEC) is 0.356, standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.389. Through predicting the sugar content quantitatively of 35 samples of yogurt from 5 different brands, the correlation coefficient between predictive value and measured value of those samples is more than 0.934. The results show the good to excellent prediction performance. The Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique had significantly greater accuracy for determining the sugar content. It was concluded that the Vis/NIRS measurement technique seems reliable to assess the fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt, and a new method for the measurement of sugar content of yogurt was established.

He, Yong; Feng, Shuijuan; Wu, Di; Li, Xiaoli

2006-09-01

25

Concrete images of the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages reduces attraction to and selection of these beverages.  

PubMed

In the present research, we offer a novel method for informing consumers about the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). With a series of experiments, we present evidence that this method curbs preference for SSBs and leads to more negative attitudes toward SSBs. We propose that people view SSBs more negatively and show less preference for SSBs when they are able to concretely visualize the quantity of sugar in SSBs. For example, we suggest that people might have more negative views toward the idea of consuming 28 sugar cubes (concrete information), compared to consuming "70g" of sugar (abstract information). Indeed, we found that, without any intervention, people struggle to convert sugar grams into a concrete, physical sugar representation (Experiment 1). But, when people are provided ways to convert abstract sugar-nutrition information into a concrete representation, they find SSBs less attractive (Experiment 2) and are less likely to select SSBs in favor of sugar-free beverage options (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings offer direct applications to the design of public-health messages and nutrition-education interventions. Such applications might benefit society in its battle with the obesity epidemic. PMID:25108238

Adams, John Milton; Hart, William; Gilmer, Lauren; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Burton, K Alex

2014-12-01

26

Content of starch and sugars and in vitro digestion of starch by alpha-amylase in five minor millets.  

PubMed

Five varieties of minor millets were studied for their amylose, soluble amylose, amylopectin, soluble amylopectin, reducing sugar, total sugar and starch contents. Pure starch was isolated from each variety and the enzymic degradation of starch by porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase were examined with and without gelatinisation. Gelatinised sample of Echinochloa frumentacea (var. K2) showed minimal hydrolysis and gelatinised sample of Panicum miliaceum (var. CO3) showed maximum hydrolysis of starch by porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase. Gelatinised starch was highly susceptible to enzymic digestion when compared to ungelatinised starch. The extent of starch degradation varied from 71 to 85 percent in gelatinised samples and starch degradation in ungelatinised sample varied from 10 to 18 percent. PMID:8882370

Krishnakumari, S; Thayumanavan, B

1995-12-01

27

On-line Fusion of Colour Camera and Spectrophotometer for Sugar Content Prediction of Apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current grading lines for fresh fruit use sensors that measure weight, size, and sometimes colour or firmness. However, none of them measures so far an important organoleptic criteria for the consumer: sugar content. Image analysis can provide colour information on the fruit, while near-infrared spectrophotometric data can be used in order to determine sugar content. Sensor fusion methodology is aimed

V. Steinmetz; J. M. Roger; E. Moltó; J. Blasco

1999-01-01

28

Solubility Behavior of Cyanophycin Depending on Lysine Content  

PubMed Central

Study of the synthesis of cyanophycin (CGP) in recombinant organisms focused for a long time mostly on the insoluble form of CGP, due to its easy purification and its putative use as a precursor for biodegradable chemicals. Recently, another form of CGP, which, in contrast to the insoluble form, was soluble at neutral pH, became interesting due to its high lysine content, which was also assumed to be the reason for the solubility of the polymer. In this study, we demonstrate that lysine incorporated into insoluble CGP affected the solubility of the polymer in relation to its lysine content. Insoluble CGP can be separated along a temperature gradient of 90°C to 30°C, where CGP showed an increasing lysine content corresponding to a decreasing temperature needed for solubilization. CGP with less than 3 to 4 mol% lysine did not become soluble even at 90°C, while CGP with 31 mol% lysine was soluble at 30°C. In lysine fractions at higher than 31 mol%, CGP was soluble. The temperature separation will be suitable for improving the downstream processing of CGP synthesized in large-scale fermentations, including faster and more efficient purification of CGP, as well as enrichment and separation of dipeptides and CGP with specific amino acid compositions. PMID:24271185

Wiefel, Lars

2014-01-01

29

Solubility behavior of cyanophycin depending on lysine content.  

PubMed

Study of the synthesis of cyanophycin (CGP) in recombinant organisms focused for a long time mostly on the insoluble form of CGP, due to its easy purification and its putative use as a precursor for biodegradable chemicals. Recently, another form of CGP, which, in contrast to the insoluble form, was soluble at neutral pH, became interesting due to its high lysine content, which was also assumed to be the reason for the solubility of the polymer. In this study, we demonstrate that lysine incorporated into insoluble CGP affected the solubility of the polymer in relation to its lysine content. Insoluble CGP can be separated along a temperature gradient of 90°C to 30°C, where CGP showed an increasing lysine content corresponding to a decreasing temperature needed for solubilization. CGP with less than 3 to 4 mol% lysine did not become soluble even at 90°C, while CGP with 31 mol% lysine was soluble at 30°C. In lysine fractions at higher than 31 mol%, CGP was soluble. The temperature separation will be suitable for improving the downstream processing of CGP synthesized in large-scale fermentations, including faster and more efficient purification of CGP, as well as enrichment and separation of dipeptides and CGP with specific amino acid compositions. PMID:24271185

Wiefel, Lars; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2014-02-01

30

Efficacy of reducing sugar and phenol-sulfuric acid assays for analysis of soluble carbohydrates in feedstuffs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reducing sugar (RSA) and phenol–sulfuric acid (PSA) assays are commonly used to analyze water-soluble carbohydrates. However, questions have arisen as to their accuracy for measurement of feedstuffs with diverse carbohydrate profiles. This study evaluated the efficacy of RSA and PSA as they would co...

31

The relationship between growth and soluble sugar concentration of Aloe vera plants grown under three levels of irradiance  

SciTech Connect

The CAM plant Aloe vera was vegetatively propagated and grown under three irradiances: full sun, partial and deep shade (30% and 10% of ambient light, respectively) to determine the effect on growth, biomass allocation, and sugar concentration. After one year, the plants were harvested to determine final dry weight and the sugar concentration of the leaf mucilaginous gel. Plants grown under full sun produced twice the total dry weight of those grown under partial shade, with the difference equally partitioned between the shoot and root. Plants grown under full sun also produced thicker leaves, and more numerous and large auxiliary shoots. The dry weight of plants grown under deep shade was 8.6% that of plants grown under full sun, which was directly proportional to the irradiance received. Partial shade increased the number and length of leaves produced on the primary shoot, but the allocation of carbon to roots was the lowest of all treatments. Partial shade reduced the total sugar concentration of the leaf gel matrix to 34% that of plants under full sun, due to reductions in all sugars measured. Glucose was the most abundant soluble sugar, with its relative contribution to the total pool increasing under shade. In summary, the proportional effects of partial shading were greater on soluble sugar concentrations than on the total plant biomass produced.

Paez, A.; Gebre, G.M.; Tschaplinski, T.J. (Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela))

1994-06-01

32

A near infrared spectroscopic assay for stalk soluble sugars, bagasse enzymatic saccharification and wall polymers in sweet sorghum.  

PubMed

In this study, 123 sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) accessions and 50 mutants were examined with diverse stalk soluble sugars, bagasse enzymatic saccharification and wall polymers, indicating the potential near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assay for those three important parameters. Using the calibration and validation sets and modified squares method, nine calibration optimal equations were generated with high determination coefficient on the calibration (R(2)) (0.81-0.99), cross-validation (R(2)cv) (0.77-0.98), and the ratio performance deviation (RPD) (2.07-7.45), which were at first time applied by single spectra for simultaneous assay of stalk soluble sugars, bagasse hydrolyzed sugars, and three major wall polymers in bioenergy sweet sorghum. PMID:25484122

Wu, Leiming; Li, Meng; Huang, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Hui; Zou, Weihua; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Ying; Fan, Chunfen; Zhang, Rui; Jing, Haichun; Peng, Liangcai; Feng, Shengqiu

2015-02-01

33

Total Antioxidant Content of Alternatives to Refined Sugar  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps\\/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave

Katherine M. Phillips; Monica H. Carlsen; Rune Blomhoff

2009-01-01

34

Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

1975-01-01

35

Gas Chromatographic Quantitation of Sugars and Nonvolatile Water-Soluble Organic Acids in Commercial Cheddar Cheese[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatographic method was developed and tested for quantitating sugars as trimethylsilyl derivatives and nonvolatile water-soluble organic acids as methyl esters in extracts from Cheddar cheese. Twelve lots of commercial cheese ranging in age from 5 to 164 days con- tained 72 to 479 mg lactose, 2 to 147 mg galactose, .4 to 11 mg glucose, 1.0 to 1.6

Charlotte D. Harvey; Robert Jenness; H. A. Morris

1981-01-01

36

QTL Analysis in a Complex Autopolyploid: Genetic Control of Sugar Content in Sugarcane  

PubMed Central

QTL mapping in autopolyploids is complicated by the possibility of segregation for three or more alleles at a locus and by a lack of preferential pairing, however the subset of polymorphic alleles that show simplex segregation ratios can be used to locate QTLs. In autopolyploid Saccharum, 36 significant associations between variation in sugar content and unlinked loci detected by 31 different probes were found in two interspecific F1 populations. Most QTL alleles showed phenotypic effects consistent with the parental phenotypes, but occasional transgressive QTLs revealed opportunities to purge unfavorable alleles from cultivars or introgress valuable alleles from exotics. Several QTLs on homologous chromosomes appeared to correspond to one another–multiple doses of favorable ‘alleles’ at such chromosomal region(s) yielded diminishing returns–such negative epistasis may contribute to phenotypic buffering. Fewer sugar content QTLs were discovered from the highest-sugar genotype than from lower-sugar genotypes, perhaps suggesting that many favorable alleles have been fixed by prior selection, i.e. that the genes for which allelic variants (QTLs) persist in improved sugarcanes may be a biased subset of the population of genes controlling sugar content. Comparison of these data to mutations and QTLs previously mapped in maize hinted that seed and biomass crops may share a partly-overlapping basis for genetic variation in carbohydrate deposition. However, many QTLs do not correspond to known candidate genes, suggesting that other approaches will be necessary to isolate the genetic determinants of high sugar content of vegetative tissues. PMID:11731498

Ming, Ray; Liu, Sin-Chieh; Moore, Paul H.; Irvine, James E.; Paterson, Andrew H.

2001-01-01

37

AMINO ACID AND SUGAR CONTENT OF THE NECTAR EXUDATE FROM LIMODORUM ABORTIVUM (ORCHIDACEAE).  

E-print Network

AMINO ACID AND SUGAR CONTENT OF THE NECTAR EXUDATE FROM LIMODORUM ABORTIVUM (ORCHIDACEAE Monle da Caparica, Portugal SUMMARY The amino acid content of nectary exudates from two orchids, L chromatography. Amino acids were analyzed as the corresponding N-heptafluorobutyryl isopropyl esters. For each

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

Comparative material balances around pretreatment technologies for the conversion of switchgrass to soluble sugars  

E-print Network

for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), dilute sulfuric acid (DA), lime, liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). For each world-wide production is derived from starch-based (e.g. corn) or sugar-based materials (e.g. sugar cane

California at Riverside, University of

39

Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectric property sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500MHz at 25°C. Dielectric constants of pure honeys and water-added honey samples decreased monotonically with increasing frequency, and increased with increasing water content.

Wenchuan Guo; Xinhua Zhu; Yi Liu; Hong Zhuang

2010-01-01

40

Carbon content variation in boles of mature sugar maple and giant sequoia.  

PubMed

At present, a carbon (C) content of 50% (w/w) in dry wood is widely accepted as a generic value; however, few wood C measurements have been reported. We used elemental analysis to investigate C content per unit of dry matter and observed that it varied both radially and vertically in boles of two old-growth tree species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Bucholz). In sugar maple there was considerable variation in tree ring widths among four radii for particular annual layers of xylem, revealing that the annual rate of C assimilation differs around the circumference and from the base of each tree to its top, but the observed variation in C content was unrelated to diameter growth rate and strongly related to the calendar year when the wood was formed. Carbon content in sugar maple wood increased in an approximately linear fashion, from < 50 to 51% from pith to cambium, at both the base and top of the boles. In giant sequoia, C was essentially constant at > 55% across many hundreds of years of heartwood, but it declined abruptly at the sapwood-heartwood boundary and remained lower in all sapwood samples, an indication that heartwood formation involves anabolic metabolism. Factors that may be responsible for the different C contents and trends with age between sugar maple and sequoia trees are considered. Tree-ring data from this study do not support some of the key assumptions made by dendrochronology. PMID:16414925

Lamlom, Sabah H; Savidge, Rodney A

2006-04-01

41

Rapid determination of sugar content in biomass hydrolysates using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Large populations of potential cellulosic biomass feedstocks are currently being screened for fuel and chemical applications. The monomeric sugar content, released through hydrolysis, is of particular importance and is currently measured with time-consuming HPLC methods. A method for sugar detection is presented here that employs (1)H NMR spectra regressed against primary HPLC sugar concentration data to build partial least squares (PLS) models. The PLS2 model is able to predict concentrations of both major sugar components, like glucose and xylose, and minor sugars, such as arabinose and mannose, in biomass hydrolysates. The model was built with 65 samples from a variety of different biomass species and covers a wide range of sugar concentrations. Model predictions were validated with a set of 15 samples which were all within error of both HPLC and NMR integration measurements. The data collection time for these NMR measurements is less than 20 min, offering a significant improvement to the 1 h acquisition time that is required for HPLC. PMID:23042514

Gjersing, Erica; Happs, Renee M; Sykes, Robert W; Doeppke, Crissa; Davis, Mark F

2013-03-01

42

Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectrc property sensing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500 MHz at 25oC. Dielectric constants of pure honeys ...

43

Determination of sucrose content in sugar beet by portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The feasibility of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for measurement of the sucrose content of sugar beet was investigated with two portable spectrometers that cover the spectral regions of 400-1,100 nm and 900-1,600 nm, respectively. Spectra in interactance mode were collected first from 398 i...

44

In vitro hydrolytic digestion, glycemic response in dogs, and true metabolizable energy content of soluble corn fibers.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to measure in vitro hydrolytic digestion, glycemic and insulinemic responses in dogs, and true ME (TMEn) content of select soluble corn fibers (SCF) in roosters. The first generation (G1) SCF included hydrochloric acid-treated corn syrup (G1-CS-HCl), an SCF with an increased total dietary fiber (TDF) content (G1-SCF-HCl), an SCF that was spray-dried (G1-SCF-SD), and a hydrogenated SCF (G1-SCF-hydrog). The second generation (G2) SCF included those prepared using phosphoric acid catalyzation in both a liquid [G2-SCF-phos (Lq)] and powder [G2-SCF-phos (Pw)] form, and SCF that were prepared using hydrochloric acid catalyzation in both a liquid [G2-SCF-HCl (Lq)] and powder [G2-SCF-HCl (Pw)] form. Also, in the G2 set of samples were SCF prepared using the same method, but in 3 separate batches, all of which contained 70% TDF and 15% sugars. Two were in liquid form [G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Lq1)] and [G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Lq2)], and one in powder form ([G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Pw)]. A lower sugar form (80% TDF and 5% sugar) of SCF was also evaluated (G2-SCF-low sugar). Glucose was the major free sugar and bound monosaccharide in all SCF except for G1-SCF-hydrog that had greater concentrations of sorbitol. All SCF had intermediate to low amounts of monosaccharides released as a result of in vitro hydrolytic digestion, with glucose being the primary sugar component released. The G1-SCF were more digestible in vitro (approximately 50%) compared to G2-SCF (approximately 32%). All SCF had attenuated glycemic responses in adult dogs compared to a maltodextrin control (P < 0.05). The G2-SCF, on average, had lower glycemic responses and TMEn values in roosters than G1-SCF. All SCF had low free sugar concentrations with varying degrees of resistance to digestion, reduced caloric content, and attenuated glycemic and insulinemic responses in adult dogs. These ingredients are potential candidates for inclusion in reduced calorie and low glycemic canine diets. PMID:24867932

de Godoy, M R C; Knapp, B K; Parsons, C M; Swanson, K S; Fahey, George C

2014-06-01

45

Antisense-inhibition of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Vicia narbonensis seeds increases soluble sugars and leads to higher water and nitrogen uptake.  

PubMed

We previously reported on Vicia narbonensis seeds with largely decreased alpha- D-glucose-1-phosphate adenyltransferase (AGP; EC 2.7.7.27) due to antisense inhibition [H. Weber et al. (2000) Plant J 24:33-43]. In an extended biochemical analysis we show here that in transgenic seeds both AGP activity and ADP-glucose levels were strongly decreased but starch was only moderately reduced and contained less amylose. The flux control coefficient of AGP to starch accumulation was as low as 0.08, i.e. AGP exerts low control on starch biosynthesis in Vicia seeds. Mature cotyledons of antisense seeds had increased contents of lipids, nitrogen and sulfur. The protein content was higher due, in particular, to increased sulfur-rich albumins. Globulin fractions of storage proteins had a lower ratio of legumin to vicilin. Isolated cotyledons partitioned less [14C]sucrose into starch and more into soluble sugars with no change in the protein fraction. Respiration of isolated cotyledons and activities of the major glycolytic and carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes were not affected. Sucrose and the hexose-phosphate pool were increased but UDP-glucose, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, phospho enolpyruvate, pyruvate, ATP and ADP were unchanged or even lower, indicating that carbon partitioning changed from starch to sucrose without affecting the glycolytic and respiratory pathways. Soluble compounds were increased but osmolality remained unchanged, indicating compensatory water influx resulting in higher water contents. Developmental patterns of water and nitrogen accumulation suggest a coupled uptake of amino acids and water into cotyledons. We conclude that, due to higher water uptake, transgenic cotyledons take up more amino acids, which become available for protein biosynthesis leading to a higher protein content. Obviously, a substantial part of amino acid uptake into Vicia seeds occurs passively and is osmotically controlled and driven by water influx. PMID:11941473

Rolletschek, Hardy; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Wobus, Ulrich; Weber, Hans

2002-04-01

46

Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ? 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:25308651

Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

2015-03-15

47

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic, organic acid and sugar content in commercial pomegranate juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate fruit and pomegranate juices (PJs) have taken great attention for their health benefits in the last years. The purpose of this study is to analyse the antioxidant activities, along with the organic acid and sugar contents of pomegranate juices sold in the Turkish markets. In the present study, we evaluated total phenolics (TPs), free radical scavenging capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

Filiz Tezcan; Mine Gültekin-Özgüven; Tu?ba Diken; Beraat Özçelik; F. Bedia Erim

2009-01-01

48

Inheritance of sugar concentration in stalk (brix), sucrose content, stalk and juice yield in sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet sorghum is gaining importance as a raw material for ethanol production. Information on genetics of sugar content in stalk is required to facilitate the breeding of cultivars with high ethanol yield. Generation mean analysis and frequency distribution studies were carried out in crosses 27 B × kellar, and 27 B × BJ 204 for sweet stalk during 2006 and 2007. Kellar (a US sweet sorghum

S. Audilakshmi; A. K. Mall; M. Swarnalatha; N. Seetharama

2010-01-01

49

The relationship between the use of sugar content information on nutrition labels and the consumption of added sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased consumption of added sugars in the US diet has led to calls for renewed public nutrition efforts including more detailed nutrition labels. This study models the effectiveness of the current nutrition label as a means of reducing the proportion of calories from added sugars in diets among respondents to the 1994–96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Results

D. Weaver; M. Finke

2003-01-01

50

Changes in soluble sugars in relation to desiccation tolerance and effects of dehydration on freezing characteristics of Acer platanoides and Acer pseudoplatanus seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of soluble sugars in desiccation tolerance was investigated in seeds of two species from the genus Acer: Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) — tolerant and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) — intolerant to dehydration. During two years of observations it was found that seeds of Norway maple acquire desiccation\\u000a tolerance at the end of August i.e. about 125 days

S. Pukacka; P. M. Pukacki

1997-01-01

51

Radar backscattering sensitivity to soil moisture content of sugar beet fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of soil moisture retrieval from radar backscatter data in sugar beet fields. The analysis is based on a simulation study using two models capable of computing electromagnetic backscattering from a vegetated surface, viz. the model developed by Karam et al. and the model developed by Lang. First, we validate the models based on data from the AGRISCATT'88 field campaign, held in Flevoland, The Netherlands. The data collected during this campaign allows us to test the model predictions under different soil surface and canopy conditions and for different radar configurations. In general, both models are capable of mimicking the change in backscattering due changes in radar configuration and surface- vegetation characteristics. Next, both models are subjected to a sensitivity analysis with respect to different surface and canopy parameters. Based on this sensitivity analysis it is concluded that estimates of surface soil moisture content under a medium sugar beet cover (15 cm high crop) from L-band radar observations is only possible within 10% accuracy. For a fully developed sugar beet field (50 cm high crop), soil moisture retrieval is not possible.

Schoups, Gerrit; Troch, Peter A.; Verhoest, Niko

1997-12-01

52

Seasonal Variations in Sugar Contents and Microbial Community Behavior in a Ryegrass Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil is a complex mixture of numerous inorganic and organic constituents that vary in size, shape, chemical constitution and reactivity, and hosts numerous organisms. Total sugars have been estimated to constitute 10% (average) of soil organic matter, occurring in living and decaying organisms, as well as in extracellular materials. The role of sugars in soils is attributed to their influence on soil structure, chemical processes, plant nutrition and microbial activity. The sources of sugars in soils are: a) plants (the primary source); b) animals (the minor source), and c) microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, algae), which decompose the primary plant and animal material, and synthesize the major part of soil carbohydrates. A particular soil sample provides a momentary glimpse into a dynamic system (continuous addition, degradation and synthesis) that might, except for seasonal variations, be in equilibrium. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the major sugars in a grass soil and characterize the relationship between their concentration variations and soil microbial behavior over an annual cycle. Soil samples were collected monthly in a ryegrass field close to Corvallis, Oregon, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as total silylated extracts for sugar composition, and by gas chromatography-flame ionization as fatty acid methyl esters derived from phospholipids and neutral lipids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively). The preliminary results of the first six-month experiment (from January to June, 2004) show that as the ambient temperatures increase the sugar concentrations (glucose, fructose, sucrose and trehalose) also tend to increase in the soil. A decrease is observed in March when precipitation was low during the whole month. The same trend is observed for the active biomass of fungi and bacteria estimated by their fatty acids derived from phospholipids. Fatty acids 18:2? 6c and 18:3? 6c are used as fungal biomarkers. Branched (15:0i, 15:0a, 16:0i) and monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1? 7c) are used as biomarkers for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. The contents of 18:2? 6c and 18:3? 6c from neutral lipids, which are used as an index of fungal storage, have a significant increase in June, similarly to the disaccharide trehalose. This increase in fungal lipid storage may have occurred in response to the large input of detrital carbon into the soil from cutting the grass early in that month.

Medeiros, P. M.; Fernandes, M. F.; Dick, R. P.; Simoneit, B. R.

2004-12-01

53

Sugar Sugar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the required amount of sugar to pour into a mug or mugs. The game has 30 stages of increasing complexity.

Bart Bonte

2012-01-01

54

Deconstruction of Lignocellulose into Soluble Sugars by Native and Designer Cellulosomes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Lignocellulosic biomass, the most abundant polymer on Earth, is typically composed of three major constituents: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The crystallinity of cellulose, hydrophobicity of lignin, and encapsulation of cellulose by the lignin-hemicellulose matrix are three major factors that contribute to the observed recalcitrance of lignocellulose. By means of designer cellulosome technology, we can overcome the recalcitrant properties of lignocellulosic substrates and thus increase the level of native enzymatic degradation. In this context, we have integrated six dockerin-bearing cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, into a chimeric scaffoldin engineered to bear a cellulose-binding module and the appropriate matching cohesin modules. The resultant hexavalent designer cellulosome represents the most elaborate artificial enzyme composite yet constructed, and the fully functional complex achieved enhanced levels (up to 1.6-fold) of degradation of untreated wheat straw compared to those of the wild-type free enzymes. The action of these designer cellulosomes on wheat straw was 33 to 42% as efficient as the natural cellulosomes of Clostridium thermocellum. In contrast, the reduction of substrate complexity by chemical or biological pretreatment of the substrate removed the advantage of the designer cellulosomes, as the free enzymes displayed higher levels of activity, indicating that enzyme proximity between these selected enzymes was less significant on pretreated substrates. Pretreatment of the substrate caused an increase in activity for all the systems, and the native cellulosome completely converted the substrate into soluble saccharides. PMID:23232718

Moraïs, Sarah; Morag, Ely; Barak, Yoav; Goldman, Dan; Hadar, Yitzhak; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Wilson, David B.; Bayer, Edward A.

2012-01-01

55

Rapid analysis of sugar content of intact orange fruit using ultraviolet and visible transmittance techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar content (SC) is very important factors of navel orange internal quality and can be measured non-destructive by visible and near infrared spectroscopy. The feasibility of visible and near infrared spectroscopy for nondestructively measuring SC of navel orange fresh juices was investigated by means of spectral transmittance technique. A total 55 juice samples were used to develop the calibration and prediction models. Three different kinds of mathematical treatments (original, first derivative and second derivative) of spectra in the range of 400-800 nm were discussed and two kinds of reference standards were used. Different spectra correction algorithms (constant, multiplicative signal correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) were compared. Three kinds of calibration models including partial least square (PLS) regression, stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principle component regression (PCR) were evaluated for the determination of SC in navel orange juice. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of validation set of samples. The correlation coefficients of calibration models for SC was 0.97, the correlation coefficients of prediction models for SC was 0.86, and the corresponding RMSEP was 0.56. The results show that visible near infrared transmittance technique is a feasible method for non-destructive measurement of sugar content of fruit juice.

Liu, Yande; Wen, Jianping; Ouyang, Aiguo; Ying, Yibin

2006-10-01

56

Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigate what makes something soluble by exploring the effects of intermolecular attractions and what properties are necessary in a solution to overcome them. Interactive models simulate the process of dissolution, allowing you to experiment with how external factors, such as heat, can affect a substance's solubility.

2012-07-19

57

Raising the Sugar Content - Orchid Bees Overcome the Constraints of Suction Feeding through Manipulation of Nectar and Pollen Provisions.  

PubMed

Unlike most other bees, the long-tongued orchid bees ingest nectar using suction feeding. Although long tongues allow exploitation of flowers with deep spurs, the energy intake rate is optimal at 10-20% lower nectar sugar concentrations compared to that of lapping bees. This constraint might be compensated by a higher digestive throughput. Additionally, orchid bees might evaporate water from regurgitated droplets of crop contents. We found male Euglossa championi (n?=?10) and Euglossa dodsoni (n?=?12) to regularly regurgitate droplets of crop content to the base of their proboscis, generating a fluid film between the proximal parts of the galeae, glossa and labial palps. Rhythmic movements of the proboscis may help to increase convection. There was a significant change in sugar concentration between the initially imbibed solution and the resulting crop content (P<0.05) and the time individual bees had engaged in this liquid exposure behavior was positively correlated with the resulting crop sugar concentration. Female Euglossa townsendi and Euglossa viridissima showed the same behavior. Additionally, they manipulated their nectar-enriched pollen provisions for extensive periods of time before deposition in brood cells. The deposited pollen loads (n?=?14) showed a significantly higher sugar concentration than the sugar-water available to the bees (P<0.001). Thus, both male and female euglossines show behaviors that promote evaporative water loss from nectar. We suggest that the behaviors have evolved in concert with suction feeding on dilute nectar from deep floral tubes. PMID:25422945

Pokorny, Tamara; Lunau, Klaus; Eltz, Thomas

2014-01-01

58

Raising the Sugar Content – Orchid Bees Overcome the Constraints of Suction Feeding through Manipulation of Nectar and Pollen Provisions  

PubMed Central

Unlike most other bees, the long-tongued orchid bees ingest nectar using suction feeding. Although long tongues allow exploitation of flowers with deep spurs, the energy intake rate is optimal at 10–20% lower nectar sugar concentrations compared to that of lapping bees. This constraint might be compensated by a higher digestive throughput. Additionally, orchid bees might evaporate water from regurgitated droplets of crop contents. We found male Euglossa championi (n?=?10) and Euglossa dodsoni (n?=?12) to regularly regurgitate droplets of crop content to the base of their proboscis, generating a fluid film between the proximal parts of the galeae, glossa and labial palps. Rhythmic movements of the proboscis may help to increase convection. There was a significant change in sugar concentration between the initially imbibed solution and the resulting crop content (P<0.05) and the time individual bees had engaged in this liquid exposure behavior was positively correlated with the resulting crop sugar concentration. Female Euglossa townsendi and Euglossa viridissima showed the same behavior. Additionally, they manipulated their nectar-enriched pollen provisions for extensive periods of time before deposition in brood cells. The deposited pollen loads (n?=?14) showed a significantly higher sugar concentration than the sugar-water available to the bees (P<0.001). Thus, both male and female euglossines show behaviors that promote evaporative water loss from nectar. We suggest that the behaviors have evolved in concert with suction feeding on dilute nectar from deep floral tubes. PMID:25422945

Pokorny, Tamara; Lunau, Klaus; Eltz, Thomas

2014-01-01

59

Use of self-diffusion spin-echo magnetic resonance for non-destructive measurement of soluble solids content of fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive sorting of ripeness of fruits and vegetables could save the US approximately $1.4\\\\times10\\\\sp{13}$ BTU of invested energy each year. Sugar content is a good indicator of ripeness for most fruits and vegetables. Self-diffusion of water molecules in sugar solution decreases dramatically as sugar content increases. For purposes of this research, sugar content was assumed to be equivalent to or

Wing-Kin Wai

1993-01-01

60

Development and in house validation of a new thermogravimetric method for water content analysis in soft brown sugar.  

PubMed

Recently the use of brown sugar has increased due to its nutritional characteristics, thus requiring a more rigid quality control. The development of a method for water content analysis in soft brown sugar is carried out for the first time by TG/DTA with application of different statistical tests. The results of the optimization study suggest that heating rates of 5°Cmin(-1) and an alumina sample holder improve the efficiency of the drying process. The validation study showed that thermo gravimetry presents good accuracy and precision for water content analysis in soft brown sugar samples. This technique offers advantages over other analytical methods as it does not use toxic and costly reagents or solvents, it does not need any sample preparation, and it allows the identification of the temperature at which water is completely eliminated in relation to other volatile degradation products. This is an important advantage over the official method (loss on drying). PMID:25660872

Ducat, Giseli; Felsner, Maria L; da Costa Neto, Pedro R; Quináia, Sueli P

2015-06-15

61

Climate-Induced Changes in Grapevine Yield and Must Sugar Content in Franconia (Germany) between 1805 and 2010  

PubMed Central

When attempting to estimate the impacts of future climate change it is important to reflect on information gathered during the past. Understanding historical trends may also aid in the assessment of likely future agricultural and horticultural changes. The timing of agricultural activities, such as grape harvest dates, is known to be influenced by climate and weather. However, fewer studies have been carried out on grapevine yield and quality. In this paper an analysis is undertaken of long-term data from the period 1805–2010 on grapevine yield (hl/ha) and must sugar content (°Oe) and their relation to temperature. Monthly mean temperatures were obtained for the same time period. Multiple regression was used to relate the viticulture variables to temperature, and long-term trends were calculated. Overall, the observed trends over time are compatible with results from other long term studies. The findings confirm a relationship between yield, must sugar content and temperature data; increased temperatures were associated with higher yields and higher must sugar content. However, the potential increase in yield is currently limited by legislation, while must sugar content is likely to further increase with rising temperatures. PMID:23894395

Bock, Anna; Sparks, Tim H.; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

2013-01-01

62

Disruption of Amyloid Plaques Integrity Affects the Soluble Oligomers Content from Alzheimer Disease Brains  

PubMed Central

The implication of soluble Abeta in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology is currently accepted. In fact, the content of soluble extracellular Abeta species, such as monomeric and/or oligomeric Abeta, seems to correlate with the clinico-pathological dysfunction observed in AD patients. However, the nature (monomeric, dimeric or other oligomers), the relative abundance, and the origin (extra-/intraneuronal or plaque-associated), of these soluble species are actually under debate. In this work we have characterized the soluble (defined as soluble in Tris-buffered saline after ultracentrifugation) Abeta, obtained from hippocampal samples of Braak II, Braak III–IV and Braak V–VI patients. Although the content of both Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptides displayed significant increase with pathology progression, our results demonstrated the presence of low, pg/µg protein, amount of both peptides. This low content could explain the absence (or below detection limits) of soluble Abeta peptides detected by western blots or by immunoprecipitation-western blot analysis. These data were in clear contrast to those published recently by different groups. Aiming to explain the reasons that determine these substantial differences, we also investigated whether the initial homogenization could mobilize Abeta from plaques, using 12-month-old PS1xAPP cortical samples. Our data demonstrated that manual homogenization (using Dounce) preserved the integrity of Abeta plaques whereas strong homogenization procedures (such as sonication) produced a vast redistribution of the Abeta species in all soluble and insoluble fractions. This artifact could explain the dissimilar and somehow controversial data between different groups analyzing human AD samples. PMID:25485545

Moyano, Javier; Sanchez-Mico, María; Torres, Manuel; Davila, Jose Carlos; Vizuete, Marisa; Gutierrez, Antonia; Vitorica, Javier

2014-01-01

63

Analysis of Hyperspectral Scattering Characteristics for Predicting Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spectral scattering is useful for assessing the firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) of apples because it provides an effective means for characterizing light scattering in the fruit. This research compared three methods for quantifying the spectral scattering profiles acquired from ‘Golden Del...

64

Multi-sensor Data Fusion for Improved Prediction of Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several nondestructive technologies have been developed for assessing the firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) of apples. Each of these technologies has its merits and limitations in predicting these quality parameters. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion, different sensors would work ...

65

Comparison and fusion of four nondestructive sensors for predicting apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four nondestructive technologies (i.e., acoustic firmness, bioyield firmness, visible/near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and spectral scattering) have been developed in recent years for assessing the firmness and/or soluble solids content (SSC) of apples. Each of these technologies has its merits and...

66

Optimal Wavelengths Selection for Hyperspectral Scattering Prediction of Apple Firmness and Soluble Solids Content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hyperspectral scattering is a promising technique for nondestructive quality measurement of apple fruit, and extraction of the most useful information from the hyperspectral scattering data is critical to accurate assessment of fruit firmness and soluble solids content (SSC). A hierarchical evolutio...

67

Comparing density and NIR methods for measurement of Kiwifruit dry matter and soluble solids content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density and near infrared (NIR) predictions of dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC) have been made on kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Fergusion var. Hayward). The data set consisted of 360 kiwifruit harvested unripe, late in the commercial harvest period, from four orchards and examined either immediately or after ripening. Density measurements were made

V. Andrew McGlone; Robert B Jordan; Richard Seelye; Paul J Martinsen

2002-01-01

68

Doubled sugar content in sugarcane plants modified to produce a sucrose isomer.  

PubMed

Sucrose is the feedstock for more than half of the world's fuel ethanol production and a major human food. It is harvested primarily from sugarcane and beet. Despite attempts through conventional and molecular breeding, the stored sugar concentration in elite sugarcane cultivars has not been increased for several decades. Recently, genes have been cloned for bacterial isomerase enzymes that convert sucrose into sugars which are not metabolized by plants, but which are digested by humans, with health benefits over sucrose. We hypothesized that an appropriate sucrose isomerase (SI) expression pattern might simultaneously provide a valuable source of beneficial sugars and overcome the sugar yield ceiling in plants. The introduction of an SI gene tailored for vacuolar compartmentation resulted in sugarcane lines with remarkable increases in total stored sugar levels. The high-value sugar isomaltulose was accumulated in storage tissues without any decrease in stored sucrose concentration, resulting in up to doubled total sugar concentrations in harvested juice. The lines with enhanced sugar accumulation also showed increased photosynthesis, sucrose transport and sink strength. This remarkable step above the former ceiling in stored sugar concentration provides a new perspective into plant source-sink relationships, and has substantial potential for enhanced food and biofuel production. PMID:17207261

Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

2007-01-01

69

Suspicious minds: perceived vitamin content of ordinary and diet foods with added fat, sugar or salt.  

PubMed

Male and female dieters and non-dieters (mean age 18.5 years) rated the vitamin levels of ordinary foods (e.g. 'sliced fresh peaches') and counterparts with added fat, sugar or salt (e.g. 'sliced fresh peaches with sugar'). Unlike previous studies, in addition diet foods ('sugar-free ice cream') were compared to their ordinary fat- and/or sugar-rich counterparts ('ice cream'). Some respondents believed diet products to be lower in vitamins, particularly when the corresponding ordinary food was considered to be wholesome (e.g. milk or muffins). PMID:15262023

Oakes, Michael E

2004-08-01

70

Lysine and Arginine Content of Proteins: Computational Analysis Suggests a New Tool for Solubility Design  

PubMed Central

Prediction and engineering of protein solubility is an important but imprecise area. While some features are routinely used, such as the avoidance of extensive non-polar surface area, scope remains for benchmarking of sequence and structural features with experimental data. We study properties in the context of experimental solubilities, protein gene expression levels, and families of abundant proteins (serum albumin and myoglobin) and their less abundant paralogues. A common feature that emerges for proteins with elevated solubility and at higher expression and abundance levels is an increased ratio of lysine content to arginine content. We suggest that the same properties of arginine that give rise to its recorded propensity for specific interaction surfaces also lead to favorable interactions at nonspecific contacts, and thus lysine is favored for proteins at relatively high concentration. A survey of protein therapeutics shows that a significant subset possesses a relatively low lysine to arginine ratio, and therefore may not be favored for high protein concentration. We conclude that modulation of lysine and arginine content could prove a useful and relatively simple addition to the toolkit available for engineering protein solubility in biotechnological applications. PMID:24283752

2013-01-01

71

[Simplification of NIR model for citrus's sugar content based on sensory methods].  

PubMed

The prediction of sugar content (SC) in citrus by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and sensory test was investigated the validation whether the result of non-destructive determination methods by NIRS can meet the request of consumers' sensory or not, and the simplification of the prediction model of NIRS for citrus's SC with variables selection on the basis of meeting their demands. Result of the latter analyzed by one-way ANOVA shows that there was a significant difference influenced by individual diversity, but not by gender. After excluding the sensuous outliers, root mean standard error of deviation (RMSED) of every participator was calculated and the minimum equaled to 0.633, which was chosen as borderline of NIR model's RMSEP to meet the sensory request Then, combined with spectral preprocessing and variables selection methods, SPA-MLR model was obtained by its robustness with Rp = 0.86, as well as RMSEP = 0.567 for prediction set, furthermore, prediction time just costs 6.8 ms. The achievement that not only meets the customers' sensory, but also simplifies the prediction model can be a good reference for real time application in future. PMID:24369637

Yuan, Lei-ming; Sun, Li; Lin, Hao; Han, En; Liu, Hai-ling; Cai, Jian-rong

2013-09-01

72

Sugar content of xylem sap and susceptibility of willow to Chondrostereum purpureum  

Microsoft Academic Search

There was seasonal variation in the sugar concentration in xylem sap extracted from Salix fragilis at monthly intervals. Sucrose was the predominant sugar and showed the greatest variation in concentration over the study period. The dry weight of fungal mycelium obtained from growth in sap extracted at monthly intervals was significantly correlated with sucrose concentration. Growth of the fungus in

Sandra D. Stanislawek; P. G. Long; L. K. Davis

1987-01-01

73

Nondestructive measurement of firmness and soluble solids content for apple fruit using hyperspectral scattering images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive sensing is critical to assuring postharvest quality of apple fruit and consumer acceptance and satisfaction.\\u000a The objective of this research was to use a hyperspectral scattering technique to acquire spectral scattering images from\\u000a apple fruit and develop a data analysis method relating hyperspectral scattering characteristics to fruit firmness and soluble\\u000a solids content (SSC). Hyperspectral scattering images were obtained from

Renfu Lu

2007-01-01

74

Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis\\/NIR diffuse transmittance technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for\\u000a assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means\\u000a of visible\\/near infrared (Vis\\/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis\\/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were\\u000a acquired using a low-cost commercially available

Hai-qing Tian; Yi-bin Ying; Hui-shan Lu; Xia-ping Fu; Hai-yan Yu

2007-01-01

75

Drying Characteristics and Lysine Content of Wheat Distiller's Grain with Solubles under Three Drying Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drying characteristics and lysine content of wheat distiller's grain with solubles were studied under three methods: forced air drying, microwave drying, and microwave–convective drying. For forced air drying, temperature was set at five levels (40, 60, 80, 100, and 120°C), maintaining air velocity and relative humidity at 0.7–0.8 m\\/s and less than 8%, respectively. Four power levels (40, 60, 80,

M. R. Mosqueda; L. G. Tabil

2011-01-01

76

Effects of sugar, protein and water content on wheat starch gelatinization due to microwave heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the interactions between sugar, starch, protein and water, which are the main components of a baked product,\\u000a will advance the development of high quality, microwaveable products. This paper presents a mathematical model describing\\u000a the quantitative relationships between water, sugar and protein on the gelatinization of wheat starch following 20?s of microwave\\u000a heat as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Addition

G. ?umnu; M. K. Ndife; L. Bay?nd?rl?

1999-01-01

77

Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.  

PubMed

Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding. PMID:25442527

Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong

2015-04-01

78

Content and vacuole extravacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids, and anthocyanin in protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutral sugar, free amino acid, and anthocyanin levels and vacuole\\/extravacuole distribution were determined for Hippeastrum and Tulipa petal and Tulipa leaf protoplasts. Glucose and fructose, the predominant neutral monosaccharides observed, were primarily vacuolar in location. Glutamine, the predominant free amino acid found, was primarily extravacuolar. ..gamma..-methyleneglutamate was identified as a major constituent of Tulipa protoplasts. Qualitative characterization of Hippeastrum petal

G. J. Wagner

1979-01-01

79

Phenolic composition, sugar contents and antioxidant activity of Tunisian sweet olive cultivar with regard to fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Dhokar olive cultivar growing in the south of Tunisia is an unusual olive tree which is characterized by the sweet taste of its fruit. We were particularly interested in the phenolic compounds of this cultivar in comparison to Chemlali cv. During the different maturation stages of olive fruits, the phenolic composition, sugar content, antioxidant activity and enzymatic change were examined. The phenolic composition was studied by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by LC-MS and GC-MS analysis. Oleuropein, the major olive fruit biophenolic compound, decreased significantly during all the ripeness stages, and its level decreased from 3.29 g/kg fresh olive (July) to 0.16 g/kg (October) in Dhokar cv. and from 5.7 g/kg (July) to 3.75 g/kg (October) in Chemlali cv. This decrease inversely correlated with hydroxytyrosol concentrations until September. DPPH and ABTS assays show that the more important antioxidant capacity of olive extracts was found at the last stage of maturation. beta-Glucosidase and esterase activities were evaluated during the ripening stage. The data obtained during the ripening indicate that polyphenol content and composition, in particular the oleuropein concentration, were in correlation with the measured enzymatic activities. Glucosidase and esterase showed their maximum values in September reaching 179.75 and 39.03 U/g of olive pulp, respectively. In addition, sugar content was quantified using colorimetric and chromatographic methods and was compared to its concentration in Chemlali olive fruit cultivar. Glucose and mannitol were the main sugars; they reached their highest level at the last stage of ripening: 8.3 and 79.8 g/kg respectively. PMID:19334763

Jemai, Hedya; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami

2009-04-01

80

Comparison of sugar content for ionic liquid pretreated Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues  

PubMed Central

Background The development of affordable woody biomass feedstocks represents a significant opportunity in the development of cellulosic biofuels. Primary woodchips produced by forest mills are considered an ideal feedstock, but the prices they command on the market are currently too expensive for biorefineries. In comparison, forestry residues represent a potential low-cost input but are considered a more challenging feedstock for sugar production due to complexities in composition and potential contamination arising from soil that may be present. We compare the sugar yields, changes in composition in Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues after pretreatment using ionic liquids and enzymatic saccharification in order to determine if this approach can efficiently liberate fermentable sugars. Results These samples were either mechanically milled through a 2 mm mesh or pretreated as received with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2mim][OAc] at 120°C and 160°C. IL pretreatment of Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues resulted in approximately 71-92% glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the pretreated cellulose was less crystalline after IL pretreatment as compared to untreated control samples. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) revealed changes in lignin and hemicellulose structure and composition as a function of pretreatment. Mass balances of sugar and lignin streams for both the Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues throughout the pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification processes are presented. Conclusions While the highest sugar yields were observed with the Douglas-fir woodchips, reasonably high sugar yields were obtained from forestry residues after ionic liquid pretreatment. Structural changes to lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose in the woodchips and forestry residues of Douglas-fir after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment are analyzed by XRD and 2D-NMR, and indicate that significant changes occurred. Irrespective of the particle sizes used in this study, ionic liquid pretreatment successfully allowed high glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. These results indicate that forestry residues may be a more viable feedstock than previously thought for the production of biofuels. PMID:23635001

2013-01-01

81

A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income new york city supermarkets.  

PubMed

Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase. PMID:25168992

Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

2014-09-01

82

Use of Vis/NIRS for the determination of sugar content of cola soft drinks based on chemometric methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different chemometric methods were performed for the determination of sugar content of cola soft drinks using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS). Four varieties of colas were prepared and 180 samples (45 samples for each variety) were selected for the calibration set, while 60 samples (15 samples for each variety) for the validation set. The smoothing way of Savitzky-Golay, standard normal variate (SNV) and Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation were applied for the pre-processing of spectral data. The first eleven principal components (PCs) extracted by partial least squares (PLS) analysis were employed as the inputs of BP neural network (BPNN) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model. Then the BPNN model with the optimal structural parameters and LS-SVM model with radial basis function (RBF) kernel were applied to build the regression model with a comparison of PLS regression. The correlation coefficient (r), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias for prediction were 0.971, 1.259 and -0.335 for PLS, 0.986, 0.763, and -0.042 for BPNN, while 0.978, 0.995 and -0.227 for LS-SVM, respectively. All the three methods supplied a high and satisfying precision. The results indicated that Vis/NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods could be utilized as a high precision way for the determination of sugar content of cola soft drinks.

Liu, Fei; He, Yong

2008-03-01

83

Changes in soluble sugar, starch, and alcohol dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to N2 diluted atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proper exchange of atmospheric gases is important for normal root and shoot metabolism in plants. This study was conducted to determine how restricted air supply affects foliar carbohydrates, while using the marker enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) to report on the oxygenation status of the rootzone. Fourteen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants grown singly in 7-ml tubes containing agarified nutrient medium were placed in coupled Magenta vessels and exposed for six days to either ambient air or one of six different air/nitrogen dilutions. Redox potential of the agar medium was measured immediately after harvesting and freezing leaf tissue, and then root systems were quickly extracted from the agar and frozen for subsequent analyses. Redox potential measurements indicated that this series of gas mixtures produced a transition from hypoxia to anoxia in the root zones. Root ADH activity increased at higher rates as the redox potential neared anoxic levels. In contrast, ADH mRNA expression quickly neared its maximum as the medium became hypoxic and showed little further increase as it became anoxic. Foliar carbohydrate levels increased 1.5- to 2-fold with decreased availability of metabolic gases, with starch increasing at higher concentrations of air than soluble carbohydrate. The results serve as a model for plant performance under microgravity conditions, where absence of convective air movement prevents replenishment of metabolic gases.

Porterfield, D. M.; Crispi, M. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

1997-01-01

84

Changes in ratio of soluble sugars and free amino nitrogen in the apical meristem during floral transition of tobacco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a modification of the nutrient diversion hypothesis, we propose that an inequality in carbohydrate and nitrogen translocation to the apical meristem may be a controlling factor in floral transition. Experiments were conducted in controlled-environment chambers to determine the associations between microscopic characteristics of the transition from vegetative to floral stages of the apical meristem of flue-cured tobacco and to assimilate concentrations in the plant and apical meristem. Low temperature, nitrogen withdrawal, and restriction of nitrogen uptake were used as treatment variables. In all of these stress treatments, flowering occurred at a lesser number of leaves than in control treatments. Low temperature stress accelerated the time of transition to the floral stage as compared with a high temperature control; however, nitrogen stress did not accelerate the time of transition. All stress treatments affected the levels of nitrogen and carbohydrate in whole plants. Most notable was an increase in the percentage of starch and a decrease in the percentage of total soluble carbohydrate induced by the stress treatments. These data indicate that tobacco plants under stress accumulate excess carbohydrate in the form of starch. An apparent inequality in the relative concentrations of carbohydrate and nitrogen in the apical meristem was observed in all treatments at the time of floral transition and is in support of the nutrient diversion hypothesis.

Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Miner, G. S.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

85

Controlled preparation of cellulases with xylanolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) by continuous-feed cultivation using soluble sugars.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop an efficient production system for cellulase preparation with a high level of xylanolytic enzymes using soluble carbon sources. When xylose and arabinose were simultaneously fed with glucose and cellobiose, a mutant of Trichoderma reesei, M3-1, showed sufficient levels of cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities, indicating that xylose and arabinose are good inducers for the production of xylanolytic enzymes. In a continuous feeding experiment using glucose/cellobiose and glucose/xylose/cellobiose, cellulase preparations with various levels of xylanolytic enzymes were obtained by altering the feeding solutions and the timing of their addition. The volumetric production rates for xylanolytic activities at the glucose/xylose/cellobiose-feeding phase were significantly higher than at the glucose/cellobiose-feeding phase, while those for cellulolytic activities were comparable under the two conditions. Thus the composition of the enzyme preparation produced by the mutant was readily controlled by varying the inducers and the pattern of their addition, facilitating the tailored production of enzymes in a diversity of bioconversion processes. PMID:23291768

Ike, Masakazu; Park, Jeung-yil; Tabuse, Mine; Tokuyasu, Ken

2013-01-01

86

Malate Plays a Crucial Role in Starch Metabolism, Ripening, and Soluble Solid Content of Tomato Fruit and Affects Postharvest Softening[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Despite the fact that the organic acid content of a fruit is regarded as one of its most commercially important quality traits when assessed by the consumer, relatively little is known concerning the physiological importance of organic acid metabolism for the fruit itself. Here, we evaluate the effect of modifying malate metabolism in a fruit-specific manner, by reduction of the activities of either mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase or fumarase, via targeted antisense approaches in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). While these genetic perturbations had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield, they had dramatic consequences for fruit metabolism, as well as unanticipated changes in postharvest shelf life and susceptibility to bacterial infection. Detailed characterization suggested that the rate of ripening was essentially unaltered but that lines containing higher malate were characterized by lower levels of transitory starch and a lower soluble sugars content at harvest, whereas those with lower malate contained higher levels of these carbohydrates. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase revealed that it correlated with the accumulation of transitory starch. Taken together with the altered activation state of the plastidial malate dehydrogenase and the modified pigment biosynthesis of the transgenic lines, these results suggest that the phenotypes are due to an altered cellular redox status. The combined data reveal the importance of malate metabolism in tomato fruit metabolism and development and confirm the importance of transitory starch in the determination of agronomic yield in this species. PMID:21239646

Centeno, Danilo C.; Osorio, Sonia; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Bertolo, Ana L.F.; Carneiro, Raphael T.; Araújo, Wagner L.; Steinhauser, Marie-Caroline; Michalska, Justyna; Rohrmann, Johannes; Geigenberger, Peter; Oliver, Sandra N.; Stitt, Mark; Carrari, Fernando; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2011-01-01

87

Digestible energy content of corn- versus sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles in finishings pigs.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of 120 finishing pigs (avg initial BW of 111 kg) was used in a 19-day experiment to determine the digestible energy (DE) content of corn- vs sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The reference diet was 97.5% corn with vitamins, minerals, and amino acids added to meet o...

88

Effect of UV-B light on total soluble phenolic contents of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: The effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light treatment on total soluble phenolic contents (TSP) of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops was evaluated. Whole fruits (strawberries, blueberries, grapes), vegetables (cherry tomatoes, white sweet corn) and root crops (sweet potatoes, colo...

89

Integrated spectral and image analysis of hyperspectral scattering data for prediction of apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spectral scattering is useful for assessing the firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) of apples. In previous research, mean reflectance extracted from the hyperspectral scattering profiles was used for this purpose since the method is simple and fast and also gives relatively good predictions. T...

90

[Effectively predicting soluble solids content in apple based on hyperspectral imaging].  

PubMed

It is very important to extract effective wavelengths for quantitative analysis of fruit internal quality based on hyperspectral imaging. In the present study, genetic algorithm (GA), successive projections algorithm (SPA) and GA-SPA combining algorithm were used for extracting effective wavelengths from 400-1 000 nm hyperspectral images of Yantai "Fuji" apples, respectively. Based on the effective wavelengths selected by GA, SPA and GA-SPA, different models were built and compared for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of apple using partial least squares (PLS), least squared support vector machine (LS-SVM) and multiple linear regression (MLR), respectively. A total of 160 samples were prepared for the calibration (n = 120) and prediction (n = 40) sets. Among all the models, the SPA-MLR achieved the best results, where Rp(2), RMSEP and RPD were 0.950 1, 0.308 7 and 4.476 6 respectively. Results showed that SPA can be effectively used for selecting the effective wavelengths from hyperspectral data. And, SPA-MLR is an optimal modeling method for prediction of apple SSC. Furthermore, less effective wavelengths and simple and easily-interpreted MLR model show that the SPA-MLR model has a great potential for online detection of apple SSC and development of a portable instrument. PMID:24409747

Huang, Wen-Qian; Li, Jiang-Bo; Chen, Li-Ping; Guo, Zhi-Ming

2013-10-01

91

Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women.  

PubMed

Little information is available to estimate water-soluble vitamin intakes from urinary vitamins and their metabolite contents as possible nutritional markers. Determination of the relationships between the oral dose and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in human subjects contributes to finding valid nutrition markers of water-soluble vitamin intakes. Six female Japanese college students were given a standard Japanese diet in the first week, the same diet with a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture as a diet with approximately onefold vitamin mixture based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese in the second week, with a threefold vitamin mixture in the third week, and a sixfold mixture in the fourth week. Water-soluble vitamins and their metabolites were measured in the 24-h urine collected each week. All urinary vitamins and their metabolite levels except vitamin B(12) increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner, and highly correlated with vitamin intake (r=0.959 for vitamin B(1), r=0.927 for vitamin B(2), r=0.965 for vitamin B(6), r=0.957 for niacin, r=0.934 for pantothenic acid, r=0.907 for folic acid, r=0.962 for biotin, and r=0.952 for vitamin C). These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite levels can be used as good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes. PMID:18635909

Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

2008-06-01

92

Comparison of Disulfide Contents and Solubility at Alkaline pH of Insecticidal and Noninsecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis Protein Crystals  

PubMed Central

We compared two insecticidal and eight noninsecticidal soil isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis with regard to the solubility of their proteinaceous crystals at alkaline pH values. The protein disulfide contents of the insecticidal and noninsecticidal crystals were equivalent. However, six of the noninsecticidal crystals were soluble only at pH values of ?12. This lack of solubility contributed to their lack of toxicity. One crystal type which was soluble only at pH ?12 (strain SHP 1-12) did exhibit significant toxicity to tobacco hornworm larvae when the crystals were presolubilized. In contrast, freshly prepared crystals from the highly insecticidal strain HD-1 were solubilized at pH 9.5 to 10.5, but when these crystals were denatured, by either 8 M urea or autoclave temperatures, they became nontoxic and were soluble only at pH values of ?12. These changes in toxicity and solubility occurred even though the denatured HD-1 crystals were morphologically indistinguishable from native crystals. Our data are consistent with the view that insecticidal crystals contain distorted, destabilized disulfide bonds which allow them to be solubilized at pH values (9.5 to 10.5) characteristic of lepidopteran and dipteran larval midguts. Images PMID:16349421

Du, Cheng; Martin, Phyllis A. W.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

1994-01-01

93

Nutrient composition, mineral content and the solubility of the proteins of palm weevil, Rhynchophorus phoenicis f. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

PubMed Central

Adult (ADS) and larva stages of palm weevil Rhynchophorus phoenicis were analyzed for their nutritional potentials using proximate and mineral contents as indices. The early larva stage (ELS) contains the highest moisture content of 11.94% while ADS has the least value of 4.79%. The late larva stage (LLS) has the highest protein content of 10.51% while ADS contains 8.43%. Ash content is highest in ELS with a value of 2.37% and lowest in ADS with a value of 1.43%. ELS and LLS have the highest (22.14%) and lowest (17.22%) fibre contents respectively. The values of potassium, magnesium and iron in ELS were (455.00±21.21), (60.69±2.57) and (6.50±3.40) mg/kg while LLS recorded (457.50±10.61), (43.52±1.37) and (6.00±1.10) mg/kg and ADS recorded (372.50±24.75), (53.31±1.88) and (22.90±3.70) mg/kg. Chromium, phosphorus, nickel, calcium, lead, manganese and zinc were also detected. Copper was not detected in any of the samples. In all the developmental stages the protein solubilities were pH dependent with the minimum protein solubilities occurring at acidic pH while the maximum protein solubilities occurred at alkaline pH. PMID:17542059

Omotoso, O.T.; Adedire, C.O.

2007-01-01

94

Soluble carbohydrate content of shoots of Arctic wetland plants that are consumed by lesser snow geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recorded seasonal changes in the total amounts of soluble carbohydrates in shoots of salt- and fresh-water coastal plants at La Perouse Bay, northern Manitoba, to determine whether adult snow geese and their goslings selected forage rich in soluble carbohydrates during the breeding season. The selection of forage plants in spring and summer by adults and goslings was strongly linked

Robert L. Jefferies; Kate A. Edwards

2008-01-01

95

Use of molecular markers in breeding for soluble solids content in tomato — a re-examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through earlier breeding efforts, portions of the genome of the wild species Lycopersicon chmielewskii have been introgressed into the cultivated tomato (Rick 1974). These introgressed chromosomal segments have been reported to increase soluble solids in fruit of certain tomato varieties (Rick 1974). Recently, two of the introgressed segments have been identified with RFLP markers and tested for effects on soluble

S. D. Tanksley; J. Hewitt

1988-01-01

96

Hydraulic lift and its influence on the water content of the rhizosphere: an example from sugar maple, Acer saccharum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic lift, the transport of water from deep in the soil through plant root systems into the drier upper soil layers, has been demonstrated in several woody plant species. Here the volume of water involved in hydraulic lift by a mature sugar maple tree is estimated. Twenty-four intact soil cores were collected from the vicinity of a sugar maple tree

Steven H. Emerman; Todd E. Dawson

1996-01-01

97

Water stress causes differential effects on germination indices, total soluble sugar and proline content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Different cultivars differ inherently in their response to drought and those cultivars best adapted to growth in arid and semiarid conditions form the most uniform and vigorous stands when grown under water deficits. The seeds of five wheat cultivars (GA-2002, Chakwal-97, Uqab-2000, Chakwal-50 and W...

98

Sugar Regulation of Plastid Interconversions in Epicarp of Citrus Fruit 1  

PubMed Central

Seasonal transformations between chloroplasts and chromoplasts, as measured by changes in chlorophyll content, in the epicarp of degreening and regreening Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv Valencia fruit closely parallelled the accumulation and later loss of soluble sugars. At any stage of development, reversing the relative soluble sugar content in the epicarp by culturing pericarp segments on agar media with low (15 millimolar) or high (150 millimolar) sucrose concentrations reversed the direction of change in chlorophyll content. Fruit of C. madurensis Lour., which mature year around and do not regreen, also accumulated soluble sugars in the pericarp as degreening was initiated. The epicarp of C. sinensis fruit accumulated nitrogen, but total nitrogen concentrations and amino acid concentrations changed little, during degreening and regreening of C. sinensis fruit. Cessation of nitrogen fertilization reduced the tendency of pericarp segments to regreen in vitro during subsequent years, but regreening tendency was restored by inclusion of KNO3 in the media. It is concluded that chloroplasts become chromoplasts and citrus fruit degreen partially in response to the accumulation of sugars in the epicarp and that the reverse transformation accompanying regreening of certain citrus species occurs when accumulated sugars disappear. Change in nitrogen flux to the fruit is probably not a factor in regulating seasonal transformations, but an abundance of nitrogen in the epicarp diminishes the effects of high sugar concentrations in inducing transformation of chloroplasts to chromoplasts, thereby retarding degreening and promoting regreening. PMID:16663837

Huff, Albert

1984-01-01

99

Type and concentration of acid on solubility and molecular size of acid–methanol-treated rice starches differing in amylose content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice starches differing in amylose content were treated in methanol with acid at 45°C for 1h, effects of acid type and concentration on the solubility and molecular size of starch were investigated. Significant differences were found in solubility and weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) among starches treated with different acids at the equal normality. Starch treated with HCl had lower

Yung-Ho Chang; Jheng-Hua Lin; Ciao-Ling Pan

2010-01-01

100

Effect of Moisture Content and Soluble Level on the Physical and Chemical Properties of DDGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the past few decades, much research concerning handling and storage characteristics of bulk solids has been conducted. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a bulk material that has been widely used as a protein source for ruminants and non-ruminants for more than two decades. DDGS t...

101

Flow properties of DDGS with varying soluble and moisture contents using Jenike shear testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants and are used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being p...

102

Flow Properties of DDGS with Varying Soluble and Moisture Contents Using Jenike Shear Testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants and are used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being p...

103

Identification of restriction fragment length polymorphisms linked to genes controlling soluble solids content in tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene(s) conferring high soluble solids (SS) in tomato fruit had been backcrossed previously from a wild tomato species, Lycopersicon chmielewskii LA1028 (~ 10% SS), into a L. esculentum cultivar, VF36 (~ 5% SS), to derive a BC5S5 line, LA1563, similar to ‘VF 36’ but with 7–8% SS. DNAs from these lines and a tomato breeding line, H2038, were screened for

T. C. Osborn; D. C. Alexander; J. F. Fobes

1987-01-01

104

Soluble solids content and firmness non-destructive inspection and varieties discrimination of apples based on visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For apples, soluble solids content (SSC) and firmness are two very important internal quality attributes, which play key roles in postharvest quality classification. Visible-near infrared hyper spectral imaging techniques have potentials for nondestructive inspection of apples' internal qualities, which will be used for the SSC and firmness non-destructive inspection and varieties discrimination of apples. Spectrums of 396 apples from four varieties were extracted. There were 264 apples used for calibration and the remaining 132 apples for prediction. After collecting hyper spectral images of calibration apples, the sugar meter and firmness tester was used to measure SSC and firmness's reference values of each calibration apples. Then the principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract effective wavelengths of calibration apples. The reference values and effective wavelengths' reflectance of apples can be used to set linear regression models based on partial least squares (PLS). Once the prediction model was established, in order to get the SSC and firmness's predicted values of apples, it only need achieve the effective wavelengths' reflectance of apples combing with the program of MATLAB. Finally, the SSC and firmness values of prediction set were used as independent variables of the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to realize varieties discrimination. The correlation coefficients were 0.9127 for SSC and 0.9608 for firmness values of prediction models. The accuracy of varieties discrimination was 96.97%. The results indicated that the methods to SSC and firmness non-destructive inspection and varieties discrimination of apples based on Vis-NIR hyper spectral imaging was reliable and feasible.

Zhou, Yao

2014-11-01

105

Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.  

PubMed

In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality. PMID:25236242

Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

2015-02-15

106

Rhizosphere microorganism effects on soluble amino acids, sugars and organic acids in the root zone of Agropyron cristatum, A. smithii and Bouteloua gracilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three axenic and rhizosphere microorganism-inoculated shortgrass steppe plant species were evaluated for possible differences in residual organic carbon and nitrogen present as sugars, organic acids and amino acids. IntroducedAgropyron cristatum was compared toA. smithii andBouteloua gracilis, which are dominant species in the native shortgrass steppe. These plants, grown for 90 days in root growth chambers, showed differences in residual organic

D. A. Klein; B. A. Frederick; M. Biondini; M. J. Trlica

1988-01-01

107

Added Sugars  

MedlinePLUS

... don’t need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of ...

108

The influence of caffeine on energy content of sugar-sweetened beverages: ‘the caffeine–calorie effect’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Caffeine is a mildly addictive psychoactive chemical and controversial additive to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). The objective of this study is to assess if removal of caffeine from SSBs allows co-removal of sucrose (energy) without affecting flavour of SSBs, and if removal of caffeine could potentially affect population weight gain.Subjects\\/Methods:The research comprised of three studies; study 1 used three-alternate forced choice

R S J Keast; D Sayompark; G Sacks; B A Swinburn; L J Riddell; RSJ Keast

2011-01-01

109

The relationship between estimated water content and water soluble organic carbon of PM10 at Seoul, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organic carbon (OC) in atmospheric aerosols can be divided in water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water insoluble organic carbon (WISOC). WSOC constitutes a significant fraction of the carbon mass of aerosols, ranging from 27% to 83% (Yu et al., 2004). WSOC and absorbed water in atmospheric aerosol can impact climate directly by scattering solar radiation. Also, these can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) (Saxena et al., 1995; Yu et al., 2004). The role of WSOC in water absorption is especially unclear. So, it is essential to understand the relevance of water content and WSOC. In this study, we have analyzed relationship between the measured WSOC concentrations and estimated aerosol water content of PM10 (particles in the atmosphere with a diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 ?m) for the period between September 2006 and August 2007 at Seoul, Korea. Water content of PM10 was estimated by using a gas/particle equilibrium model, SCAPE2 (Kim et al., 1993). WSOC and estimated water content showed a positive correlation when the ambient relative humidity (RH) was less than 70%. But when RH was higher than 70%, WSOC and estimated water content did not show a correlation. However, WISOC over OC showed negative correlation with estimated water content of PM10 when RH was less than 70%. It was found that WSOC was correlated well with NO3- that is a secondary component formed by photochemical oxidation. References Kim, Y. P., Seinfeld, J. H., Saxena, P., 1993, Atmospheric gas-aerosol equilibrium I. Thermodynamic model, Aerosol Science and Technology, 19, 157-181. Saxena, P., Hildemann, L. M., McMurry, P. H., Seinfeld, J. H., 1995, Organics alter hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100(D9), 18755-18770. Yu, J. Z., Yang, H., Zhang, H. and Lau, A. K. H., 2004, Size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon in ambient aerosols and its size-resolved thermal characteristics, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 1061-1071.

Lee, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Yi, S.

2011-12-01

110

Profiling of sugar transporter genes in grapevine coping with water deficit.  

PubMed

The profiling of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genes under water deficit was specifically targeted to sugar transporters. Leaf water status was characterized by physiological parameters and soluble sugars content. The expression analysis provided evidence that VvHT1 hexose transporter gene was strongly down-regulated by the increased sugar content under mild water-deficit. The genes of monosaccharide transporter VvHT5, sucrose carrier VvSUC11, vacuolar invertase VvGIN2 and grape ASR (ABA, stress, ripening) were up-regulated under severe water stress. Their regulation in a drought-ABA signalling network and possible roles in complex interdependence between sugar subcellular partitioning and cell influx/efflux under Grapevine acclimation to dehydration are discussed. PMID:25261250

Medici, Anna; Laloi, Maryse; Atanassova, Rossitza

2014-11-01

111

Platinum solubility in a haplobasaltic melt at 1250°C and 0.2 GPa: The effect of water content and oxygen fugacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haplobasaltic melts with a 101 kPa dry eutectic composition (An 42Di 58) and varying water contents were equilibrated with their platinum capsule at 1523 K and 200 MPa in an internally heated pressure vessel (IHPV) equipped with a rapid quench device. Experimental products were inclusion-free glasses representative of the Pt-saturated silicate melts at the experimental conditions. Platinum concentrations were determined using an isotope dilution multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and water contents and distribution by Karl Fischer titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The water content of the melt has no intrinsic effect on platinum solubility, for concentrations between 0.9 wt.% and 4.4 wt.% H 2O (saturation). Platinum solubility increases with increasing water content, but this effect is an indirect effect because increasing water content at fixed f H 2 (imposed by the IHPV) increases the oxygen fugacity of the experiment. The positive oxygen fugacity dependence of Pt solubility in a hydrous silicate melt at 200 MPa is identical to that in anhydrous melts of the same composition determined in previous studies at 101 kPa. This study extends the range of platinum solubilities to oxygen fugacities lower than was previously possible. Combining the data of this and previous studies, Pt solubility is related to oxygen fugacity (in bar) at 1523 K by the equation: [=1389×f+7531×(

Blaine, Fred A.; Linnen, Robert L.; Holtz, Francois; Brügmann, Gerhard E.

2005-03-01

112

Fat-soluble vitamin (A, D, E, and ?-carotene) contents from a Portuguese autochthonous cow breed--Minhota.  

PubMed

In Portugal, commercial milk is obtained almost entirely from cows of the Holstein breed. However, other breeds may also show dairy aptitude, and produce milk of good quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the breed factor in the vitamin contents of milks from Holstein and the autochthonous Portuguese breed Minhota, as well as possible variations due to season. Milk samples were collected from 15 cows of each breed. Milk from Minhota cows showed higher contents of retinol, retinyl palmitate, ?-tocopherol, and ?-carotene. No differences were verified between breeds regarding vitamin D(3) content, but Holstein cows presented higher amounts of provitamin D(3). Seasonal variations were not observed for milk samples from Holsteins, and only a very small variation was observed for milk samples from Minhota cows, mainly in retinol, ?-tocopherol, and provitamin D(3) levels. This study revealed that breed has a pronounced effect on milk fat-soluble vitamins, which is an important observation regarding future genetic selection plans. Also, the increased vitamin amounts found in milk from Minhota cows can be regarded as an important nutritional parameter that can potentiate the economical value of this breed. PMID:22901482

Ramalho, H M M; Santos, J; Casal, S; Alves, M R; Oliveira, M B P P

2012-10-01

113

21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from which sugar and glutamic acid have been recovered, and which has been subjected to ion exchange to minimize the concentration of naturally occurring trace minerals. (b) It is used as a flavor in...

2014-04-01

114

Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beet sugar and cane sugar constitute 25% and 75%, respectively, of the world sucrose production of about 145×10 6 ty ear ?1 .S ugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Döll) is grown mainly in Europe, producing 28×10 6 t beet sugar (hereof 20×10 6 t in the EU), North America (4.0×10 6 t) and Asia (2.5×10 6 t).

M. Joersbo

115

Effects of photoperiod, growth temperature and cold acclimatisation on glucosinolates, sugars and fatty acids in kale.  

PubMed

Curly kale is a robust, cold tolerant plant with a high content of health-promoting compounds, grown at a range of latitudes. To assess the effects of temperature, photoperiod and cold acclimatisation on levels of glucosinolates, fatty acids and soluble sugars in kale, an experiment was set up under controlled conditions. Treatments consisted of combinations of the temperatures 15/9 or 21/15°C, and photoperiods of 12 or 24h, followed by a cold acclimatisation period. Levels of glucosinolates and fatty acid types in leaves were affected by growth conditions and cold acclimatisation, being generally highest before acclimatisation. The effects of growth temperature and photoperiod on freezing tolerance were most pronounced in plants grown without cold acclimatisation. The results indicate that cold acclimatisation can increase the content of soluble sugar and can thereby improve the taste, whilst the content of unsaturated fatty and glucosinolates acids may decrease. PMID:25529650

Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Rødven, Rolf; Hansen, Espen; Mølmann, Jørgen

2015-05-01

116

Correlation between the Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Leaf Starch and Sugars of C3 Plants and the Ratio of Intercellular and Atmospheric Partial Pressures of Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

Carbon isotope discrimination (?) was analyzed in leaf starch and soluble sugars, which represent most of the recently fixed carbon. Plants of three C3 species (Populus nigra L. × P. deltoides Marsh., Gossypium hirsutum L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were kept in the dark for 24 hours to decrease contents of starch and sugar in leaves. Then gas exchange measurements were made with constant conditions for 8 hours, and subsequently starch and soluble sugars were extracted for analysis of carbon isotope composition. The ratio of intercellular, pi, and atmospheric, pa, partial pressures of CO2, was calculated from gas exchange measurements, integrated over time and weighted by assimilation rate, for comparison with the carbon isotope ratios in soluble sugars and starch. Carbon isotope discrimination in soluble sugars correlated strongly (r = 0.93) with pi/pa in all species, as did ? in leaf starch (r = 0.84). Starch was found to contain significantly more 13C than soluble sugar, and possible explanations are discussed. The strong correlation found between ? and pi/pa suggests that carbon isotope analysis in leaf starch and soluble sugars may be used for monitoring, indirectly, the average of pi/pa weighted by CO2 assimilation rate, over a day. Because pi/pa has a negative correlation with transpiration efficiency (mol CO2/mol H2O) of isolated plants, ? in starch and sugars may be used to predict differences in this efficiency. This new method may be useful in ecophysiological studies and in selection for improved transpiration efficiency in breeding programs for C3 species. PMID:16666476

Brugnoli, Enrico; Hubick, Kerry T.; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Wong, Suan Chin; Farquhar, Graham D.

1988-01-01

117

[Characteristic wavelengths selection of soluble solids content of pear based on NIR spectral and LS-SVM].  

PubMed

To improve the precision and robustness of the NIR model of the soluble solid content (SSC) on pear. The total number of 160 pears was for the calibration (n=120) and prediction (n=40). Different spectral pretreatment methods, including standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were used before further analysis. A combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select most effective wavelengths after uninformative variable elimination (UVE) from original spectra, SNV pretreated spectra and MSC pretreated spectra respectively. The selected variables were used as the inputs of least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model to build models for de- termining the SSC of pear. The results indicated that LS-SVM model built using SNVE-UVE-GA-SPA on 30 characteristic wavelengths selected from full-spectrum which had 3112 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.956, 0.271 for SSC. The model is reliable and the predicted result is effective. The method can meet the requirement of quick measuring SSC of pear and might be important for the development of portable instruments and online monitoring. PMID:25474940

Fan, Shu-xiang; Huang, Wen-qian; Li, Jiang-bo; Zhao, Chun-jiang; Zhang, Bao-hua

2014-08-01

118

Predicting soluble solid content in intact jaboticaba [Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) O. Berg] fruit using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) as a rapid and non-destructive method to determine soluble solid content (SSC) in intact jaboticaba [Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) O. Berg] fruit. Multivariate calibration techniques were compared with pre-processed data and variable selection algorithms, such as partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS), a genetic algorithm (GA), a successive projections algorithm (SPA) and nonlinear techniques (BP-ANN, back propagation of artificial neural networks; LS-SVM, least squares support vector machine) were applied to building the calibration models. The PLS model produced prediction accuracy (R(2)=0.71, RMSEP=1.33 °Brix, and RPD=1.65) while the BP-ANN model (R(2)=0.68, RMSEM=1.20 °Brix, and RPD=1.83) and LS-SVM models achieved lower performance metrics (R(2)=0.44, RMSEP=1.89 °Brix, and RPD=1.16). This study was the first attempt to use NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive method to determine SSC jaboticaba fruit. PMID:24767082

Mariani, Nathália Cristina Torres; da Costa, Rosangela Câmara; de Lima, Kássio Michell Gomes; Nardini, Viviani; Cunha Júnior, Luís Carlos; Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

2014-09-15

119

[Characteristic wavelengths selection of soluble solids content of pear based on NIR spectral and LS-SVM].  

PubMed

To improve the precision and robustness of the NIR model of the soluble solid content (SSC) on pear. The total number of 160 pears was for the calibration (n=120) and prediction (n=40). Different spectral pretreatment methods, including standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were used before further analysis. A combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select most effective wavelengths after uninformative variable elimination (UVE) from original spectra, SNV pretreated spectra and MSC pretreated spectra respectively. The selected variables were used as the inputs of least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model to build models for de- termining the SSC of pear. The results indicated that LS-SVM model built using SNVE-UVE-GA-SPA on 30 characteristic wavelengths selected from full-spectrum which had 3112 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.956, 0.271 for SSC. The model is reliable and the predicted result is effective. The method can meet the requirement of quick measuring SSC of pear and might be important for the development of portable instruments and online monitoring. PMID:25508719

Fan, Shu-xiang; Huang, Wen-qian; Li, Jiang-bo; Zhao, Chun-jiang; Zhang, Bao-hua

2014-08-01

120

Study on for soluble solids contents measurement of grape juice beverage based on Vis/NIRS and chemomtrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the visible and near infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) technique for non-destructive measurement of soluble solids contents (SSC) in grape juice beverage. 380 samples were studied in this paper. Smoothing way of Savitzky-Golay and standard normal variate were applied for the pre-processing of spectral data. Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) with RBF kernel function was applied to developing the SSC prediction model based on the Vis/NIRS absorbance data. The determination coefficient for prediction (Rp2) of the results predicted by LS-SVM model was 0. 962 and root mean square error (RMSEP) was 0. 434137. It is concluded that Vis/NIRS technique can quantify the SSC of grape juice beverage fast and non-destructively.. At the same time, LS-SVM model was compared with PLS and back propagation neural network (BP-NN) methods. The results showed that LS-SVM was superior to the conventional linear and non-linear methods in predicting SSC of grape juice beverage. In this study, the generation ability of LS-SVM, PLS and BP-NN models were also investigated. It is concluded that LS-SVM regression method is a promising technique for chemometrics in quantitative prediction.

Wu, Di; He, Yong

2007-11-01

121

Improved Sugar Conversion and Ethanol Yield for Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Lines with Reduced Lignin Contents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lignin is known to impede conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. In this study, forage sorghum plants carrying brown midrib (bmr) mutations, which reduce lignin contents, were evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks. The near isogenic lines evaluated were: wild-type, bmr-6, bmr-12, and bmr-6 bmr-12...

122

Sugar test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Metabolism is the conversion or breakdown of a substance from one form to another by a living organism for energy. Yeast is an indicator of how much sugar is in food. Yeast releases carbon dioxide and is a direct indicator of the rate of metabolism. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. Cereals contain sugars, which are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are chemicals that provide energy.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

123

Association of Candidate Genes With Flowering Time and Water-Soluble Carbohydrate Content in Lolium perenne (L.)  

PubMed Central

We describe a candidate gene approach for associating SNPs with variation in flowering time and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content and other quality traits in the temperate forage grass species Lolium perenne. Three analysis methods were used, which took the significant population structure into account. First, a linear mixed model was used enabling a structured association analysis to be incorporated with the nine populations identified in the structure analysis as random variables. Second, a within-population analysis of variance was performed. Third, a tree-scanning method was used, in which haplotype trees were associated with phenotypes on the basis of inferred haplotypes. Analysis of variance within populations identified several associations between WSC, nitrogen (N), and dry matter digestibility with allelic variants within an alkaline invertase candidate gene LpcAI. These associations were only detected in material harvested in one of the two years. By contrast, consistent associations between the L. perenne homolog (LpHD1) of the rice photoperiod control gene HD1 and flowering time were identified. One SNP, in the immediate upstream region of the LpHD1 coding sequence (C-4443-A), was significant in the linear mixed model. Within-population analysis of variance and tree-scanning analysis confirmed and extended this result to the 2118 polymorphisms in some of the populations. The merits of the tree-scanning method are compared to the single SNP analysis. The potential usefulness of the 4443 SNP in marker-assisted selection is currently being evaluated in test crosses of genotypes from this work with turf-grass varieties. PMID:17660575

Skøt, Leif; Humphreys, Jan; Humphreys, Mervyn O.; Thorogood, Danny; Gallagher, Joe; Sanderson, Ruth; Armstead, Ian P.; Thomas, Ian D.

2007-01-01

124

Application of Least Squares-Support Vector Machine for Measurement of Soluble Solids Content of Rice Vinegars Using Vis\\/NIR Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible and near infrared (Vis\\/NIR) spectroscopy was investigated to predict soluble solids content (SSC) of rice vinegars based on least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM). Five varieties of rice vinegars and 300 samples were prepared. After some preprocessing, PLS was implemented for calibration as well as the extraction of principal components (PCs). Wavelet transform (WT) was use to compress the variables.

Fei Liu; Yong He; Li Wang

2007-01-01

125

Effect of different inclusion level of condensed distillers solubles ratios and oil content on amino Acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in growing pigs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS. PMID:25557681

Li, P; Xu, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, J D; Li, Q Y; Zhang, S; Ma, X K; Piao, X S

2015-01-01

126

Effect of Different Inclusion Level of Condensed Distillers Solubles Ratios and Oil Content on Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Growing Pigs  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS. PMID:25557681

Li, P.; Xu, X.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J. D.; Li, Q. Y.; Zhang, S.; Ma, X. K.; Piao, X. S.

2015-01-01

127

Changes to the content of sugars, sugar alcohols, myo-inositol, carboxylic acids and inorganic anions in developing grains from different varieties of Robusta ( Coffea canephora) and Arabica ( C. arabica) coffees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in concentration of mono- and oligosaccharides, sugar alcohols, myo-inositol, carboxylic acids and inorganic anions in coffee grains were analysed during grain development in three cultivars of Coffea arabica L (Arabica) and two of C. canephora L var. Robusta (Robusta) by high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled to pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAE-PED). The majority of the components analysed either decreased

William John Rogers; Stéphane Michaux; Maryse Bastin; Peter Bucheli

1999-01-01

128

Increased Expression of a Phloem Membrane Protein Encoded by NHL26 Alters Phloem Export and Sugar Partitioning in Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

The complex process of phloem sugar transport involves symplasmic and apoplasmic events. We characterized Arabidopsis thaliana lines ectopically expressing a phloem-specific gene encoding NDR1/HIN1-like26 (NHL26), a putative membrane protein. NHL26 overexpressor plants grew more slowly than wild-type plants, accumulated high levels of carbohydrates in mature leaves, and had a higher shoot biomass, contrasting with slower root growth and a lower seed yield. Similar effects were observed when NHL26 was overexpressed in companion cells, under the control of a companion cell–specific promoter. The soluble sugar content of the phloem sap and sink organs was lower than that in the wild type, providing evidence of a sugar export defect. This was confirmed in a phloem-export assay with the symplastic tracer carboxyfluorescein diacetate. Leaf sugar accumulation was accompanied by higher organic acid, amino acid, and protein contents, whereas analysis of the metabolite profile of phloem sap exudate revealed no change in amino acid or organic acid content, indicating a specific effect on sugar export. NHL26 was found to be located in the phloem plasmodesmata and the endoplasmic reticulum. These findings reveal that NHL26 accumulation affects either the permeability of plasmodesmata or sugar signaling in companion cells, with a specific effect on sugar export. PMID:23715470

Vilaine, Françoise; Kerchev, Pavel; Clément, Gilles; Batailler, Brigitte; Cayla, Thibaud; Bill, Laurence; Gissot, Lionel; Dinant, Sylvie

2013-01-01

129

Effects of land use and mineral characteristics on the organic carbon content, and the amount and composition of Na-pyrophosphate soluble organic matter in subsurface soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use and mineral characteristics affect the balance of organic carbon in surface as well as in subsurface soils and related feedbacks on soil functions like their potential to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Actually, there are less information about the effects of land use as well as soil properties on the amount and composition of organic matter (OM) for subsurface soils as compared to surface soils. Here we aimed to analyze the long-term impact of arable and forest land use and soil mineral characteristics on subsurface soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, as well as on amount and composition of OM sequentially separated by Na-pyrophosphate solution (OM(PY)) from subsurface soil samples. Seven soils different in mineral characteristics were selected within Germany. Soil samples were taken from subsurface horizons of forest and adjacent arable sites continuously used >100 years. The OM(PY) fractions were analysed on their OC content (OCPY) and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. A distinct influence of the long-term land use on the SOC contents could not be detected because only for four out of seven sites the forest subsurface soils showed larger SOC contents than the adjacent agricultural soils. A generally site independent enhanced OC sequestration in subsurface soils due to differences in land use cannot be expected in the long-term. Multiple regression analyses indicated for the arable subsurface soils significant positive relationships between the SOC contents and combined effects of the i) exchangeable Ca (Caex) and oxalate soluble Fe (Feox), and ii) the Caex and Alox contents. For the arable subsurface soils the increase of OCPY* (OCPY multiplied by the relative C=O content of OM(PY)) by increasing contents of Caex indicated that OM(PY) mainly interacts with Ca2+ cations. For the forest subsurface soils (pH <5), the OCPY contents were found to be related to the contents of Na-pyrophosphate soluble Fe and Al. The long-term arable and forest land use seems to result in different OM(PY)-mineral interactions in subsurfac soils. Based on this we hypothesize that a long-term land use change from arable to forest may lead to a shift from mainly OM(PY)-Ca2+ to mainly OM(PY)-Fe3+ and -Al3+ interactions if the pH of subsurface soils significantly decrease (i.e. <5).

Ellerbrock, R.; Kaiser, M.; Walter, K.; Sommer, M.

2010-12-01

130

Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats without decreases in liver or blood vitamin content.  

PubMed

It is thought that the contents of water-soluble vitamins in the body are generally low in diabetic patients because large amounts of vitamins are excreted into urine. However, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. To investigate this hypothesis, diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (6 wk old) by streptozotocin treatment, and they were then given diets containing low, medium or sufficient vitamins for 70 d. The contents of 6 kinds of B-group vitamins, namely vitamin B?, vitamin B?, vitamin B?, vitamin B??, folate and biotin, were determined in the urine, blood and liver. No basic differences among the dietary vitamin contents were observed. The urinary excretion of vitamins was higher in diabetic rats than in control rats. The blood concentrations of vitamin B?? and folate were lowered by diabetes, while, those of vitamin B?, vitamin B?, vitamin B?, and biotin were not. All liver concentrations of vitamins were increased in diabetic rats above those in control rats. These results showed that streptozotocin-induced diabetes increased urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, though their blood and liver concentrations were essentially maintained in the rats. PMID:23007068

Imai, Eri; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

2012-01-01

131

Design and Information Content of Arrays of Sorption-based Vapor Sensors using Solubility Interactions and Linear Solvation Energy Relationships  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of vapors by the selective polymeric layer on a chemical vapor sensor is described in detail and dissected into fundamental solubility interactions. The sorption process is modeled in terms of solvation parameters for vapor solubility properties and linear solvation energy relationships. The latter relationships model the log of the partition coefficient as the sum of terms related to specific types of interactions. The approaches are particularly applicable to the design and understanding of acoustic wave chemical vapor sensors such as those based on surface acoustic wave devices. It is shown how an understanding of solubility interactions informs the selection of polymers to obtain chemical diversity in sensor arrays and obtain the maximum amount of chemical information. The inherent dimensionality of the array data, as analyzed by principle components analysis, is consistent with this formulation. Furthermore, it is shown how new chemometric methods have been developed to extract the chemical information from array responses in terms of solvation parameters serving as de-scriptors of the detected vapor.

Grate, Jay W.; Abraham, Michael H.; Wise, Barry M.

2009-11-01

132

9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

2014-01-01

133

9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

2011-01-01

134

9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

2010-01-01

135

9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

2012-01-01

136

9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

2010-01-01

137

9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

2011-01-01

138

9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

2013-01-01

139

9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

2012-01-01

140

9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

2014-01-01

141

9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only...before typical consumption with water or a diluent containing an...low calorie.” (c) Sugar content claims. (1) Terms such as “sugar free,” “free of...

2013-01-01

142

[Reponses of sugar metabolism in seed germination of three various acid-fast plants to acid rain].  

PubMed

Responses of sugar metabolism during germination of rice (O. sativa ), wheat (T. aestivum) and rape (B. chinensis var. oleifera) seeds to simulated acid rain (pH 2.0, pH 2.5, pH 3.0, pH 3.5, pH 4.0, pH 4.5, pH 5.0) were investigated. The purpose was to clarify the mechanism of acid rain affecting seed germination. The results show that the alpha-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar of the rice, wheat and rape seeds decrease with increased stress level (pH 5.0 - 2.0), and are lower than CK. The response order of three indexes to stress level of acid rain is that rice (pH 3.5 - 4.0/53.88% - 77.7%) is smaller than wheat (pH 3.5 - 4.5/58.60% - 89.41%), and rape (pH 4.0 - 5.0/60.14% - 100%) is the smallest, alpha-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar of rice increase with prolonged stress time, but the three indexes of wheat and rape increase at first, and then decrease. In the same stress time (3 - 7 d), the three indexes of the three species for all treatment groups are lower than CK, and decrease with increased stress level. The stress time when the maximum damage of a-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar appeared is that rice (7 d, 7 d, 7 d) > wheat (7 d, 6 d, 5 d) > rape (3 d, 7 d, 5 d). Responses of three indexes to stress level and stress time of acid rain show that the ability of sugar metabolism resisting acid rain is that rice is stronger than wheat and rape is the worst, and the difference in sugar metabolism of 3 species is one of the internal reasons why the germination indexes behave differently. PMID:18649547

Wang, Li-Hong; Zhou, Qing; Zeng, Qing-Ling

2008-03-01

143

Evaluation of protein content, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins for gamma-irradiated semolina before and after milling of durum wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influenced of gamma irradiation (0, 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on total nitrogen, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins of semolina was studied. The effect of irradiation before and after milling on previous parameters was also investigated. Protein content of semolina was not affected with gamma irradiation before and after milling. Up to 10 kGy dose, cystine and methionine were not significantly changed, although they increased slightly with increasing irradiation dose. Lysine content decreased significantly ( P?0.05) at irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy. At 10 kGy dose, lysine decreased 5% and 14% for irradiated semolina and that obtained from irradiated wheat grains, respectively. The bands number and intensity of soluble proteins decreased with increasing irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy, as shown on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Irradiated semolina and semolina obtained from irradiated wheat grains at 10 kGy showed 13 and 15 bands, respectively. Unirradiated sample showed 19 bands.

Azzeh, F. S.; Amr, A. S.

2009-11-01

144

What Variables Affect Solubility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

2003-01-01

145

PHYSIOLOGY AND BIO – CHEMISTRY OF GERMINATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SEEDS – V PROTEIN AND SUGAR CONTENTS OF SEEDS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SPECTRAL BANDS OF LIGHT  

PubMed Central

The estimation of total protein and total sugars of cucumber, mango, paddy, radish and tomato seeds in dry, wet and germinating conditions were studied. Also the results are discussed in the light of possible physiological and bio – chemical change taking place inside the seeds during the process of absorption and germination. PMID:22557525

Majumder, A. K.; Boissya, C. L.

1986-01-01

146

Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis  

SciTech Connect

Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation. Characterization of mutant and wild-type plants has revealed that sugars inhibit breakdown of seed storage lipids. In addition, high concentrations of exogenous sugars largely eliminate the development of mature chloroplasts by developing seedlings. Affymetrix GeneChip experiments have revealed that expression of many plant genes is partially regulated by sugar levels, with approximately two percent of genes exhibiting alterations in steady-state mRNA levels in response to changing sugar concentrations. Ultimately, a better understanding of plant sugar responses may allow improvements in rates of carbon fixation and manipulation of carbon partitioning. These improvements will be needed to help make production of energy from biomass more economically attractive.

Gibson, Susan I.

2009-06-08

147

Nondestructive quantification of the soluble-solids content and the available acidity of apples by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This research evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to quantify the soluble-solids content (SSC) and the available acidity (VA) in intact apples. Partial least-squares calibration models, obtained from several preprocessing techniques (smoothing, derivative, etc.) in several wave-number ranges were compared. The best models were obtained with the high coefficient determination (r{sup 2}) 0.940 for the SSC and a moderate r{sup 2} of 0.801 for the VA, root-mean-square errors of prediction of 0.272% and 0.053%, and root-mean-square errors of calibration of 0.261% and 0.046%, respectively. The results indicate that the FT-NIR spectroscopy yields good predictions of the SSC and also showed the feasibility of using it to predict the VA of apples.

Ying Yibin; Liu Yande; Tao Yang

2005-09-01

148

Simultaneous identification and quantification of the sugar, sugar alcohol, and carboxylic acid contents of sour cherry, apple, and ber fruits, as their trimethylsilyl derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method--developed for the simultaneous quantitation of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides, sugar alcohols, caboxylic and amino acids, measured as their trimethylsilyl-(oxime) ether/ester derivatives, from one solution by a single injection, prepared in the presence of the fruit matrix--has been extended/utilized for special purposes. The compositions of (i) freshly harvested and stored sour cherries (Prunus cerasus), (ii) apples obtained from organic and integrated productions (Malus domestica), and (iii) green and ripe bers (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) were compared. On the basis of earlier, basic researches (derivatization, quantitation, and fragmentation studies of authentic compounds), we demonstrate the reproducible quantitation of the main and minor constituents in a wide concentration range (approximately 1 x 10(-)(3) to >/=40%, in total up to < or =98%, calculated on dry matter basis of the fruit matrices). Reproducibility of quantitations, calculated on the basis of their total ion current values, provided an average reproducibility of 3.3 (sour cherries), 6.2 (apple), and 4.3 (ber) RSD %, respectively. PMID:15675786

Füzfai, Zsófia; Katona, Zsolt F; Kovács, Etelka; Molnár-Perl, Ibolya

2004-12-15

149

Solubility of Sulfur in Shergottitic Silicate Melts Up to 0.8 GPA: Implications for S Contents of Shergottites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shergottites have high S contents (1300 to 4600 ppm; [1]), but it is unclear if they are sulfide saturated or under-saturated. This issue has fundamental implications for determining the long term S budget of the martian surface and atmosphere (from mantle degassing), as well as evolution of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) Au, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Ir, and Os, since concentrations of the latter are controlled by sulfide stability. Resolution of sulfide saturation depends upon temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity (and FeO), and magma composition [2]. Expressions derived from experimental studies allow prediction of S contents, though so far they are not calibrated for shergottitic liquids [3-5]. We have carried out new experiments designed to test current S saturation models, and then show that existing calibrations are not suitable for high FeO and low Al2O3 compositions characteristic of shergottitic liquids. The new results show that existing models underpredict S contents of sulfide saturated shergottitic liquids by a factor of 2.

Righter, K.; Pando, K.M.; Danielson, L.

2009-01-01

150

PECTIN ACETYLESTERASE - ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION FOR SUGAR BEET PECTIN UTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustainable technologies are being sought to provide new and higher-value coproducts from sugar beet pulp. Pectin is a complex plant cell wall polysaccharide that represents a major fraction of sugar beet pulp. One distinguishing feature of sugar beet pectin is a high content of C2 and C3 ace...

151

Ethanol from Sugar Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and relatively low profit for sugar are putting pressure on the sugar industry to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, mainly sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum, fit well into the emerging concept of a renewable car...

152

Added Sugars  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

153

Effects of Two Different Ozone Exposure Regimes on Chlorophyll and Sucrose Content of Leaves and Yield Parameters of Sugar Beet ( Beta Vulgaris L.) and Rape ( Brassica Napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv. Loretta) and rape (Brassica napus cv. Licolly) plants were exposed under equaldose conditions in closed fumigation chambers under twodifferent ozone (O3) pattern: Var130 (17:00–09:00 h: 40 µg O3 m-3; 09:00–17:00 h: 130µgO3 m-3) and Var220 (16:00-12:00 h: 40 µgO3 m-3; 12:00–16:00 h: 220µg O3 m-3).Control plants were exposed under carbon filtered airconditions (ozone free, CF-control).

B. Köllner; G. H. M. Krause

2003-01-01

154

[Simultaneous determination of instant coffee, plant fat and sugar content in liquid coffee beverage by diffuse reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy].  

PubMed

The diffuse reflectance near-infrared spectra of 20 liquid coffee beverage samples were collected by FT-NIR spectrometer combined with integral sphere in this thesis. The quantitative calibration models of instant coffee, plant fat and sugar were developed respectively. The result indicated that for the calibration models of instant coffee, plant fat and sugar, the dimensions of the calibration models are 4, 5 and 4 respectively; the determination coefficients (R2) are 98.97%, 99.94% and 99.18% respectively; the root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC) are 1.62, 0.42 and 1.58 respectively; the root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) are 2.12, 0.72 and 2.01 respectively. The result of F-test showed that a very remarkable correlation exists between the estimated and specified values for each calibration model. This research indicated that NIR spectroscopy can be applied in the rapid, accurate and simultaneous determination of the three main ingredients in liquid coffee beverage. This research can provide some references for the quality control of liquid coffee beverage and the determination of the substance with chemical-fixation composition in liquid formula food. PMID:22715767

Wang, Dong; Min, Shun-geng; Duan, Jia; Xiong, Yan-mei; Li, Qian-qian

2012-04-01

155

High blood sugar  

MedlinePLUS

High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

156

Hydrophobic sugar holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

2008-02-01

157

The role of sugar beet pulp polysaccharides in the sustainability of the sugar beet industry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar beet pulp was sequentially extracted with a microwave heating source under pressure to produce pectin, alkaline soluble polysaccharides and cellulose, which was converted into carboxymethyl-cellulose. The solution physical-chemical properties of these polysaccharides were compared to those obt...

158

Sugar and Salt Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when sugar and salt are added to water? Pour in sugar, shake in salt, and evaporate water to see the effects on concentration and conductivity. Zoom in to see how different sugar and salt compounds dissolve. Zoom in again to explore the role of water.

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Reid, Sam; Moore, Emily; Chamberlain, Julia; Loeblein, Trish

2011-10-12

159

Solubility Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

160

Impact of distillers dried grains with solubles particle size on nutrient digestibility, DE and ME content, and flowability in diets for growing pigs.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on DE and ME content, diet DM, energy, N, P digestibility, and diet flowability for growing pigs. One DDGS source was processed through an Urshel Commitrol mill or a hammer mill to achieve mean particle sizes of 818, 595, and 308 ?m. The basal control diet consisted of 96.8% corn with supplemental minerals and vitamins. Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 30% of corn from the basal diet with DDGS of different particle sizes. Thirty-six growing pigs (initial BW of 40 ± 1.13 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their BW block and housed in individual metabolic crates for a 9-d adaptation period followed by a 4-d total collection of feces and urine. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to water and fed an amount of their respective experimental diets equivalent to 3% of the initial BW of each pig. Feed, feces, and urine samples were analyzed for DM, GE, N, and P and used to calculate diet apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Gross energy was also used to calculate DE and ME of diets as well as the DE and ME content of corn and DDGS with different particle sizes. Diet drained and poured angles of repose were measured using a modified Hele-Shaw cell method to evaluate the diet flowability. Inclusion of 30% DDGS with an average particle size of 308 ?m improved (P < 0.05) dietary ATTD of DM and GE as well as DE (4,006 vs. 3,783 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3,861 vs. 3,583 kcal/kg DM) compared with 818 ?m DDGS. No differences (P > 0.05) were found in N and P digestibility among the 3 DDGS diets. The DDGS particle size of 595 ?m had greater (P < 0.05) DE but not ME compared with 818 ?m DDGS, and DE and ME were not different between 308 and 595 ?m. Compared with a 595 or 818 ?m DDGS, grinding DDGS to 308 ?m reduced diet flowability as indicated by a greater (P < 0.05) drained angle of repose. These results suggested that for each 25 ?m decrease in DDGS particle size from 818 ?m to 308 ?m, the ME contribution of DDGS to the diet is 13.46 kcal/kg DM, but diet flowability will be reduced. PMID:22851246

Liu, P; Souza, L W O; Baidoo, S K; Shurson, G C

2012-12-01

161

Dietary fiber content of selected foods13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary fiber measurements are essential to assessment ofthe potential thera- peutic and preventive effects of fiber intake. Ideally, dietary fiber analyses should measure all components-soluble polysaccharides, noncellulosic polysacchandes, cellulose, and lignin- and the constituent sugars ofthe soluble and noncellulosic polysaccharides. We modified exist- ing techniques to measure reproducibly the total dietary fiber, polysaccharide, and lignin com- ponents and the sugar

James WAnderson; Susan R Bridges

162

Effects of feeding diets containing increasing content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles to grower-finisher pigs on growth performance, carcass composition, and pork fat quality.  

PubMed

Crossbred pigs (n = 512) with an average initial BW of 22.1 +/- 0.54 kg were used to evaluate growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat quality of grower-finisher pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets containing increasing content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). One of 4 dietary treatments was randomly assigned to each pen within sex. Dietary treatment and sex were the main factors in a 3-phase feeding program (BW = 22 to 53 kg, 53 to 85 kg, and 85 to 115 kg). Dietary treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal control, or a corn-soybean meal diet containing 10, 20, or 30% DDGS. Overall, increasing the dietary DDGS content had no effect on ADG (P = 0.74), but ADFI was linearly reduced and G:F was linearly increased (P < 0.01). Dressing percentage, LM marbling and firmness, and belly firmness were linearly reduced (P < 0.01), but percentage of fat-free lean was linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary DDGS. Subjective LM color score (P = 0.65), drip loss (P = 0.37), and ultimate pH of LM (P = 0.21) were not influenced by dietary DDGS. Japanese color scores for backfat (P = 0.41) and belly fat (P = 0.85) were similar among dietary treatments (P = 0.41). Feeding an increasing content of DDGS linearly increased (P < 0.05) PUFA concentration, particularly linoleic acid (C18:2), in belly fat, backfat, and LM intramuscular fat, but the increase in LM intramuscular fat was smaller in magnitude (P < 0.05) than in backfat and belly fat. Pigs fed an increasing content of DDGS had a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the iodine value of backfat, belly fat, and LM intramuscular fat of 58.4 to 72.4, 61.5 to 72.3, and 54.8 to 57.7, respectively. Oxidation of LM intramuscular fat measured on d 0, 14, 21, and 28 of storage was not affected by dietary treatment. Taste tests for LM showed no effects of diet on flavor, off-flavor (P = 0.36), tenderness (P = 0.66), juiciness (P = 0.58), and overall acceptability (P = 0.52) scores. Similarly, bacon flavor (P = 0.88), off-flavor, crispiness, and overall liking scores were not affected by increasing dietary DDGS, but bacon fattiness (P < 0.01) and tenderness (P < 0.05) scores were linearly reduced. These results showed no negative effects on growth performance or dressing percentage when growing-finishing pigs were fed diets containing up to 30% DDGS, but fat quality may not meet the standards of all pork processors when feeding diets containing more than 20% DDGS. PMID:19966160

Xu, G; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J; Bibus, D; Cannon, J E; Shurson, G C

2010-04-01

163

DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erh048 Advanced Access publication 12 December, 2003 Sugar and phytohormone response pathways: navigating  

E-print Network

DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erh048 Advanced Access publication 12 December, 2003 Sugar and phytohormone of soluble sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, help regulate a diverse array of processes. Multiple lines `interactions' or `crosstalk' between sugars and phytohormones are described, including embryogenesis, seed

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

164

High sulfur content in corn dried distillers grains with solubles protects against oxidized lipids by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs.  

PubMed

Some sources of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during the production process. These oxidized lipids may impair metabolic oxidation status of pigs. The objective of this study was to understand the effects of feeding corn-soybean meal diets (CON) or diets containing 30% highly oxidized DDGS with 1 of 3 levels of supplemental vitamin E (dl-?-tocopheryl acetate), none, the 1998 NRC level (11 IU/kg), and 10x the 1998 NRC level (110 IU/kg), on oxidative status of nursery pigs. The DDGS source used in this study contained the greatest thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide value, and total S content (5.2 ng/mg oil, 84.1 mEq/kg oil, and 0.95%, respectively) relative to 30 other DDGS sources sampled (mean values = 1.8 ng/mg oil, 11.5 mEq/kg oil, and 0.50%, respectively). Barrows (n = 54) were housed in pens and fed the experimental diets for 8 wk after weaning and transferred to individual metabolism cages for collection of feces, urine, blood, and liver samples. Total S content was greater in DDGS diets than in CON (0.39 vs. 0.19%). Dietary inclusion of 30% DDGS improved apparent total tract digestibility of S (86.8 vs. 84.6%; P < 0.001) and S retained (2.94 vs. 2.07 g/d; P < 0.01) compared with CON. Although pigs were fed highly oxidized DDGS in this study, serum TBARS were similar between DDGS and CON treatments. There was an interaction between DDGS and dietary vitamin E level for serum concentrations of ?-tocopherol. Serum ?-tocopherol concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in pigs fed DDGS diets than those fed CON when dl-?-tocopheryl acetate was not provided or provided at the NRC level but were similar when dl-?-tocopheryl acetate was supplemented at the 10x NRC level. Pigs fed DDGS diets had greater serum concentrations of S-containing AA, particularly Met (P < 0.001) and taurine (P = 0.002), compared with those fed CON. Liver glutathione concentration was greater in pigs fed DDGS diets than CON (56.3 vs. 41.8 nmol/g). Dietary inclusion of DDGS (P < 0.001) and vitamin E (P = 0.03) increased enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase. The elevated concentrations of S-containing antioxidants (Met, taurine, and glutathione) in vivo may protect pigs against oxidative stress when feeding highly oxidized DDGS. Therefore, the increased S content in DDGS may be beneficial, and increasing concentrations of vitamin E in diets may not be necessary to protect pigs against metabolic oxidative stress when feeding high S and highly peroxidized DDGS. PMID:23482577

Song, R; Chen, C; Wang, L; Johnston, L J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Shurson, G C

2013-06-01

165

A GC method for simultaneous analysis of bornesitol, other polyalcohols and sugars in coffee and its substitutes.  

PubMed

A GC method has been developed for the determination of polyalcohols and sugars in aqueous extracts from green coffee beans, ground roasted coffee beans submitted to either conventional or torrefacto processes, coffee blends and soluble instant coffees. Bornesitol was detected in aqueous coffee extracts for the first time. Mannitol, myo-inositol, mannose, fructose, galactose, glucose and sucrose have also been determined. Results seem to indicate that coffee manufacturing processes, such as roasting or decaffeination, do not affect the polyalcohol content. Coffee substitutes based on cereals, carob or chicory, have also been studied. The possibility to characterize their presence in coffee extracts was evaluated. PMID:17444224

Ruiz-Matute, Ana Isabel; Montilla, Antonia; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Martínez-Castro, Isabel; Sanz, Maria Luz

2007-03-01

166

Fragility of sugar melts.  

PubMed

Continuous viscosity of the sugar melt ranged from the superheated to the supercooled, was measured with a rotating viscometer. The thermal properties of sugars have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetric and thermogravimetry. The melt fragility and the fragility of the supercooled liquid have been calculated. This study indicated that, for the whole sugar system, the melt fragility and the fragility of the supercooled liquid separately show negative linear relations with the glass-forming ability and can be used as indicators of this property. In an individual sugar system, the fragility of the supercooled liquid has a direct proportion to melt fragility, which depends on the different inherent characteristic temperatures. PMID:22328122

Liu, Jiantong; Ren, Zhenfeng; Lin, Lejia; Li, Hui; Jia, Ran

2012-02-01

167

Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.  

PubMed

Synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. The objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. Sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arthropod pests. Dosage-mortality studies were conducted on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) on pear, tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) Blackman and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta [Johannson]) on tobacco, and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on apple in laboratory bioassays. These sugar esters were compared with insecticidal soap (M-Pede, Dow AgroSciences L.L.C., San Diego, CA), to determine how toxicologically similar these materials were against the arthropod pests. Substitutions in either the sugar or fatty acid component led to significant changes in the physical properties and insecticidal activity of these compounds. The sugar esters varied in their solubility in water and in emulsion stability, yet, droplet spread upon pear leaves occurred at low concentrations of 80-160 ppm and was strongly correlated with psylla mortalities (R2 = 0.73). Sequentially altering the sugar or fatty acid components from lower to higher numbers of carbon chains, or whether the sugar was a monosaccharide or disaccharide did not follow a predictable relationship to insecticidal activity. Intuitively, changing the hydrophile from sorbitol (C6) to xylitol (C5) would require a decrease in lipophile chain length to maintain hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) relationships, yet an increase in lipophile chain length was unexpectedly needed for increasing insecticidal activity. Thus, the HLB of these materials did not correlate with pear psylla mortalities. Initial insect bioassays and dosage-mortality data found significant differences among sugar ester compounds' toxicity to the range of arthropod species. Sucrose octanoate high in monoester content had the highest activity against the range of arthropod pests at low concentrations of 1200-2400 ppm. No single chemical structure for the xylitol or sorbitol esters were optimally effective against the range of arthropods we tested and sorbitol octanoate and xylitol decanoate had the highest insecticidal activity of this group. All of the sugar ester materials produced high T. urticae mortalities on apple at very low concentrations of 400 ppm. Overall, most of the sugar esters that were examined had superior insecticidal activity compared with insecticidal soap. Sugar ester chemistry offers a unique opportunity to design an insecticide or miticide specific to certain arthropod pests which would be valuable in crop integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Sucrose esters are currently used as additives in the food industry which makes them especially attractive as safe and effective insecticides. PMID:12852599

Puterka, Gary J; Farone, William; Palmer, Tracy; Barrington, Anthony

2003-06-01

168

Sugars as signaling molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that, in a manner similar to classical plant hormones, sugars can act as signaling molecules that control gene expression and developmental processes in plants. Crucial evidence includes uncoupling glucose signaling from its metabolism, identification of glucose sensors, and isolation and characterization of mutants and other regulatory components in plant sugar signal transduction pathways. The emerging scenario points

Jen Sheen; Li Zhou; Jyun-Chyun Jang

1999-01-01

169

CPPU elevates photosynthetic abilities, growth performances and yield traits in salt stressed rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica) via free proline and sugar accumulation.  

PubMed

Application of N-2-(chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenyl urea (CPPU) to salt susceptible cultivar of indica rice (cv. PTT1) effected on free proline and soluble sugar accumulation and regulated the physio-morphological responses when subjected to salt stress condition was firstly demonstrated in this study. Soluble sugars, including sucrose, glucose and fructose, in leaf blade and leaf sheath were enriched in 0.1 mM CPPU pretreated plants subsequently exposed to 16.6 dS m(-1) NaCl for 10 days. In the long period (15 days) salt stress, free proline content in the leaf blade and leaf sheath were evidently peaked to act as osmotic adjustment in the salt-stressed plants. In addition, the photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids, were maintained by the functional regulation of soluble sugar and free proline in the cellular levels, thereby leading to higher net photosynthetic rate. Further, the stomatal closure and transpiration rate in CPPU pretreated plants were retained under salt stress, thereby resulting in alleviation of growth performance and yield traits. This study suggested that exogenous application of CPPU may alternatively play effective role to improve the salt tolerant abilities of salt susceptible rice crop. PMID:24485312

Gashaw, Arega; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

2014-01-01

170

Flavonoid supplementation affects the expression of genes involved in cell wall formation and lignification metabolism and increases sugar content and saccharification in the fast-growing eucalyptus hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis.  

PubMed

Background Eucalyptus species are the most widely planted hardwood species in the world and are renowned for their rapid growth and adaptability. In Brazil, one of the most widely grown Eucalyptus cultivars is the fast-growing Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis hybrid. In a previous study, we described a chemical characterization of these hybrids when subjected to flavonoid supplementation on 2 distinct timetables, and our results revealed marked differences between the wood composition of the treated and untreated trees.ResultsIn this work, we report the transcriptional responses occurring in these trees that may be related to the observed chemical differences. Gene expression was analysed through mRNA-sequencing, and notably, compared to control trees, the treated trees display differential down-regulation of cell wall formation pathways such as phenylpropanoid metabolism as well as differential expression of genes involved in sucrose, starch and minor CHO metabolism and genes that play a role in several stress and environmental responses. We also performed enzymatic hydrolysis of wood samples from the different treatments, and the results indicated higher sugar contents and glucose yields in the flavonoid-treated plants.ConclusionsOur results further illustrate the potential use of flavonoids as a nutritional complement for modifying Eucalyptus wood, since, supplementation with flavonoids alters its chemical composition, gene expression and increases saccharification probably as part of a stress response. PMID:25407319

Lepikson-Neto, Jorge; Nascimento, Leandro C; Salazar, Marcela M; Camargo, Eduardo; Cairo, João; Teixeira, Paulo J; Marques, Wesley L; Squina, Fabio M; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Deckmann, Ana C; Pereira, Gonçalo

2014-11-19

171

Moisture solubility for differently conditioned transformer oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to monitor the moisture content of transformer oil in a transformer. One parameter of particular interest is the moisture solubility of transformer oil. It has been reported that transformer oils under different conditions have different solubility. Measurements of solubility for four different types of conditioned oil are presented in this paper: fresh Shell Diala AX oil, lab-aged

Y. DUI; A. V. Mamishev; B. C. Lesieutre; M. Zahn; S. H. Kang

2001-01-01

172

Sugar substitutes during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Answer Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25392440

Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

2014-01-01

173

Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the rare lyxonic acid, and their relative abundances are in equilibrium proportions. In addition (in contrast to the above D-only excesses), some of the above acids are found in biology as the L enantiomer. Whether rare are common, all of the 6C sugar acids that are present in sufficient amounts to allow enantiomer analysis (Mannonic, gluconic, altronic, talonic, idonic, gulonic, and galactonic) also, apparently, possess significant D excesses.

Cooper, George

2012-01-01

174

Sweeteners - sugar substitutes  

MedlinePLUS

... 519. Wiebe N, Padwal R,Field C, Marks S, Jacobs R, Tonelli M: A systematic review of the ... FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes ...

175

Low blood sugar - newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... is also called neonatal hypoglycemia. It refers to low blood sugar (glucose) in the first few days after birth. ... should continue taking blood tests until the baby's glucose level ... tests: Newborn screening for metabolic disorders Urine tests

176

Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame  

MedlinePLUS

... sugar substitute. It is a combination of 2 amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 220 ... bodies are unable to metabolize one of the amino acids in aspartame, phenylalanine. Benefits of aspartame Does not ...

177

5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

178

Influence of soluble aluminosilicate complex formation on imogolite solubility determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a earlier paper (Su and Harsh, 1994), we presented a free energy of formation for imogolite based on solubility studies and including a formation constant for a monomeric, soluble aluminosilicate complex (Browne and Driscoll, 1992). Farmer and Lumsdon (1994) have argued that the aluminosilicate formation constant is too high, calling into question solubility determinations utilizing this value. We have recalculated the log K value for imogolite dissolution using the new value for the aluminosilicate species. The result is a slight, but insignificant, increase in the log K for imogolite dissolution, supporting our earlier contention that the free energy of imogolite is larger than found in previous studies.

Su, Chunming; Harsh, James B.

1996-11-01

179

"JCE" Classroom Activity #105. A Sticky Situation: Chewing Gum and Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this Activity, students perform several solubility tests using common food items such as chocolate, chewing gum, water, sugar, and oil. From their observations during the Activity, students will initially classify the substances tested as soluble or insoluble. They will then use their understanding of the chemistry of solubility to classify the…

Montes-Gonzalez, Ingrid; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.; Perez-Medina, Ilia E.; Montes-Berrios, Veronica; Roman-Lopez, Saurie N.

2010-01-01

180

Ethylene Suppression of Sugar-Induced Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanin accumulation is regulated negatively by ethylene signaling and positively by sugar and light signaling. However, the antagonistic interactions underlying these signalings remain to be elucidated fully. We show that ethylene inhibits anthocyanin accumulation induced by sucrose (Suc) and light by suppressing the expression of transcription factors that positively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis, including GLABRA3, TRANSPARENT TESTA8, and PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1, while stimulating the concomitant expression of the negative R3-MYB regulator MYBL2. Genetic analyses show that the ethylene-mediated suppression of anthocyanin accumulation is dependent upon ethylene signaling components responsible for the triple response. Furthermore, these positive and negative signaling pathways appear to be under photosynthetic control. Suc and light induction of anthocyanin accumulation was almost fully inhibited in wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia and ethylene (ethylene response1 [etr1-1]) and light (long hypocotyl1 [hy1], cryptochrome1/2, and hy5) signaling mutants treated with the photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. The transcript level of the sugar transporter gene SUC1 was enhanced in ecotype Columbia treated with the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver and in etr1-1, ethylene insensitive2 (ein2-1), and ein3 ein3-like1 mutants. In contrast, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea treatment reduced SUC1 expression, which indicates strongly that SUC1 represents an integrator for signals provided by sugar, light, and ethylene. SUC1 mutations lowered accumulations of anthocyanin pigment, soluble sugar content, and ethylene production in response to Suc and light signals. These data demonstrate that the suppression of SUC1 expression by ethylene inhibits Suc-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the presence of light and, hence, fine-tunes anthocyanin homeostasis. PMID:20876338

Jeong, Seok-Won; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Jeoung, Sae Chae; Song, Ji-Young; Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Kim, Woo Jung; Park, Yong Il; Yoo, Sang-Dong; Choi, Sang-Bong; Choi, Giltsu; Park, Youn-Il

2010-01-01

181

Changes in sugars, acids, and volatiles during ripening of koubo [Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller] fruits.  

PubMed

The columnar cactus Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller, Cactaceae (koubo), is grown commercially in Israel. The unripe fruits are green, and the color changes to violet and then to red when the fruit is fully ripe. The content of soluble sugars was found to increase 5-fold during ripening. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars accumulated in the fruit pulp, and each increased from 0.5 to 5.5 g/100 g fresh weight during ripening. The polysaccharides content decreased during ripening from 1.4 to 0.4 g/100 g fresh weight. The titratable acidity decreased and the pH increased during ripening. The major organic acid found in the fruit was malic acid, which decreased from 0.75 g/100 g fresh weight at the mature green stage to 0.355 g/100 g fresh weight in ripe fruits. Citric, succinic, and oxalic acids were found in concentrations lower than 0.07 g/100 g fresh weight. Prominent accumulation of aroma volatiles occurred toward the end of the ripening process. The main volatile found in the ripe fruit was linalool, reaching concentrations of 1.5-3.5 microg/g fresh weight. PMID:12537460

Ninio, Racheli; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Mizrahi, Yosef; Sitrit, Yaron

2003-01-29

182

Sugar Sensing and Signaling  

PubMed Central

Plants, restricted by their environment, need to integrate a wide variety of stimuli with their metabolic activity, growth and development. Sugars, generated by photosynthetic carbon fixation, are central in coordinating metabolic fluxes in response to the changing environment and in providing cells and tissues with the necessary energy for continued growth and survival. A complex network of metabolic and hormone signaling pathways are intimately linked to diverse sugar responses. A combination of genetic, cellular and systems analyses have uncovered nuclear HXK1 (hexokinase1) as a pivotal and conserved glucose sensor, directly mediating transcription regulation, while the KIN10/11 energy sensor protein kinases function as master regulators of transcription networks under sugar and energy deprivation conditions. The involvement of disaccharide signals in the regulation of specific cellular processes and the potential role of cell surface receptors in mediating sugar signals add to the complexity. This chapter gives an overview of our current insight in the sugar sensing and signaling network and describes some of the molecular mechanisms involved. PMID:22303242

Ramon, Matthew; Rolland, Filip; Sheen, Jen

2008-01-01

183

Sugar receptors in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The detection and discrimination of chemical compounds in potential foods are essential sensory processes when animals feed. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster employs 68 different gustatory receptors (GRs) for the detection of mostly nonvolatile chemicals that include sugars, a diverse group of toxic compounds present in many inedible plants and spoiled foods, and pheromones [1-6]. With the exception of a trehalose (GR5a) and a caffeine (GR66a) receptor [7-9], the functions of GRs involved in feeding are unknown. Here, we show that the Gr64 genes encode receptors for numerous sugars. We generated a fly strain that contained a deletion for all six Gr64 genes (DeltaGr64) and showed that these flies exhibit no or a significantly diminished proboscis extension reflex (PER) response when stimulated with glucose, maltose, sucrose, and several other sugars. The only considerable response was detected when Gr64 mutant flies were stimulated with fructose. Interestingly, response to trehalose is also abolished in these flies, even though they contain a functional Gr5a gene, which has been previously shown to encode a receptor for this sugar [8, 9]. This observation indicates that two or more Gr genes are necessary for trehalose detection, suggesting that GRs function as multimeric receptor complexes. Finally, we present evidence that some members of the Gr64 gene family are transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA, providing a mechanism for the coexpression of multiple sugar receptors in the same taste neurons. PMID:17919910

Slone, Jesse; Daniels, Joseph; Amrein, Hubert

2007-10-23

184

Effect of urea fertilizer application on soluble protein and free amino acid content of cotton petioles in relation to silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii) populations.  

PubMed

The impact of urea nitrogen fertilization on silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, population dynamics was examined in field-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Five urea nitrogen treatments were tested, consisting of soil applications of 0, 112, 168, and 224 kg nitrogen per hectare, and acombined soil-foliar application of 112:17 kg nitrogen per hectare. A positive response was observed between N application rates and the measured levels of nitrate N in petioles from mature cotton leaves. Similarly, a positive response was observed between N application rates and the numbers of adult and immature whiteflies appearing during population peaks. To determine whether these positive responses were related, we measured the levels of dietary N compounds (proteins and free amino acids) that would be available for insect nutrition in cotton petioles at the different N application rates. Sampling dates and N application treatments affected levels of soluble proteins in cotton petioles, and interactions between sampling dates and treatments were significant. Across all sampling dates, the relationship between N application rates and levels of soluble proteins was linear. Sampling dates also affected levels of total and individual free amino acids. Fertilizer treatments only affected levels of total amino acids, aspartate, asparagine, and arginine plus threonine. Levels of aspartate or asparagine and the N application rates were linearly correlated. No significant correlations were observed between levels of dietary N compounds in cotton petioles and numbers of whiteflies, either adults or immatures, on the cotton plants. PMID:12757331

Bi, J L; Toscano, N C; Madore, M A

2003-03-01

185

Purification and characterization of a soluble ?-1,4-glucan from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)-cultured cells dehabituated to dichlobenil.  

PubMed

Bean cells habituated to grow in the presence of dichlobenil exhibited reduced cellulose and hemicellulose content and an increase in pectic polysaccharides. Furthermore, following the extraction of pectins and hemicelluloses, a large amount of neutral sugars was released. These sugars were found to be part of a soluble ?-1,4-glucan in a preliminary characterization, as reported by Encina et al. (Physiol Plant 114:182-191, 2002). When habituated cells were subcultured in the absence of the herbicide (dehabituated cells), the release of neutral sugars after the extraction of pectins and hemicelluloses was maintained. In this study, we have isolated a soluble ?-1,4-glucan from dehabituated cells by sonication of the wall residue (cellulose fraction) remaining after fractionation. Gel filtration chromatography revealed that its average molecular size was 14 kDa. Digestion of the sample with endocellulase revealed the presence of cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose. Methylation analysis showed that 4-linked glucose was the most abundant sugar residue, but 4,6-linked glucose, terminal arabinose and 4-linked galactose for xyloglucan, and arabinogalactan were also identified. NMR analysis showed that this 1,4-glucan may be composed of various kinds of substitutions along the glucan backbone together with acetyl groups linked to the OH group of sugar residues. Thus, despite its relatively high molecular mass, the ?-glucan remains soluble because of its unique configuration. This is the first time that a glucan with such characteristics has been isolated and described. The discovery of new molecules, as this ?-glucan with unique features, may help understand the composition and arrangement of the polymers within plant cell walls, contributing to a better understanding of this complex structure. PMID:23455460

Alonso-Simón, Ana; Encina, Antonio E; Seyama, Tomoko; Kondo, Tetsuo; García-Angulo, Penélope; Álvarez, Jesús M; Acebes, Jose L; Hayashi, Takahisa

2013-06-01

186

Salts & Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive simulation, learners will add different salts to water and then watch the salts dissolve and achieve a dynamic equilibrium with solid precipitate. Learners will also compare the number of ions in NaCl to other slightly soluble salts, and they will relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. Learners will also learn how to calculate Ksp values. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 20 languages.

2012-12-27

187

Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA)

2003-05-27

188

Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

189

32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

190

SUGAR BEET QUALITY IMPROVEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than one third of the sucrose (sugar) consumed by humans is obtained from sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Sucrose extraction begins with the production of a dark opaque juice from strips of sugarbeet. This juice is purified with lime and carbon dioxide, thickened by evaporation, and crystallize...

191

Manage your blood sugar (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... before meals and at bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track ... before meals and at bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track ...

192

Effect of UV-B light on soluble phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of selected fresh-cut fruits and vegetables  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of wounding followed by ultraviolet (UV-B) light exposure to enhance the nutrient content of specialty crops by stimulating the synthesis of secondary metabolites was evaluated. In this continuing screening study of several fresh-cut produce, both top and bottom surfaces were expose...

193

Hydrogen Bonding between Sugar and Protein Is Responsible for Inhibition of Dehydration-Induced Protein Unfolding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the interaction responsible for the inhibition of protein unfolding and subsequent damage by sugars during dehydration is unclear. The relationship between sample moisture content measured by coulometric Karl Fischer titration and the apparent moisture content predicted by the area of the protein side chain carboxylate band at approximately 1580 cm?1in infrared spectra of dried protein–sugar samples was

S. Dean Allison; Byeong Chang; Theodore W. Randolph; John F. Carpenter

1999-01-01

194

Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2005-11-15

195

Enantioselective Synthesis of Apoptolidin Sugars  

E-print Network

Enantioselective Synthesis of Apoptolidin Sugars Michael T. Crimmins* and Alan Long Venable synthesis of the C9 and C27 sugar subunits (2) and (3), respectively, of the potent antitumor agent of the aldol adducts efficiently provided the three sugar units. A -selective glycosidation completed

196

Molecular Mobility in Sugar Glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar glasses. Sugar glasses are relevant as model systems for foods that contain sugars and

Dries van den I. J

2000-01-01

197

Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.  

PubMed

The waste materials from the carob processing industry are a potential resource for second-generation bioethanol production. These by-products are small carob kibbles with a high content of soluble sugars (45-50%). Batch and fed-batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations of high density sugar from carob pods were analyzed in terms of the kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition. In all the batch runs, 90-95% of the total sugar was consumed and transformed into ethanol with a yield close to the theoretical maximum (0.47-0.50 g/g), and a final ethanol concentration of 100-110 g/l. In fed-batch runs, fresh carob extract was added when glucose had been consumed. This addition and the subsequent decrease of ethanol concentrations by dilution increased the final ethanol production up to 130 g/l. It seems that invertase activity and yeast tolerance to ethanol are the main factors to be controlled in carob fermentations. The efficiency of highly concentrated carob fermentation makes it a very promising process for use in a second-generation ethanol biorefinery. PMID:22270889

Lima-Costa, Maria Emília; Tavares, Catarina; Raposo, Sara; Rodrigues, Brígida; Peinado, José M

2012-05-01

198

19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

2012-04-01

199

19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

2014-04-01

200

19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

2013-04-01

201

Relative ability of fat and sugar tastes to activate reward, gustatory, and somatosensory regions123  

PubMed Central

Background: Although the intake of high-fat and high-sugar food activates mesolimbic reward, gustatory, and oral somatosensory brain regions, contributing to overeating, few studies have examined the relative role of fat and sugar in the activation of these brain regions, which would inform policy, prevention, and treatment interventions designed to reduce obesity. Objective: We evaluated the effect of a high-fat or high-sugar equicaloric chocolate milkshake and increasing fat or sugar milkshake content on the activation of these regions. Design: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the neural response to the intake of high-fat/high-sugar, high-fat/low-sugar, low-fat/high-sugar, and low-fat/low-sugar chocolate milkshakes and a tasteless solution in 106 lean adolescents (mean ± SD age = 15.00 ± 0.88 y). Analyses contrasted the activation to the various milkshakes. Results: High-fat compared with high-sugar equicaloric milkshakes caused greater activation in the bilateral caudate, postcentral gyrus, hippocampus, and inferior frontal gyrus. High-sugar compared with high-fat equicaloric milkshakes caused greater activation in the bilateral insula extending into the putamen, the Rolandic operculum, and thalamus, which produced large activation regions. Increasing sugar in low-fat milkshakes caused greater activation in the bilateral insula and Rolandic operculum; increasing fat content did not elicit greater activation in any region. Conclusions: Fat caused greater activation of the caudate and oral somatosensory regions than did sugar, sugar caused greater activation in the putamen and gustatory regions than did fat, increasing sugar caused greater activity in gustatory regions, and increasing fat did not affect the activation. Results imply that sugar more effectively recruits reward and gustatory regions, suggesting that policy, prevention, and treatment interventions should prioritize reductions in sugar intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as DK092468. PMID:24132980

Burger, Kyle S; Yokum, Sonja

2013-01-01

202

Studies of a second family with the Quebec platelet disorder: evidence that the degradation of the alpha-granule membrane and its soluble contents are not secondary to a defect in targeting proteins to alpha-granules.  

PubMed

We recently described a Quebec family with an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder characterized by mildly reduced-low normal platelet counts, an epinephrine aggregation defect, multimerin deficiency, and proteolytic degradation of several, soluble alpha-granular proteins. Similar clinical features led us to investigate a second family with an unexplained, autosomal dominant bleeding disorder. The affected individuals had reduced to normal platelet counts, absent platelet aggregation with epinephrine, and multimerin deficiency. Their platelet alpha-granular proteins factor V, thrombospondin, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, fibronectin, osteonectin, and P-selectin were proteolyzed and comigrated with the degradation products found in patients from the other family. However, their platelet albumin, IgG, external membrane glycoproteins, CD63 (a lysosomal and dense granular protein), calpain, and plasma von Willebrand factor were normal, indicating restriction in the proteins proteolyzed. Electron microscopy studies indicated preserved alpha-granular ultrastructure, despite degradation of soluble and membrane alpha-granular proteins. Immunoelectron microscopy studies of the patients' platelets indicated that fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, P-selectin, multimerin, and factor V were within alpha-granules, with normal to reduced labeling for these proteins. Pathologic proteolysis of alpha-granular contents, rather than a defect in targeting proteins to alpha-granules, may be the cause of the protein degradation in the Quebec platelet disorder. PMID:9028947

Hayward, C P; Cramer, E M; Kane, W H; Zheng, S; Bouchard, M; Massé, J M; Rivard, G E

1997-02-15

203

7, 57695803, 2007 sugar-alcohols in  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 5769­5803, 2007 Sugars and sugar-alcohols in ambient aerosols in Norway K. E. Yttri et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four Sugars and sugar-alcohols in ambient aerosols in Norway K. E. Yttri et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Water solubility in trachytic melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

New data on water solubility in trachytic melts at pressures from 20 to 200 MPa and 850 °C are reported. Three trachytes, which differ mainly in Na\\/K ratio, were studied. The glasses obtained from water saturated experiments were analysed using both infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Karl Fischer Titration (KFT). The independent KFT data on total water contents were used to

V. Di Matteo; M. R. Carroll; H. Behrens; F. Vetere; R. A. Brooker

2004-01-01

205

Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets  

SciTech Connect

Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.

1981-01-01

206

Starches, Sugars and Obesity  

PubMed Central

The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

2011-01-01

207

Pyrolysis of Table Sugar  

PubMed Central

Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52?wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-?-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C. PMID:24223500

Karagöz, Selhan

2013-01-01

208

Soluble vs. insoluble fiber  

MedlinePLUS

... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

209

A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ) fruit soluble solids  

SciTech Connect

Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of ({sup 3}H)-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of ({sup 14}C)sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of ({sup 14}C)-(glycosyl)-1{prime}fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of ({sup 14}C) sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F{sub 2} population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes.

Damon, S.E.

1989-01-01

210

Sugar Cube Karst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to explore the way water moves through a porous, soluble substance and to observe the development of pits and channels as the substance dissolves in water. Students learn what karst is and how it is formed.

Mieras, Barb

211

Changes in sugars and organic acids in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit during development and maturation.  

PubMed

Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86mgg(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation. PMID:25466081

Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Haoxia; Xi, Wanpeng; An, Wei; Niu, Linlin; Cao, Youlong; Wang, Huafang; Wang, Yajun; Yin, Yue

2015-04-15

212

14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

213

Does the EU sugar policy reform increase added sugar consumption? An empirical evidence on the soft drink market.  

PubMed

Whereas National Health authorities recommend a decrease in the consumption of 'added' sugar, a reform on the sugar market will lead to a 36% decrease of the sugar price in the EU. Using French data on soft drinks purchases, this paper investigates the anticipated impact of this reform on the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The reform of the EU sugar policy leads to a decrease in regular soft drink prices by 3% and varies across brands. To assess substitution within this food category, we use a random-coefficients logit model that takes into account a large number of differentiated products and heterogeneity in consumers' behavior. Results suggest that price changes would lead to an increase in market shares of regular products by 7.5% and to substitutions between brands to the benefit of products with the highest sugar content. On the whole, it would raise consumption of regular soft drinks by more than 1?litre per person per year and consumption of added sugar by 124?g per person per year, this increase being larger in households composed of overweight and obese individuals. PMID:21322088

Bonnet, Céline; Requillart, Vincent

2011-09-01

214

[Supramolecular nanomachines for sugar responsive insulin release systems].  

PubMed

Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides composed of 6, 7, or 8 glucopyranoside units, named ?-, ?-, or ?-CD, respectively. CyDs consist of a hydrophobic cavity in which hydrophobic molecules are encapsulated to form an inclusion complex. CyDs are widely used in pharmaceutical applications because they function as nanocapsules to improve the stability and solubility of drugs. Recently, CyDs have attracted much attention as for use as components of supramolecular nanostructures that are particularly attractive because of their unique structures. We modified CyDs with phenylboronic acid (PBA), which forms covalent bonds with the diol groups of sugar, and used the resulting PBA-CyDs to prepare supramolecular nanomachines that undergo structural transformation in the presence of a chemical signal in the form of a sugar. PBA-?-CyD formed a supramolecular polymer that showed consecutive intermolecular interactions between PBA and the cavity of another PBA-?-CyD, whereas PBA-?-CyD formed head-to-head dimers in which one PBA moiety was encapsulated in the other. These supramolecular nanostructures disintegrated in the presence of sugars because of the structural change in the PBA moiety and loss of the driving force of the supramolecular assembly. These features of disintegration can be potentially used to prepare a nanomachine that would act as a sugar-responsive insulin release system. Currently, we are studying sugar-responsive nanomachines composed of PEGylated insulin and PBA-?-CyD. PMID:24292173

Egawa, Yuya; Seki, Toshinobu

2013-01-01

215

Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.  

PubMed

National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

2014-05-01

216

Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet  

PubMed Central

National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

2014-01-01

217

Microbacterium kitamiense sp. nov., a new polysaccharide-producing bacterium isolated from the wastewater of a sugar-beet factory.  

PubMed

Two strictly aerobic, heterotrophic and mesophilic new organisms, strains Kitami A1 and Kitami C2T, were isolated from the wastewater of a sugar-beet factory in Kitami City, Hokkaido, Japan. In batch cultures, these organisms produced both insoluble and soluble exopolysaccharides (EPSs) utilizing sucrose as the sole carbon source. The G + C contents of the strains Kitami C2T and Kitami A1 were 69.2 mol%. Both strains had anteiso-C15:0 acid, anteiso-C17:0 acid and iso-C16:0 as major components. The major isoprenoid quinones from these strains included menaquinone-11 and menaquinone-12. Physiological and biochemical characterization, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness indicated that these two organisms are new species of the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium kitamiense is proposed. The type strain of M. kitamiense is strain Kitami C2T (= JCM 10270T). PMID:10555312

Matsuyama, H; Kawasaki, K; Yumoto, I; Shida, O

1999-10-01

218

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

219

One-step enzymatic synthesis of nucleosides from low water-soluble purine bases in non-conventional media.  

PubMed

The effect of several water-miscible cosolvents on activity and stability of soluble and immobilized 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from Lactobacillus reuteri on Sepabeads® has been studied in order to establish optimal conditions for enzymatic synthesis of nucleosides using purine bases with low solubility in aqueous buffer. As a rule of thumb, there was a general reduction of soluble enzyme activity when cosolvent content was gradually increased in reaction medium. In contrast, immobilized enzyme activity was enhanced 1.2-1.4-fold at 20% of methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, diethylene glycol, and acetone; and at 10% and 30% acetonitrile. Likewise, highest increased activity (1.8-fold) was also obtained in presence of 20% acetonitrile. Immobilized enzyme was successfully used in the synthesis of 2'-deoxyxanthosine and 2'-deoxyguanosine using 2'-deoxyuridine as sugar donor and the corresponding poor water-soluble base in the presence of 30% of methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, ethylene glycol, acetonitrile, and DMSO, giving high nucleoside yields at 4h. PMID:22197334

Fernández-Lucas, Jesús; Fresco-Taboada, Alba; de la Mata, Isabel; Arroyo, Miguel

2012-07-01

220

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).  

PubMed

Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant. PMID:25300853

Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

2015-01-01

221

7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

2013-01-01

222

7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

2014-01-01

223

7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

2012-01-01

224

New Markers from Sugar Metabolism ESTs: Tagging Positive Alleles from Saccharum spontaneum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Limited genetic gains, obtained from breeding for sugar content in different breeding programs worldwide suggest that a plateau has been reached for this trait. One way to overcome this obstacle would be to identify and introduce into commercial germplasm alternative alleles controlling sugar metab...

225

Spring Wheat Response to Fertilizer Nitrogen Following a Sugar Beet Crop Varying in Canopy Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted in the Red River Valley (RRV) of Minnesota to determine the responses of hard red spring wheat (Triticum aerstivum L.) to fertilizer N after a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) crop that varied spatially in canopy color and N content. A color aerial photograph was acquired of the sugar beet field just prior to root harvest, and

A. L. Sims; J. T. Moraghan; L. J. Smith

2002-01-01

226

Analysis of herbicide residues in sugar beet and sugar.  

PubMed

A simple quantitative TLC method for the determination of the residues of herbicide inhibiting photosynthesis was compared with capillary GLC for the analysis of atrazine, chloridazone, lenacil, phenmedipham and desmedipham in sugar beet and sugar. No significant differences in the determination limit and precision of the two methods were found. Monitoring of herbicide residue levels in commercial sugar revealed low levels of atrazine (0.003 mg.kg-1 on average) in all the samples. This contamination level does not present a health hazard consumers. PMID:3412424

Tekel, J; Farkas, P; Kovacicová, J; Szokolay, A

1988-01-01

227

30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

228

35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

229

34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

230

33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

231

FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

232

The effect of high-sugar grass on predicted nitrogen excretion and milk yield simulated using a dynamic model.  

PubMed

High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential to reduce nitrogen (N) excretion and increase milk yield in cattle. However, considerable variation exists in the magnitude of response in published results. The purpose of this study is to explain the variation in response using a dynamic mechanistic model to predict observed N and milk yield results from the literature, and from simulated data. Examined effects were (1) water-soluble carbohydrate [WSC; g/kg of dry matter (DM)] increase; (2) change in crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of the plant with WSC increase; and (3) the level of N fertilization. The database for evaluation of model N and milk yield predictions consisted of 4 published studies with 28 treatment means for which high-sugar grasses were being evaluated. Water-soluble carbohydrate content of the diets ranged from 95 to 248 g/kg of DM, CP content ranged from 115 to 263 g/kg of DM, and the NDF content ranged from 400 to 568 g/kg of DM. Urine N, milk N, and total N excretion were predicted well by the model and followed the directional pattern of observed values within each study. Simulation results showed that the N utilization ratio increased as the WSC content of the diet increased, but to varying degrees depending on the grass scenario examined. The greatest benefit in terms of N utilization ratio and urine N levels were seen when the WSC content of grass increased at the expense of CP, followed by a 50:50 CP and NDF mix, followed by a trade for NDF. Simulated milk yield decreased slightly when WSC increased at the expense of CP, increased slightly when it increased at the expense of a CP and NDF mix, and increased most when WSC increased at the expense of NDF. Results were amplified slightly under conditions of low-N fertilization and in the absence of grain feeding. Overall, modeling is useful as an explanatory tool. The variation from results in the literature with high-WSC grass feeding may be, at least in part, the result of the level of WSC (g/kg of DM) increase, concurrent changes occurring within the CP and NDF fractions of the plant, and the plane of nutrition of the diet (grain feeding and N fertilization levels). PMID:21605779

Ellis, J L; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A; Parsons, A J; Rasmussen, S; Edwards, G R; Kebreab, E; France, J

2011-06-01

233

12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

234

Measurement of moisture and total reducing sugars using Near Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

industrial applications. In this project, the accuracy and feasibility of measuring moisture and total reducing sugar content in a vegetable medium using a Near Infrared Spectroscopy technique was investigated as an alternative to slow and tedious classical...

Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube

2012-06-07

235

Smashing Bubbles and Vanishing Sugar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science activities with soap bubbles for primary school children are described in this article. Another activity involves children in determining the whereabouts of sugar as it dissolves in water. (SA)

Ward, Alan

1979-01-01

236

Sugar and Organic Acid Analysis of Actinidia arguta and Rootstock–Scion Combinations of Actinidia arguta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free sugar and organic acid content ofActinidia argutafruit was studied. A number of significant differences were noted when compared to the acid and sugar content ofActinidia deliciosacv. Hayward (kiwifruit). Analyses ofA. argutaand 12 rootstock–scion combinations ofA. argutademonstrated that significant influences were made by both rootstock and scion. The significant influences were not consistent with a particular scion or rootstock.

Stewart Boyes; Peter Strübi; Hinga Marsh

1997-01-01

237

Abiotic Stress in Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is often limited by environmental conditions that cause decreased rates of photosynthesis, canopy expansion, root growth\\u000a and sucrose accumulation. These conditions include insufficient water, heat, freezing temperatures and salinity. Compared\\u000a to other crops such as cereals, harvestable sugar yields can be obtained even under harsh growing conditions. However, the\\u000a realization of maximum

Eric S. Ober; Abazar Rajabi

2010-01-01

238

DNA Bending and Sugar Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using high frequency antiphase NMR spectroscopy and computer simulations of the antiphase spectra, we studied the equlibria in the sugar conformations in the DNA duplex 11-mer containing the AAA tract surrounded by cytosines. We demonstrate that at the 3?-end of the A-tract, the sugar switches from the common S-conformer (B-like form) to the N-conformer (A-like form) with the probability of

Shantaram Kamath; Mukti H. Sarma; Victor B. Zhurkin; Christopher J. Turner; Ramaswamy H. Sarma

2000-01-01

239

Interactions in dispersions of sugar particles in food oils: influence of emulsifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of oil-soluble surface-active components on the interactions of fine sugar particles dispersed in triglyceride oils has been investigated at different volume fractions by a combination of rheological and sedimentation experiments. Four different types of food oil were investigated: soybean, milk fat, lauric fat (palm kernel oil) and cocoa butter. The addition of a low concentration of emulsifier, soya

Hélène Babin; Eric Dickinson; Helen Chisholm; Steve Beckett

2005-01-01

240

The Ups and Downs of Blood Sugar  

E-print Network

13090 60 180 The Ups and Downs of Blood Sugar You need just the right amount of sugar in your their blood sugar under control. l Whenyoufirstwakeupinthemorning,beforeyoueat breakfast,yourbloodsugarshouldbebetween90 and 30. l Try to keep your blood sugar between 90 and 30 as much of the time as possible. #12

241

Oxygen solubility in silicon-containing Fe-Co melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic analysis of the oxygen solutions in silicon-containing Fe-Co melts is performed. The equilibrium constant of silicon deoxidation of iron-cobalt melts, the activity coefficients for infinite dilution, and the interaction parameters for melts differing in composition are determined. The dependences of the oxygen solubility in the melts under study are calculated for different cobalt and silicon contents. The deoxidizing capacity of silicon increases substantially as the cobalt content in a melt increases. The curves of oxygen solubility in Fe-Co melts have a minimum; the minimum oxygen solubility shifts to a low silicon content as the cobalt content in the melts increases. The silicon contents for the minima in the curves of oxygen solubility and the minimum oxygen concentrations corresponding to the silicon contents are determined.

Aleksandrov, A. A.; Dashevskii, V. Ya.

2013-11-01

242

Solid fermentation of wheat bran for hydrolytic enzymes production and saccharification content by a local isolate Bacillus megatherium  

PubMed Central

Back ground For enzyme production, the costs of solid state fermentation (SSF) techniques were lower and the production higher than submerged cultures. A large number of fungal species was known to grow well on moist substrates, whereas many bacteria were unable to grow under this condition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate a highly efficient strain of Bacillus sp utilizing wheat bran in SSF and optimizing the enzyme production and soluble carbohydrates. Results A local strain Bacillus megatherium was isolated from dung sheep. The maximum production of pectinase, xylanase and ?-amylase, and saccharification content (total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars) were obtained by application of the B. megatherium in SSF using wheat bran as compared to grasses, palm leaves and date seeds. All enzymes and saccharification content exhibited their maximum production during 12–24 h, at the range of 40–80% moisture content of wheat bran, temperature 37-45°C and pH 5–8. An ascending repression of pectinase production was observed by carbon supplements of lactose, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch, respectively. All carbon supplements improved the production of xylanase and ?-amylase, except of lactose decreased ?-amylase production. A little increase in the yield of total reducing sugars was detected for all carbon supplements. Among the nitrogen sources, yeast extract induced a significant repression to all enzyme productivity. Sodium nitrate, urea and ammonium chloride enhanced the production of xylanase, ?-amylase and pectinase, respectively. Yeast extract, urea, ammonium sulphate and ammonium chloride enhanced the productivity of reducing sugars. Conclusions The optimization of enzyme production and sccharification content by B. megatherium in SSF required only adjustment of incubation period and temperature, moisture content and initial pH. Wheat bran supplied enough nutrients without any need for addition of supplements of carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:24758479

2014-01-01

243

15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

244

3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: South side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace (east) end to the smokestack (west) end of the boiling range. The sorghum pan sides are of redwood. The flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

245

Lipid dependencies, biogenesis and cytoplasmic micellar forms of integral membrane sugar transport proteins of the bacterial phosphotransferase system  

PubMed Central

Permeases of the prokaryotic phosphoenolpyruvate–sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) catalyse sugar transport coupled to sugar phosphorylation. The lipid composition of a membrane determines the activities of these enzyme/transporters as well as the degree of coupling of phosphorylation to transport. We have investigated mechanisms of PTS permease biogenesis and identified cytoplasmic (soluble) forms of these integral membrane proteins. We found that the catalytic activities of the soluble forms differ from those of the membrane-embedded forms. Transport via the latter is much more sensitive to lipid composition than to phosphorylation, and some of these enzymes are much more sensitive to the lipid environment than others. While the membrane-embedded PTS permeases are always dimeric, the cytoplasmic forms are micellar, either monomeric or dimeric. Scattered published evidence suggests that other integral membrane proteins also exist in cytoplasmic micellar forms. The possible functions of cytoplasmic PTS permeases in biogenesis, intracellular sugar phosphorylation and permease storage are discussed. PMID:23985145

Aboulwafa, Mohammad

2013-01-01

246

Volatile constituents of fermented sugar baits and their attraction to lepidopteran species.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds emanating from four fermented sugar baits, palm sugar, golden cane syrup, port wine, and molasses, were isolated by headspace sampling and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three classes of compounds including esters, alcohols, and aromatic compounds were identified in the headspace of the four fermented sugar baits. There was a high degree of qualitative similarity between the headspace contents of the four fermented sugar baits, although quantitatively they varied considerably. Ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutanol, ethyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl (E)-4-decenoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate were the major compounds identified in the headspace of the four fermented sugar baits. The efficacy of the four fermented sugar baits was investigated in field trapping experiments. Fermented palm sugar and golden cane syrup were superior in attracting significant numbers of moths as compared to port wine and molasses. Fermented molasses was the least attractive among the four baits. Over 90% of the insects caught were noctuids with Graphania mutans and Tmetolophota spp. being the main noctuids captured (over 55%) in the four fermented sugar baits. Male and female G. mutans were equally attracted to the four sugar baits. A number of tortricid species were also trapped. PMID:15713004

El-Sayed, A M; Heppelthwaite, V J; Manning, L M; Gibb, A R; Suckling, D M

2005-02-23

247

Relationship between Recrystallization Rate of Ice Crystals in Sugar Solutions and Water Mobility in Freeze-Concentrated Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the relation between recrystallization rate and water mobility in freeze-concentrated matrix, isothermal ice recrystallization rates in several sugar aqueous solutions and self-diffusion coefficients of water component in corresponding freeze-concentrated matrix were measured. The sugars used were fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose. The sugar concentrations and temperature were varied so that ice contents for all samples were almost

Tomoaki Hagiwara; Richard W. Hartel; Shingo Matsukawa

2006-01-01

248

Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils.  

PubMed

Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied using the batch equilibrium method in 21 soil samples collected from different depths. Soil properties like organic carbon content, texture, pH and partly the phosphorus and oxide content of the soils were tested against the adsorption coefficients of the herbicides. In general, the herbicides studied could be arranged according to their adsorption coefficients as follows: glyphosate>phenmedipham>ethofumesate approximately glufosinate-ammonium>metamitron, metamitron meaning the highest risk of leaching. None of the measured soil parameters could alone explain the adsorption mechanism of these five herbicides. The results can be used in model assessments of risk for leaching to ground water resulting from weed control of sugar beet in Finland. PMID:14761694

Autio, Sari; Siimes, Katri; Laitinen, Pirkko; Rämö, Sari; Oinonen, Seija; Eronen, Liisa

2004-04-01

249

Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

250

Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

2011-01-01

251

Applications of Solubility Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

2008-01-01

252

SCIENTIFIC NAME Acer saccharum (sugar),  

E-print Network

), Acer rubrum (red) , Acer negundo (box elder) COMMON Maple syrup OJIBWE Ziiwaagamizigan SPANISH Jarabe), and box elder (Acer negundo). Yard trees, street trees and open-grown trees in pastures or woodlands can1 LIFE FORM Tree PART USED Sap SCIENTIFIC NAME Acer saccharum (sugar), Acer saccharinum (silver

Aukema, Brian

253

Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. Carbon Metabolism, Carbohydrates & Sugars  

E-print Network

Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. Carbon Metabolism, Carbohydrates & Sugars 1. Introduction and overview on carbohydrate and sugars (handout) Carbohydrate [CHO] = polyhydroxyketones and polyhydroxyaldehydes - two types reducing power - integrated with sucrose and starch synthesis #12;Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. 2 2 Sucrose

Constabel, Peter

254

Growing of sugar cane for energy  

SciTech Connect

The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

Humbert, R.P.

1980-06-01

255

BIOLISTIC TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR BEET CELL SUSPENSIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nonproprietary sugar beet transformation methods are plagued by low transformation frequencies and lack of reproducibility. In efforts to optimize the methods, we established highly embryogenic sugar beet cell suspension cultures for transformation by the particle bombardment method. Callus obtain...

256

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

MedlinePLUS

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals HealthDay February 2, ... many pre-packaged kids’ meals contain too much salt or sugar. The researchers looked at the nutrition ...

257

Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder  

E-print Network

The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

Ang, Dexter W

2005-01-01

258

Organic acids and sugars composition of harvested pomegranate fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

For two consecutive seasons, 40 Spanish pomegranate cultivars (cvs) were analysed and their individual organic acids and\\u000a sugars compositions were examined. Intervarietal differences in acidity content reported by different authors were confirmed.\\u000a According to organoleptic characteristics and chemical compositions three groups of varieties were established: sweet (SWV),\\u000a soursweet (SSWV) and sour (SV). On average, for two seasons, total organic acids

Pablo Melgarejo; Domingo Manuel Salazar; F. Artés

2000-01-01

259

CCN activation of fumed silica aerosols mixed with soluble pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-water interactions of completely soluble or insoluble particles are fairly well understood but less is known of aerosols consisting of mixtures of soluble and insoluble components. In this study, laboratory measurements were performed to investigate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of silica particles coated with ammonium sulphate (a salt), sucrose (a sugar) and bovine serum albumin known as BSA (a protein). In addition, the agglomerated structure of the silica particles was investigated by estimating the surface equivalent diameter based on measurements with a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and an Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer (APM). By using the surface equivalent diameter the non-sphericity of the particles containing silica was accounted for when estimating CCN activation. Furthermore, characterizing critical supersaturations of particles consisting of pure soluble on insoluble compounds using existing frameworks showed that the CCN activation of single component particles was in good agreement with Köhler and adsorption theory based models when the agglomerated structure was accounted for. For mixed particles the CCN activation was governed by the soluble components, and the soluble fraction varied considerably with particle size for our wet-generated aerosols. Our results confirm the hypothesis that knowing the soluble fraction is the key parameter needed for describing the CCN activation of mixed aerosols, and highlight the importance of controlled coating techniques for acquiring a detailed understanding of the CCN activation of atmospheric insoluble particles mixed with soluble pollutants.

Dalirian, M.; Keskinen, H.; Ahlm, L.; Ylisirniö, A.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Laaksonen, A.; Virtanen, A.; Riipinen, I.

2014-09-01

260

A method for obtaining equilibrium tautomeric mixtures of reducing sugars via glycosylamines using nonaqueous media.  

PubMed

Equilibrium tautomeric mixtures of several mono- and disaccharides are obtained in anhydrous form, without the use of water, by reacting the commercially available reducing sugars with ammonia gas in dry methanol, followed by the concentration of the resultant solution to dryness. Mutarotation and hydrolysis of the initially formed glycosylamine in the resultant medium account for the transformation. Equilibrium anomeric mixtures enriched in the beta-form of commercially available sugars such as alpha-D-glucose and alpha-lactose have not only vastly increased solubility, but are also synthetically valuable as these can be readily converted to the methyl/benzyl/trimethylsilyl ether and other derivatives for further transformations. PMID:12007481

Allavudeen, Sikkander Sulthan; Kuberan, Balagurunathan; Loganathan, Duraikkannu

2002-05-13

261

A Karplus equation for 3JHCCN in amino sugar derivatives  

PubMed Central

The 1H–15N coupling constants of a suite of organic-soluble amino sugar derivatives have been measured by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 1H/15N heteronuclear single quantum, multiple bond correlation (HSQMBC), and the values so obtained are compared with those measured by analysis of 1H spectra of 15N-labeled amino sugar derivatives. A number of bicyclic amino sugar models have been studied, including methyl 2- (and 3-)amino-4,6-O-benzylidene-2- (and 3-)deoxy-?-D-hexopyranosides in chair or skew conformations, and methyl 2,6-anhydro-3-deoxy-3-phthalimido-?-D-mannopyranoside in a locked, almost classical boat conformation. The magnitudes of the vicinal 1H–15N coupling constants 3JHCCN have been correlated with 1H/15N dihedral angles ? computed for the favored conformations by molecular dynamics with molecular mechanics energy minimization. Nonlinear regression of the coupling constants on the dihedral angles has yielded a Karplus equation: 3JHCCN = 3.1cos2? ? 0.6cos? + 0.4 The coefficients of the terms in this equation have been compared with those reported for 15 other pairs of nuclei, and the coefficient of the important cos2? term found to be numerically smallest for 3JHCCN. PMID:17368582

Coxon, Bruce

2007-01-01

262

27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

2014-04-01

263

27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

2013-04-01

264

27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

2012-04-01

265

THE SHEARING BEHAVIOUR OF A SUGAR AGGREGATE  

E-print Network

THE SHEARING BEHAVIOUR OF A SUGAR AGGREGATE Catherine A. Davy1 , M. D. Bolton2 , N. A. Fleck2, UK #12;Abstract To better understand the behaviour of sugar within industrial centrifuges or silos, drained triaxial tests were performed on loose, dry or moist sugar aggregates under low confining

Bolton, Malcolm

266

Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

1986-01-01

267

Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... 5 or 6 hard candies 1 tablespoon of sugar, plain or dissolved in water 1 tablespoon of honey or syrup Wait about 15 minutes before eating any more. Be careful not to eat too much. This can cause high blood sugar and weight gain. Check your blood sugar again. ...

268

19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

2014-04-01

269

7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

2012-01-01

270

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2012-01-01

271

7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

2014-01-01

272

19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

2013-04-01

273

7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

2013-01-01

274

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2013-01-01

275

19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

2012-04-01

276

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages--The Facts Whatisasugar-sweetenedbeverage?  

E-print Network

of these words on the list of ingredients:sugar,high-fructose corn syrup, brown sugar,corn sweetener,corn syrup,dextrose,fruit juice concentrates,glucose,honey,invert sugar, molasses,sucrose,syrup or cane sugar

Rosen, Jay

277

What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

Hawkes, Stephen J.

1998-01-01

278

Effects of sugar, salt and water on soybean oil quality during deep-frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of flour dough components (water, sugar and salt) on soybean oil deterioration during deep-fat frying have been\\u000a investigated. Flour dough sheets made from flour and water were used as the carrier of salt and sugar. Several analyses, including\\u000a acid value, carbonyl value,p-anisidine value, color, dielectric constant, Fritest, total polar compounds and polymer content, were used to evaluate deterioration

Yan-Hwa Chu; Shiuan Luo

1994-01-01

279

Solubility of commercial milk protein concentrates and milk protein isolates.  

PubMed

High-protein milk protein concentrate (MPC) and milk protein isolate (MPI) powders may have lower solubility than low-protein MPC powders, but information is limited on MPC solubility. Our objectives in this study were to (1) characterize the solubility of commercially available powder types with differing protein contents such as MPC40, MPC80, and MPI obtained from various manufacturers (sources), and (2) determine if such differences could be associated with differences in mineral, protein composition, and conformational changes of the powders. To examine possible predictors of solubility as measured by percent suspension stability (%SS), mineral analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and quantitative protein analysis by HPLC was performed. After accounting for overall differences between powder types, %SS was found to be strongly associated with the calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sodium content of the powders. The FTIR score plots were in agreement with %SS results. A principal component analysis of FTIR spectra clustered the highly soluble MPC40 separately from the rest of samples. Furthermore, 2 highly soluble MPI samples were clustered separately from the rest of the MPC80 and MPI samples. We found that the 900 to 1,200 cm?¹ region exhibited the highest discriminating power, with dominant bands at 1,173 and 968 cm?¹, associated with phosphate vibrations. The 2 highly soluble MPI powders were observed to have lower ?-casein and ?-(S1)-casein contents and slightly higher whey protein contents than the other powders. The differences in the solubility of MPC and MPI were associated with a difference in mineral composition, which may be attributed to differences in processing conditions. Additional studies on the role of minerals composition on MPC80 solubility are warranted. Such a study would provide a greater understanding of factors associated with differences in solubility and can provide insight on methods to improve solubility of high-protein milk protein concentrates. PMID:22118108

Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Roy, S; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Murray, B A

2011-12-01

280

29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime...18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially...

2013-07-01

281

29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime...18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially...

2014-07-01

282

78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador...Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El...

2013-01-02

283

Sugar, uric acid, and the etiology of diabetes and obesity.  

PubMed

The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructose metabolism that accounts for why fructose intake increases the risk for metabolic syndrome. Recent studies show that fructose-induced uric acid generation causes mitochondrial oxidative stress that stimulates fat accumulation independent of excessive caloric intake. These studies challenge the long-standing dogma that "a calorie is just a calorie" and suggest that the metabolic effects of food may matter as much as its energy content. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provides new insights into pathogenesis and therapies for this important disease. PMID:24065788

Johnson, Richard J; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y; Lanaspa, Miguel A

2013-10-01

284

Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills.  

PubMed

Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars™. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20% ds (dry solids) or 30% ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E(R) (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO(2) utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000 ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530 ha algae farm can produce 5.8 million L of biodiesel/yr and reduce CO(2) emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels. PMID:22265980

Lohrey, Christian; Kochergin, Vadim

2012-03-01

285

Sugar, Uric Acid, and the Etiology of Diabetes and Obesity  

PubMed Central

The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructose metabolism that accounts for why fructose intake increases the risk for metabolic syndrome. Recent studies show that fructose-induced uric acid generation causes mitochondrial oxidative stress that stimulates fat accumulation independent of excessive caloric intake. These studies challenge the long-standing dogma that “a calorie is just a calorie” and suggest that the metabolic effects of food may matter as much as its energy content. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provides new insights into pathogenesis and therapies for this important disease. PMID:24065788

Johnson, Richard J.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L. Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Lanaspa, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

286

Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. PMID:23498924

Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

2013-01-01

287

Lead (II) cholate solubility.  

PubMed

In the framework of the research carried out on the behaviour of the salts of bile acids in aqueous solutions, the lead (II) cholate solubility was determined at 25 degrees C and in 0.100, 0.500 and 0.800 mol dm(-3) N(CH3)4Cl, as ionic medium. The change of its solubility was studied as a function of the cholate and hydrogen ion concentration. Solubility and electromotive force measurements of suitable galvanic cells were carried out and from the results lead (II) cholate solubility product could be calculated and the presence of associated species in solution in the ratio 1:3 and 1:4 between lead (II) and cholate was assumed. The relative constants were determined, as well. The results of this work allow us to obtain the free cholate concentration in equilibrium with solid lead (II) cholate. PMID:12911144

Bottari, Emilio; Festa, Maria Rosa

2003-01-01

288

Protein solubility modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

1999-01-01

289

Solubility of Organic Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines factors to be considered in choosing suitable solvents for non-electrolytes and salts of weak acids and bases. Describes how, in some simple situation, the degree of solubility can be estimated. (Author/DF)

James, K. C.

1972-01-01

290

Learning about Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

2015-01-01

291

Finding the Carbon in Sugar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about combustion and energy, learners observe a burning candle in a sealed jar and the burning of white sugar. The first part of the activity (candle burning) should be conducted as a demonstration. The second part may be conducted by learners working in groups of 2-4 or as a demonstration. This activity guide includes background information, questions for learners to think about, and bilingual (English/Spanish) handouts.

2011-09-19

292

Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. In section 1, students first investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. In section 2, they analyze data collected by the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, in section 3, students use the data they have analyzed to determine how to create a solution that has a particular boiling point and is a cost-effective design.

CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

293

Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. First, they investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. Then they analyze data collected from the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, students use the data they have analyzed to design cost-effective solutions with particular boiling points---similar to the everyday work of chemical engineers.

Culturally Relevant Engineering Application in Mathematics GK-12 Program,

294

Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Depolymerization of cellulose offers the prospect of inexpensive sugars from biomass. Breaking the glycosidic bonds of cellulose to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily the anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG) whereas the presence of naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) in biomass strongly catalyzes ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates. Here, we show a method of significantly increasing the yield of sugars from biomass by purely thermal means through infusion of certain mineral acids (phosphoric and sulfuric acid) into the biomass to convert the AAEMs into thermally stable salts (particularly potassium sulfates and phosphates). These salts not only passivate AAEMs that normally catalyze fragmentation of pyranose rings, but also buffer the system at pH levels that favor glycosidic bond breakage. It appears that AAEM passivation contributes to 80?% of the enhancement in LG yield while the buffering effect of the acid salts contributes to the balance of the enhancement. PMID:22976992

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb; Dalluge, Dustin; Bai, Xianglan; Kim, Kwang Ho; Brown, Robert C

2012-11-01

295

Furanose-specific Sugar Transport  

PubMed Central

The widespread utilization of sugars by microbes is reflected in the diversity and multiplicity of cellular transporters used to acquire these compounds from the environment. The model bacterium Escherichia coli has numerous transporters that allow it to take up hexoses and pentoses, which recognize the more abundant pyranose forms of these sugars. Here we report the biochemical and structural characterization of a transporter protein YtfQ from E. coli that forms part of an uncharacterized ABC transporter system. Remarkably the crystal structure of this protein, solved to 1.2 Å using x-ray crystallography, revealed that YtfQ binds a single molecule of galactofuranose in its ligand binding pocket. Selective binding of galactofuranose over galactopyranose was also observed using NMR methods that determined the form of the sugar released from the protein. The pattern of expression of the ytfQRTyjfF operon encoding this transporter mirrors that of the high affinity galactopyranose transporter of E. coli, suggesting that this bacterium has evolved complementary transporters that enable it to use all the available galactose present during carbon limiting conditions. PMID:19744923

Horler, Richard S. P.; Müller, Axel; Williamson, David C.; Potts, Jennifer R.; Wilson, Keith S.; Thomas, Gavin H.

2009-01-01

296

Total sugars in atmospheric aerosols: An alternative tracer for biomass burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient aerosols were collected in an agro-industrial region of São Paulo State (Brazil) between May 2010 and February 2012 (n = 87). The atmosphere of the study region is highly affected by the emissions of gases and particles from sugar and fuel ethanol production, because part of the area planted with sugarcane is still burned before manual harvesting. This work proposes the quantification of total sugars as an alternative chemical tracer of biomass burning, instead of levoglucosan. The quantification of total sugars requires a small area of a filter sample and a simple spectrophotometer, in contrast to the determination of levoglucosan, which is much more complex and time-consuming. Total sugars concentrations in the aerosol ranged from 0.28 to 12.5 ?g m-3, and (similarly to levoglucosan) the emissions were significantly higher at night and during the sugarcane harvest period, when most agricultural fires occur. The linear correlation between levoglucosan and total sugars (r = 0.612) was stronger than between levoglucosan and potassium (r = 0.379), which has previously been used as a biomass burning tracer. In the study region, potassium is used in fertilizers, and this, together with substantial soil dust resuspension, makes potassium unsuitable for use as a tracer. On average, ca. 40% of the total sugars was found in particles smaller than 0.49 ?m. By including data from previous work, it was possible to identify from 35 to 42% of the total sugars, with biomass burning making the largest contribution. The high solubility in water of these sugars means that determination of their concentrations could also provide important information concerning the hydrophilic properties of atmospheric aerosols.

Scaramboni, C.; Urban, R. C.; Lima-Souza, M.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Cardoso, A. A.; Allen, A. G.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

2015-01-01

297

Studies on the fortification of cane sugar with iron and ascorbic acid.  

PubMed

1. The feasibility of improving iron nutrition by fortifying cane sugar with Fe and ascorbic acid was studied. 2. It was found to be possible to add a number of Fe salts together with ascorbic acid to sugar without affecting its appearance or storage properties. 3. The absorption of Fe from fortified sugar eaten with maize-meal porridge or made into jam or biscuits was measured in ninety-four volunteer multiparous Indian women using the 59-Fe erythrocyte utlization method. 4. The absorption of Fe from sugar fortified with ascorbic acid and ferrous sulphate and eaten with maize-meal porridge was increased about twofold in the ratio, ascorbic acid:Fe was 10:1 by weight. If the ratio was increased to 20:2, Fe absorption was increased a further threefold. 5. Sugar fortified with soluble Fe salts, including FeSO4.7H2O, discoloured both tea and coffee; sugar fortified with ferric orthophosphate did not have this effect. 6. Fe from FePO4.H2O was poorly absorbed when added with sugar to maize-meal porridge, and also when added with adequate quantities of ascorbic acid. This form of Fe was absorbed much less well than was the intrinsic Fe present in the maize. 7. When sugar fortified with FePO4.H2O and ascorbic acid was added to maize-meal porridge before cooling or was made into jam there was a several-fold increase in the amount of Fe absorbed. PMID:1148151

Disler, P B; Lynch, S R; Charlton, R W; Bothwell, T H; Walker, R B; Mayet, F

1975-07-01

298

Evaluation of specificity of hydrolysis methods for separation of water-soluble carbohydrates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Various hydrolysis methods have been recommended to convert oligo- or polymeric water-soluble carbohydrates to monomers for detection in reducing sugar assays, but responses and specificity for different carbohydrates have not been well characterized. The study objective was to evaluate reducing sug...

299

AMAZING PROPERTIES OF WATER These experiments demonstrate the concepts of buoyancy, density differences, solubility  

E-print Network

powder onto the surface of the water. It should lie on the surface like powdered sugar on a cake. You canAMAZING PROPERTIES OF WATER These experiments demonstrate the concepts of buoyancy, density differences, solubility differences in water, surface tension, and surfactants. Materials Glasses Clear cups

Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

300

Effect of seed stimulation on germination and sugar beet yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germination and sugar beet yield after seed stimulation were investigated. The seeds came from the energ'hill technology and were subject to laser irradiation. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory and field conditions. Lengthening of germinal roots and hypocotyls was observed. A positive effect of the stimulation on the morphological features was observed for the Eh seeds and laser irradiation applied in a three-fold dose. The energ'hill seeds exhibited a significantly higher content of carotenoids in seedlings and an increase in the content of chlorophylls. Laser light irradiation favourably modified the ratio of chlorophyll a to b. The leaves and roots of plants developed from the energ'hill and irradiated seeds were characterized by higher dry matter content thanin non-stimulated seeds. Seed stimulation had a positive influence on yielding and the saccharose content.

Pro?ba-Bia?czyk, U.; Szajsner, H.; Grzy?, E.; Demczuk, A.; Saca?a, E.; B?k, K.

2013-03-01

301

Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods  

PubMed Central

Background Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa) and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation) regarding their 1) carbohydrate composition, 2) viscosity and water solubility index (WSI), and 3) sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low starch content that reduce the viscosity, increase the solubility, impart desirable sensory characteristics, and potentially avoid excessive energy and nutrient thinning. PMID:23516115

Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Mutukumira, Anthony N.; Brough, Louise; Weber, Janet L.; Hardacre, Allan; Coad, Jane

2013-01-01

302

Effect of ozonation on the reactivity of lignocellulose substrates in enzymatic hydrolyses to sugars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of pre-treatment of aspen wood with ozone for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis into sugars is determined by the amount of absorbed ozone. The ozone absorption rate depended on the water content in the sample being ozonized and was maximum at a relative humidity of wood of ˜40%. As a result of ozone pre-treatment, the initial rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis of wood under the action of a cellulase complex increased eightfold, and the maximum yield of sugars increased tenfold depending on the ozone dose. The ozonation at ozone doses of more than 3 mol/PPU (phenylpropane structural unit of lignin) led to a decrease in the yield of sugars because of the oxidative destruction of cellulose and hemicellulose. The alkaline ozonation in 2 and 12% NaOH was inefficient because of the accompanying oxidation of carbohydrates and considerably decreased the yield of sugars.

Ben'ko, E. M.; Manisova, O. R.; Lunin, V. V.

2013-07-01

303

Weed Control Research in Sugar Beets.  

E-print Network

BULLETIN ' THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION1 J. E. Miller, Director1 Texas A&M University1 College Station, Texas r B-1158 November 1975 WEED CONTROL RESEARCH IN SUGAR BEETS A. F. Wiese, P. R. Scott, D. E. Lavake, S. R. Winter and D.... F. Owen* Total sugar beet acreage in the Texas Panhandle Service, Bushland; Holly Sugar Corporation, has paried from 20,000 to 40,000 acres since Holly Hereford; Texas Tech Center, Pantex; and farmers in Sugar Corporation started operations...

Wiese, A. F.; Scott, P. R.; Lavake, D. E.; Winter, S. R.; Owen, D. F.

1975-01-01

304

Sugar holograms with artificial organic colorants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugar cane crystals (sucrose) are used as matrix to obtain computer holograms. We made a sugar solution (sugar in water) and it is irradiated with ultraviolet light, since the maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region, to wavelength 200 nm. This step also corresponds to sugar photopolymer process. It is recorded applying conventional lithography technique and measures the parameter of diffraction efficiency. With the purpose to reduce the exposition time at UV radiation of this emulsion, we made studies with artificial organic colorant with azo components.

Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

2007-09-01

305

Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m2 individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs. PMID:25049779

Carvalho, G. G. P.; Garcia, R.; Pires, A. J. V.; Silva, R. R.; Detmann, E.; Filho, A. Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Carvalho, L. M.

2013-01-01

306

Novel Cyclic Sugar Imines: Carbohydrate Mimics and Easily  

E-print Network

Novel Cyclic Sugar Imines: Carbohydrate Mimics and Easily Elaborated Scaffolds for Aza-Sugars functionalized aza-sugars through highly diastereoselective organometallic additions. Polyhydroxylated nitrogen heterocycle aza-sugars may be considered to be mimics of sugars in which the ring oxygen has been substituted

Davis, Ben G.

307

Understanding Solubility and Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Solubility and Density is a graduate-level professional development course designed to enhance your understanding and teaching of physical science. In two sessions, you will investigate physical science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.

2010-01-01

308

Quality evaluation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by near-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The legal method (polarimetric measurement) for the determination of sucrose content and the wet chemical analysis for the quality control of sugar beet uses lead acetate. Because heavy metals are pollutants, the law could forbid their use in the future. Therefore, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated as a procedure to replace these methods. However, there are alternatives to lead clarification, such as the use of aluminum salts, which have been applied at many sugar companies. The real advantage of NIRS is in speed and ease of analysis. The aim of this study was to determine simultaneously the concentration of several components which define the industrial quality of beets. The first objective was the determination of sucrose content, which determines the sugar beet price. The standard error of prediction (SEP) was low: 0.11 g of sucrose/100 g of fresh beet. NIRS was also able to determine other beet quality parameters: brix, marc, glucose, nitrogen, sodium, potassium, sugar in molasses (i.e. sucrose in molasses), and juice purity. The results concerning brix, marc, sugar in molasses, and juice purity were satisfactory. NIRS accuracy was lower for the other parameters. Nevertheless, RPD (ratio standard deviation of concentration/SEP) and RER (ratio concentration range/SEP ratio) show that NIRS might be used for the sample screening on nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and glucose content. PMID:14995097

Roggo, Yves; Duponchel, Ludovic; Huvenne, Jean-Pierre

2004-03-10

309

Changes in sugar composition during baking and their effects on sensory attributes of baked sweet potatoes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of sugar composition on the sensory attributes of seven baked sweet potatoes. The sugar composition was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes increased significantly because of the formation of maltose. The maltose content dramatically increased after baking, and became the major sugar component of baked sweet potatoes. On the other hand, baked sweet potatoes were evaluated on a 7-point hedonic scale for sensory analysis. Overall acceptability results showed that the panelists preferred baked CYY95-26 and TNG66 over the other baked varieties. Because the correlation between overall acceptability and sweetness was the highest (r?=?0.69, p?sugar composition changed on baking, the overall acceptability of baked sweet potatoes was highly associated with the sucrose content. PMID:25477683

Chan, Chin-Feng; Chiang, Chih-Ming; Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Kao, Shu-Chen; Liao, Wayne C

2014-12-01

310

Remote detection of rhizomania in sugar beets.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT As a prelude to remote sensing of rhizomania, hyper-spectral leaf reflectance and multi-spectral canopy reflectance were used to study the physiological differences between healthy sugar beets and beets infested with Beet necrotic yellow vein virus. This study was conducted over time in the presence of declining nitrogen levels. Total leaf nitrogen was significantly lower in symptomatic beets than in healthy beets. Chlorophyll and carotenoid levels were reduced in symptomatic beets. Vegetative indices calculated from leaf spectra showed reductions in chlorophyll and carotenoids in symptomatic beets. Betacyanin levels estimated from leaf spectra were decreased at the end of the 2000 season and not in 2001. The ratio of betacyanins to chlorophyll, estimated from canopy spectra, was increased in symptomatic beets at four of seven sampling dates. Differences in betacyanin and carotenoid levels appeared to be related to disease and not nitrogen content. Vegetative indices calculated from multi-spectral canopy spectra supported results from leaf spectra. Logistic regression models that incorporate vegetative indices and reflectance correctly predicted 88.8% of the observations from leaf spectra and 87.9% of the observations for canopy reflectance into healthy or symptomatic classes. Classification was best in August with a gradual decrease in accuracy until harvest. These results indicate that remote sensing technologies can facilitate detection of rhizomania. PMID:18943059

Steddom, K; Heidel, G; Jones, D; Rush, C M

2003-06-01

311

Checking Your Blood Sugar The only way to be sure your blood sugar is "just right" is to  

E-print Network

Checking Your Blood Sugar The only way to be sure your blood sugar is "just right" is to check it. Your blood sugar can be high and you may feel fine. If your blood sugar is high, it is damaging your blood vessels and hurting your body, even if you feel fine. #12; How can you check your blood sugar? One

312

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-043-1760, American Crystal Sugar Company, Hillsboro, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from management of the American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSCO) and the American Federation of Grain Millers International Union, employee exposures to welding fumes during facility maintenance and to airborne contaminants during beet processing were determined at a sugar-beet mill owned by ACSCO. Exposures exceeding the most stringent environmental criteria were found for calcium carbonate and carbon monoxide in lime kiln workers and sugar dust in sugar bin workers. Beet pulp dust was considered a potential hazard based on its content of crystalline silica. Welding produced excessive exposures to total welding fumes, hexavalent chromium, nickel, iron-oxide, and calcium-oxide. Chromium and nickel posed potential cancer risks. The authors conclude that workers were overexposed to calcium carbonate, carbon monoxide, sugar dust, total welding fumes, hexavalent chromium, iron oxide, nickel, and calcium oxide fumes at this facility. The authors recommend dust containment, ventilation, respiratory protection, and correction of slipping hazards.

Boiano, J.M.; Almaguer, D.

1986-12-01

313

M&M's in Different Sugar Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate whether having sugar already dissolved in water affects the speed of dissolving and the movement of sugar and color through the water. Learners design their own experiment and identify and control variables. This activity is a follow-up to the activity "Racing M&M Colors" (see related resources).

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

314

Polysaccharides from Sugar - A Range of Structures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been known for many years that bacteria, most notably Leuconostoc spp., can convert sugar into a high-molecular weight glucan known as dextran. While problematic in the sugar industry due to its potential for forming biofilms, viscous slimes and for interfering with massecuite boiling and su...

315

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

316

Natural Product Sugar Biosynthesis and Enzymatic Glycodiversification**  

PubMed Central

Many biologically active small molecule natural products produced by microorganisms derive their activities from sugar substituents. Changing the structures of these sugars can have a profound impact on the biological properties of the parent compounds. This realization has inspired attempts to derivatize the sugar moieties of these natural products through exploitation of the sugar biosynthetic machinery. This approach requires an understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of each target sugar and detailed mechanistic knowledge of the key enzymes. Scientists have begun to unravel the biosynthetic logic behind the assembly of many glycosylated natural products, and have found that a core set of enzyme activities is mixed and matched to synthesize the diverse sugar structures observed in nature. Remarkably, many of these sugar biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases also exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. The promiscuity of these enzymes has prompted efforts to modify the sugar structures and/or alter the glycosylation patterns of natural products via metabolic pathway engineering and/or enzymatic glycodiversification. In applied biomedical research, these studies will enable the development of new glycosylation tools and generate novel glycoforms of secondary metabolites with useful biological activity. PMID:19058170

Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Melançon, Charles E.; Liu, Hung-wen

2009-01-01

317

Equilibrium dialysis using chromophoric sugar derivatives.  

PubMed

Equilibrium dialysis has been used to examine the binding affinity of ligands to proteins. It is a simple and reliable method, which requires only inexpensive equipment. For analysis of lectin-sugar interactions, the lectin and sugar are placed in the individual chambers separated by the membrane to allow the sugar to diffuse into the lectin chamber. After equilibrium has been reached, the concentrations of the sugar in both chambers are determined to evaluate the sugar-binding affinity of lectin. In this chapter, an example of the equilibrium dialysis experiment using the chromophoric derivatives of galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine is demonstrated, which reveals the difference in the affinity as well as specificities of two different carbohydrate-binding sites present in the B-chains of the plant lectin ricin. PMID:25117234

Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

2014-01-01

318

Solubility of multi-component biodiesel fuel systems.  

PubMed

Solubility of biodiesel fuel components in fossil diesel fuel-methanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester, fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester and fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil ethyl ester systems was investigated. The solubility of components in the fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester system at 20 degrees C was substantially higher than in the fossil diesel fuel-methanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester system. The solubility of components in the fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil ethyl ester system was slightly lower than in the fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester mixture. The moisture content of ethanol had a great influence on mixture solubility. With decrease of temperature, the solubility of components in the fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester system decreased. PMID:15501669

Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle; Janulis, Prutenis

2005-03-01

319

19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

2012-04-01

320

7 CFR 1435.603 - Eligible sugar seller.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible sugar seller. 1435.603 Section 1435...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Feedstock Flexibility Program § 1435.603 Eligible sugar seller. (a) To be considered an...

2014-01-01

321

15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

2014-01-01

322

19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

2014-04-01

323

19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

2013-04-01

324

7 CFR 1435.401 - CCC sugar inventory disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CCC sugar inventory disposition. 1435.401 ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Disposition of CCC Inventory § 1435.401 CCC sugar inventory disposition. (a)...

2014-01-01

325

15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

2014-01-01

326

15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

2012-01-01

327

15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

2013-01-01

328

15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

2013-01-01

329

15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

2012-01-01

330

A Perspective on Solubility Rules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

1984-01-01

331

Correlated responses of root growth and sugar concentrations to various defoliation treatments and rhythmic shoot growth in oak tree seedlings (Quercus pubescens)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims To understand whether root responses to aerial rhythmic growth and contrasted defoliation treatments can be interpreted under the common frame of carbohydrate availability; root growth was studied in parallel with carbohydrate concentrations in different parts of the root system on oak tree seedlings. Methods Quercus pubescens seedlings were submitted to selective defoliation (removal of mature leaves, cotyledons or young developing leaves) at appearance of the second flush and collected 1, 5 or 10 d later for morphological and biochemical measurements. Soluble sugar and starch concentrations were measured in cotyledons and apical and basal root parts. Key Results Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices diminished during the expansion of the second aerial flush and increased after the end of aerial growth in control seedlings. Starch concentration in cotyledons regularly decreased. Continuous removal of young leaves did not alter either root growth or apical sugar concentration. Starch storage in basal root segments was increased. After removal of mature leaves (and cotyledons), root growth strongly decreased. Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices drastically decreased and starch reserves in the root basal segments were emptied 5 d after defoliation, illustrating a considerable shortage in carbohydrates. Soluble sugar concentrations recovered 10 d after defoliation, after the end of aerial growth, suggesting a recirculation of sugar. No supplementary recourse to starch in cotyledons was observed. Conclusions The parallel between apical sugar concentration and root growth patterns, and the correlations between hexose concentration in root apices and their growth rate, support the hypothesis that the response of root growth to aerial periodic growth and defoliation treatments is largely controlled by carbohydrate availability. PMID:21239407

Willaume, Magali; Pagès, Loïc

2011-01-01

332

Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced sugar chocolates formulated with natural sweeteners as sucrose alternatives.  

PubMed

In this study, sugar alcohols, dietary fibers, syrups and natural sweeteners were used as sucrose alternatives in the production of reduced sugar chocolates (50% of cocoa parts) with enhanced bioactive profile. Formulated chocolates were evaluated for their physical (particle size distribution, texture) and sensory properties, sugar composition, polyphenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity. All produced reduced sugar chocolates ensured >20% lower calorific value than conventional chocolate (prepared with sucrose). Formulated chocolates containing stevia leaves and peppermint exhibited the best sensory properties (especially with regard to mouthfeel, sweetness and herbal aroma), as well as the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Particle size and hardness of chocolates increased in comparison to conventional chocolate, in particular when the combination of fructose and isomalt or lactitol was used. The bioactive profile of produced chocolates was enriched with phenolic acids, flavone (luteolin and apigenin) and flavonol (quercetin) derivatives, which were not identified in control chocolate. PMID:25148960

Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Dujmovi?, Marko; Karlovi?, Sven; Biški?, Matija; Brn?i?, Mladen; Ježek, Damir

2015-01-15

333

Reducing sugars production from corncobs: a comparative study of chemical and biotechnological methods.  

PubMed

Two commonly used chemical pretreatment processes, sulphuric acid, and sodium hydroxide, were tested to provide comparative performance data. A connection between solid to liquid ratio (S/L) and sugars released was observed with an increase in S/L ratio between 0.02 and 0.2. Enzymatic digestibility of 1 M of NaOH-pretreated corncobs were released 210.7 mg ml(-1) of sugars. Further, compared with different concentrations of acid pretreatments at 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, and 0.5 M concentrations, sodium hydroxide pretreatment of corncob substantially increased accessibility and digestibility of cellulose. Another additional observation made was whole-cell and crude enzymatic hydrolysis of different concentrations of acid and NaOH (0.05, 0.1, 0.25 M)-treated materials released lower amount of sugars compared with the sugars released (310.9 mg ml(-1)) with whole-cell hydrolysis of 1 M of NaOH-treated corncobs. NaOH-pretreated corncobs contained higher content of sugars and which is more suitable for production of reducing sugars. PMID:25172055

Potumarthi, Ravichandra; Baadhe, Rama Raju; Pisipati, Aparna; Jetty, Annapurna

2014-11-01

334

Sensitivity and feeding efficiency of the black garden ant Lasius niger to sugar resources  

E-print Network

. The feeding behavior of ants appears to be primarily regulated by the energy content of the food solution and honeydew represent the main source of energy for many ant species and contribute towards maintaining response curve and food intake efficiency of the aphid tending ant, Lasius niger for major sugars found

Boyer, Edmond

335

Sugar metabolism and compartmentation in asparagus and broccoli during controlled atmosphere storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvested broccoli and asparagus exhibit delayed senescence during controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. To understand the key biochemical steps involved in this process, we measured the content of three glycolytic metabolites, the activities of sucrose-metabolising and glycolytic enzymes, and intracellular sugar concentrations by efflux analysis in asparagus spear tips and broccoli branchlets during storage in air or CA (5% O2, 10%

Marian J. McKenzie; Lindsay A. Greer; Julian A. Heyes; Paul L. Hurst

2004-01-01

336

The role of sugar in diet selection in redtail and red colobus monkeys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study of diet selection by folivorous (red colobine monkeys; Piliocolobus tephrosceles) and frugivorous (redtail monkeys; Ceropithecus ascanius) was performed to provide comparable compositional descriptions of the diets of the two species, to contrast sugar content of plant foods consumed by each...

337

Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

2012-01-01

338

Associations of sugar beet and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations of four Azotobacter chroococcum strains (2, 5, 8 14) isolated from the rhizosphere with two sugar beet hybrids\\u000a (Hy-11 and Dana) grown in vitro have been investigated. All tested strains caused an increase in dry mass of both hybrids\\u000a almost proportionally to the nitrogen content in the medium. Plant nitrogen content was also higher in inoculated variants.\\u000a The

N. Mrkova?ki; S. Mezei; I. Verešbaranji; M. Popovi?; Z. Sari?; L. Kova?ev

1997-01-01

339

Sugars, Alcohols, and Cometary Astrobiochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio and IR observations have revealed that a rich organic chemistry exists in comets and in a variety of interstellar regions. Among the organic molecules detected are acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and nitriles. The simplest sugar, glycolaldehyde, has been reported (Hollis et al., ApJ, 2000, 540, L107), as has an amino acid, glycine (Kuan et al., ApJ, 2003, 593, 848; but see Hollis et al., ApJ, 2003, 588, 353). Gas-phase reactions to produce many of these molecules are not well understood, and solid-phase chemistry is thought to make an important contribution. To better understand organic chemistry in cold cosmic environments, we have performed photo- and radiation chemical experiments on icy materials at 10 - 100 K. Gas-phase molecules are frozen in a vacuum chamber, and then exposed to either MeV protons or vacuum-UV photons to mimic cosmic-ray bombardment or cosmic-UV exposure, respectively. Changes in ice composition are followed in situ with IR spectroscopy. In this AGU presentation we will describe our latest results for glycolaldehyde, as well as a few prebiological organics. Solid-state IR spectra and reaction pathways will be presented, and predictions will be made for the chemical composition of selected Solar System objects. -- This research is funded through NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and SARA programs, and through the NASA Astrobiology Program under RTOP 344-53-51-01 to M. J. Mumma (NASA GSFC).

Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Gerakines, P. A.

2004-12-01

340

Soluble and colorless polyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported in the form of reaction diagrams, graphs, and tables of research being conducted to synthesize and characterize linear aromatic polyimides which are soluble in common organic solvents and optically transparent in the 400-600 nm spectral range. These flexible and high-temperature polymeric films and coatings are needed for specific applications on space components such as antennas, solar cells, and thermal control coating systems. Several series of these polyimide films have been produced by making variations in the polymer molecular structure aimed at reducing the electronic interactions between the polymer chains.

St. Clair, Anne K.

1988-01-01

341

Added Sugars from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Estimated Regression Coefficients,  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

342

Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Avena, N.M., Rada, P., Hoebel B.G., 2007. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews XX(X), XXX–XXX]. The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. “Food addiction” seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to

Nicole M. Avena; Pedro Rada; Bartley G. Hoebel

2008-01-01

343

Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... sugar levels at home using a blood glucose meter, which is a computerized device that measures the ... a testing strip that goes into the glucose meter, and the blood glucose reading appears on a ...

344

When Blood Sugar Is Too Low  

MedlinePLUS

... weak feel dizzy be unsteady or stagger when walking have blurred or double vision feel confused have seizures pass out If you think your blood sugar level could be low, tell a parent, teacher, ...

345

Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... Diuretics Beta agonists Statin drugs Niacin Phenytoin (Dilantin) Thyroid hormone Pentamidine Alpha interferon If your sugar is over 240 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl), check your urine for ketones. If the urine shows a "moderate" or "large" ...

346

Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars  

DOEpatents

Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

2011-04-26

347

Symptoms and Dangers of High Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... out in urine, your body loses an important fuel. This loss of sugar (and the calories it ... cause: Weakness Fatigue (Rarely) substitution of other body fuels, especially "ketones," which can cause a body acid ...

348

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in Diabetes Mellitus  

MedlinePLUS

... lead to weight gain over the long-term. Glucagon — If your low blood sugar is severe, you ... and convulsing can be scary. An injection of glucagon stops these symptoms quickly. Glucagon is a hormone ...

349

Synthesis of Sugar-Based Polypeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic polypeptides containing sugar moieties can find interesting applications as drug-delivery systems or as hydrogels. Only a few studies report on the successful synthesis of sugar-based polypeptides. The aim of this study is to access a range of well-defined polypeptides carrying linear gluconoyl moieties as side-groups, including homo-polypeptides and co-polypeptides with hydrophilic and hydrophobic sequences. The strategy consisted in first

Vishal Goury; Dhanjay Jhurry; Archana Bhaw-Luximon

2008-01-01

350

Japanese Sugar Cane as a Forage Crop.  

E-print Network

BULLETIN NO. 195 AUGUST, 1916 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY JAPANESE SUGAR CANE AS A FORAGE CROP .".: . COLLEGE POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION,. BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS AUSTIN, TEXAS VON BOECKMANN-JONES CO 1916 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] TEXAS... AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STAT10 N BULLETIN NO. 195 AUGUST, 1916 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY JAPANESE SUGAR CANE AS A FORAGE CROP BY A. H. LEIDIGH, B. S., Agronomist, IN CONSULTATION WITH G. T. McNESS, Superintendent, Substation No. 11, Nacogdoches, and H. H...

Leidigh, A. H. (Arthur Henry); McNess, George Thomas; Laude, H. H. (Hilmer Henry)

1916-01-01

351

Production of tailor-made fructans in sugar beet by expression of onion fructosyltransferase genes.  

PubMed

The consumption of fructans as a low caloric food ingredient or dietary fibre is rapidly increasing due to health benefits. Presently, the most important fructan source is chicory, but these fructans have a simple linear structure and are prone to degradation. Additional sources of high-quality tailor-made fructans would provide novel opportunities for their use as food ingredients. Sugar beet is a highly productive crop that does not normally synthesize fructans. We have introduced specific onion fructosyltransferases into sugar beet. This resulted in an efficient conversion of sucrose into complex, onion-type fructans, without the loss of storage carbohydrate content. PMID:17134393

Weyens, Guy; Ritsema, Tita; Van Dun, Kees; Meyer, Diederick; Lommel, Murielle; Lathouwers, Jean; Rosquin, Inge; Denys, Pascale; Tossens, Alain; Nijs, Marleen; Turk, Stefan; Gerrits, Nathalie; Bink, Sjak; Walraven, Bas; Lefèbvre, Marc; Smeekens, Sjef

2004-07-01

352

A study of the balance sheet approach applied to the world sugar market  

E-print Network

A STUDY OF THE BALANCE SHEET APPROACH APPLIED TO THE WORLD SUGAR MARKET A Thesis by JORGE LUIS GARCIA-PAZOS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A s M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics A STUDY OF THE BALANCE SHEET APPROACH APPLIED TO THE WORLD SUGAR MARKET A Thesis by JORGE LUIS GARCIA-PAZOS Approved as to style and content by: Chairman f Co ittee ber Member December...

Garcia-Pazos, Jorge Luis

2012-06-07

353

Water-soluble organic compounds in biomass burning aerosols over Amazonia1. Characterization by NMR and GC-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the European contribution to the Large-Scale Atmosphere-Biosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH), aerosols were sampled at representative pasture and primary rainforest sites in Rondônia, Brazil, during the 1999 ``burning season'' and dry-to-wet season transition (September-October). Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) within the samples were characterized using a combination of 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for chemical functional group analysis, and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) for identification and quantification of individual low-molecular-weight compounds. The 1H NMR analysis indicates that WSOCs are predominantly aliphatic or oxygenated aliphatic compounds (alcohols, carboxylic acids, etc.), with a minor content of aromatic rings carrying carboxylic and phenolic groups. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-?-D-glucose), a well-known cellulose combustion product, was the most abundant individual compound identified by GC-MS (0.04-6.90 ?g m-3), accounting for 1-6% of the total carbon (TC) and 2-8% of the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Other anhydrosugars, produced by hemicellulose breakdown, were detected in much smaller amounts, in addition to series of acids, hydroxyacids, oxoacids, and polyalcohols (altogether 2-5% of TC, 3-6% of WSOC). Most correlated well with organic carbon, black carbon, and potassium, indicating biomass burning to be the major source. A series of sugar alcohols (mannitol, arabitol, erythritol) and sugars (glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, sucrose, trehalose) were identified as part of the natural background aerosol and are probably derived from airborne microbes and other biogenic material. The bulk of the WSOCs (86-91% WSOC) eluded analysis by GC-MS and may be predominantly high-molecular weight in nature.

Graham, Bim; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Guyon, Pascal; Roberts, Gregory C.; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, M. Cristina; Artaxo, Paulo; Maenhaut, Willy; Köll, Peter; Andreae, Meinrat O.

2002-09-01

354

ORIGINAL PAPER Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields Henri Darmency Ã? Etienne K. Klein Ã? and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce to describe pollen dispersal from a small her- bicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target

355

Syntheses and biological activities of daunorubicin analogs with uncommon sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effects of the sugar structure on the activity of anthracycline against cancer cells, six daunorubicin analogs containing different uncommon sugars were synthesized. Their cytotoxicities were tested against colon cancer cells by MTS assay. The results showed that the aglycon without sugar moiety has 70–100-fold lower activity against cancer cells than daunorubicin derivatives with various uncommon sugars. It

Lizhi Zhu; Xianhua Cao; Wenlan Chen; Guisheng Zhang; Duxin Sun; Peng George Wang

2005-01-01

356

Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake  

PubMed Central

A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to < 10% and < 5% energy (E) on caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is < 10% E. With the < 5% E cut-off, a significant relationship was observed, but the evidence was judged to be of very low quality. The findings are relevant to minimizing caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

2014-01-01

357

Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions are available for biomass combustion. Furfural and sugars were determined in coarse aerosols (>2.4?m aerodynamic diameter) and fine aerosols (<2.4?m aerodynamic diameter) collected in 24 hour periods during different seasons in the United Kingdom and PM10 collected from Thailand and Malaysia including haze episodes. Also total suspended particulate matter (TSP) samples were collected from Taiwan. Furfural and sugars dominated in fine fractions, especially in the UK autumn. Sugars were found at 5.96-18.37 nmol m-3 in fine mode and 1.36-5.75 nmol m-3 in coarse mode aerosols in the UK. Furfural was found at 0.18-0.91 nmol m-3 and 0.05-0.51 nmol m-3 respectively in the same aerosols. Sugars were a dominant contributor to aerosol derived from biomass burning. Sugars and furfural were about 10 and 20 times higher during haze episodes in Malaysia. Laboratory experimental simulation suggested furfural is more rapid destroyed by UV and sunlight than levoglucosan.

Srithawirat, T.; Brimblecombe, P.

2008-12-01

358

Sugar intake, obesity, and diabetes in India.  

PubMed

Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing "epidemic" of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

2014-12-01

359

Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India  

PubMed Central

Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

2014-01-01

360

Nectar Sugar Production across Floral Phases in the Gynodioecious Protandrous Plant Geranium sylvaticum  

PubMed Central

Many zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering nectar as a reward. In gynodioecious plants (i.e. populations are composed of female and hermaphrodite individuals) nectar production has been repeatedly reported to be larger in hermaphrodite compared to female flowers even though nectar production across the different floral phases in dichogamous plants (i.e. plants with time separation of pollen dispersal and stigma receptivity) has rarely been examined. In this study, sugar production in nectar standing crop and secretion rate were investigated in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant species with protandry (i.e. with hermaphrodite flowers releasing their pollen before the stigma is receptive). We found that flowers from hermaphrodites produced more nectar than female flowers in terms of total nectar sugar content. In addition, differences in nectar production among floral phases were found in hermaphrodite flowers but not in female flowers. In hermaphrodite flowers, maximum sugar content coincided with pollen presentation and declined slightly towards the female phase, indicating nectar reabsorption, whereas in female flowers sugar content did not differ between the floral phases. These differences in floral reward are discussed in relation to visitation patterns by pollinators and seed production in this species. PMID:23614053

Varga, Sandra; Nuortila, Carolin; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

2013-01-01

361

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

362

Influence of Plant Growth at High CO2 Concentrations on Leaf Content of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase and Intracellular Distribution of Soluble Carbohydrates in Tobacco, Snapdragon, and Parsley.  

PubMed Central

We have examined the possible role of leaf cytosolic hexoses and the expression of mannitol metabolism as mechanisms that may affect the repression of photosynthetic capacity when plants are grown at 1000 versus 380 [mu]L L-1 CO2. In plants grown at high CO2, leaf ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase content declined by [greater than or equal to]20% in tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) but was not affected in the mannitol-producing species snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and parsley (Petroselinum hortense). In the three species mesophyll glucose and fructose at midday occurred almost entirely in the vacuole (>99%), irrespective of growth CO2 levels. The estimated cytosolic concentrations of glucose and fructose were [less than or equal to]100 [mu]M. In the three species grown at high CO2, total leaf carbohydrates increased 60 to 100%, but mannitol metabolism did not function as an overflow mechanism for the increased accumulation of carbohydrate. In both snapdragon and parsley grown at ambient or high CO2, mannitol occurred in the chloroplast and cytosol at estimated midday concentrations of 0.1 M or more each. The compartmentation of leaf hexoses and the metabolism of alternate carbohydrates are further considered in relation to photosynthetic acclimation to high levels of CO2. PMID:12223804

Moore, Bd.; Palmquist, D. E.; Seemann, J. R.

1997-01-01

363

By-products of the cane sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

Paturav, J.M.

1989-01-01

364

Rapid analysis of sugars in honey by processing Raman spectrum using chemometric methods and artificial neural networks.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantify glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose contents of honey samples using Raman spectroscopy as a rapid method. By performing a single measurement, quantifications of sugar contents have been said to be unaffordable according to the molecular similarities between sugar molecules in honey matrix. This bottleneck was overcome by coupling Raman spectroscopy with chemometric methods (principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS)) and an artificial neural network (ANN). Model solutions of four sugars were processed with PCA and significant separation was observed. This operation, done with the spectral features by using PLS and ANN methods, led to the discriminant analysis of sugar contents. Models/trained networks were created using a calibration data set and evaluated using a validation data set. The correlation coefficient values between actual and predicted values of glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose were determined as 0.964, 0.965, 0.968 and 0.949 for PLS and 0.965, 0.965, 0.978 and 0.956 for ANN, respectively. The requirement of rapid analysis of sugar contents of commercial honeys has been met by the data processed within this article. PMID:23194547

Özbalci, Beril; Boyaci, ?smail Hakk?; Topcu, Ali; Kad?lar, Cem; Tamer, U?ur

2013-02-15

365

Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.  

PubMed

Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (?-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest ?-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid. PMID:25065829

Antonious, George F

2014-01-01

366

SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF SUGARS IN THE LEAVES OF Salix dasyclados AND THE EFFECT OF SOIL TREATMENT WITH CEMENT DUST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutting-derived Salix dasyclados Wimm. were grown on soil containing high amounts (2 kg m-2 in year 1 + 1 kg m-2 in year 2) of dust from filters of a cement plant. The pH of the treated soil was increased from 6.5 (control) to 7.6. Soluble sugars, starch, and chlorophylls in leaves of spring flush shoots were analysed during the

Malle MANDRE

367

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

1998-08-11

368

Sugar recoveries from wheat straw following treatments with the fungus Irpex lacteus.  

PubMed

Irpex lacteus is a white-rot fungus capable of increasing sugar recovery from wheat straw; however, in order to incorporate biopretreatment in bioethanol production, some process specifications need to be optimized. With this objective, I. lacteus was grown on different liquid culture media for use as inoculums. Additionally, the effect of wheat straw particle size, moisture content, organic and inorganic supplementations, and mild alkali washing during solid-state fermentation (SSF) on sugar yield were investigated. Wheat thin stillage was the best medium for producing inoculums. Supplementation of wheat straw with 0.3mM Mn(II) during SSF resulted in glucose yields of 68% as compared to yields of 62% and 33% for cultures grown without supplementation or on untreated raw material, respectively after 21 days. Lignin loss, wheat straw digestibility, peroxidase activity, and fungal biomass were also correlated with sugar yields in the search for biopretreatment efficiency indicators. PMID:23347930

Salvachúa, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia; Vaquero, María Eugenia; Martínez, Ángel T; Martínez, María Jesús

2013-03-01

369

Physiological Aspects of Sugar Exchange between the Gametophyte and the Sporophyte of Polytrichum formosum.  

PubMed

The sporophyte of bryophytes is dependent on the gametophyte for its carbon nutrition. This is especially true of the sporophytes of Polytrichum species, and it was generally thought that sucrose was the main form of sugar for long distance transport in the leptom. In Polytrichum formosum, sucrose was the main soluble sugar of the sporophyte and gametophyte tissues, and the highest concentration (about 230 mm) was found in the haustorium. In contrast, sugars collected from the vaginula apoplast were mainly hexoses, with traces of sucrose and trehalose. p-Chloromercuribenzene sulfonate, a nonpermeant inhibitor of the cell wall invertase, strongly reduced the hexose to sucrose ratio. The highest cell wall invertase activity (pH 4.5) was located in the vaginula, whereas the highest activity of a soluble invertase (pH 7.0) was found in both the vaginula and the haustorium. Glucose uptake was carrier-mediated but only weakly dependent on the external pH and the transmembrane electrical gradient, in contrast to amino acid uptake (S. Renault, C. Despeghel-Caussin, J.L. Bonnemain, S. Delrot [1989] Plant Physiol 90: 913-920). Furthermore, addition of 5 or 50 mm glucose to the incubation medium induced a marginal depolarization of the transmembrane potential difference of the transfer cells and had no effect on the pH of this medium. Glucose was converted to sucrose after its absorption into the haustorium. These results demonstrate the noncontinuity of sucrose at the gametophyte/sporophyte interface. They suggest that its conversion to glucose and fructose at this interface, and the subsequent reconversion to sucrose after hexose absorption by haustorium cells, mainly governs sugar accumulation in this latter organ. PMID:16653202

Renault, S; Bonnemain, J L; Faye, L; Gaudillere, J P

1992-12-01

370

Biochemical and microstructural Ccharacteristics of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber prepared from mushroom sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos.  

PubMed

The proximate composition of sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinoceros, and Wolfiporia cocos, together with the yield, purity, monosaccharide profile, and microstructure of their insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions prepared from AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric methods were investigated and compared. All three sclerotia were typical carbohydrate rich sclerotia [ranging from 90.5 to 98.1% dry matter (DM)] with an exceptionally low amount of crude lipid content (ranging from 0.02 to 0.14% DM). Besides, all three sclerotia possessed substantial amounts of IDF (ranging from 77.4 to 94.6% DM) with notably high levels of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) (89.9-92.2% DM) in which glucose was the predominant sugar residue (90.6-97.2% of NSP DM). On the contrary, both the yield (only ranging from 1.45 to 2.50% DM) and the amount of NSP (ranging from 22.4 to 29.6% DM) of the three sclerotial SDF fractions were very low. Scanning electron micrographs showed fragments of interwoven hyphae and insoluble materials in the three sclerotial IDF fractions, but only an amorphous structure of soluble materials was observed in the SDF fractions. The potential use of these fiber preparations was discussed. PMID:14611193

Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K; Wu, Jin-Zhong

2003-11-19

371

The genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).  

PubMed

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world's annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714-758 megabases and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant's potential in energy biotechnology. PMID:24352233

Dohm, Juliane C; Minoche, André E; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Zakrzewski, Falk; Tafer, Hakim; Rupp, Oliver; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Stracke, Ralf; Reinhardt, Richard; Goesmann, Alexander; Kraft, Thomas; Schulz, Britta; Stadler, Peter F; Schmidt, Thomas; Gabaldón, Toni; Lehrach, Hans; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

2014-01-23

372

Determination of the relaxation characteristics of sugar glasses embedded in microfiber substrates.  

PubMed

Recently there has been considerable interest in developing sugar glasses that enable storage of biologics without refrigeration. Microfiber filter papers are good substrates for drying biologics in the presence of sugar glass-formers, providing for an even distribution of samples and an enhanced surface area for drying, but the opaqueness prevents macroscopic observation of the sample and can introduce complexities that impede physical characterization. Because drying kinetics and processing conditions can impact the relaxation dynamics (e.g., ?- and ?-relaxation), which can influence the efficacy of the glass as a stabilizer, methods are needed that can enable a determination of relaxation phenomena of sugar glasses in such complex environments. In this study we present a method which provides verification of the absence of crystallinity following drying on glass fiber filter paper and also enables the determination of relaxation characteristics of amorphous sugar compositions embedded within these filter substrates. Using material pockets to contain the sugar glass-embedded microfiber paper, the ?-relaxation temperature, T?, was determined as a function of the water content in trehalose and sucrose samples using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Results were verified by comparison with previous calorimetric and spectroscopic studies. The data also demonstrated the plasticizing effects of water, as T? was shown to correlate with water content via a Gordon-Taylor-like relationship. Our findings validate a new approach for determining the relaxation characteristics of microfiber embedded sugar glasses, and offer new insights into the relaxation characteristics of glasses prepared by microwave-assisted drying on filter papers. PMID:25280724

Weng, Lindong; Elliott, Gloria D

2014-11-01

373

Investigating C-4 sugar contamination of manuka honey and other New Zealand honey varieties using carbon isotopes.  

PubMed

Carbon isotopes (?(13)C honey and ?(13)C protein) and apparent C-4 sugar contents of 1023 New Zealand honeys from 15 different floral types were analyzed to investigate which New Zealand honey is prone to failing the AOAC 998.12 C-4 sugar test and evaluate the occurrence of false-positive results. Of the 333 honey samples that exceeded the 7% C-4 sugar threshold, 324 samples of these were New Zealand manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium, 97.2% of all fails found in the study). Three monofloral honeys (ling, kamahi, and tawari) had nine samples (2.8% of all fails found in the study) with apparent C-4 sugars exceeding 7%. All other floral types analyzed did not display C-4 sugar fails. False-positive results were found to occur for higher activity New Zealand manuka honey with a methylglyoxal content >250 mg/kg or a nonperoxide activity >10+, and for some ling, kamahi and tawari honeys. Recommendations for future interpretation of the AOAC 998.12 C-4 sugar method are proposed. PMID:24568639

Rogers, Karyne M; Sim, Mike; Stewart, Simon; Phillips, Andy; Cooper, Jannine; Douance, Cedric; Pyne, Rebecca; Rogers, Pam

2014-03-26

374

Effect of nitrate and sulfate relative abundance in PM2.5 on liquid water content explored through half-hourly observations of inorganic soluble aerosols at a polluted receptor site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid water content (LWC) is the amount of liquid water on aerosols. It contributes to visibility degradation, provides a surface for gas condensation, and acts as a medium for heterogeneous gas/particle reactions. In this study, 520 half-hourly measurements of ionic chemical composition in PM2.5 at a receptor site in Hong Kong are used to investigate the dependence of LWC on ionic chemical composition, particularly on the relative abundance of sulfate and nitrate. LWC was estimated using a thermodynamic model (AIM-III). Within this data set of PM2.5 ionic compositions, LWC was highly correlated with the multivariate combination of sulfate and nitrate concentrations and RH (R2 = 0.90). The empirical linear regression result indicates that LWC is more sensitive to nitrate mass than sulfate. During a nitrate episode, the highest LWC (80.6 ± 17.9 ?g m-3) was observed and the level was 70% higher than that during a sulfate episode despite a similar ionic PM2.5 mass concentration. A series of sensitivity tests were conducted to study LWC change as a function of the relative nitrate and sulfate abundance, the trend of which is expected to shift to more nitrate in China as a result of SO2 reduction and increase in NOx emission. Starting from a base case that uses the average of measured PM2.5 ionic chemical composition (63% SO42-, 11% NO3-, 19% NH4+, and 7% other ions) and an ionic equivalence ratio, [NH4+]/(2[SO42-] + [NO3-]), set constant to 0.72, the results show LWC would increase by 204% at RH = 40% when 50% of the SO42- is replaced by NO3- mass concentration. This is largely due to inhibition of (NH4)3H(SO4)2 crystallization while PM2.5 ionic species persist in the aqueous phase. At RH = 90%, LWC would increase by 12% when 50% of the SO42- is replaced by NO3- mass concentration. The results of this study highlight the important implications to aerosol chemistry and visibility degradation associated with LWC as a result of a shift in PM2.5 ionic chemical composition to more nitrate in atmospheric environments as is expected in many Chinese cities.

Xue, Jian; Griffith, Stephen M.; Yu, Xin; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen

2014-12-01

375

Postharvest fruit density as an indicator of dry matter and ripened soluble solids of kiwifruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density of unripe kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson cv. Hayward) early in storage was investigated as a means of determining the current fruit dry matter (DM) and total sugar-plus-starch concentrations, and of predicting DM and soluble solid concentrations later when the fruit had ripened. To investigate the robustness of the density relationships with DM

Robert B Jordan; Eric F Walton; Karin U Klages; Richard J Seelye

2000-01-01

376

[Sugar of substitute stevioside in chewing gum: comparative double blind controllable study].  

PubMed

In double blind controllable study on 126 volunteers - students of medical academy - influence on ?? the mixed saliva of 5 kinds of chewing gums with the different contents of substitute of sugar as xylitol and sorbitol, and also the chewing sweets R.O.C.S., two kinds of chewing gums containing a basis with substitute of sugar stevioside (1.25 and 2.5%) and placebo (a basis without additives) were investigated. Products chewed within 10 minutes. In one of groups surveyed such chewing was preceded with rinsing a mouth by a test solution of saccharose. ?? determined within 30 minutes. At chewing gums with substitute of sugar displacement ?? the mixed saliva in the alkaline side was revealed a different degree. Thus gums with stevioside did not concede and even surpassed in this action of chewing gums with other substitutes of sugar. In comparison with placebo chewing gums and sweets restored acid-alkaline balance of oral cavities faster. Hence, use of stevioside in structure of chewing gum allows at preservation of its positive actions in oral cavity essentially to reduce concentration substitute of sugar and, hence, its collateral action by an organism. PMID:21378715

Rumiantsev, V A; Beliaev, V V; Zubtsov, V A; Esaian, L K; Namestnikova, I V

2011-01-01

377

Nondestructive measurement of reducing sugar of apples using Vis/NIR spectroscopy techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the potential ofusing the Visible/Near Infrared Spectroscopy (VisINIRS) was investigated for measuring the reducing sugar of Fuji apple (from Shanxi of China), and the relationship was established between nondestructive Vis/NIR spectral measurement and the reducing sugar of apple. Intact apple fruit were measured by reflectance Vis/NIR in 325-1075 nm range. The data set as the logarithms of the reflectance reciprocal (absorbance (logl/R)) was analyzed in order to build the best calibration model for this characteristic, using some spectral pretreatments and multivariate calibration techniques such as partial least square regression (PLS). The models for the reducing sugar (r=0.915), standard error ofprediction (SEP) 0.562 with a bias of 0.054; shown the excellent prediction performance. The Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique had significantly greater accuracy for determining the reducing sugar. It was concluded that by using the Vis/NIRS measurement technique, in the spectral range (325-1075 nm), it is possible to assess the reducing sugar content of apple.

Jiang, Yihong; Li, Xiaoli; Bai, Xiujun; He, Yong

2006-09-01

378

Leaf fructose content is controlled by the vacuolar transporter SWEET17 in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

In higher plants, soluble sugars are mainly present as sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Sugar allocation is based on both source-to-sink transport and intracellular transport between the different organelles and depends on actual plant requirements. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as nitrogen limitation, carbohydrates accumulate in plant cells. Despite an increasing number of genetic studies, the genetic architecture determining carbohydrate composition is poorly known. Using a quantitative genetics approach, we determined that the carrier protein SWEET17 is a major factor controlling fructose content in Arabidopsis leaves. We observed that when SWEET17 expression is reduced, either by induced or natural variation, fructose accumulates in leaves, suggesting an enhanced storage capacity. Subcellular localization of SWEET17-GFP to the tonoplast and functional expression in Xenopus oocytes showed that SWEET17 is the first vacuolar fructose transporter to be characterized in plants. Physiological studies in planta provide evidence that SWEET17 acts to export fructose out of the vacuole. Overall, our results suggest that natural variation in leaf fructose levels is controlled by the vacuolar fructose transporter SWEET17. SWEET17 is highly conserved across the plant kingdom; thus, these findings offer future possibilities to modify carbohydrate partitioning in crops. PMID:23583552

Chardon, Fabien; Bedu, Magali; Calenge, Fanny; Klemens, Patrick A W; Spinner, Lara; Clement, Gilles; Chietera, Giorgiana; Léran, Sophie; Ferrand, Marina; Lacombe, Benoit; Loudet, Olivier; Dinant, Sylvie; Bellini, Catherine; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; Krapp, Anne

2013-04-22

379

Heat sensitivity of photosynthetic electron transport varies during the day due to changes in sugars and osmotic potential.  

PubMed

In water-stressed leaves, accumulation of neutral osmotica enhances the heat tolerance of photosynthetic electron transport. There are large diurnal and day-to-day changes in leaf sugar content because of variations in net photosynthetic production, respiration and retranslocation. To test the hypothesis that diurnal and day-to-day variations in leaf sugar content and osmotic potential significantly modify the responses to temperature of photosynthetic electron transport rate, we studied chlorophyll fluorescence rise temperatures (i.e. critical temperatures at break-points in fluorescence versus temperature response curves, corresponding to enhanced damage of PSII centers and detachment of pigment-binding complexes) in the dark at a background of weak far-red light (T(FR)) and under actinic light (T(L)), and responses of foliar photosynthetic electron transport rate to temperature using gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence techniques in the temperate tree Populus tremula L. Sucrose and sorbitol feeding experiments demonstrated strong increases of fluorescence rise temperatures T(FR) and T(L) with decreasing leaf osmotic potential and increasing internal sugar concentration. Similar T(FR) and T(L) changes were observed in response to natural variation in leaf sugar concentration throughout the day. Increases in leaf sugar concentration led to an overall down-regulation of the rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), but increases in the optimum temperature (Topt) of J. For the entire dataset, Topt varied from 33.8 degrees C to 43 degrees C due to natural variation in sugars and from 33.8 degrees C to 52.6 degrees C in the sugar feeding experiments, underscoring the importance of sugars in modifying the response of J to temperature. However, the correlations between the sugar concentration and fluorescence rise temperature varied between the days. This variation in fluorescence rise temperature was best explained by the average temperature of the preceding 5 or 6 days. In addition, there was a significant year-to-year variation in heat sensitivity of photosynthetic electron transport that was associated with year-to-year differences in endogenous sugar content. Our data demonstrate a diurnal variation in leaf heat tolerance due to changes in sugar concentration, but they also show that this short-term modification in heat tolerance is super-imposed by long-term changes in heat resistance driven by average temperature of preceding days. PMID:17080637

Hüve, Katja; Bichele, Irina; Tobias, Mari; Niinemets, Ulo

2006-02-01

380

Distribution of free amino acids, polyphenols and sugars of Ziziphus jujuba pulps harvested from plants grown in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Ziziphus jujuba pulps are very much appreciated by the inhabitants and have been recently exported. This article reports on the chemical composition (amino acids, polyphenols and sugars) of the pulps of four Z. jujuba ecotypes (Choutrana, Mahdia, Mahres and Sfax). The major amino acids identified were proline, aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Among these, proline was the most abundant amino acid (17.4 mol). Considerable differences in total phenolic contents (15.85 mg/L) were found. Predominant phenols identified by using HPLC were rutin (1.09 mg/L) and chlorogenic acid (2.57 mg/100 g). Sugars isolated from Ziziphus pulps were found at a rate of 43.52%. Using HPLC method, three sugars from the pulp extract were identified: glucose, galactose and sucrose. The Mahdia ecotype was the richest in these sugars with 0.45, 136.51 and 113.28 mg/L, respectively. PMID:25253334

Elaloui, M; Laamouri, A; Fabre, J; Mathieu, C; Vilarem, G; Hasnaoui, B

2015-01-01

381

Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs  

PubMed Central

Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS?)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (?-methyl-d-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-d-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS? choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS? levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice. PMID:23926132

Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

2013-01-01

382

Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants  

PubMed Central

Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transport efficiency predicts optimal concentrations of 23.5 per cent (if the pressure differential driving the flow is independent of concentration) and 34.5 per cent (if the pressure is proportional to concentration). Data from more than 50 experiments (41 species) collected from the literature show an average concentration in the range from 18.2 per cent (all species) to 21.1 per cent (active loaders), suggesting that the phloem vasculature is optimized for efficient transport at constant pressure and that active phloem loading may have developed to increase transport efficiency. PMID:23516065

Jensen, Kaare H.; Savage, Jessica A.; Holbrook, N. Michele

2013-01-01

383

Decontamination of sugar syrup by pulsed light.  

PubMed

The pulsed light produced by xenon flash lamps was applied to 65 to 67 °Brix sugar syrups artificially contaminated with suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with spores of Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Aspergillus niger. The emitted pulsed light contained 18.5 % UV radiation. At least 3-log reductions of S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis, G. stearothermophilus, and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 3-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup were obtained with a fluence of the incident pulsed light equal to or less than 1.8 J/cm(2), and the same results were obtained for B. subtilis and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 10-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup. A. niger spores would require a more intense treatment; for instance, the maximal log reduction was close to 1 with a fluence of the incident pulsed light of 1.2 J/cm(2). A flowthrough reactor with a flow rate of 320 ml/min and a flow gap of 2.15 mm was designed for pulsed light treatment of sugar syrup. Using this device, a 3-log reduction of A. acidoterrestris spores was obtained with 3 to 4 pulses of incident pulsed light at 0.91 J/cm(2) per sugar syrup volume. PMID:22564941

Chaine, Aline; Levy, Caroline; Lacour, Bernard; Riedel, Christophe; Carlin, Frédéric

2012-05-01

384

Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants.  

PubMed

Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transport efficiency predicts optimal concentrations of 23.5 per cent (if the pressure differential driving the flow is independent of concentration) and 34.5 per cent (if the pressure is proportional to concentration). Data from more than 50 experiments (41 species) collected from the literature show an average concentration in the range from 18.2 per cent (all species) to 21.1 per cent (active loaders), suggesting that the phloem vasculature is optimized for efficient transport at constant pressure and that active phloem loading may have developed to increase transport efficiency. PMID:23516065

Jensen, Kaare H; Savage, Jessica A; Holbrook, N Michele

2013-06-01

385

Potential Solubility of Waste Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard solubility test can be used to assess the potential hazard associated with a wide variety of industrial wastes. This test will provide regulatory agencies with a more efficient tool with which to protect receiving waters and hence to establish environmental safeguards. Further, data generated by solubility testing will enable engineers to optimize disposal' site selection, criteria and design.

David Matchett

1982-01-01

386

Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility provides an animated, visual interpretation of the different solubilities of related salts based on simple entropy changes associated with dissolution: configurational disorder and thermal disorder. This animation can also help improve students conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium before any quantitative interpretation of equilibrium constants is attempted.

387

The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

1998-01-01

388

Preserving water soluble carbohydrate in hay and silage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content of forage may be manipulated by harvest timing within a 24-hour period to take advantage of the diurnal cycle. However, increases in carbohydrate may be lost during the haymaking or ensiling process. Rapid drying and dry storage is necessary to prevent lo...

389

Investigation of the solubility enhancement mechanism of rebaudioside D using a solid dispersion technique with potassium sorbate as a carrier.  

PubMed

Rebaudioside (Reb) D is a high intensity, natural sweetener that shows great potential for substituting sugar in sweetened beverages. However, Reb D is poorly water soluble, and thus, a solid dispersion technique was recently established to enhance its solubility. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the solubility enhancement mechanism of this solid dispersion material by employing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Potassium sorbate (KS) was chosen as the carrier and two different concentration ratios were investigated as solid dispersions (SD) and as physical mixtures (PM). Our data demonstrated the possible mechanism for enhancing solubility through solid dispersion through increased surface area/volume ratio and hydrogen bonding between Reb D and KS. The interaction between the two components were also related to the different concentration ratios, therefore an optimisation of the ratio is important to produce a soluble and stable complex. PMID:25529720

Pang, Shintaro; Ma, Changchu; Zhang, Naijie; He, Lili

2015-05-01

390

Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga  

SciTech Connect

The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

2003-02-11

391

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass.  

PubMed

Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70-80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. PMID:20194793

Binder, Joseph B; Raines, Ronald T

2010-03-01

392

Proteome analysis of sugar beet leaves under drought stress.  

PubMed

Drought is one of the major factors limiting the yield of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The identification of candidate genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS) could greatly improve the efficiency of breeding for increased drought tolerance. Drought-induced changes in the proteome could highlight important genes. Two genotypes of sugar beet (7112 and 7219-P.69) differing in genetic background were cultivated in the field. A line-source sprinkler irrigation system was used to apply irrigated and water deficit treatments beginning at the four-leaf stage. At 157 days after sowing, leaf samples were collected from well-watered and drought-stressed plants for protein extraction and to measure shoot biomass and leaf relative water content. Changes induced in leaf proteins were studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and quantitatively analyzed using image analysis software. Out of more than 500 protein spots reproducibly detected and analyzed, 79 spots showed significant changes under drought. Some proteins showed genotype-specific patterns of up- or downregulation in response to drought. Twenty protein spots were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), leading to identification of Rubisco and 11 other proteins involved in redox regulation, oxidative stress, signal transduction, and chaperone activities. Some of these proteins could contribute a physiological advantage under drought, making them potential targets for MAS. PMID:15712235

Hajheidari, Mohsen; Abdollahian-Noghabi, Mohammad; Askari, Hossein; Heidari, Manzar; Sadeghian, Seyed Y; Ober, Eric S; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

2005-03-01

393

Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

Freimuth, Paul I. (East Setauket, NY)

2002-01-01

394

24. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Centrifugal inner basket, 1879. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Centrifugal inner basket, 1879. Manufacturer, unknown. Supplied by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1879. View: After sugar was granulated and cooled it was dried and drained, completely separating the sugar crystals from the molasses, in the centrifugal. Revolving at 1200 rpm the sugar charge was forced outward with the molasses flying through the holes in the brass lining. Dried sugar was left behind in the inner basket and was dug out by hand. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

395

Respiration-Dependent Utilization of Sugars in Yeasts: a Determinant Role for Sugar Transporters  

PubMed Central

In many yeast species, including Kluyveromyces lactis, growth on certain sugars (such as galactose, raffinose, and maltose) occurs only under respiratory conditions. If respiration is blocked by inhibitors, mutation, or anaerobiosis, growth does not take place. This apparent dependence on respiration for the utilization of certain sugars has often been suspected to be associated with the mechanism of the sugar uptake step. We hypothesized that in many yeast species, the permease activities for these sugars are not sufficient to ensure the high substrate flow that is necessary for fermentative growth. By introducing additional sugar permease genes, we have obtained K. lactis strains that were capable of growing on galactose and raffinose in the absence of respiration. High dosages of both the permease and maltase genes were indeed necessary for K. lactis cells to grow on maltose in the absence of respiration. These results strongly suggest that the sugar uptake step is the major bottleneck in the fermentative assimilation of certain sugars in K. lactis and probably in many other yeasts. PMID:11751819

Goffrini, Paola; Ferrero, Iliana; Donnini, Claudia

2002-01-01

396

New water-soluble carbamate ester derivatives of resveratrol.  

PubMed

Low bioavailability severely hinders exploitation of the biomedical potential of resveratrol. Extensive phase-II metabolism and poor water solubility contribute to lowering the concentrations of resveratrol in the bloodstream after oral administration. Prodrugs may provide a solution-protection of the phenolic functions hinders conjugative metabolism and can be exploited to modulate the physicochemical properties of the compound. We report here the synthesis and characterization of carbamate ester derivatives of resveratrol bearing on each nitrogen atom a methyl group and either a methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-350 (mPEG-350) or a butyl-glucosyl promoiety conferring high water solubility. Ex vivo absorption studies revealed that the butyl-glucosyl conjugate, unlike the mPEG-350 one, is able to permeate the intestinal wall. In vivo pharmacokinetics confirmed absorption after oral administration and showed that no hydrolysis of the carbamate groups takes place. Thus, sugar groups can be attached to resveratrol to obtain soluble derivatives maintaining to some degree the ability to permeate biomembranes, perhaps by facilitated or active transport. PMID:25275336

Mattarei, Andrea; Carraro, Massimo; Azzolini, Michele; Paradisi, Cristina; Zoratti, Mario; Biasutto, Lucia

2014-01-01

397

Phenylated Polyimides With Greater Solubility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In experiments, 3,6-diphenylpyromellitic dianhydride monomer prepared and polymerized with several different diamines. Polyimides with pendent phenyl groups along polymer backbones considerably more soluble than PMDA-based materials. Increased solubility eases processing, providing increased potential use in variety of applications. Because most polymers soluble in organic solvents, usable in microelectronics applications. Excellent thermal stabilities and high transition temperatures make them ideally suited. Many polymers extremely rigid and useful as reinforcing polymers in molecular composites. More flexible compositions useful as matrix resins in carbon-reinforced composites.

Harris, Frank W.

1991-01-01

398

Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.  

PubMed

Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin. PMID:3417603

Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

1988-01-01

399

Resorbability and solubility of zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate.  

PubMed

Using zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) as the zinc carrier for zinc-releasing calcium phosphate ceramic implants promoted bone formation around the implants. Because no quantitative information was available on the equilibrium solubility and resorbability of ZnTCP, in vitro equilibrium solubility and in vivo resorbability of ZnTCP were determined and compared quantitatively in this study. The solubility of ZnTCP decreased with increasing zinc content. The negative logarithm of the solubility product (K(sp)) of ZnTCP was expressed as pK(sp) = 28.686 + 1.7414C - 0.42239C(2) + 0.063911C(3) - 0.0051037C(4) + 0.0001595C(5) in air, where C is the zinc content in ZnTCP (mol %). The solubility of ZnTCP containing a nontoxic level of zinc (<0.63 wt %) decreased to 52-92% of the solubility of pure tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in the pH range 5.0-7.4. However, the in vivo resorbed volume of ZnTCP containing the same amount of zinc was much lower than that expected from the in vitro solubility, becoming as low as 26-20% of that of TCP. Cellular resorption of TCP is substantially a process of dissolution in a fluid with an acidic pH that is maintained by the activities of cells. Therefore, the reduction of the resorbability of ZnTCP could be attributable principally to its lowered cellular activation property relative to that associated with pure TCP. PMID:11857428

Ito, Atsuo; Kawamura, Haruo; Miyakawa, Shunpei; Layrolle, Pierre; Kanzaki, Noriko; Treboux, Gabin; Onuma, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Sadao

2002-05-01

400

Effects of brewers` condensed solubles (BCS) on the production of ethanol from low-grade starch materials  

SciTech Connect

Yeast fermentation was performed on grain and bakery byproducts with and without adding the same volume of brewers` condensed solubles (BCS). Starch material in the grain and bakery byproducts effectively was converted to fermentable sugars with conversion ratios of 93-97% by successive treatments of samples with bacterial {alpha}-amylase and fungal glucoamylase. The yeast fermentation of these enzyme-digested byproducts alone showed that ethanol concentrations of 16.4-42.7 mL/100 g dry solid in the broth were achieved with fermentation efficiencies of 87-96%. Addition of BCS to the grain byproducts increased ethanol concentration by 10-86% by increasing the potential glucose content of the broth. The rates of fermentation measured by CO{sub 2} gas production demonstrated that BCS addition to bakery byproducts reduced the fermentation time from 62-72 h to 34-35 h. In bakery byproducts that were low in amino nitrogen, exhaustion of nitrogenous compounds in substrates was found to be a limiting factor for yeast growth. Because BCS is a rich source of nitrogen, adding BCS to these substrates markedly increased the fermentation rate. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Choi, C.H.; Chung, D.S.; Seib, P.A. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)] [and others

1995-02-01

401

Enhancement of antioxidant properties and increase of content of vitamin D2 and non-volatile components in fresh button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (higher Basidiomycetes) by ?-irradiation.  

PubMed

Agaricus bisporus is a popular culinary-medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, and ?-irradiation could extend its shelf life. Our objective was to study the content of vitamin D2 and the taste components and antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts from A. bisporus with various doses of ?-irradiation. After irradiation, the vitamin D2 content of 5-10 kGy irradiated mushrooms was in the range of 5.22-7.90 µg/g, higher than that of the unirradiated control (2.24 µg/g). For all treatments, the total content of soluble sugars and polyols ranged from 113 to 142 mg/g, and the monosodium glutamate-like components ranged from 6.57 to 13.50 mg/g, among which the 2.5 kGy irradiated sample has the highest content of flavor 5'-nucleotide. About antioxidant properties, 10 kGy irradiated samples exhibited lower EC50 values than did other samples. EC50 values were less than 5 mg/mL for ethanolic extracts. Total phenols were the major antioxidant components and the total content was 13.24-22.78 mg gallic acid equivalents/g. Based on the results obtained, ?-irradiation could be used to improve the vitamin D2 content and intensity of umami taste in fresh mushrooms. In addition, ?-irradiation not only maintained the antioxidant properties of mushrooms but also enhanced the antioxidant properties to some extent. PMID:24941035

Tsai, Shu-Yao; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Huang, Shih-Jeng

2014-01-01

402

Evaluation of the fermentation of high gravity thick sugar beet juice worts for efficient bioethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background Sugar beet and intermediates of sugar beet processing are considered to be very attractive feedstock for ethanol production due to their content of fermentable sugars. In particular, the processing of the intermediates into ethanol is considerably facilitated because it does not require pretreatment or enzymatic treatment in contrast to production from starch raw materials. Moreover, the advantage of thick juice is high solid substance and saccharose content which eliminates problems with the storability of this feedstock. Results The objective of this study were to investigate bioethanol production from thick juice worts and the effects of their concentration, the type of mineral supplement, as well as the dose of yeast inoculum on fermentation dynamics and ethanol yield. The obtained results show that to ensure efficient ethanolic fermentation of high gravity thick juice worts, one needs to use a yeast strain with high ethanol tolerance and a large amount of inoculum. The highest ethanol yield (94.9?±?2.8% of the theoretical yield) and sugars intake of 96.5?±?2.9% were obtained after the fermentation of wort with an extract content of 250 g/kg supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.3 g/L of wort) and inoculated with 2 g of Ethanol Red dry yeast per L of wort. An increase in extract content in the fermentation medium from 250 g/L to 280 g/kg resulted in decreased efficiency of the process. Also the distillates originating from worts with an extract content of 250 g/kg were characterized by lower acetaldehyde concentration than those obtained from worts with an extract content of 280 g/kg. Conclusions Under the favorable conditions determined in our experiments, 38.9?±?1.2 L of 100% (v/v) ethyl alcohol can be produced from 100 kg of thick juice. The obtained results show that the selection of process conditions and the yeast for the fermentation of worts with a higher sugar content can improve the economic performance of the alcohol-distilling industry due to more efficient ethanol production, reduced consumption of cooling water, and energy for ethanol distillation, as well as a decreased volume of fermentation stillage. PMID:24206573

2013-01-01

403

Nonencapsulated Variant of Cryptococcus neoformans I. Virulence Studies and Characterization of Soluble Polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

A weakly virulent nonencapsulated variant of Cryptococcus neoformans is described. The chemical structure and antigenicity of the soluble polysaccharides produced by the variant strain and a typical virulent strain were compared. The soluble polysaccharides produced by both strains were composed of the same constituent monosaccharides; however, the virulent strain produced a polysaccharide having a greater uronic acid content and a larger molecular size than that of the variant strain. Soluble polysaccharides from the two strains are not closely related immunologically. Soluble polysaccharide obtained from the virulent strain did not affect persistence of the variant strain in mice. PMID:16557967

Kozel, Thomas R.; Cazin, John

1971-01-01

404

Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass has become an important research focus in the production of renewable biofuels and other bio-products. It means conversion of the carbohydrates contained in the biomass, including cellulose, hemicellose, and/or pectin into their component sug...

405

Extraction and characterization of sugar beet polysaccharides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 65 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We separated SBP into three fractions. The first fraction, extracted under acid conditions, was labeled pectin, the second was comprised of two sub fractions solubilized under alkaline conditions and wa...

406

Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice  

PubMed Central

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

2014-01-01

407

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

408

For the topping : 3 Tablespoons sugar  

E-print Network

uses pectin and less sugar than syrup pack and retains the fresh berry flavor, color and texture. Chill. Put cleaned and prepared fruit in a 4- to 6-quart bowl; add enough pectin syrup to glaze the fruit with a thin film. Gently fold the fruit to coat each piece with syrup. Pack into freezer bags

409

TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR BEET CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A sugar beet transformation method was developed using particle bombardment of short-term suspension cultures of a breeding line FC607. Highly embryogenic suspension cultures derived from leaf callus were bombarded with the uidA (GUS) reporter gene under the control of either the osmotin or protein...

410

Structural effect of sugars on water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulation of the structure of liquid water by solutes has tremendous consequences in numerous fields, particularly on the stability of proteins. However, the reasons for the differences in effects of similar solutes are still unclear. Recently, Livney and coworkers [1] found a strong relationship between the hydration layer of sugars and its effect on the phase transition of a

Simcha Srebnik; Ravit Matza; Iliya Kusner; Yoav D. Livney

2009-01-01

411

Children's understanding of sugar water solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 270 children aged four to 13 were tested in order to explore their physical and logicomathematical knowledge of sugar water solutions, and the relationship between the development of these two types of knowledge. Physical knowledge development followed the hypothesized sequence of non?preservation to preservation to liquefaction. There was some evidence that atomism is a more mature construction

M. Slone; F. D. Bokhurst

1992-01-01

412

Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar-  

E-print Network

Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar- beet yields while minimizing disease, water costs, fertilizer leaching, and soil erosion. Crop yields can suffer from either under- or overirriga- tion. Underirrigation limits water flow into the plant, which reduces movement of water, nutri

O'Laughlin, Jay

413

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

414

7 CFR 1435.604 - Eligible sugar buyer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Program § 1435.604 Eligible sugar buyer. (a) To be considered an eligible sugar buyer, the bioenergy producer must produce bioenergy products, including fuel grade ethanol or other biofuels. (b)...

2014-01-01

415

Towards a Molecular Understanding of Protein Solubility.  

E-print Network

??Protein solubility is a problem for many protein chemists including structural biologists and those developing protein pharmaceuticals. Knowledge of how intrinsic factors influence solubility is… (more)

Kramer, Ryan 1984-

2011-01-01

416

water-soluble fluorocarbon coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water-soluble fluorocarbon proves durable nonpolluting coating for variety of substrates. Coatings can be used on metals, masonry, textiles, paper, and glass, and have superior hardness and flexibility, strong resistance to chemicals fire, and weather.

Nanelli, P.

1979-01-01

417

Method for estimating solubility parameter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiempirical correlations have been developed between solubility parameters and refractive indices for series of model hydrocarbon compounds and organic polymers. Measurement of intermolecular forces is useful for assessment of material compatibility, glass-transition temperature, and transport properties.

Lawson, D. D.; Ingham, J. D.

1973-01-01

418

Sugar in Moderation: Variable Sugar Diets Affect Short-Term Parasitoid Behavior  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The biological control potential of parasitic wasps in the field is expected to increase with provisioning of sugar sources, which increase longevity and replenish carbohydrate reserves. Apanteles aristoteliae Viereck is an important parasitoid of Argyrotaenia franciscana (Walsingham), the orange to...

419

Role of Sugar and Sugar Substitutes in Dental Caries: A Review  

PubMed Central

Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term “caries” denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries. PMID:24490079

Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

2013-01-01

420

Detection of Sugar-Lectin Interactions by Multivalent Dendritic Sugar Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-print Network

We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate - protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge - transfer interactions with the SWNT. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A) - mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 x 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 \\muM of a non - specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A - mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was chara...

Vasu, K S; Bagul, R S; Jayaraman, N; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.4739793

2012-01-01

421

Evolution of Plant Nucleotide-Sugar Interconversion Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide-diphospho-sugars (NDP-sugars) are the building blocks of diverse polysaccharides and glycoconjugates in all organisms. In plants, 11 families of NDP-sugar interconversion enzymes (NSEs) have been identified, each of which interconverts one NDP-sugar to another. While the functions of these enzyme families have been characterized in various plants, very little is known about their evolution and origin. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate

Yanbin Yin; Jinling Huang; Xiaogang Gu; Maor Bar-Peled; Ying Xu

2011-01-01

422

Counter-current extraction of sweet sorghum sugar for fermentation  

SciTech Connect

A small counter-current extractor in the form of a heated inclined screw was tested to remove residual sugar from the bagasse after sweet sorghum was passed through one roller mill. Roller milling alone recovered only 45% of total sugar. Combined efficiency of milling and extraction was 95%. Combined pressed juice (17% sugar) and extract (10% sugar) produces a 12.5% solids juice for fermentation.

Toledo, R.T.

1985-01-01

423

Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

424

Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and other methods and compositions for reactions involving hydrogen  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

2002-11-12

425

Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

2006-05-02

426

Biogas from sugar beet press pulp as substitute of fossil fuel in sugar beet factories.  

PubMed

Sugar beet press pulp (SBP) accumulates as a by-product in sugar factories and it is generally silaged or dried to be used as animal food. Rising energy prices and the opening of the European Union sugar market has put pressure on the manufacturers to find alternatives for energy supply. The aim of this project was to develop a technology in the treatment of SBP that would lead to savings in energy consumption and would provide a more competitive sugar production from sugar beets. These goals were met by the anaerobic digestion of SBP for biogas production. Lab-scale experiments confirmed the suitability of SBP as substrate for anaerobic bacteria. Pilot-scale experiments focused on process optimization and procedures for a quick start up and operational control. Both single-stage and two-stage process configurations showed similar removal efficiency. A stable biogas production could be achieved in single-stage at a maximum volumetric loading rate of 10 kgCSB/(m(3) x d). Degradation efficiency was 75% for VS and 72% for COD. Average specific gas production reached 530 NL/kgCOD(SBP) or 610 NL/kgVS(SBP). (CH(4): 50 to 53%). The first large-scale biogas plant was put into operation during the sugar processing period 2007 at a Hungarian sugar factory. Digesting approximately 50% of the SBP (800 t/d, 22%TS), the biogas produced could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for the thermal energy supply within the sugar processing. PMID:18957765

Brooks, L; Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H; Prendl, L

2008-01-01

427

Dietectric Properties of Watermelons & Correlation with Soluble Solids Content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Abstract Dielectric properties of four small-sized watermelon cultivars, grown and harvested to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Probe measurements were made on the e...

428

Effect of water deficit on respiration of conducting bundles in leaf petioles of sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated fibrovascular bundles from source leaf petioles of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and hog-weed (Heracleum sosnovskyi L.) were used to study the influence of long-term drought on the oxygen uptake rate and activities of mitochondrial oxidases,\\u000a i.e., cytochrome oxidase and salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive alternative oxidase (AO). Under normal soil moisture content\\u000a (70% of full water-retaining capacity, WRC), the oxygen uptake

N. A. Shugaeva; E. I. Vyskrebentseva; S. O. Orekhova; A. G. Shugaev

2007-01-01

429

Mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei with Aspergillus niger on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4, the parent strain, and its hypercellulolytic mutant LM-UC4E1 were co-cultured with Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 in solid substrate fermentation on alkali-treated sugar cane for cellulolytic enzyme production. Bagasse was supplemented with either soymeal or with ammonium sulfate and urea, and fermented at 80% moisture content and 30°C. Mixed culturing produced better results with the inorganic supplement. The

Marcel Gutierrez-Correa; Leticia Portal; Patricia Moreno; Robert P. Tengerdy

1999-01-01

430

Engineering Advantages, Challenges and Status of Sugarcane and other Sugar-Based Biomass Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a highly productive tropical stem crop that has been cultivated for its high sugar content for hundreds of years.\\u000a In recent times, sugarcane has been the focus of several programs aiming at the production of fuel ethanol. Compared to starch-based\\u000a sources such as corn, production of ethanol from sugarcane has obvious advantages due to the amount

Ricardo A. Dante; Plinio T. Cristofoletti; Isabel R. Gerhardt

431

21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used...

2012-04-01

432

19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken...

2012-04-01

433

21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used...

2013-04-01

434

Safety Analysis of Sugar Cataract Development Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems  

E-print Network

Safety Analysis of Sugar Cataract Development Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems Derek Riley continuous dynamics [6]. In this paper we model Sugar Cataract Development (SCD) as a SHS, and we present a probabilistic verification method for computing the probability of sugar cataract formation for different

Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

435

19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken...

2014-04-01

436

19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken...

2013-04-01

437

Sugar composition of the moss Rhodobryum ontariense (Kindb.) Kindb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the second biggest terrestrial group of plants, bryophytes remain poorly known chemically compared to the angiosperms. In this article, the sugars of the moss Rhodobryum ontariense, an unstudied representative of the medicinally known genus, are reported. The chemical analysis revealed the usual plant sugar sucrose, and a new sugar, fructooligosaccharide 1-kestose, which is reported first not only for the

Boris Pejin; Carmine Iodice; Giuseppina Tommonaro; Marko Sabovljevic; Armandodoriano Bianco; Vele Tesevic; Vlatka Vajs; Salvatore De Rosa

2011-01-01

438

Sugar composition of the moss Rhodobryum ontariense (Kindb.) Kindb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the second biggest terrestrial group of plants, bryophytes remain poorly known chemically compared to the angiosperms. In this article, the sugars of the moss Rhodobryum ontariense, an unstudied representative of the medicinally known genus, are reported. The chemical analysis revealed the usual plant sugar sucrose, and a new sugar, fructooligosaccharide 1-kestose, which is reported first not only for the

Boris Pejin; Carmine Iodice; Giuseppina Tommonaro; Marko Sabovljevic; Armandodoriano Bianco; Vele Tesevic; Vlatka Vajs; Salvatore De Rosa

2012-01-01

439

IS THE EU SUGAR POLICY REFORM LIKELY TO INCREASE OBESITY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Health authorities recommend a decrease in the consumption of ’added’ sugar. At the same moment, a reform of the Common Organisation of the Sugar Market will lead to a decrease by more than 30% of the sugar price in the EU. Using the example of the soft drink industry, this paper investigates the impact of that reform on the

Celine Bonnet; Vincent Requillart

2010-01-01

440

Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health  

MedlinePLUS

... studies have found a direct link between excess sugar consumption and obesity and cardiovascular problems worldwide,” Bremer says. Because of these harmful effects, many health organizations recommend that Americans cut back on added sugars. But added sugars can be hard to identify. ...

441

Bioenergy production in the sugar industry: an integrated modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reforms in the Common Agricultural Policy and the sugar regime caused serious concerns for the future of the European sugar industry. At the same time, the European Commission considers transportation bio-fuels as a key factor for reducing reliance on imported fuels, emission levels of greenhouse gases and to meet rural development goals. Matching the sugar sector with bio-ethanol production

Imdadul Haque; Stelios Rozakis; Ewa Ganko; Leonidas Kallivroussis

2009-01-01

442

Differential Cold Tolerance, Starch, Sugar, Protein, and Lipid of Yellow and Purple Nutsedge Tubers 1  

PubMed Central

From measurements of viability after exposure of tubers to natural overwintering in the soil and 6 weeks exposure at 2 C, species cold tolerance of the tubers was ranked in decreasing order: yellow nutsedge `I' (Cyperus esculentus L.), an ecotype originating in Illinois; yellow nutsedge `G', an ecotype originating in Georgia; and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.). The ratios of unsaturated-saturated fatty acids in tuber triglycerides, tuber polar lipids, and leaf polar lipids followed the same order as the cold tolerance rankings, with the most cold-hardy species having the highest ratios. Lipid content was less than 1% of dry weight in purple nutsedge tubers, but was from 5 to 7% in both yellow nutsedge tubers. Starch, sugar, and lipid contents increased significantly in the hardy yellow nutsedge `I' tubers during a 6-week exposure to 2 C, but did not change in the susceptible purple nutsedge tubers; only sugar increased in yellow nutsedge `G' tubers after this treatment. Protein content was not altered by the 2 C treatment in any of the tubers. Apparently, several factors involving starch, sugar, lipids, and fatty acids are related to the differences in tolerance to cold in these species. PMID:16659181

Stoller, Edward W.; Weber, Evelyn J.

1975-01-01

443

Differential cold tolerance, starch, sugar, protein, and lipid of yellow and purple nutsedge tubers.  

PubMed

From measurements of viability after exposure of tubers to natural overwintering in the soil and 6 weeks exposure at 2 C, species cold tolerance of the tubers was ranked in decreasing order: yellow nutsedge ;I' (Cyperus esculentus L.), an ecotype originating in Illinois; yellow nutsedge ;G', an ecotype originating in Georgia; and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.). The ratios of unsaturated-saturated fatty acids in tuber triglycerides, tuber polar lipids, and leaf polar lipids followed the same order as the cold tolerance rankings, with the most cold-hardy species having the highest ratios. Lipid content was less than 1% of dry weight in purple nutsedge tubers, but was from 5 to 7% in both yellow nutsedge tubers. Starch, sugar, and lipid contents increased significantly in the hardy yellow nutsedge ;I' tubers during a 6-week exposure to 2 C, but did not change in the susceptible purple nutsedge tubers; only sugar increased in yellow nutsedge ;G' tubers after this treatment. Protein content was not altered by the 2 C treatment in any of the tubers. Apparently, several factors involving starch, sugar, lipids, and fatty acids are related to the differences in tolerance to cold in these species. PMID:16659181

Stoller, E W; Weber, E J

1975-05-01

444

Properties of poly(lactic acid) and sugar beet pulp green composites. II. Structural and mechanical properties analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Composite materials of sugar beet pulp (SBP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were evaluated for structural, mechanical, and moisture resistant properties. Microscopic analysis revealed that the SBP filler was evenly distributed in the PLA matrix phase. At lower SBP content, the filler was surrounded by...

445

Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of heat-induced gel prepared with chicken salt-soluble proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological effects of gamma irradiation (0, 3, 7, and 10 kGy) on chicken salt-soluble meat proteins in a model system were investigated. There were no significant differences in protein, fat, and ash content, and sarcoplasmic protein solubility among all samples. The samples with increasing gamma irradiation levels had higher pH, lightness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity, whereas moisture content, water holding capacity, redness, myofibrillar protein solubility, total protein solubility, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness were the highest in the unirradiated control. The result from meat products using gamma irradiation was intended to provide a basic resource processing technology.

Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Seo, Kwang-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

2015-01-01

446

Effect of diets low and high in refined sugars on gut transit, bile acid metabolism, and bacterial fermentation.  

PubMed Central

Increasing consumption of refined sugar has been implicated in many gastrointestinal disorders on epidemiological grounds. Nine volunteers agreed to participate in a study comparing the effects of a diet containing 165 g refined sugar/day with a diet of only 60 g/day on gut transit, bile acid metabolism, and fermentative activity of the intestinal flora. The wet and dry weight, pH, and water content of the stools were similar on the two diets. On the high sugar diet mouth-to-anus transit time was significantly prolonged, despite a shortened mouth-to-caecum transit time. The faecal concentration of total bile acids and the faecal concentration of secondary bile acids increased significantly. Diet affected neither the serum bile acid pattern nor the concentration. Breath hydrogen tests showed significantly enhanced H2 production on the high sugar diet. We conclude that the quantity of refined sugar in the diet can significantly influence gut function and the composition of bowel contents. PMID:2026335

Kruis, W; Forstmaier, G; Scheurlen, C; Stellaard, F

1991-01-01

447

The unique manuka effect: why New Zealand manuka honey fails the AOAC 998.12 C-4 sugar method.  

PubMed

Conversion of dihydroxyacteone (DHA) to methylglyoxal (MGO) has been shown to be the key mechanism for the growth in "apparent" C-4 sugar content in nonperoxide activity (NPA) manuka honey. This reaction is enhanced by heating and storage time and is demonstrated for the first time in clover honey adulterated with DHA purchased from a chemical supplier and in manuka honey containing naturally occurring DHA and MGO. After heating at 37 °C for 83 days, pure clover honey with no added DHA has the same apparent C-4 sugar content as at t = 0 days. The same clover honey adulterated with synthetic DHA added at t = 0 days and heated at 37 °C over the same time scale shows a change in apparent C-4 sugars from 2.8 to 5.0%. Four NPA manuka honeys heated over longer periods show an increase in apparent C-4 sugars of up to 280% after 241 days. This study strongly suggests that a protein fractionation effect occurs in the conversion of DHA to MGO in higher NPA manuka honey, rendering the remaining ?(13)C protein value more negative and falsely indicating C-4 sugar addition when using the AOAC 998.12 method. PMID:24446986

Rogers, Karyne M; Grainger, Megan; Manley-Harris, Merilyn

2014-03-26

448

Reduction of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in meat by sugar-smoking and dietary exposure assessment in taiwan.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent an important pollutant in foods and/or the environment. This study aimed to determine the PAH contents in sugar-smoked meat by employing a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) method combined with a GC-MS technique and assess the dietary exposure of PAHs in Taiwan. Results showed that the longer the sugar-smoking duration, the more the total PAH formation. By sugar-smoking for 6 min, the total PAH contents generated in red meat (33.9 ± 3.1-125.5 ± 9.2 ppb) were higher than in poultry meat (19.1 ± 2.0-28.2 ± 1.2 ppb) and seafood (9.1 ± 1.4-31.8 ± 1.8 ppb), with lamb steak containing the largest amount of total PAHs. Most importantly, the highly carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene remained undetected in all of the sugar-smoked meat samples. In addition, the cancer risk due to dietary PAH exposure based on total intake of meat in Taiwan was <2 × 10(-7). This outcome demonstrates that sugar-smoking can be adopted to replace the traditional smoking process with wood as smoke source. PMID:23855713

Chen, Shaun; Kao, Tsai Hua; Chen, Chia Ju; Huang, Chung Wei; Chen, Bing Huei

2013-08-01

449

Waterlogging-induced increase in sugar mobilization, fermentation, and related gene expression in the roots of mung bean (Vigna radiata).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the role of root carbohydrate levels and metabolism in the waterlogging tolerance of contrasting mung bean genotypes. An experiment was conducted with two cultivated mung bean (Vigna radiata) genotypes viz., T44 (tolerant) and Pusa Baisakhi (PB) (susceptible), and a wild Vigna species Vigna luteola under pot-culture to study the physiological and molecular mechanism of waterlogging tolerance. Waterlogging resulted in decrease in relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) in root and leaf tissues, and chlorophyll (Chl) content in leaves, while the Chl a/b ratio increased. Waterlogging-induced decline in RWC, MSI, Chl and increase in Chl a/b ratio was greater in PB than V. luteola and T44. Waterlogging caused decline in total and non-reducing sugars in all the genotypes and reducing sugars in PB, while the content of reducing sugar increased in V. luteola and T44. The pattern of variation in reducing sugar content in the 3 genotypes was parallel to sucrose synthase (SS) activity. V. luteola and T44 also showed fewer declines in total and non-reducing sugars and greater increase in reducing sugar and SS activity than PB. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) increased up to 8d of waterlogging in V. luteola and T44, while in PB a marginal increase was observed only up to 4d of treatment. Gene expression studies done by RT-PCR in 24h waterlogged plants showed enhanced expression of ADH and SS in the roots of V. luteola and T44, while in PB there was no change in expression level in control or treated plants. PCR band products were cloned and sequenced, and partial cDNAs of 531, 626, and 667; 702, 736, and 744bp of SS and ADH, respectively were obtained. The partial cDNA sequences of cloned SS genes showed 93-100 homologies among different genotypes and with D10266, while in case of ADH the similarity was in the range of 97-100% amongst each other and with Z23170. The results suggest that the availability of sufficient sugar reserve in the roots, activity of SS to provide reducing sugars for glycolytic activity and ADH for the recycling of NADH, and for the continuation of glycolysis, could be one of the important mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance of V. radiata genotype T44 and wild species V. luteola. This was reflected in better RWC and Chl content in leaves, and membrane stability of leaf and root tissue in V. luteola and T44. PMID:18947901

Sairam, Raj K; Dharmar, Kumutha; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Meena, Ramesh C

2009-04-01

450

A model of growth and sugar accumulation of sugar beet for potential production conditions: SUBEMOpoII. Model performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model SUBEMOpo, to simulate sugar beet growth and sugar accumulation for potential production conditions has been evaluated. Given initial conditions, the growth, development and sugar accumulation of the model are driven by observed weather (i.e. maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation). Soil water and nutrients are considered as non limiting in the model.

H. J. Vandendriessche

2000-01-01

451

Urinary sugars (sucrose and fructose) associations with self-reported sugars intake: the influence of plausibility of reported energy intake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Urinary sucrose and fructose may serve as biomarkers of sugars intake, the latter which are thought to be underreported in dietary assessment. We examined associations of urinary sugars with reported sugars intake in adults recruited for a study on diet and chronic disease risk. Methods: Healthy, no...

452

Does the EU Sugar Policy Reform Increase Added Sugar Consumption? An Empirical Evidence on the Soft Drink Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Health authorities recommend a decrease in the consumption of ‘added’ sugar. At the same moment, a reform of the Common Organisation of the Sugar Market will lead to a decrease by more than 30% of the sugar price in the EU. Using French data on the soft drinks purchases, this paper investigates the impact of this reform on the

Céline Bonnet; Vincent Réquillart

2010-01-01

453

Clean water recycle in sugar extraction process: Performance analysis of reverse osmosis in the treatment of sugar beet press water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the beet sugar manufacturing the treatment of the press water represents a challenging design task. In fact presently, press water is completely recycled to the extraction of sugar beet cossettes. Press water is essentially a dilute solution (1–3% total solids) containing, besides sugar (60–80% of the total solids), impurities in the form of dissolved species, salts, colloids, and suspended

M. Bogliolo; A. Bottino; G. Capannelli; M. De Petro; A. Servida; G. Pezzi; G. Vallini

1997-01-01

454

The effect of glycerol\\/sugar\\/water and sugar\\/water mixtures on the plasticization of thermoplastic cassava starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of 2wt% sugars as co-plasticizer in combination with glycerol was investigated for thermoplastic starch (TPS) from cassava. The results were compared to those for whole cassava root TPS, which naturally contains sugars in the same proportion. The main objective was to investigate the influence of natural sugars present in the cassava root on the properties of thermoplastic starch

E. M. Teixeira; A. L. Da Róz; A. J. F. Carvalho; A. A. S. Curvelo

2007-01-01

455

FIBER SEPARATED FROM DISTILLERS DRIED GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES AS A FEEDSTOCK FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION TO INCREASE OUTPUT FROM DRY GRIND CORN PLANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the dry grind process, corn starch is converted into sugars which are fermented into ethanol. The remaining corn components (protein, fiber, fat, and ash) form coproduct, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The combination of sieving and elutriation (air classification), known as elus...

456

Crosslinking of water-soluble polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crosslinking of water-soluble polymers is important in many industrial processes. In the oil industry, minimizing the concentration of polymers is desirable for technical and economic reasons. This dissertation provides a link between measurable polymer properties and the minimum concentration necessary for crosslinking. The influences of polymer type and concentration, crosslinker type, salt and additives on the crosslinking process were studied by steady shear test, creep test, oscillatory test, Atomic Force Microscopy and other techniques. Solution properties, crosslinked gel properties and the relationship between them were investigated. Test results indicate that the rheological properties of guar solutions and its derivatives are quite different. The critical overlap concentrations increase in the order GW-3, CMG, CMHPG, guar and HPG. And, the intrinsic viscosity increases in the order of HPG, guar, CMHPG, GW-3 and CMG. At low concentrations, steady shear viscosity decreases in the order of CMG, CMHPG, GW-3, guar and HPG, while at high concentrations, the steady shear viscosities decrease in the order of GW-3, guar, CMG, CMHPG and HPG. Addition of urea and sugar reduces the viscosity of guar solutions. The influence of salts on the viscosity of CMG solutions varies with salt types and polymer concentrations. The strength of crosslinked gels increases with polymer concentration. At low polymer concentrations, gel strength of guar derivatives increases in the order of HPG, guar, GW-3, CMG and CMHPG, while at high concentrations, gel strength increases in the order of CMG, CMHPG, HPG, guar and GW-3. The critical crosslinking concentration increases in the order of GW-3, CMG, CMHPG, guar and HPG. A mathematical model is developed to relate critical crosslinking concentration and critical crosslinking concentration. The relationship between them is scaled as a power law. Models of the plateau modulus dependence on concentration are also developed. The modulus can be scaled as power law of the concentration with different exponents for different type of polymer gels.

Lei, Cuiyue

457

What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar.  

E-print Network

What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar. DIABETES IS HIGH BLOOD SUGAR We all have sugar in our blood. When you have diabetes you have too much sugar in your blood muscles can then use sugar for fuel. Insulin keeps blood sugar in balance. #12; If you have diabetes

458

The effects of pH and mixed solvent systems on the solubility of oxytetracycline.  

PubMed

The solubility of oxytetracycline (OTC) in aqueous and mixed solvent systems was studied. The effects of pH and cosolvent composition on the solubility and apparent dissociation constants (pKa') of OTC were determined by a solubility method. The pKa' values of OTC in each mixed solvent system were estimated and used to generate expressions for predicting drug solubility in each cosolvent as a function of pH. Cosolvent systems of PEG 400, propylene glycol, glycerin, and 2-pyrrolidone were studied in the pH range of 2.5-9. Solubility results showed increased solubility with increased cosolvent concentration, especially in 2-pyrrolidone solvent systems. These results also showed that cosolvents enhanced drug solubility through either their effects on polarity of the solvent medium or complex formation with OTC. Aqueous and mixed solvent systems at lower pH values resulted in higher OTC solubilization because the drug existed primarily in its cationic form. A mass balance equation including all ionic species of OTC allowed for estimation of the intrinsic solubilities and pKa' values in each solvent system. pKa' values and intrinsic solubility of the OTC zwitterion increased with increasing cosolvent content. These parameters allowed prediction of drug solubility within the pH range and cosolvent concentrations used in this study. PMID:10578512

Tongaree, S; Flanagan, D R; Poust, R I

1999-01-01

459

19. RW Meyer Sugar: 18761889. Cooling Shed Interior, 1881. View: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. RW Meyer Sugar: 1876-1889. Cooling Shed Interior, 1881. View: Looking toward west end of cooling shed. After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan it cooled and crystallized in large sugar coolers. The humidity and vapors caused by the sorghum pan would have retarded the crystallizing and cooling of the sugar in the boiling house. In 1881 this shed was constructed to house the coolers and the sugar before it was dried in the centrifugals. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

460

Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sorghum biomass for sugar recovery--a statistical approach.  

PubMed

Sorghum is one of the commercially feasible lignocellulosic biomass and has a great potential of being sustainable feedstock for renewable energy. As with any lignocellulosic biomass, sorghum also requires pretreatment which increases its susceptibility to hydrolysis by enzymes for generating sugars which can be further fermented to alcohol. In the present study, sorghum biomass was evaluated for deriving maximum fermentable sugars by optimizing various pretreatment parameters using statistical optimization methods. Pretreatment studies were done with H2SO4, followed by enzymatic saccharification. The efficiency of the process was evaluated on the basis of production of the total reducing sugars released during the process. Compositional analysis was done for native as well as pretreated biomass and compared. The biomass pretreated with the optimized conditions could yield 0.408 g of reducing sugars /g of pretreated biomass upon enzymatic hydrolysis. The cellulose content in the solid portion obtained after pretreatment using optimised conditions was found to be increased by 43.37% with lesser production of inhibitors in acid pretreated liquor. PMID:25507701

Akanksha, Karthik; Prasad, Arjun; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Pandey, Ashok; Rao, S S; Parameswaran, Binod

2014-11-01

461

Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sorghum biomass for sugar recovery--a statistical approach.  

PubMed

Sorghum is one of the commercially feasible lignocellulosic biomass and has a great potential of being sustainable feedstock for renewable energy. As with any lignocellulosic biomass, sorghum also requires pretreatment which increases its susceptibility to hydrolysis by enzymes for generating sugars which can be further fermented to alcohol. In the present study, sorghum biomass was evaluated for deriving maximum fermentable sugars by optimizing various pretreatment parameters using statistical optimization methods. Pretreatment studies were done with H2SO4, followed by enzymatic saccharification. The efficiency of the process was evaluated on the basis of production of the total reducing sugars released during the process. Compositional analysis was done for native as well as pretreated biomass and compared. The biomass pretreated with the optimized conditions could yield 0.408 g of reducing sugars /g of pretreated biomass upon enzymatic hydrolysis. The cellulose content in the solid portion obtained after pretreatment using optimised conditions was found to be increased by 43.37% with lesser production of inhibitors in acid pretreated liquor. PMID:25434103

Akanksha, Karthik; Prasad, Arjun; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Pandey, Ashok; Rao, S S; Parameswaran, Binod

2014-11-01

462

Intensification of enzymatic hydrolysis of waste newspaper using ultrasound for fermentable sugar production.  

PubMed

An effective conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars is a key step in producing bioethanol in an eco-friendly and cost effective manner. In this study, the effect of ultrasound on enzymatic hydrolysis of newspaper, a potential feedstock for bioethanol production due to its high cellulosic content, was investigated. The effect of substrate loading, enzyme loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the hydrolysis has been studied. Optimum conditions for conventional enzymatic hydrolysis were substrate loading of 5% (w/v), enzyme loading of 0.14% (w/v), temperature of 323K, and under these conditions and 72h of hydrolysis, reducing sugar yield of 11.569g/L was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis approach, optimum conditions obtained were substrate loading of 3% (w/v), enzyme loading of 0.8% (w/v), sonication power of 60W, duty cycle of 70%, hydrolysis time of 6.5h and the reducing sugar yield obtained under these conditions was 27.6g/L. Approximately 2.4 times increase in the release of reducing sugar concentration was obtained by the ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results indicate that there is a synergistic effect obtained from the combination of ultrasound and enzymes which lowers the diffusion-limiting barrier to enzyme/substrate binding and results in an increase in reaction rate. The experimental data were also fitted in a simple three parameter kinetic model. PMID:25060116

Subhedar, Preeti B; Babu, Narmadha R; Gogate, Parag R

2015-01-01

463

Sugar demand, not auxin, is the initial regulator of apical dominance.  

PubMed

For almost a century the plant hormone auxin has been central to theories on apical dominance, whereby the growing shoot tip suppresses the growth of the axillary buds below. According to the classic model, the auxin indole-3-acetic acid is produced in the shoot tip and transported down the stem, where it inhibits bud growth. We report here that the initiation of bud growth after shoot tip loss cannot be dependent on apical auxin supply because we observe bud release up to 24 h before changes in auxin content in the adjacent stem. After the loss of the shoot tip, sugars are rapidly redistributed over large distances and accumulate in axillary buds within a timeframe that correlates with bud release. Moreover, artificially increasing sucrose levels in plants represses the expression of BRANCHED1 (BRC1), the key transcriptional regulator responsible for maintaining bud dormancy, and results in rapid bud release. An enhancement in sugar supply is both necessary and sufficient for suppressed buds to be released from apical dominance. Our data support a theory of apical dominance whereby the shoot tip's strong demand for sugars inhibits axillary bud outgrowth by limiting the amount of sugar translocated to those buds. PMID:24711430

Mason, Michael G; Ross, John J; Babst, Benjamin A; Wienclaw, Brittany N; Beveridge, Christine A

2014-04-22

464

Lowering the milk lactose content in vivo: potential interests, strategies  

E-print Network

Review Lowering the milk lactose content in vivo: potential interests, strategies and physiological -- Lactose is the major sugar present in milk and an important osmotic regulator of lacta- tion suffers from lactase deficiency. A reduction in milk lactose content could be beneficial for nutritional

Boyer, Edmond

465

Insight into the role of sugars in bud burst under light in the rose.  

PubMed

Bud burst is a decisive process in plant architecture that requires light in Rosa sp. This light effect was correlated with stimulation of sugar transport and metabolism in favor of bud outgrowth. We investigated whether sugars could act as signaling entities in the light-mediated regulation of vacuolar invertases and bud burst. Full-length cDNAs encoding two vacuolar invertases (RhVI1 and RhVI2) were isolated from buds. Unlike RhVI2, RhVI1 was preferentially expressed in bursting buds, and was up-regulated in buds of beheaded plants exposed to light. To assess the importance of sugars in this process, the expression of RhVI1 and RhVI2 and the total vacuolar invertase activity were further characterized in buds cultured in vitro on 100 mM sucrose or mannitol under light or in darkness for 48 h. Unlike mannitol, sucrose promoted the stimulatory effect of light on both RhVI1 expression and vacuolar invertase activity. This up-regulation of RhVI1 was rapid (after 6 h incubation) and was induced by as little as 10 mM sucrose or fructose. No effect of glucose was found. Interestingly, both 30 mM palatinose (a non-metabolizable sucrose analog) and 5 mM psicose (a non-metabolizable fructose analog) promoted the light-induced expression of RhVI1 and total vacuolar invertase activity. Sucrose, fructose, palatinose and psicose all promoted bursting of in vitro cultured buds under light. These findings indicate that soluble sugars contribute to the light effect on bud burst and vacuolar invertases, and can function as signaling entities. PMID:22505690

Rabot, Amelie; Henry, Clemence; Ben Baaziz, Khaoula; Mortreau, Eric; Azri, Wassim; Lothier, Jeremy; Hamama, Latifa; Boummaza, Rachid; Leduc, Nathalie; Pelleschi-Travier, Sandrine; Le Gourrierec, José; Sakr, Soulaiman

2012-06-01

466

Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses  

SciTech Connect

Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29

467

Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering  

PubMed Central

Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin and jasmonate signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS, invertases, and trehalose-6-phosphate) might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of “sweet immunity,” modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration. PMID:23420760

Moghaddam, Mohammad R. Bolouri; den Ende, Wim Van

2013-01-01

468

UH Sugar Land Shuttle Service Summer 2014 To better serve our students, UH is providing shuttle service from UH Main Campus to UH Sugar Land for the Summer  

E-print Network

UH Sugar Land Shuttle Service ­ Summer 2014 To better serve our students, UH is providing shuttle service from UH Main Campus to UH Sugar Land for the Summer 2014 semester. There will be no additional at the UH Sugar Land location. 2. Students must have a UH Sugar Land Student ID. a. To get your UH Sugar

Azevedo, Ricardo

469

Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bacteria from Sugar Beets  

PubMed Central

Six hundred microorganisms were isolated from sugar beets collected from different parts of Finland to study their slime production. A total of 170 of them produced exopolysaccharides, of which 35% were heteropolysaccharides. The yield of heteropolysaccharides from sucrose was lower than that of dextrans. Five isolates, which were chosen for closer study, were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides (two species), Rahnella aquatilis (two species), and Enterobacter amnigenus. PMID:9925632

Tallgren, Antti H.; Airaksinen, Ulla; von Weissenberg, Robert; Ojamo, Heikki; Kuusisto, Juhani; Leisola, Matti

1999-01-01

470

Intermolecular Forces of Sugars in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Apparent molar volume and viscosities of fructose, glucose, mannose, and sucrose have been measured in dilute aqueous solution,\\u000a concentration range 0.028–0.336?M at 293?K. The viscosity coefficient B and A were calculated from the viscosity data using the Jones-Dole equation for all the studied sugars. The data were also analysed for Stauarding equation. The structure making behavior was obtained for all

Rajesh Mathpal; B. K. Joshi; S. Joshi; N. D. Kandpal

2006-01-01

471

Sugar-water interaction from diffusion measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion coefficients of deoxyribose and ribose in water were measured at 25°C. The Stokes-Einstein relation for mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides are discussed. The diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution Do for deoxyribose was the largest among these sugars. It appears that the deoxyribose breaks local water structure but the ribose hardly affects the structure. Do correlates well with the mean

Hisashi Uedaira; Hatsuho Uedaira

1985-01-01

472

Determination of Fat Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

Carpenter, Charles

473

Experimental solubility profiling of marketed CNS drugs, exploring solubility limit of CNS discovery candidate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the experimental solubility of CNS marketed drugs. Of the 98 drugs measured, greater than 90% had solubility >10?M in pH 7.4 buffer. Only seven drugs had solubility <10?M. Using these data, we established a solubility criterion to support CNS discovery. The implication of poor solubility with potential safety concerns and undesirable side effects are discussed.

Yun W. Alelyunas; James R. Empfield; Dennis McCarthy; Russell C. Spreen; Khanh Bui; Luciana Pelosi-Kilby; Cindy Shen

2010-01-01

474

The structure and CO2 solubility of Kimberlite melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kimberlitic magmas have the deepest origin of all terrestrial magmas. They are generated by low degree partial melting of carbonated mantle peridotite and may originally contain up to 30 wt% CO2. The solubility of CO2 in these melts is therefore expected to exert a prime influence on the melt buoyancy, structure and henceforth eruption dynamics. The study of Kimberlitic melt has previously been hampered by the apparent impossibility to quench them into stable glass. We have studied the CO2 solubility and molecular structure of successfully quenched CO2-bearing kimberlitic glass by FTIR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. Our results suggest that the solubility of CO2 decreases steadily with increasing amount of network forming cations and that pressure has little effect on the solubility of CO2 for these compositions up until very shallow depth. Raman and 29Si NMR investigation suggest that the Kimberlite melt structure is more polymerised (dominated by Q1 configuration) than theoretically predicted while 13C NMR spectrum show a single resonance peak at -168 ppm similar to that of non-bridging carbonate species. Understanding the solubility and speciation of CO2 in Kimberlitic melt has strong implications regarding the carbon content of the cratonic mantle and carbon's pathway to the surface in these tectonically lethargic settings.

Moussallam, Yves; Morizet, Yann; Florian, Pierre; Laumonier, Mickael; Massuyeau, Malcom; Gaillard, Fabrice

2014-05-01

475

[Protein enrichment of sugar beet bagasse for fermentation].  

PubMed

Leached beet pulp is a plentiful waste in the sugar beet industry in Chile, reaching 100.000 metric tons per year on a dry basis. It represents an interesting substrate for protein upgrading through fermentation by cellulolytic organisms, because of the high content of cellulose and hemicellulose, with small amounts of protein and lignin (Table 1). The fermentation of leached beet pulp by the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was studied under carbon limitation, with the celluloses as the only carbon and energy source. Nitrogen was supplied as ammonium sulphate and the medium was supplemented with other mineral salts as required for growth. Results on the kinetics of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, level of reducing sugars in the medium, mycelial growth and production of cellulolytic enzymes are presented. Mycelial growth and related parameters were evaluated by an indirect method, based on nitrogen balances during fermentation. A yield of 0.26 g. of dry cell/g. of cellulosic substrate consumed and productivity of 0.095 g. of dry cell per liter per hour were obtained and compared with reported results on similar systems. After 40 to 45 hours of fermentation, approximately 80% of the cellulose and 45% of the hemicellulose were degraded (Fig. 2). Both, exoglucanase and endoglucanase, were induced; endoglucanase was growth associated, while exoglucanase appeared later in the growth phase, reaching its maximum activity in the stationary phase (Fig. 3). The product obtained was 30% protein and only 40 to 45% residual fiber, mostly hemicellulose. Mild acid hydrolysis has been successful in degrading hemicellulose but not cellulose, in the leached beet pulp.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6965247

Illanes, A; Schaffeld, G

1982-01-01

476

PERSPECTIVE Overcoming the solubility limit with solubility-enhancement tags  

E-print Network

on the criteria for choosing optimal SETs, such as for differently charged target proteins, and recent new), or introduction of point mutants (Huang et al. 1996; Ito and Wagner 2004; Sun et al. 1999) have been successfully uti- lized to increase the solubility of the target proteins. How- ever, these methods are often

Zhou, Pei

477

Towards producing novel fish gelatin films by combination treatments of ultraviolet radiation and sugars (ribose and lactose) as cross-linking agents.  

PubMed

Developing novel fish gelatin films with better mechanical properties than mammalian gelatin is a challenging but promising endeavor. Studies were undertaken to produce fish gelatin films by combining treatments with different sugars (ribose and lactose) followed 'by' 'and' ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as possible cross-linking agents. Increase in tensile strength and percent elongation at break was recorded, which was more significant in films without sugars that were exposed to UV radiation. Films with added ribose showed decreased solubility after UV treatment and exhibited higher swelling percentage than films with added lactose, which readily dissolved in water. FTIR spectra of all the films showed identical patterns, which indicated no major changes to have occurred in the functional groups as a result of interaction between gelatin, sugars and UV irradiation. The results of this study could be explored for commercial use, depending on industrial needs for either production of edible films or for food packaging purposes. PMID:24966426

Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, A A