Science.gov

Sample records for soluble sugar content

  1. Sugar profiles and soluble and insoluble dietary fiber contents of fruits in Thailand markets.

    PubMed

    Chareoansiri, Rin; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine sugar and dietary fiber contents in 37 varieties of Thai fruits. Sugars were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and dietary fiber values were measured by the enzymatic-gravimetric method. The total sugar (sucrose, fructose and glucose) content ranged from 4.5 g/100 g (strawberry) to 20.3 g/100 g (ripe banana; hawm variety) edible portion. All varieties of ripe banana provided good sources of glucose, fructose and total sugar. The total dietary fiber content ranged from 0.6 g/100 g (watermelon) to 11.5 g/100 g (sapodilla) edible portion. The rank of TDF contents per 100 g edible portion was sapodilla > durian > guava and strawberry > apple > Chinese pear > sugar apple > star fruit. Other fruits contained total dietary fiber values lower than 2.4 g/100 g edible portion, especially watermelon, which had the lowest total dietary fiber content (0.6-0.7 g/100 g edible portion). PMID:19255919

  2. [Effects of simulated acid rain and its acidified soil on soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings].

    PubMed

    Tong, Guanhe; Liang, Huiling

    2005-08-01

    The study showed that the cation release of simulated rain caused soil acidification and base ions release. With the decrease of simulated acid rain pH from 5.6 to 2.5, the acid rain-leached soil pH decreased from 6.06 to 3.41, and its total amount of exchange base ions decreased from 56.5 to 41.1 mmol x kg(-1). Spraying simulated acid rain on the shoots of wheat seedlings planted on such acidified soils caused a rapid decrease in the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings, and reduced some of their physiological activities. The effect of spraying simulated acid rain on the soluble sugar, nitrogen, and chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic rate of wheat stems and leaves was larger than that of acidified soil, while the effect of the latter on the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents and the physiological activity of NR and GOGAT in root system of wheat seedlings was larger than that of the former. The intensive acid rain of pH < or = 3.0 and the corresponding acidified soil had an obvious harm to the growth and physiological activity of wheat seedlings. PMID:16262064

  3. Ultraviolet-visible transmittance techniques for rapid analysis of sugar content and soluble solids content of fresh navel orange juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yande; Ouyang, Aiguo; Luo, Ji; Ying, Yibin

    2005-11-01

    Sugar content (SC) and soluble solids content (SSC) are very important factors of navel orange internal quality and can be measured non-invasively by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. The feasibility and methods of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic techniques for rapid quantifying SC and SSC of navel orange fresh juices was investigated by its spectral transmittance. A total 55 juice samples were used to develop the calibration and prediction models. Different spectra correction algorithms (constant, multiplicative signal correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) were compared in our work. Three different kinds of mathematical spectra treatments (original, first derivative and second derivative) of spectra in the range of 200-800 nm and two kinds of reference standards were also investigated. Three kinds of models including partial least square regression (PLSR), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principle component regression (PCR) were evaluated for the determination of SC and SSC in navel orange juice. Calibration models based on the different spectral ranges were also compared. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of prediction set of samples. The correlation coefficients of calibration models for SC and SSC were 0.965 and 0.961, the correlation coefficients of prediction models for SC and SSC were 0.857 and 0.888, and the corresponding RMSEP were 0.562 and 0.492 respectively. The results show that ultraviolet-visible transmittance technique is a feasible method for non-invasive estimation of fruit juice SC and SSC.

  4. Measurement of moisture, soluble solids, and sucrose content and mechanical properties in sugar beet using portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy, coupled with partial least squares regression, was used to predict the moisture, soluble solids and sucrose content and mechanical properties of sugar beet. Interactance spectra were acquired from both intact and sliced beets, using two portable spectrometers ...

  5. Light exposure during storage preserving soluble sugar and l-ascorbic acid content of minimally processed romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.var. longifolia).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lijuan; Hu, Jinqiang; Ai, Zhilu; Pang, Lingyun; Li, Yu; Zhu, Meiyun

    2013-01-01

    Minimally processed romaine lettuce (MPRL) leaves were stored in light condition (2500lux) or darkness at 4C for 7d. Light exposure significantly delayed the degradation of chlorophyll and decrease of glucose, reducing sugar, and sucrose content, and thus preserved more total soluble solid (TSS) content at the end of storage in comparison with darkness. While, it did not influenced starch content that progressively decreased over time. The l-ascorbic acid (AA) accumulated in light-stored leaves, but deteriorated in dark-stored leaves during storage. The dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) increased in all leaves stored in both light and dark condition, of which light condition resulted in less DHA than darkness. In addition, the fresh weight loss and dry matter significantly increased and these increases were accelerated by light exposure. Conclusively, light exposure in applied intensity effectively alleviated MPRL quality deterioration by delaying the decreases of pigments, soluble sugar, TSS content and accumulating AA. PMID:23017423

  6. Regulation of some carbohydrate metabolism-related genes, starch and soluble sugar contents, photosynthetic activities and yield attributes of two contrasting rice genotypes subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Boriboonkaset, Thanaphol; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Yamada, Nana; Pichakum, Aussanee; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt; Cha-Um, Suriyan; Takabe, Teruhiro; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol

    2013-10-01

    Soluble carbohydrates play a key role as osmolytes and significantly contribute in salt defence mechanism, especially in halophyte species. The objective of this study is to investigate the transcriptional expression of starch-related genes, sugar profile and physiological performances of two contrasting rice genotypes, Pokkali (salt tolerant) and IR29 (salt sensitive), in response to salt stress. Total soluble sugars, glucose and fructose levels in the flag leaf of salt-stressed Pokkali rice were enhanced relative to soluble starch accumulation in plants exposed to EC?=?13.25 dS m(-1) (salt stress) for 3 days. In Pokkali, the net photosynthetic rate and starch metabolism may play a key role as energy resources under salt stress. In contrast, photosynthetic performance, indicated by photosynthetic pigment levels and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, in salt-stressed IR29 was significantly reduced, leading to delayed starch biosynthesis. The reduction in photosynthetic ability and lack of defence mechanisms in IR29 caused growth inhibition and yield loss. Soluble starch and soluble sugar enrichment in Pokkali rice may function alternatively as osmotic adjustment in salt defence mechanism and strengthen carbon energy reserves, greater survival prospects under salt stress and enhanced productivity. PMID:23558902

  7. Sensory profile, soluble sugars, organic acids, and mineral content in milk- and soy-juice based beverages.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José

    2015-04-15

    The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941 mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278 mg/L) and phosphate (51-428 mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers. PMID:25466130

  8. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement. PMID:26593554

  9. Soluble sugarsMetabolism, sensing and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Mariana; Prado, Carolina; Podazza, Griselda; Interdonato, Roque; Gonzlez, Juan A; Hilal, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Plants are autotrophic and photosynthetic organisms that both produce and consume sugars. Soluble sugars are highly sensitive to environmental stresses, which act on the supply of carbohydrates from source organs to sink ones. Sucrose and hexoses both play dual functions in gene regulation as exemplified by the upregulation of growth-related genes and downregulation of stress-related genes. Although coordinately regulated by sugars, these growth- and stress-related genes are upregulated or downregulated through HXK-dependent and/or HXK-independent pathways. Sucrose-non-fermenting-1- (SNF1-) related protein pathway, analogue to the protein kinase (SNF-) yeast-signalling pathway, seems also involved in sugar sensing and transduction in plants. However, even if plants share with yeast some elements involved in sugar sensing, several aspects of sugar perception are likely to be peculiar to higher plants. In this paper, we have reviewed recent evidences how plants sense and respond to environmental factors through sugar-sensing mechanisms. However, we think that forward and reverse genetic analysis in combination with expression profiling must be continued to uncover many signalling components, and a full biochemical characterization of the signalling complexes will be required to determine specificity and cross-talk in abiotic stress signalling pathways. PMID:19816104

  10. Contents and compositions of the aroma in "Wasanbon" sugar.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Kitaoka, S

    1981-01-01

    "Wasanbon" sugar is handmade sugar which has been manufactured traditionally in Japan by a unique refining procedure, and is used in the making of Japanese traditional confectionary. No reports have been published on the substances responsible for the unique aroma of "Wasabon" sugar. In this paper, the contents and compositions of the aroma in "Wasabon" sugar and refinery final molasses are reported as studied by column chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and sensory evaluation. The samples are the first press-off molasses ("Ara-mitsu" molasses) refinery final molasses, "Shiroshita" sugar (prerefined sugar) and "Wasabon" sugar. The summarized results are as follows: In the acidic fraction, the aroma of 3-phenylpropionic acid is similar to the stored aroma of "Wasabon" sugar, whereas the aroma of its methyl ester was not similar to that aroma. Although aroma contents of the weakly acidic fraction in "Wasabon" sugar and refinery final molasses are 8.5 to 8.7% of those of the acidic fraction, and their main components are cyclotene and maltol, which are formed by thermal degradation of sugar. These components show a higher preference than other weakly acidic fraction aromas, by a paired preference test. Cyclotene and maltol increased about 3.7 and 1.5 times, respectively, by the heating of "Shiroshita" sugar. PMID:7334426

  11. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    PubMed

    K?vrak, ?brahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04g/100g) and trehalose (10.27g/100g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields. PMID:25169839

  12. Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneous field-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was to quantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R); g 100g**-1 roo...

  13. Method to produce water-soluble sugars from biomass using solvents containing lactones

    SciTech Connect

    Dumesic, James A.; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.

    2015-06-02

    A process to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates that contains C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6 sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5 sugar monomers, or any combination thereof is presented. The process includes the steps of reacting biomass or a biomass-derived reactant with a solvent system including a lactone and water, and an acid catalyst. The reaction yields a product mixture containing water-soluble C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6-sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5-sugar monomers, or any combination thereof. A solute is added to the product mixture to cause partitioning of the product mixture into an aqueous layer containing the carbohydrates and a substantially immiscible organic layer containing the lactone.

  14. Gradual Decline in Soda's Sugar Content Might Help Curb Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_156584.html Gradual Decline in Soda's Sugar Content Might Help Curb Obesity Researchers predict ... ads for unhealthy foods and implementation of a soda tax. In combination, such measures could have a ...

  15. Bipiperidine conjugates as soluble sugar surrogates in DNA-intercalating antiproliferative polyketides.

    PubMed

    Ueberschaar, Nico; Meyer, Florian; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Hertweck, Christian

    2016-04-01

    DNA-intercalating polyketide glycosides are important leads for cancer therapeutics, yet their use is often limited by their low solubility and challenging synthetic protocols. To overcome these limitations, we employed 1,4'-bipiperidine-1'-carbamate residues as sugar surrogates in daunorubicin and chartreusin, yielding water-soluble derivatives and prodrugs with dramatically improved antiproliferative activities. PMID:26974406

  16. [Rapid determination of beet sugar content using near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Ren, Jian; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Zhao, Li-Ying; Li, Mao-Mao

    2014-10-01

    In order to classify and set different prices on basis of difference of beet sugar content in the acquisition process and promote the development of beet sugar industry healthily, a fast, nondestructive, accurate method to detect sugar content of beet was determined by applying near infrared spectroscopy technology. Eight hundred twenty samples from 28 representative varieties of beet were collected as calibration set and 70 samples were chosen as prediction set. Then near infrared spectra of calibration set samples were collected by scanning, effective information was extracted from NIR spectroscopy, and the original spectroscopy data was optimized by data preprocessing methods appropriately. Then partial least square(PLS)regression was used to establish beet sugar quantitative prediction mathematical model. The performances of the models were evaluated by the root mean square of cross-validation (RMSECV), the coefficient of determination (R2) of the calibration model and the standard error of prediction (SEP), and the predicted results of these models were compared. Results show that the established mathematical model by using first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate transformation (SNV) coupled with partial least squares has good predictive ability. The R2 of calibration models of sugar content of beet is 0.908 3, and the RMSECV is 0.376 7. Using this model to forecast the prediction set including 70 samples, the correlation coefficient is 0.921 4 between predicted values and measured values, and the standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.439, without significant difference (p > 0.05) between predicted values and measured values. These results demonstrated that NIRS can take advantage of simple, rapid, nondestructive and environmental detection method and could be applied to predict beet sugar content. This model owned high accuracy and can meet the precision need of determination of beet sugar content. This detection method could be used to classify and set different prices on basis of difference of beet sugar content in the acquisition process. PMID:25739216

  17. Sugars in soil: Review of sources, contents, fate and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Sugars are the most abundant organic compounds in the biosphere because they are monomers of all polysaccharides. We summarized the results of the last 40 years on sources, content and fate of sugars in soil and discussed their main functions in soil. We especially focused on uptake and utilization of sugars by microorganisms as this is by far the dominating process of sugars transformation in soil. Two databases have been created and analyzed. The 1st database was focused on the contents of cellulose, non-cellulose, hot water and cold water extractable sugars in soils (348 data from 32 studies). This database was also used to determine the primary (plant derived) and secondary (microbially and soil organic matter (SOM) derived) sources of carbohydrates in soil. The galactose+mannose/arabinose+xylose (GM/AX) ratio was calculated to analyze the origin of sugars in soil. The 2nd database was focused on the fate of sugar C in soil (734 data pairs from 32 studies), and only the papers used 13C or 14C labelled sugars were included. All data to the fate were analyzed and presented in dynamics. This allowed to calculate: 1) maximal rate of glucose-C decomposition, 2) mean residence time (MRT) of C of the initially applied sugars, 3) MRT of glucose-C incorporated into microbial biomass (MB) and SOM pools. Content of hexoses was 3-4 times higher than that of pentoses for both cellulose and non-cellulose sugars, because hexoses have two sources in soil: plants and microorganisms. The GM/AX ratio revealed higher contribution of hexoses in forest (ratio was 1.5) than in cropland and grassland soils (ratio was 0.7-1), reflecting high input of hexoses with forest litter. The MRT of sugars in soil solution was much less than 30 minutes. Based on the experiments with 13C or 14C labelled glucose, the maximal rate of glucose C decomposition in microbial biomass was ˜ 1min-1. Considering this rate, the glucose input from plants and content of sugar C in soil, we estimated that only about 20soil originate from the primary source - decomposition of plant biomass and root exudation. The remaining 80from microbial recycling. Estimated MRT of sugar C in MB was about 230 days, showing intense and efficient recycling of sugars in microorganisms. In contrast, MRT of sugar C in SOM was about 360 days, reflecting essential accumulation of sugar C in dead MB. Thus, very fast uptake of sugars by microorganisms as well as intensive microbial recycling clearly shows the importance of sugars for microbes in soil. Based on the assessed MRT we conclude that real contribution of sugar C (not only whole sugar molecules, which are usually determined) in SOM is much higher than commonly measured 10-15

  18. Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Michael H.; DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Davis, Mark F.; Sykes, Robert W.; Davison, Brian; Keller, Martin; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    The primary obstacle to producing renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass is a plant's recalcitrance to releasing sugars bound in the cell wall. From a sample set of wood cores representing 1,100 individual undomesticated Populus trichocarpa trees, 47 extreme phenotypes were selected across measured lignin content and ratio of syringyl and guaiacyl units (S/G ratio). This subset was tested for total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis alone as well as through combined hot-water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using a high-throughput screening method. The total amount of glucan and xylan released varied widely among samples, with total sugar yields of up to 92% of the theoretical maximum. A strong negative correlation between sugar release and lignin content was only found for pretreated samples with an S/G ratio < 2.0. For higher S/G ratios, sugar release was generally higher, and the negative influence of lignin was less pronounced. When examined separately, only glucose release was correlated with lignin content and S/G ratio in this manner, whereas xylose release depended on the S/G ratio alone. For enzymatic hydrolysis without pretreatment, sugar release increased significantly with decreasing lignin content below 20%, irrespective of the S/G ratio. Furthermore, certain samples featuring average lignin content and S/G ratios exhibited exceptional sugar release. These facts suggest that factors beyond lignin and S/G ratio influence recalcitrance to sugar release and point to a critical need for deeper understanding of cell-wall structure before plants can be rationally engineered for reduced recalcitrance and efficient biofuels production. PMID:21444820

  19. Soluble Sugars and Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes Related to Cold Acclimation of Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grafted on Different Rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    Turhan, Ece; Ergin, Sergul

    2012-01-01

    The bark tissues were collected from 4-year-old sweet cherry trees cvs. 0900 Ziraat and Lambert grafted on Gisela 5 and Mazzard rootstocks in cold-acclimated (CA) and nonacclimated (NA) stages. Bark tissues subjected to 4°C and −5°C injured to a limited extent in both stages. However, more than 50% injury occurred by temperatures equal to or colder than −15°C only in NA period. Total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars, and sucrose contents were higher in CA than those in NA stages in all samples. The activities of acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and sucrose synthase (SS) (EC 2.4.2.13) enzymes were higher in NA stage than those in CA stage. Considering the rootstocks, reducing sugars were higher in both cultivars grafted on Gisela 5 whereas sucrose contents were higher in both cultivars grafted on Mazzard. However, the enzyme activities of both cultivars were higher on Mazzard rootstock than on Gisela 5. In conclusion, cold hardiness of sweet cherry graft combinations was suggested by increasing their TSS, reducing sugars, and sucrose contents significantly in the CA stage. Moreover, acid invertase and SS are down regulated during cold acclimation. Indeed the results suggested that Mazzard is more cold-hardy rootstock than Gisela 5. PMID:22629228

  20. THE EFFECT OF FIBER SURFACE SUGAR CONTENT ON YARN PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work examining the effect of ageing on cotton fiber surface chemical and HVI properties, yarn processing performance, and yarn quality showed that cotton bales storage for at least two years exhibit signficant changes in a number of these variables including surface sugar content, HVI color...

  1. Physico-chemical characterization of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from sugar beet pulp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have studied the global structure of microwave-assisted alkaline soluble polysaccharides (ASP) isolated from fresh sugar beet pulp. The objective was to minimize the disassembly and possibly the degradation of these polysaccharides during extraction. Prior to ASP microwave assisted-extraction (...

  2. Nondestructive Measurement of Sugar Content in Apples by Millimeter-Wave Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Makoto; Mase, Atsushi; Uchino, Kiichiro

    2012-02-01

    A millimeter-wave reflectometer has been developed for the nondestructive measurement of the sugar content in apples. The intensity of the reflected wave from fruit was confirmed to depend on the sugar content and temperature by performing reflectometry with a vector network analyzer of aqueous sucrose solutions. Moreover, the developed reflectometer was applied to the sugar content measurement of apples. We obtained a strong, almost linear relationship between the intensity of the reflected wave and the sugar content in apples.

  3. Countercurrent extraction of soluble sugars from almond hulls and assessment of the bioenergy potential.

    PubMed

    Holtman, Kevin M; Offeman, Richard D; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Bayati, Andre K; Orts, William J

    2015-03-11

    Almond hulls contain considerable proportions (37% by dry weight) of water-soluble, fermentable sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), which can be extracted for industrial purposes. The maximum optimal solids loading was determined to be 20% for sugar extraction, and the addition of 0.5% (w/v) pectinase aided in maintaining a sufficient free water volume for sugar recovery. A laboratory countercurrent extraction experiment utilizing a 1 h steep followed by three extraction (wash) stages produced a high-concentration (131 g/L fermentable sugar) syrup. Overall, sugar recovery efficiency was 88%. The inner stage washing efficiencies were compatible with solution equilibrium calculations, indicating that efficiency was high. The concentrated sugar syrup was fermented to ethanol at high efficiency (86% conversion), and ethanol concentrations in the broth were 7.4% (v/v). Thin stillage contained 233 g SCOD/L, which was converted to biomethane at an efficiency of 90% with a biomethane potential of 297 mL/g SCODdestroyed. Overall, results suggested that a minima of 49 gal (185 L) ethanol and 75 m(3) methane/t hulls (dry whole hull basis) are achievable. PMID:25693995

  4. Effect of feeding supplemental fibrolytic enzymes or soluble sugars with malic acid on milk production.

    PubMed

    Vicini, J L; Bateman, H G; Bhat, M K; Clark, J H; Erdman, R A; Phipps, R H; Van Amburgh, M E; Hartnell, G F; Hintz, R L; Hard, D L

    2003-02-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate effects of feeding supplemental fibrolytic enzymes or soluble sugars and malic acid on milk production. In trial 1, 257 cows at four sites were fed a basal diet consisting of no more than 60% of forage DM as corn silage and less than 40% as alfalfa hay. Cows were assigned randomly within site, parity, and two stages of lactation to: 1) control; 2) enzyme A; 3) enzyme B; and 4) soluble sugars and malic acid. There was a 14-d pretreatment and an 84-d treatment period. Enzyme solutions were sprayed on either the forage component or the TMR each day while mixing feed. Trial 2 was similar, except 122 cows at one site in the United Kingdom were fed diets containing forage that was 75% corn silage and 25% grass silage, and all cows began the study between 25 to 31 DIM. Mean milk productions for 233 cows that completed trial 1 were 32.9, 32.5, 32.4, and 32.9 kg/d for control, enzyme A, enzyme B, and soluble sugars and malic acid, respectively. Mean milk productions for 116 cows that completed trial 2 were 28.2, 27.9, 28.8, and 28.4 kg/d, respectively. In vitro analyses of the activities of enzyme solutions indicated that all major cellulose and hemicellulose degrading activities were present; however, the pH optima (approximate pH = 4 to 5) were more acidic, and the temperature optimum (approximately 50 degrees C) was greater than normal pH and temperature in the rumen. If fibrolytic activity in the rumen is a major mechanism of action of supplemental fibrolytic enzymes, it appears that considerable activity of these preparations was lost due to conditions in the rumen. In conclusion, feeding supplemental fibrolytic enzymes or malic acid with soluble sugars had no effect on milk production under the conditions used in this study. PMID:12647964

  5. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273

  6. Surfactant-free solid dispersion of fat-soluble flavour in an amorphous sugar matrix.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tomo; Hidaka, Fumihiro; Miyake, Kento; Yoshiyama, Natsuki; Takeda, Koji; Matsuura, Tsutashi; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Imamura, Koreyoshi

    2016-04-15

    A solid dispersion technique to homogeneously disperse hydrophobic ingredients in a water-soluble solid without using surfactant was examined as follows: first, freeze-dried amorphous sugar was dissolved in an organic medium that contained a soluble model hydrophobic component. Second, the mixed solution of sugar and the model hydrophobic component was vacuum dried into a solid (solid dispersion). Methanol and six fat-soluble flavours, including cinnamaldehyde, were used as organic media and model hydrophobic components. The retention of flavours in the solid dispersion during drying and storage under vacuum was evaluated. The amorphised disaccharides dissolved in methanol up to 100mg/mL, even temporarily (20s to 10days) and could be solidified without any evidence of crystallisation and segregation from flavour. The solid dispersion, prepared using α-maltose usually showed 65-95% flavour retention during drying (and storage for cinnamaldehyde), whereas ⩾50% of the flavour was lost when the flavour was O/W emulsified with a surfactant and then freeze-dried with sugar. PMID:26675850

  7. Dietary fiber content influences soluble carbohydrate levels in ruminal fluids.

    PubMed

    Pinder, R S; Patterson, J A; O'Bryan, C A; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C

    2012-01-01

    The soluble carbohydrate concentration of ruminal fluid, as affected by dietary forage content (DFC) and/or ruminally undegradable intake protein content (UIPC), was determined. Four ruminally cannulated steers, in a 4 4 Latin square design, were offered diets containing high (75 % of DM) or low (25 % of DM) DFC and high (6 % of DM) or low (5 % of DM) UIPC, in a 2 2 factorial arrangement. Zinc-treated SBM was the primary UIP source. Soluble hexose concentration (145.1 ?M) in ruminal fluid (RF) of steers fed low DFC diets exhibited a higher trend (P = 0.08) than that (124.5 ?M) of steers fed high DFC diets. UIPC did not modulate (P = 0.54) ruminal soluble hexose concentrations. Regardless of diet, soluble hexose concentration declined immediately after feeding and did not rise until 3 h after feeding (P < 0.0001). Cellobiose (?90 %) and glucose (?10 %) were the major soluble hexoses present in RF. Maltose was not detected. Soluble glucose concentration (13.0 ?M) was not modified by either UIPC (P = 0.40) nor DFC (P = 0.61). However, a DFC by post-prandial time interaction was detected (P = 0.02). Pentose concentrations were greater (P = 0.02) in RF of steers fed high DFC (100.2 ?M) than steers fed low DFC (177.0 ?M). UIPC did not influence (P = 0.35) soluble pentose concentration. The identity of soluble pentoses in ruminal fluid could not be determined. However, unsubstituted xylose and arabinose were excluded. These data indicate that: (i) soluble carbohydrate concentrations remain in ruminal fluid during digestion and fermentation; (ii) slight diurnal changes began after feeding; (iii) DFC influences the soluble carbohydrate concentration in RF; and (iv) UIPC of these diets does not affect the soluble carbohydrate concentration of RF. PMID:22560034

  8. Coregulation of soybean vegetative storage protein gene expression by methyl jasmonate and soluble sugars.

    PubMed

    Mason, H S; Dewald, D B; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1992-03-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves. PMID:16668757

  9. Study on fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt using Vis/NIR spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Feng, Shuijuan; Wu, Di; Li, Xiaoli

    2006-09-01

    In order to measuring the sugar content of yogurt rapidly, a fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt using Vis/NIR-spectroscopy techniques was established. 25 samples selected separately from five different brands of yogurt were measured by Vis/NIR-spectroscopy. The sugar content of yogurt on positions scanned by spectrum were measured by a sugar content meter. The mathematical model between sugar content and Vis/NIR spectral measurements was established and developed based on partial least squares (PLS). The correlation coefficient of sugar content based on PLS model is more than 0.894, and standard error of calibration (SEC) is 0.356, standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.389. Through predicting the sugar content quantitatively of 35 samples of yogurt from 5 different brands, the correlation coefficient between predictive value and measured value of those samples is more than 0.934. The results show the good to excellent prediction performance. The Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique had significantly greater accuracy for determining the sugar content. It was concluded that the Vis/NIRS measurement technique seems reliable to assess the fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt, and a new method for the measurement of sugar content of yogurt was established.

  10. PtrBAM1, a β-amylase-coding gene of Poncirus trifoliata, is a CBF regulon member with function in cold tolerance by modulating soluble sugar levels.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Zhu, Xiaofang; Duan, Nian; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2014-12-01

    β-Amylase (BAM) catalyses starch breakdown to generate maltose, which can be incorporated into sugar metabolism. However, the role of BAM genes in cold tolerance is less characterized. In this study, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a chloroplast-localizing BAM-encoding gene PtrBAM1 from Poncirus trifoliata. PtrBAM1 was induced by cold, dehydration and salt, but repressed by maltose. Overexpression of PtrBAM1 in tobacco (Nicotiana nudicaulis) increased BAM activity, promoted starch degradation and enhanced the contents of maltose and soluble sugars, whereas opposite changes were observed when PtrBAM1 homolog in lemon (Citrus lemon) was knocked down. The tobacco overexpressing lines exhibited enhanced tolerance to cold at chilling or freezing temperatures. Under cold stress, higher BAM activity and greater accumulation of maltose and soluble sugars were observed in the overexpressing lines when compared with the wild-type or empty vector transformants. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that PtrBAM1 promoter contained a CBF-recognizing element. Yeast one-hybrid assay demonstrated that PtrCBF could interact with the promoter fragment containing the element. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PtrBAM1 is a member of CBF regulon and plays an important role in cold tolerance by modulating the levels of soluble sugars acting as osmolytes or antioxidants. PMID:24905016

  11. Prediction of soluble solids content of blueberries using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soluble solids content (SSC) is one of the most important quality parameters for blueberry, and it directly relates to the marketability and shelf life of fresh blueberries. Currently, color imaging technology is being used for color and size grading of fruits like blueberry. The technology is, howe...

  12. Quantitative H NMR analysis of egg yolk, alcohol, and total sugar content in egg liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Monika; Koospal, Verena; Bauer-Christoph, Claudia; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Diehl, Bernd; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-04-29

    Analyzing egg liqueurs for compliance with legal requirements means several different time-consuming preparations and analytical processes. In this paper, we describe the approach to use quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy as an accurate alternative technique. (1)H NMR analysis comprised two different rapid sample preparations for water-soluble or nonpolar ingredients. Fifteen egg liqueurs were analyzed for alcoholic strength and content of total sugar and egg yolk (estimated by cholesterol as a marker substance) with both classical methods and quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results of both methods showed excellent correlations for alcoholic strength (R = 0.996, p < 0.001) and content of total sugar (R = 0.989, p < 0.001) and cholesterol (R = 0.995, p < 0.001). Besides, NMR spectra revealed further information: a signal of phosphatidylcholine at about ? = 3.20 ppm served as a second marker for the egg yolk content, and characteristic signals of lactose at ? = 4.46 ppm and butyric acid at ? = 0.97 ppm indicated the use of milk products, which has to be declared for lactose-intolerant consumers. PMID:25860435

  13. Concrete images of the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages reduces attraction to and selection of these beverages.

    PubMed

    Adams, John Milton; Hart, William; Gilmer, Lauren; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Burton, K Alex

    2014-12-01

    In the present research, we offer a novel method for informing consumers about the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). With a series of experiments, we present evidence that this method curbs preference for SSBs and leads to more negative attitudes toward SSBs. We propose that people view SSBs more negatively and show less preference for SSBs when they are able to concretely visualize the quantity of sugar in SSBs. For example, we suggest that people might have more negative views toward the idea of consuming 28 sugar cubes (concrete information), compared to consuming "70g" of sugar (abstract information). Indeed, we found that, without any intervention, people struggle to convert sugar grams into a concrete, physical sugar representation (Experiment 1). But, when people are provided ways to convert abstract sugar-nutrition information into a concrete representation, they find SSBs less attractive (Experiment 2) and are less likely to select SSBs in favor of sugar-free beverage options (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings offer direct applications to the design of public-health messages and nutrition-education interventions. Such applications might benefit society in its battle with the obesity epidemic. PMID:25108238

  14. Visible Light Image-Based Method for Sugar Content Classification of Citrus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Chunyan; Hirafuji, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Visible light imaging of citrus fruit from Mie Prefecture of Japan was performed to determine whether an algorithm could be developed to predict the sugar content. This nondestructive classification showed that the accurate segmentation of different images can be realized by a correlation analysis based on the threshold value of the coefficient of determination. There is an obvious correlation between the sugar content of citrus fruit and certain parameters of the color images. The selected image parameters were connected by addition algorithm. The sugar content of citrus fruit can be predicted by the dummy variable method. The results showed that the small but orange citrus fruits often have a high sugar content. The study shows that it is possible to predict the sugar content of citrus fruit and to perform a classification of the sugar content using light in the visible spectrum and without the need for an additional light source. PMID:26811935

  15. Visible Light Image-Based Method for Sugar Content Classification of Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Chunyan; Hirafuji, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Visible light imaging of citrus fruit from Mie Prefecture of Japan was performed to determine whether an algorithm could be developed to predict the sugar content. This nondestructive classification showed that the accurate segmentation of different images can be realized by a correlation analysis based on the threshold value of the coefficient of determination. There is an obvious correlation between the sugar content of citrus fruit and certain parameters of the color images. The selected image parameters were connected by addition algorithm. The sugar content of citrus fruit can be predicted by the dummy variable method. The results showed that the small but orange citrus fruits often have a high sugar content. The study shows that it is possible to predict the sugar content of citrus fruit and to perform a classification of the sugar content using light in the visible spectrum and without the need for an additional light source. PMID:26811935

  16. Three-dimensional image of sugar content visualization in a melon by spectral information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Junichi; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2000-05-01

    In order to visualize sugar content of a melon, the relationship between sugar content and absorption spectra was investigated using a near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer. The absorbance at 676 nm, which is close to the chlorophyll absorption band, had a high inverse correlation with sugar content. A high-resolution cooled CCD imaging camera with the band-pass filter of 676 nm was used to capture the spectral absorption image. The calibration method for converting the absorbance on the image into Brix sugar content was developed in accordance with NIR techniques. Applying this method to each pixel of the absorption image, a color distribution map of the sugar content was constructed. In addition, a special slicing device that can cut a melon in each 5 mm thickness was developed in order to create a 3D image of sugar content distribution.

  17. A portable FRET analyzer for rapid detection of sugar content.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haseong; Kim, Hyo Sang; Ha, Jae-Seok; Lee, Seung-Goo

    2015-05-21

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is widely used as a core process in biometric sensors to detect small molecules such as sugars, calcium ions, or amino acids. However, FRET based biosensors with innate weak signal intensity require the use of expensive, high-sensitive equipment. In the present study, these shortcomings were overcome with the fabrication of a sensitive, inexpensive, and portable analyzer which provides quantitative detection of small molecules in a liquid sample. The usability of the developed analyzer was successfully tested by measuring sucrose and maltose contents in commercially available beverage samples, with better performance than the conventional monochromator-type spectrofluorometer. It is anticipated that miniaturization of the equipment and improving the FRET based biosensors will contribute to the practical use of this hand-held analyzer in conditions where high-end equipment is not available. PMID:25857344

  18. SOLUBLE SOLIDS AND SIMPLE SUGARS MEASUREMENT IN INTACT MANGO USING NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total soluble solids content (TSS, °Brix), sucrose, glucose and fructose are important quality attributes of mango (Magnifera indica) fruit and have been shown to be useful for determining fruit maturity. The approach to develop a rapid, reliable, nondestructive method for quality evaluation of man...

  19. Evaluation of Antioxidant Compounds and Total Sugar Content in a Nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Abidi, Walid; Jimnez, Sergio; Moreno, Mara ngeles; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC) were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population Venus Big Top nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and ripening index (RI) were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability. PMID:22072927

  20. Detection of sucrose content of sugar beet by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose content is the most important quality parameter in the production and processing of sugar beet. This paper reports on the application of visible/near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy for measurement of the sucrose content of sugar beet. Two portable spectrometers, covering the spectral region...

  1. [Effects of irrigation on the water soluble carbohydrate contents in different wheat cultivars stem and sheath and the grain yield].

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei-wei; Chu, Peng-fei; Yu, Zhen-wen; Xu, Zhen-zhu

    2011-10-01

    Taking two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Jimai 20 and Taishan 22 as test objects, this paper studied the effects of different irrigation treatments on the water soluble carbohydrate contents in penult stem internode and sheath and the grain yield. Four irrigation treatments were installed, i. e. , no irrigation (W0), irrigation at overwintering and jointing stages (W1), irrigation at overwintering, jointing and anthesis stages (W2), and irrigation at overwintering, jointing, anthesis and filling stages (W3). In treatment W0, the contents of total soluble sugar and of fructan with the degree of polymerization (DP) > or = 4 and = 3 in the penult stem internode and sheath of the two cultivars at early filling stage and the fructose content at later filling stage were the highest, indicating that the accumulation and degradation of water soluble carbohydrate in the penult stem internode and sheath were promoted under no irrigation, which in turn increased the 1000-grain weight. In treatment W1, the contents of fructan with DP > or = 4 and DP = 3 in the penult stem internode and sheath of Jimai 20 at early filling stage, the total soluble sugar and fructose contents at middle and later filling stages, and the grain yield were the highest. In treatment W2, Taishan 22 had the highest contents of fructan with DP > or = 4 and DP=3 in the penult stem internode and sheath at early filling stage, lower fructose content at higher filling stage than in treatment W1, and the highest grain yield. Comparing with Jimai 20, Taishan 22 had higher contents of total soluble sugar and of fructan with DP > or = 4 in the penult stem internode and sheath at early filling stage and higher content of fructose at later filling stage, and lower grain yield in treatments W0 and W1 but higher grain yield in treatments W2 and W3. In this study, treatments W1 and W2 promoted the accumulation and degradation of water soluble carbohydrate in the penult stem internode and sheath of Jimai 20 and Taishan 22, and gained the highest grain yields of the two cultivars, respectively, being most appropriate irrigation treatments for Jimai 20 and Taishan 22, respectively. PMID:22263448

  2. Influence of sugar cane burning on aerosol soluble ion composition in Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; da Rocha, G. O.

    2004-09-01

    Seasonal variability in the major soluble ion composition of atmospheric particulate matter in the principal sugar cane growing region of central São Paulo State indicates that pre-harvest burning of sugar cane plants is an important influence on the regional scale aerosol chemistry. Samples of particulate matter were collected between April 1999 and February 2001 in coarse (> 3.5 μm) and fine (< 3.5 μm) fractions, and analysed for HCOO-, CH3COO-, C2O42- , SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. Results indicated that the principal sources of the aerosols investigated were local or regional in nature (scale of tens to a few hundreds of km), and that differences between air masses of varying origins were small. Fine particles were typically acidic, containing secondary nitrates, sulphates and organic species. Coarse fraction concentrations were mainly influenced by physical parameters (wind speed, movement of vehicles and surface condition) affecting rates of re-suspension, although secondary nitrate and sulphate were also present in the larger particles. Concentrations of all measured species except sodium and chloride were higher during the burning season. Although concentrations were lower than often found in polluted urban environments, the massive increases during much of the year, due to a single anthropogenic activity (sugar cane burning) are indicative of a very large perturbation of the lower troposphere in the region relative to the natural condition. These aerosols are suspected of promoting respiratory disease. They also represent an important mechanism for the tropospheric transport of species relevant to surface acidification (sulphates, nitrates, ammonium and organic acids) and soil nutrient status (potassium, nitrogen, ammonium, calcium), so their impact on fragile natural ecosystems (following deposition) needs to be considered.

  3. Candidate genes and QTLs for sugar and organic acid content in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    PubMed

    Etienne, C.; Rothan, C.; Moing, A.; Plomion, C.; Bodns, C.; Svanella-Dumas, L.; Cosson, P.; Pronier, V.; Monet, R.; Dirlewanger, E.

    2002-07-01

    The identification of genes involved in variation of peach fruit quality would assist breeders in creating new cultivars with improved fruit quality. Major genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for physical and chemical components of fruit quality have already been detected, based on the peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cv. Ferjalou Jalousia((R)) (low-acid peach) x cv. Fantasia (normally-acid nectarine) F(2) intraspecific cross. Our aim was to associate these QTLs to structural genes using a candidate gene/QTL approach. Eighteen cDNAs encoding key proteins in soluble sugar and organic acid metabolic pathways as well as in cell expansion were isolated from peach fruit. A single-strand conformation polymorphism strategy based on specific cDNA-based primers was used to map the corresponding genes. Since no polymorphism could be detected in the Ferjalou Jalousia((R)) x Fantasia population, gene mapping was performed on the almond [ Prunus amygdalus ( P. dulcis)] cv. Texas x peach cv. Earlygold F(2) interspecific cross from which a saturated map was available. Twelve candidate genes were assigned to four linkage groups of the peach genome. In a second step, the previous QTL detection was enhanced by integrating anchor loci between the Ferjalou Jalousia((R)) x Fantasia and Texas x Earlygold maps and data from a third year of trait assessment on the Ferjalou Jalousia((R)) x Fantasia population. Comparative mapping allowed us to detect a candidate gene/QTL co-location. It involved a cDNA encoding a vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase ( PRUpe;Vp2) that energises solute accumulation, and QTLs for sucrose and soluble solid content. This preliminary result may be the first step in the future development of marker-assisted selection for peach fruit sucrose and soluble solid content. PMID:12582572

  4. Influence of Microgravity Environment on Root Growth, Soluble Sugars, and Starch Concentration of Sweetpotato Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Mortley, Desmond G.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Williams, Carol S.; Davis, Ceyla F.; Williams, John W.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Petersen, Barbara V.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    Because sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] stem cuttings regenerate very easily and quickly, a study of their early growth and development in microgravity could be useful to an understanding of morphological changes that might occur under such conditions for crops that are propagated vegetatively. An experiment was conducted aboard a U.S. Space Shuttle to investigate the impact of microgravity on root growth, distribution of amyloplasts in the root cells, and on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch in the stems of sweetpotatoes. Twelve stem cuttings of Whatley/Loretan sweetpotato (5 cm long) with three to four nodes were grown in each of two plant growth units filled with a nutrient agarose medium impregnated with a half-strength Hoagland solution. One plant growth unit was flown on Space Shuttle Colombia for 5 days, whereas the other remained on the ground as a control. The cuttings were received within 2 h postflight and, along with ground controls, processed in ?45 min. Adventitious roots were counted, measured, and fixed for electron microscopy and stems frozen for starch and sugar assays. Air samples were collected from the headspace of each plant growth unit for postflight determination of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene levels. All stem cuttings produced adventitious roots and growth was quite vigorous in both ground-based and flight samples and, except for a slight browning of some root tips in the flight samples, all stem cuttings appeared normal. The roots on the flight cuttings tended to grow in random directions. Also, stem cuttings grown in microgravity had more roots and greater total root length than ground-based controls. Amyloplasts in root cap cells of ground-based controls were evenly sedimented toward one end compared with a more random distribution in the flight samples. The concentration of soluble sugars, glucose, fructose, and sucrose and total starch concentration were all substantially greater in the stems of flight samples than those found in the ground-based samples. Carbon dioxide levels were 50% greater and oxygen marginally lower in the flight plants, whereas ethylene levels were similar and averaged less than 10 nLL ?1. Despite the greater accumulation of carbohydrates in the stems, and greater root growth in the flight cuttings, overall results showed minimal differences in cell development between space flight and ground-based tissues. This suggests that the space flight environment did not adversely impact sweetpotato metabolism and that vegetative cuttings should be an acceptable approach for propagating sweetpotato plants for space applications. PMID:20186286

  5. Influence of Microgravity Environment on Root Growth, Soluble Sugars, and Starch Concentration of Sweetpotato Stem Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Mortley, Desmond G; Bonsi, Conrad K; Hill, Walter A; Morris, Carlton E; Williams, Carol S; Davis, Ceyla F; Williams, John W; Levine, Lanfang H; Petersen, Barbara V; Wheeler, Raymond M

    2008-05-01

    Because sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] stem cuttings regenerate very easily and quickly, a study of their early growth and development in microgravity could be useful to an understanding of morphological changes that might occur under such conditions for crops that are propagated vegetatively. An experiment was conducted aboard a U.S. Space Shuttle to investigate the impact of microgravity on root growth, distribution of amyloplasts in the root cells, and on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch in the stems of sweetpotatoes. Twelve stem cuttings of 'Whatley/Loretan' sweetpotato (5 cm long) with three to four nodes were grown in each of two plant growth units filled with a nutrient agarose medium impregnated with a half-strength Hoagland solution. One plant growth unit was flown on Space Shuttle Colombia for 5 days, whereas the other remained on the ground as a control. The cuttings were received within 2 h postflight and, along with ground controls, processed in approximately 45 min. Adventitious roots were counted, measured, and fixed for electron microscopy and stems frozen for starch and sugar assays. Air samples were collected from the headspace of each plant growth unit for postflight determination of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene levels. All stem cuttings produced adventitious roots and growth was quite vigorous in both ground-based and flight samples and, except for a slight browning of some root tips in the flight samples, all stem cuttings appeared normal. The roots on the flight cuttings tended to grow in random directions. Also, stem cuttings grown in microgravity had more roots and greater total root length than ground-based controls. Amyloplasts in root cap cells of ground-based controls were evenly sedimented toward one end compared with a more random distribution in the flight samples. The concentration of soluble sugars, glucose, fructose, and sucrose and total starch concentration were all substantially greater in the stems of flight samples than those found in the ground-based samples. Carbon dioxide levels were 50% greater and oxygen marginally lower in the flight plants, whereas ethylene levels were similar and averaged less than 10 nL.L (-1). Despite the greater accumulation of carbohydrates in the stems, and greater root growth in the flight cuttings, overall results showed minimal differences in cell development between space flight and ground-based tissues. This suggests that the space flight environment did not adversely impact sweetpotato metabolism and that vegetative cuttings should be an acceptable approach for propagating sweetpotato plants for space applications. PMID:20186286

  6. Efficacy of reducing sugar and phenol-sulfuric acid assays for analysis of soluble carbohydrates in feedstuffs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing sugar (RSA) and phenol–sulfuric acid (PSA) assays are commonly used to analyze water-soluble carbohydrates. However, questions have arisen as to their accuracy for measurement of feedstuffs with diverse carbohydrate profiles. This study evaluated the efficacy of RSA and PSA as they would co...

  7. The relationship between growth and soluble sugar concentration of Aloe vera plants grown under three levels of irradiance

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, A.; Gebre, G.M.; Tschaplinski, T.J. )

    1994-06-01

    The CAM plant Aloe vera was vegetatively propagated and grown under three irradiances: full sun, partial and deep shade (30% and 10% of ambient light, respectively) to determine the effect on growth, biomass allocation, and sugar concentration. After one year, the plants were harvested to determine final dry weight and the sugar concentration of the leaf mucilaginous gel. Plants grown under full sun produced twice the total dry weight of those grown under partial shade, with the difference equally partitioned between the shoot and root. Plants grown under full sun also produced thicker leaves, and more numerous and large auxiliary shoots. The dry weight of plants grown under deep shade was 8.6% that of plants grown under full sun, which was directly proportional to the irradiance received. Partial shade increased the number and length of leaves produced on the primary shoot, but the allocation of carbon to roots was the lowest of all treatments. Partial shade reduced the total sugar concentration of the leaf gel matrix to 34% that of plants under full sun, due to reductions in all sugars measured. Glucose was the most abundant soluble sugar, with its relative contribution to the total pool increasing under shade. In summary, the proportional effects of partial shading were greater on soluble sugar concentrations than on the total plant biomass produced.

  8. MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING FOR PREDICTING FIRMNESS AND SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT OF APPLE FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Firmness and sugar content are important consumer quality attributes for apples and many other fresh fruits. This research investigated the feasibility of using multispectral imaging to quantify light scattering profiles from apple fruit for predicting firmness and sugar content. Scattering images...

  9. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  10. The impact of image-size manipulation and sugar content on children's cereal consumption.

    PubMed

    Neyens, E; Aerts, G; Smits, T

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that portion sizes and food energy-density influence children's eating behavior. However, the potential effects of front-of-pack image-sizes of serving suggestions and sugar content have not been tested. Using a mixed experimental design among young children, this study examines the effects of image-size manipulation and sugar content on cereal and milk consumption. Children poured and consumed significantly more cereal and drank significantly more milk when exposed to a larger sized image of serving suggestion as compared to a smaller image-size. Sugar content showed no main effects. Nevertheless, cereal consumption only differed significantly between small and large image-sizes when sugar content was low. An advantage of this study was the mundane setting in which the data were collected: a school's dining room instead of an artificial lab. Future studies should include a control condition, with children eating by themselves to reflect an even more natural context. PMID:26162951

  11. Visible injury and nitrogen metabolism of rice leaves under ozone stress, and effect on sugar and protein contents in grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. Z.; Sui, L. H.; Wang, W.; Geng, C. M.; Yin, B. H.

    2012-12-01

    Effect of ozone on the visible injury, nitrogen metabolism of rice leaves, and sugar and protein contents in rice grain was carried out by the open-top chamber. The results indicated that ozone stress caused obvious injury in rice leaves. The increase in ozone concentration had significant influence on the nitrate reductase activity in rice leaves. At the ozone concentration of 40, 80 and 120 nL L-1, the nitrate reductase activities in rice leaves in the tillering stage, the jointing stage, the heading stage and milk stage were separately reduced by 25.3-86.3%, 57.4-97.8%, 91.0-99.3% and 89.5-96.7% compared with those in the control treatment. As ozone concentration increased, the contents of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in rice leaves were obviously reduced. Ozone stress also had an influence on the contents of sugar and protein in rice grain. The stress of high ozone concentration (120 nL L-1) caused the starch content in grain to reduce by 15.8% than that in the control treatment, but total soluble sugars in grain was actually enhanced by 47.5% compared to that in the control treatment. The contents of albumin and glutenin in rice grain increased with increasing the ozone concentration, and prolamin and crude protein contents in rice grain increased only at the higher ozone concentration. Under ozone concentration of 120 nL L-1, the contents of albumin, glutenin and crude protein in rice grain were increased respectively by 23.1%, 21.0% and 21.1% compared with those in the control treatment. The result suggested that ozone tress has an influence on nitrogen metabolism of rice leaves and grain quality.

  12. QTL Analysis in a Complex Autopolyploid: Genetic Control of Sugar Content in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Ray; Liu, Sin-Chieh; Moore, Paul H.; Irvine, James E.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2001-01-01

    QTL mapping in autopolyploids is complicated by the possibility of segregation for three or more alleles at a locus and by a lack of preferential pairing, however the subset of polymorphic alleles that show simplex segregation ratios can be used to locate QTLs. In autopolyploid Saccharum, 36 significant associations between variation in sugar content and unlinked loci detected by 31 different probes were found in two interspecific F1 populations. Most QTL alleles showed phenotypic effects consistent with the parental phenotypes, but occasional transgressive QTLs revealed opportunities to purge unfavorable alleles from cultivars or introgress valuable alleles from exotics. Several QTLs on homologous chromosomes appeared to correspond to one anothermultiple doses of favorable alleles at such chromosomal region(s) yielded diminishing returnssuch negative epistasis may contribute to phenotypic buffering. Fewer sugar content QTLs were discovered from the highest-sugar genotype than from lower-sugar genotypes, perhaps suggesting that many favorable alleles have been fixed by prior selection, i.e. that the genes for which allelic variants (QTLs) persist in improved sugarcanes may be a biased subset of the population of genes controlling sugar content. Comparison of these data to mutations and QTLs previously mapped in maize hinted that seed and biomass crops may share a partly-overlapping basis for genetic variation in carbohydrate deposition. However, many QTLs do not correspond to known candidate genes, suggesting that other approaches will be necessary to isolate the genetic determinants of high sugar content of vegetative tissues. PMID:11731498

  13. Deconstruction of lignocellulose into soluble sugars by native and designer cellulosomes.

    PubMed

    Moras, Sarah; Morag, Ely; Barak, Yoav; Goldman, Dan; Hadar, Yitzhak; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Wilson, David B; Bayer, Edward A

    2012-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, the most abundant polymer on Earth, is typically composed of three major constituents: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The crystallinity of cellulose, hydrophobicity of lignin, and encapsulation of cellulose by the lignin-hemicellulose matrix are three major factors that contribute to the observed recalcitrance of lignocellulose. By means of designer cellulosome technology, we can overcome the recalcitrant properties of lignocellulosic substrates and thus increase the level of native enzymatic degradation. In this context, we have integrated six dockerin-bearing cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, into a chimeric scaffoldin engineered to bear a cellulose-binding module and the appropriate matching cohesin modules. The resultant hexavalent designer cellulosome represents the most elaborate artificial enzyme composite yet constructed, and the fully functional complex achieved enhanced levels (up to 1.6-fold) of degradation of untreated wheat straw compared to those of the wild-type free enzymes. The action of these designer cellulosomes on wheat straw was 33 to 42% as efficient as the natural cellulosomes of Clostridium thermocellum. In contrast, the reduction of substrate complexity by chemical or biological pretreatment of the substrate removed the advantage of the designer cellulosomes, as the free enzymes displayed higher levels of activity, indicating that enzyme proximity between these selected enzymes was less significant on pretreated substrates. Pretreatment of the substrate caused an increase in activity for all the systems, and the native cellulosome completely converted the substrate into soluble saccharides. IMPORTANCE Cellulosic biomass is a potential alternative resource which could satisfy future demands of transportation fuel. However, overcoming the natural lignocellulose recalcitrance remains challenging. Current research and development efforts have concentrated on the efficient cellulose-degrading strategies of cellulosome-producing anaerobic bacteria. Cellulosomes are multienzyme complexes capable of converting the plant cell wall polysaccharides into soluble sugar products en route to biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels. Using a designer cellulosome approach, we have constructed the largest form of homogeneous artificial cellulosomes reported to date, which bear a total of six different cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium Thermobifida fusca. These designer cellulosomes were comparable in size to natural cellulosomes and displayed enhanced synergistic activities compared to their free wild-type enzyme counterparts. Future efforts should be invested to improve these processes to approach or surpass the efficiency of natural cellulosomes for cost-effective production of biofuels. PMID:23232718

  14. Effects of ascorbic acid and sugars on solubility, thermal, and mechanical properties of egg white protein gels.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Tabatabaei, Ramin H; Pashania, Bita; Rajabi, Hadiseh Z; Karim, A A

    2013-11-01

    The effects of reducing sugars (fructose, glucose, ribose, and arabinose), sucrose, and ascorbic acid were studied on thermo-mechanical properties and crosslinking of egg white proteins (EWP) through Maillard reaction. Sugars (0%, 1%, 5%, and 10%) and ascorbic acid (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 2.5%) were added to EWP solutions. Thermal denaturation and crosslinking of EWP were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Mechanical properties (failure strength, failure strain and Young's modulus) of modified and unmodified EWP gels were evaluated by texture analyzer. Ascorbic acid decreased thermal denaturation temperature of EWP, but the reducing sugars increased the denaturation temperature. DSC thermograms of EWP showed that ascorbic acid exhibited an exothermic transition (≈110 °C) which was attributed to Maillard crosslinking of the protein. The reduction in pH (from 7.21 to ≈6) and protein solubility of egg white protein gel (from ≈70% to ≈10%) provides further evidence of the formation of Maillard cross-linking. Reactive sugars (ribose and arabinose) increased the mechanical properties of EWP gels, whereas ascorbic acid decreased the mechanical properties. Generally, the effect of ascorbic acid was more pronounced than that of various reducing sugars on the thermal and mechanical properties of egg white proteins. PMID:24099933

  15. Effect of ammonium concentration on alcoholic fermentation kinetics by wine yeasts for high sugar content.

    PubMed

    Taillandier, Patricia; Ramon Portugal, Felipe; Fuster, Andr; Strehaiano, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Kinetics of alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains in a synthetic medium with high sugar content were established for different nitrogen initial content and are presented for four strains. The composition of the medium was close to grape must except that the nitrogen source consisted mainly in ammonium and was varied from 120 to 290 mg N/l assimilable nitrogen. The overall nitrogen consumed was also estimated in order to determine nitrogen requirement variability. The effect of assimilable nitrogen was in general greater on sugar consumption rates than on growth and three kinds of effect on sugar consumption rates were observed: (i) existence of an optimal initial nitrogen level for a maximal sugar consumption rate (inhibition if excess), (ii) no effect of nitrogen beyond the intermediary level (saturation), (iii) sugar consumption rate proportional to the initial nitrogen level (activation). In all cases, the amount of consumed nitrogen increased with its initial concentration and so did the fructophilic capacity of the strains. The optimal requirement varied from 0.62 to 0.91 mg N/g of sugars according to different strains. There was no general correlation between the sugar assimilation rates and the nitrogen requirement. PMID:16943100

  16. Growth temperature affects sensory quality and contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and sugars in swede roots (Brassica napus L. ssp. rapifera Metzg.).

    PubMed

    Johansen, Tor J; Hagen, Sidsel F; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Mølmann, Jørgen A B

    2016-04-01

    Swede is a root vegetable grown under a range of growth conditions that may influence the product quality. The objective of this controlled climate study was to find the effect of growth temperature on sensory quality and the contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and soluble sugars. High temperature (21 °C) enhanced the intensities of sensory attributes like pungent odour, bitterness, astringency and fibrousness, while low temperature (9 °C) was associated with acidic odour, sweet taste, crispiness and juiciness. Ten glucosinolates were quantified, with progoitrin as the dominant component followed by glucoberteroin, both with highest content at 21 °C. Vitamin C also had its highest content at 21 °C, while the total sugar content was lowest at this temperature. In conclusion, the study demonstrated clear effects of growth temperature on sensory quality and some chemical properties of swede and indicated a good eating quality of swedes grown at low temperatures. PMID:26593487

  17. Apparatus automatically measures soluble residue content of volatile solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswalt, F. W.

    1969-01-01

    Solvent Purity Meter /SPM/ automatically measures the soluble residue in volatile solvents used in cleaning or extraction of oils, greases, and other nonvolatile materials. The SPM gives instantaneous and continuous readout of soluble contaminant residues in concentrations as low as one part per million of solution.

  18. Comparative proteomics of Thellungiella halophila leaves from plants subjected to salinity reveals the importance of chloroplastic starch and soluble sugars in halophyte salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Wang, Baichen; Wang, Dan; Li, Pinghua; Wang, Limin; Yi, Xiaoping; Huang, Qixing; Peng, Ming; Guo, Anping

    2013-08-01

    Thellungiella halophila, a close relative of Arabidopsis, is a model halophyte used to study plant salt tolerance. The proteomic/physiological/transcriptomic analyses of Thellungiella plant leaves subjected to different salinity levels, reported herein, indicate an extraordinary ability of Thellungiella to adapt to large concentrations of exogenous saline by compartmentalizing Na(+) into cell vacuoles and accumulating proline and soluble sugars as organic osmolytes. Salinity stress stimulated the accumulation of starch in chloroplasts, which resulted in a greatly increased content of starch and total sugars in leaves. Comparative proteomics of Thellungiella leaves identified 209 salt-responsive proteins. Among these, the sequences of 108 proteins were strongly homologous to Arabidopsis protein sequences, and 30 had previously been identified as Thellungiella proteins. Functional classification of these proteins into 16 categories indicated that the majority are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, followed by those involved in energy production and conversion, and then those involved in the transport of inorganic ions. Pathway analysis revealed that most of the proteins are involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, carbon fixation, photosynthesis, and glycolysis. Of these processes, the most affected were starch and sucrose metabolism, which might be pivotal for salt tolerance. The gene expression patterns of the 209 salt-responsive proteins revealed through hierarchical clustering of microarray data and the expression patterns of 29 Thellungiella genes evaluated via quantitative RT-PCR were similar to those deduced via proteomic analysis, which underscored the possibility that starch and sucrose metabolism might play pivotal roles in determining the salt tolerance ability of Thellungiella. Our observations enabled us to propose a schematic representation of the systematic salt-tolerance phenotype in Thellungiella and suggested that the increased accumulation of starch, soluble sugars, and proline, as well as subcellular compartmentalization of sodium, might collectively denote important mechanisms for halophyte salt tolerance. PMID:23660471

  19. Comparative Proteomics of Thellungiella halophila Leaves from Plants Subjected to Salinity Reveals the Importance of Chloroplastic Starch and Soluble Sugars in Halophyte Salt Tolerance*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Wang, Baichen; Wang, Dan; Li, Pinghua; Wang, Limin; Yi, Xiaoping; Huang, Qixing; Peng, Ming; Guo, Anping

    2013-01-01

    Thellungiella halophila, a close relative of Arabidopsis, is a model halophyte used to study plant salt tolerance. The proteomic/physiological/transcriptomic analyses of Thellungiella plant leaves subjected to different salinity levels, reported herein, indicate an extraordinary ability of Thellungiella to adapt to large concentrations of exogenous saline by compartmentalizing Na+ into cell vacuoles and accumulating proline and soluble sugars as organic osmolytes. Salinity stress stimulated the accumulation of starch in chloroplasts, which resulted in a greatly increased content of starch and total sugars in leaves. Comparative proteomics of Thellungiella leaves identified 209 salt-responsive proteins. Among these, the sequences of 108 proteins were strongly homologous to Arabidopsis protein sequences, and 30 had previously been identified as Thellungiella proteins. Functional classification of these proteins into 16 categories indicated that the majority are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, followed by those involved in energy production and conversion, and then those involved in the transport of inorganic ions. Pathway analysis revealed that most of the proteins are involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, carbon fixation, photosynthesis, and glycolysis. Of these processes, the most affected were starch and sucrose metabolism, which might be pivotal for salt tolerance. The gene expression patterns of the 209 salt-responsive proteins revealed through hierarchical clustering of microarray data and the expression patterns of 29 Thellungiella genes evaluated via quantitative RT-PCR were similar to those deduced via proteomic analysis, which underscored the possibility that starch and sucrose metabolism might play pivotal roles in determining the salt tolerance ability of Thellungiella. Our observations enabled us to propose a schematic representation of the systematic salt-tolerance phenotype in Thellungiella and suggested that the increased accumulation of starch, soluble sugars, and proline, as well as subcellular compartmentalization of sodium, might collectively denote important mechanisms for halophyte salt tolerance. PMID:23660471

  20. In vitro hydrolytic digestion, glycemic response in dogs, and true metabolizable energy content of soluble corn fibers.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Knapp, B K; Parsons, C M; Swanson, K S; Fahey, George C

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this research was to measure in vitro hydrolytic digestion, glycemic and insulinemic responses in dogs, and true ME (TMEn) content of select soluble corn fibers (SCF) in roosters. The first generation (G1) SCF included hydrochloric acid-treated corn syrup (G1-CS-HCl), an SCF with an increased total dietary fiber (TDF) content (G1-SCF-HCl), an SCF that was spray-dried (G1-SCF-SD), and a hydrogenated SCF (G1-SCF-hydrog). The second generation (G2) SCF included those prepared using phosphoric acid catalyzation in both a liquid [G2-SCF-phos (Lq)] and powder [G2-SCF-phos (Pw)] form, and SCF that were prepared using hydrochloric acid catalyzation in both a liquid [G2-SCF-HCl (Lq)] and powder [G2-SCF-HCl (Pw)] form. Also, in the G2 set of samples were SCF prepared using the same method, but in 3 separate batches, all of which contained 70% TDF and 15% sugars. Two were in liquid form [G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Lq1)] and [G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Lq2)], and one in powder form ([G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Pw)]. A lower sugar form (80% TDF and 5% sugar) of SCF was also evaluated (G2-SCF-low sugar). Glucose was the major free sugar and bound monosaccharide in all SCF except for G1-SCF-hydrog that had greater concentrations of sorbitol. All SCF had intermediate to low amounts of monosaccharides released as a result of in vitro hydrolytic digestion, with glucose being the primary sugar component released. The G1-SCF were more digestible in vitro (approximately 50%) compared to G2-SCF (approximately 32%). All SCF had attenuated glycemic responses in adult dogs compared to a maltodextrin control (P < 0.05). The G2-SCF, on average, had lower glycemic responses and TMEn values in roosters than G1-SCF. All SCF had low free sugar concentrations with varying degrees of resistance to digestion, reduced caloric content, and attenuated glycemic and insulinemic responses in adult dogs. These ingredients are potential candidates for inclusion in reduced calorie and low glycemic canine diets. PMID:24867932

  1. The use of low-coherence interferometer for sugar content determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the implementation of low-coherence interferometer with signal processing in time domain for sugar content determination in aqueous solution is presented. The elaborated measurement set-up was tested with the use of synthesized source made of two low-coherence sources. The use of two sources with dedicated parameters enabled to obtain a proper metrological parameters of the measurement system. The elaborated low-coherence system enables to measure sugar content in aqueous solution with correlation coefficient R2 equal to 1, and the relative error of measurement in the range of 5,8%.

  2. Different effects of galactose and mannose on cell proliferation and intracellular soluble sugar levels in Vigna angularis suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kato, Aki; Tohoyama, Hiroshi; Joho, Masanori; Inouhe, Masahiro

    2007-11-01

    Plant cells utilize various sugars as carbon sources for growth, respiration and biosynthesis of cellular components. Suspension-cultured cells of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) proliferated actively in liquid growth medium containing 1% (w/v) sucrose, glucose, fructose, arabinose or xylose, but did not proliferate in medium containing galactose or mannose. These two latter sugars thus appeared distinct from other sugars used as growth substrates. Galactose strongly inhibited cell growth even in the presence of sucrose but mannose did not, suggesting a substantial difference in their effects on cell metabolism. Analysis of intracellular soluble-sugar fractions revealed that galactose, but not mannose, caused a conspicuous decrease in the cellular level of sucrose with no apparent effects on the levels of glucose or fructose. Such a galactose-specific decrease in sucrose levels also occurred in cells that had been cultured together with glucose in place of sucrose, suggesting that galactose inhibits the biosynthesis, rather than uptake, of sucrose in the cells. By contrast, mannose seemed to be metabolically inert in the presence of sucrose. From these results, we conclude that sucrose metabolism is important for the heterotrophic growth of cells in plant suspension-cultures. PMID:17917698

  3. Profiling Sugars in Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Extracts Assayed for Total Water- and Ethanol-Soluble Carbohydrates: Relationship of Chromatographic to Spectrophotometric Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) of herbage are often quantified by spectrophotometric assays. To determine if quantifying individual sugars from chromatograms could yield results comparable to those obtained by the assays, WSC and ESC were extracted from fr...

  4. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25989998

  5. Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectrc property sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500 MHz at 25oC. Dielectric constants of pure honeys ...

  6. Carbon content variation in boles of mature sugar maple and giant sequoia.

    PubMed

    Lamlom, Sabah H; Savidge, Rodney A

    2006-04-01

    At present, a carbon (C) content of 50% (w/w) in dry wood is widely accepted as a generic value; however, few wood C measurements have been reported. We used elemental analysis to investigate C content per unit of dry matter and observed that it varied both radially and vertically in boles of two old-growth tree species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Bucholz). In sugar maple there was considerable variation in tree ring widths among four radii for particular annual layers of xylem, revealing that the annual rate of C assimilation differs around the circumference and from the base of each tree to its top, but the observed variation in C content was unrelated to diameter growth rate and strongly related to the calendar year when the wood was formed. Carbon content in sugar maple wood increased in an approximately linear fashion, from < 50 to 51% from pith to cambium, at both the base and top of the boles. In giant sequoia, C was essentially constant at > 55% across many hundreds of years of heartwood, but it declined abruptly at the sapwood-heartwood boundary and remained lower in all sapwood samples, an indication that heartwood formation involves anabolic metabolism. Factors that may be responsible for the different C contents and trends with age between sugar maple and sequoia trees are considered. Tree-ring data from this study do not support some of the key assumptions made by dendrochronology. PMID:16414925

  7. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ryan W; Goran, Michael I

    2015-07-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ?20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either <10% or >10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  8. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ryan W.; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either <10% or >10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  9. [Determination of Soluble Solid Content in Strawberry Using Hyperspectral Imaging Combined with Feature Extraction Methods].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xi-bin; Zhang, Chu; Liu, Fei; Song, Xing-lin; Kong, Wen-wen; He, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging combined with feature extraction methods were applied to determine soluble sugar content (SSC) in mature and scatheless strawberry. Hyperspectral images of 154 strawberries covering the spectral range of 874-1,734 nm were captured and the spectral data were extracted from the hyperspectral images, and the spectra of 941~1,612 nm were preprocessed by moving average (MA). Nineteen samples were defined as outliers by the residual method, and the remaining 135 samples were divided into the calibration set (n = 90) and the prediction set (n = 45). Successive projections algorithm (SPA), genetic algorithm partial least squares (GAPLS) combined with SPA, weighted regression coefficient (Bw) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) were applied to select 14, 17, 24 and 25 effective wavelengths, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) and wavelet transform (WT) were applied to extract feature information with 20 and 58 features, respectively. PLS models were built based on the full spectra, the effective wavelengths and the features, respectively. All PLS models obtained good results. PLS models using full-spectra and features extracted by WT obtained the best results with correlation coefficient of calibration (r(c)) and correlation coefficient of prediction (r(p)) over 0.9. The overall results indicated that hyperspectral imaging combined with feature extraction methods could be used for detection of SSC in strawberry. PMID:26197594

  10. Determination of sucrose content in sugar beet by portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for measurement of the sucrose content of sugar beet was investigated with two portable spectrometers that cover the spectral regions of 400-1,100 nm and 900-1,600 nm, respectively. Spectra in interactance mode were collected first from 398 i...

  11. Impact of Genes and Proportional Contribution of Parental Genotypes to Inheritance of Root Yield and Sugar Content in Diploid Hybrids of Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Stancic, Ivica; Zivic, Jelica; Petrovic, Sasa; Knezevic, Desimir

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of genes and proportional contribution of parental genotypes on the inheritance of root yield and sugar content in diploid hybrids of sugar beet. The survey included two diploid male-sterile monogerm lines and three single (SC) male-sterile hybrids as maternal components, while three multigerm diploids were used as pollinators. The partitioning of genotypic variance into additive and dominant components was performed by half sibling (HS) and full sibling (FS) covariance. The proportional contribution of individual components of crossbreeding (lines, testers, and interactions) was exhibited in the expression of certain characteristics of F1 generation. Genotypic variance components showed a significant effect of nonadditive gene action (dominance) in the inheritance of root yield and sugar content, while the additive effect of genes was less significant. Maternal components had a greater proportional contribution to root yield, while lines, pollinators, and their interactions had an equal contribution to sugar content. PMID:24600330

  12. [Modeling of sugar content based on NIRS during cider-making fermentation].

    PubMed

    Peng, Bang-Zhu; Yue, Tian-Li; Yuan, Ya-Hong; Gao, Zhen-Peng

    2009-03-01

    The sugar content and the matrix always are being changed during cider-making fermentation. In order to measure and monitor sugar content accurately and rapidly, it is necessary for the spectra to be sorted. Calibration models were established at different fermentation stages based on near infrared spectroscopy with artificial neural network. NIR spectral data were collected in the spectral region of 12 000-4 000 cm(-1) for the next analysis. After the different conditions for modeling sugar content were analyzed and discussed, the results indicated that the calibration models developed by the spectral data pretreatment of straight line subtraction(SLS) in the characteristic absorption spectra ranges of 7 502-6 472.1 cm(-1) at stage I and 6 102-5 446.2 cm(-1) at stage II were the best for sugar content. The result of comparison of different data pretreatment methods for establishing calibration model showed that the correlation coefficients of the models (R2) for stage I and II were 98.93% and 99.34% respectively and the root mean square errors of cross validation(RMSECV) for stage I and II were 4.42 and 1.21 g x L(-1) respectively. Then the models were tested and the results showed that the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 4.07 g x L(-1) and 1.13 g x L(-1) respectively. These demonstrated that the models the authors established are very well and can be applied to quick determination and monitoring of sugar content during cider-making fermentation. PMID:19455792

  13. Relationship between water soluble carbohydrate content, aphid endosymbionts and clonal performance of Sitobion avenae on cocksfoot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Alkhedir, Hussein; Karlovsky, Petr; Vidal, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Aphids feed on plant phloem sap, rich in sugars but poor in essential amino acids. However, sugars cause osmotic regulation problems for aphids, which they overcome by hydrolysing the sugars in their gut and polymerising the hydrolysis products into oligosaccharides, excreted with honeydew. Aphids harbour primary bacterial endosymbionts, which supply them with essential amino acids necessary for survival. They also harbour secondary (facultative) endosymbionts (sfS), some of which have a positive impact on life history traits, although it is not yet known whether they also play a role in providing effective tolerance to differing levels of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs). We investigated the relationship between WSC content of cocksfoot cultivars and performance of clones of the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae F. We evaluated how clone genotype and their sfS modulate performance on these different cultivars. We therefore examined the performance of genetically defined clones of S. avenae, collected from different host plants, harbouring different sfS. The performance was tested on 10 Dactylis glomerata L. cultivars with varying WSC content. D. glomerata is known as a wild host plant for S. avenae and is also commercially planted. We found that high WSCs levels are responsible for the resistance of D. glomerata cultivars to specific S. avenae clones. The minimum level of WSCs conferring resistance to D. glomerata cultivars was 1.7% dw. Cultivars with a WSC content of 2.2% or higher were resistant to S. avenae and did not allow reproduction. Our results further indicate that sfS modulate to some extend host plant cultivar adaptation in S. avenae. This is the first study revealing the importance of WSCs for aphid performance. Cocksfoot cultivars with a high content of WSCs might be therefore considered for aphid control or used for resistance breeding in this and other grass species, including cereals. PMID:23342134

  14. Relationship between Water Soluble Carbohydrate Content, Aphid Endosymbionts and Clonal Performance of Sitobion avenae on Cocksfoot Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Alkhedir, Hussein; Karlovsky, Petr; Vidal, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Aphids feed on plant phloem sap, rich in sugars but poor in essential amino acids. However, sugars cause osmotic regulation problems for aphids, which they overcome by hydrolysing the sugars in their gut and polymerising the hydrolysis products into oligosaccharides, excreted with honeydew. Aphids harbour primary bacterial endosymbionts, which supply them with essential amino acids necessary for survival. They also harbour secondary (facultative) endosymbionts (sfS), some of which have a positive impact on life history traits, although it is not yet known whether they also play a role in providing effective tolerance to differing levels of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs). We investigated the relationship between WSC content of cocksfoot cultivars and performance of clones of the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae F. We evaluated how clone genotype and their sfS modulate performance on these different cultivars. We therefore examined the performance of genetically defined clones of S. avenae, collected from different host plants, harbouring different sfS. The performance was tested on 10 Dactylis glomerata L. cultivars with varying WSC content. D. glomerata is known as a wild host plant for S. avenae and is also commercially planted. We found that high WSCs levels are responsible for the resistance of D. glomerata cultivars to specific S. avenae clones. The minimum level of WSCs conferring resistance to D. glomerata cultivars was 1.7% dw. Cultivars with a WSC content of 2.2% or higher were resistant to S. avenae and did not allow reproduction. Our results further indicate that sfS modulate to some extend host plant cultivar adaptation in S. avenae. This is the first study revealing the importance of WSCs for aphid performance. Cocksfoot cultivars with a high content of WSCs might be therefore considered for aphid control or used for resistance breeding in this and other grass species, including cereals. PMID:23342134

  15. Jasmonate-dependent depletion of soluble sugars compromises plant resistance to Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ricardo A R; Arce, Carla C M; Ferrieri, Abigail P; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Jasmonates regulate plant secondary metabolism and herbivore resistance. How they influence primary metabolites and how this may affect herbivore growth and performance are not well understood. We profiled sugars and starch of jasmonate biosynthesis-deficient and jasmonate-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants and manipulated leaf carbohydrates through genetic engineering and invitro complementation to assess how jasmonate-dependent sugar accumulation affects the growth of Manduca sexta caterpillars. We found that jasmonates reduce the constitutive and herbivore-induced concentration of glucose and fructose in the leaves across different developmental stages. Diurnal, jasmonate-dependent inhibition of invertase activity was identified as a likely mechanism for this phenomenon. Contrary to our expectation, both inplanta and invitro approaches showed that the lower sugar concentrations led to increased M.sexta growth. As a consequence, jasmonate-dependent depletion of sugars rendered N.attenuata plants more susceptible to M.sexta attack. In conclusion, jasmonates are important regulators of leaf carbohydrate accumulation and this determines herbivore growth. Jasmonate-dependent resistance is reduced rather than enhanced through the suppression of glucose and fructose concentrations, which may contribute to the evolution of divergent resistance strategies of plants in nature. PMID:25704234

  16. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-01-15

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

  17. Sugar content of commonly eaten snack foods of school children in relation to their dental health status.

    PubMed

    Parajas, I L

    1999-01-01

    Sugar is the principal substrate for micro-organisms causing dental caries. Yet it is impossible to eliminate sugar in the diet as almost all available foods particularly snack foods contain sugar. WHO recommended 10 kg. sugar or 27.40 gms. per person per year in non-fluoridated area and 15 kg. sugar/person year in non-flouridated areas for low caries prevalence. The FFQ and 24-Hour Food recall of 824 rural and urban schoolchildren showed that all their snacks foods are high in sugar except gelatine. Their sugar intake was three times more than the WHO recommendation with a mean daily intake of 90 gms. for urban and 88 grams of sugar for the rural. White sugar, hard candies, raisins, coco jam, and milk choco were the five most commonly eaten snack foods with high sugar content. Oral examination of the schoolchildren showed that dental caries was higher in the urban than in the rural. As a whole, the urban schoolchildren consumed more sugar and had higher dental caries compared to the rural schoolchildren. No significant correlation was found between sugar intake and dental caries. PMID:10808356

  18. SNPs in Genes Functional in Starch-Sugar Interconversion Associate with Natural Variation of Tuber Starch and Sugar Content of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown. PMID:25081979

  19. SOLUBLE SUGARS OF OKLAHOMA FORAGES HARVESTED IN MORNING AND AFTERNOON: STOCKER PREFERENCE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of hay harvest time and soluble carbohydrate (SC) concentration on stocker lamb preference was evaluated. Paiute orchardgrass, Luna pubescent wheatgrass, Triumph fescue, and Jose tall wheatgrass were cut for hay at 0730 (AM) and 1400 (PM). Twelve stocker lambs (29 +/- 4.0 kg) selected bet...

  20. Knowledge of Sugar Content of Sports Drinks Is Not Associated With Sports Drink Consumption.

    PubMed

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J; Kingsley, Beverly S; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose . To examine U.S. adult knowledge of the sugar content of sports drinks and whether this knowledge and other characteristics are associated with their sports drink consumption. Design . Nonexperimental. Setting . Nationally representative 2011 Summer ConsumerStyles survey data. Subjects . 3929 U.S. adults. Measures . The outcome variable was sports drink consumption in the past 7 days. The main exposure variable was knowledge about sports drinks containing sugar. The covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, and weight status. Analysis . Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for adults consuming sports drinks ?1 times/wk after controlling for other characteristics. Results . Approximately 22% of adults reported consuming sports drinks ?1 times/wk. Most adults (71%) agreed that sports drinks contain sugar; however, this agreement was not significantly associated with adults' sports drink consumption. The odds of drinking sports drinks ?1 times/wk were significantly higher among younger adults aged 18 to 64 years (OR range: 5.46-2.71), males (OR = 2.09), high-school graduates (OR = 1.52), and highly active adults (OR = 2.09). Conclusion . There were disparities in sports drink consumption by sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level; however, knowledge of sports drinks' sugar content was not associated with consumption. Understanding why some population groups are higher consumers may assist in the development of education, providing those groups with a better understanding of sports drinks' nutritional value and health consequences of excessive sugar consumption in any form. PMID:25372240

  1. Measurement of sugar content of watermelon using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in comparison with dielectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xuemei; Bao, Yidan

    2006-09-01

    The sugar content of watermelon is important to its taste thus influences the market. It's difficult to know whether the melon is sweet or not for consumers. We tried to develop a convenient meter to determine the sugar of watermelon. The first objective of this paper was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a near-infrared reflectance spectrometer (NIRS) to investigate the relationship between sugar content of watermelon and absorption spectra. The NIRS reflectance of nondestructive watermelon was measured with a Visible/NIR spectrophotometer in 325-1075nm range. The sugar content of watermelon was obtained with a handhold sugar content meter. The second objective was to measure the watermelon's dielectric property, such as dielectric resistance, capacitance, quality factor and dielectric loss. A digital electric bridge instrument was used to get the dielectric property. The experimental results show that they were related to watermelon's sugar content. A comparison between the two methods was made in the paper. The model derived from NIRS reflection is useful for class identification of Zaochun Hongyu watermelon though it's not quite accurate in sweetness prediction (the max. deviation is 0.7). Electric property bears little relation to sugar content of watermelon at this experiment and it couldn't be used as non-destructive inspection method.

  2. A systematic comparison of sugar content in low-fat vs regular versions of food

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, P K; Lin, S; Heidenreich, P

    2016-01-01

    Obesity remains a significant public health concern. One of the primary messages from providers and health-care organizations is to eat healthier foods with lower fat. Many in the lay press, however, have suggested that lower fat versions of foods contain more sugar. To our knowledge, a systematic comparison of the sugar content in food with lower fat alternatives has not been performed. In this study, we compared fat free, low fat and regular versions of the same foods using data collected from the USDA National Nutrient Database. We found that the amount of sugar is higher in the low fat (that is, reduced calorie, light, low fat) and non-fat than ‘regular' versions of tested items (Friedman P=0.00001, Wilcoxon P=0.0002 for low fat vs regular food and P=0.0003 for non-fat vs regular food). Our data support the general belief that food that is lower in fat may contain more sugar. PMID:26807511

  3. Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and a specialist avian nectarivore.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation. PMID:24095723

  4. A systematic comparison of sugar content in low-fat vs regular versions of food.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P K; Lin, S; Heidenreich, P

    2016-01-01

    Obesity remains a significant public health concern. One of the primary messages from providers and health-care organizations is to eat healthier foods with lower fat. Many in the lay press, however, have suggested that lower fat versions of foods contain more sugar. To our knowledge, a systematic comparison of the sugar content in food with lower fat alternatives has not been performed. In this study, we compared fat free, low fat and regular versions of the same foods using data collected from the USDA National Nutrient Database. We found that the amount of sugar is higher in the low fat (that is, reduced calorie, light, low fat) and non-fat than 'regular' versions of tested items (Friedman P=0.00001, Wilcoxon P=0.0002 for low fat vs regular food and P=0.0003 for non-fat vs regular food). Our data support the general belief that food that is lower in fat may contain more sugar. PMID:26807511

  5. A holistic high-throughput screening framework for biofuel feedstock assessment that characterises variations in soluble sugars and cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A major hindrance to the development of high yielding biofuel feedstocks is the ability to rapidly assess large populations for fermentable sugar yields. Whilst recent advances have outlined methods for the rapid assessment of biomass saccharification efficiency, none take into account the total biomass, or the soluble sugar fraction of the plant. Here we present a holistic high-throughput methodology for assessing sweet Sorghum bicolor feedstocks at 10 days post-anthesis for total fermentable sugar yields including stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall saccharification efficiency. Results A mathematical method for assessing whole S. bicolor stalks using the fourth internode from the base of the plant proved to be an effective high-throughput strategy for assessing stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall composition and allowed calculation of total stalk fermentable sugars. A high-throughput method for measuring soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose using partial least squares (PLS) modelling of juice Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be highly accurate with each sugar attaining a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.99 with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 11.93, 5.52, and 3.23mM for sucrose, glucose, and fructose, respectively, which constitutes an error of <4% in each case. The sugar PLS model correlated well with gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) and brix measures. Similarly, a high-throughput method for predicting enzymatic cell wall digestibility using PLS modelling of FTIR spectra obtained from S. bicolor bagasse was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be accurate with an R 2 of 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.64?g.mgDW-1.h-1. Conclusions This methodology has been demonstrated as an efficient and effective way to screen large biofuel feedstock populations for biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall digestibility simultaneously allowing a total fermentable yield calculation. It unifies and simplifies previous screening methodologies to produce a holistic assessment of biofuel feedstock potential. PMID:24365407

  6. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

  7. Effects of irrigation water qualities on biomass and sugar contents of sugar beet and sweet sorghum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Almodares, A; Sharif, M E

    2007-04-01

    An experiment involving four qualities of irrigation water two sugar beet and three sweet sorghum cultivars was conducted in a split plot design with four replications at Rudasht Drainage and Reclamation Experiment Station in 1999. The results showed salinity of water has an adverse effect on sugar beet and sweet sorghum biomass. Sweet sorghum cultivar SSV108 had the lowest biomass under all qualities of irrigation water Sweet sorghum cultivar Rio had the maximum biomass with water qualities of 2, 5, and 8 dS m(-1). Sugar beet cultivar 7233 had the maximum biomass with 11 dS m(-1). The effect of irrigation water quality was not significant for sugar characteristics such as brix, pol and purity. However, responses of cultivars on the above parameters were significant and sugar beet cultivars had higher brix, pol and purity and lower invert sugar and starch than sweet sorghum cultivars. In conclusion, sweet sorghum cultivars are not recommended to be irrigated with saline water of more than 8 dS m(-1) for sugar production. Under such condition, they may be suitable to be grown for forage purposes. PMID:17915753

  8. Soluble sugar-based quinoline derivatives as new antioxidant modulators of metal-induced amyloid aggregation.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Valentina; Grasso, Giuseppa I; Bellia, Francesco; Attanasio, Francesco; Viale, Maurizio; Vecchio, Graziella

    2015-03-16

    Oxidative stress and protein aggregation have been demonstrated to be the major factors involved in neurodegenerative diseases. Metal ions play a pivotal role, acting as mediators of neurotoxicity either by favoring or redox cycling. Thus, they represent a promising and suitable therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, the development of bifunctional or multifunctional molecules, which have antiaggregant and metal-chelating/antioxidant properties, may be considered as a valuable strategy for the treatment of neurodegeneration considering its multifactorial nature. Herein, we report the design and the characterization of four new multifunctional sugar-appended 8-hydroxyquinolines focusing on the effects of the conjugation with trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide involved in the protection of proteins and cells against environmental stresses. These glycoconjugates do not exhibit any antiproliferative activity against three human cell lines of different histological origin, unlike 8-hydroxyquinolines. The multiple properties of the new derivatives are highlighted, reporting their Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) binding ability, and antioxidant and antiaggregant capacities. In particular, these latter were determined by different assays, including the evaluation of their ability to modulate or even suppress the aggregation of A?1-40 and A?1-42 peptides induced by copper or zinc ions. PMID:25732904

  9. Selection of processing tomato genotypes with high acyl sugar content that are resistant to the tomato pinworm.

    PubMed

    Dias, D M; Resende, J T V; Faria, M V; Camargo, L K P; Chagas, R R; Lima, I P

    2013-01-01

    Acyl sugars are allelochemicals present at high concentrations in leaves of accessions of the wild tomato Solanum pennellii; they confer resistance to a large number of arthropod pests, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). Accession 'LA716', with high contents of acyl sugars in the leaves, was used as a source of resistance to start a genetic breeding program of processing cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum. We selected plants of the F? generation of an interspecific cross (S. lycopersicum cv. 'Redeno' x S. pennellii 'LA716') for extremes of concentrations (high and low) of acyl sugars in the leaves and evaluated the resistance of selected genotypes to the tomato pinworm, compared with plants of the parental and F? generations. The concentrations of acyl sugars present in the genotypes selected for high contents were close to those of S. pennellii 'LA 716', while the genotypes with low concentrations of acyl sugars were close to cultivar 'Redeno'. The F? hybrid ('Redeno' x 'LA716') had intermediate concentrations of acyl sugars, but was closer to Redeno, indicating that the inheritance of this type of character is due to a recessive major gene, along with minor genes with additive effects. There was a direct association between high contents of acyl sugars and non-preference for oviposition and suppression of larval development, indicating that the allelochemical acts through mechanisms of non-preference for oviposition and through antibiosis. Genotypes with high contents of acyl sugars were more effective in reducing the damage caused by the tomato pinworm. Genotypes RVTA-2010pl#94 and RVTA-2010pl#31, selected for high contents of acyl sugars, showed a good level of resistance to T. absoluta, similar to the wild genotype LA716. These genotypes are promising for use in a breeding program for developing commercial processing tomatoes. PMID:23420362

  10. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ? 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:25308651

  11. [Change in the sugar content in oaten products, buckwheat and rice groats during their heat processing by cooking].

    PubMed

    Karchik, S N; Mel'nikov, E M; Shablovskaia, I S

    1976-01-01

    The sugar content in the grits and in a gruel cooked with samples of oats and buckwheat subjected to hydrothermal treatment under different conditions and also in the oat flour, a product of baby and dietetic nutrition, was quantified. Hydrothermal processing results in significant changes occurring individual sugars of the grit. During culinary treatment these changes are levelled out, but in the end the level of virtually all types of sugar is higher in the gruel cooked with hydrothermally treated grit than in that prepared with initial, untreated grit. The oats flour is distinguished by a high glucose, maltose, fructose and saccharose content. A fall of the reducing sugars level coming as a result of thermal and culinary treatment is explained by their participating in the reaction of melanoidine formation. On the other hand, a rise in their content under rigorous conditions and in the production of oat flour is due to the starting of the starch hydrolysis. PMID:1021998

  12. Radar backscattering sensitivity to soil moisture content of sugar beet fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoups, Gerrit; Troch, Peter A.; Verhoest, Niko

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of soil moisture retrieval from radar backscatter data in sugar beet fields. The analysis is based on a simulation study using two models capable of computing electromagnetic backscattering from a vegetated surface, viz. the model developed by Karam et al. and the model developed by Lang. First, we validate the models based on data from the AGRISCATT'88 field campaign, held in Flevoland, The Netherlands. The data collected during this campaign allows us to test the model predictions under different soil surface and canopy conditions and for different radar configurations. In general, both models are capable of mimicking the change in backscattering due changes in radar configuration and surface- vegetation characteristics. Next, both models are subjected to a sensitivity analysis with respect to different surface and canopy parameters. Based on this sensitivity analysis it is concluded that estimates of surface soil moisture content under a medium sugar beet cover (15 cm high crop) from L-band radar observations is only possible within 10% accuracy. For a fully developed sugar beet field (50 cm high crop), soil moisture retrieval is not possible.

  13. Seasonal Variations in Sugar Contents and Microbial Community Behavior in a Ryegrass Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, P. M.; Fernandes, M. F.; Dick, R. P.; Simoneit, B. R.

    2004-12-01

    Soil is a complex mixture of numerous inorganic and organic constituents that vary in size, shape, chemical constitution and reactivity, and hosts numerous organisms. Total sugars have been estimated to constitute 10% (average) of soil organic matter, occurring in living and decaying organisms, as well as in extracellular materials. The role of sugars in soils is attributed to their influence on soil structure, chemical processes, plant nutrition and microbial activity. The sources of sugars in soils are: a) plants (the primary source); b) animals (the minor source), and c) microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, algae), which decompose the primary plant and animal material, and synthesize the major part of soil carbohydrates. A particular soil sample provides a momentary glimpse into a dynamic system (continuous addition, degradation and synthesis) that might, except for seasonal variations, be in equilibrium. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the major sugars in a grass soil and characterize the relationship between their concentration variations and soil microbial behavior over an annual cycle. Soil samples were collected monthly in a ryegrass field close to Corvallis, Oregon, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as total silylated extracts for sugar composition, and by gas chromatography-flame ionization as fatty acid methyl esters derived from phospholipids and neutral lipids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively). The preliminary results of the first six-month experiment (from January to June, 2004) show that as the ambient temperatures increase the sugar concentrations (glucose, fructose, sucrose and trehalose) also tend to increase in the soil. A decrease is observed in March when precipitation was low during the whole month. The same trend is observed for the active biomass of fungi and bacteria estimated by their fatty acids derived from phospholipids. Fatty acids 18:2? 6c and 18:3? 6c are used as fungal biomarkers. Branched (15:0i, 15:0a, 16:0i) and monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1? 7c) are used as biomarkers for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. The contents of 18:2? 6c and 18:3? 6c from neutral lipids, which are used as an index of fungal storage, have a significant increase in June, similarly to the disaccharide trehalose. This increase in fungal lipid storage may have occurred in response to the large input of detrital carbon into the soil from cutting the grass early in that month.

  14. Deconstruction of Lignocellulose into Soluble Sugars by Native and Designer Cellulosomes

    PubMed Central

    Moras, Sarah; Morag, Ely; Barak, Yoav; Goldman, Dan; Hadar, Yitzhak; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Wilson, David B.; Bayer, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lignocellulosic biomass, the most abundant polymer on Earth, is typically composed of three major constituents: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The crystallinity of cellulose, hydrophobicity of lignin, and encapsulation of cellulose by the lignin-hemicellulose matrix are three major factors that contribute to the observed recalcitrance of lignocellulose. By means of designer cellulosome technology, we can overcome the recalcitrant properties of lignocellulosic substrates and thus increase the level of native enzymatic degradation. In this context, we have integrated six dockerin-bearing cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, into a chimeric scaffoldin engineered to bear a cellulose-binding module and the appropriate matching cohesin modules. The resultant hexavalent designer cellulosome represents the most elaborate artificial enzyme composite yet constructed, and the fully functional complex achieved enhanced levels (up to 1.6-fold) of degradation of untreated wheat straw compared to those of the wild-type free enzymes. The action of these designer cellulosomes on wheat straw was 33 to 42% as efficient as the natural cellulosomes of Clostridium thermocellum. In contrast, the reduction of substrate complexity by chemical or biological pretreatment of the substrate removed the advantage of the designer cellulosomes, as the free enzymes displayed higher levels of activity, indicating that enzyme proximity between these selected enzymes was less significant on pretreated substrates. Pretreatment of the substrate caused an increase in activity for all the systems, and the native cellulosome completely converted the substrate into soluble saccharides. PMID:23232718

  15. Disruption of Amyloid Plaques Integrity Affects the Soluble Oligomers Content from Alzheimer Disease Brains

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, Javier; Sanchez-Mico, María; Torres, Manuel; Davila, Jose Carlos; Vizuete, Marisa; Gutierrez, Antonia; Vitorica, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The implication of soluble Abeta in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology is currently accepted. In fact, the content of soluble extracellular Abeta species, such as monomeric and/or oligomeric Abeta, seems to correlate with the clinico-pathological dysfunction observed in AD patients. However, the nature (monomeric, dimeric or other oligomers), the relative abundance, and the origin (extra-/intraneuronal or plaque-associated), of these soluble species are actually under debate. In this work we have characterized the soluble (defined as soluble in Tris-buffered saline after ultracentrifugation) Abeta, obtained from hippocampal samples of Braak II, Braak III–IV and Braak V–VI patients. Although the content of both Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptides displayed significant increase with pathology progression, our results demonstrated the presence of low, pg/µg protein, amount of both peptides. This low content could explain the absence (or below detection limits) of soluble Abeta peptides detected by western blots or by immunoprecipitation-western blot analysis. These data were in clear contrast to those published recently by different groups. Aiming to explain the reasons that determine these substantial differences, we also investigated whether the initial homogenization could mobilize Abeta from plaques, using 12-month-old PS1xAPP cortical samples. Our data demonstrated that manual homogenization (using Dounce) preserved the integrity of Abeta plaques whereas strong homogenization procedures (such as sonication) produced a vast redistribution of the Abeta species in all soluble and insoluble fractions. This artifact could explain the dissimilar and somehow controversial data between different groups analyzing human AD samples. PMID:25485545

  16. Sensory impact of lowering sugar content in orange nectars to design healthier, low-sugar industrialized beverages.

    PubMed

    Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; Aguiar, Lorena Andrade de; Fiusa, Anndressa; Botelho, Raquel Braz de Assunção; Zandonadi, Renata Puppin; Melo, Lauro

    2016-01-01

    The presence of added sugars (AS) in the diet is associated with increased risk of obesity and other chronic diseases. We assessed sensory impact of lowering AS in orange nectar, aiming at new WHO sugar guideline. Ideal sweetness by just-about-right (JAR) tests (60 consumers), difference and rejection thresholds (36 and 35 assessors), and acceptance and sensory profile by Check-all-that-apply (CATA) tests (100 consumers) were performed. JAR test comprised six concentrations of AS from 12% down to 4.5%. Thresholds tests comprised orange nectars at reference sugar concentration (10%) and at lower sugar levels. Acceptance and CATA tests compared reference, ideal sweetness and thresholds concentrations. There were two groups of consumers; one with ideal sweetness lower at 5.5% AS and another with ideal sweetness at standard 10.5% AS. The average ideal sweetness among all consumers was 7.3% AS. The difference threshold from the reference at 10.5% AS was at 8.5% AS and the rejection threshold was 7.2%. Overall acceptance of nectar with 8.5% and 7.2% AS was similar to reference and higher than acceptance of nectar with 5.5%. However, after cluster analysis, nectars with 5.5% AS did not differ from nectars with 8.5% or 7.2% AS, suggesting the possibility of a gradual reduction until 5.5% in the long term. Lowering AS to 7.2% or 5.5% caused significant changes in viscosity, sweet odor, bitterness and sweetness in comparison to the reference concentration. Lowering sugar from 10% to 8.5% did not affect acceptance or sensory attributes, and could be indicated for a first reduction. Results indicate that a gradual reduction to 7.2% and 5.5% would be feasible. Reductions can remove 3150-9450 tons of sugar per year from the Brazilian diet resulting in healthier beverages. PMID:26428862

  17. Rapid analysis of sugar content of intact orange fruit using ultraviolet and visible transmittance techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yande; Wen, Jianping; Ouyang, Aiguo; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    Sugar content (SC) is very important factors of navel orange internal quality and can be measured non-destructive by visible and near infrared spectroscopy. The feasibility of visible and near infrared spectroscopy for nondestructively measuring SC of navel orange fresh juices was investigated by means of spectral transmittance technique. A total 55 juice samples were used to develop the calibration and prediction models. Three different kinds of mathematical treatments (original, first derivative and second derivative) of spectra in the range of 400-800 nm were discussed and two kinds of reference standards were used. Different spectra correction algorithms (constant, multiplicative signal correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) were compared. Three kinds of calibration models including partial least square (PLS) regression, stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principle component regression (PCR) were evaluated for the determination of SC in navel orange juice. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of validation set of samples. The correlation coefficients of calibration models for SC was 0.97, the correlation coefficients of prediction models for SC was 0.86, and the corresponding RMSEP was 0.56. The results show that visible near infrared transmittance technique is a feasible method for non-destructive measurement of sugar content of fruit juice.

  18. Optimal Wavelengths Selection for Hyperspectral Scattering Prediction of Apple Firmness and Soluble Solids Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral scattering is a promising technique for nondestructive quality measurement of apple fruit, and extraction of the most useful information from the hyperspectral scattering data is critical to accurate assessment of fruit firmness and soluble solids content (SSC). A hierarchical evolutio...

  19. Comparison and fusion of four nondestructive sensors for predicting apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four nondestructive technologies (i.e., acoustic firmness, bioyield firmness, visible/near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and spectral scattering) have been developed in recent years for assessing the firmness and/or soluble solids content (SSC) of apples. Each of these technologies has its merits and...

  20. Analysis of Hyperspectral Scattering Characteristics for Predicting Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral scattering is useful for assessing the firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) of apples because it provides an effective means for characterizing light scattering in the fruit. This research compared three methods for quantifying the spectral scattering profiles acquired from ‘Golden Del...

  1. Multi-sensor Data Fusion for Improved Prediction of Apple Fruit Firmness and Soluble Solids Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several nondestructive technologies have been developed for assessing the firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) of apples. Each of these technologies has its merits and limitations in predicting these quality parameters. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion, different sensors would work ...

  2. Machine vision analysis for industrial beet color change kinetics and total soluble solid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A machine vision system (MVS) for the measurement of color change kinetics in crushed industrial beet to evaluate the total soluble solid content (°Brix) was developed in this study. It is expected that higher the °Brix faster the color change and modeling this color change kinetics helps in assessi...

  3. MOLECULAR GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF DISEASE RESISTANCE AND SUGAR CONTENT IN SUGARBEET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease and pest problems, as well as, decreasing sugar levels in sugar beet taproots are largely responsible for lack of increased sugar production in the US. Sugar beet and many other crops lack natural resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens and insect pests and, therefore, chemical pestici...

  4. Blasting extrusion processing: the increase of soluble dietary fiber content and extraction of soluble-fiber polysaccharides from wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoguang; Ye, Ran; Chen, Ye

    2015-08-01

    In this study, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) content of wheat bran was significantly increased from 9.82 ± 0.16 (w/w, %) to 16.72 ± 0.28 (w/w, %) by a novel blasting extrusion processing with enhanced water retention capacity and the swelling capacity. In addition, a water-soluble polysaccharide (WBP) was isolated and extracted from extruded SDF. WBP was successfully purified from SDF by column chromatography systems with the average molecular weight (Mw) of 4.7 × 10(4)Da, containing arabinose, xylose, glucose, and galactose. With the molar ratio of 0.76:0.99:1.00:0.12. Our results suggest that WBP owned 1 → 2, 1 → 3, 1 → 2, 6 and 1 → 4, 1 → 4, 6 glycosidic bonds in the absence of 1 →, 1 → 6 glycosidic bonds. In vitro antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS+ radical scavenging capacities, and ferric ion reducing capacity) demonstrated that WBP possesses good antioxidant capacity, and it could be potentially used as a natural antioxidant for use in functional food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25766807

  5. Effects of solids content, settling temperature, and liquor source on tall oil solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, R.W.; Kassebi, A.; Zinkel, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Tall oil soap solubility in black liquors obtained from cooking pine and sweet gum, and in mixture of these liquors, was studied. As expected, solids content had a significant effect on the amount of soap remaining in settled liquors obtained from pine. Concentrating these liquors to about 30% solids reduced the soap concentration to approximately 0.8% of solids. Increasing the temperature at which the liquors were settled also increased residual tall oil soap content. Although mass balance calculations on mixtures of black liquors obtained from pine and gum show that the percentage recovery (solids basis) varies little with the inclusion of 12 to 50% hardwood black liquor, absolute recovery is increased with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. This is the result of decreased soap solubility with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. No discernable effect was observed on the proportion and composition of the acids and neutrals of the dissolved tall oil with respect to the solids content of the liquors.

  6. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup

    PubMed Central

    Dominque, Brunson; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Rangari, Vijay; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6 0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) mineral content when compared to commercial ginger and pancake syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups' peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth. PMID:26904593

  7. New measurement technique that uses three near infrared diode lasers for nondestructive evaluation of sugar content in fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Yoshiaki; Takami, Toshitaka; Ichimaru, Yoshiki; Matsuo, Kenichi; Hyodo, Ryuji

    2005-03-01

    For non-destructive evaluation of sugar content in fruits, it has been proposed new measurement technique that uses three near infrared diode lasers. The reflectance Ri at the wavelength λi is defined by the ratio of two diffuse light powers reaching the two receiving fibers that were positioned at the different distance from a light emitting fiber. The value γ = ln (Ri/Rk)/ln (Rj/Rk) reaches the value that doesn't approximately depend on optical path length. As a simulation result of γ to a modeled apple, it was found that there are some combinations of three near-infrared wavelengths in which the correlation of γ and the sugar content of fruits raise. We actually evaluated the sugar content of apples by the use of three diode lasers 911nm, 936nm and 1055nm. As a result, it was confirmed that the measurement technique proposed here was usefulness.

  8. High tissue content of soluble beta 1-40 is linked to cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, N.; Iwatsubo, T.; Odaka, A.; Ishibashi, Y.; Kitada, C.; Ihara, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We developed two highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays for beta-protein with different specificities. One is specific for beta 1-40, while the other is equally sensitive to beta 1-38, beta 1-39, beta 1-40, and beta 1-42. With the enzyme immunoassays we investigated whether the soluble fraction from brain tissue contains beta 1-40 or other species of beta-protein. Aged control and Alzheimer's diseased brains showed highly variable values of beta 1-40, which was found to be the major beta species in their extracts. High tissue content of soluble beta 1-40 was not correlated to the abundance of senile plaques but was invariably associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Thus, the tissue level of soluble beta 1-40 should be useful for the quantification of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Images Figure 3 PMID:8053502

  9. Plasma content of soluble fas antigen in patients with adrenal tumors and tumor-like pathologies.

    PubMed

    Kushlinskii, N E; Britvin, T A; Polyakova, G A; Abbasova, S G; Baronini, A A; Tishenina, R S; Molchanova, G S; Sel'chuk, V Yu; Pirogov, D A; Bogatyrev, O P; Lipkin, V M; Kalinin, A P

    2002-08-01

    We compared plasma content of soluble Fas antigen (sFas) in 59 patients with tumors and tumor-like pathologies of the adrenal cortex and medulla and 60 healthy donors (control). The incidence and content of sFas in the plasma from patients with adrenal tumors was significantly higher than in healthy donors. A direct correlation was found between sFas content and patient's age. The maximum sFas concentrations were found in patients with pheochromocytoma and aldosterone-producing adenoma. In patients with adrenocortical cancer plasma content of sFas was lower than in patients with tumors of other morphological types. Plasma sFas content in patients with adrenocortical cancer directly correlated with the size of tumors. Our results suggest that sFas plays a role in the pathogenesis of primary adrenal tumors. PMID:12459844

  10. QTLs detected for individual sugars and soluble solids content in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetness is one of the most important fruit quality traits in breeding programs, determining the overall quality and flavor-perception of apples. Selecting for this trait using conventional breeding methods is challenging due to the complexity of its genetic control. In order to improve the efficie...

  11. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  12. Raising the Sugar Content Orchid Bees Overcome the Constraints of Suction Feeding through Manipulation of Nectar and Pollen Provisions

    PubMed Central

    Pokorny, Tamara; Lunau, Klaus; Eltz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Unlike most other bees, the long-tongued orchid bees ingest nectar using suction feeding. Although long tongues allow exploitation of flowers with deep spurs, the energy intake rate is optimal at 1020% lower nectar sugar concentrations compared to that of lapping bees. This constraint might be compensated by a higher digestive throughput. Additionally, orchid bees might evaporate water from regurgitated droplets of crop contents. We found male Euglossa championi (n?=?10) and Euglossa dodsoni (n?=?12) to regularly regurgitate droplets of crop content to the base of their proboscis, generating a fluid film between the proximal parts of the galeae, glossa and labial palps. Rhythmic movements of the proboscis may help to increase convection. There was a significant change in sugar concentration between the initially imbibed solution and the resulting crop content (P<0.05) and the time individual bees had engaged in this liquid exposure behavior was positively correlated with the resulting crop sugar concentration. Female Euglossa townsendi and Euglossa viridissima showed the same behavior. Additionally, they manipulated their nectar-enriched pollen provisions for extensive periods of time before deposition in brood cells. The deposited pollen loads (n?=?14) showed a significantly higher sugar concentration than the sugar-water available to the bees (P<0.001). Thus, both male and female euglossines show behaviors that promote evaporative water loss from nectar. We suggest that the behaviors have evolved in concert with suction feeding on dilute nectar from deep floral tubes. PMID:25422945

  13. Determination of soluble solids content in apple products by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Guohui; Liu, Jianjun; Hong, Zhi

    2011-08-01

    Soluble solids content is an important index for fruit quality. One of the traditional methods in determining soluble solids content of fruits is refractometry which measures the refractive index in visible or near infrared. Here we reported the use of terahertz time-domain transmission spectroscopy (THz-TDTS) technique for the determination of soluble solids content in apple products. Not only the refractive index, but also the absorption coefficient is used in regression model. In method one, sucrose solutions were for the calibration set , root mean square of validation set (RMSEP) was 0.168% for absorption coefficient model, 0.741% for refractive index model. In method two, apple products were for the calibration set, RMSEP was 0.143% for absorption coefficient model, 0.648% for refractive index model. Less absolute error of 0.2% between predicted and refractometer value has been both obtained from two methods with absorption coefficient model. This result proved the THz-TDS technique is quite potential for nondestructive detection on food quality.

  14. The Study of Non-Destructive Measurement Apple's Firmness and Soluble Solid Content Using Multispectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Muhua; Wumao, Duan; Lin, Huaiwei

    Firmness and soluble solid content (SSC) are two important quality attributes. This researches investigated the feasibility of using multi-spectral imaging to non-destructive measuring the apple's firmness and SSC. The spectral imaging in wavelength of 632nm, 650nm, 670nm, 780nm, 850nm and 900nm were captured. The Lorentzian distribution (LD), Gaussian distribution (GD) and Exponential distribution (ED) with three parameters were used to fit scattering profiles for all wavelengths. LD was found to be the best function for fitting gray distribution of the image. The multi-linear regression model using Lorentzian parameters for predicting apple firmness and soluble solids content were built using best single wavelength, double wavelengths, three wavelengths and four wavelengths. The best model with three wavelengths was able to predict apple soluble solid content with r=0.831, SEC=0.55 Brix and predict apple firmness with r=0.880, SEC=0.52 N with four wavelengths. Experimental results show that the multi-spectral scattering imaging has high potential as a nondestructive and rapid method to assess fruit internal quality.

  15. The Study of Non-Destructive Measurement Apple's Firmness and Soluble Solid Content Using Multispectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Muhua; Wumao, Duan; Lin, Huaiwei

    Firmness and soluble solid content (SSC) are two important quality attributes. This researches investigated the feasibility of using multi-spectral imaging to non-destructive measuring the apples firmness and SSC. The spectral imaging in wavelength of 632nm, 650nm, 670nm, 780nm, 850nm and 900nm were captured. The Lorentzian distribution (LD), Gaussian distribution (GD) and Exponential distribution (ED) with three parameters were used to fit scattering profiles for all wavelengths. LD was found to be the best function for fitting gray distribution of the image. The multi-linear regression model using Lorentzian parameters for predicting apple firmness and soluble solids content were built using best single wavelength, double wavelengths, three wavelengths and four wavelengths. The best model with three wavelengths was able to predict apple soluble solid content with r=0.831, SEC=0.55 Brix and predict apple firmness with r=0.880, SEC=0.52 N with four wavelengths. Experimental results show that the multi-spectral scattering imaging has high potential as a nondestructive and rapid method to assess fruit internal quality.

  16. Physical characters and antioxidant, sugar, and mineral nutrient contents in fruit from 29 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Drogoudi, Pavlina D; Vemmos, Stavros; Pantelidis, Georgios; Petri, Evangelia; Tzoutzoukou, Chrysoula; Karayiannis, Irene

    2008-11-26

    Fruit physical and chemical characters of 29 apricot cultivars of Greek and American origin and their hybrids were evaluated using correlation and principal component analysis. A remarkable variation was observed in the total phenol content (0.3-7.4 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) FW) and total antioxidant capacity (0.026-1.858 mg ascorbic acid equivalent g(-1) FW), with the American origin cultivars Robada and NJA(2) and the new cultivar Nike exhibiting the greatest values. The cultivar Tomcot and hybrid 467/99 had the highest content of total carotene (37.8 microg beta-carotene equivalent g(-1) FW), which was up to four times greater as compared with the rest of studied genotypes. The dominant sugar in fruit tissue was sucrose, followed second by glucose and third by sorbitol and fructose-inositol. The new cultivars Nike, Niobe, and Neraida contained relatively higher contents of sucrose and total sugars, while Ninfa and P. Tirynthos contained relatively higher contents of K, Ca, and Mg. Correlation analysis suggested that late-harvesting cultivars/hybrids had greater fruit developmental times (r = 0.817) and contained higher sugar (r = 0.704) and less Mg contents (r= -0.742) in fruit tissue. The total antioxidant capacity was better correlated with the total phenol content (r = 0.954) as compared with the total carotenoid content (r = 0.482). Weak correlations were found between the fruit skin color and the antioxidant contents in flesh tissue. Multivariate analysis allowed the grouping of variables, with more important variables being the harvest date, fruit developmental time, skin Chroma, sorbitol, and total sugar, K and Mg contents. Plotting the genotypes in a dendrogram revealed cases of homonymy between parents and hybrids, although independent segregation of the measured traits after hybridization was also found. PMID:18975966

  17. Effect of wavelet transform techniques upon the estimation of sugar content in apple with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yibin B.; Liu, Yande; Fu, Xiaping; Lu, Huishan

    2004-11-01

    Wavelet transform (WT) has proven a powerful and efficient tool for dealing with chemical data due to its characteristic of dual localization and has been widely used in analytical chemistry. This paper aims at serving three purposes: First, it gives a review of the applications of the wavelet transform in infrared spectroscopy; Second, it gives a quick summary of aspects and properties of wavelets and wavelet transforms which are needed in order to understand how to (pre-) process data from spectrometry with wavelet methods; Third, it shows on a typical example (apple NIR spectra) how wavelet transforms can be used in order to extract quantitative information. The sugar content of intact apple was measured by NIRS and analyzed by wavelet transform, which is a new development in signal treatment method in recent years. The results show that the spectra treated with wavelet transform indicate more effectively the relationship with sugar content in intact apple. Compared with original spectra, wavelet transform of three-size has the most marked relation with sugar content. The predicting precision of five-element regression is the best and the scale 3 is the best for its 0.904 correlation efficient of determination and the 0.777 in standard error of prediction which is less than that of primitive spectra. Therefore, the conclusion of improved predicting precision for quantitative detection of sugar content in intact apple with wavelet transform can be drawn.

  18. Climate-Induced Changes in Grapevine Yield and Must Sugar Content in Franconia (Germany) between 1805 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Anna; Sparks, Tim H.; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

    2013-01-01

    When attempting to estimate the impacts of future climate change it is important to reflect on information gathered during the past. Understanding historical trends may also aid in the assessment of likely future agricultural and horticultural changes. The timing of agricultural activities, such as grape harvest dates, is known to be influenced by climate and weather. However, fewer studies have been carried out on grapevine yield and quality. In this paper an analysis is undertaken of long-term data from the period 1805–2010 on grapevine yield (hl/ha) and must sugar content (°Oe) and their relation to temperature. Monthly mean temperatures were obtained for the same time period. Multiple regression was used to relate the viticulture variables to temperature, and long-term trends were calculated. Overall, the observed trends over time are compatible with results from other long term studies. The findings confirm a relationship between yield, must sugar content and temperature data; increased temperatures were associated with higher yields and higher must sugar content. However, the potential increase in yield is currently limited by legislation, while must sugar content is likely to further increase with rising temperatures. PMID:23894395

  19. Sugar and acid content of Citrus prediction modeling using FT-IR fingerprinting in combination with multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Seung Yeob; Lee, Young Koung; Kim, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    A high-throughput screening system for Citrus lines were established with higher sugar and acid contents using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis. FT-IR spectra confirmed typical spectral differences between the frequency regions of 950-1100 cm(-1), 1300-1500 cm(-1), and 1500-1700 cm(-1). Principal component analysis (PCA) and subsequent partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were able to discriminate five Citrus lines into three separate clusters corresponding to their taxonomic relationships. The quantitative predictive modeling of sugar and acid contents from Citrus fruits was established using partial least square regression algorithms from FT-IR spectra. The regression coefficients (R(2)) between predicted values and estimated sugar and acid content values were 0.99. These results demonstrate that by using FT-IR spectra and applying quantitative prediction modeling to Citrus sugar and acid contents, excellent Citrus lines can be early detected with greater accuracy. PMID:26213071

  20. Frost decreases content of sugars, ascorbic acid and some quercetin glycosides but stimulates selected carotenes in Rosa canina hips.

    PubMed

    Cunja, Vlasta; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Zupan, Anka; Stampar, Franci; Schmitzer, Valentina

    2015-04-15

    Primary and secondary metabolites of Rosa canina hips were determined by HPLC/MS during ripening and after frost damage. Rose hips were harvested six times from the beginning of September until the beginning of December. Color parameters a*, b* and L* decreased during maturation. Glucose and fructose were the predominant sugars representing up to 92% total sugars, and citric acid was the major organic acid detected in rose hips (constituting up to 58% total organic acids). Total sugar and ascorbic acid content significantly decreased after frost damage; from 42.2 to 25.9 g 100 g(-1) DW for sugars and from 716.8 to 176.0 mg 100 g(-1) DW for ascorbic acid. Conversely, β-carotene and lycopene levels increased in frostbitten rose hips to 22.1 and 113.2 mg 100 g(-1) DW, respectively. In addition to cyanidin-3-glucoside (highest level in hips was 125.7 μg 100 g (-1) DW), 45 different phenolic compounds have been identified. The most abundant were proanthocyanidins (their levels amounted up to 90% of total flavanol content) and their content showed no significant differences during maturation. The levels of catechin, phloridzin, flavanones and several quercetin glycosides were highest on the first three sampling dates and decreased after frost. Antioxidant capacity similarly decreased in frostbitten rose hips. Total phenolic content increased until the third sampling and decreased on later samplings. PMID:25768262

  1. [Study on Extraction Methods of Characteristic Wavelength of Visible Near Infrared Spectroscopy Used for Sugar Content of Hetao Muskmelon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-hu; Tian, Hai-qing; Wu, Shi-yue; Liu, Chao; Chen, Ya-li; Wang, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Hetao muskmelon is a unique fruit in the hetao area of northwest china, which has been loved by consumers. Sugar content is the important indicator of measuring the quality and mature of muskmelons. This research uses Maya 2000 pro portable spectrometer and PR-101α portable digital refractometer to get spectrum and sugar content values of "jinhongbao" muskmelon, researches the effect of different extraction methods of characteristic wavelength (stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR), interval partial least squares(iPLS), backward interval partial least squares (biPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS)) on model accuracy and prediction results. The results show: using biPLS method on extraction of characteristic wavelength will the full spectrum evenly divided into 20 subintervals, the PLS factors of 14, when removing 8 subintervals, and choosing the wavelength variable numbers of 218, getting the biPLS model is best, RMSE of corresponding calibration and prediction models is 0.9961 and 1.18. So using the biPLS method of extraction on spectrum wavelength could extract effectively the characteristic wavelengths of melon sugar content, increase the ability of model prediction, and achieve rapid detecting of sugar content about muskmelons. PMID:26669156

  2. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling sugar content based on an enriched genetic linkage map of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) cultivar ‘LCP 85-384’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since sugarcane cultivars possess >100 chromosomes (2n = 100-130) and are genetically complex polyploid and aneuploids, identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with sugar content is considered the best option to improve sugar content through molecular breeding. Also, improving su...

  3. Variability of sugars in staple-type sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars: The effects of harvest time and storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total soluble sugar content and composition was studied by high performance liquid chromatography in four high dry-matter sweet potato cultivars at 3, 4, and 5 months maturity. Total soluble sugar consisted of sucrose, glucose, and fructose, ranging from 4.10–10.82 g/100 g (dry-weight basis). At har...

  4. Analysis of hyperspectral scattering profiles using a generalized Gaussian distribution function for prediction of apple firmness and soluble solids content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral scattering provides an effective means for characterizing light scattering in the fruit and is thus promising for noninvasive assessment of apple firmness and soluble solids content (SSC). A critical problem encountered in application of hyperspectral scattering technology is analyzing...

  5. Combined effects of independent variables on yield and protein content of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp by citric acid.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Qiang; Du, Guang-Ming; Jing, Wei-Wen; Li, Jun-Fang; Yan, Jia-Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yong

    2015-09-20

    The extraction of pectin from sugar beet pulp by citric acid was carried out under different conditions using Box-Behnken design for four independent variables (pH, temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio). The yield of sugar beet pulp pectin ranged from 6.3% to 23.0%, and the content of protein from 1.5% to 4.5%. All independent variables significantly affected the yield, and all variables except liquid to solid ratio significantly affected the protein content. The yield increased as decreasing pH of extracting solution, extending time and advancing temperature, and an opposite relationship of effects between variables and content of protein was obtained. The chemical composition of collected samples was determined. Moreover, from the results of emulsifying properties study, the extracted pectin from sugar beet pulp could prepare steady oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, it was inferred that the extraction conditions could influence yield and protein content, resulting in different emulsifying property. PMID:26050895

  6. Solubility of hydrogen in olivine: dependence on temperature and iron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong-Hong; Ginsberg, S. B.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    The solubility of hydrogen in Mg-Fe olivines as a function of temperature and iron concentration was investigated by hydrothermally annealing single crystals of synthetic forsterite and San Carlos olivine. Experiments were performed at temperatures between 1,273 and 1,573 K on samples with compositions between Fa0 and Fa16.9 under a confining pressure of 300 MPa in a gas-medium apparatus with oxygen fugacity, fO_2, buffered by the Ni:NiO solid-state reaction and silica activity, aSiO_2, buffered by the presence of enstatite. Hydroxyl concentrations were determined from infrared spectra obtained from polished thin sections in crack-free regions <=50 m in diameter. Hydroxyl solubility increases systematically with increasing temperature and with increasing iron content. Combined with published results on the dependence of hydroxyl solubility on water fugacity and pressure, the present results can be summarized by the relation COH = Af1H_2O [-(? Eo + P? Vo] (? XFa ) with A=90+/-10 H/106Si/MPa, ?=97+/-4 kJ/mol, ? Eo=50+/-2 kJ/mol, and ? Vo =(10.0+/-0.1)10-6 m3/mol. The subscript {} indicates that hydroxyl ions are incorporated primarily as defect pairs, probably of the type ( OH )O - V''Me - ( OH )3Ox ? ( 2H )x_Me. Under similar thermodynamic conditions, the water content in olivine in the martian mantle and in olivine from gabbros may be as much as 5 to 25 times larger than in the less iron-rich olivine dominant in Earth's mantle.

  7. [Evaluation of Sugar Content of Huanghua Pear on Trees by Visible/Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-jun; Ying, Yi-bin

    2015-11-01

    A method of ambient light correction was proposed to evaluate the sugar content of Huanghua pears on tree by visible/near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS). Due to strong interference of ambient light, it was difficult to collect the efficient spectral of pears on tree. In the field, covering the fruits with a bag blocking ambient light can get better results, but the efficiency is fairly low, the instrument corrections of dark and reference spectra may help to reduce the error of the model, however, the interference of the ambient light cannot be eliminated effectively. In order to reduce the effect of ambient light, a shutter was attached to the front of probe. When opening shutter, the spot spectrum were obtained, on which instrument light and ambient light acted at the same time. While closing shutter, background spectra were obtained, on which only ambient light acted, then the ambient light spectra was subtracted from spot spectra. Prediction models were built using data on tree (before and after ambient light correction) and after harvesting by partial least square (PLS). The results of the correlation coefficient (R) are 0.1, 0.69, 0.924; the root mean square error of prediction (SEP) are 0. 89°Brix, 0.42°Brix, 0.27°Brix; ratio of standard deviation (SD) to SEP (RPD) are 0.79, 1.69, 2.58, respectively. The results indicate that, method of background correction used in the experiment can reduce the effect of ambient lighting on spectral acquisition of Huanghua pears in field, efficiently. This method can be used to collect the visible/near infrared spectrum of fruits in field, and may give full play to visible/near-infrared spectroscopy in preharvest management and maturity testing of fruits in the field. PMID:26978912

  8. Carbon stable isotopic composition of soluble sugars in Tillandsia epiphytes varies in response to shifts in habitat

    PubMed Central

    Erhardt, Erik B.; Santiago, Louis S.; Allen, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    We studied C stable isotopic composition (?13C) of bulk leaf tissue and extracted sugars of four epiphytic Tillandsia species to investigate flexibility in the use of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C3 photosynthetic pathways. Plants growing in two seasonally dry tropical forest reserves in Mexico that differ in annual precipitation were measured during wet and dry seasons, and among secondary, mature, and wetland forest types within each site. Dry season sugars were more enriched in 13C than wet season sugars, but there was no seasonal difference in bulk tissues. Bulk tissue ?13C differed by species and by forest type, with values from open-canopied wetlands more enriched in 13C than mature or secondary forest types. The shifts within forest habitat were related to temporal and spatial changes in vapor pressure deficits (VPD). Modeling results estimate a possible 4% increase in the proportional contribution of the C3 pathway during the wet season, emphasizing that any seasonal or habitat-mediated variation in photosynthetic pathway appears to be quite moderate and within the range of isotopic effects caused by variation in stomatal conductance during assimilation through the C3 pathway and environmental variation in VPD. C isotopic analysis of sugars together with bulk leaf tissue offers a useful approach for incorporating short- and long-term measurements of C isotope discrimination during photosynthesis. PMID:20155286

  9. Temperature influence for Fourier transform near-infrared transmittance measurement of citrus fruit soluble solids contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huishan; Ying, Yibin; Zhu, Dairu; Yu, Haiyan; Xu, Huirong; Tian, Haiqing; Gui, Jiangsheng

    2006-10-01

    Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has been used successfully to measure soluble solids content (SSC) in citrus fruit. However, for practical implementation, the technique needs to be able to compensate for fruit temperature fluctuations, as it was observed that the sample temperature affects the near infrared reflectance spectrum in a non-linear way. Temperature fluctuations may occur in practice because of varying weather conditions or improper conditioning of the fruit immediately after harvest. Two techniques were found well suited to control the accuracy of the calibration models for soluble solids with respect to temperature fluctuations. The first, and most practical one, consisted of developing a global robust calibration model to cover the temperature range expected in the future. The second method involved the development of a range of temperature dedicated calibration models. The drawback of the latter approach is that the required data collection is very large. The global temperature calibration model avoids temperature-sensitive wavelengths for the calibration of SSC. Global temperature models are preferred above dedicated temperature models because of the following shortcomings of the latter. For each temperature, a new calibration model has to be made, which is time-consuming.

  10. Determination of Sugar Content in Commercial Beverages by Density: A Novel Experiment for General Chemistry Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Susan K.; Fenn, Carol A.; Domijan, John D.

    1998-09-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the determination of density, suitable for introductory-level chemistry courses, is described. Students prepare several aqueous solutions of sugar of known concentration in the 0-15% by mass range. The density of each solution and of commercial beverage samples is measured by weighing a known volume of solution delivered by a volumetric pipet. A graph of density versus sugar concentration is prepared and used to determine the percent by mass of sugar in the beverage samples. The experiment provides students an opportunity to develop skills in weighing, preparing solutions, pipetting, constructing and using a calibration curve, and proper use of significant figures. The materials used in the experiment are inexpensive, do not pose physical or health hazards, and do not result in the production of hazardous waste. The nature of the samples and the purpose of the experiment stimulate students' interest.

  11. Process for utilizing the waste heat content of condensate and/or vapor produced in the manufacture of sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.; Schiweck, H.

    1981-09-22

    A process is provided for utilizing the waste heat content of condensate and/or vapor produced in the manufacture of sugar in which thin juice is cooled, subjected to one or more stages of flash evaporation to concentrate and further cool the juice, after which it is heated with condensate and/or vapor produced elsewhere in the sugar manufacturing process and with incoming thin juice thereby heating the outgoing juice to substantially its original temperature and providing the cooling of the incoming thin juice. In another embodiment completely purified thin juice is concentrated in a multiple effect evaporating plant wherein the vapor produced in the final evaporator is compressed and is returned selectively to one of the preceding evaporators of the evaporating plant for use in heating the juice.

  12. Postoral glucose sensing, not caloric content, determines sugar reward in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that because of their energy value, sugars are more rewarding than non-caloric sweeteners. However, intragastric infusion data indicate that sugars differ in their postoral appetite-stimulating effects. We therefore compared the preference for isocaloric 8% sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions with that of a non-caloric sweetener solution (0.8% sucralose) in C57BL/6J mice. Brief 2-bottle tests indicated that sucralose was isopreferred to sucrose but more preferred than glucose or fructose. Yet, in long-term tests, the mice preferred sucrose and glucose, but not fructose to sucralose. Additional experiments were conducted with a non-caloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin mixture (S + S), which does not have the postoral inhibitory effects of 0.8% sucralose. The S + S was preferred to fructose in brief and long-term choice tests. S + S was also preferred to glucose and sucrose in brief tests, but the sugars were preferred in long-term tests. In progressive ratio tests, non-deprived and food-deprived mice licked more for glucose but not fructose than for S + S. These findings demonstrate that the nutrient-specific postoral actions, not calories per se, determine the avidity for sugar versus non-caloric sweeteners. Furthermore, sweet taste intensity and potential postoral inhibitory actions must be considered in comparing non-caloric and caloric sweeteners. PMID:25715333

  13. Rhythms during extended dark periods determine rates of net photosynthesis and accumulation of starch and soluble sugars in subsequent light periods in leaves of Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Britz, S J; Hungerford, W E; Lee, D R

    1987-07-01

    Photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning in leaves of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench exhibited a cyclic dependence on the duration (10-62 h) of dark periods inserted prior to bright light test periods (550 ?mols(-1)m(-2), photosynthetic photon flux). Maximum rates of net photosynthesis and of accumulation of starch and soluble sugars were, in the order given, two-, three- and fourfold greater than minimum values. Between 14 and 53% of photosynthate was retained in leaves depending on the length of the dark period. These changes were sufficient to account for the previously described stimulatory effect of short daylengths (i.e., long nights) on carbohydrate accumulation in leaves (N.J. Chatterton and J.E. Silvius, 1980, Physiol. Plant. 49, 141-144). The freerunning periods for the rhythmic dependence on darkness, determined either directly or by curve fitting, were about 24 h for net photosynthesis, 23 h for starch accumulation, and 26 h for solublesugar cccumulation. The deviation from period lengths of 24 h for carbohydrate accumulation indicates that these rhythms are probably endogenous and circadian. Initial maxima were observed after 14 h of darkness for photosynthesis, after 18-22 h for starch, and after 26 h for soluble sugars. The differences in period length and phase indicate that at least three separate rhythms underlie the dependence of photosynthate partitioning in Sorghum on darkness. Periods of low leaf dry-matter accumulation coincided approximately with periods of high net photosynthesis. As a result, maximum photoassimination and maximum export were synchronized and, furthermore, occurred at about the same time as expected light periods. PMID:24227433

  14. Non-structural carbohydrate profiles and ratios between soluble sugars and starch serve as indicators of productivity for a bioenergy grass.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Sarah Jane; Maddison, Anne Louise; Cunniff, Jennifer; Donnison, Iain; Clifton-Brown, John

    2015-01-01

    There is a pressing need to find a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels that will not compromise food security or require extensive use of agrochemicals. Miscanthus is a perennial energy grass predominantly used for combustion but with the current advancement of ligno-cellulosic fermentation technologies there is an interest in using Miscanthus for bioethanol production. Currently, the only commercially grown genotype of Miscanthus is M. giganteus; a high yielding, interspecific hybrid of M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis. As M. giganteus is a sterile triploid, it cannot be used as a parent so Miscanthus breeding effort is focused on producing new interspecific varieties that out-perform M. giganteus. The carbohydrate profiles of four genotypes of Miscanthus, including M. sacchariflorus (Sac-5), M. giganteus (Gig-311), M. sinensis (Sin-11) and M. sinensis (Goliath), were characterized at replicated field sites in Aberystwyth, West Wales and Harpenden, south-east England. Our hypothesis was that a distinctive carbohydrate profile underlies enhanced biomass accumulation. Biomass accumulation is greatest when day-lengths and solar intensity are highest; so, observations were made in the middle of UK summer (July) for 2 years. Gig-311 had a greater abundance of fructose in its stems at both sites, and both Gig-311 and Sac-5 had low abundance of starch. At both sites, the highest yielding genotype was Gig-311 and Sac-5 was also high yielding at Harpenden, but performed comparatively poorly at Aberystwyth. At both sites Gig-311 had a distinctly high concentration of fructose, low starch and a high ratio of soluble sugars: starch, and at Harpenden, Sac-5 was similar. We conclude that the abundance of starch and fructose and a greater partitioning of soluble sugars, relative to starch, are candidate biomarkers of productivity in Miscanthus. PMID:25829378

  15. Sugar-decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for the poorly soluble drug celastrol enables targeted induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Niemel, Erik; Desai, Diti; Nkizinkiko, Yves; Eriksson, John E; Rosenholm, Jessica M

    2015-10-01

    Cancerous cells have a rapid metabolism by which they take up sugars, such as glucose, at significantly higher rates than normal cells. Celastrol is a traditional herbal medicine known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The poor aqueous solubility and lack of target selectivity of celastrol result in low therapeutic concentration of the drug reaching subcellular compartments of the target tissue, making it an interesting candidate for nanoparticulate delivery. The goal of this study was to utilize glucose as an affinity ligand decorated on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), with the aim of delivering these celastrol-loaded MSNs with high specificity to cancer cells and inducing minimal off-target effects in healthy cells. MSNs were thus functionalized with sugar moieties by two different routes, either by conjugation directly to the MSN surface or mediated by a hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine), PEI layer; the latter to increase the cellular uptake by providing an overall positive surface charge as well as to increase the reaction sites for sugar conjugation. The effect of surface functionalization on the target-specific efficacy of the particles was assessed by analyzing the uptake in HeLa and A549 cells as cancer cell models, as compared to mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) as a representative for normal cells. To this end a comprehensive analysis strategy was employed, including flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and spectrophotometry. When the apoptotic effect of celastrol was evaluated, the anti-cancer activity of celastrol was shown to be significantly enhanced when it was loaded into the specifically designed MSNs. The particles themselves did not induce any toxicity, and normal cells displayed minimal off-target effects. In summary, we show that glucose-functionalized MSNs can be used as efficient carriers for targeted celastrol delivery to achieve specific induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:26184689

  16. Perception of aspen and sun/shade sugar maple leaf soluble extracts by larvae of Malacosoma disstria.

    PubMed

    Panzuto, M; Lorenzetti, F; Mauffette, Y; Albert, P J

    2001-10-01

    We investigated the behavioral feeding preference and the chemoreception of leaf polar extracts from trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides, and from sun and shade sugar maple, Acer saccharum, by larvae of the polyphagous forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, a defoliator of deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Three polar extracts were obtained from each tree species: a total extract, a water fraction, and a methanol fraction. M. disstria larvae were allowed ad libitum access to an artificial diet from eclosion to the fifth instar. Two-choice cafeteria tests were performed comparing the mean (+/-SE) surface area eaten of the total extracts, and the following order of preference was obtained: aspen > sun maple > shade maple. Tests with the other fractions showed that M. disstria larvae preferred the total aspen extract to its water fraction, and the latter to its methanol fraction. The response to sun maple was similar to aspen. However, for the shade maple experiment, there was no difference between the total extract and its water fraction. Electrophysiological recordings for aspen showed that the sugar-sensitive cell elicited more spikes to the water fraction, followed by the total extract, and finally the methanol fraction. Spike activity to stimulations of sun and shade maple extracts revealed a similar trend, where methanol fraction > water fraction > total extract. Our findings are discussed in light of previously known information about this insect's performance on these host plants. PMID:11710605

  17. Comparison of sugar content for ionic liquid pretreated Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of affordable woody biomass feedstocks represents a significant opportunity in the development of cellulosic biofuels. Primary woodchips produced by forest mills are considered an ideal feedstock, but the prices they command on the market are currently too expensive for biorefineries. In comparison, forestry residues represent a potential low-cost input but are considered a more challenging feedstock for sugar production due to complexities in composition and potential contamination arising from soil that may be present. We compare the sugar yields, changes in composition in Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues after pretreatment using ionic liquids and enzymatic saccharification in order to determine if this approach can efficiently liberate fermentable sugars. Results These samples were either mechanically milled through a 2 mm mesh or pretreated as received with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2mim][OAc] at 120°C and 160°C. IL pretreatment of Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues resulted in approximately 71-92% glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the pretreated cellulose was less crystalline after IL pretreatment as compared to untreated control samples. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) revealed changes in lignin and hemicellulose structure and composition as a function of pretreatment. Mass balances of sugar and lignin streams for both the Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues throughout the pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification processes are presented. Conclusions While the highest sugar yields were observed with the Douglas-fir woodchips, reasonably high sugar yields were obtained from forestry residues after ionic liquid pretreatment. Structural changes to lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose in the woodchips and forestry residues of Douglas-fir after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment are analyzed by XRD and 2D-NMR, and indicate that significant changes occurred. Irrespective of the particle sizes used in this study, ionic liquid pretreatment successfully allowed high glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. These results indicate that forestry residues may be a more viable feedstock than previously thought for the production of biofuels. PMID:23635001

  18. Effects of sugar addition on total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of frozen and freeze-dried apple pure.

    PubMed

    Loncaric, Ante; Dugalic, Krunoslav; Mihaljevic, Ines; Jakobek, Lidija; Pilizota, Vlasta

    2014-02-19

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simple sugar addition including (glucose, G; fructose, F; sucrose, S; and trehalose, T) on the total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of apple pure processed by freezing and freeze-drying and stored for 6 months. The apple polyphenol profile was mostly preserved in the freeze-dried samples with sugar addition during 6 months of storage, whereas the polyphenol profile in frozen samples consists only of quercetin glycosides, of which rutin had the largest share. After 6 months, the highest level of polyphenols was detected in frozen 'Idared' and 'Fuji' apple pure with addition of T 5% (12.2 and 16.7 mg/100 g FW, respectively), whereas in freeze-dried apple pure the highest TPC was in 'Idared' and 'Fuji' with addition of T 1% (16.3 and 13.6 mg/100 g FW, respectively). Results indicate that sugar addition before processing could have potential for enhancing product quality. PMID:24471409

  19. Digestible energy content of corn- vs sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 120 finishing pigs (avg initial BW of 111 kg) was used in a 19-d experiment to determine the DE content of corn- vs sorghum-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The reference diet was 97.5% corn with vitamins, minerals, and amino acids added to meet or exceed all NRC sugges...

  20. Effect of UV-B light on total soluble phenolic contents of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light treatment on total soluble phenolic contents (TSP) of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops was evaluated. Whole fruits (strawberries, blueberries, grapes), vegetables (cherry tomatoes, white sweet corn) and root crops (sweet potatoes, colo...

  1. Digestible energy content of corn- versus sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles in finishings pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 120 finishing pigs (avg initial BW of 111 kg) was used in a 19-day experiment to determine the digestible energy (DE) content of corn- vs sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The reference diet was 97.5% corn with vitamins, minerals, and amino acids added to meet o...

  2. Integrated spectral and image analysis of hyperspectral scattering data for prediction of apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral scattering is useful for assessing the firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) of apples. In previous research, mean reflectance extracted from the hyperspectral scattering profiles was used for this purpose since the method is simple and fast and also gives relatively good predictions. T...

  3. Relationship of acid invertase activities to sugar content in sugarcane internodes during ripening and after harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that soluble acid invertase (SAI) and insoluble (cell wall) acid invertase (CWI) influence sucrose accumulation in sugarcane during ripening, and also postharvest deterioration. The activities of SAI and CWI were determined in selected immature and mature internodes during r...

  4. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison*

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2012-01-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (4001000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR. PMID:22302428

  5. Analysis of hyperspectral scattering characteristics for predicting apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Huang, Min; Qin, Jianwei

    2009-05-01

    Spectral scattering is useful for assessing the firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) of apples because it provides an effective means for characterizing light scattering in the fruit. This research compared three methods for quantifying the spectral scattering profiles acquired from 'Golden Delicious' apples using a hyperspectral imaging system for the spectral region of 500-1000 nm. The first method relied on a diffusion theory model to describe the scattering profiles, from which the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were obtained. The second method utilized a four-parameter Lorentzian function, an empirical model, to describe the scattering profiles. And the third method was calculation of mean reflectance from the scattering profiles for a scattering distance of 10 mm. Calibration models were developed, using multi-linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS), relating function parameters for each scattering characterization method to the fruit firmness and SSC of 'Golden Delicious' apples. The diffusion theory model gave poorer prediction results for fruit firmness and SSC (the average values of r obtained with PLS were 0.837 and 0.664 respectively for the validation samples). Lorentzian function and mean reflectance performed better than the diffusion theory model; their average r values for PLS validations were 0.860 and 0.852 for firmness and 0.828 and 0.842 for SSC respectively. The mean reflectance method is recommended for firmness and SSC prediction because it is simple and much faster for characterizing spectral scattering profiles for apples.

  6. Prediction of soluble solids content and ph in red wine by visible and near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; He, Yong; Wang, Yanyan

    2008-02-01

    Soluble solids content (SSC) and pH are two major characteristic used for assessing quality of red wine, and they are also two important quality indexes in the manufacture of red wine. For rapid detection of SSC and pH in red wine, visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) transmittance spectroscopy technique combined with partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) were used in this study. First, the near infrared transmittance spectra of 175 red wine samples were obtained using Vis/NIR spectroradiometer, then, PLS was applied for reducing the dimensionality of the original spectra, latent variables (LVs) selected by PLS could be used to replace the complex spectral data. All samples were randomly separated into calibration set and validation set. The LVs (selected by PLS) of each sample in calibration set was used as the inputs to train the LS-SVM model, then the optimal model was used to predict the SSC and pH values of samples in validation set based on their LVs. Standard error prediction (SEP) and determination coefficient (r2) were used as the evaluation standards, and the results indicated that the SEP and r2 for the prediction of SSC were 0.2313 and 0.9348; while 0.0071 and 0.9986 for pH. This prediction model was more accurate compared with the related research.

  7. [Effectively predicting soluble solids content in apple based on hyperspectral imaging].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Qian; Li, Jiang-Bo; Chen, Li-Ping; Guo, Zhi-Ming

    2013-10-01

    It is very important to extract effective wavelengths for quantitative analysis of fruit internal quality based on hyperspectral imaging. In the present study, genetic algorithm (GA), successive projections algorithm (SPA) and GA-SPA combining algorithm were used for extracting effective wavelengths from 400-1 000 nm hyperspectral images of Yantai "Fuji" apples, respectively. Based on the effective wavelengths selected by GA, SPA and GA-SPA, different models were built and compared for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of apple using partial least squares (PLS), least squared support vector machine (LS-SVM) and multiple linear regression (MLR), respectively. A total of 160 samples were prepared for the calibration (n = 120) and prediction (n = 40) sets. Among all the models, the SPA-MLR achieved the best results, where Rp(2), RMSEP and RPD were 0.950 1, 0.308 7 and 4.476 6 respectively. Results showed that SPA can be effectively used for selecting the effective wavelengths from hyperspectral data. And, SPA-MLR is an optimal modeling method for prediction of apple SSC. Furthermore, less effective wavelengths and simple and easily-interpreted MLR model show that the SPA-MLR model has a great potential for online detection of apple SSC and development of a portable instrument. PMID:24409747

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of soluble solid content in strawberry by near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhiming; Huang, Wenqian; Chen, Liping; Wang, Xiu; Peng, Yankun

    This paper indicates the feasibility to use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) algorithms as a rapid nondestructive method to estimate the soluble solid content (SSC) in strawberry. Spectral preprocessing methods were optimized selected by cross-validation in the model calibration. Partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was conducted on the calibration of regression model. The performance of the final model was back-evaluated according to root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and correlation coefficient (R2 c) in calibration set, and tested by mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R2 p) in prediction set. The optimal siPLS model was obtained with after first derivation spectra preprocessing. The measurement results of best model were achieved as follow: RMSEC = 0.2259, R2 c = 0.9590 in the calibration set; and RMSEP = 0.2892, R2 p = 0.9390 in the prediction set. This work demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy and siPLS with efficient spectral preprocessing is a useful tool for nondestructively evaluation SSC in strawberry.

  9. [Prediction the Soluble Solid Content in Sugarcanes by Using Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging System].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-feng; Zhang, Chu; Xie, Chuan-qi; Zhu, Feng-le; Guo, Zhen-hao; He, Yong

    2015-08-01

    In order to explore the feasibility of prediction soluble solid contents (SSC) in sugarcane stalks by using near infrared hyperspectral imaging techniques, two hundred and forty sugarcane stalks which come from three different varieties were studied. After obtaining the raw hyperspectral images of sugarcane stalks, the spectral information and textural features were discussed respectively. The prediction models were established by using partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal components regression (PCR) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) algorithms. Besides, three different selected wavelengths algorithms such as successive projection (SPA) algorithms, intervals partial least squares (iPLS) algorithms and uninformation variables elimination (UVE) algorithm were analyzed after building partial least squares regression model. The results indicate that partial least squares regression model based on spectral features can be an steady model to predict SSC and the correlation coefficient (R2) of calibration sets and prediction sets are 0.879, 0.843. The root mean square errors of calibration sets and prediction sets are 0.644, 0.742 respectively. The obtained 105 wavelengths which were selected by UVE algorithm are effective spectral features. The R2 results of calibration sets and prediction sets of its PLSR model are 0.860, 0.813. The root mean square errors of calibration sets and prediction sets are 0.693, 0.810 respectively PMID:26672284

  10. A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income New York City supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

    2014-09-01

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase. PMID:25168992

  11. Nutrient composition, mineral content and the solubility of the proteins of palm weevil, Rhynchophorus phoenicis f. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Omotoso, O.T.; Adedire, C.O.

    2007-01-01

    Adult (ADS) and larva stages of palm weevil Rhynchophorus phoenicis were analyzed for their nutritional potentials using proximate and mineral contents as indices. The early larva stage (ELS) contains the highest moisture content of 11.94% while ADS has the least value of 4.79%. The late larva stage (LLS) has the highest protein content of 10.51% while ADS contains 8.43%. Ash content is highest in ELS with a value of 2.37% and lowest in ADS with a value of 1.43%. ELS and LLS have the highest (22.14%) and lowest (17.22%) fibre contents respectively. The values of potassium, magnesium and iron in ELS were (455.0021.21), (60.692.57) and (6.503.40) mg/kg while LLS recorded (457.5010.61), (43.521.37) and (6.001.10) mg/kg and ADS recorded (372.5024.75), (53.311.88) and (22.903.70) mg/kg. Chromium, phosphorus, nickel, calcium, lead, manganese and zinc were also detected. Copper was not detected in any of the samples. In all the developmental stages the protein solubilities were pH dependent with the minimum protein solubilities occurring at acidic pH while the maximum protein solubilities occurred at alkaline pH. PMID:17542059

  12. EFFECTS OF FLOW AGENT AND SOLUBLE CONTENT ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers’ dried grain with solubles (DDGS) is a valuable source of energy, protein, water soluble vitamins and minerals for animal feeds, especially beef, dairy, swine, and poultry diets. DDGS generally contains 88 to 90% (d.b.) dry matter, 25 to 32% (d.b.) crude protein and 8 to 10% (d.b.) fat. ...

  13. Changes in ratio of soluble sugars and free amino nitrogen in the apical meristem during floral transition of tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Miner, G. S.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Under a modification of the nutrient diversion hypothesis, we propose that an inequality in carbohydrate and nitrogen translocation to the apical meristem may be a controlling factor in floral transition. Experiments were conducted in controlled-environment chambers to determine the associations between microscopic characteristics of the transition from vegetative to floral stages of the apical meristem of flue-cured tobacco and to assimilate concentrations in the plant and apical meristem. Low temperature, nitrogen withdrawal, and restriction of nitrogen uptake were used as treatment variables. In all of these stress treatments, flowering occurred at a lesser number of leaves than in control treatments. Low temperature stress accelerated the time of transition to the floral stage as compared with a high temperature control; however, nitrogen stress did not accelerate the time of transition. All stress treatments affected the levels of nitrogen and carbohydrate in whole plants. Most notable was an increase in the percentage of starch and a decrease in the percentage of total soluble carbohydrate induced by the stress treatments. These data indicate that tobacco plants under stress accumulate excess carbohydrate in the form of starch. An apparent inequality in the relative concentrations of carbohydrate and nitrogen in the apical meristem was observed in all treatments at the time of floral transition and is in support of the nutrient diversion hypothesis.

  14. Changes in soluble sugar, starch, and alcohol dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to N2 diluted atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Crispi, M. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1997-01-01

    Proper exchange of atmospheric gases is important for normal root and shoot metabolism in plants. This study was conducted to determine how restricted air supply affects foliar carbohydrates, while using the marker enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) to report on the oxygenation status of the rootzone. Fourteen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants grown singly in 7-ml tubes containing agarified nutrient medium were placed in coupled Magenta vessels and exposed for six days to either ambient air or one of six different air/nitrogen dilutions. Redox potential of the agar medium was measured immediately after harvesting and freezing leaf tissue, and then root systems were quickly extracted from the agar and frozen for subsequent analyses. Redox potential measurements indicated that this series of gas mixtures produced a transition from hypoxia to anoxia in the root zones. Root ADH activity increased at higher rates as the redox potential neared anoxic levels. In contrast, ADH mRNA expression quickly neared its maximum as the medium became hypoxic and showed little further increase as it became anoxic. Foliar carbohydrate levels increased 1.5- to 2-fold with decreased availability of metabolic gases, with starch increasing at higher concentrations of air than soluble carbohydrate. The results serve as a model for plant performance under microgravity conditions, where absence of convective air movement prevents replenishment of metabolic gases.

  15. On-line detection of orange soluble solid content using visible and near infrared transmission measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaping; Ying, Yibin; Xu, Huirong; Qi, Bing; Xie, Lijuan

    2012-05-01

    A prototype of on-line system developed by ourselves was used to non-destructively inspect orange quality. This system includes three main parts: machine vision part for fruit external quality detection, visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy part for fruit internal quality detection, and weighing part for fruit weight detection. Fruit scrolled on the roller in the machine vision part, while stopped scrolling before entering the Vis-NIR spectroscopy part. Therefore, fruit positions and directions were inconsistent for spectra acquisition. This paper was aimed to study the influence of fruit detection orientation on spectra variation and model estimation performance using the on-line system. The system was configured to operate at typical grader speeds (0.27m/s or approximately three fruit per second) and detect the light transmitted through oranges. Stepwise multi linear regression models were developed for fruit with consistent directions and inconsistent directions in the wavelength range of 600-950 nm, and gave reasonable calibration correlations R2=0.89-0.92 and low cross validation errors (RMSECV=0.44-0.56%). The calibration model with spherical samples only turned out the best prediction results, which has lowest RMSEP of 0.56%-0.63% for different fruit orientations. It can be seen from the study that fruit shape would influence the fruit orientation for spectra aqcuiring of spherical samples after scrolling, and would further influence the modeling resutls. It is better to acquire spectra and establish models for sampels with different shapes separately and then applying them based on shape detection resutls to improve the soluble solid content (SSC) prediction accuracy.

  16. Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on Cheddar cheese quality: changes in residual sugars and water-soluble organic acids during ripening.

    PubMed

    Upreti, P; McKay, L L; Metzger, L E

    2006-02-01

    Cheddar cheese ripening involves the conversion of lactose to glucose and galactose or galactose-6-phosphate by starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Under ideal conditions (i.e., where bacteria grow under no stress of pH, water activity, and salt), these sugars are mainly converted to lactic acid. However, during ripening of cheese, survival and growth of bacteria occurs under the stressed condition of low pH, low water activity, and high salt content. This forces bacteria to use alternate biochemical pathways resulting in production of other organic acids. The objective of this study was to determine if the level and type of organic acids produced during ripening was influenced by calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), residual lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) of cheese. Eight cheeses with 2 levels of Ca and P (0.67 and 0.47% vs. 0.53 and 0.39%, respectively), lactose at pressing (2.4 vs. 0.78%), and S/M (6.4 vs. 4.8%) were manufactured. The cheeses were analyzed for organic acids (citric, orotic, pyruvic, lactic, formic, uric, acetic, propanoic, and butyric acids) and residual sugars (lactose, galactose) during 48 wk of ripening using an HPLC-based method. Different factors influenced changes in concentration of residual sugars and organic acids during ripening and are discussed in detail. Our results indicated that the largest decrease in lactose and the largest increase in lactic acid occurred between salting and d 1 of ripening. It was interesting to observe that although the lactose content in cheese was influenced by several factors (Ca and P, residual lactose, and S/M), the concentration of lactic acid was influenced only by S/M. More lactic acid was produced in low S/M treatments compared with high S/M treatments. Although surprising for Cheddar cheese, a substantial amount (0.2 to 0.4%) of galactose was observed throughout ripening in all treatments. Minor changes in the levels of citric, uric, butyric, and propanoic acids were observed during early ripening, whereas during later ripening, a substantial increase was observed. A gradual decrease in orotic acid and a gradual increase in pyruvic acid content of the cheeses were observed during 12 mo of ripening. In contrast, acetic acid did not show a particular trend, indicating its role as an intermediate in a biochemical pathway, rather than a final product. PMID:16428613

  17. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Foth, A J; Brown-Brandl, T; Hanford, K J; Miller, P S; Garcia Gomez, G; Kononoff, P J

    2015-10-01

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% corn silage, 18.4% alfalfa hay, 6.94% brome hay with either 22.9% rolled corn or 14.8% soybean meal (control), or 8.95% rolled corn, 28.8% RFDDGS, and 0% soybean meal [Co-P; dry-matter (DM) basis]. The inclusion of RFDDGS did not affect DM intake, averaging 21.4 ± 0.53 kg of DM for all cows, but milk production tended to increase from 29.8 to 30.9 ± 1.46 kg/d for control and Co-P treatments, respectively. Milk fat percentage and energy-corrected milk did not differ between treatments, averaging 4.33 ± 0.14% and 34.1 kg/d, respectively. Milk protein was significantly decreased by the Co-P treatment (3.56 and 3.41 ± 0.08% for control and Co-P treatments), but protein yield was not affected. Milk energies were 1.40 Mcal/d greater with Co-P. Energy lost as methane was reduced by 0.31 Mcal/d with the addition of RFDDGS to the diet. Heat loss averaged 29.9 ± 0.55 Mcal/d and was not different between diets. Average energy retained as tissue energy was -2.99 ± 0.93 Mcal/d and did not differ between treatments. Intake of digestible and metabolizable energy were not different between the control and Co-P treatments, averaging 2.68 and 2.31 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. The net energy of lactation values of control and Co-P diets were calculated to be 1.43 and 1.47 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. These energy estimates suggest greater energy content of diets containing RFDDGS than diets containing a mixture of corn and soybean meal in lactating dairy cows. PMID:26233444

  18. Effect of extrusion processing on the soluble and insoluble fiber, and phytic acid contents of cereal brans.

    PubMed

    Gualberto, D G; Bergman, C J; Kazemzadeh, M; Weber, C W

    1997-01-01

    The health benefits associated with dietary fiber have resulted in it now being used in virtually all food product categories, including many products which are manufactured using extrusion processing. The objective of the present study was to determine if extrusion processing affected phytic acid, and soluble and insoluble fiber contents. The effect of screw speeds of 50, 70, and 100% of maximum rotations per minute (% MRPM) on these components was investigated. A BI-EX Model DNDG-62/20D co-rotating intermeshing self-cleaning twin-screw extruder, manufactured by Bhlerag, CH-9240, Uzwil, Switzerland, was used to process wheat, oat and rice brans. It was found that extrusion did not affect the insoluble fiber content of wheat bran; however, a decrease in this component was observed in rice and oat brans. The effect on rice bran insoluble fiber was greatest at screw speeds of 50 and 70% MRPM. This occurred in oat bran at 50% MRPM. Soluble fiber content increased in all brans after extrusion, except ER100. For oat and rice bran soluble fibers, the greatest increase occurred at 50 and 70% MRPM, while for wheat bran this occurred at 70 and 100% MRPM. Extrusion did not affect the phytate content of the cereal brans. PMID:9629859

  19. Influences of organically and conventionally grown strawberry cultivars on anthocyanins content and color in purees and low-sugar jams.

    PubMed

    Bursa? Kova?evi?, Danijela; Putnik, Predrag; Dragovi?-Uzelac, Verica; Vah?i?, Nada; Babojeli?, Martina Skendrovi?; Levaj, Branka

    2015-08-15

    The objective of this study was to detect influences of cultivar, cultivation and processing on anthocyanin content and color in purees and low-sugar jams produced from strawberry cultivars (Elsanta, Maya, Marmolada, Queen Elisa), grown under conventional and organic cultivation. Color was determined by CIELab values while anthocyanins were quantified by HPLC-UV/VIS-PDA. Queen Elisa was the best cultivar for processing as it had highest total anthocyanin content (TAC) that was well preserved in processing. On average, processing purees to jams decreased TAC for 28% where pelargonidin-3-glucoside revealed most noticeable loss (53%) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside was best preserved in processing. Obtained results indicated that measurement of colorimetric parameters are strongly correlated with content of anthocyanins. In other words, loss of anthocyanins during processing was accompanied by noticeable decrease in lightness, red/yellow color and total color change. Results showed that change of color is useful predictor for estimating anthocyanins in strawberry purees and jams. PMID:25794726

  20. Multi-sensor data fusion for improved prediction of apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Fernando; Lu, Renfu; Cen, Haiyan

    2011-06-01

    Several nondestructive technologies have been developed for assessing the firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) of apples. Each of these technologies has its merits and limitations in predicting the two quality parameters. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion, different sensors would work synergistically and complementarily to improve the quality prediction of apples. In this research, four sensing systems (i.e., an acoustic sensor, a bioyield firmness tester, a miniature near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer, and an online hyperspectral scattering system) were evaluated and combined for nondestructive prediction of firmness and SSC of 'Jonagold' (JG), 'Golden Delicious' (GD), and 'Delicious' (RD) apples. A total of 6,535 apples harvested in 2009 and 2010 were used for analysis. Each of the four sensors showed various degrees of ability to predict apple quality. Better predictions of the firmness and, in most cases, of the SSC were obtained using sensors fusion than using individual sensors, as measured by number of latent variables, correlation coefficient, and standard error of prediction (SEP). Results obtained from the two harvest seasons with the multi-sensor fusion approach were quite consistent, confirming the validity and robustness of the proposed approach. The SEPs for firmness measurement of JG, GD and RD using the best combination of two-sensor data were reduced by 13.3, 19.7 and 7.9% for the 2009 data and 16.0, 12.6 and 4.7% for the 2010 data; and using all four-sensor data by 21.8, 25.6 and 13.6% in 2009, and 14.9, 21.9, and 7.9% in 2010, respectively. For SSC prediction, using the two-sensor data (i.e., NIR and scattering) improved predictions for JG, GD and RD apples harvested in 2009, with their SEP values being reduced by 10.4, 6.6 and 6.8%, respectively. This research demonstrated that the fused systems provided more complete complementary information and, thus, were more powerful than individual sensors in prediction of apple quality.

  1. Extraction of soluble fiber from distillers' grains.

    PubMed

    Flodman, Hunter R; Boyer, Elizabeth J; Muthukumarappan, Arthy; Noureddini, Hossein

    2012-02-01

    The feasibility of using coproducts from dry grind corn ethanol production as a substrate for the production of soluble fiber was examined. Acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis experiments were performed using sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide to partially hydrolyze hemicellulose content of whole stillage, a precursor to distillers' grains, to soluble fiber. The influences of temperature, reaction time, and hydrolyzing agent concentration on the formation of soluble fiber were studied. Soluble fiber was recovered by precipitation in a 95% ethanol solution. Results indicate that appreciable quantities of soluble fiber may be extracted using either acid- or base-catalyzed reactions. The highest yield of soluble fibers was 13.2g per 100g-db of treated whole stillage using one weight percent sodium hydroxide at 80C for 1h. HPLC analysis was used to quantify the amount of monomeric sugars which were formed during the hydrolysis procedures. PMID:22203395

  2. Recurrrent Selection for Sucrose Content has Altered Growth and Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recurrent selection for sucrose content in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) should result in a concentration of traits and genes that contribute to high sucrose. To determine if growth-related traits were altered by seven cycles of recurrent selection, five cultivars from the first cycle (released...

  3. Consumption of dietary sugar by gut bacteria determines Drosophila lipid content.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Hsin; Douglas, Angela E

    2015-09-01

    Gut microorganisms are essential for the nutritional health of many animals, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated how lipid accumulation by adult Drosophila melanogaster is reduced in flies associated with the bacterium Acetobacter tropicalis which displays oral-faecal cycling between the gut and food. We demonstrate that the lower lipid content of A. tropicalis-colonized flies relative to bacteria-free flies is linked with a parallel bacterial-mediated reduction in food glucose content; and can be accounted for quantitatively by the amount of glucose acquired by the flies, as determined from the feeding rate and assimilation efficiency of bacteria-free and A. tropicalis-colonized flies. We recommend that nutritional studies on Drosophila include empirical quantification of food nutrient content, to account for likely microbial-mediated effects on diet composition. More broadly, this study demonstrates that selective consumption of dietary constituents by microorganisms can alter the nutritional balance of food and, thereby, influence the nutritional status of the animal host. PMID:26382071

  4. Determination of sucrose content in sugar beet by portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Leiqing; Zhu, Qibing; Lu, Renfu; McGrath, J Mitchell

    2015-01-15

    Visible and near-infrared spectra in interactance mode were acquired for intact and sliced beet samples, using two portable spectrometers for the spectral regions of 400-1100 nm and 900-1600 nm, respectively. Sucrose prediction models for intact and sliced beets were developed and then validated. The spectrometer for 400-1100 nm was able to predict the sucrose content with correlations of prediction (rp) of 0.80 and 0.88 and standard errors of prediction (SEPs) of 0.89% and 0.70%, for intact beets and beet slices, respectively. The spectrometer for 900-1600 nm had rp values of 0.74 and 0.88 and SEPs of 1.02% and 0.69% for intact beets and beet slices. These results showed the feasibility of using the portable spectrometer to predict the sucrose content of beet slices. Using simple correlation analysis, the study also identified important wavelengths that had strong correlation with the sucrose content. PMID:25148988

  5. Flow Properties of DDGS with Varying Soluble and Moisture Contents Using Jenike Shear Testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants and are used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being p...

  6. Flow properties of DDGS with varying soluble and moisture contents using Jenike shear testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants and are used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being p...

  7. Effect of Moisture Content and Soluble Level on the Physical and Chemical Properties of DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past few decades, much research concerning handling and storage characteristics of bulk solids has been conducted. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a bulk material that has been widely used as a protein source for ruminants and non-ruminants for more than two decades. DDGS t...

  8. EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT AND SOLUBLE LEVELS ON THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) have been widely used as protein sources for ruminants and non-ruminants for more than two decades. Distillers grains are energy dense as they contain high fat levels. With the exponential growth of the fuel ethanol industry in the past several years, ...

  9. PREDICTION OF SUGAR-SNAP COOKIE DIAMETER USING SUCROSE SOLVENT RETENTION CAPACITY, KERNEL TEXTURE, AND PROTEIN CONTENT FOR FLOURS PRODUCED USING THREE LABORATORY MILLING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture determined during milling, sucrose solvent retention capacity, and protein content for soft wheat flours best predicted sugar-snap cookie diameter. A total of 507 wheats were milled using three laboratory milling systems (short, medium and long mill flow). Prediction equations...

  10. Water stress causes differential effects on germination indices, total soluble sugar and proline content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different cultivars differ inherently in their response to drought and those cultivars best adapted to growth in arid and semiarid conditions form the most uniform and vigorous stands when grown under water deficits. The seeds of five wheat cultivars (GA-2002, Chakwal-97, Uqab-2000, Chakwal-50 and W...

  11. Application of Visible and Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging to Determine Soluble Protein Content in Oilseed Rape Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chu; Liu, Fei; Kong, Wenwen; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging covering spectral range of 380-1030 nm as a rapid and non-destructive method was applied to estimate the soluble protein content of oilseed rape leaves. Average spectrum (500-900 nm) of the region of interest (ROI) of each sample was extracted, and four samples out of 128 samples were defined as outliers by Monte Carlo-partial least squares (MCPLS). Partial least squares (PLS) model using full spectra obtained dependable performance with the correlation coefficient (r(p)) of 0.9441, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.1658 mg/g and residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 2.98. The weighted regression coefficient (Bw), successive projections algorithm (SPA) and genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GAPLS) selected 18, 15, and 16 sensitive wavelengths, respectively. SPA-PLS model obtained the best performance with r(p) of 0.9554, RMSEP of 0.1538 mg/g and RPD of 3.25. Distribution of protein content within the rape leaves were visualized and mapped on the basis of the SPA-PLS model. The overall results indicated that hyperspectral imaging could be used to determine and visualize the soluble protein content of rape leaves. PMID:26184198

  12. Application of Visible and Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging to Determine Soluble Protein Content in Oilseed Rape Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chu; Liu, Fei; Kong, Wenwen; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging covering spectral range of 3801030 nm as a rapid and non-destructive method was applied to estimate the soluble protein content of oilseed rape leaves. Average spectrum (500900 nm) of the region of interest (ROI) of each sample was extracted, and four samples out of 128 samples were defined as outliers by Monte Carlo-partial least squares (MCPLS). Partial least squares (PLS) model using full spectra obtained dependable performance with the correlation coefficient (rp) of 0.9441, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.1658 mg/g and residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 2.98. The weighted regression coefficient (Bw), successive projections algorithm (SPA) and genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GAPLS) selected 18, 15, and 16 sensitive wavelengths, respectively. SPA-PLS model obtained the best performance with rp of 0.9554, RMSEP of 0.1538 mg/g and RPD of 3.25. Distribution of protein content within the rape leaves were visualized and mapped on the basis of the SPA-PLS model. The overall results indicated that hyperspectral imaging could be used to determine and visualize the soluble protein content of rape leaves. PMID:26184198

  13. Lightsticks content toxicity: effects of the water soluble fraction on the oyster embryonic development.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Menezes Filho, Adalberto; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Pereira, Pedro Afonso P

    2015-11-01

    Lightsticks are artifacts used as attractors in a type of commercial fishery, known as surface longline gear. Despite the excessive use, the contamination risks of these devices have not yet been properly investigated. This research aimed to fill up this gap by determining the chemical composition and the toxicity of lightsticks recently activated, compared to those one year after activation and to the ones collected on the beaches. The analyzes were carried out by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, the variations in composition and the toxicity of their sea Water Soluble Fractions (WSF) were evaluated based on the WSF-effects of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development. The GC-MS analysis made possible the identification of nineteen substances in the water soluble fraction of the lightsticks, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The value of the WSF-effective concentration (EC50) was in an average of 0.35%. After one year of the lightsticks activation, the toxicity was even higher (0.65%). Furthermore, other substances, also present in the lightsticks-WSF caused persistent toxicity even more dangerous to the environment than DBP and DMP. This essay discusses their toxicity effects and possible environment damages. PMID:26070145

  14. Pharmacokinetic interactions induced by content variation of major water-soluble components of Danshen preparation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo-bo; Zhang, Lin; Cao, Wan-wen; Cao, Yuan; Yang, Wen-liang; Wang, Yan; Chen, Yuan-cheng; Liu, Xiao-quan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the pharmacokinetic interactions induced by content variation of the main water-soluble components of Danshen injection in rats. Methods: Intravenous Danshen injection (control) or Danshen injection with danshensu (DSS), protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL), salvianolic acid A (Sal A) or salvianolic acid B (Sal B) were administered to female Sprague Dawley rats . Plasma concentrations of DSS, Sal A, PAL and its oxidative metabolite protocatechuic acid (PA) were analyzed simultaneously with LC-MS/MS; concentrations of Sal B were determined by the LC-MS method. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and compared for identifying the pharmacokinetic interactions among these components. Results: Compared with the control group, the DSS, Sal A, and Sal B groups had significant increases in AUC0-? in response to elevated concentrations of PAL (by 78.1%, 51.0%, and 82.9%, respectively), while the clearances (CL) were markedly reduced (by 42.5%, 32.9%, and 46.8%, respectively). Similarly, Sal A increased the AUC0? of DSS and Sal B (26.7% and 82.4%, respectively) and substantially decreased their clearances (21.4% and 45.6%, respectively). In addition, the pharmacokinetics of DSS and Sal B were significantly affected by the content variation of the other major components; the AUC0-? increased by 45.1% and 52.1%, respectively, the CL dropped by 29.6% and 27.1%, respectively, and the T1/2 was decreased by 22.0% and 19.6%, respectively. Conclusion: Complex, extensive pharmacokinetic interactions were observed among the major water-soluble constituents in the Danshen injection. The content variation of PAL had the most significant effect on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of other major constituents. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of DSS and Sal B were the most susceptible to the content change of other components. PMID:20364158

  15. [Application of characteristic NIR variables selection in portable detection of soluble solids content of apple by near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shu-Xiang; Huang, Wen-Qian; Li, Jiang-Bo; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Zhaq, Chun-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    In order to detect the soluble solids content(SSC)of apple conveniently and rapidly, a ring fiber probe and a portable spectrometer were applied to obtain the spectroscopy of apple. Different wavelength variable selection methods, including unin- formative variable elimination (UVE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and genetic algorithm (GA) were pro- posed to select effective wavelength variables of the NIR spectroscopy of the SSC in apple based on PLS. The back interval LS- SVM (BiLS-SVM) and GA were used to select effective wavelength variables based on LS-SVM. Selected wavelength variables and full wavelength range were set as input variables of PLS model and LS-SVM model, respectively. The results indicated that PLS model built using GA-CARS on 50 characteristic variables selected from full-spectrum which had 1512 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.962, 0.403Brix respectively for SSC. The proposed method of GA-CARS could effectively simplify the portable detection model of SSC in apple based on near infrared spectroscopy and enhance the predictive precision. The study can provide a reference for the development of portable apple soluble solids content spectrometer. PMID:25739212

  16. Soluble solids content and firmness non-destructive inspection and varieties discrimination of apples based on visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yao

    2014-11-01

    For apples, soluble solids content (SSC) and firmness are two very important internal quality attributes, which play key roles in postharvest quality classification. Visible-near infrared hyper spectral imaging techniques have potentials for nondestructive inspection of apples' internal qualities, which will be used for the SSC and firmness non-destructive inspection and varieties discrimination of apples. Spectrums of 396 apples from four varieties were extracted. There were 264 apples used for calibration and the remaining 132 apples for prediction. After collecting hyper spectral images of calibration apples, the sugar meter and firmness tester was used to measure SSC and firmness's reference values of each calibration apples. Then the principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract effective wavelengths of calibration apples. The reference values and effective wavelengths' reflectance of apples can be used to set linear regression models based on partial least squares (PLS). Once the prediction model was established, in order to get the SSC and firmness's predicted values of apples, it only need achieve the effective wavelengths' reflectance of apples combing with the program of MATLAB. Finally, the SSC and firmness values of prediction set were used as independent variables of the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to realize varieties discrimination. The correlation coefficients were 0.9127 for SSC and 0.9608 for firmness values of prediction models. The accuracy of varieties discrimination was 96.97%. The results indicated that the methods to SSC and firmness non-destructive inspection and varieties discrimination of apples based on Vis-NIR hyper spectral imaging was reliable and feasible.

  17. Chromatographic profiles of nonstructural carbohydrates contributing to the colorimetrically determined fructan, ethanol-soluble, and water-soluble carbohydrate contents of five grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonstructural carbohydrates in forages are often analyzed by colorimetric assays of water and ethanol extracts. Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) include polysaccharides (starch and fructan) and mono- and disaccharides. Ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) consist only of mono-, di- and oligosaccha...

  18. The relationship between estimated water content and water soluble organic carbon of PM10 at Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Yi, S.

    2011-12-01

    The organic carbon (OC) in atmospheric aerosols can be divided in water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water insoluble organic carbon (WISOC). WSOC constitutes a significant fraction of the carbon mass of aerosols, ranging from 27% to 83% (Yu et al., 2004). WSOC and absorbed water in atmospheric aerosol can impact climate directly by scattering solar radiation. Also, these can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) (Saxena et al., 1995; Yu et al., 2004). The role of WSOC in water absorption is especially unclear. So, it is essential to understand the relevance of water content and WSOC. In this study, we have analyzed relationship between the measured WSOC concentrations and estimated aerosol water content of PM10 (particles in the atmosphere with a diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 ?m) for the period between September 2006 and August 2007 at Seoul, Korea. Water content of PM10 was estimated by using a gas/particle equilibrium model, SCAPE2 (Kim et al., 1993). WSOC and estimated water content showed a positive correlation when the ambient relative humidity (RH) was less than 70%. But when RH was higher than 70%, WSOC and estimated water content did not show a correlation. However, WISOC over OC showed negative correlation with estimated water content of PM10 when RH was less than 70%. It was found that WSOC was correlated well with NO3- that is a secondary component formed by photochemical oxidation. References Kim, Y. P., Seinfeld, J. H., Saxena, P., 1993, Atmospheric gas-aerosol equilibrium I. Thermodynamic model, Aerosol Science and Technology, 19, 157-181. Saxena, P., Hildemann, L. M., McMurry, P. H., Seinfeld, J. H., 1995, Organics alter hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100(D9), 18755-18770. Yu, J. Z., Yang, H., Zhang, H. and Lau, A. K. H., 2004, Size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon in ambient aerosols and its size-resolved thermal characteristics, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 1061-1071.

  19. Quantitation of sugar content in pyrolysis liquids after acid hydrolysis using high-performance liquid chromatography without neutralization.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Patrick A; Brown, Robert C

    2014-08-13

    A rapid method for the quantitation of total sugars in pyrolysis liquids using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The method avoids the tedious and time-consuming sample preparation required by current analytical methods. It is possible to directly analyze hydrolyzed pyrolysis liquids, bypassing the neutralization step usually required in determination of total sugars. A comparison with traditional methods was used to determine the validity of the results. The calibration curve coefficient of determination on all standard compounds was >0.999 using a refractive index detector. The relative standard deviation for the new method was 1.13%. The spiked sugar recoveries on the pyrolysis liquid samples were between 104 and 105%. The research demonstrates that it is possible to obtain excellent accuracy and efficiency using HPLC to quantitate glucose after acid hydrolysis of polymeric and oligomeric sugars found in fast pyrolysis bio-oils without neutralization. PMID:25093902

  20. Individual sugar content control by the use of FTIR spectroscopy coupled with an attenuated total reflectance accessory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellon, Veronique; Vallat, Celine

    1993-12-01

    This paper describes the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with an Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) accessory to quantify the individual sugars (glucose, maltose, maltodextrins...) in a mixture extracted from a process of wheat transformation into sugar. ATR accessory allows us to analyze very viscous media such as molasses by pouring the medium on a flat crystal. In the first step, model mixtures are prepared in the concentrations common to sugar industries and are analyzed by an FT-IR spectrometer. Binary (glucose/maltose) and ternary (glucose/maltose/maltotriose) solutions are used. Spectra are recorded from 1300 to 850 cm-1. Multivariate mathematical processing methods are applied to these spectra (Partial Least Squares and Principal Component Regression). The results show a very good discrimination between the different sugars.

  1. Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel).

    PubMed

    Bavec, Martina; Turinek, Matjaz; Grobelnik-Mlakar, Silva; Slatnar, Ana; Bavec, Franc

    2010-11-24

    The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. Significant differences were measured for malic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant activity, where malic acid content ranged from 2.39 g kg(-1) FW (control) to 1.63 g kg(-1) FW (CON, ORG, and INT). The highest TPC was measured in BD and control samples (0.677 and 0.672 mg GAE g(-1), respectively), and the lowest in CON samples (0.511 mg GAE g(-1)). Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with TPC (r2=0.6187) and ranged from 0.823 ?M TE g(-1) FW to 1.270 ?M TE g(-1) FW in CON and BD samples, respectively, whereas total sugar content ranged from 21.03 g kg(-1) FW (CON) to 31.58 g kg(-1) FW (BD). The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective. PMID:20964342

  2. Water-soluble luminal contents of the gut of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. and their physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Tillinghast, E K; O'Donnell, R; Eves, D; Calvert, E; Taylor, J

    2001-06-01

    In the post-gizzard gut of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, distinguishing the functions of the luminal epithelium from those of the chloragogenous tissue has been hindered by the close apposition of these two tissues. Moreover, both tissues may have different functions from the anterior to the posterior of the animal. We analyzed the gut luminal contents of L. terrestris so as to gain a better understanding of the function of the luminal epithelium. The intestine was divided into four regions from anterior to posterior, and the water-soluble portion of the luminal contents of these four regions was analyzed for protease and amylase activity, calcium and ammonium ions, and protein. The same four regions of the gut wall were analyzed for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and serine dehydratase (SDH) to determine their location with reference to the site of ammonia production. We observed high levels of proteases, amylase, protein and calcium ions in the gut luminal contents of the first two regions, and a significant decline of all four variables in region III. Conversely, ammonia was low in the gut contents of regions I and II but rose sharply in region III, which was also the region to which the tissue enzymes GDH and SDH were localized. The ammonia content of earthworm casts was observed to be much higher than that of the surrounding soil. These data are presented as partial evidence for the proposal that the excretory ammonia produced by feeding earthworms is a product of the luminal epithelium of region III of the gut. It is also proposed that ammonia and calcium may function as ion-exchangers in the absorptive function of the earthworm gut. PMID:11423307

  3. Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test on the mutagenicity of water-soluble contents of cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Ji, Q; Chen, Y

    1996-01-16

    The possible mutagenicity of the water-soluble contents of cigarette smoke (WSCS) was evaluated by using the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test. The results showed significant changes in micronucleus frequency which were caused by each different concentration of WSCS. This indicates that the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test might be used as one kind of mutagenic detection method for cigarette smoke. A comparative evaluation on the mutagenicity of 10 brands of cigarettes was carried out. Results confirmed that various degrees of mutagenicity were found for all of the brand cigarettes, among them, Huaihai was the highest, while Camellia was the lowest. The micronucleus frequencies were reduced by adding tea polyphenol, nicotinamide adenine, vitamin C and sodium selenite to the WSCS. The results suggest that these added substances might reduce the genetic injury induced by cigarette smoke. PMID:8569797

  4. Metabolism of soluble rapeseed meal (Brassica rapa L.) protein during incubations with buffered bovine rumen contents in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stefa?ski, T; Ahvenjrvi, S; Huhtanen, P; Shingfield, K J

    2013-01-01

    Accurate quantitative information on the fate of dietary protein in the rumen is central to modern metabolizable protein systems developed to improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization in ruminants. An in vitro method was developed to estimate the rate of soluble rapeseed meal (Brassica rapa L.) protein (SRMP) degradation. Unlabeled and (15)N-labeled solvent-extracted rapeseed meal were incubated alone or as an equal mixture (125 mg of N/L) with buffered rumen contents and a mixture of carbohydrates formulated to provide a constant source of fermentable energy during the course of all incubations. Incubations were made over 0.33, 0.67, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 h. Enrichment of (14)N and (15)N isotopes in total N of ammonia (AN), soluble nonammonia (SNAN), and insoluble (ISN) fractions liberated during incubations with test proteins was determined. A model with 4 pools that accounted for both intracellular and extracellular N transformations was used to estimate the rate of SRMP degradation. Parameter values used in the model were adjusted based on the size of A(14)N, A(15)N, SNA(14)N, SNA(15)N, IS(14)N, and IS(15)N pools, measured at different time points during incubations with buffered rumen fluid. The mean rate of N degradation for SRMP was estimated at 0.126 (SD 0.0499) h(-1). No substantive difference in the rate of protein degradation or microbial protein synthesis was observed during incubations of labeled and unlabeled substrates with rumen fluid. In conclusion, combined use of data from incubations of unlabeled and (15)N-labeled rapeseed protein with buffered rumen inoculum provided sufficient information to allow for estimation of parameter values in a complex dynamic model of soluble protein degradation. Results indicate the potential of the technique to evaluate the degradability of SNAN of other dietary protein sources and implicate ruminal escape of soluble rapeseed protein as an important source of amino acids in ruminants. PMID:23127902

  5. Comparative effects of irradiation, fumigation, and storage on the free amino acids and sugar contents of green, black and oolong teas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausar, Tusneem; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-05-01

    Food irradiation or chemical fumigation can be used to ensure the hygienic quality of teas. The comparative effects of gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) and fumigation (MeBr and PH3) were investigated on the amino acids and sugar contents of Camellia sinensis (green, black and oolong teas) during storage (1512 C). The major amino acids found in teas were theanine and glutamic acid. Irradiation increased amino acids such as, leucine, alanine, and glutamic acid, and decreased the histidine. PH3 fumigation resulted in a decrease of tyrosine content; however, the effect of MeBr fumigation was negligible. Storage showed no significant effect on the amino acid content of the irradiated and fumigated teas. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents significantly increased upon gamma irradiation (p?0.05). However, fumigation and subsequent storage did not affect the sugar contents. Irradiation could be a preferred alternative choice to address food safety problems as fumigation is restricted in many countries.

  6. Engineering temporal accumulation of a low recalcitrance polysaccharide leads to increased C6 sugar content in plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Vega-Snchez, Miguel E; Loqu, Dominique; Lao, Jeemeng; Catena, Michela; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Herter, Thomas; Yang, Fan; Harholt, Jesper; Ebert, Berit; Baidoo, Edward E K; Keasling, Jay D; Scheller, Henrik V; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Ronald, Pamela C

    2015-09-01

    Reduced cell wall recalcitrance and increased C6 monosaccharide content are desirable traits for future biofuel crops, as long as these biomass modifications do not significantly alter normal growth and development. Mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), a cell wall polysaccharide only present in grasses and related species among flowering plants, is comprised of glucose monomers linked by both ?-1,3 and ?-1,4 bonds. Previous data have shown that constitutive production of MLG in barley (Hordeum vulgare) severely compromises growth and development. Here, we used spatio-temporal strategies to engineer Arabidopsis thaliana plants to accumulate significant amounts of MLG in the cell wall by expressing the rice CslF6 MLG synthase using secondary cell wall and senescence-associated promoters. Results using secondary wall promoters were suboptimal. When the rice MLG synthase was expressed under the control of a senescence-associated promoter, we obtained up to four times more glucose in the matrix cell wall fraction and up to a 42% increase in saccharification compared to control lines. Importantly, these plants grew and developed normally. The induction of MLG deposition at senescence correlated with an increase of gluconic acid in cell wall extracts of transgenic plants in contrast to the other approaches presented in this study. MLG produced in Arabidopsis has an altered structure compared to the grass glucan, which likely affects its solubility, while its molecular size is unaffected. The induction of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis in senescing tissues offers a novel engineering alternative to enhance cell wall properties of lignocellulosic biofuel crops. PMID:25586315

  7. Amino acid availability and true metabolizable energy content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in adult cecectomized roosters.

    PubMed

    Fastinger, N D; Latshaw, J D; Mahan, D C

    2006-07-01

    Five sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which varied in darkness of color, were collected from several processing plants in the Midwestern United States. Sources of DDGS were analyzed for their amino acid and energy contents, measured for color score, and evaluated for TMEn, apparent amino acid digestibility, and true amino acid digestibility. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, in which each DDGS sample was tube fed (25 g) to adult cecectomized roosters, and the excreta were collected for 48 h. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 8 replicates. Seven adult roosters (averaging 75 wk of age) were used in each period, with 5 fed the DDGS sources and 2 fasted to estimate basal endogenous amino acid losses. One source (no. 5) was the darkest, 2 sources (no. 2 and 4) were light, whereas 2 other sources (no. 1 and 3) were intermediate in color as measured by a colorimeter. Total lysine content of the DDGS sources ranged from 0.48 to 0.76%, with the lowest lysine content in the darkest DDGS source. Apparent and true lysine digestibility was approximately 30 and 15 percentage units lower (P < 0.05), respectively, in the dark-colored source (no. 5) than in the other 4 sources. Average apparent and true digestibility of the essential amino acids were 10 and 8 percentage units lower (P < 0.05), respectively, in source 5 than the other 4 sources. The TMEn content of the 5 DDGS sources was also lower (P < 0.05) in the darkest DDGS (no. 5). Our results suggest that when the color score of a DDGS source, as measured by a colorimeter, reached a certain threshold (lightness between 28 and 34), amino acid availability and true metabolizable energy content may be reduced. This reduction was particularly evident for lysine, which had the lowest digestibility in the darkest DDGS source. These results suggest that dark-colored DDGS may have been overheated during drying, causing Maillard reactions to be more extensive and resulting in a lowered total lysine content, lysine digestibility, and TMEn content. PMID:16830861

  8. Transport of sugars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility. PMID:25747398

  9. Effects of CO 2 concentration and moisture content of sugar-free media on the tissue-cultured plantlets in a large growth chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Y. H.; Lin, C.; Zhou, W.; Li, Y.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic fluctuations of CO 2 concentration in the tissue culture growth chamber after transplantation of petunia, chrysanthemum and tomato plantlets were recorded with a real-time control system to determine the critical CO 2 concentration levels of 35 ?l l -1 at which CO 2 enrichment is needed. The experimental data showed that the tissue-cultured plantlets of petunia, chrysanthemum and tomato had the same CO 2 concentration dynamics. The results indicated that CO 2 enrichment was proper on the second day after transplantation. Petunia plantlets were used to conduct experiments under PPFD of 80 ?mol m -2 s -1, and CO 2 concentrations of 350 50 ?l l -1, 650 50 ?l l -1 and 950 50 ?l l -1 as well as medium moisture contents of 60%, 70% and 80%, with the result that plantlets grew better under CO 2 concentration of 650 50 ?l l -1 than under the other two concentrations with all the different media water contents. Three media water contents under the same CO 2 concentration produced plantlets with the same quality. The impacts of CO 2 concentrations on plantlets are more important than those of the media water contents. Sugar-free tissue culture, as compared with the conventional culture, showed that CO 2 enrichment to 350 50 ?l l -1 can promote the growth of the cultured plantlets. Sugar-free tissue culture produced healthy plantlets with thick roots, almost equivalent to the common plantlets.

  10. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  11. Seasonal and diurnal changes in starch content and sugar profiles of bermudagrass in the Piedmont region of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal and diurnal patterns of sugar accumulation in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) pastures were monitored in order to evaluate risk factors for pasture-associated laminitis of ponies and horses. Bermudagrass was collected in the morning and afternoon on a weekly basis, from mid-July until late...

  12. Effects of energy-content labels and motivational posters on sales of sugar-sweetened beverages: stimulating sales of diet drinks among adults study.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Dara; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the effects of an environmental intervention promoting more non-energy-containing beverage consumption compared to sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption through vending machines in an urban college setting. Eight soft drink vending machines were randomly selected and assigned to one of three conditions over a 9-week period: energy-content labels on non-energy-containing beverage selection panels (intervention I), labels plus motivational posters (intervention II), or control. The totals of all beverages sold and machine revenue were recorded at baseline (2 weeks), intervention (5 weeks), and postintervention (2 weeks) periods. Use of energy-content labels and motivational posters, compared with control group, resulted in a significantly lower growth rate of sugar-sweetened beverage sales (P<0.05). Total revenue for all beverages increased during the intervention period. It is estimated that the non-energy-containing beverages combined accounted for 70.52% of the increased revenue. Results of this study suggest that energy-content labels and motivational posters on beverage vending machines may be an effective way to influence beverage sales. PMID:17081839

  13. Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Yez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 ?m in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS but did not differ for indispensable AA between FC and wheat DDGS. The SID content of His, Ile, Leu, Met, and Phe was lower (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS. In conclusion, dry fractionation creates DDGS fractions with a differing chemical composition. Fine particle fractions contain less fiber and more CP than coarse particle fractions, but their AA digestibility was lower, likely due to most of the solubles being fine particles that are more susceptible to AA damage than protein entrapped in particles of larger size. PMID:24948649

  14. Effects of Sr-modification on the melt hydrogen content and the hydrogen solubility in the solid and liquid Al-Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Emadi, D.; Liu, H.; Bouchard, M.; Gruzleski, J.E.

    1996-10-01

    Sr-modification of Al-Si alloys is normally accompanied by an increase in porosity in the casting. In an attempt to understand the nature of this problem, a study was initiated to investigate the effect of Sr on the melt hydrogen content and the hydrogen solubility in solid and liquid Al-Si alloys. The melt hydrogen content before and after Sr addition remains essentially constant for all ranges of Si content, and Sr treatment does not introduce hydrogen into the melt. In addition, strontium does not affect the rate of hydrogen pick-up by molten Al-Si alloys. Some problems associated with hydrogen measurement in Sr-modified melts are also discussed. Hydrogen measurements in the solid state indicate that Sr does not change the equilibrium hydrogen content in solid A356 alloy. Sr addition decreases the hydrogen solubility in liquid pure Al and Al-7%Si alloys. This decrease seems to be more significant in pure Al. At lower hydrogen solubilities, the hydrogen level in the liquid reaches the solubility limit at an earlier stage of solidification. As a result, pores can nucleate earlier and grow over a longer period of time resulting in more overall porosity in the solidified alloy.

  15. [Characteristic wavelengths selection of soluble solids content of pear based on NIR spectral and LS-SVM].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shu-xiang; Huang, Wen-qian; Li, Jiang-bo; Zhao, Chun-jiang; Zhang, Bao-hua

    2014-08-01

    To improve the precision and robustness of the NIR model of the soluble solid content (SSC) on pear. The total number of 160 pears was for the calibration (n=120) and prediction (n=40). Different spectral pretreatment methods, including standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were used before further analysis. A combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select most effective wavelengths after uninformative variable elimination (UVE) from original spectra, SNV pretreated spectra and MSC pretreated spectra respectively. The selected variables were used as the inputs of least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model to build models for de- termining the SSC of pear. The results indicated that LS-SVM model built using SNVE-UVE-GA-SPA on 30 characteristic wavelengths selected from full-spectrum which had 3112 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.956, 0.271 for SSC. The model is reliable and the predicted result is effective. The method can meet the requirement of quick measuring SSC of pear and might be important for the development of portable instruments and online monitoring. PMID:25474940

  16. Application FT-NIR in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact kiwifruits by reflectance mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yibin; Lu, Huishan; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande; Xu, Huirong; Yu, Haiyan

    2005-11-01

    Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of kiwifruit was developed by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) reflectance and fiber optics. Also, the models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of the fruit were developed and evaluated. To develop the models several different NIR reflectance spectra were acquired for each fruit from a commercial supermarket. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this work. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of kiwifruits were analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method using TQ 6.2.1 quantitative software (Thermo Nicolet Co., USA). Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all measured spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, noise of instrument, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and to obtain optimal calibration models. Total 480 NIR spectra were acquired from 120 kiwifruits and 90 samples were used to develop the calibration model, the rest samples were used to validate the model. Developed PLS model, which describes the relationship between SSC and NIR spectra, could predict SSC of 84 unknown samples with correlation coefficient of 0.9828 and SEP of 0.679 Brix.

  17. Predicting soluble solid content in intact jaboticaba [Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) O. Berg] fruit using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Nathlia Cristina Torres; da Costa, Rosangela Cmara; de Lima, Kssio Michell Gomes; Nardini, Viviani; Cunha Jnior, Lus Carlos; Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) as a rapid and non-destructive method to determine soluble solid content (SSC) in intact jaboticaba [Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) O. Berg] fruit. Multivariate calibration techniques were compared with pre-processed data and variable selection algorithms, such as partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS), a genetic algorithm (GA), a successive projections algorithm (SPA) and nonlinear techniques (BP-ANN, back propagation of artificial neural networks; LS-SVM, least squares support vector machine) were applied to building the calibration models. The PLS model produced prediction accuracy (R(2)=0.71, RMSEP=1.33 Brix, and RPD=1.65) while the BP-ANN model (R(2)=0.68, RMSEM=1.20 Brix, and RPD=1.83) and LS-SVM models achieved lower performance metrics (R(2)=0.44, RMSEP=1.89 Brix, and RPD=1.16). This study was the first attempt to use NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive method to determine SSC jaboticaba fruit. PMID:24767082

  18. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a significant industrial crop of the temperate zone, the worldwide production of which exceeded 240 million tons in 2000. Worldwide, sugar from sugar beet provides about a third of all sugar consumed. Used as a sweetener in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals, sug...

  19. Storage of milk powders under adverse conditions. 2. Influence on the content of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Ford, J E; Hurrell, R F; Finot, P A

    1983-05-01

    Storage of milk powder under unfavourable conditions accelerates the normally slow deterioration in nutritional quality. The effects of such storage on the water-soluble vitamin composition were examined. (a) Spray-dried whole milk containing 25 g water/kg was stored at 60 degrees and 70 degrees and sampled weekly to 9 weeks. (b) Spray-dried whole milk and skimmed milk were adjusted to contain 40 and 100 g water/kg and stored at 37 degrees in nitrogen and in oxygen. Samples were taken for analysis at intervals during storage. The samples were analysed for eight B-complex vitamins and ascorbic acid, and also for total lysine, 'reactive lysine' and 'lysine as lactulosyl-lysine'. Storage at 60 degrees caused rapid destruction of folic acid (53% loss at 4 weeks) and slower loss of thiamin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid (18% at 8 weeks). There was no change in the content of riboflavin, biotin, nicotinic acid and vitamin B12. At 70 degrees the rate of destruction of the four labile vitamins was much increased; 18% or less survived at 4 weeks. At 37 degrees and 40 g water/kg there was little change in total and 'reactive' lysine during storage for 57 d. Lactulosyl-lysine was demonstrably present but at low concentration. There was considerable loss of folate (72%) and ascorbate (91%) during storage for 30 d in O2, but no significant loss in N2. Thiamin fell by approximately 12% in 57 d, equally in O2 and N2. The content of the remaining vitamins was unchanged. At 100 g water/kg there were progressive Maillard changes. During 27 d in N2 the colour changed from cream to pale brown, but in O2 there was no perceptible colour change. Total lysine fell by 20% in 27 d, and 'reactive lysine' by 30%. Folate was stable during 16 d in N2, but largely (94%) destroyed in O2. Ascorbic acid was also destroyed in N2 as in O2. Thiamin fell by 41% in 27 d, equally in O2 and N2. Vitamin B6 was more labile, especially in N2, falling by 71% in 16 d. With skimmed-milk powder containing 100 g water/kg, storage at 37 degrees in O2 and N2 gave much the same results as for the corresponding whole-milk powder. The presence of milk fat had no marked effect on the stability of the water-soluble vitamins. Destruction of vitamins was clearly linked to the progress of Maillard-type reactions and was strongly influenced by time and temperature of storage, moisture content and, in some instances, by the presence of O2. PMID:6407521

  20. Biochemical Basis for Effects of K-Deficiency on Assimilate Export Rate and Accumulation of Soluble Sugars in Soybean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Steven C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of K-deficiency on carbon exchange rates (CER), photosynthate partitioning, export rate, and activities of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism were studied in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) leaves. The different parameters were monitored in mature leaves that had expanded prior to, or during, imposition of a complete K-deficiency (plants received K-free nutrition solution). In general, recently expanded leaves had the highest concentration of K, and imposition of K-stress at any stage of leaf expansion resulted in decreased K concentrations relative to control plants (10 millimolar K). A reduction in CER, relative to control plants, was only observed in leaves that expanded during the K-stress. Stomatal conductance also declined, but this was not the primary cause of the decrease in carbon fixation because internal CO2 concentration was unaffected by K-stress. Assimilate export rate from K-deficient leaves was reduced but relative export, calculated as a percentage of CER, was similar to control leaves. Over all the data, export rate was correlated positively with both CER and activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaf extracts. K-deficient leaves had higher concentrations of sucrose and hexose sugars. Accumulation of hexose sugars was associated with increased activities of acid invertase. Neutral invertase activity was low and unaffected by K-nutrition. It is concluded that decreased rates of assimilate export are associated with decreased activities of sucrose phosphate synthase, a key enzyme involved in sucrose formation, and that accumulation of hexose sugars may occur because of increased hydrolysis of sucrose in K-deficient leaves. PMID:16663858

  1. Particle Size, Surface Area, and Amorphous Content as Predictors of Solubility and Bioavailability for Five Commercial Sources of Ferric Orthophosphate in Ready-To-Eat Cereal.

    PubMed

    Dickmann, Robin S; Strasburg, Gale M; Romsos, Dale R; Wilson, Lori A; Lai, Grace H; Huang, Hsimin

    2016-01-01

    Ferric orthophosphate (FePO?) has had limited use as an iron fortificant in ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal because of its variable bioavailability, the mechanism of which is poorly understood. Even though FePO? has desirable sensory properties as compared to other affordable iron fortificants, few published studies have well-characterized its physicochemical properties. Semi-crystalline materials such as FePO? have varying degrees of molecular disorder, referred to as amorphous content, which is hypothesized to be an important factor in bioavailability. The objective of this study was to systematically measure the physicochemical factors of particle size, surface area, amorphous content, and solubility underlying the variation in FePO? bioavailability. Five commercial FePO? sources and ferrous sulfate were added to individual batches of RTE cereal. The relative bioavailability value (RBV) of each iron source, determined using the AOAC Rat Hemoglobin Repletion Bioassay, ranged from 51% to 99% (p < 0.05), which is higher than typically reported. Solubility in dilute HCl accurately predicted RBV (R = 0.93, p = 0.008). Amorphous content measured by Dynamic Vapor Sorption ranged from 1.7% to 23.8% and was a better determinant of solubility (R = 0.91; p = 0.0002) than surface area (R = 0.83; p = 0.002) and median particle size (R = 0.59; p = 0.12). The results indicate that while solubility of FePO? is highly predictive of RBV, solubility, in turn, is strongly linked to amorphous content and surface area. This information may prove useful for the production of FePO? with the desired RBV. PMID:26938556

  2. Sugarcane for water-limited environments. Genetic variation in cane yield and sugar content in response to water stress.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, J; Jackson, P A; Inman-Bamber, N G; Lakshmanan, P

    2012-10-01

    Water limitation is a major production constraint for sugarcane worldwide. However, to date, there has been little investigation of patterns of genetic variation in the response to water stress in sugarcane. Field experiments were conducted over 3 years under fully irrigated and managed water stress conditions at two locations in Northern Queensland in Australia. Eighty-nine genetically diverse clones were evaluated for their yield performance and sugar attributes. Water stress treatments reduced cane yield [tonnes of cane per hectare (TCH)] and total dry matter (TDM) by 17-52% and 20-56%, respectively, compared with irrigated treatments in the same experiments. Nevertheless, there was little genotypeenvironment interaction variation for TCH, TDM, or commercial cane sugar (CCS), and hence high genetic correlations between the irrigated and water stress treatments across environments. Both commercial and unselected clones performed poorly under severe stress environments, while the commercial clones outperformed the unselected clones under mild and moderate stress conditions. The results presented here highlight the contribution of intrinsic potential yields (yield under well-irrigated conditions) of some selected and unselected clones to maintain relatively high productivity in a range of moderate stress conditions imposed. The physiological basis for the high genetic correlations is at present unclear, but some explanations are hypothesized. The choice of stress levels in selection trials would not appear to be a critical issue for sugarcane breeding programmes, at least for the early phases of selection, where similar ranking clones across a range of moderate water stresses may be expected. PMID:22996675

  3. Association of candidate genes with flowering time and water-soluble carbohydrate content in Lolium perenne (L.).

    PubMed

    Skt, Leif; Humphreys, Jan; Humphreys, Mervyn O; Thorogood, Danny; Gallagher, Joe; Sanderson, Ruth; Armstead, Ian P; Thomas, Ian D

    2007-09-01

    We describe a candidate gene approach for associating SNPs with variation in flowering time and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content and other quality traits in the temperate forage grass species Lolium perenne. Three analysis methods were used, which took the significant population structure into account. First, a linear mixed model was used enabling a structured association analysis to be incorporated with the nine populations identified in the structure analysis as random variables. Second, a within-population analysis of variance was performed. Third, a tree-scanning method was used, in which haplotype trees were associated with phenotypes on the basis of inferred haplotypes. Analysis of variance within populations identified several associations between WSC, nitrogen (N), and dry matter digestibility with allelic variants within an alkaline invertase candidate gene LpcAI. These associations were only detected in material harvested in one of the two years. By contrast, consistent associations between the L. perenne homolog (LpHD1) of the rice photoperiod control gene HD1 and flowering time were identified. One SNP, in the immediate upstream region of the LpHD1 coding sequence (C-4443-A), was significant in the linear mixed model. Within-population analysis of variance and tree-scanning analysis confirmed and extended this result to the 2118 polymorphisms in some of the populations. The merits of the tree-scanning method are compared to the single SNP analysis. The potential usefulness of the 4443 SNP in marker-assisted selection is currently being evaluated in test crosses of genotypes from this work with turf-grass varieties. PMID:17660575

  4. Zinc availability and digestive zinc solubility in piglets and broilers fed diets varying in their phytate contents, phytase activity and supplemented zinc source.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, P; Nys, Y; Jondreville, C

    2010-02-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary zinc addition (0 or 15 mg/kg of Zn as inorganic or organic zinc) to three maize-soybean meal basal diets varying in their native Zn, phytic P contents and phytase activity (expressed in kg of feed: P- with 25 mg Zn and 1.3 g phytic P, P+ with 38 mg Zn and 2.3 g phytic P or P+/ENZ being P+ including 500 units (FTU) of microbial phytase per kg) in two monogastric species (piglets, broilers). Measured parameters were growth performance, zinc status (plasma, and bone zinc) and soluble zinc in digesta (stomach, gizzard and intestine). The nine experimental diets were fed for 20 days either to weaned piglets (six replicates per treatment) or to 1-day-old broilers (10 replicates per treatment). Animal performance was not affected by dietary treatments (P > 0.05) except that all P- diets improved body weight gain and feed conversion ratio in piglets (P < 0.05). Piglets fed P- diets had a better Zn status than those fed P+ diets (P < 0.05). In both species, Zn status was improved with supplemental Zn (P < 0.05), irrespective of Zn source. Phytase supplementation improved piglet Zn status to a higher extent than adding dietary Zn, whereas in broilers, phytase was less efficient than supplemental Zn. Digestive Zn concentrations reflected the quantity of ingested Zn. Soluble Zn (mg/kg dry matter) and Zn solubility (% of total Zn content) were highest in gizzard contents, which also presented lower pH values than stomach or intestines. The intestinal Zn solubility was higher in piglet fed organic Zn than those fed inorganic Zn (P < 0.01). Phytase increased soluble Zn in piglet stomach (P < 0.001) and intestine (P = 0.1), but not in broiler gizzard and intestinal contents. These results demonstrate (i) that dietary zinc was used more efficiently by broilers than by piglets, most probably due to the lower gizzard pH and its related higher zinc solubility; (ii) that zinc supplementation, irrespective of zinc source, was successful in improving animal's zinc status; and (iii) suggest that supplemented Zn availability was independent from the diet formulation. Finally, the present data confirm that phytase was efficient in increasing digestive soluble Zn and improving zinc status in piglets. However, the magnitude of these effects was lower in broilers probably due to the naturally higher Zn availability in poultry than in swine. PMID:22443873

  5. Evaluation of sugar content and composition in commonly consumed Korean vegetables, fruits, cereals, seed plants, and leaves by HPLC-ELSD.

    PubMed

    Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Kim, Su Yeon; Kim, Jung Bong; Kim, Heon Woong; Cho, Soo Muk; Kim, Se Na; Kim, So Young; Cho, Young Sook; Kim, Haeng Ran

    2013-10-18

    In the present investigation, evaluation of sugars viz. fructose, galactose, glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, and raffinose in commonly consumed raw Korean vegetables, fruits, cereals, seed plants, and leaves has been analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). Of the 58 samples analyzed, Onion showed the highest content of fructose (27.74g/100g) and glucose (31.80g/100g) and Chestnuts showed the highest content of sucrose (21.82g/100g). On the other hand, Glutinous sorghum (polished grain), Green tea leaves, and Paddy rice (well-polished rice) showed the lowest content of fructose (0.20g/100g), glucose (0.68g/100g) and sucrose (0.23g/100g), respectively. Glutinous barley (Hopimbori-whole grain) and Green tea leaves showed 0.17g/100g and 0.57g/100g of galactose and lactose respectively. Glutinous barley (Seodunchalbori-polished grain) and Black soybeans (Cheongjaho, dried) showed the highest content of maltose (0.51g/100g) and raffinose (1.82g/100g), respectively. In few samples, galactose, maltose, lactose, and raffinose were detected in trace quantities. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was also performed to discriminate the analyzed samples. PMID:24021435

  6. Effect of Different Inclusion Level of Condensed Distillers Solubles Ratios and Oil Content on Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, P.; Xu, X.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J. D.; Li, Q. Y.; Zhang, S.; Ma, X. K.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.62.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 66 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS. PMID:25557681

  7. Sweeteners - sugars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from corn starch. Lactose (milk sugar) is the carbohydrate that is in milk. It is made up ... amounts of these foods in place of other carbohydrates. If you have diabetes: Sugars affect blood glucose ...

  8. Added Sugars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fruit punch); dairy desserts and milk products (ice cream, sweetened yogurt and sweetened milk); and other grains ( ... Tips for Reducing Sugar in Your Diet Simple Cooking with Heart Added Sugar is not so Sweet ...

  9. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  10. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World-wide demand for sugar approaches 140Mt each year, and is supplied by only two plants, once of which is the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, L.). A team of international researchers were assembled by the editor to review the body of literature on sugar beet production and assemble it into an accessi...

  11. [The role of amino acids and sugars in supporting of osmotic homeostasis in maize seedlings under salinization conditions and treatment with synthetic growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Chyzhykova, O A; Palladina, T O

    2006-01-01

    Stress state in plants caused by salinization conditions is characterized by the disturbance of ionic and osmotic homeostasis. The maintenance of the latter is reached by accumulation of osmolytes including free amino acids and soluble sugars in cells. The free amino acid level in the 8-day-old control seedling leaves was higher, than in the roots, whereas the contrary picture was observed in 17-day-old plant tissues. At the same time 8-day-old seedling roots contained more total sugars, than leaves, although the reduced sugar content was nearly a half of the total sugar content. A decrease of both total and reduced sugar levels was observed in 17-day-old seedling tissues. One-day exposure of 7-day-old seedlings to 0.1 M NaCl increased the free amino acid content especially in roots, than in leaves, and the total sugar content in maize leaves, whereas in roots this level remained without changes. The prolongation of salt exposure to 10 days leads to osmolyte content decrease. The seed treatment with Methyure and Ivine intensified accumulation of free amino acids and soluble sugars in the root and leaf tissues under salinization conditions. PMID:17147275

  12. Changes in Acidity, TSS, and Sugar Content at Different Storage Periods of the Postharvest Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Influenced by Bavistin DF

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Khairul; Khan, M. Z. H.; Sarkar, M. A. R.; Absar, Nurul; Sarkar, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed study was carried out with the postharvest mangoes (namely, the Langra and the Khirshapat) treated with different levels of Bavistin DF (BDF) solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750?ppm) for obtaining results on biochemical changes as well as storability of postharvest mango. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of titratable acidity and total soluble solid (TSS) at 3rd day, over the Khirshapat. On the other hand, Khirshapat showed increased pulp pH and TSS at all the storage duration. The results explored that some physicochemical properties, namely, pulp pH, TSS, sugar (total, reducing, and nonreducing), and titratable acidity along with shelf life drastically decreased from untreated mangoes. Bavistin DF with the doses of 750?ppm showed better results in delaying the changes in physicochemical properties and extended shelf life. PMID:26904616

  13. Studies on dehydration of figs using different sugar syrup treatments.

    PubMed

    Naikwadi, P M; Chavan, U D; Pawar, V D; Amarowicz, R

    2010-08-01

    The ripe fig (Ficus carica L) fruits of cultivar cv., 'Deanna' were steam treated at 90C and 10 psi for 5 min in autoclave. Steamed fruits were dipped in sucrose, glucose, fructose and invert sugar syrups at 50Brix for 24 h for getting desired total soluble solids content. The treated fruits were further dried to 20% moisture in a cabinet dryer at 50-55C. Good quality and acceptable dried figs could be prepared by using invert sugar syrup treatment. Dried figs prepared using invert sugar and packed in aluminum foil pouch and stored at ambient (27 2C) as well as refrigerated (10 2C) temperature remained in excellent condition up to 6 months. PMID:23572667

  14. Measurement of non-sugar solids content in Chinese rice wine using near infrared spectroscopy combined with an efficient characteristic variables selection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2015-12-01

    The non-sugar solids (NSS) content is one of the most important nutrition indicators of Chinese rice wine. This study proposed a rapid method for the measurement of NSS content in Chinese rice wine using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. We also systemically studied the efficient spectral variables selection algorithms that have to go through modeling. A new algorithm of synergy interval partial least square with competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (Si-CARS-PLS) was proposed for modeling. The performance of the final model was back-evaluated using root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and correlation coefficient (Rc) in calibration set and similarly tested by mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (Rp) in prediction set. The optimum model by Si-CARS-PLS algorithm was achieved when 7 PLS factors and 18 variables were included, and the results were as follows: Rc=0.95 and RMSEC=1.12 in the calibration set, Rp=0.95 and RMSEP=1.22 in the prediction set. In addition, Si-CARS-PLS algorithm showed its superiority when compared with the commonly used algorithms in multivariate calibration. This work demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy technique combined with a suitable multivariate calibration algorithm has a high potential in rapid measurement of NSS content in Chinese rice wine. PMID:26143319

  15. Improved Sugar Conversion and Ethanol Yield for Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Lines with Reduced Lignin Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is known to impede conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. In this study, forage sorghum plants carrying brown midrib (bmr) mutations, which reduce lignin contents, were evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks. The near isogenic lines evaluated were: wild-type, bmr-6, bmr-12, and bmr-6 bmr-12...

  16. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93?wt?% of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. PMID:24706373

  17. Characteristics and antioxidant activity of water-soluble Maillard reaction products from interactions in a whey protein isolate and sugars system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-qiong; Bao, Yi-hong; Chen, Ying

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant activities of water-soluble MRPs (Maillard reaction products) from the reactions between whey protein isolate (WPI) and xylose (X), glucose (G), fructose (F), lactose (L), maltose (M) and sucrose (S) at different initial pH values (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). MRPs derived from the WPI-X system with increasing of pH rendered the highest browning, reducing power and DPPH radical-scavenging activity. SDS-PAGE analyses indicated formation of cross-linked proteins of large molecular mass produced from WPI-X systems. Results of FT-IR analysis indicated that the amide I, II and III bands of WPI from the WPI-X and WPI-G systems were changed by the Maillard reaction. CD spectroscopy showed that ?-sheet, ?-turns and random coil were increased while the ?-helix was decreased after the WPI-G and WPI-X system aqueous solutions were heated. In conclusion, MRPs obtained from the WPI-X system had high antioxidant activity. PMID:23561117

  18. Effect of Flow Agent Addition on the Physical Properties of DDGS with Varying Moisture Content and Soluble Levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is widely recognized as a highly nutritious animal feed ingredient. With the exponential growth of the fuel ethanol industry in the past several years, significant quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. To effectively utilize these feeds ...

  19. Effects of photoperiod, growth temperature and cold acclimatisation on glucosinolates, sugars and fatty acids in kale.

    PubMed

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Rdven, Rolf; Hansen, Espen; Mlmann, Jrgen

    2015-05-01

    Curly kale is a robust, cold tolerant plant with a high content of health-promoting compounds, grown at a range of latitudes. To assess the effects of temperature, photoperiod and cold acclimatisation on levels of glucosinolates, fatty acids and soluble sugars in kale, an experiment was set up under controlled conditions. Treatments consisted of combinations of the temperatures 15/9 or 21/15 C, and photoperiods of 12 or 24h, followed by a cold acclimatisation period. Levels of glucosinolates and fatty acid types in leaves were affected by growth conditions and cold acclimatisation, being generally highest before acclimatisation. The effects of growth temperature and photoperiod on freezing tolerance were most pronounced in plants grown without cold acclimatisation. The results indicate that cold acclimatisation can increase the content of soluble sugar and can thereby improve the taste, whilst the content of unsaturated fatty and glucosinolates acids may decrease. PMID:25529650

  20. Changes in oil, sugars and nitrogenous components during germination of sunflower seeds, Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Balasaraswathi, R; Sadasivam, S

    1997-01-01

    Since germination has been found to improve the nutritional quality of grains, sunflower seeds Helianthus annuus were germinated for up to five days, and the cotyledons were analyzed for oil, sugar, free amino acid, non-protein nitrogen, lysine, tryptophan and methionine contents. Protein was fractionated. Soaking and germination increased the non-protein nitrogen, total free amino acid, lysine and tryptophan contents. Protein content and dry weight decreased. The oil content decreased significantly after 72 hours of germination. The reducing sugars increased gradually until day 'five' of germination. The saline soluble albumin and globulin fractions decreased while the glutelin content increased during germination. No changes were noticed in the prolamin and methionine contents. PMID:9498696

  1. Effects of land use and mineral characteristics on the organic carbon content, and the amount and composition of Na-pyrophosphate soluble organic matter in subsurface soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, R.; Kaiser, M.; Walter, K.; Sommer, M.

    2010-12-01

    Land use and mineral characteristics affect the balance of organic carbon in surface as well as in subsurface soils and related feedbacks on soil functions like their potential to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Actually, there are less information about the effects of land use as well as soil properties on the amount and composition of organic matter (OM) for subsurface soils as compared to surface soils. Here we aimed to analyze the long-term impact of arable and forest land use and soil mineral characteristics on subsurface soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, as well as on amount and composition of OM sequentially separated by Na-pyrophosphate solution (OM(PY)) from subsurface soil samples. Seven soils different in mineral characteristics were selected within Germany. Soil samples were taken from subsurface horizons of forest and adjacent arable sites continuously used >100 years. The OM(PY) fractions were analysed on their OC content (OCPY) and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. A distinct influence of the long-term land use on the SOC contents could not be detected because only for four out of seven sites the forest subsurface soils showed larger SOC contents than the adjacent agricultural soils. A generally site independent enhanced OC sequestration in subsurface soils due to differences in land use cannot be expected in the long-term. Multiple regression analyses indicated for the arable subsurface soils significant positive relationships between the SOC contents and combined effects of the i) exchangeable Ca (Caex) and oxalate soluble Fe (Feox), and ii) the Caex and Alox contents. For the arable subsurface soils the increase of OCPY* (OCPY multiplied by the relative C=O content of OM(PY)) by increasing contents of Caex indicated that OM(PY) mainly interacts with Ca2+ cations. For the forest subsurface soils (pH <5), the OCPY contents were found to be related to the contents of Na-pyrophosphate soluble Fe and Al. The long-term arable and forest land use seems to result in different OM(PY)-mineral interactions in subsurfac soils. Based on this we hypothesize that a long-term land use change from arable to forest may lead to a shift from mainly OM(PY)-Ca2+ to mainly OM(PY)-Fe3+ and -Al3+ interactions if the pH of subsurface soils significantly decrease (i.e. <5).

  2. Investigation of the use of aerobic granules for the treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kocaturk, Irem; Erguder, Tuba Hande

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater in aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was examined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency. The effect of sugar beet processing wastewater of high solid content, namely 2255??250?mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), on granular sludge was also investigated. Aerobic granular SBR initially operated with the effluent of anaerobic digester treating sugar beet processing wastewater (Part I) achieved average removal efficiencies of 71??30% total COD (tCOD), 90??3% total ammonifiable nitrogen (TAN), 76??24% soluble COD (sCOD) and 29??4% of TSS. SBR was further operated with sugar beet processing wastewater (Part II), where the tCOD, TAN, sCOD and TSS removal efficiencies were 65??5%, 61??4%, 87??1% and 58??10%, respectively. This study indicated the applicability of aerobic granular SBRs for the treatment of both sugar beet processing wastewater and anaerobically digested processing wastewater. For higher solids removal, further treatment such as a sedimentation tank is required following the aerobic granular systems treating solid-rich wastewaters such as sugar beet processing wastewater. It was also revealed that the application of raw sugar beet processing wastewater slightly changed the aerobic granular sludge properties such as size, structure, colour, settleability and extracellular polymeric substance content, without any drastic and negative effect on treatment performance. PMID:25851439

  3. Correlation between the Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Leaf Starch and Sugars of C3 Plants and the Ratio of Intercellular and Atmospheric Partial Pressures of Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Brugnoli, Enrico; Hubick, Kerry T.; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Wong, Suan Chin; Farquhar, Graham D.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon isotope discrimination (?) was analyzed in leaf starch and soluble sugars, which represent most of the recently fixed carbon. Plants of three C3 species (Populus nigra L. P. deltoides Marsh., Gossypium hirsutum L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were kept in the dark for 24 hours to decrease contents of starch and sugar in leaves. Then gas exchange measurements were made with constant conditions for 8 hours, and subsequently starch and soluble sugars were extracted for analysis of carbon isotope composition. The ratio of intercellular, pi, and atmospheric, pa, partial pressures of CO2, was calculated from gas exchange measurements, integrated over time and weighted by assimilation rate, for comparison with the carbon isotope ratios in soluble sugars and starch. Carbon isotope discrimination in soluble sugars correlated strongly (r = 0.93) with pi/pa in all species, as did ? in leaf starch (r = 0.84). Starch was found to contain significantly more 13C than soluble sugar, and possible explanations are discussed. The strong correlation found between ? and pi/pa suggests that carbon isotope analysis in leaf starch and soluble sugars may be used for monitoring, indirectly, the average of pi/pa weighted by CO2 assimilation rate, over a day. Because pi/pa has a negative correlation with transpiration efficiency (mol CO2/mol H2O) of isolated plants, ? in starch and sugars may be used to predict differences in this efficiency. This new method may be useful in ecophysiological studies and in selection for improved transpiration efficiency in breeding programs for C3 species. PMID:16666476

  4. Modulation of organic acids and sugar content in tomato fruits by an abscisic acid-regulated transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Bastías, Adriana; López-Climent, María; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Rosello, Salvador; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Casaretto, José A

    2011-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in fruit development. ABA signaling components of developmental programs and responses to stress conditions include the group of basic leucine zipper transcriptional activators known as ABA-response element binding factors (AREBs/ABFs). AREB transcription factors mediate ABA-regulated gene expression involved in desiccation tolerance and are expressed mainly in seeds and in vegetative tissues under stress; however, they are also expressed in some fruits such as tomato. In order to get an insight into the role of ABA signaling in fruit development, the expression of two AREB-like factors were investigated during different developmental stages. In addition, tomato transgenic lines that overexpress and downregulate one AREB-like transcription factor, SlAREB1, were used to determine its effect on the levels of some metabolites determining fruit quality. Higher levels of citric acid, malic acid, glutamic acid, glucose and fructose were observed in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with those in antisense suppression lines in red mature fruit pericarp. The higher hexose concentration correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13). No significant changes were found in ethylene content which agrees with the normal ripening phenotype observed in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that an AREB-mediated ABA signal affects the metabolism of these compounds during the fruit developmental program. PMID:21128945

  5. Evaluation of protein content, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins for gamma-irradiated semolina before and after milling of durum wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzeh, F. S.; Amr, A. S.

    2009-11-01

    Influenced of gamma irradiation (0, 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on total nitrogen, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins of semolina was studied. The effect of irradiation before and after milling on previous parameters was also investigated. Protein content of semolina was not affected with gamma irradiation before and after milling. Up to 10 kGy dose, cystine and methionine were not significantly changed, although they increased slightly with increasing irradiation dose. Lysine content decreased significantly ( P?0.05) at irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy. At 10 kGy dose, lysine decreased 5% and 14% for irradiated semolina and that obtained from irradiated wheat grains, respectively. The bands number and intensity of soluble proteins decreased with increasing irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy, as shown on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Irradiated semolina and semolina obtained from irradiated wheat grains at 10 kGy showed 13 and 15 bands, respectively. Unirradiated sample showed 19 bands.

  6. Sugar 101

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your local American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Espaol (Spanish) ???? (Traditional Chinese) ???? ( ... calories you need to meet your nutrient needs. Select low-fat and no-sugar-added foods to ...

  7. Effect of UV-B light on soluble phenolic content of various whole and fresh-cut vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase through abiotic stress caused by UV-B light exposure is the basis of a novel value-added processing method that enhances the nutrient content of specialty crops by increasing the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including terpe...

  8. Osmotic stress causes differential effects on germination indices, total soluble sugar, and proline content in different wheat (triticum aestivum L.) genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse crop cultivars differ inherently in their response to climatological drought, and those cultivars with the best seed germination and early seedling growth under arid and semiarid conditions form the most uniform and vigorous stands under water deficit conditions. To determine whether signifi...

  9. Determination of the Mycotoxin Content in Distiller's Dried Grain with Solubles Using a Multianalyte UHPLC-MS/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Haughey, Simon A; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; Campbell, Katrina; Magowan, Elizabeth; Adam, Gerhard; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-11-01

    There are more than 300 potential mycotoxins that can contaminate food and feed and cause adverse effects in humans and animals. The data on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in novel animal feed materials, such as distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), are limited. Thus, a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of 77 mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites was used to analyze 169 DDGS samples produced from wheat, maize, and barley and 61 grain samples. All DDGS samples analyzed were contaminated with 13-34 different mycotoxins. Fumonisins were present in all 52 maize DDGS samples (81.0-6890 ?g/kg for fumonisin B1), and deoxynivalenol was present in all 99 wheat DDGS samples (39.3-1120 ?g/kg). A number of co-occurring mycotoxins were also identified. Due to the high co-occurrence of mycotoxins, routine screening of the animal feed ingredients is highly recommended to allow the highlighted risks to be effectively managed. PMID:26449927

  10. Solubility of Sulfur in Shergottitic Silicate Melts Up to 0.8 GPA: Implications for S Contents of Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.M.; Danielson, L.

    2009-01-01

    Shergottites have high S contents (1300 to 4600 ppm; [1]), but it is unclear if they are sulfide saturated or under-saturated. This issue has fundamental implications for determining the long term S budget of the martian surface and atmosphere (from mantle degassing), as well as evolution of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) Au, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Ir, and Os, since concentrations of the latter are controlled by sulfide stability. Resolution of sulfide saturation depends upon temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity (and FeO), and magma composition [2]. Expressions derived from experimental studies allow prediction of S contents, though so far they are not calibrated for shergottitic liquids [3-5]. We have carried out new experiments designed to test current S saturation models, and then show that existing calibrations are not suitable for high FeO and low Al2O3 compositions characteristic of shergottitic liquids. The new results show that existing models underpredict S contents of sulfide saturated shergottitic liquids by a factor of 2.

  11. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several

  12. Comparison of standard moisture loss-on-drying methods for the determination of moisture content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ileleji, Klein E; Garcia, Arnoldo A; Kingsly, Ambrose R P; Clementson, Clairmont L

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the variability among 14 standard moisture loss-on-drying (gravimetric) methods for determination of the moisture content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The methods were compared with the Karl Fischer (KF) titration method to determine their percent variation from the KF method. Additionally, the thermo-balance method using a halogen moisture analyzer that is routinely used in fuel ethanol plants was included in the methods investigated. Moisture contents by the loss-on-drying methods were significantly different for DDGS samples from three fuel ethanol plants. The percent deviation of the moisture loss-on-drying methods decreased with decrease in drying temperature and, to a lesser extent, drying time. This was attributed to an overestimation of moisture content in DDGS due to the release of volatiles at high temperatures. Our findings indicate that the various methods that have been used for moisture determination by moisture loss-on-drying will not give identical results and therefore, caution should be exercised when selecting a moisture loss-on-drying method for DDGS. PMID:20629383

  13. Nondestructive quantification of the soluble-solids content and the available acidity of apples by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Yibin; Liu Yande; Tao Yang

    2005-09-01

    This research evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to quantify the soluble-solids content (SSC) and the available acidity (VA) in intact apples. Partial least-squares calibration models, obtained from several preprocessing techniques (smoothing, derivative, etc.) in several wave-number ranges were compared. The best models were obtained with the high coefficient determination (r{sup 2}) 0.940 for the SSC and a moderate r{sup 2} of 0.801 for the VA, root-mean-square errors of prediction of 0.272% and 0.053%, and root-mean-square errors of calibration of 0.261% and 0.046%, respectively. The results indicate that the FT-NIR spectroscopy yields good predictions of the SSC and also showed the feasibility of using it to predict the VA of apples.

  14. Technology and economics of sugar concentrate production from cannery wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harkin, J.M.

    1983-05-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the best way to divert massive amounts of carbohydrate present in vegetable cannery wastes to feedstock for fuel-grade alcohol production. Because huge quantities of water are used during the processing of vegetables, it was postulated that the major portion of the soluble carbohydrate of the byproduct wastes would be present in effluent wastewaters from canning plants. Thus, the specific objectives of this project became twofold - to determine the soluble carbohydrate content of cannery wastewaters and to determine how best to harvest their fermentable sugars to produce alcohol feedstock. Our findings suggest that approximately 1.5 million tons of readily fermentable carbohydrate are recoverable annually from US cannery wastewaters by combined ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology to produce 15 to 20% sugar concentrates. The fuel alcohol potential of this feedstock is approximately 220 million gallons per annum. Technical innovations required to insure cost-effective recovery of fermentable sugars include extensive use of 0.2 micron prefiltration devices and combined UF/RO stages to prevent decay of permeate flux by omnipresent membrane foulants. Industrial participation in the recovery of fermentable sugars from process waste streams has been shown to be favored by estimated economics of sugar concentrate production and by savings in downstream waste disposal costs.

  15. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  16. Measurement of sugars and starches in foods by a modification of the AOAC total dietary fiber method.

    PubMed

    Casterline, J L; Oles, C J; Ku, Y

    1999-01-01

    A separation scheme for the determination of sugars and starch in processed food was developed. It is based on AOAC Method 985.29 for total dietary fiber with these modifications: carbohydrate starches are separated into soluble and insoluble fractions before they are hydrolyzed; acetonitrile is used instead of ethanol to separate sugars from enzyme-resistant carbohydrates, proteins, and other macromolecules; and a solid-phase extraction filter is included to remove substances that interfere with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Recovery studies indicate a > 97% sugar recovery. Twenty foods were analyzed. After enzymatic hydrolysis, fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose were extracted and determined by HPLC using a refractive index detector. Starch content was calculated from the increase in the amount of glucose. The results were compared with values listed on the "Nutrition Facts" panel for that food. The analyzed amounts of sugars and starches were 73-96% of declared values. PMID:10367393

  17. [Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid biochemical properties].

    PubMed

    Tsapok, P I; Imbriakov, K V; Chuchkova, M R

    2012-01-01

    Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid protein and carbohydrate content, as well as oxidative balance were studied in 60 medical school students in compare with conventional sugar. Sugar intake proved to cause cariesogenic carbohydrate metabolism disorders in oral fluid, intensification of lipoperoxidation and decrease in antioxidation activity. Sugar substitute products help to prevent dental decay. PMID:22810570

  18. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World sugar production is around 160 Mt yearly with a per capita consumption of about 23 kg. Total utilization is increasing approximately 1.4% annually thanks to the improved standard of living in densely populated countries like China and India. About one-quarter of world production is extracted f...

  19. Iron-binding properties of sugar cane yeast peptides.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, Lucia; Ponezi, Alexandre N; Milani, Raquel F; Nunes da Silva, Vera S; Sonia de Souza, A; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The extract of sugar-cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was enzymatically hydrolysed by Alcalase, Protex or Viscozyme. Hydrolysates were fractionated using a membrane ultrafiltration system and peptides smaller than 5kDa were evaluated for iron chelating ability through measurements of iron solubility, binding capacity and dialyzability. Iron-chelating peptides were isolated using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). They showed higher content of His, Lys, and Arg than the original hydrolysates. In spite of poor iron solubility, hydrolysates of Viscozyme provided higher iron dialyzability than those of other enzymes. This means that more chelates of iron or complexes were formed and these kept the iron stable during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion in vitro, improving its dialyzability. PMID:24001827

  20. Size-fractionated water-soluble ions, situ pH and water content in aerosol on hazy days and the influences on visibility impairment in Jinan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shu-hui; Yang, Ling-xiao; Zhou, Xue-hua; Xue, Li-kun; Gao, Xiao-mei; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Wen-xing

    2011-09-01

    To study the size-fractionated characteristics of aerosol chemical compounds including major water-soluble inorganic and organic ions, situ pH and water content as well as their influences on visibility, field sample collections using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) combined with simulations by Aerosol Inorganic Model (AIM) were conducted on hazy and clear days in Jinan, China from April, 2006 to January, 2007. Average concentrations of TSP, PM 10 and PM 1.8 on hazy days were found to be 1.49-5.13, 1.54-5.48 and 1.30-5.48 times those on clear days during the sampling periods, indicating that particulate pollution was very serious on hazy days. Size distributions of mass, SO 42-, NO 3-, formate and acetate were all bimodal with fine mode predominant on hazy days, demonstrating that fine particles and secondary pollutants were more easily formed on hazy days. The average total aerosol concentration of H + ([H +] total), of which free H + concentration ([H +] ins) inside aerosol accounted for 30%, was 2.36-4.21 times that in other cities in China and US. The [H +] ins on hazy days was 2.43-13.11 times that on clear days and the estimated situ pH was mainly influenced by RH and mole ratios of [NH 4+]/[SO 42-]. Size distributions of situ pH were unimodal peaked at 0.56 ?m on clear days in spring and autumn as well as on hazy days in autumn, while a trend of increasing was shown on hazy days in spring and summer. The normalized water content (NWC) was higher on hazy days in autumn and winter because of the easier uptake of water by aerosol. It was found that when NWC < 2, if [NH 4+]/[SO 42-] < 2.0, aerosol chemical components were more sensitive to water content, while if [NH 4+]/[SO 42-] > 2.0, relative humidity (RH) was more important. Size distributions of water content showed a trend of sharp increasing on hazy days in spring and autumn. Correlation and regression analysis indicated that visibility was significantly influenced by the concentrations of SO 42- and water content in the range of 1.0-1.8 ?m.

  1. Increased Expression of a Phloem Membrane Protein Encoded by NHL26 Alters Phloem Export and Sugar Partitioning in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Vilaine, Françoise; Kerchev, Pavel; Clément, Gilles; Batailler, Brigitte; Cayla, Thibaud; Bill, Laurence; Gissot, Lionel; Dinant, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    The complex process of phloem sugar transport involves symplasmic and apoplasmic events. We characterized Arabidopsis thaliana lines ectopically expressing a phloem-specific gene encoding NDR1/HIN1-like26 (NHL26), a putative membrane protein. NHL26 overexpressor plants grew more slowly than wild-type plants, accumulated high levels of carbohydrates in mature leaves, and had a higher shoot biomass, contrasting with slower root growth and a lower seed yield. Similar effects were observed when NHL26 was overexpressed in companion cells, under the control of a companion cell–specific promoter. The soluble sugar content of the phloem sap and sink organs was lower than that in the wild type, providing evidence of a sugar export defect. This was confirmed in a phloem-export assay with the symplastic tracer carboxyfluorescein diacetate. Leaf sugar accumulation was accompanied by higher organic acid, amino acid, and protein contents, whereas analysis of the metabolite profile of phloem sap exudate revealed no change in amino acid or organic acid content, indicating a specific effect on sugar export. NHL26 was found to be located in the phloem plasmodesmata and the endoplasmic reticulum. These findings reveal that NHL26 accumulation affects either the permeability of plasmodesmata or sugar signaling in companion cells, with a specific effect on sugar export. PMID:23715470

  2. Impacts of drought stress on soluble carbohydrates and respiratory enzymes in fruit body of Auricularia auricula

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huai-liang; Xu, Xiu-hong; Zhao, Xiao-yu; Liu, Hua-jing; Chen, Huan

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the survival mechanisms to drought stress for fruit body of Auricularia auricula, soluble carbohydrates and respiratory enzymes were investigated. Fruit bodies were exposed to sunlight and were naturally dehydrated. Samples were taken at different levels of water loss (0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%) to measure the content of soluble sugars and polysaccharides. The activities of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), combined glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), were also determined. The results showed that with the increase in water loss, soluble sugars and MDH activity declined, whereas the activities of G-6-PDH and 6-PGDH increased. Soluble polysaccharides content and PGI activity decreased with water loss up to 30% and increased afterwards. These results suggested that the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), as demonstrated by activities of G-6-PDH and 6-PGDH, could be one of the mechanisms for survival during drought stress in the fruit body of A. auricula. Moreover, soluble polysaccharides may play a part in protecting the fruit body in further drought stress. PMID:26019613

  3. Nitric Oxide and Heat Shock Protein 90 Activate Soluble Guanylate Cyclase by Driving Rapid Change in Its Subunit Interactions and Heme Content*

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arnab; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    The chaperone heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) associates with signaling proteins in cells including soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). hsp90 associates with the heme-free (apo) sGC-?1 subunit and helps to drive heme insertion during maturation of sGC to its NO-responsive active form. Here, we found that NO caused apo-sGC-?1 to rapidly and transiently dissociate from hsp90 and associate with sGC-?1 in cells. This NO response (i) required that hsp90 be active and that cellular heme be available and be capable of inserting into apo-sGC-?1; (ii) was associated with an increase in sGC-?1 heme content; (iii) could be mimicked by the heme-independent sGC activator BAY 60-2770; and (iv) was followed by desensitization of sGC toward NO, sGC-?1 disassociation, and reassociation with hsp90. Thus, NO promoted a rapid, transient, and hsp90-dependent heme insertion into the apo-sGC-?1 subpopulation in cells, which enabled it to combine with the sGC-?1 subunit to form the mature enzyme. The driving mechanism likely involves conformational changes near the heme site in sGC-?1 that can be mimicked by the pharmacologic sGC activator. Such dynamic interplay between hsp90, apo-sGC-?1, and sGC-?1 in response to NO is unprecedented and represent new steps by which cells can modulate the heme content and activity of sGC for signaling cascades. PMID:24733395

  4. Evaluation of enzyme activity and fiber content of soybean cotyledon fiber and distiller's dried grains with solubles by solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengli; Lio, JunYi; Wang, Tong

    2012-05-01

    To increase the value of coproducts from corn ethanol fermentation and soybean aqueous processing, distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean cotyledon fiber were used as the substrates for solid state fermentation (SSF) to improve feed digestibility. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were chosen as they produce desirable enzymes and are widely used in SSF for feed. The results showed that the cellulase and xylanase activities were significantly increased after 7 days of fermentation, and cellulose and hemicellulose degradation was also greatly increased. When soybean fiber was used as SSF substrate, the maximum activities of the cellulase and xylanase were 10.3 and 84.2 IU/g substrate (dry weight basis) after SSF treatment, respectively. However, the enzyme activities were relatively low in DDGS, and the growth of the three fungi was poor. The fungi grew better when soybean cotyledon fiber was added to DDGS, and cellulase and xylanase activity increased with the increase of soybean fiber content. Porosity was identified as an important factor for SSF because the addition of inert soybean hull alone improved the fungi growth significantly. These data suggest that the nutritional value of DDGS and soybean cotyledon fiber as monogastric animal feed could be greatly enhanced by SSF treatment. PMID:22528656

  5. [Reponses of sugar metabolism in seed germination of three various acid-fast plants to acid rain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hong; Zhou, Qing; Zeng, Qing-Ling

    2008-03-01

    Responses of sugar metabolism during germination of rice (O. sativa ), wheat (T. aestivum) and rape (B. chinensis var. oleifera) seeds to simulated acid rain (pH 2.0, pH 2.5, pH 3.0, pH 3.5, pH 4.0, pH 4.5, pH 5.0) were investigated. The purpose was to clarify the mechanism of acid rain affecting seed germination. The results show that the alpha-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar of the rice, wheat and rape seeds decrease with increased stress level (pH 5.0 - 2.0), and are lower than CK. The response order of three indexes to stress level of acid rain is that rice (pH 3.5 - 4.0/53.88% - 77.7%) is smaller than wheat (pH 3.5 - 4.5/58.60% - 89.41%), and rape (pH 4.0 - 5.0/60.14% - 100%) is the smallest, alpha-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar of rice increase with prolonged stress time, but the three indexes of wheat and rape increase at first, and then decrease. In the same stress time (3 - 7 d), the three indexes of the three species for all treatment groups are lower than CK, and decrease with increased stress level. The stress time when the maximum damage of a-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar appeared is that rice (7 d, 7 d, 7 d) > wheat (7 d, 6 d, 5 d) > rape (3 d, 7 d, 5 d). Responses of three indexes to stress level and stress time of acid rain show that the ability of sugar metabolism resisting acid rain is that rice is stronger than wheat and rape is the worst, and the difference in sugar metabolism of 3 species is one of the internal reasons why the germination indexes behave differently. PMID:18649547

  6. Simultaneous identification and quantification of the sugar, sugar alcohol, and carboxylic acid contents of sour cherry, apple, and ber fruits, as their trimethylsilyl derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fzfai, Zsfia; Katona, Zsolt F; Kovcs, Etelka; Molnr-Perl, Ibolya

    2004-12-15

    Our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method--developed for the simultaneous quantitation of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides, sugar alcohols, caboxylic and amino acids, measured as their trimethylsilyl-(oxime) ether/ester derivatives, from one solution by a single injection, prepared in the presence of the fruit matrix--has been extended/utilized for special purposes. The compositions of (i) freshly harvested and stored sour cherries (Prunus cerasus), (ii) apples obtained from organic and integrated productions (Malus domestica), and (iii) green and ripe bers (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) were compared. On the basis of earlier, basic researches (derivatization, quantitation, and fragmentation studies of authentic compounds), we demonstrate the reproducible quantitation of the main and minor constituents in a wide concentration range (approximately 1 x 10(-)(3) to >/=40%, in total up to < or =98%, calculated on dry matter basis of the fruit matrices). Reproducibility of quantitations, calculated on the basis of their total ion current values, provided an average reproducibility of 3.3 (sour cherries), 6.2 (apple), and 4.3 (ber) RSD %, respectively. PMID:15675786

  7. Integrating alkaline extraction of proteins with enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose from wet distiller's grains and solubles.

    PubMed

    Bals, Bryan; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce

    2009-12-01

    Fractionation of distiller's grains into value added products may serve to improve the economic viability of dry grind corn ethanol facilities in the wake of variable corn and ethanol prices. This research is aimed at creating a high protein, high lysine product from the grain using alkaline protein extractions in conjunction with hydrolysis of the remaining fiber to sugars which are then fermented to ethanol. Alkaline extractions improved the lysine content in protein products, although protein solubility did not exceed 45% of the total protein. In addition, oligomeric carbohydrates, starch, and other water solubles were also extracted, leading to a low purity protein product. Resulting sugar yields following ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment were also lower for extracted distiller's grains. From these experiments, it does not appear likely that alkaline extraction is a useful tool for fractionation of distiller's grains. However, pretreatment and hydrolysis can be an effective tool for further fractionation of protein. PMID:19620002

  8. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    Font i Forcada, Carolina; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Moreno, María Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1) on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol) and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC). Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties. PMID:24496242

  9. Impact of distillers dried grains with solubles particle size on nutrient digestibility, DE and ME content, and flowability in diets for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Souza, L W O; Baidoo, S K; Shurson, G C

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on DE and ME content, diet DM, energy, N, P digestibility, and diet flowability for growing pigs. One DDGS source was processed through an Urshel Commitrol mill or a hammer mill to achieve mean particle sizes of 818, 595, and 308 ?m. The basal control diet consisted of 96.8% corn with supplemental minerals and vitamins. Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 30% of corn from the basal diet with DDGS of different particle sizes. Thirty-six growing pigs (initial BW of 40 1.13 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their BW block and housed in individual metabolic crates for a 9-d adaptation period followed by a 4-d total collection of feces and urine. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to water and fed an amount of their respective experimental diets equivalent to 3% of the initial BW of each pig. Feed, feces, and urine samples were analyzed for DM, GE, N, and P and used to calculate diet apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Gross energy was also used to calculate DE and ME of diets as well as the DE and ME content of corn and DDGS with different particle sizes. Diet drained and poured angles of repose were measured using a modified Hele-Shaw cell method to evaluate the diet flowability. Inclusion of 30% DDGS with an average particle size of 308 ?m improved (P < 0.05) dietary ATTD of DM and GE as well as DE (4,006 vs. 3,783 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3,861 vs. 3,583 kcal/kg DM) compared with 818 ?m DDGS. No differences (P > 0.05) were found in N and P digestibility among the 3 DDGS diets. The DDGS particle size of 595 ?m had greater (P < 0.05) DE but not ME compared with 818 ?m DDGS, and DE and ME were not different between 308 and 595 ?m. Compared with a 595 or 818 ?m DDGS, grinding DDGS to 308 ?m reduced diet flowability as indicated by a greater (P < 0.05) drained angle of repose. These results suggested that for each 25 ?m decrease in DDGS particle size from 818 ?m to 308 ?m, the ME contribution of DDGS to the diet is 13.46 kcal/kg DM, but diet flowability will be reduced. PMID:22851246

  10. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  11. [Simultaneous determination of instant coffee, plant fat and sugar content in liquid coffee beverage by diffuse reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Min, Shun-geng; Duan, Jia; Xiong, Yan-mei; Li, Qian-qian

    2012-04-01

    The diffuse reflectance near-infrared spectra of 20 liquid coffee beverage samples were collected by FT-NIR spectrometer combined with integral sphere in this thesis. The quantitative calibration models of instant coffee, plant fat and sugar were developed respectively. The result indicated that for the calibration models of instant coffee, plant fat and sugar, the dimensions of the calibration models are 4, 5 and 4 respectively; the determination coefficients (R2) are 98.97%, 99.94% and 99.18% respectively; the root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC) are 1.62, 0.42 and 1.58 respectively; the root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) are 2.12, 0.72 and 2.01 respectively. The result of F-test showed that a very remarkable correlation exists between the estimated and specified values for each calibration model. This research indicated that NIR spectroscopy can be applied in the rapid, accurate and simultaneous determination of the three main ingredients in liquid coffee beverage. This research can provide some references for the quality control of liquid coffee beverage and the determination of the substance with chemical-fixation composition in liquid formula food. PMID:22715767

  12. Low blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... into the cells. This leads to symptoms of diabetes. Low blood sugar occurs due to any of the following: Your ... blood sugar. In people who do not have diabetes, low blood sugar may be caused by: Drinking alcohol Insulinoma , which ...

  13. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    MedlinePLUS

    Artificial sweeteners are substances that are used in place of sweeteners with sugar (sucrose) or sugar alcohols . ... foods and drinks without adding extra calories. Using artificial sweeteners in place of sugar can also help ...

  14. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation. Characterization of mutant and wild-type plants has revealed that sugars inhibit breakdown of seed storage lipids. In addition, high concentrations of exogenous sugars largely eliminate the development of mature chloroplasts by developing seedlings. Affymetrix GeneChip experiments have revealed that expression of many plant genes is partially regulated by sugar levels, with approximately two percent of genes exhibiting alterations in steady-state mRNA levels in response to changing sugar concentrations. Ultimately, a better understanding of plant sugar responses may allow improvements in rates of carbon fixation and manipulation of carbon partitioning. These improvements will be needed to help make production of energy from biomass more economically attractive.

  15. pH- and sugar-sensitive multilayer films composed of phenylboronic acid (PBA)-modified poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PBA-PAH) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA): A significant effect of PBA content on the film stability.

    PubMed

    Seno, Masaru; Yoshida, Kentaro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Anzai, Jun-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer thin films composed of phenylboronic acid (PBA)-modified poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), PBA-PAH, with different PBA contents were prepared to study the effect of PBA content on the stability of the films. An alternate deposition of PBA-PAH and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on the surface of a quartz slide afforded multilayer films through forming boronate ester bonds between PBA-PAH and PVA. The 10-layered (PBA-PAH/PVA)10 films constructed using PBA-PAHs containing 16% and 26% PBA residues were stable in aqueous solutions over the range of pH4.0-10.0, whereas the multilayer films composed of PBA-PAHs with 5.9% and 8.3% PBA decomposed at pH8.0 or lower. The pH-sensitive decomposition of the films was rationalized based on the destabilization of the boronate ester bonds in neutral and acidic solutions. In addition, the (PBA-PAH/PVA)10 films decomposed in glucose and fructose solutions as a result of competitive binding of sugars to PBA-PAH in the films. The sugar response of the films depended on the PBA content in PBA-PAH. The (PBA-PAH/PVA)10 films consisting of 16% and 26% PBA-substituted PBA-PAHs are sensitive to physiological relevant level of glucose at pH7.4 while stable in glucose-free solution, suggesting a potential use of the films in constructing glucose-induced delivery systems. PMID:26952449

  16. Interactive effects of phytase and xylanase supplementation with extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn in diets with adequate calcium and nonphytate phosphorus fed to broilers.

    PubMed

    Gehring, C K; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn (PS) and exogenous enzyme supplementation on N, starch, and energy digestibility in broilers fed diets adequate in Ca and nonphytate P. Broilers were randomly distributed into floor pens (6 replicate pens per treatment) with 28 birds per pen at 1 d of age. Treatments consisting of 4 sources of corn varying in PS (A, 58.1; B, 54.2; C, 53.7; and D, 30.6 mg of BSA equivalent values) with or without phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg) and xylanase (0 and 16,000 units of xylanase activity/kg) were randomly assigned to each pen. Different sources of corn were provided from 1 to 9 and 24 to 29 d of age. However, enzyme treatments were provided throughout the experiment. From 1 to 9 d of age, no interactions were observed. Apparent ileal N digestibility (AIND) and apparent ileal digestible energy (IDE) of diets with the lowest PS (based on corn D) were lower (P ? 0.05) than those of diets with a higher PS. Phytase increased (P ? 0.01) AIND and IDE by 5 and 16%, respectively, and xylanase exerted the opposite effect (P ? 0.03). From 24 to 29 d of age, phytase and xylanase in combination resulted in reduced (P ? 0.05) AIND of diets with a low PS (based on corn D) compared with the basal diet in broilers. Broilers fed diets with the highest or lowest PS (based on corn A or D) had lower (3-way interaction; P ? 0.05) IDE when phytase and xylanase were supplemented in combination compared with either enzyme alone. In conclusion, responses to exogenous enzyme supplementation are not constant and are influenced by the source of ingredients as well as the age of broilers. The magnitudes of the responses to phytase on nutrient and energy digestibility were greater at 9 compared with 29 d of age. PMID:23776274

  17. Metabolizable energy content of wheat distillers' dried grains with solubles supplemented with or without a mixture of carbohydrases and protease for broilers and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, A O; Olukosi, O A

    2015-06-01

    In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to determine the AME and AMEn of wheat distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) without or with supplementation of an enzyme mixture containing xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP) in broilers and turkeys. One hundred twenty-six male Ross 308 broilers (Experiment 1) or 126 male BUT 10 turkeys (Experiment 2) were offered a nutrient-adequate diet from d 1 to 14. On d 14, birds in each experiment were allocated to 6 treatments consisting of 3 levels of wheat-DDGS (0, 300, or 600?g/kg) and 2 levels of XAP (0 or 250?mg/kg diet) in a randomized complete block design. The AME or AMEn content of wheat-DDGS was determined from the slope of regression of wheat-DDGS-associated energy intake (kilocalories) against wheat-DDGS intake (kilograms). In Experiment 1, wheat-DDGS inclusion in the diets linearly decreased (P<0.05) DM retention, AME, and AMEn, irrespective of XAP supplementation. The AME of wheat-DDGS without or with XAP for broilers was 3,587 or 3,700?kcal/kg DM, respectively, and AMEn was 3,356 and 3,459?kcal/kg DM for wheat-DDGS without and with XAP, respectively. In Experiment 2, wheat-DDGS inclusion in the diet linearly decreased (P<0.05) DM retention irrespective of XAP supplementation. Diet AME and AMEn linearly decreased (P<0.05) as the level of wheat-DDGS increased in the diets without added XAP, whereas there was no effect of increasing wheat-DDGS level on dietary AME or AMEn in the XAP-supplemented diets. The AME of wheat-DDGS without and with supplemental XAP for turkeys were 3,355 and 3,558?kcal/kg DM, respectively, and AMEn was 3,109 and 3,294?kcal/kg DM, respectively, for wheat-DDGS without and with XAP. Supplemental XAP increased (P>0.05) the AME and AMEn of wheat-DDGS for broilers and turkeys by up to 6%. It was concluded that wheat-DDGS is a valuable source of AME for broilers and turkeys. PMID:25825782

  18. The effects of sugars on moisture sorption isotherm and functional properties of cold water fish gelatin films.

    PubMed

    Hazaveh, Parham; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Abbaspour, Hossein

    2015-08-01

    Sugars were incorporated into CWFG solutions at different ratios (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Functional properties of the modified films were characterized following American standard test methods, and moisture sorption isotherm was characterized by polynomial and GAB models. Permeation to water vapor and oxygen of the modified films decreased compared to that of the control CWFG films. Moisture content, solubility, and monolayer water content of CWFG films decreased with the increase of sugar content. The addition of sugars significantly increased the Tensile strength of CWFG films from 30 to 40 MPa for ribose, and 30 to 35 MPa for fructose whereas elongation at the breaks decreased from 60% to 30% for ribose, and from 60% to 45% for that which incorporated fructose sugars. Moisture sorption isotherm curve significantly shifted to lower moisture content in aw<0.6. In aw>0.6, ribose-incorporated CWFG films, had similar function to hydrogel materials. In all the characterizations, the effects of ribose were significantly higher than those of fructose. Results of this research can be explored for commercial use, depending on the application for either packaging purposes or in the cosmetics industries. PMID:25989148

  19. PECTIN ACETYLESTERASE - ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION FOR SUGAR BEET PECTIN UTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable technologies are being sought to provide new and higher-value coproducts from sugar beet pulp. Pectin is a complex plant cell wall polysaccharide that represents a major fraction of sugar beet pulp. One distinguishing feature of sugar beet pectin is a high content of C2 and C3 ace...

  20. PECTIN ACETYLESTERASE - ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION FOR SUGAR BEET PECTIN UTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable technologies are being sought to provide new and higher-value coproducts from sugar beet pulp. Pectin is a complex plant cell wall polysaccharide that represents a major fraction of sugar beet pulp. One distinguishing feature of sugar beet pectin is a high content of C2 and C3 acetyl e...

  1. Heat protection by sugars and sugar analogues.

    PubMed

    Henle, K J; Monson, T P; Nagle, W A; Moss, A J

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the relative ability of 16 sugars and sugar analogues to reduce cell killing by hyperthermia of 40 min, 45 degrees C. In general, sugars were added to the culture medium 6 h prior to heating at a concentration of 100 mM (400 mosmol). The results show that D-hexoses, L-hexoses, methylated or thiolated sugars and disaccharides significantly protected cells against thermal damage, increasing survival by factors of 10 to 100. The degree of protection varied for specific sugars and could not be predicted on the basis of sugar conformation or the number of hydroxyl groups. Relative heat protection was partially dependent on the survival assay technique (pre- and post-plating); consistently lower cell survival was measured when cells were subcultured after hyperthermia, both in medium-control and sugar-protected cells. However, the time dependence of heat protection appeared independent of pre- and post-plating. Cell survival after heating was not increased by two sugars: (a) D-idose, and (b) 2-deoxy-D-galactose. The latter sugar, curiously, was also a heat protector but only when cells were trypsinized after hyperthermia. Both of these sugars were relatively more toxic at 37 degrees C under identical treatment conditions. The lack of protection by these two sugars is not understood. Another reported non-sugar heat protector, sodium butyrate, was included as an additional control. Heat protection by butyrate was not observed in CHO cells. The accumulation of intracellular free sugar was measured by gas chromatography after incubating cells for 6 h, 37 degrees C with talose, idose, L-galactose or 1-O-methyl-D-glucose. All of these sugars were found in high concentrations inside of cells. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that polyhydroxy compounds must accumulate intracellularly for cellular heat protection. PMID:3836279

  2. Comparison of two diet types in the determination of metabolizable energy content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles for broiler chickens by the regression method.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Ileleji, K E

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare 2 diet types, practical and semi-purified, in the determination of ME and ME(n) contents of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (CDDGS) for broiler chickens by the regression method. Two hundred eighty-eight 14-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to 6 diets consisting of 2 factors in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement: diet type (practical corn-soybean meal or semi-purified nitrogen-free diet) and CDDGS (0, 300, or 600 g/kg). The birds were fed for 7 d, and there were 6 birds per cage and 8 replicate cages per diet in a randomized complete block design. The CDDGS sample used in the present experiment contained (by analysis) 895 g/kg of DM, 4.811 kcal/g of gross energy, 265.7 g/ kg of CP, 107.6 g/kg of crude fat, 61.3 g/kg of crude fiber, and 41.8 g/kg of ash. There was the expected interaction (P < 0.001) between diet type and CDDGS level in nitrogen retention response of the birds with a decrease as CDDGS level in the practical diet increased but an increase in the semi-purified diet. There were interactions (P < 0.001) between diet type and CD-DGS level in energy retention response, ME, and ME(n). Energy retention linearly decreased (P < 0.0001) from 78.6 to 58.6% as CDDGS increased from 0 to 600 g/kg in the practical diets, whereas the decrease was from 86.8 to 75.4% in the semi-purified diet. The ME and ME(n) (kcal/g) contents of the diets linearly decreased (P < 0.0001) from 3.615 and 3.414 to 2.753 and 2.642, respectively, as CDDGS increased from 0 to 600 g/kg in the practical diets. Corresponding linear decrease (P < 0.0001) values for semi-purified diets were 3.210 and 3.227 to 2.732 and 2.697, respectively. Regression of CDDGS-associated ME intake in kilocalories against grams of CDDGS intake generated the following equations for practical and semi-purified diets respectively: Y = 2.904X + 52, r(2) = 0.987 and Y = 3.013X + 67, r(2) = 0.983. The regression equations for CDDGS-associated ME(n) intake in kilocalories against grams of CD-DGS intake were Y = 2.787X + 46, r(2) = 0.989 and Y = 2.963X + 66, r(2) = 0.983 for practical and semi-purified diets, respectively. Comparison using ANOVA procedures indicated the slope for semi-purified diet type was greater (P < 0.05) than that for the practical diet type. These data indicate that the respective ME and ME(n) values (kcal/g) of the CDDGS sample evaluated were 3.013 and 2.963 when semi-purified nitrogen-free diet was used as the basal diet; and 2.904 and 2.787 when practical corn-soybean meal diet was used as the basal diet. These differences imply that broiler chicken nutritionists should exercise due caution regarding the source of data for ME values of CDDGS when formulating diets containing CDDGS. PMID:19211528

  3. Quality characteristics of no added sugar ready to drink milk supplemented with mango pulp.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Usha; Mittal, Shikha

    2015-04-01

    Removal of sugar as a sweetener and its replacement by a high potency sweetener introduces a number of sensory and technical challenges particularly diminution in mouthfeel. Thick consistency of pulpy fruits could be exploited to compensate for the loss of viscosity and mouthfeel in sugar substituted beverages. The investigation was undertaken to study the effect of mango pulp supplementation on the quality of flavoured low calorie milk drinks using sucralose as sugar substitute. The effect of 0.0 to 100 % sugar replacement on total solids (TS), total soluble solids (TSS), specific gravity, viscosity and sensory scores was studied. Sugar replacement considerably decreased TS, TSS, viscosity and sensory scores. The mango flavoured milk drinks(MFDs) prepared by replacing sugar with sucralose and adding 10 % mango pulp in milk of 0.5 % fat and 8.5 % milk solid-not-fat. MFD were pasteurized and stored at refrigeration temperature for shelf life studies. A significant (p < 0.01) loss in the viscosity, ascorbic acid and reducing sugar content of pasteurized MFD was noticed during the storage period of 10 days at 5.0 ± 0.1 °C. However, the titratable acidity increased to undesirable levels in MFD after 8 days which rendered it unacceptable. Standard plate count and yeast and mold count of MFDs increased during storage. The shelf life of the pasteurized MFD was found to be 8 days at 5.0 ± 0.1 °C. PMID:25829591

  4. Patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions in sucrose metabolism in relation to sugar accumulation and composition in the aril of Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhuanying; Wang, Tengduan; Wang, Huicong; Huang, Xuming; Qin, Yonghua; Hu, Guibing

    2013-05-15

    Sucrose metabolism enzymes, including invertase (EC 3.2.1.26), sucrose synthase (SS, EC 2.4.1.13), and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14), are key factors that determine fruit sugar accumulation and composition. Sugar concentration and sugar composition in the arils of 42 litchi cultivars were determined at maturity. The cultivars were grouped into three types according to their hexose/sucrose ratio. Five cultivars of each type were selected to monitor the activities and gene expressions of enzymes related to sucrose metabolism. Pattern changes in the arils of four cultivars with different sugar concentrations and compositions were traced from around 40 d after anthesis to full maturity. Highly significant positive correlations were observed between hexose/sucrose ratios and the activities and expression levels of soluble acid invertase (SAI) and SS among the 15 cultivars tested. The increase in hexose/sucrose ratio was accompanied by enhanced acid invertase (AI) and SS activities and the expression of their genes in Feizixiao (FZX) and Heiye (HY). By contrast, no significant correlation was observed between hexose/sucrose ratio and SPS. These results indicate that the sugar composition in litchi aril depends mainly on the sucrose cleavage enzymes AI and SS and not on the sucrose synthetic enzyme SPS. The cultivar Nuomici, which had the highest sugar content among the cultivars studied, displayed significantly lower activities of cell wall acid invertase, SAI, neutral invertase, and SS and lower expression levels of SAI and SS compared with HY, the cultivar with the lowest sugar content. The inconsistent patterns of sugar accumulation and activities and expressions of sucrose metabolism enzymes suggest that these sucrose metabolism enzymes are not necessarily related to sugar accumulation. PMID:23499454

  5. High sulfur content in corn dried distillers grains with solubles protects against oxidized lipids by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some sources of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during the production process. These oxidized lipids may negatively affect growth performance and metabolic oxidation status of pigs. The objective of ...

  6. Evaluation of prediction equations to estimate gross, digestible, and metabolizable energy content of maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for swine based on chemical composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to cross-validate prediction equations to estimate the concentration of gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), and metabolizable energy (ME) among sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with variable chemical composition in growing pigs. Publ...

  7. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...

  8. Extraction and analysis of soluble carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Maness, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Soluble sugars are a universal component of most living organisms and a fundamental building block in biosynthetic processes. It is no wonder that both qualitative and quantitative changes in carbohydrates often accompany plant's responses to stress. Depending on the speed of onset of stress, plant tissues can exhibit rapid and very site-specific shifts in their soluble carbohydrate pool - rapid and precise tissue collection and stabilization are necessary if analytical results are to truly represent the sugar composition at the instant of harvest. Since soluble carbohydrates are, by definition, soluble in the cell's aqueous environment, they may be analyzed directly from liquids obtained from plants or they may require extraction from the plant matrix. During extraction and prior to analysis, steps should be taken to avoid change in form or quantity of sugars by endogenous active enzyme conversion or by contaminating microbial growth. Many procedures for soluble sugar analysis exist; the choice of the most appropriate analytical protocol is ultimately dictated by the depth of information required to substantiate findings for a particular purpose. PMID:20387058

  9. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-01-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was a general assumption that sweeteners and other ingredients would be added in place of sugars. However, there was little awareness of the level of sugar reduction and the associated calorie reduction in products when reduced sugars claims were made on pack. In focus groups, participants felt deceived if sugar reduction claims were being made without a significant reduction in calories. This was reinforced in the quantitative research which showed that respondents expected a similar and meaningful level of calorie reduction to the level of sugar reduction. The research also identified consumer confusion around the calorie content of different nutrients, including over-estimation of the calorie content of sugars. This is crucial to consumers' expectations as they clearly link sugar to calories and therefore expect a reduction in sugar content to deliver a reduction in calorie content. PMID:22973161

  10. The Truth about Sugar.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C Albert; Goodfellow, Ashley; Flanagan, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Sugars are used by the industry to enhance the attractiveness of foods and drinks. These added sugars, or 'free sugars', are not easily identified in food or drink labels. Certain manufactured foods and drinks with 'safe' names, such as dried fruit and fruit juice, still contain free sugars and can be confusing. Guidance states that daily consumption of free sugars should be less than 10% of total energy intake (no more than 5% in the UK). However, it is found that both tooth decay and obesity are associated with consumption of free sugars in large quantities and at inappropriate times. PMID:26506805

  11. Battle of the starches: Insoluble versus soluble at the refinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study using the USDA starch research method has been conducted to evaluate the effects of total, insoluble, and soluble starch on raw sugar filterability and viscosity in international carbonatation refineries. Raw sugar qualities, i.e., pol, color, % invert, ash, and dextran, were also studied in...

  12. A comparative study on Ca content and distribution in two Gesneriaceae species reveals distinctive mechanisms to cope with high rhizospheric soluble calcium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlong; Xu, Falun; Chen, Shixuan; Zhang, Zhennan; Zhao, Yan; Jin, Yukuan; Li, Meijing; Zhu, Yan; Liu, Yongxiu; Yang, Yi; Deng, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Excessive Ca is toxic to plants thus significantly affects plant growth and species distribution in Ca-rich karst areas. To understand how plants survive high Ca soil, laboratory experiments were established to compare the physiological responses and internal Ca distribution in organ, tissue, cell, and intracellular levels under different Ca levels for Lysionotus pauciflorus and Boea hygrometrica, two karst habitant Gesneriaceae species in Southwest China. In the controlled condition, L. pauciflorus could survive as high as 200 mM rhizospheric soluble Ca, attributed to a series of physiological responses and preferential storage that limited Ca accumulation in chloroplasts of palisade cells. In contrast, B. hygrometrica could survive only 20 mM rhizospheric soluble Ca, but accumulated a high level of internal Ca in both palisade and spongy cells without disturbance on photosynthetic activity. By phenotype screening of transgenic plants expressing high Ca-inducible genes from B. hygrometrica, the expression of BhDNAJC2 in A. thaliana was found to enhance plant growth and photosynthesis under high soluble Ca stress. BhDNAJC2 encodes a recently reported heat shock protein (HSP) 40 family DnaJ-domain protein. The Ca-resistant phenotype of BhDNAJC2 highlights the important role of chaperone-mediated protein quality control in Ca tolerance in B. hygrometrica. Taken together, our results revealed that distinctive mechanisms were employed in the two Gesneriaceae karst habitants to cope with a high Ca environment. PMID:25477893

  13. Biomass deconstruction to sugars.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Harvey W; Simmons, Blake A; Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass relies on the depolymerization of its polysaccharide content into fermentable sugars. Accomplishing this requires pretreatment of the biomass to reduce its size, and chemical or physical alteration of the biomass polymers to enhance the susceptibility of their glycosidic linkages to enzymatic or acid catalyzed cleavage. Well-studied approaches include dilute and concentrated acid pretreatment and catalysis, and the dissolution of biomass in organic solvents. These and recently developed approaches, such as solubilization in ionic liquids, are reviewed in terms of the chemical and physical changes occurring in biomass pretreatment. As pretreatment represents one of the major costs in converting biomass to fuels, the factors that contribute to pretreatments costs, and their impact on overall process economics, are described. PMID:21834132

  14. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  15. The role of sugar beet pulp polysaccharides in the sustainability of the sugar beet industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet pulp was sequentially extracted with a microwave heating source under pressure to produce pectin, alkaline soluble polysaccharides and cellulose, which was converted into carboxymethyl-cellulose. The solution physical-chemical properties of these polysaccharides were compared to those obt...

  16. Home blood sugar testing

    MedlinePLUS

    Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. Some people need to check it ...

  17. Anomeric Anhydro Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, Nathan W.; Williams, Spencer J.

    Anomeric anhydro sugars are sugar derivatives where the anomeric carbon participates in an acetal linkage with two of the hydroxyl groups of the sugar. They are essentially intramolecular glycosides, and their bicyclic nature provides a powerful conformational constraint that greatly influences their reactivity. This chapter reviews the occurrence, properties, formation, and reactions of anomeric anhydro sugars. Particular emphasis is placed on 1,2- and 1,6-anhydropyranoses, including conformational aspects and ring-opening reactions. Epoxide-containing 1,6-anhydro sugars (Černý epoxides) are briefly reviewed, and the formation and some reactions of the 1,6-anhydro sugar enone, levoglucosenone, is covered. An overview is given of the use of 1,2-anhydro sugar as glycosyl donors. Also discussed are the formation and reactions of anomeric anhydro sugars containing nitrogen, sulfur, or selenium.

  18. Hyperactivity and sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts disagree ... eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), and artificial flavors and colors lead to hyperactivity and other ...

  19. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45% showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications. PMID:26787952

  20. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Carbohydrates, Sugar, ... a 1-ounce equivalent. previous continue Sizing Up Sugar Foods that are high in added sugar (soda, ...

  1. Influence of the presence of natural monosaccharides in the quantification of ?-dicarbonyl compounds in high content sugar samples. A comparative study by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometry using different derivatization reactions.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Snchez, Mara Del Carmen; Espinosa-Mansilla, Anunciacin; Durn-Mers, Isabel

    2015-11-27

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the formation of side ?-dicarbonyl compounds in high content sugar samples. These compounds may be originated from fructose and glucose, during different derivatization reactions. The formation of D-glucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal, using three derivatization agents (5,6-diamino-2,4-hydroxypyrimidine, 2,4,5-triamine-6-hydroxypyrimidine, and o-phenylenediamine), and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography in combination with MS detection, has been assessed in the presence of different levels of monosaccharides. 2,4,5-triamine-6-hydroxy-pyrimidine appears to be the most suitable for the analysis of ?-dicarbonyl compounds, in this kind of food samples, and was selected as optimum reagent for the quantification of these compounds. The validation of the method was performed through the establishment of external standard calibration curves and analytical figures of merit, and it showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r(2)>0.99), and limits of detection and quantification lower than 42?gL(-1) and 142?gL(-1), respectively. The validated method has been successfully applied to the determination of the target compounds in honey samples. The intraday and interday assay variability in the analysis of real samples was below 2.3 and 5.7%, respectively, for all analytes. PMID:26489730

  2. Sugars, hypertriglyceridemia, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Fried, Susan K; Rao, Salome P

    2003-10-01

    Short-term studies consistently show that raising the carbohydrate content of the diet increases serum triacylglycerol concentrations. As compared with starches, sugars (particularly sucrose and fructose) tend to increase serum triacylglycerol concentrations by approximately 60%. The magnitude of the effect depends on other aspects of the diet, including the total amount of carbohydrate and the types of fat, carbohydrate, and fiber, but definitive studies to describe the dose-response relations are not available. Longer-term studies show that some high-carbohydrate diets are not associated with increased fasting serum triacylgycerol concentrations. However, sedentary subjects with upper-body and visceral obesity who have the metabolic syndrome tend to be at higher risk for hypertriglyceridemia in response to high-sucrose and high-carbohydrate diets; moderate weight loss mitigates the effect. Hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance may play a role in promoting higher rates of VLDL synthesis and hypertriglyceridemia in obesity, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The effect of fructose in promoting triacylglycerol synthesis is independent of insulinemia, however. In terms of the long-term effects of diets high in sugars on the risk of cardiovascular disease, available epidemiologic evidence indicates no association of sugars or total carbohydrate intake per se, but high dietary glycemic load is associated with higher serum triacylglycerol concentrations and greater risk of coronary heart disease in women. Studies are needed to delineate the independent effects of dietary sugars and glycemic load on serum triacylglycerol concentrations in lean and obese men and women and to determine whether the elevations in fasting and fed concentrations of serum triacylglycerol with high-carbohydrate and high-sugars diets are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:14522752

  3. Effect of UV-B light on soluble phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of selected fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of wounding followed by ultraviolet (UV-B) light exposure to enhance the nutrient content of specialty crops by stimulating the synthesis of secondary metabolites was evaluated. In this continuing screening study of several fresh-cut produce, both top and bottom surfaces were expose...

  4. Hamsters and guinea pigs differ in their plasma lipoprotein cholesterol distribution when fed diets varying in animal protein, soluble fiber, or cholesterol content.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M L; Wilson, T A; Conde, K; Vergara-Jimenez, M; Nicolosi, R J

    1999-07-01

    There were two objectives to these studies: 1) to compare the lipoprotein cholesterol distribution in two animal models in response to different dietary treatments and 2) to assess whether the hypercholesterolemia induced by high cholesterol intake could be reversed by consumption of vegetable-protein and/or dietary fiber. Guinea pigs, which carry the majority of plasma cholesterol in LDL, and hamsters, with a higher distribution of cholesterol in HDL, were evaluated in three different studies. In Study 1, animals were fed semi-purified diets for 4 wk with proportions of 60:40, 20:80 or 0:100 (w/w) of casein/ soybean protein. Hamsters and guinea pigs that consumed 100% soybean protein had lower plasma total cholesterol (TC) than those fed diets containing casein (P < 0.01). In Study 2, three doses of dietary pectin (2.7, 5.4, or 10.7 g/100g) added in place of cellulose were tested. Intake of 10.7 g/100 g pectin resulted in the lowest plasma TC concentrations for both species (P < 0.01). Although the TC lowering was similar in studies 1 and 2, the lipoprotein cholesterol distribution differed. Whereas the differences in plasma cholesterol were in LDL in guinea pigs, hamsters exhibited differences in both non-HDL and HDL cholesterol. In study 3, animals were fed 100% soybean protein, 10.7 g/100 g pectin, and three doses of dietary cholesterol: 0.04, 0.08, or 0.16 g/100 g, which is equivalent to 300, 600, or 1,200 mg/d in humans. Guinea pigs and hamsters had the highest plasma LDL and hepatic cholesterol concentrations when they consumed 0.16 g/100 g of cholesterol (P < 0.01). However, intake of 0.08 g/100 g of cholesterol resulted in lower plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations than did consuming high animal protein (60:40 casein/ soy) or low soluble fiber (2.7 g/100 g). Relatively high levels of dietary cholesterol combined with vegetable protein and soluble fiber resulted in desirable lipoprotein profiles in animal models that significantly differ in their lipoprotein cholesterol distribution. PMID:10395594

  5. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ruminal or fecal contents incubated with corn or wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Yang, H E; Yang, W Z; McKinnon, J J; Alexander, T W; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A

    2010-11-01

    Dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS) is a by-product of ethanol production, and its use as cattle feed has increased as a result of the expansion of the fuel ethanol industry. However, the inclusion of corn DDGS into feedlot diets may increase the shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This study investigated whether corn or wheat DDGS at 2 concentrations (20% or 40% vs. 100% barley grain) affected the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in incubations of ruminal digesta and feces. Neither the type nor the level of DDGS had any effect on fermentation or the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in ruminal digesta. However, there was a time by DDGS interaction (p < 0.05), where the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in feces did not differ after 4 or 12 h of incubation but were greater after 24 h in both 40% wheat and 40% corn DDGS as compared with other treatments. Additionally, after 24 h, the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were greater in fecal incubations with corn DDGS than with wheat DDGS (p < 0.05). The differences in the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were not attributable to changes in pH or in concentrations of volatile fatty acids in the media. These results suggest that the inclusion of high levels of corn or wheat DDGS in feedlot diets of cattle may encourage the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in feces. PMID:21076479

  6. Exogenous sucrose supply changes sugar metabolism and reduces photosynthesis of sugarcane through the down-regulation of Rubisco abundance and activity.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Ana Karla Moreira; de Oliveira Martins, Marcio; Lima Neto, Milton Costa; Machado, Eduardo Caruso; Ribeiro, Rafael Vasconcelos; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes

    2015-05-01

    Photosynthetic modulation by sugars has been known for many years, but the biochemical and molecular comprehension of this process is lacking. We studied how the exogenous sucrose supplied to leaves could affect sugar metabolism in leaf, sheath and stalk and inhibit photosynthesis in four-month old sugarcane plants. Exogenous sucrose 50mM sprayed on attached leaves strongly impaired the net CO2 assimilation (PN) and decreased the instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (PN/Ci), suggesting that the impairment in photosynthesis was caused by biochemical restrictions. The photosystem II activity was also affected by excess sucrose as indicated by the reduction in the apparent electron transport rate, effective quantum yield and increase in non-photochemical quenching. In leaf segments, sucrose accumulation was related to increases in the activities of soluble acid and neutral invertases, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase, whereas the contents of fructose increased and glucose slightly decreased. Changes in the activities of sucrose hydrolyzing and synthesizing enzymes in leaf, sheath and stalk and sugar profile in intact plants were not enough to identify which sugar(s) or enzyme(s) were directly involved in photosynthesis modulation. However, exogenous sucrose was able to trigger down-regulation in the Rubisco abundance, activation state and enzymatic activity. Despite the fact that PN/Ci had been notably decreased by sucrose, in vitro activity and abundance of PEPCase did not change, suggesting an in vivo modulation of this enzyme. The data reveal that sucrose and/or other derivative sugars in leaves inhibited sugarcane photosynthesis by down-regulation of Rubisco synthesis and activity. Our data also suggest that sugar modulation was not exerted by a feedback mechanism induced by the accumulation of sugars in immature sugarcane stalk. PMID:25863283

  7. CPPU elevates photosynthetic abilities, growth performances and yield traits in salt stressed rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica) via free proline and sugar accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gashaw, Arega; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2014-01-01

    Application of N-2-(chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenyl urea (CPPU) to salt susceptible cultivar of indica rice (cv. PTT1) effected on free proline and soluble sugar accumulation and regulated the physio-morphological responses when subjected to salt stress condition was firstly demonstrated in this study. Soluble sugars, including sucrose, glucose and fructose, in leaf blade and leaf sheath were enriched in 0.1 mM CPPU pretreated plants subsequently exposed to 16.6 dS m(-1) NaCl for 10 days. In the long period (15 days) salt stress, free proline content in the leaf blade and leaf sheath were evidently peaked to act as osmotic adjustment in the salt-stressed plants. In addition, the photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids, were maintained by the functional regulation of soluble sugar and free proline in the cellular levels, thereby leading to higher net photosynthetic rate. Further, the stomatal closure and transpiration rate in CPPU pretreated plants were retained under salt stress, thereby resulting in alleviation of growth performance and yield traits. This study suggested that exogenous application of CPPU may alternatively play effective role to improve the salt tolerant abilities of salt susceptible rice crop. PMID:24485312

  8. Effects of cold acclimation on sugar metabolism and sugar-related gene expression in tea plant during the winter season.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chuan; Cao, Hong-Li; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Yan-Hua; Huang, Yu-Ting; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wang, Bo; Yang, Ya-Jun; Wang, Xin-Chao

    2015-08-01

    Sugar plays an essential role in plant cold acclimation (CA), but the interaction between CA and sugar remains unclear in tea plants. In this study, during the whole winter season, we investigated the variations of sugar contents and the expression of a large number of sugar-related genes in tea leaves. Results indicated that cold tolerance of tea plant was improved with the development of CA during early winter season. At this stage, starch was dramatically degraded, whereas the content of total sugars and several specific sugars including sucrose, glucose and fructose were constantly elevated. Beyond the CA stage, the content of starch was maintained at a low level during winter hardiness (WH) period and then was elevated during de-acclimation (DC) period. Conversely, the content of sugar reached a peak at WH stage followed by a decrease during DC stage. Moreover, gene expression results showed that, during CA period, sugar metabolism-related genes exhibited different expression pattern, in which beta-amylase gene (CsBAM), invertase gene (CsINV5) and raffinose synthase gene (CsRS2) engaged in starch, sucrose and raffinose metabolism respectively were solidly up-regulated; the expressions of sugar transporters were stimulated in general except the down-regulations of CsSWEET2, 3, 16, CsERD6.7 and CsINT2; interestingly, the sugar-signaling related CsHXK3 and CsHXK2 had opposite expression patterns at the early stage of CA. These provided comprehensive insight into the effects of CA on carbohydrates indicating that sugar accumulation contributes to tea plant cold tolerance during winter season, and a simply model of sugar regulation in response to cold stimuli is proposed. PMID:26216393

  9. "JCE" Classroom Activity #105. A Sticky Situation: Chewing Gum and Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes-Gonzalez, Ingrid; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.; Perez-Medina, Ilia E.; Montes-Berrios, Veronica; Roman-Lopez, Saurie N.

    2010-01-01

    In this Activity, students perform several solubility tests using common food items such as chocolate, chewing gum, water, sugar, and oil. From their observations during the Activity, students will initially classify the substances tested as soluble or insoluble. They will then use their understanding of the chemistry of solubility to classify the

  10. "JCE" Classroom Activity #105. A Sticky Situation: Chewing Gum and Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes-Gonzalez, Ingrid; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.; Perez-Medina, Ilia E.; Montes-Berrios, Veronica; Roman-Lopez, Saurie N.

    2010-01-01

    In this Activity, students perform several solubility tests using common food items such as chocolate, chewing gum, water, sugar, and oil. From their observations during the Activity, students will initially classify the substances tested as soluble or insoluble. They will then use their understanding of the chemistry of solubility to classify the…

  11. Transcript profiling of fructan biosynthetic pathway genes reveals association of a specific fructosyltransferase isoform with the high sugar trait in Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Parsons, Anthony J; Xue, Hong; Liu, Qianhe; Jones, Christopher S; Ryan, Geraldine D; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-04-15

    Lolium perenne cultivars with elevated levels of fructans in leaf blades (high sugar-content grasses) have been developed to improve animal nutrition and reduce adverse environmental impacts of pastoral agricultural systems. Expression of the high sugar trait can vary substantially depending on genotypeenvironment (GE) interactions. We grew three potential high sugar-content and a control cultivar in three temperature regimes and quantified water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) and the expression of all functionally characterised L. perenne fructan pathway genes in leaf tissues. We also analysed the distribution, expression and sequence variation of two specific isoforms of Lp6G-FFT (fructan: fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase). Our study confirmed a significant GE interaction affecting the accumulation of fructans in the high sugar-content cultivar AberDart, which accumulated higher levels of high DP (degree of polymerisation) fructans in blades compared to the control cultivar only when grown at 20C (day)/10C (night) temperatures. The cultivar Expo on the other hand accumulated significantly higher levels of high DP fructans in blades independent of temperature. Fructan levels in pseudostems were higher than in blades, and they increased markedly with decreasing temperature, but there was no consistent effect of cultivar in this tissue. The expression of the high sugar trait was generally positively correlated with transcript levels of fructosyltransferases. Presence and expression of only one of the two known 6G-FFT isoforms was positively correlated with high fructan biosynthesis, while the second isoform was associated with low fructan concentrations and positively correlated with fructan exohydrolase gene expression. The presence of distinct 6G-FFT sequence variants appears to be associated with the capacity of high sugar-content grasses to accumulate higher fructan levels particularly at warmer temperatures. These findings might be exploited for the selection and breeding of 'warm-effective' high sugar-content grasses to overcome some of the limitations of current high sugar-content ryegrass cultivars. PMID:24655383

  12. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,

  13. Changes in Juice Sugar Components during Sugarcane Ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is usually harvested from late October through early April in Florida. Although juice sucrose content and extractable sugar composition are directly associated with sucrose yield and quality, little is known about changes in juice sugar components (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) during ri...

  14. Relationship Between Subsoil Nitrogen Availability and Sugar Beet Processing Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to verify the possibility that undetected amounts of available nitrogen in the deep soil could explain the often observed lowering of sugar content and processing quality during the harvest of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris). In 29 field trials carried out on al...

  15. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates? All carbohydrates are made up of units of sugar ("saccharide"). Carbohydrates containing only one unit of sugar (called "monosaccharides") ...

  17. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanth Kumar, A.; Gowri, N. M.; Venkateswara Raju, R.; Nirmala, G.; Bellubbi, B. S.; Radha Krishna, T.

    2006-08-01

    Over the last two decades, the fiber optic technology has passed through many analytical stages. Some commercially available fiber optic sensors, though in a small way, are being used for automation in mechanical and industrial environments. They are also used for instrumentation and controls. In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is presented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry. In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used. A portion of the cladding (1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm) at the mid-point along the length of the fiber is removed. This portion is immersed in sugar solution of known concentration and refractive index. At one end of the fiber an 850 nm source is used and at the other end a power meter is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. These studies are made due to the change in refractive index of the fluid. The device was found to be very sensitive which is free from EMI and shock hazards, stable and repeatable and they can be remotely interfaced with a computer to give on-line measurements and thus become useful for application in sugar industries.

  18. Another player joins the complex field of sugar-regulated gene expression in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Susan I.; Graham, Ian A.

    1999-04-01

    This article summarizes recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which soluble sugar levels affect plant development and gene expression. The article focuses on the role played by a newly identified protein, the PRL1 protein. The PRL1 protein has been found to interact with the SNF1 protein. Previously, SNF1 was shown to function in sugar-regulated gene expression in yeast. Mutations in the gene encoding PRL1 confer increased sensitivity to sugar and to several phytohormones.

  19. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  20. Sugar substitutes during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Answer Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25392440

  1. Purification and characterization of a soluble β-1,4-glucan from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)-cultured cells dehabituated to dichlobenil.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Simón, Ana; Encina, Antonio E; Seyama, Tomoko; Kondo, Tetsuo; García-Angulo, Penélope; Álvarez, Jesús M; Acebes, Jose L; Hayashi, Takahisa

    2013-06-01

    Bean cells habituated to grow in the presence of dichlobenil exhibited reduced cellulose and hemicellulose content and an increase in pectic polysaccharides. Furthermore, following the extraction of pectins and hemicelluloses, a large amount of neutral sugars was released. These sugars were found to be part of a soluble β-1,4-glucan in a preliminary characterization, as reported by Encina et al. (Physiol Plant 114:182-191, 2002). When habituated cells were subcultured in the absence of the herbicide (dehabituated cells), the release of neutral sugars after the extraction of pectins and hemicelluloses was maintained. In this study, we have isolated a soluble β-1,4-glucan from dehabituated cells by sonication of the wall residue (cellulose fraction) remaining after fractionation. Gel filtration chromatography revealed that its average molecular size was 14 kDa. Digestion of the sample with endocellulase revealed the presence of cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose. Methylation analysis showed that 4-linked glucose was the most abundant sugar residue, but 4,6-linked glucose, terminal arabinose and 4-linked galactose for xyloglucan, and arabinogalactan were also identified. NMR analysis showed that this 1,4-glucan may be composed of various kinds of substitutions along the glucan backbone together with acetyl groups linked to the OH group of sugar residues. Thus, despite its relatively high molecular mass, the β-glucan remains soluble because of its unique configuration. This is the first time that a glucan with such characteristics has been isolated and described. The discovery of new molecules, as this β-glucan with unique features, may help understand the composition and arrangement of the polymers within plant cell walls, contributing to a better understanding of this complex structure. PMID:23455460

  2. 4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  3. Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the rare lyxonic acid, and their relative abundances are in equilibrium proportions. In addition (in contrast to the above D-only excesses), some of the above acids are found in biology as the L enantiomer. Whether rare are common, all of the 6C sugar acids that are present in sufficient amounts to allow enantiomer analysis (Mannonic, gluconic, altronic, talonic, idonic, gulonic, and galactonic) also, apparently, possess significant D excesses.

  4. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePLUS

    ... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  5. Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sugar substitute. It is a combination of 2 amino acids: aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 200 ... to metabolize phenylalanine, which is one of the amino acids in aspartame. If you are concerned that consuming ...

  6. Verticillium dahliae Causes Wilt on Sugar Beet Following Potato in Eastern North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wilt is a serious disease on sugar beet that decreases content and purity of sugar, but does not significantly decrease root yield. The disease is typically reported as caused by the microorganism Verticillium albo-atrum. The disease has not been previously reported on sugar beet in the Red River ...

  7. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On August 1, 2011, the Secretary of Agriculture... FY 2012 refined sugar TRQ at 112,718 MTRV for which the sucrose content, by weight in the dry...

  8. 5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  9. Pretreatment of microalgal biomass for enhanced recovery/extraction of reducing sugars and proteins.

    PubMed

    Eldalatony, Marwa M; Kabra, Akhil N; Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Hoo; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae species including Chlamydomonas mexicana, Micractinium reisseri, Scenedesmus obliquus and Tribonema aequale were cultivated in batch cultures, and their biochemical composition was determined. C. mexicana showed the highest carbohydrate content of 52.6% and was selected for further study. Sonication pretreatment under optimum conditions (at 40kHz, 2.2Kw, 50C for 15min) released 742.7mgg(-1) of total reducing sugars (TRS) of dry cell weight, while the combined sonication and enzymatic hydrolysis treatment enhanced the TRS yield by fourfold (280.54.9mgg(-1)). The optimal ratio of enzyme [E]:substrate [S] for maximum TRS yield was [1]:[5] at 50C and pH 5. Combined sonication and hydrolysis treatment released 7.3% (27.10.9mgg(-1)) soluble protein of dry cell weight, and further fermentation of the dissolved carbohydrate fraction enhanced the soluble protein content up to 56% (228.4mgg(-1)) of total protein content. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic analyses indicated that microalgae cells were significantly disrupted by the combined sonication and enzyme hydrolysis treatment. This study indicates that pretreatment and subsequent fermentation of the microalgal biomass enhance the recovery of carbohydrates and proteins which can be used as feedstocks for generation of biofuels. PMID:26508325

  10. Maufacture of raw cane sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

  11. THE TASTE OF SUGARS

    PubMed Central

    McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Sugars evoke a distinctive perceptual quality (“sweetness” in humans) and are generally highly preferred. The neural basis for these phenomena is reviewed for rodents, in which detailed electrophysiological measurements have been made. A receptor has been identified that binds sweeteners and activates G-protein-mediated signaling in taste receptor cells, which leads to changes in neural firing rates in the brain, where perceptions of taste quality, intensity, and palatability are generated. Most cells in gustatory nuclei are broadly-tuned, so quality perception presumably arises from patterns of activity across neural populations. However, some manipulations affect only the most sugar-oriented cells, making it useful to consider them as a distinct neural subtype. Quality perception may also arise partly due to temporal patterns of activity to sugars, especially within sugar-oriented cells that give large but delayed responses. Non-specific gustatory neurons that are excited by both sugars and unpalatable stimuli project to ventral forebrain areas, where neural responses provide a closer match with behavioral preferences. This transition likely involves opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences by different subgroups of gustatory cells. Sweeteners are generally preferred over water, but the strength of this preference can vary across time or between individuals, and higher preferences for sugars are often associated with larger taste-evoked responses. PMID:18499254

  12. Ethylene Suppression of Sugar-Induced Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seok-Won; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Jeoung, Sae Chae; Song, Ji-Young; Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Kim, Woo Jung; Park, Yong Il; Yoo, Sang-Dong; Choi, Sang-Bong; Choi, Giltsu; Park, Youn-Il

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin accumulation is regulated negatively by ethylene signaling and positively by sugar and light signaling. However, the antagonistic interactions underlying these signalings remain to be elucidated fully. We show that ethylene inhibits anthocyanin accumulation induced by sucrose (Suc) and light by suppressing the expression of transcription factors that positively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis, including GLABRA3, TRANSPARENT TESTA8, and PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1, while stimulating the concomitant expression of the negative R3-MYB regulator MYBL2. Genetic analyses show that the ethylene-mediated suppression of anthocyanin accumulation is dependent upon ethylene signaling components responsible for the triple response. Furthermore, these positive and negative signaling pathways appear to be under photosynthetic control. Suc and light induction of anthocyanin accumulation was almost fully inhibited in wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia and ethylene (ethylene response1 [etr1-1]) and light (long hypocotyl1 [hy1], cryptochrome1/2, and hy5) signaling mutants treated with the photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. The transcript level of the sugar transporter gene SUC1 was enhanced in ecotype Columbia treated with the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver and in etr1-1, ethylene insensitive2 (ein2-1), and ein3 ein3-like1 mutants. In contrast, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea treatment reduced SUC1 expression, which indicates strongly that SUC1 represents an integrator for signals provided by sugar, light, and ethylene. SUC1 mutations lowered accumulations of anthocyanin pigment, soluble sugar content, and ethylene production in response to Suc and light signals. These data demonstrate that the suppression of SUC1 expression by ethylene inhibits Suc-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the presence of light and, hence, fine-tunes anthocyanin homeostasis. PMID:20876338

  13. Cellulose depolymerization to glucose and other water soluble polysaccharides by shear deformation and high pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Kokorevics, A; Gravitis, J

    1997-08-01

    The simultaneous action of shear deformation and high pressure (SDHP) creates changes in the structure of wood and its main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin). The formation of water and alkali soluble polysaccharides under SDHP action, proceeds in seconds in the solid state, without the use of any reagents and solvents. Therefore, SDHP seems to be a technologically safe method and friendly to the environment. The amorphization of cellulose crystallites and depolymerization of cellulose chains were observed under a wide range of pressures (1-6 GPa), both for cellulose samples and the cellulose part of wood. Similar depolymerization occurs in the hemicellulose part of wood. The decomposition of polysaccharides under SDHP causes the formation of the water soluble part, whose content increases with pressure and the applied shear deformation. A maximum solubility of 40% and 55% was registered at 6 GPa following treatment of cellulose and birch wood samples. A higher output in the case of wood can be explained by a specific role of lignin under SDHP, which acts as a 'grinding stone' during cellulose and hemicelluloses destruction. As shown by high-performance size exclusion chromatography, the water soluble fraction obtained from cellulose contained glucose (2.6%), cellobiose (9.6%), cellotriose (16.6%) and other higher water soluble oligomers (71%). Almost complete dissolution (98%) of the treated cellulose sample can be achieved by extraction with 10% NaOH solution. The SDHP treated birch wood was subjected to submerged fermentation (with Trichoderma viride), and a 13% output of proteins was obtained. In this case, the water soluble part played the role of the so called 'start sugars'. PMID:9298702

  14. Sugar Sensing and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, Matthew; Rolland, Filip; Sheen, Jen

    2008-01-01

    Plants, restricted by their environment, need to integrate a wide variety of stimuli with their metabolic activity, growth and development. Sugars, generated by photosynthetic carbon fixation, are central in coordinating metabolic fluxes in response to the changing environment and in providing cells and tissues with the necessary energy for continued growth and survival. A complex network of metabolic and hormone signaling pathways are intimately linked to diverse sugar responses. A combination of genetic, cellular and systems analyses have uncovered nuclear HXK1 (hexokinase1) as a pivotal and conserved glucose sensor, directly mediating transcription regulation, while the KIN10/11 energy sensor protein kinases function as master regulators of transcription networks under sugar and energy deprivation conditions. The involvement of disaccharide signals in the regulation of specific cellular processes and the potential role of cell surface receptors in mediating sugar signals add to the complexity. This chapter gives an overview of our current insight in the sugar sensing and signaling network and describes some of the molecular mechanisms involved. PMID:22303242

  15. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Andréa P.; Santos, Mirian C.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Ferreira, Márcia M. C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2005-06-01

    Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaça) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaça were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaça of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachaças, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees.

  16. The confusing world of dietary sugars: definitions, intakes, food sources and international dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jennifer; Latulippe, Marie E; Ayoob, Keith; Slavin, Joanne

    2012-05-01

    Government and health organizations worldwide have issued dietary guidelines for sugars. These guidelines vary considerably in the recommended or suggested intakes and the types of sugars specified. Despite access to the same published literature, recommendations vary greatly and create confusion for nutrition practitioners who offer dietary guidance. Some of the confusion in this field is linked to differences in definitions for sugar and methods to measure total sugars. Additionally, although dietary guidance typically recommends foods high in sugar, fruits and dairy products, other advice suggests strict limits on intake of "added sugar". Added sugar cannot be analytically determined and must be calculated so nutrient databases generally contain values for total sugar and do not differentiate between sugars naturally occurring in foods and those added in processing. This review defines sugars, provides the sugar content of major food sources, summarizes health concerns about dietary sugars, and compiles dietary guidelines for sugars issued by various organizations. Dietary recommendations from various health organizations are based on different means of assessment, and thus vary considerably. In general, the use of added sugars is cautioned, especially when it contributes to calories in excess of needs for an individual. PMID:22402777

  17. Intestinal sugar transport.

    PubMed

    Drozdowski, Laurie A; Thomson, Alan B R

    2006-03-21

    Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet. The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucrase-isomaltase are two disaccharidases involved in the hydrolysis of nutritionally important disaccharides. Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. This paper reviews the early studies that contributed to the development of a working model of intestinal sugar transport, and details the recent advances made in understanding the process by which sugars are absorbed in the intestine. PMID:16586532

  18. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  19. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in ‘omics’ sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  20. Fluorescence study of sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongjamroon, Sunida; Pattanaporkratana, Apichart

    2015-07-01

    We studied photoemission of monosaccharides and disaccharides using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. A 532- nm, 10 mW, laser was used to excite the samples and back-scattering signals were collected by a spectrometer. We found that most sugars show weak fluorescence in solid phase but do not fluoresce when dissolved in water solutions. The emission spectra show similar peak intensity at 590 nm, but they are different in emission intensities. We suggest that the fluorescence spectra may be used to differentiate sugar type, even though the origin of the fluorescence is unclear and needed further study.

  1. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA)

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  3. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  4. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  5. A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ) fruit soluble solids

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of ({sup 3}H)-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of ({sup 14}C)sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of ({sup 14}C)-(glycosyl)-1{prime}fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of ({sup 14}C) sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F{sub 2} population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes.

  6. The Maple Sugar Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  7. Sugar beet traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With rapidly changing agricultural practices, target environments, and biotic and abiotic stresses, plant breeders face the task of continually selecting plants with desirable traits with the goal to assemble advantageous combinations of genes in new varieties. Sugar beet has been selectively bred s...

  8. SUGAR BEET QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than one third of the sucrose (sugar) consumed by humans is obtained from sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Sucrose extraction begins with the production of a dark opaque juice from strips of sugarbeet. This juice is purified with lime and carbon dioxide, thickened by evaporation, and crystallize...

  9. Sugar Cane Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane

  10. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  11. Low blood sugar symptoms (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), ...

  12. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2005-11-15

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  13. Added versus accumulated sugars on color development and acrylamide formation in french-fried potato strips.

    PubMed

    Higley, Jeremy; Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C; Smith, Gordon

    2012-09-01

    Added (glucose addition) versus accumulated (in situ sugar development via cold-temperature storage) sugar treatments were investigated in relation to acrylamide formation within fried potato strips at standardized levels of finish-fried color (Agtron color scores ranged from 36 to 84). The added sugar treatment exhibited a relatively reduced rate of acrylamide formation and generally possessed a lower and less variable acrylamide content (61-1290 ng/g) than the accumulated sugar scheme (61-2191 ng/g). In a subsequent experiment, added fructose applied to strip surfaces via dipping prior to frying favored acrylamide formation over color development relative to added glucose, for which the reverse trend was observed. Thus, where acrylamide differences were noted between added and accumulated sugar treatments (given equivalent Agtron color scores), this result was likely aided by the relative higher fructose content in strips of the accumulated sugar scheme rather than simply a greater relative concentration of total reducing sugars. PMID:22881236

  14. Spine and test skeletal matrices of the Mediterranean sea urchin Arbacia lixula--a comparative characterization of their sugar signature.

    PubMed

    Kanold, Julia M; Guichard, Nathalie; Immel, Franoise; Plasseraud, Laurent; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Grard; Brmmer, Franz; Marin, Frdric

    2015-05-01

    Calcified structures of sea urchins are biocomposite materials that comprise a minor fraction of organic macromolecules, such as proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides. These macromolecules are thought to collectively regulate mineral deposition during the process of calcification. When occluded, they modify the properties of the mineral. In the present study, the organic matrices (both soluble and insoluble in acetic acid) of spines and tests from the Mediterranean black sea urchin Arbacia lixula were extracted and characterized, in order to determine whether they exhibit similar biochemical signatures. Bulk characterizations were performed by mono-dimensional SDS/PAGE, FT-IR spectroscopy, and an in vitro crystallization assay. We concentrated our efforts on characterization of the sugar moieties. To this end, we determined the monosaccharide content of the soluble and insoluble organic matrices of A. lixula spines and tests by HPAE-PAD, together with their respective lectin-binding profiles via enzyme-linked lectin assay. Finally, we performed in situ localization of N-acetyl glucosamine-containing saccharides on spines and tests using gold-conjugated wheatgerm agglutinin. Our data show that the test and spine matrices exhibit different biochemical signatures with regard to their saccharidic fraction, suggesting that future studies should analyse the regulation of mineral deposition by the matrix in these two mineralized structures in detail. This study re-emphasizes the importance of non-protein moieties, i.e. sugars, in calcium carbonate systems, and highlights the need to clearly identify their function in the biomineralization process. PMID:25702947

  15. Pronounced Phenotypic Changes in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Sucrose Synthase May Reveal a Novel Sugar Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh Anh; Luan, Sheng; Wi, Seung G.; Bae, Hanhong; Lee, Dae-Seok; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Soluble sugars not only serve as nutrients, but also act as signals for plant growth and development, but how sugar signals are perceived and translated into physiological responses in plants remains unclear. We manipulated sugar levels in transgenic plants by overexpressing sucrose synthase (SuSy), which is a key enzyme believed to have reversible sucrose synthesis and sucrose degradation functions. The ectopically expressed SuSy protein exhibited sucrose-degrading activity, which may change the flux of sucrose demand from photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic cells, and trigger an unknown sucrose signaling pathway that lead to increased sucrose content in the transgenic plants. An experiment on the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth demonstrated the existence of a novel sucrose signaling pathway, which stimulated photosynthesis, and enhanced photosynthetic synthesis of sucrose, which was the direct cause or the sucrose increase. In addition, a light/dark time treatment experiment, using different day length ranges for photosynthesis/respiration showed the carbohydrate pattern within a 24-h day and consolidated the role of sucrose signaling pathway as a way to maintain sucrose demand, and indicated the relationships between increased sucrose and upregulation of genes controlling development of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). As a result, transgenic plants featured a higher biomass and a shorter time required to switch to reproduction compared to those of control plants, indicating altered phylotaxis and more rapid advancement of developmental stages in the transgenic plants. PMID:26793204

  16. Pronounced Phenotypic Changes in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Sucrose Synthase May Reveal a Novel Sugar Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quynh Anh; Luan, Sheng; Wi, Seung G; Bae, Hanhong; Lee, Dae-Seok; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars not only serve as nutrients, but also act as signals for plant growth and development, but how sugar signals are perceived and translated into physiological responses in plants remains unclear. We manipulated sugar levels in transgenic plants by overexpressing sucrose synthase (SuSy), which is a key enzyme believed to have reversible sucrose synthesis and sucrose degradation functions. The ectopically expressed SuSy protein exhibited sucrose-degrading activity, which may change the flux of sucrose demand from photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic cells, and trigger an unknown sucrose signaling pathway that lead to increased sucrose content in the transgenic plants. An experiment on the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth demonstrated the existence of a novel sucrose signaling pathway, which stimulated photosynthesis, and enhanced photosynthetic synthesis of sucrose, which was the direct cause or the sucrose increase. In addition, a light/dark time treatment experiment, using different day length ranges for photosynthesis/respiration showed the carbohydrate pattern within a 24-h day and consolidated the role of sucrose signaling pathway as a way to maintain sucrose demand, and indicated the relationships between increased sucrose and upregulation of genes controlling development of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). As a result, transgenic plants featured a higher biomass and a shorter time required to switch to reproduction compared to those of control plants, indicating altered phylotaxis and more rapid advancement of developmental stages in the transgenic plants. PMID:26793204

  17. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    MedlinePLUS

    Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood sugar (glucose) numbers in your target range can help you feel ... Prevention There are two ways to measure blood sugar. 1 The A1C is a lab test that ...

  18. [Soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus dynamics during foliar litter decomposition in winter in alinine forest streams].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Wan-qin; Yue, Kai; Huang, Chun-ping; Peng, Yan; Wu, Fu-zhong

    2015-06-01

    In order to understand the dynamic pattern of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus in the headwater streams during the process of litter decomposition in winter, a field experiment using litterbag method was conducted in an alpine forest in Western Sichuan, China. The foliar litter of two dominant canopy trees (Sabina saltuaria, and Larix mastersiana) and two shrubs (Salix paraplesia and Rhododendron lapponicum) were selected. The litterbags were placed in a headwater stream, river, riparian zone and closed canopy, and sampled in different freezing-thawing periods of winter (pre-freezing period, freezing period and thawing period). The results indicated that the soluble nitrogen content of foliar litter showed little changes over a whole winter decomposition regardless of species. In contrast, the soluble phosphorus content displayed the order as river < stream < riparian zone < closed canopy, and showed a decrease tendency in stream, river and riparian, although little changes under closed canopy over a whole winter decomposition. Correlation analysis suggested that the dynamics of soluble phosphorus content significantly correlated to the average temperature, positive accumulated temperature, negative accumulated temperature and flow velocity during the decomposition in winter. The dynamics of soluble nitrogen content only exhibited significant correlations with positive accumulated temperature. Additionally, litter quality (species) also controlled the dynamics of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus content as litter decomposition proceeded. The results implied that soluble phosphorus could be more liable to loss in streams and rivers during litter decomposition compared with soluble nitrogen, which could further provide some new ideas in understanding nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in this alpine forest. PMID:26572009

  19. [Effects of snow cover on water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ya; Yang, Wan-Qin; Li, Han; Ni, Xiang-Yin; He, Jie; Wu, Fu-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal snow cover may change the characteristics of freezing, leaching and freeze-thaw cycles in the scenario of climate change, and then play important roles in the dynamics of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in the alpine forest. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was conducted in an alpine forest in western Sichuan, China. The foliar litterbags of typical tree species (birch, cypress, larch and fir) and shrub species (willow and azalea) were placed on the forest floor under different snow cover thickness (deep snow, medium snow, thin snow and no snow). The litterbags were sampled at snow formation stage, snow cover stage and snow melting stage in winter. The results showed that the content of water soluble components from six foliar litters decreased at snow formation stage and snow melting stage, but increased at snow cover stage as litter decomposition proceeded in the winter. Besides the content of organic solvent soluble components from azalea foliar litter increased at snow cover stage, the content of organic solvent soluble components from the other five foliar litters kept a continue decreasing tendency in the winter. Compared with the content of organic solvent soluble components, the content of water soluble components was affected more strongly by snow cover thickness, especially at snow formation stage and snow cover stage. Compared with the thicker snow covers, the thin snow cover promoted the decrease of water soluble component contents from willow and azalea foliar litter and restrain the decrease of water soluble component content from cypress foliar litter. Few changes in the content of water soluble components from birch, fir and larch foliar litter were observed under the different thicknesses of snow cover. The results suggested that the effects of snow cover on the contents of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during litter decomposition would be controlled by litter quality. PMID:25898600

  20. Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

  1. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  2. ABA and GA3 increase carbon allocation in different organs of grapevine plants by inducing accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, enhancement of phloem area and expression of sugar transporters.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Germán; Pontin, Mariela; Reinoso, Herminda; Baraldi, Rita; Bertazza, Gianpaolo; Gómez-Talquenca, Sebastián; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2016-03-01

    Grape quality for winemaking depends on sugar accumulation and metabolism in berries. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) have been reported to control sugar allocation in economically important crops, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The present study tested if ABA and gibberellin A3 (GA3 ) enhance carbon allocation in fruits of grapevines by modifying phloem loading, phloem area and expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries. Pot-grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants were sprayed with ABA and GA3 solutions. The amount of soluble sugars in leaves and berries related to photosynthesis were examined at three points of berry growth: pre-veraison, full veraison and post-veraison. Starch levels and amylase activity in leaves, gene expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries and phloem anatomy were examined at full veraison. Accumulation of glucose and fructose in berries was hastened in ABA-treated plants at the stage of full veraison, which was correlated with enhancement of Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 2 (VvHT2) and Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 6 (VvHT6) gene expression, increases of phloem area and sucrose content in leaves. On the other hand, GA3 increased the quantity of photoassimilates delivered to the stem thus increasing xylem growth. In conclusion, stimulation of sugar transport by ABA and GA3 to berries and stems, respectively, was due to build-up of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, modifications in phloem tissue and modulation in gene expression of sugar transporters. PMID:26411544

  3. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  4. Changes in Carbohydrate Content and Membrane Stability of Two Ecotypes of Calamagrostis arundinacea Growing at Different Elevations in the Drawdown Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shutong; Zeng, Bo; Yuan, Zhi; Su, Xiaolei

    2014-01-01

    Background The Three Gorges project has caused many ecosystem problems. Ecological restoration using readily-available plants is an effective way of mitigating environmental impacts. Two perennial submergence-tolerant ecotypes of Calamagrostis arundinacea were planted in an experimental field in the drawdown zone. Responses of the two plant ecotypes to flooding stress in the drawdown zone were unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Carbohydrate content and membrane stability, two key factors for survival of plants under flooding stress, of two ecotypes (designated dwarf and green) of C. arundinacea growing at different elevations of the drawdown zone were investigated. Live stems (LS) and dead stems (DS) of the two plant ecotypes at eight elevations (175, 170, 162, 160, 158, 155, 152 m and 149 m) were sampled. Contents of soluble sugar, starch and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as plasma membrane permeability of live stems were measured. The lowest elevations for survival of dwarf and green C. arundinacea were 160 m and 158 m, respectively. Soluble sugar content of live stems of both ecotypes decreased with elevation, with amounts from an elevation of 170 m being lower than from an elevation of 175 m. MDA content and plasma membrane permeability in live stems of green C. arundinacea did not increase with the decrease in elevation, while these measures in dwarf C. arundinacea from an elevation of 162 m were significantly higher than from an elevation of 175 m. Conclusions Carbohydrate content, especially soluble sugar content, in both ecotypes was more sensitive to flooding stress than membrane stability. Green C. arundinacea had a higher tolerance to submergence than dwarf C. arundinacea, and thus green C. arundinacea can be planted at lower elevations than dwarf C. arundinacea. PMID:24608821

  5. Free sugar profile in cycads

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Lindström, Anders J.

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

  6. Free sugar profile in cycads.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindstrm, Anders J

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

  7. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing of Plastidial Soluble Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Impairs Essential Leaf Anabolic Pathways and Reduces Drought Stress Tolerance in Nicotiana benthamiana1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    George, Gavin M.; van der Merwe, Margaretha J.; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Bauer, Rolene; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Kossmann, Jens; Lloyd, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The role of pyrophosphate in primary metabolism is poorly understood. Here, we report on the transient down-regulation of plastid-targeted soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase in Nicotiana benthamiana source leaves. Physiological and metabolic perturbations were particularly evident in chloroplastic central metabolism, which is reliant on fast and efficient pyrophosphate dissipation. Plants lacking plastidial soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase (psPPase) were characterized by increased pyrophosphate levels, decreased starch content, and alterations in chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis, while constituents like amino acids (except for histidine, serine, and tryptophan) and soluble sugars and organic acids (except for malate and citrate) remained invariable from the control. Furthermore, translation of Rubisco was significantly affected, as observed for the amounts of the respective subunits as well as total soluble protein content. These changes were concurrent with the fact that plants with reduced psPPase were unable to assimilate carbon to the same extent as the controls. Furthermore, plants with lowered psPPase exposed to mild drought stress showed a moderate wilting phenotype and reduced vitality, which could be correlated to reduced abscisic acid levels limiting stomatal closure. Taken together, the results suggest that plastidial pyrophosphate dissipation through psPPase is indispensable for vital plant processes. PMID:20605913

  8. Changes in sugars and organic acids in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit during development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Haoxia; Xi, Wanpeng; An, Wei; Niu, Linlin; Cao, Youlong; Wang, Huafang; Wang, Yajun; Yin, Yue

    2015-04-15

    Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34 days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86 mg g(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation. PMID:25466081

  9. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all... establishing, adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal Register. FOR...

  10. Pretreatment and saccharification of red macroalgae to produce fermentable sugars.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Hee Taek; Cho, Kyung Mun; Yu, Sora; Kim, Sooah; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-01-01

    Red macroalgae are currently considered as renewable resources owing to their high carbohydrate and low lignin and hemicellulose contents. However, utilization of red macroalgae has been limited owing to the lack of established methods for pretreatment and an effective saccharification system. Furthermore, marine red macroalgae consist of the non-favorable mixed sugars for industrial microorganisms. In this review, we suggest strategies for converting red macroalgae to bio-based products, focusing on the pretreatment and saccharification of red macroalgae to produce fermentable sugars and the microbial fermentation of these sugars by industrial microorganisms. In particular, some recent breakthroughs for the efficient utilization of red macroalgae include the discovery of key enzymes for the complete monomerization of red macroalgal carbohydrate and the catabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose, the most abundant sugar in red macroalgae. This review provides a comprehensive perspective for the efficient utilization of red macroalgae as sustainable resources to produce bio-based products. PMID:26276401

  11. 14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Husy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T ; Kolset, S O; Ntvik Jakobsen, H; Tmmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L

    2008-09-01

    A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern. PMID:18639604

  13. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  14. Organic acids, sugars, and L-tryptophane in exudates of vegetables growing on stonewool and their effects on activities of rhizosphere bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kamilova, Faina; Kravchenko, Lev V; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Azarova, Tatiyana; Makarova, Nataliya; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2006-03-01

    The influence of stonewool substrate on the exudation of the major soluble carbon nutrients and of the auxin precursor tryptophane for Pseudomonas biocontrol agents was studied. To this end, the composition of the organic acids and sugars, as well that of tryptophane, of axenically collected exudates of seed, seedlings, and roots of tomato, cucumber, and sweet pepper was determined. The major results were as follows. i) The total amount of organic acid is much higher than that of total sugar. ii) Exudation of both organic acids and sugars increases during plant growth. iii) Citric, succinic, and malic acids represent the major organic acids, whereas fructose and glucose are the major sugars. iv) Compared with glass beads as a neutral substrate, stonewool substantially stimulates exudation of organic acids and sugars. v) It appeared that enhanced root-tip-colonizing bacteria isolated previously from the rhizosphere of tomato and cucumber grow much better in minimal medium with citrate as the sole carbon source than other, randomly selected rhizobacteria do. This indicates that the procedure which selects for excellent root-tip colonizers enriches for strains which utilize the major exudate carbon source citrate. vi) The content of L-tryptophane, the direct precursor of auxin, is approximately 60-fold higher in seedling exudates of tomato and sweet pepper than in cucumber seedling exudates, indicating a higher possibility of plant growth stimulation after inoculation with auxin-producing rhizobacteria for tomato and sweet pepper crops than for cucumber. However, the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365, which is able to convert tryptophane into auxin, did not stimulate growth of these three crops. In contrast, this strain did stimulate growth of roots of radish, a plant which exudes nine times more tryptophane than tomato does. PMID:16570655

  15. Applications of Solubility Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  16. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  17. Bioconversion of oil palm frond by Aspergillus niger to enhances it's fermentable sugar production.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sheh-Hong; Ibrahim, Darah

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to develop an economical bioprocess to produce the fermentable sugars at laboratory scales Using Oil Palm Frond (OPF) as substrate in Solid State Fermentation (SSF). OPF waste generated by oil palm plantations is a major problem in terms of waste management. However, this lignocellulosic waste material is a cheap source of cellulose. We used OPF as substrate to produce fermentable sugars. The high content of cellulose in OPF promises the high fermentable sugars production in SSF. Saccharification of OPF waste by A. niger USMAI1 generates fermentable sugars and was evaluated through a solid state fermentation. Physical parameters, e.g., inoculum size, initial substrate moisture, initial pH, incubation temperature and the size of substrate were optimized to obtain the maximum fermentable sugars from oil palm fronds. Up to 77 mg of fermentable sugars per gram substrate was produced under the optimal physical parameter conditions. Lower productivity of fermentable sugars, 32 mg fermentable sugars per gram substrate was obtained under non optimized conditions. The results indicated that about 140.6% increase in fermentable sugar production after optimization of the physical parameters. Glucose was the major end component amongst the fermentable sugars obtained. This study indicated that under optimum physical parameter conditions, the OPF waste can be utilized to produce fermentable sugars which then convert into other products such as alcohol. PMID:24502148

  18. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  19. Using Math With Maple Sugaring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)

  20. Sugar crops for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

  1. Sugar-free liquid pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Dangor, C M; Veltman, A M

    1986-08-16

    With the reported increased incidence of dental disease in chronically ill children receiving sugar-containing medicines, health care personnel should be made aware of the availability of sucrose-free paediatric preparations. The list of sugar-free liquid preparations for oral use presented will require updating as more products are reformulated to avoid inclusion of fermentable carbohydrates. PMID:3738654

  2. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant. PMID:25300853

  3. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? When Blood Sugar Is Too Low KidsHealth > For Kids > When ... they get too low. The Causes of Low Blood Sugar Low blood sugar levels can happen to ...

  4. Sugarcane Genotypic Variation in Juice Sugar Composition as Affected by Sampling Date

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida lasts more than 180 days from late October through mid April. Sugarcane juice sucrose content and extractable sugar composition are closely related to sucrose yield and quality. The objectives of this study were to determine dynamics of sugar componen...

  5. New Markers from Sugar Metabolism ESTs: Tagging Positive Alleles from Saccharum spontaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited genetic gains, obtained from breeding for sugar content in different breeding programs worldwide suggest that a plateau has been reached for this trait. One way to overcome this obstacle would be to identify and introduce into commercial germplasm alternative alleles controlling sugar metab...

  6. Urinary SugarsA Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake

    PubMed Central

    Tasevska, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies. PMID:26184307

  7. Solid fermentation of wheat bran for hydrolytic enzymes production and saccharification content by a local isolate Bacillus megatherium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Back ground For enzyme production, the costs of solid state fermentation (SSF) techniques were lower and the production higher than submerged cultures. A large number of fungal species was known to grow well on moist substrates, whereas many bacteria were unable to grow under this condition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate a highly efficient strain of Bacillus sp utilizing wheat bran in SSF and optimizing the enzyme production and soluble carbohydrates. Results A local strain Bacillus megatherium was isolated from dung sheep. The maximum production of pectinase, xylanase and α-amylase, and saccharification content (total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars) were obtained by application of the B. megatherium in SSF using wheat bran as compared to grasses, palm leaves and date seeds. All enzymes and saccharification content exhibited their maximum production during 12–24 h, at the range of 40–80% moisture content of wheat bran, temperature 37-45°C and pH 5–8. An ascending repression of pectinase production was observed by carbon supplements of lactose, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch, respectively. All carbon supplements improved the production of xylanase and α-amylase, except of lactose decreased α-amylase production. A little increase in the yield of total reducing sugars was detected for all carbon supplements. Among the nitrogen sources, yeast extract induced a significant repression to all enzyme productivity. Sodium nitrate, urea and ammonium chloride enhanced the production of xylanase, α-amylase and pectinase, respectively. Yeast extract, urea, ammonium sulphate and ammonium chloride enhanced the productivity of reducing sugars. Conclusions The optimization of enzyme production and sccharification content by B. megatherium in SSF required only adjustment of incubation period and temperature, moisture content and initial pH. Wheat bran supplied enough nutrients without any need for addition of supplements of carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:24758479

  8. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  9. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  10. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

  15. Protein solubility modeling.

    PubMed

    Agena, S M; Pusey, M L; Bogle, I D

    1999-07-20

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. PMID:10397850

  16. Learning about Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

  17. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Lead (II) cholate solubility.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Emilio; Festa, Maria Rosa

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the research carried out on the behaviour of the salts of bile acids in aqueous solutions, the lead (II) cholate solubility was determined at 25 degrees C and in 0.100, 0.500 and 0.800 mol dm(-3) N(CH3)4Cl, as ionic medium. The change of its solubility was studied as a function of the cholate and hydrogen ion concentration. Solubility and electromotive force measurements of suitable galvanic cells were carried out and from the results lead (II) cholate solubility product could be calculated and the presence of associated species in solution in the ratio 1:3 and 1:4 between lead (II) and cholate was assumed. The relative constants were determined, as well. The results of this work allow us to obtain the free cholate concentration in equilibrium with solid lead (II) cholate. PMID:12911144

  19. Solubility of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines factors to be considered in choosing suitable solvents for non-electrolytes and salts of weak acids and bases. Describes how, in some simple situation, the degree of solubility can be estimated. (Author/DF)

  20. Dietary sugar intake increases liver tumor incidence in female mice.

    PubMed

    Healy, Marin E; Lahiri, Sujoy; Hargett, Stefan R; Chow, Jenny D Y; Byrne, Frances L; Breen, David S; Kenwood, Brandon M; Taddeo, Evan P; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H; Hoehn, Kyle L

    2016-01-01

    Overnutrition can promote liver cancer in mice and humans that have liver damage caused by alcohol, viruses, or carcinogens. However, the mechanism linking diet to increased liver tumorigenesis remains unclear in the context of whether tumorigenesis is secondary to obesity, or whether nutrients like sugar or fat drive tumorigenesis independent of obesity. In male mice, liver tumor burden was recently found to correlate with sugar intake, independent of dietary fat intake and obesity. However, females are less susceptible to developing liver cancer than males, and it remains unclear how nutrition affects tumorigenesis in females. Herein, female mice were exposed to the liver carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed diets with well-defined sugar and fat content. Mice fed diets with high sugar content had the greatest liver tumor incidence while dietary fat intake was not associated with tumorigenesis. Diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemia and fasting hyperinsulinemia significantly correlated with tumor incidence, while tumor incidence was not associated with obesity and obesity-related disorders including liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, or elevated serum levels of estrogen, ALT, and lipids. These results simplify the pathophysiology of diet-induced liver tumorigenesis by focusing attention on the role of sugar metabolism and reducing emphasis on the complex milieu associated with obesity. PMID:26924712

  1. Dietary sugar intake increases liver tumor incidence in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Marin E.; Lahiri, Sujoy; Hargett, Stefan R.; Chow, Jenny D.Y.; Byrne, Frances L.; Breen, David S.; Kenwood, Brandon M.; Taddeo, Evan P.; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H.; Hoehn, Kyle L.

    2016-01-01

    Overnutrition can promote liver cancer in mice and humans that have liver damage caused by alcohol, viruses, or carcinogens. However, the mechanism linking diet to increased liver tumorigenesis remains unclear in the context of whether tumorigenesis is secondary to obesity, or whether nutrients like sugar or fat drive tumorigenesis independent of obesity. In male mice, liver tumor burden was recently found to correlate with sugar intake, independent of dietary fat intake and obesity. However, females are less susceptible to developing liver cancer than males, and it remains unclear how nutrition affects tumorigenesis in females. Herein, female mice were exposed to the liver carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed diets with well-defined sugar and fat content. Mice fed diets with high sugar content had the greatest liver tumor incidence while dietary fat intake was not associated with tumorigenesis. Diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemia and fasting hyperinsulinemia significantly correlated with tumor incidence, while tumor incidence was not associated with obesity and obesity-related disorders including liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, or elevated serum levels of estrogen, ALT, and lipids. These results simplify the pathophysiology of diet-induced liver tumorigenesis by focusing attention on the role of sugar metabolism and reducing emphasis on the complex milieu associated with obesity. PMID:26924712

  2. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a blood sample, a small needle called a lancet is used to prick the skin (usually on ... to keep track of blood sugar levels. Adjustable lancets can make finger pricks less painful by changing ...

  3. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  4. Antioxidant property of water-soluble polysaccharides from Poria cocos Wolf using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nani; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xuping; Huang, Xiaowen; Fei, Ying; Yu, Yong; Shou, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Poria cocos Wolf is a popular traditional medicinal plant that has invigorating activity. Water-soluble polysaccharides (PCPs) are its main active components. In this study, four different methods were used to extract PCPs, which include hot water extraction (PCP-H), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (PCP-U), enzyme-assisted extraction (PCP-E) and microwave-assisted extraction (PCP-M). Their chemical compositions and structure characterizations were compared. In vitro antioxidant activities were studied on the basis of DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, reducing power and metal chelating ability. The results showed that PCPs were composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose, and had typical IR spectra characteristics of polysaccharides. Compared with other PCPs, PCP-M had lower neutral sugar content, higher mannose content and higher uronic acid content. The molecular weight were determined as PCP-E

  5. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I.; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7–18 years), 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  6. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7-69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7-18 years), 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  7. TANG1, Encoding a Symplekin_C Domain-Contained Protein, Influences Sugar Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Leiying; Shang, Li; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Yan; Smith, Caroline; Bevan, Michael W; Li, Yunhai; Jing, Hai-Chun

    2015-07-01

    Sugars not only serve as energy and cellular carbon skeleton but also function as signaling molecules regulating growth and development in plants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in sugar signaling pathways will provide more information for improving plant growth and development. Here, we describe a sugar-hypersensitive recessive mutant, tang1. Light-grown tang1 mutants have short roots and increased starch and anthocyanin contents when grown on high-sugar concentration medium. Dark-grown tang1 plants exhibit sugar-hypersensitive hypocotyl elongation and enhanced dark development. The tang1 mutants also show an enhanced response to abscisic acid but reduced response to ethylene. Thus, tang1 displays a range of alterations in sugar signaling-related responses. The TANG1 gene was isolated by a map-based cloning approach and encodes a previously uncharacterized unique protein with a predicted Symplekin tight-junction protein C terminus. Expression analysis indicates that TANG1 is ubiquitously expressed at moderate levels in different organs and throughout the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) life cycle; however, its expression is not affected by high-sugar treatment. Genetic analysis shows that PRL1 and TANG1 have additive effects on sugar-related responses. Furthermore, the mutation of TANG1 does not affect the expression of genes involved in known sugar signaling pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that TANG1, a unique gene, plays an important role in sugar responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:26002908

  8. 76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On August 5, 2010, the Secretary of Agriculture established the FY 2011..., 2011, and may be entered until November 30, 2011. This sugar must have a sucrose content, by weight...

  9. CCN activation of fumed silica aerosols mixed with soluble pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalirian, M.; Keskinen, H.; Ahlm, L.; Ylisirni, A.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Laaksonen, A.; Virtanen, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2015-04-01

    Particle-water interactions of completely soluble or insoluble particles are fairly well understood but less is known of aerosols consisting of mixtures of soluble and insoluble components. In this study, laboratory measurements were performed to investigate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of silica particles mixed with ammonium sulfate (a salt), sucrose (a sugar) and bovine serum albumin known as BSA (a protein). The agglomerated structure of the silica particles was investigated using measurements with a differential mobility analyser (DMA) and an aerosol particle mass analyser (APM). Based on these data, the particles were assumed to be compact agglomerates when studying their CCN activation capabilities. Furthermore, the critical supersaturations of particles consisting of pure and mixed soluble and insoluble compounds were explored using existing theoretical frameworks. These results showed that the CCN activation of single-component particles was in good agreement with Khler- and adsorption theory based models when the agglomerated structure was accounted for. For mixed particles the CCN activation was governed by the soluble components, and the soluble fraction varied considerably with particle size for our wet-generated aerosols. Our results confirm the hypothesis that knowing the soluble fraction is the key parameter needed for describing the CCN activation of mixed aerosols, and highlight the importance of controlled coating techniques for acquiring a detailed understanding of the CCN activation of atmospheric insoluble particles mixed with soluble pollutants.

  10. CCN activation of fumed silica aerosols mixed with soluble pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalirian, M.; Keskinen, H.; Ahlm, L.; Ylisirniö, A.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Laaksonen, A.; Virtanen, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-09-01

    Particle-water interactions of completely soluble or insoluble particles are fairly well understood but less is known of aerosols consisting of mixtures of soluble and insoluble components. In this study, laboratory measurements were performed to investigate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of silica particles coated with ammonium sulphate (a salt), sucrose (a sugar) and bovine serum albumin known as BSA (a protein). In addition, the agglomerated structure of the silica particles was investigated by estimating the surface equivalent diameter based on measurements with a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and an Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer (APM). By using the surface equivalent diameter the non-sphericity of the particles containing silica was accounted for when estimating CCN activation. Furthermore, characterizing critical supersaturations of particles consisting of pure soluble on insoluble compounds using existing frameworks showed that the CCN activation of single component particles was in good agreement with Köhler and adsorption theory based models when the agglomerated structure was accounted for. For mixed particles the CCN activation was governed by the soluble components, and the soluble fraction varied considerably with particle size for our wet-generated aerosols. Our results confirm the hypothesis that knowing the soluble fraction is the key parameter needed for describing the CCN activation of mixed aerosols, and highlight the importance of controlled coating techniques for acquiring a detailed understanding of the CCN activation of atmospheric insoluble particles mixed with soluble pollutants.

  11. [Estimation of sugar to nitrogen ratio in wheat leaves with near infrared spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yao, Xia; Wang, Xue; Huang, Yu; Tang, Shou-peng; Tian, Yong-chao; Cao, Wei-xing; Zhu, Yan

    2015-08-01

    The soluble sugar to nitrogen ratio reflects the coordination degree of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism. Precise and real-time monitoring of soluble sugar to nitrogen ratio is of significant importance for nitrogen diagnosis and management regulation in wheat production. In this study, time-course near infrared spectroscopy and soluble sugar to nitrogen ratio of fresh and dry leaves were obtained under different field experiments with varied years and cultivar and N rates. The methods of partial least squares (PLS), back-propagation neural network (BPNN) and wavelet neural network (WNN) were used to develop the calibration models with the preprocessed spectra, respectively, and the dataset selected randomly was used to evaluate the constructed models. The results showed that the performance of the models for fresh-leaves was not satisfied, but good for dry-leaves with the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) by PLS, BPNN and WNN models based on 1655-2378 nm less than 0.3% and with the coefficients of determination (R2) over than 0.9, respectively. In comparison, the model based on WNN was the best one. All these indicated that near infrared spectrometry could be applied to estimating the soluble sugar to nitrogen ratio in plant. The results provided the theoretical basis and technological approach for diagnosing crop C/N. PMID:26685600

  12. Polysaccharides isolated from sugar beet pulp by quaternization under acidic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet pulp was extracted and chemically modified under acidic conditions using glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride in the presence of trifuoroacetic (TFA), HCl or H3PO4. The goal was to find out how the type of acid used and quaternization could affect the yield of soluble polysaccharide, its mo...

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of a cellulosic fraction from sugar beet pulp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The residue of sugar beet pulp from which pectin and alkaline soluble polysaccharides have been removed by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) or conventional heat was treated with sodium monochloroacetate under alkaline pH to convert the residual cellulose present to carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)....

  14. Fractionation of sugar beet pulp by introducing ion-exchange groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) was chemically modified with the goal to utilize this method for the preparation of water-soluble polysaccharides. Yields of the trimethylammoniumhydroxypropylated (TMAHP) polysaccharide fractions prepared under vacuum in absence of NaOH or KOH, as well as their molar masses, w...

  15. The tropical white rot fungus, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont.: lignocellulolytic enzymes activities and sugar release from cornstalks under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Adenipekun, Clementina O; Ohimain, Elijah I; Shahbazi, Ghasem

    2012-05-01

    Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., a high temperature tolerant white rot fungus that is found across sub-Saharan Africa and many parts of Asia, is attracting attention due to its rapid mycelia growth and potential for use in food and biodegradation. A solid state fermentation (SSF) experiment with L. squarrosulus (strain MBFBL 201) on cornstalks was conducted. The study evaluated lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, loss of organic matter (LOM), exopolysaccharide content, and the release of water soluble sugars from degraded substrate. The results showed that L. squarrosulus was able to degrade cornstalks significantly, with 58.8% LOM after 30 days of SSF. Maximum lignocellulolytic enzyme activities were obtained on day 6 of cultivation: laccase = 154.5 U/L, MnP = 13 U/L, peroxidase = 27.4 U/L, CMCase = 6.0 U/mL and xylanase = 14.5 U/mL. L. squarrosulus is a good producer of exopolysaccharides (3.0-5.13 mg/mL). Glucose and galactose were the most abundant sugars detected in the substrate during SSF, while fructose, xylose and trehalose, although detected on day zero of the experiment, were absent in treated substrates. The preference for hemicellulose over cellulose, combined with the high temperature tolerance and the very fast growth rate characteristics of L. squarrosulus could make it an ideal candidate for application in industrial pretreatment and biodelignification of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:22806017

  16. Selection of sugar cane families by using BLUP and multi-diverse analyses for planting in the Brazilian savannah.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M H P; Ferreira, A; Peixoto, L A; Resende, M D V; Nascimento, M; Silva, F F

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated different strategies to select sugar cane families and obtain clones adapted to the conditions of the Brazilian savannah. Specifically, 7 experiments were conducted, with 10 full sib families, and 2 witnesses in common to all experiments, in each experiment. The plants were grown in random blocks, with witnesses in common (incomplete blocks), and 6 repetitions of each experiment. The data were analyzed through the methodology of mixed patterns, in which the matrices of kinship between the families were identified by the method of restricted maximum likelihood. The characteristics that were evaluated included soluble solids content (BRIX), BRIX ton/ha, average mass of a culm, number of culms/m, and tons of culms/ha. A multi-diverse alternative based on the analysis of groupings by using the UPGMA method was used to identify the most viable families for selection, when considering the genotypic effects on all characteristics. This method appeared suitable for the selection of families, with 5 family groups being formed. The families that formed Group 2 appeared superior to all other families for all the evaluated characteristics. It is recommended that the families in Group 2 are preferentially used in sugar cane improvement programs to obtain varieties optimally adapted to the conditions of the Brazilian savannah. PMID:24668636

  17. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    PubMed

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes significant changes that lead to the end of shelf life. These products need to be protected from moisture uptake during storage. This review summarizes the concepts of water content, water activity, and glass transition and documents their importance to quality and shelf life of confections. PMID:20112158

  18. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The carbs in some foods (mostly those that contain simple sugars and highly refined grains, such as ... d have a huge problem since most foods contain them. Still, some carbohydrate-dense foods are healthier ...

  19. Smashing Bubbles and Vanishing Sugar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Science activities with soap bubbles for primary school children are described in this article. Another activity involves children in determining the whereabouts of sugar as it dissolves in water. (SA)

  20. Solubility of commercial milk protein concentrates and milk protein isolates.

    PubMed

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Roy, S; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Murray, B A

    2011-12-01

    High-protein milk protein concentrate (MPC) and milk protein isolate (MPI) powders may have lower solubility than low-protein MPC powders, but information is limited on MPC solubility. Our objectives in this study were to (1) characterize the solubility of commercially available powder types with differing protein contents such as MPC40, MPC80, and MPI obtained from various manufacturers (sources), and (2) determine if such differences could be associated with differences in mineral, protein composition, and conformational changes of the powders. To examine possible predictors of solubility as measured by percent suspension stability (%SS), mineral analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and quantitative protein analysis by HPLC was performed. After accounting for overall differences between powder types, %SS was found to be strongly associated with the calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sodium content of the powders. The FTIR score plots were in agreement with %SS results. A principal component analysis of FTIR spectra clustered the highly soluble MPC40 separately from the rest of samples. Furthermore, 2 highly soluble MPI samples were clustered separately from the rest of the MPC80 and MPI samples. We found that the 900 to 1,200 cm? region exhibited the highest discriminating power, with dominant bands at 1,173 and 968 cm?, associated with phosphate vibrations. The 2 highly soluble MPI powders were observed to have lower ?-casein and ?-(S1)-casein contents and slightly higher whey protein contents than the other powders. The differences in the solubility of MPC and MPI were associated with a difference in mineral composition, which may be attributed to differences in processing conditions. Additional studies on the role of minerals composition on MPC80 solubility are warranted. Such a study would provide a greater understanding of factors associated with differences in solubility and can provide insight on methods to improve solubility of high-protein milk protein concentrates. PMID:22118108

  1. Self-assembly in sugar-oil complex glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Hiteshkumar; Gao, Feng; Lee, Jing-Huei; Liberatore, Matthew; Ho, Chia-Chi; Co, Carlos C.

    2007-04-01

    In aqueous systems, the hydrophobic effect drives the self-assembly of amphiphiles into a broad range of micellar, rod-like, bicontinuous and liquid-crystalline complex fluids. Many of these are relevant to biological matter or technological applications. However, amphiphilic self-assembly is not limited to aqueous systems. Replacement of water with supercritical carbon dioxide, for example, results in complex fluids that combine the properties of gases and liquids. Along this vein, we explore the self-assembly of surfactants in anhydrous sugars. Our study reveals that anhydrous powders of sugars and surfactants suspended in oil spontaneously form molten glasses with nanometre-size domains of sugar and liquid oil without mixing. The low cost, water solubility, low toxicity and stabilizing properties of glassy sugars make them ideal water replacements for many pharmaceutical, food and materials synthesis applications. The optical clarity and solid appearance of these glasses at room temperature belie their inclusion of more than 50% (vol.) oil, which confers liquid-like diffusivity. The unique combination of solid- and liquid-like properties may lead to applications in sensors and optical devices.

  2. Diffusion of moisture in drying of sugar cane fibers and bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Ramirez, J.; Quintana-Hernandez, P.A.; Mendez-Lagunas, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, G.; Gonzalez-Alatorre, G.

    2000-05-01

    Sugar cane fibers and arrangements of fibers in cylindrical bundles were dried in a thermoanalyzer and their diffusive coefficients were calculated using the slope method. The effect of temperature, moisture content as well as structural changes were analyzed. Diffusion coefficients changed nonlinearly with moisture content and followed an Arrhenius-like functionality with temperature. The analysis of these effects suggested a liquid diffusion transport mechanism of moisture transfer inside sugar cane fibers and bundles.

  3. Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; da Silveira, M. A. G.; Gennari, R. F.; Garcia, I.; Medina, N. H.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

  4. Sugar Substrates for l-Lysine Fermentation by Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Snchez-Marroqun, A.; Ledezma, M.; Carreo, R.

    1970-01-01

    The extracellular production of l-lysine in media with cane sugar, blackstrap molasses, or clarified sugar-cane juice by a previously obtained mutant of Ustilago maydis was studied. Enzymatically inverted clarified juice (medium J-3) gave 2.9 g of lysine per liter under the following conditions: inoculum, 5%; pH 5.8; temperature, 30 C; KLa in the fermentors, 0.41 mmoles of O2 per liter per min; fermentation time, 72 hr. The concentrate, obtained by direct evaporation and drying of the fermentation broth, could be used as a possible feed supplement because of its amino-acid and vitamin content. PMID:5485081

  5. High CO2-mediated down-regulation of photosynthetic gene transcripts is caused by accelerated leaf senescence rather than sugar accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ludewig, F; Sonnewald, U

    2000-08-11

    The influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 on transcript levels of photosynthetic genes was investigated in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum cv. SamsunNN and cv. Wisconsin38 plants. Plants were grown under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800/1,000 ppm) atmospheric CO2, and transcript levels were determined in leaves of different age. Down-regulation of photosynthetic gene transcripts was apparent in senesing leaves only. A correlation between transcript levels and leaf contents of soluble sugars could not be found. To investigate whether a shift in leaf ontogeny would be involved in the regulation of photosynthetic genes transgenic tobacco plants expressing either the gus or ipt gene under control of the senescence-specific SAG-12 promoter [Gan, S. and Amasino, R.M. (1995) Science 270, 1986-1988] were included in our studies. As expected SAG-12-driven GUS activity increased with leaf age. This increase of GUS activity was stimulated by elevated atmospheric CO2, accompanied by a loss of chlorophyll and the down-regulation of photosynthetic genes, verifying that high CO2 accelerates leaf ontogeny. Senescence as well as down-regulation of photosynthetic genes could be delayed by ipt expression. Levels of soluble sugars were indistinguishable from wild type or even slightly elevated in ipt transgenic plants. Therefore, sugar accumulation as a cause for down-regulation of photosynthetic genes under high CO2 can be excluded. It appears more likely that the high CO2-mediated decline in photosynthetic gene transcripts is due to a temporal shift in leaf ontogeny. PMID:10940381

  6. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  7. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  8. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  9. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  10. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  11. Potential for generation of public electricity in cane sugar factories

    SciTech Connect

    Torisson, T.

    1984-04-01

    Sugar cane is the most efficient crop for the conversion of solar energy into biomass. The possibility of conservation of energy in cane sugar producing countries by substituting bagasse for imported oil, was studied in Guyana, South America and financed by the World Bank. The concept of cogeneration was considered, where the heat energy generated by burning bagasse of high fiber content is converted into steam and used both for electricity generation and generation of internal power. Several methods of achieving energy efficiency in this process were discussed such as efficient generation and use of the steam by using high pressure boilers, drying and pelletization of bagasse, and using sugar cane trash as fuel. About 40% of the bagasse could be available for the generation of electric energy. A method for evaluation of the power potential showed that the quantity of public electricity produced, depended on certain important process parameters, fiber content, steam conditions and process steam. The cost effectiveness of the project increases with increasing fiber content in the sugar cane.

  12. Water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were <6.5%. The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with the method were comparable to the values declared. A disadvantage of the methods mentioned above is that sample composition has to be known in advance. According to European legislation, for example, foods might be fortified with riboflavin phosphate or thiamin phosphate, vitamers which are not included in the simultaneous separations described. Vitamin B2.--Viñas et al. elaborated an LC analysis of riboflavin vitamers in foods. Vitamin B2 can be found in nature as the free riboflavin, but in most biological materials it occurs predominantly in the form of 2 coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Several methods usually involve the conversion of these coenzymes into free riboflavin before quantification of total riboflavin. According to the authors, there is growing interest to know flavin composition of foods. The described method separates the individual vitamers isocratically. Accuracy of the method is tested with 2 certified reference materials (CRMs). Vitamin B5.-Methods for the determination of vitamin B5 in foods are limited because of their low sensitivity and poor selectivity. Pakin et al. proposed a post-column derivatization of pantothenic acid as a fluorescent compound and used this principle in a specific and sensitive method for the determination of free and bound pantothenic acid in a large variety of foods. A French laboratory invited European laboratories to participate in a series of collaborative studies for this method, which will be carried out in 2005/2006. A more sophisticated method was described by Mittermayer et al. They developed an LC-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the determination of vitamin B5 in a wide range of fortified food products. Application of the method to various samples showed consistent results with those obtained by microbiology. Vitamin B6.-Method 2004.07, an LC method for the analysis of vitamin B6 in reconstituted infant formula, was published by Mann et al. In contrast with this method, which quantifies vitamin B6 after converting the phosphorylated and free vitamers into pyridoxine, Viñas et al. published an LC method which determines 6 vitamin B6 related compounds, the 3 B6 vitamers, their corresponding phosphorylated esters, and a metabolite. Accuracy was determined using 2 CRMs. Results were within the certified ranges. Vitamin C.-Franke et al. described an extensive study to vitamin C and flavonoid levels of fruits and vegetables consumed in Hawaii. Vitamin C was determined by measuring ascorbic acid in its reduced state by LC and coulometric detection along with UV absorbance detection at 245 nm. No attempts were made to assess levels of dehydroascorbic acid. Most recent research revealed that cell uptake of dehydroascorbic acid is unlikely to play a major role, which may explain the very low vitamin C activity of orally administered L-dehydroascorbic acid in rats. The food levels found by Franke et al. are variably lower, higher, or equal in comparison to other studies. Iwase described a method for the determination of ascorbic acid in foods using L-methionine for the pre-analysis sample stabilization. Electrochemical detection was used for the quantification. Traditionally, metaphosphoric acid was proven to be a useful dissolving agent for the determination of ascorbic acid. However, it dissolves in water very slowly, it is hygroscopic, and accurate weighing is not easy. Adjustment at pH 2-3 takes a long time. It appeared to be possible to replace metaphosphoric acid by 0.2% phosphoric acid. Methionine played an important role on the stability of ascorbic acid. The method seemed to be applicable to the routine analysis of ascorbic acid in foods. Folic Acid.-Microbiological analysis of total folate in foods is often considered as the golden standard compared to other methods based on, for example, LC. Koontz et al. showed results of total folate concentrations measured by microbiological assay in a variety of foods. Samples were submitted in a routine manner to experienced laboratories that regularly perform folate analysis fee-for-service basis in the United States. Each laboratory reported the use of a microbiological method similar to the AOAC Official Method for the determination of folic acid. Striking was, the use of 3 different pH extraction conditions by 4 laboratories. Only one laboratory reported using a tri-enzyme extraction. Results were evaluated. Results for folic acid fortified foods had considerably lower between-laboratory variation, 9-11%, versus >45% for other foods. Mean total folate ranged from 14 to 279 microg/100 g for a mixed vegetable reference material, from 5 to 70 microg/100 g for strawberries, and from 28 to 81 microg/100 g for wholemeal flour. One should realize a large variation in results, which might be caused by slight modifications in the microbiological analysis of total folate in foods or the analysis in various (unfortified) food matrixes. Furthermore, optimal combination of enzymes and reaction conditions may vary depending on the composition of the food. Padrangi and Laborde showed recently that treatment with alpha-amylase had no significant effect on measured folate in spinach, although addition of protease significantly increased the release of folate. LC/MS applications gain increasing attention because of their specificity. Rychlik used stable isotope dilution assays for the determination of the folate content of broccoli and bread. Compared to data in the literature and food data bases, amounts were significantly lower. Pawlosky et al., however, found comparable values for 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid and folic acid by HPLC analysis with fluorescent detection and HPLC/MS. Among samples analyzed were CRMs and broccoli. Besides folic acid, other water-soluble vitamins were also determined by LC/MS/MS by Leporati et al. The method was applied to the quantitative analysis of the natural content of vitamins in typical Italian pasta samples, as well as in fortified pasta samples produced for the U.S. market. Biotin.-A paper from Staggs et al. included the assertion that existing biotin data in food composition tables are inaccurate because the majority are based on bioassays with all relevant disadvantages. Data in most cases are overestimated with consequences for recommendations for dietary biotin intake. An HPLC/avidin-binding assay was used to analyze 87 foods to support the hypothesis mentioned. PMID:16512258

  13. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar...

  14. Effect of fat and sugar substitution on the quality characteristics of low calorie milk drinks.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Shikha; Bajwa, Usha

    2012-12-01

    The study was undertaken to develop low calorie functional milk drinks using inulin and sucralose as fat and sugar substitutes, respectively. Cardamom was incorporated as a flavouring ingredient. The milk fat varied from 0.5 to 1.0%, sugar replacement from 0 to 100%, and inulin incorporation from 0 to 8%. The effect on total solids (TS), total soluble solids (TSS), specific gravity, viscosity and sensory scores was studied. Sugar replacement considerably decreased TS, TSS, viscosity and sensory scores. However, increase in inulin significantly improved these parameters. Addition of 4% inulin was found to impart viscosity and sensory properties equivalent to that of control (2% fat). The cardamom flavoured milk drinks were prepared by replacing sugar and adding 4% inulin in milk of 0.5% fat and 8.5% milk solid-not-fat. The calorific value decreased by 43% in the experimental milk drink compared to control. PMID:24293689

  15. Uncertainty assessment of source attribution of PM2.5 and its water-soluble organic carbon content using different biomass burning tracers in positive matrix factorization analysis - a case study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Renjian; Wu, Yunfei; Zhang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Xiaoling; Tang, Yixi; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2016-02-01

    Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing during four one-month periods in 2009-2010, with each period in a different season. Samples were subject to chemical analysis for various chemical components including major water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), element carbon (EC), trace elements, anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG), and mannosan (MN). Three sets of source profiles of PM2.5 were first identified through positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis using single or combined biomass tracers - non-sea salt potassium (nss-K(+)), LG, and a combination of nss-K(+) and LG. The six major source factors of PM2.5 included secondary inorganic aerosol, industrial pollution, soil dust, biomass burning, traffic emission, and coal burning, which were estimated to contribute 31±37%, 39±28%, 14±14%, 7±7%, 5±6%, and 4±8%, respectively, to PM2.5 mass if using the nss-K(+) source profiles, 22±19%, 29±17%, 20±20%, 13±13%, 12±10%, and 4±6%, respectively, if using the LG source profiles, and 21±17%, 31±18%, 19±19%, 11±12%, 14±11%, and 4±6%, respectively, if using the combined nss-K(+) and LG source profiles. The uncertainties in the estimation of biomass burning contributions to WSOC due to the different choices of biomass burning tracers were around 3% annually and up to 24% seasonally in terms of absolute percentage contributions, or on a factor of 1.7 annually and up to a factor of 3.3 seasonally in terms of the actual concentrations. The uncertainty from the major source (e.g. industrial pollution) was on a factor of 1.9 annually and up to a factor of 2.5 seasonally in the estimated WSOC concentrations. PMID:26595400

  16. 3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: South side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace (east) end to the smokestack (west) end of the boiling range. The sorghum pan sides are of redwood. The flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  17. 15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. Effects of Replacing Sucrose with Various Sugar Alcohols on Quality Properties of Semi-dried Jerky

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of replacing sucrose with sugar alcohols (sorbitol, glycerol and xylitol) on the quality properties of semi-dried jerky. Total 7 treatments of jerkies were prepared as follows: control with sucrose, and treatments with 2.5 and 5.0% of sucrose replaced by each sugar alcohol, respectively. Drying yield, pH, water activity, moisture content, shear force, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value, sugar content, and sensory evaluation were evaluated. Xylitol slightly decreased the pH when compared to the other sugar alcohols (p>0.05). The water activity of the semi-dried jerky was significantly reduced by treatment with glycerol and xylitol (p<0.05). The moisture content of semi-dried jerky containing various sugar alcohols was significantly higher than that of the control (p<0.05), while replacing sucrose with glycerol yielded the highest moisture content. The shear force of semi-dried jerky containing sugar alcohols was not significantly different for the sorbitol and glycerol treatments, but that replacing sucrose with 5.0% xylitol demonstrated the lowest shear force (p<0.05). The TBARS values of semi-dried jerkies with sugar alcohols were lower than the control (p<0.05). The sugar content of the semi-dried jerkies containing sorbitol and glycerol were lower than the control and xylitol treatment (p<0.05). In comparison with the control, the 5.0% xylitol treatment was found to be significantly different in the sensory evaluation (p<0.05). In conclusion, semi-dried jerky made by replacement with sugar alcohols improved the quality characteristics, while xylitol has applicability in manufacturing meat products. PMID:26761890

  19. Hot-melt extrusion of sugar-starch-pellets.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Chi-Wah; Rein, Hubert

    2015-09-30

    Sugar-starch-pellets (syn. sugar spheres) are usually manufactured through fluidized bed granulation or wet extrusion techniques. This paper introduces hot-melt extrusion (HME) as an alternative method to manufacture sugar-starch-pellets. A twin-screw extruder coupled with a Leistritz Micro Pelletizer (LMP) cutting machine was utilized for the extrusion of different types (normal-, waxy-, and high-amlyose) of corn starch, blended with varying amounts of sucrose. Pellets were characterized for their physicochemical properties including crystallinity, particle size distribution, tensile strength, and swelling expansion. Furthermore, the influence of sugar content and humidity on the product was investigated. Both sucrose and water lowered the Tg of the starch system allowing a convenient extrusion process. Mechanical strength and swelling behavior could be associated with varying amylose and amylopectin. X-ray powder diffractometric (XRPD) peaks of increasing sucrose contents appeared above 30%. This signified the oversaturation of the extruded starch matrix system with sucrose. Otherwise, had the dissolved sucrose been embedded into the molten starch matrix, no crystalline peak could have been recognized. The replacement of starch with sucrose reduced the starch pellets' swelling effect, which resulted in less sectional expansion (SEI) and changed the surface appearance. Further, a nearly equal tensile strength could be detected for sugar spheres with more than 40% sucrose. This observation stands in good relation with the analyzed values of the commercial pellets. Both techniques (fluidized bed and HME) allowed a high yield of spherical pellets (less friability) for further layering processes. Thermal influence on the sugar-starch system is still an obstacle to be controlled. PMID:26248144

  20. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  1. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.

    PubMed

    Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

    2012-03-21

    Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (? 300 mg/kg as P?O?), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (? 80%), increased the Mg (? 101%) and Si (? 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing. PMID:22364593

  3. Fatty Acids, Membrane Permeability, and Sugars of Stored Potato Tubers 1

    PubMed Central

    Spychalla, James P.; Desborough, Sharon L.

    1990-01-01

    The relationships of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber membrane permeability and membrane lipid composition to sugar accumulation were examined. Tubers from four potato cultivars were stored for 40 weeks at 3°C and 9°C. Rates of tuber membrane electrolyte leakage, total fatty acid composition, free fatty acid composition, and sugar content were measured throughout the storage period. Storage of tubers at 3°C caused dramatic increases in total fatty acid unsaturation, membrane permeability, and sugar content compared to tubers stored at 9°C. Cultivars with higher levels of fatty acid unsaturation had lower rates of membrane electrolyte leakage and lower sugar contents. We propose that high initial levels or high induced levels of membrane lipid unsaturation mitigate increases in tuber membrane permeability during storage, thus positively influencing the processing quality of stored potato tubers. PMID:16667818

  4. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Nolle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids. PMID:24228787

  5. Inter-relationship between growth analysis and carbohydrate contents of sweet sorghum cultivars and lines.

    PubMed

    Almodares, A; Taheri, R; Adeli, S

    2007-07-01

    The carbohydrate contents of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important industrial factor for crystal sugar or bioethanol production. In this study the relationship between growth analysis and carbohydrate contents were studied to recognize the best growth stages for sweet sorghum harvesting. Five sweet sorghum cultivars and four sweet sorghum lines were evaluated for leaf area index (LAI), net assimilation rate (NAR), relative growth rate (RGR) and stem crop growth rate (CGR) in relation to sucrose content, invert sugars and total sugar at booting, soft-dough, hard dough and post grain maturity Except at post grain maturitystage, the correlations among LAI, NAR and RGR forsucrose content and total sugar were positive and forinvert sugars were negative. The relationship between invert sugars including glucose, fructose, maltose and xylose athard dough stage regarding LAI, NAR and GRG were negative. As plant grows LAI, NAR and RGR increases which consequently increases sucroses content and decrease invert sugar. PMID:18380070

  6. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  7. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  8. Thallium (I), soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Thallium ( I ) , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  9. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  10. Studies of sugar composition and starch morphology of baked sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    PubMed

    Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lien, Ching-Yi; Liao, Wayne C

    2013-12-01

    Sugar composition of seven sweet potato cultivars was successfully analyzed. Fresh CYY95-26 sweet potatoes had the highest (8.41%) total sugar content while TNG73 had the lowest (4.5%). For these fresh sweet potatoes, maltose content was very low (0 ~ 0.39%). Because 49.92 ~ 92.43% of total sugars were sucrose, sucrose was the major sugar composition of fresh sweet potatoes. After the baking treatment, the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes was dramatically increased due to the formation of maltose. The maltose content significantly increased from 0 ~ 0.39% to 8.81 ~ 13.97% on dry weight basis. Therefore, maltose should be included in calculating the total sugar content. Electronic micrographs of fresh sweet potato samples showed that the size of starch granules was generally less than 20 μm. After the baking treatment, starch granules completely gelatinized. PMID:24426034

  11. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    PubMed

    vila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. PMID:24359831

  12. Changes in carbohydrate content in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) under low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Ftima; Lluch, Carmen; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

    2014-03-01

    The postharvest handling of zucchini fruit includes low-temperature storage, making cold stress unavoidable. We have investigated the changes of soluble carbohydrates under this stress and its relation with weight loss and chilling injury in zucchini fruit during postharvest storage at 4 C and 20 C for up to 14 days. Two varieties with different degrees of chilling tolerance were compared: Natura, the more tolerant variety, and Sinatra, the variety that suffered more severe chilling-injury symptoms and weight loss. In both varieties, total soluble carbohydrates, reducing soluble carbohydrates and polyols content was generally higher during storage at 4 C than at 20 C, thus these parameters are related to the physiological response of zucchini fruit to cold stress. However, the raffinose content increased in Natura and Sinatra fruits during storage at 4 C and 20 C, although at 20 C the increase in raffinose was more remarkable than at 4 C in both varieties, so that the role of raffinose could be more likely related to dehydration than to chilling susceptibility of zucchini fruit. Glucose, fructose, pinitol, and acid invertase activity registered opposite trends in both varieties against chilling, increasing in Natura and decreasing in Sinatra. The increase in acid invertase activity in Natura fruit during cold storage could contribute in part to the increase of these reducing sugars, whose metabolism could be involved in the adaptation to postharvest cold storage. PMID:24467899

  13. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  14. Integrated hydrolyzation and fermentation of sugar beet pulp to bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Rezi?, Ton?i; Oros, Damir; Markovi?, Iva; Kracher, Daniel; Ludwig, Roland; Santek, Boidar

    2013-09-28

    Sugar beet pulp is an abundant industrial waste material that holds a great potential for bioethanol production owing to its high content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. Its structural and chemical robustness limits the yield of fermentable sugars obtained by hydrolyzation and represents the main bottleneck for bioethanol production. Physical (ultrasound and thermal) pretreatment methods were tested and combined with enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase and pectinase to evaluate the most efficient strategy. The optimized hydrolysis process was combined with a fermentation step using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in a single-tank bioreactor. Optimal sugar beet pulp conversion was achieved at a concentration of 60 g/l (39% of dry weight) and a bioreactor stirrer speed of 960 rpm. The maximum ethanol yield was 0.1 g ethanol/g of dry weight (0.25 g ethanol/g total sugar content), the efficiency of ethanol production was 49%, and the productivity of the bioprocess was 0.29 g/lh, respectively. PMID:23851274

  15. Factors influencing water solubility and plant availability of mineral compounds in the tripartite fairy rings of Marasmius oreades (BOLT.: FR.) FR.

    PubMed

    Gramss, Gerhard; Voigt, Klaus-Dieter; Bergmann, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Fairy rings of M. oreades on pasture land were denoted by the dark-green vegetation. Grasses and rooted soils were analyzed to determine the influence of nonsymbiotic fungal mats on plant uptake of (heavy) metals. In soil colonized by M. oreades, degradation of 20-35% of plant roots in the presence of fungal laccase increased the content of dissolved organic carbon (3.74x), hexose sugar (3.75x), NH(3)/NH(4) (+) (5.1x), NO(3) (-) (11.1x), the number of aerobic bacteria (14.4x), and the formation of the phytochelators, oxalic, citric, and malonic acids. Soil pH diminished by 1.5 units mainly due to nitrification and carboxylic acid production. Although the solubility of trace elements increased (6.1x), plant roots had the same trace metal content as control plants, whereas the shoot content in Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Ti decreased by more than 50% due to inhibited root-to-shoot transfer. It is concluded that M. oreades and its associated bacteria increase the solubility of soil minerals significantly, but make them, due to presumed particularities in their complexation, less plant available and less re-complexable for the translocation into the plant vascular system. PMID:15678562

  16. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Prez, A.; Pez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  17. Evaluation of specificity of hydrolysis methods for separation of water-soluble carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various hydrolysis methods have been recommended to convert oligo- or polymeric water-soluble carbohydrates to monomers for detection in reducing sugar assays, but responses and specificity for different carbohydrates have not been well characterized. The study objective was to evaluate reducing sug...

  18. The Effect of Water, Sugars, and Proteins on the Pattern of Ice Nucleation and Propagation in Acclimated and Nonacclimated Canola Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Gusta, L.V.; Wisniewski, M.; Nesbitt, N.T.; Gusta, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared video thermography was used to observe ice nucleation temperatures, patterns of ice formation, and freezing rates in nonacclimated and cold acclimated leaves of a spring (cv Quest) and a winter (cv Express) canola (Brassica napus). Distinctly different freezing patterns were observed, and the effect of water content, sugars, and soluble proteins on the freezing process was characterized. When freezing was initiated at a warm subzero temperature, ice growth rapidly spread throughout nonacclimated leaves. In contrast, acclimated leaves initiated freezing in a horseshoe pattern beginning at the uppermost edge followed by a slow progression of ice formation across the leaf. However, when acclimated leaves, either previously killed by a slow freeze (2C h?1) or by direct submersion in liquid nitrogen, were refrozen their freezing pattern was similar to nonacclimated leaves. A novel technique was developed using filter paper strips to determine the effects of both sugars and proteins on the rate of freezing of cell extracts. Cell sap from nonacclimated leaves froze 3-fold faster than extracts from acclimated leaves. The rate of freezing in leaves was strongly dependent upon the osmotic potential of the leaves. Simple sugars had a much greater effect on freezing rate than proteins. Nonacclimated leaves containing high water content did not supercool as much as acclimated leaves. Additionally, wetted leaves did not supercool as much as nonwetted leaves. As expected, cell solutes depressed the nucleation temperature of leaves. The use of infrared thermography has revealed that the freezing process in plants is a complex process, reminding us that many aspects of freezing tolerance occur at a whole plant level involving aspects of plant structure and metabolites rather than just the expression of specific genes alone. PMID:15247390

  19. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

  20. A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan

    1998-10-01

    There is current interest in and concern for the development of environmentally friendly bioprocesses whereby biomass and the biodegradable content of municipal wastes can be converted to useful forms of energy. For example, cellulose, a glucose polymer that is the principal component of biomass and paper waste, can be enzymatically degraded to glucose, which can subsequently be converted by fermentation or further enzymatic reaction to fuels such as ethanol or hydrogen. These products represent alternative energy sources to fossil fuels such as oil. Demonstration of the relevant reactions in high-school and undergraduate college laboratories would have value not only in illustrating environmentally friendly biotechnology for the utilization of renewable energy sources, such as cellulosic wastes, but could also be used to teach the principles of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter. Furthermore, it is shown that the renewable resource cellulose, in its soluble derivative from carboxymethylcellulose, as well as aspen-wood waste, is also a source of hydrogen if the enzyme cellulase is included in the reaction mixture.

  1. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    PubMed

    Valli, Veronica; Gmez-Caravaca, Ana Mara; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of ?-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

  2. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  3. Direct determination of sugar cane quality parameters by X-ray spectrometry and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Melquiades, F L; Bortoleto, G G; Marchiori, L F S; Bueno, M I M S

    2012-10-31

    Current methods for quality control of sugar cane are performed in extracted juice using several methodologies, often requiring appreciable time and chemicals (eventually toxic), making the methods not green and expensive. The present study proposes the use of X-ray spectrometry together with chemometric methods as an innovative and alternative technique for determining sugar cane quality parameters, specifically sucrose concentration, POL, and fiber content. Measurements in stem, leaf, and juice were performed, and those applied directly in stem provided the best results. Prediction models for sugar cane stem determinations with a single 60 s irradiation using portable X-ray fluorescence equipment allows estimating the % sucrose, % fiber, and POL simultaneously. Average relative deviations in the prediction step of around 8% are acceptable if considering that field measurements were done. These results may indicate the best period to cut a particular crop as well as for evaluating the quality of sugar cane for the sugar and alcohol industries. PMID:23039086

  4. Effect of processing and storage time on the vitamin C and lycopene contents of nectar of pink guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    PubMed

    Ordez-Santos, Lus E; Vzquez-Riascos, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the effect of processing and storage time on the vitamin C and lycopene contents was evaluated. Guavas were washed, cut in quarters, blanched, pulped and the pulp pasteurized. The pulp was used for the production of nectar: guava pulp, sugar and water were mixed in 5:3:12 proportions, and the mixture was pasteurized, poured while hot into 125 mL glass jars, and cooled rapidly to 25 degrees C. The production of nectar from fresh guava reduced vitamin C, lycopene and titratable acidity, by contrast soluble solid and pH increased significant. Vitamin C content from 168.9 to 62.3 mg/(100 g fresh weight), and lycopene content from 3.55 to 1.35 mg/(100 g fresh weight) (p < 0.001 in both cases. After 240 days at 10.0 +/- 2 degrees C, no further statistically significant change in lycopene and soluble solid content was observed (p > 0.05). Storage time did affect vitamin C, pH, and titratable acidity content, vitamin C content fell by 89.3% to 6.67 mg/(100 g fresh weight) (p < 0.001). Based on this study, guava nectar storage at 10 degrees C retained 46% of the content of vitamin C for 120 days. PMID:21612147

  5. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Dietary fiber is the part of food that is not affected by the digestive process in the body. ... of the stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and ...

  6. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  7. Sugar Canes as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar cane crops currently being grown in the South can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for both renewable transportation fuel and food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service’s Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is g...

  8. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  9. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  10. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  11. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  12. Growing of sugar cane for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, R.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

  13. BIOLISTIC TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR BEET CELL SUSPENSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonproprietary sugar beet transformation methods are plagued by low transformation frequencies and lack of reproducibility. In efforts to optimize the methods, we established highly embryogenic sugar beet cell suspension cultures for transformation by the particle bombardment method. Callus obtain...

  14. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Kids > When Blood Sugar ... glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. What Is Hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia (say: hi-per-gly-SEE-me- ...

  15. Effects of pressing lignocellulosic biomass on sugar yield in two-stage dilute-acid hydrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Heon; Tucker, Melvin P; Nguyen, Quang A

    2002-01-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid catalyzed hydrolysis of biomass such as wood chips often involves pressing the wood particles in a dewatering step (e.g., after acid impregnation) or in compression screw feeders commonly used in continuous hydrolysis reactors. This study addresses the effects of pressing biomass feedstocks using a hydraulic press on soluble sugar yield obtained from two-stage dilute-acid hydrolysis of softwood. The pressed acid-impregnated feedstock gave significantly lower soluble sugar yields than the never-pressed (i.e., partially air-dried or filtered) feedstock. Pressing acid-impregnated feedstocks before pretreatment resulted in a soluble hemicellulosic sugar yield of 76.9% from first-stage hydrolysis and a soluble glucose yield of 33.7% from second-stage hydrolysis. The dilute-acid hydrolysis of partially air-dried feedstocks having total solids and acid concentrations similar to those of pressed feedstocks gave yields of 87.0% hemicellulosic sugar and 46.9% glucose in the first and second stages, respectively. Microscopic examination of wood structures showed that pressing acid-impregnated wood chips from 34 to 54% total solids (TS) did not cause the wood structure to collapse. However, pressing first-stage pretreated wood chips (i.e., feedstock for second-stage hydrolysis) from approximately 30 to 43% TS caused the porous wood matrix to almost completely collapse. It is hypothesized that pressing alters the wood structure and distribution of acid within the cell cavities, leading to uneven heat and mass transfer during pretreatment using direct steam injection. Consequently, lower hydrolysis yield of soluble sugars results. Dewatering of corn stover by pressing did not impact negatively on the sugar yield from single-stage dilute-acid pretreatment. PMID:12052064

  16. Anhydrite solubility in differentiated arc magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masotta, M.; Keppler, H.

    2015-06-01

    The solubility of anhydrite in differentiated arc magmas was experimentally studied at 200 MPa and 800-1000 C over a range of oxygen fugacities, from 0.5 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer to the hematite-magnetite buffer. Anhydrite is stable only at oxidizing conditions (fO2 ? Re-ReO2), whereas sulfides only form under reducing conditions. The solubility of anhydrite in the melt ultimately regulates the amount of sulfur available to partition between melt and fluid phase during the eruption. At oxidizing conditions, the solubility product of anhydrite increases with temperature, nbo/t and melt water content. We provide a new calibration of the anhydrite solubility product (KSP = XCaO * XSO3), which reproduces all available experimental data with greatly improved accuracy: In this equation, the molar fractions XCaO and XSO3 in the melt as well as the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms per tetrahedron (nbo/t) are calculated on an anhydrous basis (H2O refers to the melt water content, T is temperature in Kelvin). We apply our model to estimate the sulfur yield of some recent volcanic eruptions and we show that the sulfur yield of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo dacite eruption was unusually large, because only a small fraction of the sulfur was locked up in anhydrite. In general, high sulfur yields are expected when anhydrite solubility in the melt is high, i.e. for somewhat depolymerized melts. For rhyolitic systems, most of the available sulfur will be locked up in anhydrite, so that even very large eruptions may only have a small effect on global surface temperatures. Our model therefore allows improved predictions of the environmental impact of explosive volcanic eruptions.

  17. Compositional Analysis of Water-Soluble Materials in Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. F.; Mowery, R. A.; Scarlata, C. J.; Chambliss, C. K.

    2007-01-01

    Corn stover is one of the leading feedstock candidates for commodity-scale biomass-to-ethanol processing. The composition of water-soluble materials in corn stover has been determined with greater than 90% mass closure in four of five representative samples. The mass percentage of water-soluble materials in tested stover samples varied from 14 to 27% on a dry weight basis. Over 30 previously unknown constituents of aqueous extracts were identified and quantified using a variety of chromatographic techniques. Monomeric sugars (primarily glucose and fructose) were found to be the predominant water-soluble components of corn stover, accounting for 30-46% of the dry weight of extractives (4-12% of the dry weight of feedstocks). Additional constituents contributing to the mass balance for extractives included various alditols (3-7%), aliphatic acids (7-21%), inorganic ions (10-18%), oligomeric sugars (4-12%), and a distribution of oligomers tentatively identified as being derived from phenolic glycosides (10-18%).

  18. Soluble inhibitors/deactivators of cellulase enzymes from lignocellulosic biomass.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Kim Y; Ximenes E; Mosier NS; Ladisch MR

    2011-04-07

    Liquid hot water, steam explosion, and dilute acid pretreatments of lignocellulose generate soluble inhibitors which hamper enzymatic hydrolysis as well as fermentation of sugars to ethanol. Toxic and inhibitory compounds will vary with pretreatment and include soluble sugars, furan derivatives (hydroxymethyl fulfural, furfural), organic acids (acetic, formic and, levulinic acid), and phenolic compounds. Their effect is seen when an increase in the concentration of pretreated biomass in a hydrolysis slurry results in decreased cellulose conversion, even though the ratio of enzyme to cellulose is kept constant. We used lignin-free cellulose, Solka Floc, combined with mixtures of soluble components released during pretreatment of wood, to prove that the decrease in the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis is due to a combination of enzyme inhibition and deactivation. The causative agents were extracted from wood pretreatment liquid using PEG surfactant, activated charcoal or ethyl acetate and then desorbed, recovered, and added back to a mixture of enzyme and cellulose. At enzyme loadings of either 1 or 25mg protein/g glucan, the most inhibitory components, later identified as phenolics, decreased the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis by half due to both inhibition and precipitation of the enzymes. Full enzyme activity occurred when the phenols were removed. Hence detoxification of pretreated woods through phenol removal is expected to reduce enzyme loadings, and therefore reduce enzyme costs, for a given level of cellulose conversion.

  19. Soluble inhibitors/deactivators of cellulase enzymes from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Ximenes, Eduardo; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R

    2011-04-01

    Liquid hot water, steam explosion, and dilute acid pretreatments of lignocellulose generate soluble inhibitors which hamper enzymatic hydrolysis as well as fermentation of sugars to ethanol. Toxic and inhibitory compounds will vary with pretreatment and include soluble sugars, furan derivatives (hydroxymethyl fulfural, furfural), organic acids (acetic, formic and, levulinic acid), and phenolic compounds. Their effect is seen when an increase in the concentration of pretreated biomass in a hydrolysis slurry results in decreased cellulose conversion, even though the ratio of enzyme to cellulose is kept constant. We used lignin-free cellulose, Solka Floc, combined with mixtures of soluble components released during pretreatment of wood, to prove that the decrease in the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis is due to a combination of enzyme inhibition and deactivation. The causative agents were extracted from wood pretreatment liquid using PEG surfactant, activated charcoal or ethyl acetate and then desorbed, recovered, and added back to a mixture of enzyme and cellulose. At enzyme loadings of either 1 or 25mg protein/g glucan, the most inhibitory components, later identified as phenolics, decreased the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis by half due to both inhibition and precipitation of the enzymes. Full enzyme activity occurred when the phenols were removed. Hence detoxification of pretreated woods through phenol removal is expected to reduce enzyme loadings, and therefore reduce enzyme costs, for a given level of cellulose conversion. PMID:22112958

  20. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  1. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  2. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS...

  4. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  5. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  6. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  7. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  8. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Friend Who Cuts? Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Teens > Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Print A A A Text Size What's in ... prevent future problems, you have to keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range. To do that, ...

  9. Vitamin C and reducing sugars in the world collection of Capsicum baccatum L. genotypes.

    PubMed

    Perla, Venu; Nimmakayala, Padma; Nadimi, Marjan; Alaparthi, Suresh; Hankins, Gerald R; Ebert, Andreas W; Reddy, Umesh K

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze 123 genotypes of Capsicum baccatum L. originating from 22 countries, at two stages of fruit development, for vitamin C content and its relationship with reducing sugars in fruit pericarp. Among the parametric population, vitamin C and reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 2.54 to 50.44 and 41-700mgg(-1) DW of pericarp, respectively. Overall, 14 genotypes accumulated 50-500% of the RDA of vitamin C in each 2g of fruit pericarp on a dry weight basis. Compared with ripened fruits, matured (unripened) fruits contained higher vitamin C and lower reducing sugars. About 44% variation in the vitamin C content could be ascribed to levels of reducing sugars. For the first time, this study provides comprehensive data on vitamin C in the world collection of C. baccatum genotypes that could serve as a key resource for food research in future. PMID:26920284

  10. Effect of partial replacement of sugar with stevia on the quality of kulfi.

    PubMed

    Giri, Apurba; Rao, H G Ramachandra; V, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    Stevia is a natural sweetener obtained from the leaf of Stevia rebaudiana plant. Its refined extract powder is 130-300 times sweeter than sucrose. Besides, it prevents diabetes, decreases weight, prevents tooth decay, increases digestion etc. Dietetic kulfi was produced, in which 50, 60 and 70% sugar was replaced with 0.05, 0.06 and 0.07% refined stevia extract powder respectively. At higher levels of sugar replacement there was a significant decrease in specific gravity, melting rate, carbohydrate percentage and total calorie content and a significant increase in freezing point, hardness and fat, protein, ash and moisture percentage. Kulfi prepared by replacing half the sugar content with stevia was adjudged on par with the control in sensory characteristics. Above 50% sugar replacement resulted in bitterness, lack of brownish appearance and presence of icy texture. PMID:25114356

  11. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energys sugar process (CLE Sugar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energys Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has been demonstrated to be effective on hardwood and herbaceous biomass, making it truly feedstock flexible. Conclusions Different options exist for integrating lignocellulosic sugar into sugar-using operations. A sugar conversion plant may be adjacent to a CLE Sugar plant, and the CLE Sugar can be concentrated from the initial 10% sugar as needed. Concentrated sugars, however, can be shipped to remote sites such as ethanol plants or other sugar users. In such cases, options for shipping a dense form of sugars include (1) pretreated biomass with enzyme addition, (2) lignocellulosic sugar syrup, and (3) lignocellulosic sugar solid. These could provide the advantage of maximizing the use of existing assets. PMID:23356449

  12. Kinetics of the lamellar gel-fluid transition in phosphatidylcholine membranes in the presence of sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Lenné, Thomas; Garvey, Christopher J.; Koster, Karen L.; Bryant, Gary

    2014-09-24

    Phase diagrams are presented for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the presence of sugars (sucrose) over a wide range of relative humidities (RHs). The phase information presented here, determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), is shown to be consistent with previous results achieved by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both techniques show a significant effect of sucrose concentration on the phase behaviour of this phospholipid bilayer. An experimental investigation into the effect of sugars on the kinetic behaviour of the gel to fluid transition is also presented showing that increasing the sugar content appears to slightly increase the rate at which the transition occurs.

  13. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of

  14. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  15. [EFFECT OF MYCOPLASMA INFECTION TO FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF CALLUS CULTURE SUGAR BEET].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, L P; Korobkova, K S; Ostapchuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum str. 118 to fatty acid composition of sugar beet calluses. It was established that acting of acholeplasma results to changes in the quantitative content of the individual fatty acids and in the qualitative composition of fatty acids in the lipids of calluses. The changing of the fatty acid composition of calluses lipids of sugar beet infected by A. laidlawii vargranulum str. 118 is observed as nonspecific response to biotic stress. PMID:26829840

  16. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    DOEpatents

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  17. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  18. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  19. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  20. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  1. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  2. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  3. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  4. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  5. Influence of Plant Growth at High CO2 Concentrations on Leaf Content of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase and Intracellular Distribution of Soluble Carbohydrates in Tobacco, Snapdragon, and Parsley.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Bd.; Palmquist, D. E.; Seemann, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    We have examined the possible role of leaf cytosolic hexoses and the expression of mannitol metabolism as mechanisms that may affect the repression of photosynthetic capacity when plants are grown at 1000 versus 380 [mu]L L-1 CO2. In plants grown at high CO2, leaf ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase content declined by [greater than or equal to]20% in tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) but was not affected in the mannitol-producing species snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and parsley (Petroselinum hortense). In the three species mesophyll glucose and fructose at midday occurred almost entirely in the vacuole (>99%), irrespective of growth CO2 levels. The estimated cytosolic concentrations of glucose and fructose were [less than or equal to]100 [mu]M. In the three species grown at high CO2, total leaf carbohydrates increased 60 to 100%, but mannitol metabolism did not function as an overflow mechanism for the increased accumulation of carbohydrate. In both snapdragon and parsley grown at ambient or high CO2, mannitol occurred in the chloroplast and cytosol at estimated midday concentrations of 0.1 M or more each. The compartmentation of leaf hexoses and the metabolism of alternate carbohydrates are further considered in relation to photosynthetic acclimation to high levels of CO2. PMID:12223804

  6. Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills.

    PubMed

    Lohrey, Christian; Kochergin, Vadim

    2012-03-01

    Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20% ds (dry solids) or 30% ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E(R) (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO(2) utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000 ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530 ha algae farm can produce 5.8 million L of biodiesel/yr and reduce CO(2) emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels. PMID:22265980

  7. Sugar, Uric Acid, and the Etiology of Diabetes and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L. Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Lanaspa, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructose metabolism that accounts for why fructose intake increases the risk for metabolic syndrome. Recent studies show that fructose-induced uric acid generation causes mitochondrial oxidative stress that stimulates fat accumulation independent of excessive caloric intake. These studies challenge the long-standing dogma that “a calorie is just a calorie” and suggest that the metabolic effects of food may matter as much as its energy content. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provides new insights into pathogenesis and therapies for this important disease. PMID:24065788

  8. Effect of sensory exposure on liking for fat- or sugar-reduced biscuits.

    PubMed

    Biguzzi, Coralie; Lange, Christine; Schlich, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of exposure to fat- or sugar-reduced biscuits on liking for these products. Two sets of biscuits were manufactured, each including a standard variant and 4 variants differing by the level of reduction of either fat or sugar content, to 33% of fat content or 28% of sugar content. Biscuit consumers were recruited to eat either the fat (n = 113) or the sugar-reduced set of biscuits (n = 106). They participated in 5 testing sessions, once a week, in laboratory conditions. During each session, they rated their liking of the 5 variants. At the end of each of the 4 first sessions, consumers were given 16 biscuits for their home consumption during the week. Participants were split into 3 groups of exposure: every week, a control group received the standard variant, a "direct" group received the most reduced variant and a "stepwise" group received a more and more reduced variant. After both control and stepwise exposure, almost no evolution of liking was observed. At the end of the direct exposure period to the 33% fat-reduced variant, liking for this variant significantly improved. On the contrary, after the direct exposure to the 28% sugar-reduced variant, liking only improved for 9 and 16% sugar-reduced variants. PMID:26145272

  9. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Mark L

    2015-02-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  10. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  11. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools

    PubMed Central

    Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. PMID:23498924

  12. IDENTIFICATION AND CONFIRMATION OF RAPD MARKERS AND ANDROMONOECIOUS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR SUGARS IN MELON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were to identify randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sucrose, total soluble solids (TSS), and sucrose percentage of total sugars (SPTS) using bulked segregant analysis in an F2 population from the melon (Cucumis melo L.) ...

  13. Understanding sugar yield loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharides accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolisis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, polysaccharides are cleaved by glycosyl hydrolases to soluble oligosaccharides and further hydrolyzed by ß-glucosidase, ß-xylosidase and other enzymes to monomeric sugars. However, not all oligosaccharides can be fully hydrolyzed and they may accumulate to 18-...

  14. Handbook of cane sugar engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hugot, E.

    1986-01-01

    The handbook has included the description of cane sugar manufacture, mills, diffusers, boilers and other factory machinery, calculation methods of capacity for every piece of equipment, and process and manufacturing techniques. This new edition has been revised and information that is either obsolete or of little interest has been deleted or shortened. Additions have been made in chapters dealing with recently developed equipment and a completely new chapter covers automation and data processing. Numerous figures, graphs, drawings, photographs, tables and formulae are provided.

  15. Irradiation of cane sugar spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, M. D. C. A.; Del Mastro, N. L.

    2000-03-01

    The present study deals with the effect of irradiation on the gas-chromatographic profile of irradiated cane sugar spirit irradiated in glass containers in the presence of oak chops with doses of 0-10 kGy. Volatile constituents were analyzed in a CG gas chromatographer with a flame ionization detector using a Megabore CG-745 column. The results are discussed considering the contribution of irradiation to the quality of the spirit and the contribution of the irradiated oak wood.

  16. Generating Water-Soluble Noxious Gases: An Overhead Projector Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Hur, Chinhyu

    1998-12-01

    A simple, inexpensive apparatus to generate and collect water-soluble noxious gases as an overhead projector demonstration can be made from two small beakers and a Petri dish. The detection and generation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are described. Sulfur dioxide dissolved in water is detected using an acid-base indicator, decolorizing of anthocyanin, or reduction of permanganate. The SO2 is generated by addition of sulfite or bisulfite to a strong acid or by the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid to sugars. Nitrogen dioxide is generated by mixing copper and nitric acid and detected using an acid-base indicator.

  17. Affinity chemiresistor sensor for sugars.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Chaker; Badhulika, Sushmee; Tran, Thien-Toan; Lee, Ilkeun; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2014-10-01

    In this work, a non-enzymatic chemiresistive sugar sensor has been developed by combining a synthetic receptor with aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) device. Briefly, boronic acid as a multivalent sugar receptor was immobilized on carbon nanotubes through amide bond formation. The interaction between three common sugars (d-glucose, d-fructose and sucrose) and boronic acid modified SWNTs device was studied. The effect of pH on the receptor-ligand binding was examined and highest response was observed at pH 9. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited specific and reproducible detection with sensitivity over the concentration range of 1-20mM, 1-25 mM, and 1-30 mM for fructose, glucose, and sucrose, respectively. The sensor showed no interference from common electroactive compounds such as citric acid, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensor retained 97.4% of the initial value after five regeneration cycles with an acidic buffer at pH 5, thus ensuring good reusability. PMID:25059188

  18. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  19. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  20. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...