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Soluble Sugar Contents, Germination, and Vigor of Soybean Seeds in Response to Drought Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of drought stress on seed germination and vigor of soybean in relation with soluble sugars. Three drought stress treatments, well-watered treatment (WW), gradual stress (GS) imposed prior to severe stress treatment, and sudden severe stress (SS), were imposed on soybean plants at beginning seed fill stage (R5) for 20–23 d. Drought

N. H. Samarah; R. E. Mullen; I. Anderson



Ultraviolet-visible transmittance techniques for rapid analysis of sugar content and soluble solids content of fresh navel orange juices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar content (SC) and soluble solids content (SSC) are very important factors of navel orange internal quality and can be measured non-invasively by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. The feasibility and methods of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic techniques for rapid quantifying SC and SSC of navel orange fresh juices was investigated by its spectral transmittance. A total 55 juice samples were used to develop the calibration and prediction models. Different spectra correction algorithms (constant, multiplicative signal correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) were compared in our work. Three different kinds of mathematical spectra treatments (original, first derivative and second derivative) of spectra in the range of 200-800 nm and two kinds of reference standards were also investigated. Three kinds of models including partial least square regression (PLSR), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principle component regression (PCR) were evaluated for the determination of SC and SSC in navel orange juice. Calibration models based on the different spectral ranges were also compared. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of prediction set of samples. The correlation coefficients of calibration models for SC and SSC were 0.965 and 0.961, the correlation coefficients of prediction models for SC and SSC were 0.857 and 0.888, and the corresponding RMSEP were 0.562 and 0.492 respectively. The results show that ultraviolet-visible transmittance technique is a feasible method for non-invasive estimation of fruit juice SC and SSC.

Liu, Yande; Ouyang, Aiguo; Luo, Ji; Ying, Yibin



Effect of macronutrients and pH on the growth, nitrogen fixation and soluble sugar content of water fern Azolla pinnata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficiency in Ca and P in mineral medium reduced the growth and nitrogen content ofAzolla pinnata but increased the content of soluble sugars in the plant; the deficiency in K and Mg was less effective in retarding the\\u000a growth. The pH of the medium from 5 to 8 encouraged the growth and nitrogen fixation, whereas acidic pH of 4 as

B. P. R. Subudhi; P. K. Singh



The effects of high CO 2 levels on anthocyanin composition, antioxidant activity and soluble sugar content of strawberries stored at low non-freezing temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins and sugars are involved in the responses of fruit to environmental stress. The effect of low temperature (0°C) in ‘Camarosa’ strawberries and also the influence of high CO2 levels (20% CO2 for 3days) on the water-soluble sugars and on the levels of individual anthocyanins were assessed, as well as their association with antioxidant activity, total phenolics and colour. Anthocyanins

Oscar G. Bodelón; María Blanch; María T. Sanchez-Ballesta; María I. Escribano; Carmen Merodio



Content of iron, copper and zinc in white sugar samples from Polish and other European sugar factories.  


White sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small, significant amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The aim was to evaluate the content of iron, copper and zinc in samples of white sugar from Polish factories compared with commercial white sugar samples from other European countries. The investigations were conducted on 72 campaign-averaged white sugar samples from 37 different Polish sugar factories from 1996 to 2000 and on 16 commercial white sugar samples from nine European countries. The content of iron, copper and zinc in those sugar samples was determined by means of FAAS both in the sediment and in the solution after filtration on 0.45- micro m filters of sugar water solution. The content of iron, copper and zinc was low (averages 0.29, 0.06 and 0.07 mg x kg(-1), respectively) in all the white sugar samples from Polish sugar factories and other European countries. Iron and copper found in all white sugar samples were mainly in insoluble form - 77 and 69%, respectively. The contents of water-insoluble iron and water-soluble zinc in white sugar increase with a lowering of the quality of sugar evaluated according to the standards of the EU sugar market regime. PMID:12443561

Wojtczak, M; Król, B



Enzymatic Production of Soluble Sugars from Corn Husks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the three commercial enzyme preparations examined, Rapidase Pomaliq (Gist-brocades) was found to yield more soluble sugars from corn husks than Celluclast 1.5 L (Novo Nordisk) or Clarex ML (Genencor). Under favorable conditions (pretreated with 1.25 M NaOH, followed by 30 h of reaction at 50°C and pH 5.0), Rapidase Pomaliq was capable of increasing the concentration of soluble sugars

Y. D. Hang; E. E. Woodams



Solubility of Sugars and Sugar Alcohols in Ionic Liquids: Measurement and PC-SAFT Modeling.  


Biorefining processes using ionic liquids (ILs) require proper solubility data of biomass-based compounds in ILs, as well as an appropriate thermodynamic approach for the modeling of such data. Carbohydrates and their derivatives such as sugar alcohols represent a class of compounds that could play an important role in biorefining. Thus, in this work, the pure IL density and solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in five different ILs were measured between 288 and 339 K. The ILs under consideration were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][DCA]), Aliquat dicyanamide, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate. Comparison with the literature data was performed, showing good agreement. With the exception of [bmim][DCA], the solubility of these sugar alcohols in the other ILs is presented for the first time. The measured data as well as previously published solubility data of glucose and fructose in these ILs were modeled by means of PC-SAFT using a molecular-based associative approach for ILs. PC-SAFT was used in this work as it has shown to be applicable to model the solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in ILs ( Paduszy?ski ; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013 , 117 , 7034 - 7046 ). For this purpose, three pure IL parameters were fitted to pure IL densities, activity coefficients of 1-propanol at infinite dilution in ILs, and/or xylitol solubility in ILs. This approach allows accurate modeling of the pure IL data and the mixture data with only one binary interaction parameter kij between sugar and the IL or sugar alcohol and the IL. In cases where only the pure IL density and activity coefficients of 1-propanol at infinite dilution in ILs were used for the IL parameter estimation, the solubility of the sugars and sugar alcohols in the ILs could be predicted (kij = 0 between sugar and the IL or sugar alcohol and the IL) with reasonable accuracy. PMID:23952078

Carneiro, Aristides P; Held, Christoph; Rodríguez, Oscar; Sadowski, Gabriele; Macedo, Eugénia A



Soluble sugars in the mycelium of the basidiomycete Oudemansiella mucida.  


Quantitative gas chromatography was used to determine soluble neutral sugars in an extract of the fungus Oudemansiella mucida grown on a synthetic glucose medium. Apart from the usual fungal sugar components, viz. trehalose, D-glucose, D-mannitol, D-arabinitol, glycerol and inositol, the 6-day-old mycelium contained D-arabino-2-hexosulose (D-glucosone). In the period of maximum growth, this aldoketose was the predominant monosaccharide (3.4% mycelial dry weight). PMID:744555

Volc, J; Wurst, M; Musílek, V



Soluble Sugars, Respiration, and Energy Charge during Aging of Excised Maize Root Tips  

PubMed Central

Oxygen uptake and energy charge were monitored during aging of excised maize root tips and related to the soluble sugar content and exogenous sugar supply. Oxygen uptake declined immediately after excision to 50 to 30% of its initial value after 8 and 24 hours of aging at 25 C. There was also a sharp decline of the total sugar content (glucose, fructose, and sucrose). Starch content was very low at the time of excision and almost negligible 5 hours later. During the same period, the respiratory quotient declined from 1 to 0.75 and then remained stable. The addition of exogenous sugars induced a rapid rise of the respiratory rate which stabilized at a level correlated to the external sugar concentration. Addition of 0.2 molar glucose was necessary to restore the respiratory rate to the initial, also the maximum, level. These results indicate that metabolic activity of root tips is highly reliant on sugar import and carbohydrate reserves at the time of excision cannot compensate for the cessation of import. The control of respiration by substrate supply is in good agreement with the failure for dinitrophenol to stimulate oxygen uptake in aged sugar-depleted root tips. The energy charge remained constant at about 0.9, irrespective of the presence or absence of glucose and in spite of a large decline of respiratory activity in aged, sugar-depleted tissues.

Saglio, Pierre H.; Pradet, Alain



Freezing tolerance and soluble sugar contents affected by water stress during cold-acclimation and de-acclimation in cabbage seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water stress on freezing tolerance during cold-acclimation and de-acclimation in cabbage seedlings were studied. The seedlings were subjected to water stress by withholding water. The treatment wilted the seedlings and decreased the water content of their shoots. Exposure of seedlings to low temperatures (5°C) for 7 days induced freezing tolerance. Water stress promoted the increase in freezing

Hidekazu Sasaki; Kazuo Ichimura; Kunihiko Okada; Masayuki Oda



Sugar Content and Activity of Sucrose Metabolism Enzymes in Milled Rice Grain  

PubMed Central

Most rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars grown in the United States were selected for endosperm starch properties and not soluble sugar content. The minor pool of soluble sugar may affect the qualities of rice as a food. Some cultivar variation in soluble sugar content was detected in milled grain, essentially the starchy endosperm, of long grain varieties. Milled grain of cultivars Lemont and Texmati had a soluble sugar content of 0.21 and 0.35% (w/w), respectively, on a fresh weight basis. The dorsal portion of the milled grain contained the greatest amount of soluble sugar, approximately tenfold the amount found in the central core of the grain. Extracts of the milled grain contained sucrose-phosphate synthase (EC and sucrose synthase (EC activities, which were separated by anion exchange chromatography. The presence of sucrose-phosphate synthase in the rice endosperm suggested a mechanism for sucrose accumulation which might be involved in carbon partitioning during grain development. Images Figure 3

Smyth, Douglas A.; Prescott, Henry E.



Production of granulated sugar from maple syrup with high content of inverted sugar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was the valorization of maple syrup of “D” class with 6% content of inverted sugar via the production of granulated sugar. Effect of the process parameters such as the residual pressure in the evaporator, mixing speed and crystal growing time on the crystallization yield, crystals mean size and sugar color was studied. The highest crystallization

M. Aider; D. de Halleux; K. Belkacemi



[Exogenous nitric oxide accelerates soluble sugar, proline and secondary metabolite synthesis in Ginkgo biloba under drought stress].  


The effects of exogenous nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on substance metabolism of Ginkgo biloba leaves under drought stress were studied. The results showed that 250 micromol/L SNP (Fig.2) treatment under 35% relative soil water content (RSWC) stress (Fig.1) raised remarkably soluble sugar content (Fig.3), proline content (Fig.4), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity (Fig.5), flavonoids (Fig.6) and ginkgolides content (Fig.7) of G. biloba leaves. Hemoglobin, used as NO scavenger, counteracted the effects of SNP in raising the soluble sugar (Fig.3), proline (Fig.4), flavonoid (Fig.6), ginkgolide content (Fig.7) and PAL activities (Fig.5), which indicates that the effects of sodium nitroprusside were through the nitric oxide released from sodium nitroprusside. We propose from these results that the roles of flavonoids and ginkgolides are the same as those of soluble sugars and proline under drought stress. NO may alleviate the damage caused by drought stress through raising soluble sugar, proline, flavonoid and ginkgolide content. PMID:18349503

Hao, Gang-Ping; Du, Xi-Hua; Shi, Ren-Jiu



So Sweet: Predict Sugar Content in Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will predict how much sugar is in familiar cereals and then use Nutrition Fact Labels to find out. Which cereals are the healthiest? Which has the least sugar? Learners also discuss whether advertisers are likely to tout or hide the amount of sugar in their foods. Variations include trying this basic activity with different foods and with salty snacks. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.




Content of starch and sugars and in vitro digestion of starch by ?-amylase in five minor millets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five varieties of minor millets were studied for their amylose, soluble amylose, amylopectin, soluble amylopectin, reducing sugar, total sugar and starch contents. Pure starch was isolated from each variety and the enzymic degradation of starch by porcine pancreatic a-amylase were examined with and without gelatinisation. Gelatinised sample ofEchinochloa frumentacea (var. K2) showed minimal hydrolysis and gelatinised sample ofPanicum miliaceum (var.

S. Krishnakumari; B. Thayumanavan



Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneous field-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was to quantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R); g 100g**-1 roo...


Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release  

PubMed Central

The primary obstacle to producing renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass is a plant's recalcitrance to releasing sugars bound in the cell wall. From a sample set of wood cores representing 1,100 individual undomesticated Populus trichocarpa trees, 47 extreme phenotypes were selected across measured lignin content and ratio of syringyl and guaiacyl units (S/G ratio). This subset was tested for total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis alone as well as through combined hot-water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using a high-throughput screening method. The total amount of glucan and xylan released varied widely among samples, with total sugar yields of up to 92% of the theoretical maximum. A strong negative correlation between sugar release and lignin content was only found for pretreated samples with an S/G ratio < 2.0. For higher S/G ratios, sugar release was generally higher, and the negative influence of lignin was less pronounced. When examined separately, only glucose release was correlated with lignin content and S/G ratio in this manner, whereas xylose release depended on the S/G ratio alone. For enzymatic hydrolysis without pretreatment, sugar release increased significantly with decreasing lignin content below 20%, irrespective of the S/G ratio. Furthermore, certain samples featuring average lignin content and S/G ratios exhibited exceptional sugar release. These facts suggest that factors beyond lignin and S/G ratio influence recalcitrance to sugar release and point to a critical need for deeper understanding of cell-wall structure before plants can be rationally engineered for reduced recalcitrance and efficient biofuels production.

Studer, Michael H.; DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Davis, Mark F.; Sykes, Robert W.; Davison, Brian; Keller, Martin; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Wyman, Charles E.



Effect of sugars on the solubility of hydrophobic solutes in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found that the cosolvent effect of sugars on the solubilities of n-octanol, n-heptanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate monomer in water depended on a set of factors that included molecular weight and concentration ofthe sugars, the kind of monosaccharides, the type of glycosidic linkages involved, and the temperature. All hexoses examined, D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-mannose, caused solubility depression of

Masanobu Janado; Toshiro Nishida



Involvement of soluble sugars in reactive oxygen species balance and responses to oxidative stress in plants.  


Soluble sugars, especially sucrose, glucose, and fructose, play an obviously central role in plant structure and metabolism at the cellular and whole-organism levels. They are involved in the responses to a number of stresses, and they act as nutrient and metabolite signalling molecules that activate specific or hormone-crosstalk transduction pathways, thus resulting in important modifications of gene expression and proteomic patterns. Various metabolic reactions and regulations directly link soluble sugars with the production rates of reactive oxygen species, such as mitochondrial respiration or photosynthesis regulation, and, conversely, with anti-oxidative processes, such as the oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway and carotenoid biosynthesis. Moreover, stress situations where soluble sugars are involved, such as chilling, herbicide injury, or pathogen attack, are related to important changes in reactive oxygen species balance. These converging or antagonistic relationships between soluble sugars, reactive oxygen species production, and anti-oxidant processes are generally confirmed by current transcriptome analyses, and suggest that sugar signalling and sugar-modulated gene expression are related to the control of oxidative stress. All these links place soluble carbohydrates in a pivotal role in the pro-oxidant and antioxidant balance, and must have constrained the selection of adaptive mechanisms involving soluble sugars and preventing de-regulation of reactive oxygen species production. Finally, in line with the specific role of sucrose in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, this role of soluble sugars in oxidative stress regulation seems to entail differential effects of glucose and sucrose, which emphasizes the unresolved issue of characterizing sucrose-specific signalling pathways. PMID:16397003

Couée, Ivan; Sulmon, Cécile; Gouesbet, Gwenola; El Amrani, Abdelhak



Sugar content of popular sweetened beverages based on objective laboratory analysis: focus on fructose content.  


The consumption of fructose, largely in the form of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), has risen over the past several decades and is thought to contribute negatively to metabolic health. However, the fructose content of foods and beverages produced with HFCS is not disclosed and estimates of fructose content are based on the common assumption that the HFCS used contains 55% fructose. The objective of this study was to conduct an objective laboratory analysis of the sugar content and composition in popular sugar-sweetened beverages with a particular focus on fructose content. Twenty-three sugar-sweetened beverages along with four standard solutions were analyzed for sugar profiles using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in an independent, certified laboratory. Total sugar content was calculated as well as percent fructose in the beverages that use HFCS as the sole source of fructose. Results showed that the total sugar content of the beverages ranged from 85 to 128% of what was listed on the food label. The mean fructose content in the HFCS used was 59% (range 47-65%) and several major brands appear to be produced with HFCS that is 65% fructose. Finally, the sugar profile analyses detected forms of sugar that were inconsistent with what was listed on the food labels. This analysis revealed significant deviations in sugar amount and composition relative to disclosures from producers. In addition, the tendency for use of HFCS that is higher in fructose could be contributing to higher fructose consumption than would otherwise be assumed. PMID:20948525

Ventura, Emily E; Davis, Jaimie N; Goran, Michael I



Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.  


Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273

Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The effect of NaCl, PEG, heat and cold treatments on growth, water content, FW, DW and soluble sugar levels in 3 day old seedlings of Sorghum bicolor CSH-6 were studied. Under these stress conditions, RWC and water potential of seedlings decreased dramatically. Subsequently this reduction resulted in the markable decrease in FW of different parts of stress imposed seedlings.

Prabhjot Kaur Gill; Arun Dev Sharma; Prabhjeet Singh; Sukdev Singh Bhullar



Nondestructive Measurement of Sugar Content in Apples by Millimeter-Wave Reflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A millimeter-wave reflectometer has been developed for the nondestructive measurement of the sugar content in apples. The intensity of the reflected wave from fruit was confirmed to depend on the sugar content and temperature by performing reflectometry with a vector network analyzer of aqueous sucrose solutions. Moreover, the developed reflectometer was applied to the sugar content measurement of apples. We obtained a strong, almost linear relationship between the intensity of the reflected wave and the sugar content in apples.

Oda, Makoto; Mase, Atsushi; Uchino, Kiichiro



Soluble sugar availability of aerobically germinated barley, oat and rice coleoptiles in anoxia.  


Physiological and metabolic responses to anoxia were compared for aerobically germinated seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa) and rice (Oryza sativa). Coleoptile growth of barley, oat and rice seedlings was suppressed by a 24 h-anoxic stress, but the growth of the rice coleoptiles was much greater than that of the barley and oat coleoptiles. ATP concentration in the anoxic rice coleoptiles was greater than that in the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles. Concentrations of ethanol and activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the anoxic rice coleoptiles were also greater than those of the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles, suggesting that ethanolic fermentation may be more active in the rice coleoptiles than in the barley and oat coleoptiles, where glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation are the main source of ATP production. Soluble sugar concentration in the anoxic rice coleoptiles was greater than that of the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles. However, ?-amylase, which catabolizes reserve starch to soluble sugars, was active in anoxic barley, oat and rice endosperms, and soluble sugar concentration in the anoxic barley, oat and rice endosperms was not significantly different. Therefore, anoxia stress may inhibit soluble sugar transport from the endosperms to the coleoptiles in barley and oat more than in rice. Since the availability of soluble sugar is essential for operation of glycolysis and fermentation in plant cells, ability for sugar transport from the endosperms to the coleoptiles may be one means to distinguish the coleoptile growth of these plant species in anoxia and anoxia tolerance of these plants. PMID:20727618

Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Yasuda, Yukihiro; Sasaki, Ryosuke



Sugar contents of Brandy de Jerez during its aging.  


Brandy de Jerez is aged in American oak casks according to the traditional dynamic system (Soleras y Criaderas) and sometimes additionally by the static system (Anadas). The experimental arrangement used here for the analytical monitoring of brandy aging consisted of 15 casks, 12 of which were set up for aging by the dynamic system, which is well established in the denomination of origin area, whereas the other 3 contained the same brandy but aged according to the static system. This paper studies the kinetics of sugar extraction from oak wood to distillate, as well as the possible correlations between the sugar contents in brandy and its age or the commercial type it belongs to (Solera, Solera Reserva, or Solera Gran Reserva). High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection was used as the analytical tool to measure the concentrations of glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose, and xylose, the presence of which in brandy has previously been described. PMID:15713020

Martínez Montero, Cristina; Rodríguez Dodero, M del Carmen; Guillén Sánchez, Dominico Antonio; García Barroso, Carmelo



Enrichment in Specific Soluble Sugars of Two Eucalyptus Cell-Suspension Cultures by Various Treatments Enhances Their Frost Tolerance via a Noncolligative Mechanism.  

PubMed Central

A cell-suspension culture obtained from the hybrid Eucalyptus gunnii/Eucalyptus globulus was hardened by exposure to lower temperatures, whereas in the same conditions cells from a hybrid with a more frost-sensitive genotype, Eucalyptus cypellocarpa/Eucalyptus globulus, were not able to acclimate. During the cold exposure the resistant cells accumulated soluble sugars, in particular fructose and sucrose, with a limited increase in cell osmolality. In contrast, the cell suspension that was unable to acclimate did not accumulate soluble sugars in response to the same cold treatment. To an extent similar to that induced after a cold acclimation, frost-hardiness of the cells increased after a 14-h incubation with specific soluble sugars such as sucrose, raffinose, fructose, and mannitol. Such hardening was also observed for long-term cultures in mannitol-enriched medium. This cryoprotective effect of sugars without exposure to lower temperatures was observed in both the resistant and the sensitive genotypes. Mannitol was one of the most efficient carbohydrates for the cryoprotection of eucalyptus. The best hardiness (a 2.7-fold increase in relative freezing tolerance) was obtained for the resistant cells by the cumulative effect of cold-induced acclimation and mannitol treatment. This positive effect of certain sugars on eucalyptus freezing tolerance was not colligative, since it was independent of osmolality and total sugar content.

Travert, S.; Valerio, L.; Fouraste, I.; Boudet, A. M.; Teulieres, C.



Seasonal dynamics of biomass, inulin, and water-soluble sugars in roots of Cynara cardunculus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cynara cardunculus accumulates inulin in large amounts in roots. Some representative types of cardoons and globe artichoke were genetically screened to select genotypes suitable for total sugar and inulin production in the Mediterranean environment. Seasonal dynamics of biomass, inulin, and water-soluble carbohydrate (W.S.C.) in roots of three taxa of C. cardunculus L. were studied for 2 years, in order to

Salvatore Antonino Raccuia; Maria Grazia Melilli



Antisense acid invertase (TIV1) gene alters soluble sugar composition and size in transgenic tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertase (P-fructosidase, EC hydrolyzes sucrose to hexose sugars and thus plays a fundamental role in the energy requirements for plant growth and maintenance. Transgenic plants with altered extracellular acid invertase have highly disturbed growth habits. We investigated the role of intracellular soluble acid invertase in plant and fruit development. Transgenic tomato (Lyco- persicon escukntum Mill.) plants expressing a constitutive

Ellen M. Klann; Alan B. Bennett



Three-dimensional image of sugar content visualization in a melon by spectral information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to visualize sugar content of a melon, the relationship between sugar content and absorption spectra was investigated using a near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer. The absorbance at 676 nm, which is close to the chlorophyll absorption band, had a high inverse correlation with sugar content. A high-resolution cooled CCD imaging camera with the band-pass filter of 676 nm was used to capture the spectral absorption image. The calibration method for converting the absorbance on the image into Brix sugar content was developed in accordance with NIR techniques. Applying this method to each pixel of the absorption image, a color distribution map of the sugar content was constructed. In addition, a special slicing device that can cut a melon in each 5 mm thickness was developed in order to create a 3D image of sugar content distribution.

Sugiyama, Junichi; Ogawa, Yukiharu



Antisense acid invertase (TIV1) gene alters soluble sugar composition and size in transgenic tomato fruit.  

PubMed Central

Invertase (beta-fructosidase, EC hydrolyzes sucrose to hexose sugars and thus plays a fundamental role in the energy requirements for plant growth and maintenance. Transgenic plants with altered extracellular acid invertase have highly disturbed growth habits. We investigated the role of intracellular soluble acid invertase in plant and fruit development. Transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants expressing a constitutive antisense invertase transgene grew identically to wild-type plants. Several lines of transgenic fruit expressing a constitutive antisense invertase gene had increased sucrose and decreased hexose sugar concentrations. Each transgenic line with fruit that had increased sucrose concentrations also had greatly reduced levels of acid invertase in ripe fruit. Sucrose-accumulating fruit were approximately 30% smaller than control fruit, and this differential growth correlated with high rates of sugar accumulation during the last stage of development. These data suggest that soluble acid invertase controls sugar composition in tomato fruit and that this change in composition contributes to alterations in fruit size. In addition, sucrose-accumulating fruit have elevated rates of ethylene evolution relative to control fruit, perhaps as a result of the smaller fruit size of the sucrose-accumulating transgenic lines.

Klann, E M; Hall, B; Bennett, A B



Iron, copper and zinc in white sugar from Serbian sugar beet refineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities such as iron, copper and zinc in refined white sugar determine the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The content of iron, copper and zinc was evaluated in 166 white sugar samples from four Serbian beet sugar refineries during the campaign of 2003. The production of the chosen sugar factories is accounted

B. Škrbi?; J. Gyura



Nodulation, nitrogen fixation, leaf area, and sugars content in Lablab purpureus as affected by sulfur nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore interrelations between S nutrition, soluble sugars, leaf area, nodulation and N2 fixation, greenhouse experiments were done with several levels of S added to perlite-sand cultures or to a moderately S-deficient soil. Sulfur had indirect effects on nodulation and N2 fixation, possibly by improving sugars supply and N metabolism.

M. G. Zaroug; D. N. Munns



Sugar content in watermelon juice based on dielectric properties at 10.45GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of sugar content in 10 matured red seedless watermelons by measuring the dielectric properties is described in this paper. The determination is made based on the comparison of watermelon juice and water with sugar mixture. The dielectric properties of both the extracted watermelon juice and water with sugar mixture are measured over the frequency range from 200 MHz to

M. M. Isa; N. Ibrahim; R. Shamsudin; M. H. Marhaban



On-line Fusion of Colour Camera and Spectrophotometer for Sugar Content Prediction of Apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current grading lines for fresh fruit use sensors that measure weight, size, and sometimes colour or firmness. However, none of them measures so far an important organoleptic criteria for the consumer: sugar content. Image analysis can provide colour information on the fruit, while near-infrared spectrophotometric data can be used in order to determine sugar content. Sensor fusion methodology is aimed

V. Steinmetz; J. M. Roger; E. Moltó; J. Blasco



Prediction of soluble solids content of blueberries using hyperspectral imaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soluble solids content (SSC) is one of the most important quality parameters for blueberry, and it directly relates to the marketability and shelf life of fresh blueberries. Currently, color imaging technology is being used for color and size grading of fruits like blueberry. The technology is, howe...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Total soluble solids content (TSS, °Brix), sucrose, glucose and fructose are important quality attributes of mango (Magnifera indica) fruit and have been shown to be useful for determining fruit maturity. The approach to develop a rapid, reliable, nondestructive method for quality evaluation of man...


Sugar, acid- and phenol contents in apple cultivars from organic and integrated fruit cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:This study was carried out to obtain data about the sugar-, acid- and phenol content of apple cultivars from organic and integrated fruit cultivation, with reference to their role in human health and especially for diet recommendations.Setting:Styria (Austria) and Slovenia.Interventions:HPLC, Spectral Photometry, organoleptic and olfactory tests.Results:The total sugar content of most cultivars from integrated cultivation ranged between 115 and 160

K Hecke; K Herbinger; R Veberi?; M Trobec; H Toplak; F Štampar; H Keppel; D Grill



The effect of exogenous sugar solution and high concentration of CO 2 on the contents of sugar and protein of Betula platyphylla leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content of total sugar sucrose, fructose and protein in the leaves of 3-yr-oldBetula platyphylia was measured after the treatment by three exogenous sugar solutions (sucrose, fructose, glucose) and three high concentrations\\u000a of CO2 (700, 1 400, 2 100 ?L·L?1) for about a month in 1998. The results showed that spraying three exogenous sugar solutions increased markedly the content\\u000a of

Zhou Yu-mei; Yang Chuan-ping; Wang Shu-juan; Wu Yue-liang; Wang Wen-zhang



Influence of Microgravity Environment on Root Growth, Soluble Sugars, and Starch Concentration of Sweetpotato Stem Cuttings  

PubMed Central

Because sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] stem cuttings regenerate very easily and quickly, a study of their early growth and development in microgravity could be useful to an understanding of morphological changes that might occur under such conditions for crops that are propagated vegetatively. An experiment was conducted aboard a U.S. Space Shuttle to investigate the impact of microgravity on root growth, distribution of amyloplasts in the root cells, and on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch in the stems of sweetpotatoes. Twelve stem cuttings of ‘Whatley/Loretan’ sweetpotato (5 cm long) with three to four nodes were grown in each of two plant growth units filled with a nutrient agarose medium impregnated with a half-strength Hoagland solution. One plant growth unit was flown on Space Shuttle Colombia for 5 days, whereas the other remained on the ground as a control. The cuttings were received within 2 h postflight and, along with ground controls, processed in ?45 min. Adventitious roots were counted, measured, and fixed for electron microscopy and stems frozen for starch and sugar assays. Air samples were collected from the headspace of each plant growth unit for postflight determination of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene levels. All stem cuttings produced adventitious roots and growth was quite vigorous in both ground-based and flight samples and, except for a slight browning of some root tips in the flight samples, all stem cuttings appeared normal. The roots on the flight cuttings tended to grow in random directions. Also, stem cuttings grown in microgravity had more roots and greater total root length than ground-based controls. Amyloplasts in root cap cells of ground-based controls were evenly sedimented toward one end compared with a more random distribution in the flight samples. The concentration of soluble sugars, glucose, fructose, and sucrose and total starch concentration were all substantially greater in the stems of flight samples than those found in the ground-based samples. Carbon dioxide levels were 50% greater and oxygen marginally lower in the flight plants, whereas ethylene levels were similar and averaged less than 10 nL·L ?1. Despite the greater accumulation of carbohydrates in the stems, and greater root growth in the flight cuttings, overall results showed minimal differences in cell development between space flight and ground-based tissues. This suggests that the space flight environment did not adversely impact sweetpotato metabolism and that vegetative cuttings should be an acceptable approach for propagating sweetpotato plants for space applications.

Mortley, Desmond G.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Williams, Carol S.; Davis, Ceyla F.; Williams, John W.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Petersen, Barbara V.; Wheeler, Raymond M.



On the mechanism and specificity of soluble, quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase in the oxidation of aldose sugars.  


Kinetic and optical studies were performed on the reductive half-reaction of soluble, quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (sGDH), i.e., on the conversion of sGDHox plus aldose sugar into sGDHred plus corresponding aldonolactone. It appears that the nature and stereochemical configuration of the substituents at certain positions in the aldose molecule determine the substrate specificity pattern: absolute specificity exists with respect to the C1-position (only sugars being oxidized which have the same configuration of the H/OH substituents at this site as the beta-anomer of glucose, not those with the opposite one) and with respect to the overall conformation of the sugar molecule (sugars with a 4C1 chair conformation are substrates, those with a 1C4 one are not); the nature and configuration of the substituents at the 3-position are hardly relevant for activity, and an equatorial pyranose group at the 4-position exhibits only aspecific hindering of the binding of the aldose moiety of a disaccharide. The pH optimum determined for glucose oxidation appeared to be 7.0, implying that reoxidation of sGDHred is rate-limiting with those electron acceptors displaying a different value under steady-state conditions. The kinetic mechanism of sGDH consists of (a) step(s) in which a fluorescing intermediate is formed, and a subsequent, irreversible step, determining the overall rate of the reductive half-reaction. The consequences of this for the likeliness of chemical mechanisms where glucose is oxidized by covalent catalysis in which a C5-adduct of glucose and PQQ are involved, or by hydride transfer from glucose to PQQ, followed by tautomerization of C5-reduced PQQ to PQQH2, are discussed. The negative cooperative behavior of sGDH seems to be due to substrate-occupation-dependent subunit interaction in the dimeric enzyme molecule, leading to a large increase of the turnover rate under saturating conditions. PMID:9753475

Olsthoorn, A J; Duine, J A



Sugar-dependent solubility and fluorescence property of copolymers consisting of phenylboronic acid and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate moieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copolymers consisting of N-3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (APBA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate moieties (HEMA) were synthesized and their solubility\\u000a and fluorescence properties were evaluated in the presence of sugar. The APBA–HEMA copolymer composed of 25 mol% of APBA moiety\\u000a was found to be poorly soluble in water at pH 7.4. However, the water solubility of APBA–HEMA was improved in the presence\\u000a of fructose in

Katsuhiko Sato; Tatsuya Nakajima; Yu Yasukawa; Jun-ichi Anzai



[Effects of bagging on pigment, sugar and endogenous hormone contents of Cara Cara orange flesh].  


This paper studied the effects of bagging during the period from young fruit formation to fruit coloration on the contents of pigment, sugar and endogenous hormone in Cara Cara orange flesh. The results showed that bagging could significantly increase the lycopene and beta-carotene contents of matured fruit, but didn't have any effects on its GA and ABA contents. The GA content decreased rapidly during fruit-expanding period, and maintained at a lower level in the period from fruit coloration to maturing. The ABA content reached the maximum when the bag was removed, decreased rapidly then, and there was a small peak before fruit maturation. Glucose and fructose contents were decreased, while sucrose content was increased significantly. No significant change was observed in total sugar content. PMID:16706049

Wang, Guiyuan; Xia, Renxue; Zeng, Xiangguo; Hu, Liming



[Nondestructive measurement of sugar content of Hami melon based on diffuse reflectance hyperspectral imaging technique].  


The research on nondestructive test for detecting the sugar content of Hami melon by the technology of hyperspectral imaging was put forward. The research used the hyperspectral imaging system to get the diffuse reflective spectrum information (400 - 1 000 nm) of anilox class Hami melon sugar content, chose effective whole wavelength (500 - 820 nm)to do the modeling regression analysis the sugar content of Hami melon. The research compared the correction method of MSC and SNV, and also compared the influence of accuracy of modeling in terms of the spectrum pretreatment methods of original spectrum, first order differential, second order differential; Using the methods of PLS, SMLR and PCR, the comparative analysis of sugar content detection model effect with skin Hami melon and peel Hami melon was conducted. The results showed that after the original spectrum being processed by MSC and first order differential spectrum, modeling effect could be very good using the method of PLS and SMLR. Synthesizing correction set correlation coefficient and forecast modeling effect, it's feasible to detect the sugar content of skin Hami melon by the PLS method, with a correction sample correlation coefficient (R(c)) of 0.861 and the lower root mean square errors of correction (RMSEC) of 0.627, and a prediction sample correlation coefficient (R(p)) of 0.706 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.873. The best effect to detecti the sugar content of peel Hami melon was obtained by the SMLR method with a correction sample correlation coefficient (R(c)) of 0.928 and the lower root mean square errors of correction (RMSEC) of 0.458, with a Prediction sample correlation coefficient (R(p)) of 0.818 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.727. The results of this study indicate that the technology of hyperspectral imaging can be used to predict the sugar content of Hami melon. PMID:23387186

Ma, Ben-Xue; Xiao, Wen-Dong; Qi, Xiang-Xiang; He, Qing-Hai; Li, Feng-Xia



Effect of ammonium concentration on alcoholic fermentation kinetics by wine yeasts for high sugar content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains in a synthetic medium with high sugar content were established for different nitrogen initial content and are presented for four strains. The composition of the medium was close to grape must except that the nitrogen source consisted mainly in ammonium and was varied from 120 to 290mgN\\/l assimilable nitrogen. The overall

Patricia Taillandier; Felipe Ramon Portugal; André Fuster; Pierre Strehaiano



Contents of sugars in leaves of drying desiccation tolerant flowering plants, particularly grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar complements were analysed in extracts from leaves of desiccation tolerant species in the angiosperm families Cyperaceae, Gesneriaceae, Liliaceae, Poaceae and Velloziaceae. Total sugar content was higher in live air-dry leaves of all desiccation tolerant species (except the grass Eragrostiella nardoides; 22 µmoles\\/g dw) than in the dead air-dry leaves of the desiccation sensitive grass Sporobolus pyramidalis (36 µmoles\\/g dw).

H. R. Ghasempour; D. F. Gaff; R. P. W. Williams; R. D. Gianello



Effects of Sugar Content and Temperature on Rheology and Microrheology of Israeli Honey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological properties of selected Israeli honeys were evaluated using both rheology and microrheology. Most honeys are Newtonian; their viscosity ranges over 3-4 orders of magnitude and the water content is typically between 13-29%. The viscosity of honey is determined by the temperature, the relative amount of water\\/sugar, and the molecular chain length of sugars present in the honey, which

Daphne Weihs



Effect of acetochlor treatment on Fusarium wilt and sugar content in melon seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of soil with the herbicide acetochlor at 0.1–1µg g-1 significantly decreased incidence of wilt due toFusarium oxysporum f. sp.melonis in melon seedlings. Glucose, fructose and sucrose increased in leaves of inoculated and uninoculated melon plants following acetochlor treatment. The increase in sugar levels in stems and roots was less pronounced. Light intensity affected sugar content and disease incidence. The

R. Cohen; B. Blaier; A. A. Schaffer; J. Katan



Changes in sugar composition and cellulose content during the secondary cell wall biogenesis in cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cotton cultivars TX19 and TX55 (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv.) were planted in the greenhouse and fibers were harvested at different stages of development. The percentage of sugars\\u000a present on the fibers was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and the cellulose content was determined using\\u000a the anthrone method. The percentage of sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and galacturonic acid) showed

Noureddine Abidi; Eric Hequet; Luis Cabrales



Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectric property sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500MHz at 25°C. Dielectric constants of pure honeys and water-added honey samples decreased monotonically with increasing frequency, and increased with increasing water content.

Wenchuan Guo; Xinhua Zhu; Yi Liu; Hong Zhuang



Negative cooperativity in the steady-state kinetics of sugar oxidation by soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.  


Steady-state-kinetics investigations were carried out for the oxidation of aldose sugars by soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus using N-methylphenazonium methyl sulfate (PMS) as artificial electron acceptor. As is not uncommon for a dye-linked dehydrogenase, the enzyme showed ping-pong behaviour and double-substrate inhibition. However, under conditions that avoided its masking by sugar-substrate inhibition as much as possible, negative kinetic cooperativity with respect to sugar substrate oxidation by this enzyme was demonstrated. Arguments are presented that exclude trivial factors as a cause for the phenomenon observed. Experimental data could be fitted with an equation accounting for biphasic cooperativity containing two sets of apparent kinetic parameters, V1 and K1, and V1 and K2, representing the enzyme's Michaelis-Menten behaviour at low and high substrate concentrations, respectively. Assuming that subunit interaction causes the cooperativity effect, the sets express the performance of soluble GDH's two subunits in two states of mutual interaction. From fitting the experimental data for several sugars with this equation, it appeared that their V1 values were similar, although their K1 values varied considerably. This showed that the cooperativity effect dramatically changes the performance of soluble GDH, as reflected by the V2 and K2 values for glucose (in phosphate buffer) being about 10-fold and 100-fold higher than the V1 and K1 values, respectively. Substituting the Ca2+ involved in activation of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) in soluble GDH by Sr2+ affected the cooperativity effect (an increase of the K1 value) but not the two turnover rates of the hybrid enzyme for glucose. The data suggest that the two catalytic cycles of soluble GDH have different rate-limiting steps compared with that of PQQ-containing methanol dehydrogenase. PMID:9692926

Olsthoorn, A J; Otsuki, T; Duine, J A



Inheritance of sugar and acid contents in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid grape cross population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inheritance patterns of sugar and organic acid contents of ripe berries in a tetraploid × diploid table grape cross population\\u000a were investigated in two successive years. The population segregated for three different ploid levels: dipolids, triploids,\\u000a and tetraploids. Sugar content in tetraploid progeny was significantly higher than that in the diploid progeny. Transgressive\\u000a segregation for sugar content was observed in all the

Zhenchang Liang; Min Sang; Aihong Ma; Shengjian Zhao; Gan-yuan Zhong; Shaohua Li


Effects of Sugar Content and Temperature on Rheology and Microrheology of Israeli Honey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rheological properties of selected Israeli honeys were evaluated using both rheology and microrheology. Most honeys are Newtonian; their viscosity ranges over 3-4 orders of magnitude and the water content is typically between 13-29%. The viscosity of honey is determined by the temperature, the relative amount of water/sugar, and the molecular chain length of sugars present in the honey, which is correlated to the origin of the honey. Effects of temperature and origin of the honey were determined with rheology and compared to microrheology to distinguish any local heterogeneity. Rheological measurements were correlated with the moisture content, as determined by refractometry. After the base-line behavior had been established, sugars were added to floral-origin standard and reduced-calorie honeys, to determine the effect of supplementary sugar on the rheology. This approach may be used to determine whether sugar content of a honey, or similar materials, has been altered; this could be especially valuable for non-homogeneous materials, such as jams with solid particles.

Weihs, Daphne



Influence of Salinity on Chlorophyll, Leaf Water Potential, Total Soluble Sugars, and Mineral Nutrients in Two Young Olive Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of salinity (NaCl) on chlorophyll, leaf water potential, total soluble sugars, and mineral nutrients in two young Iranian commercial olive cultivars (‘Zard’ and ‘Roghani’) was studied. One-year-old trees of these cultivars were planted in 10-L plastic pots containing equal ratio of sand-perlite mixture (1:1). Sodium chloride at concentrations of 0, 40, 80, 120, or 160 mM plus Hoagland's

A. Mousavi; H. Lessani; M. Babalar; A. R. Talaei; E. Fallahi



Gas Chromatographic Quantitation of Sugars and Nonvolatile Water-Soluble Organic Acids in Commercial Cheddar Cheese[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatographic method was developed and tested for quantitating sugars as trimethylsilyl derivatives and nonvolatile water-soluble organic acids as methyl esters in extracts from Cheddar cheese. Twelve lots of commercial cheese ranging in age from 5 to 164 days con- tained 72 to 479 mg lactose, 2 to 147 mg galactose, .4 to 11 mg glucose, 1.0 to 1.6

Charlotte D. Harvey; Robert Jenness; H. A. Morris



Effect of cold storage and ozone treatment on physicochemical parameters, soluble sugars and organic acids in Actinidia deliciosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of kiwi fruits is a dynamic agricultural activity in Corsica (France). The fruits are either consumed directly or used to produce kiwi wine. They are often stored for 4–6months in industrial freezer chambers at 0°C or industrial ozone chambers. The aim of this study was to measure physical, chemical and fungicidal parameters, soluble sugars and non-volatile organic acids

Toussaint Barboni; Magali Cannac; Nathalie Chiaramonti



Roles of Soluble Sugars in Protecting Phytochrome and Gibberellin A 3 -Mediated Germination Control in Skotodormant Lettuce Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Skotodormant seeds of Lactuca sativa Grand Rapids imbibed in darkness for 10 days (10-day DS) germinated poorly upon terminal treatment with red light (R) or\\u000a gibberellin A3 (GA3). Soluble sugars in the imbibition solutions influenced the depth of skotodormancy. Ten-day DS seeds, imbibed in 50–500 mm sucrose or 100–500 mm glucose and given terminal GA3 germinated completely and germinated

A. I. Hsiao; W. A. Quick



Dynamic QTL analysis for fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium cross.  


Fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content are important factors determining fruit quality of tomatoes; however, the dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling lycopene and soluble solid content have not been well studied. We mapped the chromosomal regions controlling these traits in different periods in F(2:3) families derived from a cross between the domestic and wild tomato species Solanum lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium. Fifteen QTLs for lycopene and soluble solid content and other related traits analyzed at three different fruit ripening stages were detected with a composite interval mapping method. These QTLs explained 7-33% of the individual phenotypic variation. QTLs detected in the color-changing period were different from those detected in the other two periods. On chromosome 1, the soluble solid content QTL was located in the same region during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. On chromosome 4, the same QTL for lycopene content was found during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. The QTL for lycopene content on chromosome 4 co-located with the QTL for soluble solid content during the full-ripe period. Co-location of lycopene content QTL and soluble solid content QTLs may be due to pleiotropic effects of a single gene or a cluster of genes via physiological relationships among traits. On chromosome 9, the same two QTLs for lycopene content at two different fruit ripening periods may reflect genes controlling lycopene content that are always expressed in tomato fruit development. PMID:22930431

Sun, Y D; Liang, Y; Wu, J M; Li, Y Z; Cui, X; Qin, L



Rapid determination of sugar content in corn stover hydrolysates using near infrared spectroscopy.  


Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy provides rapid determination method for biomass characterization. The objective of this study is to use NIR to model and predict contents of monosaccharides in biomass hydrolysates. A uniform distribution of pretreatment conditions was used to generate representative samples that cover wide ranges of sugar concentration for model development. The formation of glucose, xylose, and arabinose was studied via response surface methodology and 3D models were provided to show the effects of pretreatment conditions. The NIR models developed with partial least squares are able to provide excellent and good prediction for glucose and xylose concentration in biomass hydrolysates, respectively. Data transformation did not increase model performance, but the reduced wavelength range improved model prediction for all the sugar contents. The NIR method significantly reduced the time and cost of sugar determination. PMID:24001558

Xu, Feng; Wang, Donghai



Solvent production by Clostridium pasteurianum in media of high sugar content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The fermentation end products ofClostridiumpasteurianum ATCC 6013 are normally acetic and butyric acids. When grown in media of high sugar content however, significant quantities of solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) were produced. Solvent production was not stimulated by added acetic and butyric acids, nor was the effect due to a low water activity of the mediumperse.

Janet Harris; R. Mulder; D. B. Kell; R. P. Walter; J. G. Morris



Influence of the inoculation time of high sugar content must on the formation of wine aroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of inocula of a commercially available strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to musts with a high initial sugar content at various fermentation stages induces variable changes in the different components of the volatile fraction of wine and, potentially, its sensory properties as well. Inoculation alters the concentration ratio between the 2,3-butanediol isomers and causes a decrease in acetates and

J. J. Mateo; M. Jiménez; A. Pastor; T. Huerta



Rapid determination of sugar content in biomass hydrolysates using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  


Large populations of potential cellulosic biomass feedstocks are currently being screened for fuel and chemical applications. The monomeric sugar content, released through hydrolysis, is of particular importance and is currently measured with time-consuming HPLC methods. A method for sugar detection is presented here that employs (1)H NMR spectra regressed against primary HPLC sugar concentration data to build partial least squares (PLS) models. The PLS2 model is able to predict concentrations of both major sugar components, like glucose and xylose, and minor sugars, such as arabinose and mannose, in biomass hydrolysates. The model was built with 65 samples from a variety of different biomass species and covers a wide range of sugar concentrations. Model predictions were validated with a set of 15 samples which were all within error of both HPLC and NMR integration measurements. The data collection time for these NMR measurements is less than 20 min, offering a significant improvement to the 1 h acquisition time that is required for HPLC. PMID:23042514

Gjersing, Erica; Happs, Renee M; Sykes, Robert W; Doeppke, Crissa; Davis, Mark F



Electrical Density Sorting and Estimation of Soluble Solids Content of Watermelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between density and internal quality of watermelon was investigated. The density of watermelon was found to be related both to the degree of hollowness and the soluble solids content which can be used as a measure of sweetness. The soluble solids content of watermelons can be estimated from density and mass by multiple regression analysis. An optimum range

Koro Kato



Antioxidant activity and total phenolic, organic acid and sugar content in commercial pomegranate juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate fruit and pomegranate juices (PJs) have taken great attention for their health benefits in the last years. The purpose of this study is to analyse the antioxidant activities, along with the organic acid and sugar contents of pomegranate juices sold in the Turkish markets. In the present study, we evaluated total phenolics (TPs), free radical scavenging capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

Filiz Tezcan; Mine Gültekin-Özgüven; Tu?ba Diken; Beraat Özçelik; F. Bedia Erim



Survey on some contaminants in white sugar from Serbian sugar beet refineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refined white sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The main quality criteria used to indicate the content of these impurities are ash and colour. The aim of this paper

Biljana Škrbi?; Julianna Gyura



Atmospheric carbon dioxide changes photochemical activity, soluble sugars and volatile levels in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).  


Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration is an environmental factor currently undergoing dramatic changes. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of doubling the ambient CO(2) concentration on plant photochemistry as measured by photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), soluble sugars and volatiles in broccoli. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased qP values in leaves by up to 100% and 89% in heads, while glucose and sucrose in leaves increased by about 60%. Furthermore, in broccoli heads elevated CO(2) concentration induced approximately a 2-fold increase in concentrations of three fatty acid-derived C(7) aldehydes ((E)-2-heptenal, (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal), two fatty acid-derived C(5) alcohols (1-penten-3-ol, (Z)-2-pentenol), and two amino acid-derived nitriles (phenyl propanenitrile, 3-methyl butanenitrile). In contrast, concentrations of the sulfur-containing compound 2-ethylthiophene and C(6) alcohol (E)-2-hexenol decreased. Finally, elevated CO(2) concentration increased soluble sugar concentrations due to enhanced photochemical activity in leaves and heads, which may account for the increased synthesis of volatiles. PMID:20158238

Krumbein, Angelika; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Schonhof, Ilona; Schreiner, Monika



The relationship between the use of sugar content information on nutrition labels and the consumption of added sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased consumption of added sugars in the US diet has led to calls for renewed public nutrition efforts including more detailed nutrition labels. This study models the effectiveness of the current nutrition label as a means of reducing the proportion of calories from added sugars in diets among respondents to the 1994–96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Results

D. Weaver; M. Finke



Sugar Content of Popular Sweetened Beverages Based on Objective Laboratory Analysis: Focus on Fructose Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of fructose, largely in the form of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), has risen over the past several decades and is thought to contribute negatively to metabolic health. However, the fructose content of foods and beverages produced with HFCS is not disclosed and estimates of fructose content are based on the common assumption that the HFCS used contains

Emily E. Ventura; Jaimie N. Davis; Michael I. Goran



Temperature-dependent impact of 24-epibrassinolide on the fatty acid composition and sugar content in winter oilseed rape callus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (BR27) on fatty acids composition and sugar content in winter oilseed rape callus cultured at 20 and 5°C. Studies have showed that\\u000a BR27 action is highly temperature-dependent. The increase in sugar content (sucrose, glucose and fructose) by BR27 in concentration 100 nM was observed only in calli cultured at

Anna Janeczko; Katarzyna Hura; Andrzej Skoczowski; Iwona Idzik; Jolanta Biesaga-Ko?cielniak; El?bieta Niemczyk



Influence of 2-phenyl alkane and tetralin content on solubility and viscosity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud and clear points and viscosities of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) have been determined as a function of 2-phenyl\\u000a alkane and\\/or tetralin content over a wide interval. While the 2-phenyl content significantly affects the solubility, tetralins\\u000a have a marked depressive effect on viscosity. The investigation has established that LAS solubility can be explained by assuming\\u000a eutectic types of isomer and

L. Cohen; R. Vergara; A. Moreno; J. L. Berna



Effects of drought on soluble protein content and protective enzyme system in cotton leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of soil drought on soluble protein content and protective enzyme system of cotton leaves at different positions\\u000a were studied in the transgenic cotton cultivar, Lumianyan28. The results indicated that the soluble protein content in main\\u000a stem leaves and in middle-fruit branch leaves under drought treatment were higher than that of CK, the normal soil water management\\u000a treatment. Lower

Dongxiao Li; Cundong Li; Hongchun Sun; Wenxin Wang; Liantao Liu; Yongjiang Zhang



Soluble sugars and carboxylic acids in ripe apricot fruit as parameters for distinguishing different cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major sugar and carboxylic acid components in apricot flesh fruits were detected and quantified. Fifty-one genotypes including\\u000a clones growing in France, Spain, Italy, Greece and USA, belonging to the INRA germ plasm collection has been evaluated. Principal\\u000a component analysis (PCA) has been performed to study correlation among fruit quality measurements and to interpret relationships\\u000a between genotypes as a tool for

Fabrizio Gurrieri; Jean-Marc Audergon; Guy Albagnac; Maryse Reich



Potato composition: II. Tissue selection and its effects on total sugar, total reducing sugar, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total sugar, reducing sugar, glucose, fructose, and sucrose were determined in three parts (bud-end, stem-end, and core) of\\u000a tubers of White Rose, Red La Soda, Kennebec, Russet Burbank, Norchip and Lenape. Tubers were sampled at harvest, after storage\\u000a for 2 and 4 mo at 7 C, and after reconditioning for 3 wk at 20 C after each storage period. The

M. L. Weaver; H. Timm; M. Nonaka; R. N. Sayre; R. M. Reeve; R. M. Cready; L. C. Whitehand



Seasonal Variations in Sugar Contents and Microbial Community Behavior in a Ryegrass Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil is a complex mixture of numerous inorganic and organic constituents that vary in size, shape, chemical constitution and reactivity, and hosts numerous organisms. Total sugars have been estimated to constitute 10% (average) of soil organic matter, occurring in living and decaying organisms, as well as in extracellular materials. The role of sugars in soils is attributed to their influence on soil structure, chemical processes, plant nutrition and microbial activity. The sources of sugars in soils are: a) plants (the primary source); b) animals (the minor source), and c) microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, algae), which decompose the primary plant and animal material, and synthesize the major part of soil carbohydrates. A particular soil sample provides a momentary glimpse into a dynamic system (continuous addition, degradation and synthesis) that might, except for seasonal variations, be in equilibrium. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the major sugars in a grass soil and characterize the relationship between their concentration variations and soil microbial behavior over an annual cycle. Soil samples were collected monthly in a ryegrass field close to Corvallis, Oregon, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as total silylated extracts for sugar composition, and by gas chromatography-flame ionization as fatty acid methyl esters derived from phospholipids and neutral lipids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively). The preliminary results of the first six-month experiment (from January to June, 2004) show that as the ambient temperatures increase the sugar concentrations (glucose, fructose, sucrose and trehalose) also tend to increase in the soil. A decrease is observed in March when precipitation was low during the whole month. The same trend is observed for the active biomass of fungi and bacteria estimated by their fatty acids derived from phospholipids. Fatty acids 18:2? 6c and 18:3? 6c are used as fungal biomarkers. Branched (15:0i, 15:0a, 16:0i) and monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1? 7c) are used as biomarkers for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. The contents of 18:2? 6c and 18:3? 6c from neutral lipids, which are used as an index of fungal storage, have a significant increase in June, similarly to the disaccharide trehalose. This increase in fungal lipid storage may have occurred in response to the large input of detrital carbon into the soil from cutting the grass early in that month.

Medeiros, P. M.; Fernandes, M. F.; Dick, R. P.; Simoneit, B. R.



Rapid analysis of sugar content of intact orange fruit using ultraviolet and visible transmittance techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar content (SC) is very important factors of navel orange internal quality and can be measured non-destructive by visible and near infrared spectroscopy. The feasibility of visible and near infrared spectroscopy for nondestructively measuring SC of navel orange fresh juices was investigated by means of spectral transmittance technique. A total 55 juice samples were used to develop the calibration and prediction models. Three different kinds of mathematical treatments (original, first derivative and second derivative) of spectra in the range of 400-800 nm were discussed and two kinds of reference standards were used. Different spectra correction algorithms (constant, multiplicative signal correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) were compared. Three kinds of calibration models including partial least square (PLS) regression, stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principle component regression (PCR) were evaluated for the determination of SC in navel orange juice. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of validation set of samples. The correlation coefficients of calibration models for SC was 0.97, the correlation coefficients of prediction models for SC was 0.86, and the corresponding RMSEP was 0.56. The results show that visible near infrared transmittance technique is a feasible method for non-destructive measurement of sugar content of fruit juice.

Liu, Yande; Wen, Jianping; Ouyang, Aiguo; Ying, Yibin



Prediction of Sugar-Snap Cookie Diameter Using Sucrose Solvent Retention Capacity, Milling Softness, and Flour Protein Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 81(4):549-552 During testing of wheats at the early generation developmental stage, often there is not enough seed to mill for bake testing products such as sugar-snap cookie diameter. This study reports a prediction equation for sugar-snap cookie diameter that uses sucrose solvent retention capacity (SRC), wheat milling softness, and flour protein content. A total of 507 wheats were

C. S. Gaines



Changes in soluble sugars in relation to desiccation tolerance and effects of dehydration on freezing characteristics of Acer platanoides and Acer pseudoplatanus seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of soluble sugars in desiccation tolerance was investigated in seeds of two species from the genus Acer: Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) — tolerant and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) — intolerant to dehydration. During two years of observations it was found that seeds of Norway maple acquire desiccation\\u000a tolerance at the end of August i.e. about 125 days

S. Pukacka; P. M. Pukacki



Effect of drying of figs (Ficus carica L.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds.  


Fresh figs were subjected to two different drying processes: sun-drying and oven-drying. To assess their effect on the nutritional and health-related properties of figs, sugars, organic acids, single phenolics, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity were determined before and after processing. Samples were analyzed three times in a year, and phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). In figs, monomer sugars predominate, which is important nutritional information, and the content of sugars as well as organic acids in fresh figs was lower than in dried fruits. However, the best sugar/organic acid ratio was measured after the sun-drying process. Analysis of individual phenolic compounds revealed a higher content of all phenolic groups determined after the oven-drying process, with the exception of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside. Similarly, higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were detected after the drying process. With these results it can be concluded that the differences in analyzed compounds in fresh and dried figs are significant. The differences between the sun-dried and oven-dried fruits were determined in organic acids, sugars, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside, and total phenolic contents. The results indicate that properly dried figs can be used as a good source of phenolic compounds. PMID:21958361

Slatnar, Ana; Klancar, Urska; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert



Contents and digestibility of carbohydrates of mung beans ( Vigna radiata L.) as affected by domestic processing and cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of common processing and cooking methods on sugar and starch contents and starch digestibility (in vitro) of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) were investigated. Soaking reduced the level of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch and improved starch digestibility, significantly. Cooking (both ordinary and pressure cooking) increased the concentrations of the sugars and digestibility of starch

Anita Kataria; B. M. Chauhan



Comparing density and NIR methods for measurement of Kiwifruit dry matter and soluble solids content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density and near infrared (NIR) predictions of dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC) have been made on kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Fergusion var. Hayward). The data set consisted of 360 kiwifruit harvested unripe, late in the commercial harvest period, from four orchards and examined either immediately or after ripening. Density measurements were made

V. Andrew McGlone; Robert B Jordan; Richard Seelye; Paul J Martinsen



Sugar Sugar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the required amount of sugar to pour into a mug or mugs. The game has 30 stages of increasing complexity.

Bonte, Bart



Physical characters and antioxidant, sugar, and mineral nutrient contents in fruit from 29 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars and hybrids.  


Fruit physical and chemical characters of 29 apricot cultivars of Greek and American origin and their hybrids were evaluated using correlation and principal component analysis. A remarkable variation was observed in the total phenol content (0.3-7.4 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) FW) and total antioxidant capacity (0.026-1.858 mg ascorbic acid equivalent g(-1) FW), with the American origin cultivars Robada and NJA(2) and the new cultivar Nike exhibiting the greatest values. The cultivar Tomcot and hybrid 467/99 had the highest content of total carotene (37.8 microg beta-carotene equivalent g(-1) FW), which was up to four times greater as compared with the rest of studied genotypes. The dominant sugar in fruit tissue was sucrose, followed second by glucose and third by sorbitol and fructose-inositol. The new cultivars Nike, Niobe, and Neraida contained relatively higher contents of sucrose and total sugars, while Ninfa and P. Tirynthos contained relatively higher contents of K, Ca, and Mg. Correlation analysis suggested that late-harvesting cultivars/hybrids had greater fruit developmental times (r = 0.817) and contained higher sugar (r = 0.704) and less Mg contents (r= -0.742) in fruit tissue. The total antioxidant capacity was better correlated with the total phenol content (r = 0.954) as compared with the total carotenoid content (r = 0.482). Weak correlations were found between the fruit skin color and the antioxidant contents in flesh tissue. Multivariate analysis allowed the grouping of variables, with more important variables being the harvest date, fruit developmental time, skin Chroma, sorbitol, and total sugar, K and Mg contents. Plotting the genotypes in a dendrogram revealed cases of homonymy between parents and hybrids, although independent segregation of the measured traits after hybridization was also found. PMID:18975966

Drogoudi, Pavlina D; Vemmos, Stavros; Pantelidis, Georgios; Petri, Evangelia; Tzoutzoukou, Chrysoula; Karayiannis, Irene



Effects of Soil Compaction, Water and Organic Matter Contents on Emergence and Initial Plant Growth of Cotton and Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of compaction on the emergence and initial growth of cotton andd sugar beet plants were studied in pots in a glasshouse experiment. Apart from compaction, the factors studied were two soil types, two initial soil water contents before compaction and the addition of 1% organic matter in the form of vinasse, an alcohol industry waste. Measurements were made

T. A. Gemtos; Th. Lellis



Measurement of sugar content of white vinegars using VIS\\/near-infrared spectroscopy and back propagation neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible and near infrared (VIS\\/NIR) spectroscopy combined with different calibration models was applied to predict the sugar content of white vinegars. The calibration set was composed of 240 samples, whereas 80 samples in the validation set. Partial least squares (PLS) models with or without pretreatments were developed and certain latent variables (LVs) were extracted by PLS analysis. The selected LVs

Fei Liu; Li Wang; Yong He



Effect of moisture content variation on CT image classification to identify internal defects of sugar maple logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar maple logs (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were scanned with a medical x-ray scanner in order to evaluate the relationship between the moisture content (MC) and the performance of a parametric supervised classification procedure to detect internal defects. A first group of logs coming from five trees harvested at the end of May was scanned after 0, 2, 6, 10, and

Gerson Rojas; Robert Beauregard; Roger E. Hernández; Daniel Verret; Alfonso Condal


Effects of solids content, settling temperature, and liquor source on tall oil solubilities  

SciTech Connect

Tall oil soap solubility in black liquors obtained from cooking pine and sweet gum, and in mixture of these liquors, was studied. As expected, solids content had a significant effect on the amount of soap remaining in settled liquors obtained from pine. Concentrating these liquors to about 30% solids reduced the soap concentration to approximately 0.8% of solids. Increasing the temperature at which the liquors were settled also increased residual tall oil soap content. Although mass balance calculations on mixtures of black liquors obtained from pine and gum show that the percentage recovery (solids basis) varies little with the inclusion of 12 to 50% hardwood black liquor, absolute recovery is increased with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. This is the result of decreased soap solubility with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. No discernable effect was observed on the proportion and composition of the acids and neutrals of the dissolved tall oil with respect to the solids content of the liquors.

Rousseau, R.W.; Kassebi, A.; Zinkel, D.F.



Solubility-insolubility interconversion of sophoragrin, a mannose/glucose-specific lectin in Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda tree) bark, regulated by the sugar-specific interaction  

PubMed Central

Sophoragrin, a mannose/glucose-specific lectin in Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda tree) bark, was the first lectin found to show self-aggregation that is dependent on the sugar concentration accompanying the interconversion between solubility and insolubility [Ueno, Ogawa, Matsumoto and Seno (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 3146–3153]. The interconversion is regulated by the concentrations of Ca2+ and specific sugars: mannose, glucose or sucrose. The specific glycotopes for sophoragrin were found in the sophoragrin subunit and an endogenous galactose-specific lectin, B-SJA-I (bark S. japonica agglutinin I), and the lectin subunit that binds to the glycotope was identified by photoaffinity glycan probes. Remarkably, the insoluble polymer of sophoragrin is dissociated by interaction with B-SJA-I into various soluble complexes. Based on these results, self-aggregation of sophoragrin was shown to be a unique homopolymerization due to the sugar-specific interaction. An immunostaining study indicated that sophoragrin localizes mainly in vacuoles of parenchymal cells coincidently with B-SJA-I. These results indicate that sophoragrin can sequester endogenous glycoprotein ligands via sugar-specific interactions, thus providing new insights into the occurrence and significance of the intravacuolar interaction shown by a legume lectin.



Taste-independent detection of the caloric content of sugar in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Feeding behavior is influenced primarily by two factors: nutritional needs and food palatability. However, the role of food deprivation and metabolic needs in the selection of appropriate food is poorly understood. Here, we show that the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, selects calorie-rich foods following prolonged food deprivation in the absence of taste-receptor signaling. Flies mutant for the sugar receptors Gr5a and Gr64a cannot detect the taste of sugar, but still consumed sugar over plain agar after 15 h of starvation. Similarly, pox-neuro mutants that are insensitive to the taste of sugar preferentially consumed sugar over plain agar upon starvation. Moreover, when given a choice between metabolizable sugar (sucrose or d-glucose) and nonmetabolizable (zero-calorie) sugar (sucralose or l-glucose), starved Gr5a; Gr64a double mutants preferred metabolizable sugars. These findings suggest the existence of a taste-independent metabolic sensor that functions in food selection. The preference for calorie-rich food correlates with a decrease in the two main hemolymph sugars, trehalose and glucose, and in glycogen stores, indicating that this sensor is triggered when the internal energy sources are depleted. Thus, the need to replenish depleted energy stores during periods of starvation may be met through the activity of a taste-independent metabolic sensing pathway.

Dus, Monica; Min, SooHong; Keene, Alex C.; Lee, Ga Young; Suh, Greg S. B.



Doubled sugar content in sugarcane plants modified to produce a sucrose isomer.  


Sucrose is the feedstock for more than half of the world's fuel ethanol production and a major human food. It is harvested primarily from sugarcane and beet. Despite attempts through conventional and molecular breeding, the stored sugar concentration in elite sugarcane cultivars has not been increased for several decades. Recently, genes have been cloned for bacterial isomerase enzymes that convert sucrose into sugars which are not metabolized by plants, but which are digested by humans, with health benefits over sucrose. We hypothesized that an appropriate sucrose isomerase (SI) expression pattern might simultaneously provide a valuable source of beneficial sugars and overcome the sugar yield ceiling in plants. The introduction of an SI gene tailored for vacuolar compartmentation resulted in sugarcane lines with remarkable increases in total stored sugar levels. The high-value sugar isomaltulose was accumulated in storage tissues without any decrease in stored sucrose concentration, resulting in up to doubled total sugar concentrations in harvested juice. The lines with enhanced sugar accumulation also showed increased photosynthesis, sucrose transport and sink strength. This remarkable step above the former ceiling in stored sugar concentration provides a new perspective into plant source-sink relationships, and has substantial potential for enhanced food and biofuel production. PMID:17207261

Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G



Influence of drying on the content of sugars in wet processed green Arabica coffees  

Microsoft Academic Search

When wet processed coffee beans are dried, the resulting decrease in the water potential induces various metabolic responses. This study was aimed at elucidating the impact of these reactions on the composition of sugars, representing potential aroma precursors. Wet processed green coffees were dried under defined conditions, and the relevant sugars were analysed. Special emphasis was put on the influence

Maik Kleinwächter; Dirk Selmar



Different effects of galactose and mannose on cell proliferation and intracellular soluble sugar levels in Vigna angularis suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cells utilize various sugars as carbon sources for growth, respiration and biosynthesis of cellular components. Suspension-cultured\\u000a cells of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) proliferated actively in liquid growth medium containing 1% (w\\/v) sucrose, glucose, fructose, arabinose or xylose, but did\\u000a not proliferate in medium containing galactose or mannose. These two latter sugars thus appeared distinct from other sugars\\u000a used as

Aki Kato; Hiroshi Tohoyama; Masanori Joho; Masahiro Inouhe



Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong


Drying Characteristics and Lysine Content of Wheat Distiller's Grain with Solubles under Three Drying Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drying characteristics and lysine content of wheat distiller's grain with solubles were studied under three methods: forced air drying, microwave drying, and microwave–convective drying. For forced air drying, temperature was set at five levels (40, 60, 80, 100, and 120°C), maintaining air velocity and relative humidity at 0.7–0.8 m\\/s and less than 8%, respectively. Four power levels (40, 60, 80,

M. R. Mosqueda; L. G. Tabil



Hyperspectral Laser-induced Fluorescence Imaging for Nondestructive Assessing Soluble Solids Content of Orange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser-induced fluorescence imaging is a promising technique for assessing quality of fruit. This paper reports on using a\\u000a hyperspectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging technique for measurement of laser-induced fluorescence from orange for predicting\\u000a soluble solids content (SSC) of fruit. A laser (632 nm) was used as an excitation source for inducing fluorescence in oranges.\\u000a Fluorescence scattering images were acquired from ‘Nanfeng’

Muhua Liu; Luring Zhang; Enyou Guo



Effect of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles or sugar beet pulp on prevalence of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in weaned pigs.  


Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST) is of concern in the swine industry with relevance for animal health and consumer safety. Nutritional strategies might help to reduce ST infection and transmission. This study examined the potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) to alter intestinal microbial communities and ST shedding using a Trojan model. Weaned pigs (n = 105; 28.5 ± 3.5 d of age) were separated into 3 treatment groups (7 pigs/pen) and fed a wheat-based control diet or the control diet formulated with 15% wheat DDGS or 6% SBP inclusion. Following 12 d of diet adaptation, 2 pigs/pen were inoculated with 2 x 10(9) cfu ST, resistant to novobiocin and nalidixic acid. Fecal swabs were taken from infected pigs and pen-mates (contact pigs) for 9 d following challenge, enriched in nutrient broth for 24 h, and plated on selective media to determine prevalence of ST. The ranges of prevalence of ST in feces were from 90 to 100% in challenged pigs and 74 to 78% in contact pigs. No influence of treatment on rectal temperature and prevalence of ST in contact pigs were observed. Fifteen contact pigs were euthanized per treatment group on 9 and 10 d postchallenge to enumerate in intestinal contents (ileum, cecum, and proximal colon), Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridium clusters I, VI, and XVIa by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and to determine ST prevalence by selective culture. No significant effects of diet were observed with respect to ST prevalence in feces, ileum, cecum, colon, and lymph nodes of contact pigs. Compared with the control diet, DGGS and SBP diets showed a trend towards increased (P < 0.1) number of Lactobacillus species in the cecum and colon. Although both wheat DGGS and SBP tended to increase the Lactobacillus spp. neither of the feed ingredients affected ST prevalence. PMID:23365269

Thomson, L W; Pieper, R; Marshall, J K; Van Kessel, A G



Continuous flow autoanalyzer for the sequential determination of total sugars, colorant and caffeine contents in soft drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel autoanalyzer for sequential determination of total sugars, class IV caramel and caffeine contents in soft drinks is described for the first time. The multiparametric autoanalyzer is based on the on-line coupling of a continuous solid-phase extraction unit with two detectors in series: UV–vis and evaporative light scattering (ELSD) detectors. Caffeine is selectively retained on the sorbent column and

Rafael Lucena; Soledad Cárdenas; Mercedes Gallego; Miguel Valcárcel



Effects of sugar, protein and water content on wheat starch gelatinization due to microwave heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the interactions between sugar, starch, protein and water, which are the main components of a baked product,\\u000a will advance the development of high quality, microwaveable products. This paper presents a mathematical model describing\\u000a the quantitative relationships between water, sugar and protein on the gelatinization of wheat starch following 20?s of microwave\\u000a heat as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Addition

G. ?umnu; M. K. Ndife; L. Bay?nd?rl?



Near Infrared Spectral Linearisation in Quantifying Soluble Solids Content of Intact Carambola  

PubMed Central

This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR) spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC) of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP) = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.

Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir



Process for utilizing the waste heat content of condensate and/or vapor produced in the manufacture of sugar  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for utilizing the waste heat content of condensate and/or vapor produced in the manufacture of sugar in which thin juice is cooled, subjected to one or more stages of flash evaporation to concentrate and further cool the juice, after which it is heated with condensate and/or vapor produced elsewhere in the sugar manufacturing process and with incoming thin juice thereby heating the outgoing juice to substantially its original temperature and providing the cooling of the incoming thin juice. In another embodiment completely purified thin juice is concentrated in a multiple effect evaporating plant wherein the vapor produced in the final evaporator is compressed and is returned selectively to one of the preceding evaporators of the evaporating plant for use in heating the juice.

Huber, H.; Schiweck, H.



Identification of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying water soluble protein content in soybean.  


Water soluble protein content (SPC) plays an important role in the functional efficacy of protein in food products. Therefore, for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SPC, 212 F(2:9) lines of the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross of ZDD09454 × Yudou12 were grown along with the parents, in six different environments (location × year) to determine inheritance and map solubility-related genes. A linkage map comprising of 301 SSR markers covering 3,576.81 cM was constructed in the RIL population. Seed SPC was quantified with a macro-Kjeldahl procedure in samples collected over multiple years from three locations (Nantong in 2007 and 2008, Zhengzhou in 2007 and 2008, and Xinxiang in 2008 and 2009). SPC demonstrated transgressive segregation, indicating a complementary genetic structure between the parents. Eleven putative QTL were associated with SPC explaining 4.5-18.2 % of the observed phenotypic variation across the 6 year/location environments. Among these, two QTL (qsp8-4, qsp8-5) near GMENOD2B and Sat_215 showed an association with SPC in multiple environments, suggesting that they were key QTL related to protein solubility. The QTL × environment interaction demonstrated the complex genetic mechanism of SPC. These SPC-associated QTL and linked markers in soybean will provide important information that can be utilized by breeders to improve the functional quality of soybean varieties. PMID:23052024

Lu, Weiguo; Wen, Zixiang; Li, Haichao; Yuan, Daohua; Li, Jinying; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Zhongwen; Cui, Shiyou; Du, Weiijun



Carbon stable isotopic composition of soluble sugars in Tillandsia epiphytes varies in response to shifts in habitat.  


We studied C stable isotopic composition (delta(13)C) of bulk leaf tissue and extracted sugars of four epiphytic Tillandsia species to investigate flexibility in the use of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C(3) photosynthetic pathways. Plants growing in two seasonally dry tropical forest reserves in Mexico that differ in annual precipitation were measured during wet and dry seasons, and among secondary, mature, and wetland forest types within each site. Dry season sugars were more enriched in (13)C than wet season sugars, but there was no seasonal difference in bulk tissues. Bulk tissue delta(13)C differed by species and by forest type, with values from open-canopied wetlands more enriched in (13)C than mature or secondary forest types. The shifts within forest habitat were related to temporal and spatial changes in vapor pressure deficits (VPD). Modeling results estimate a possible 4% increase in the proportional contribution of the C(3) pathway during the wet season, emphasizing that any seasonal or habitat-mediated variation in photosynthetic pathway appears to be quite moderate and within the range of isotopic effects caused by variation in stomatal conductance during assimilation through the C(3) pathway and environmental variation in VPD. C isotopic analysis of sugars together with bulk leaf tissue offers a useful approach for incorporating short- and long-term measurements of C isotope discrimination during photosynthesis. PMID:20155286

Goode, Laurel K; Erhardt, Erik B; Santiago, Louis S; Allen, Michael F



Carbon stable isotopic composition of soluble sugars in Tillandsia epiphytes varies in response to shifts in habitat  

PubMed Central

We studied C stable isotopic composition (?13C) of bulk leaf tissue and extracted sugars of four epiphytic Tillandsia species to investigate flexibility in the use of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C3 photosynthetic pathways. Plants growing in two seasonally dry tropical forest reserves in Mexico that differ in annual precipitation were measured during wet and dry seasons, and among secondary, mature, and wetland forest types within each site. Dry season sugars were more enriched in 13C than wet season sugars, but there was no seasonal difference in bulk tissues. Bulk tissue ?13C differed by species and by forest type, with values from open-canopied wetlands more enriched in 13C than mature or secondary forest types. The shifts within forest habitat were related to temporal and spatial changes in vapor pressure deficits (VPD). Modeling results estimate a possible 4% increase in the proportional contribution of the C3 pathway during the wet season, emphasizing that any seasonal or habitat-mediated variation in photosynthetic pathway appears to be quite moderate and within the range of isotopic effects caused by variation in stomatal conductance during assimilation through the C3 pathway and environmental variation in VPD. C isotopic analysis of sugars together with bulk leaf tissue offers a useful approach for incorporating short- and long-term measurements of C isotope discrimination during photosynthesis.

Erhardt, Erik B.; Santiago, Louis S.; Allen, Michael F.



Effect of sugars, galactose content and chainlength on freeze–thaw gelation of galactomannans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogels of locust bean gum (LBG) were prepared by freezing and thawing 1.0wt% solutions incorporating sucrose, glucose, fructose or sorbitol at concentrations of 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60wt%, and were characterised by compression testing. Gel strength showed an initial increase and subsequent decrease with increasing concentration of sugar. Maximum strength was attained at 45wt% fructose, 50wt% sucrose or sorbitol,

J. P. Doyle; P. Giannouli; E. J. Martin; M. Brooks; E. R. Morris



Gamma irradiation of potatoes: Effects on sugar content, chip color, germination, greening, and susceptibility to mold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russet Burbank potatoes that had been stored at 40°F. for 5 months after harvest were irradiated with 5,200 and 14,000 rad\\u000a of Co60 gamma rays. In general, irradiation caused an accumulation of sugars. At 40°F., the sucrose level rose to nearly 3 times\\u000a that of the control in 16 days following irradiation. Fructose and glucose showed smaller increases and the

Sigmund Schwimmer; Horace K. Burr; W. O. Harrington; William J. Weston



[Dynamic changes of soil amino sugar contents under drying and wetting cycle].  


A soil incubation test was conducted to study the quantitative changes of three amino sugars (glucosamine, muramic acid, and galactosamine) derived from microbes under drying and wetting cycle, and to analyze the relative contribution of soil bacteria and fungi to the turnover of soil organic matter by using the measured glucosamine/muramic acid ratio. Under continuous wetting, the degradation of bacteria-derived muramic acid was faster than that of fungi-derived glucosamine, and the degradation rate of galactosamine was the lowest. Drying and wetting cycle altered the degradation characteristics of the three amino sugars. As compared with that under continuous wetting, the degradation rate of bacteria-derived muramic acid at the prophase of drying and wetting was faster than that of fungi-derived glucosamine, and, with the increasing frequency of drying and wetting cycle, the degradation rate of fungi-derived glucosamine was faster than that of bacteria-derived muramic acid. These results indicated that drying and wetting cycle changed the course of the microbial transformation of soil amino sugar-derived nitrogen. PMID:22803471

Zhang, Wei; Han, Yong-Jiao; He, Hong-Bo; Xie, Hong-Tu; Zhang, Xu-Dong



Differences in the contents of total sugars, reducing sugars, starch and sucrose in embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli from Medicago arborea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total sugars, reducing sugars, starch and sucrose in embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli from explants (cotyledons, petioles, hypocotyls and leaves) obtained from Medicago arborea L. seedlings were evaluated. Total sugars were the major components in the calli and no significant differences between embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli were observed. In contrast, important differences between the embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli were observed

Ana Belen Martin; Yolanda Cuadrado; Hilario Guerra; Piedad Gallego; Oscar Hita; Luisa Martin; Ana Dorado; Nieves Villalobos



Contents and digestibility of carbohydrates of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) as affected by domestic processing and cooking.  


Effects of common processing and cooking methods on sugar and starch contents and starch digestibility (in vitro) of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) were investigated. Soaking reduced the level of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch and improved starch digestibility, significantly. Cooking (both ordinary and pressure cooking) increased the concentrations of the sugars and digestibility of starch of soaked as well a unsoaked seeds. Starch contents, however, were decreased. Germination decreased starch thereby raising the level of the soluble sugars. Starch digestibility was increased appreciably. PMID:3231594

Kataria, A; Chauhan, B M



Change in content of sugars and free amino acids in potato tubers under short-term storage at low temperature and the effect on acrylamide level after frying.  


Changes in the sugar and amino acid contents of potato tubers during short-term storage and the effect on the acrylamide level in chips after frying were investigated. The acrylamide content in chips began to increase after 3 days of storage at 2 degrees C in response to the increase of glucose and fructose contents in the tubers. There was strong correlation between the reducing sugar content and acrylamide level, R(2)=0.873 for fructose and R(2)=0.836 for glucose. The sucrose content had less correlation with the acrylamide content because of its decrease after 4 weeks of storage at 2 degrees C, while the reducing sugar in potato tubers and the acrylamide in chips continued to increase. The contents of the four amino acids, i.e., asparatic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and glutamine, showed no significant correlation with the acrylamide level. These results suggest that the content of reducing sugars in potato tubers determined the degree of acrylamide formation in chips. The chip color, as evaluated by L* (lightness), was correlated well with the acrylamide content. PMID:16041124

Ohara-Takada, Akiko; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Chuda, Yoshihiro; Ono, Hiroshi; Yada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Akira; Tsuda, Shogo; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Noda, Takahiro; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Mori, Motoyuki



Evaluation of Spanish Pomegranate Juices: Organic Acids, Sugars, and Anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars belonging to the ‘Mollar’ group were evaluated under homogeneus growing conditions. Chemical parameters, such as sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanin contents, and other quality parameters, including fruit weight, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and colour, were evaluated. Fruit weight was not significantly affected by cultivar. The highest TSS content was detected in juice

P. Legua; P. Melgarejo; J. J. Martínez; R. Martínez; F. Hernández




Microsoft Academic Search

Six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars belonging to the ‘Mollar’ group were evaluated under homogeneus growing conditions. Chemical parameters, such as sugars, organic acids, anthocyanin contents and other quality parameters including fruit weight, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and colour were evaluated. Fruit weight was not significantly affected by cultivar. The highest TSS content was detected in juice from

P. Legua; P. Melgarejo; J. J. Martínez; R. Martínez; F. Hernandez



Effects of nitrogen nutrition, fungicide treatment and wheat genotype on free asparagine and reducing sugars content as precursors of acrylamide formation in bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylamide, a monomer with neurotoxic and potential carcinogenic effect, is formed via the Maillard reaction in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods. The major acrylamide precursors are reducing sugars and the amino acid asparagine. The aim of this study was to analyse effects of nitrogen nutrition, leaf disease control, wheat genotype and their interactions on acrylamide precursors content in wheat flour. Asparagine content

P. Martinek; K. Klem; M. Vá?ová; V. Bartá?ková; L. Ve?erková; P. Bucher; J. Hajšlová


Water determination in products with high sugar content by infrared drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instead of measuring the real water content, very often drying mass loss is determined. Not only water contributes to this mass loss, but all volatile materials under the applied drying conditions. On the other hand, very tightly bound water may elude detection. The mass loss by drying does therefore not necessarily correspond to the water content of the sample. To

Heinz-Dieter Isengard; Heidrun Präger



Perception of aspen and sun/shade sugar maple leaf soluble extracts by larvae of Malacosoma disstria.  


We investigated the behavioral feeding preference and the chemoreception of leaf polar extracts from trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides, and from sun and shade sugar maple, Acer saccharum, by larvae of the polyphagous forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, a defoliator of deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Three polar extracts were obtained from each tree species: a total extract, a water fraction, and a methanol fraction. M. disstria larvae were allowed ad libitum access to an artificial diet from eclosion to the fifth instar. Two-choice cafeteria tests were performed comparing the mean (+/-SE) surface area eaten of the total extracts, and the following order of preference was obtained: aspen > sun maple > shade maple. Tests with the other fractions showed that M. disstria larvae preferred the total aspen extract to its water fraction, and the latter to its methanol fraction. The response to sun maple was similar to aspen. However, for the shade maple experiment, there was no difference between the total extract and its water fraction. Electrophysiological recordings for aspen showed that the sugar-sensitive cell elicited more spikes to the water fraction, followed by the total extract, and finally the methanol fraction. Spike activity to stimulations of sun and shade maple extracts revealed a similar trend, where methanol fraction > water fraction > total extract. Our findings are discussed in light of previously known information about this insect's performance on these host plants. PMID:11710605

Panzuto, M; Lorenzetti, F; Mauffette, Y; Albert, P J



Appropriate Industrial Technology for Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Issues and considerations--(Note by the secretariat of UNIDO and report of the Working Group); Selected background papers--(Appropriate technology in cane-sugar production, technological choices in sugar processing, cane-sugar production techniq...



Association of Candidate Genes With Flowering Time and Water-Soluble Carbohydrate Content in Lolium perenne (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a candidate gene approach for associating SNPs with variation in flowering time and water- soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content and other quality traits in the temperate forage grass species Lolium perenne. Three analysis methods were used, which took the significant population structure into account. First, a linear mixed model was used enabling a structured association analysis to be incorporated

L. Skot; Jan Humphreys; Mervyn O. Humphreys; Danny Thorogood; Joe Gallagher; Ruth Sanderson; Ian P. Armstead; Ian D. Thomas



Note. Sugar, Moisture Contents, and Color of Chestnuts during Different Storage Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color, moisture and sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) at several initial states (whole and undried; whole, peeled, and partially air-dried, with or without prior sucrose treatment; peeled, broken, and undried or partially air-dried) were monitored for 11 months during storage under various conditions (unpacked, packed in plastic bags at ambient pressure, or vacuum packed) and

F. Chenlo; R. Moreira; L. Chaguri; M. D. Torres



Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison*  

PubMed Central

Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400–1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR.

Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi



Prediction of hot-water-soluble extractive, pentosan and cellulose content of various wood species using FT-NIR spectroscopy.  


The potential of near infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with partial least squares regression to predict chemical composition of various wood species including softwoods and hardwoods was examined. Hot-water-soluble extractive, pentosan and cellulose content of various wood species were predicted with high coefficient of determination between the predicted and measured values, the ratio of performance to deviation, range error ratio, and low root mean square error of cross validation for cross-validation and root mean square error of prediction for test set validation. Hot-water-soluble extractive and cellulose content models were only suitable for quality control analysis, but pentosan content model had an excellent fit with the data and could be used in any application. All the results indicate that Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy could be applied to predict the chemical composition of various wood species. PMID:23711938

He, Wenming; Hu, Huiren



Use of molecular markers in breeding for soluble solids content in tomato — a re-examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through earlier breeding efforts, portions of the genome of the wild species Lycopersicon chmielewskii have been introgressed into the cultivated tomato (Rick 1974). These introgressed chromosomal segments have been reported to increase soluble solids in fruit of certain tomato varieties (Rick 1974). Recently, two of the introgressed segments have been identified with RFLP markers and tested for effects on soluble

S. D. Tanksley; J. Hewitt




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distillers’ dried grain with solubles (DDGS) is a valuable source of energy, protein, water soluble vitamins and minerals for animal feeds, especially beef, dairy, swine, and poultry diets. DDGS generally contains 88 to 90% (d.b.) dry matter, 25 to 32% (d.b.) crude protein and 8 to 10% (d.b.) fat. ...


The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha-1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed

D. Kurasiak-Popowska; J. Szukal; K. Gulewicz


Seed Quality, and Fatty Acid and Sugar Contents of Pepper Seeds (Capsicum annuum L.) in Relation to Seed Development and Drying Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out in order to determine the effects of drying temperature (25, 35, and 45 °C) and the developmental stage (55, 65, 75, and 85 days after anthesis (DAA)) on germination, vigor, and the sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and fatty acid contents of pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.) over 2 consecutive years. In seeds harvested at 75

Aziz TEK?N; Z. Aytanga ÖKMEN; Gamze OKÇU; Burcu B. KENANO?LU



Influence of growth temperature on content, viscosity and relative molecular weight of water-soluble ?-glucans in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Glucan content and viscosity of water-soluble ?-glucans have a considerable impact on the digestion of barley. Eight different 2-row barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars were grown in controlled environment chambers at five different temperatures until maturity. The samples were pearled, milled and analysed for their content of total, insoluble and soluble ?-glucan. The water-soluble fraction was extracted at 37°C, subjected

Kirsti Anker-Nilssen; Stefan Sahlstrøm; Svein H. Knutsen; Ann Katrin Holtekjølen; Anne Kjersti Uhlen



Extended use of foods modified in fat and sugar content: nutritional implications in a free-living female population13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional implications of the consumption of reduced-fat and reduced-sugar foods were assessed in nonobese, free-living female consumers in a l0-wk intervention trial. Sub- jects in control (C; n = 13), reduced-fat (RF; n = 17), and reduced-sugar (RS; n = 19) groups, all initially nonusers of reduced-fat and reduced-sugar products, kept 4-d food-intake records to establish energy and macronutrient

Susan J Gatenby; Jacqueline I Aaron; Victoria A Jack; David J Me


Effect of extrusion processing on the soluble and insoluble fiber, and phytic acid contents of cereal brans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health benefits associated with dietary fiber have resulted in it now being used in virtually all food product categories,\\u000a including many products which are manufactured using extrusion processing. The objective of the present study was to determine\\u000a if extrusion processing affected phytic acid, and soluble and insoluble fiber contents. The effect of screw speeds of 50,\\u000a 70, and 100%

D. G. Gualberto; C. J. Bergman; M. Kazemzadeh; C. W. Weber



Changes in the contents of sugars and organic acids during the ripening and storage of sufu, a traditional Oriental fermented product of soybean cubes.  


In the present study, sufu, an oriental fermented product of soybeans, was prepared by ripening the tofu cubes in Aspergillus oryzae fermented rice-soybean koji mash for 16 days at 37 °C. The sufu product was further kept at room temperature for another 30 days. Examining the changes in the sugar content revealed that stachyose, raffinose, and sucrose contents of tofu and rice-soybean koji granules decreased while levels of glucose and fructose increased during the ripening period and after storage. Glucose was the most abundant sugar detected. Four organic acids, including oxalic, lactic, acetic, and citric acid, were detected in the sufu product and koji granules after ripening. Generally, the contents of these organic acid increased as the ripening period was extended. Among them, acetic acid was the most highly detected. PMID:21090680

Moy, Yin-Soon; Chou, Cheng-Chun



A reagent-free SIA module for monitoring of sugar, color and dissolved CO2 content in soft drinks.  


This work presents a new sequential injection analysis (SIA) method and a module for simultaneous and real-time monitoring of three key parameters for the beverage industry, i.e., the sugar content (measured in Brix), color and dissolved CO(2). Detection of the light reflection at the liquid interface (the schlieren effect) of sucrose and water was utilized for sucrose content measurement. A near infrared LED (890+/-40 nm) was chosen as the light source to ensure that all the ingredients and dyes in soft drinks will not interfere by contributing light absorption. A linear calibration was obtained for sucrose over a wide concentration range (3.1-46.5 Brix). The same module can be used to monitor the color of the soft drink as well as the dissolved CO(2) during production. For measuring the color, the sample is segmented between air plugs to avoid dispersion. An RGB-LED was chosen as the light source in order to make this module applicable to a wide range of colored samples. The module also has a section where dissolved CO(2) is measured via vaporization of the gas from the liquid phase. Dissolved CO(2), in a flowing acceptor stream of water resulting in the change of the acceptor conductivity, is detected using an in-house capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The module includes a vaporization unit that is also used to degas the carbonated drink, prior the measurements of sucrose and color within the same system. The method requires no chemicals and is therefore completely friendly to the environment. PMID:20457301

Teerasong, S; Chan-Eam, S; Sereenonchai, K; Amornthammarong, N; Ratanawimarnwong, N; Nacapricha, D



The effect of conservation primary and zero tillage on soil bulk density, water content, sugar beet growth and weed infestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different conservation primary soil tillage on sugar beet was investigated at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in a silty loam Luvisol during the period of 2001 - 2006. The aim of the trial was to establish the influence of reduced soil tillage intensity on some soil physical properties, sugar beet yield and quality,

K. Romaneckas; R. Romaneckien; E. Šarauskis; V. Pilipaviius


Hydraulic lift and its influence on the water content of the rhizosphere: an example from sugar maple, Acer saccharum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic lift, the transport of water from deep in the soil through plant root systems into the drier upper soil layers, has been demonstrated in several woody plant species. Here the volume of water involved in hydraulic lift by a mature sugar maple tree is estimated. Twenty-four intact soil cores were collected from the vicinity of a sugar maple tree

Steven H. Emerman; Todd E. Dawson



Flow properties of DDGS with varying soluble and moisture contents using jenike shear testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants and are used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. Flow of DDGS is often restricted by caking and bridging during

V. Ganesan; K. Muthukumarappan; K. A. Rosentrater



Flow Properties of DDGS with Varying Soluble and Moisture Contents Using Jenike Shear Testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants and are used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being p...


Density of juice and fruit puree as a function of soluble solids content and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the effect of temperature and concentration of soluble solids on density of depectined and clarified peach juice and orange juice and a study of the effect of the temperature on density of apple and quince purees are reported.The densities of the peach and orange juices were determined at concentrations of between 10 and 60 °Brix and temperatures

A. M. Ramos; A. Ibarz



Effects of Energy-Content Labels and Motivational Posters on Sales of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Stimulating Sales of Diet Drinks among Adults Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of an environmental intervention promoting more non–energy-containing beverage consumption compared to sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption through vending machines in an urban college setting. Eight soft drink vending machines were randomly selected and assigned to one of three conditions over a 9-week period: energy-content labels on non–energy-containing beverage selection panels (intervention I), labels plus motivational posters

Dara Bergen; Ming-Chin Yeh



Effects of nonstructural carbohydrate level and starch:sugar ratio on microbial metabolism in continuous culture of rumen contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual flow continuous culture system was used to examine the effects of varying sugar as a proportion of sugar plus starch (NSC) at three concentrations of NSC on nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial growth. Diets contained 240, 280 and 330gNSC\\/kgDM. At each NSC level, diets contained 29, 63 and 95gsugar\\/kgDM. Corn grain and corn silage were the major

W. H. Hoover; C. Tucker; J. Harris; C. J. Sniffen; M. B. de Ondarza



Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel).  


The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. Significant differences were measured for malic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant activity, where malic acid content ranged from 2.39 g kg(-1) FW (control) to 1.63 g kg(-1) FW (CON, ORG, and INT). The highest TPC was measured in BD and control samples (0.677 and 0.672 mg GAE g(-1), respectively), and the lowest in CON samples (0.511 mg GAE g(-1)). Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with TPC (r2=0.6187) and ranged from 0.823 ?M TE g(-1) FW to 1.270 ?M TE g(-1) FW in CON and BD samples, respectively, whereas total sugar content ranged from 21.03 g kg(-1) FW (CON) to 31.58 g kg(-1) FW (BD). The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective. PMID:20964342

Bavec, Martina; Turinek, Matjaz; Grobelnik-Mlakar, Silva; Slatnar, Ana; Bavec, Franc



Total and acid-soluble fluoride content of infant cereals, beverages and biscuits from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total fluoride (TF) and HCl 0.01?M (‘gastric juice’)-soluble fluoride (SF) were analysed in infant foods, beverages and calcium-rich biscuits. Samples were divided into seven categories: children cereals (A), chocolate-flavoured milk (B), soy beverages (C), filled biscuits (D), non-filled biscuits (E), wafer biscuits (F) and corn starch biscuits (G). Mean TF concentrations ± SD (amplitude, unit µg?F?ml or µg?F?g) were: (A)

M. A. R. Buzalaf; B. S. de Almeida; V. E. da Silva Cardoso; K. P. K. Olympio; T. de Almeida Furlani



Sugars and Desiccation Tolerance in Seeds 1  

PubMed Central

Soluble sugars have been shown to protect liposomes and lobster microsomes from desiccation damage, and a protective role has been proposed for them in several anhydrous systems. We have studied the relationship between soluble sugar content and the loss of desiccation tolerance in the axes of germinating soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Williams), pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska), and corn (Zea mays L. cv Merit) axes. The loss of desiccation tolerance during imbibition was monitored by following the ability of seeds to germinate after desiccation following various periods of preimbibition and by following the rates of electrolyte leakage from dried, then rehydrated axes. Finally, we analyzed the soluble sugar contents of the axes throughout the transition from desiccation tolerance to intolerance. These analyses show that sucrose and larger oligosaccharides were consistently present during the tolerant stage, and that desiccation tolerance disappeared as the oligosaccharides were lost. The results support the idea that sucrose may serve as the principal agent of desiccation tolerance in these seeds, with the larger oligosaccharides serving to keep the sucrose from crystallizing.

Koster, Karen L.; Leopold, A. Carl



Increasing effect of an oral intake of L-hydroxyproline on the soluble collagen content of skin and collagen fragments in rat serum.  


We examined the effects of oral L-hydroxyproline (Hyp) on collagen in the body. After 2 weeks' administration of Hyp (0.5 or 1 g/kg) to F344 male rats, the soluble collagen content of the skin had increased, and the serum concentration of collagen peptides was correlated with the skin content of soluble collagen. This result suggests that oral Hyp augmented collagen metabolism. PMID:22790956

Aoki, Mami; Suto, Kouzou; Komatsu, Miho; Kamimura, Ayako; Morishita, Koji; Yamasaki, Motoo; Takao, Toshifumi



The influence of water content and drug solubility on the formulation of pellets by extrusion and spheronisation.  


The influence of drug solubility in the range 14.3-1000 gl-1 on the formation of pellets by extrusion and spheronisation has been investigated by evaluating the performance of a series of model drugs mixed with an equal part by weight of microcrystalline cellulose. The optimum formulation in terms of pellet roundness and the maximum quantity within a limited size range was established by preparing samples with a range of water levels. The range of water levels over which pellets could be formed was found to be dependent on the model drug and its particle size. In general the force necessary to extrude the wet mass through the ram extruder was found to decrease as the quantity of water added increased. The optimum water level required to form the best quality pellets was found to decrease as a linear function of the natural logarithm of the water solubility of the drug. If allowance is made for the loss of solid by dissolution of the drug, there is an increase in the apparent water content necessary to form good spheres above a critical solubility between 350 and 400 gl-1. PMID:10210738

Lustig-Gustafsson, C; Kaur Johal, H; Podczeck, F; Newton, J M



Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in Diabetes Mellitus  


... Hypoglycemia Patient information Patient information: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics) Author David ... Find Print Contents of this article LOW BLOOD SUGAR OVERVIEW WHY DO I GET LOW BLOOD SUGAR? ...


Effects of increasing concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles on chemical composition and nutrient content of egg.  


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding high concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on chemical composition and selected nutrient content of egg yolk. Four isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 0, 17, 35, or 50% corn DDGS. A total of two hundred forty 54-wk-old Single-Comb White Leghorn laying hens were randomly allotted to 2 birds per cage with 3 consecutive cages representing an experimental unit (EU). Each EU was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments according to a completely randomized design. Hens were fed for a 24-wk experimental period after transition feeding to gradually increase corn DDGS inclusion over a 4-wk period. Two sets of experimental diets were formulated to meet or exceed the NRC nutrient recommendations for laying hens. Each diet formula was fed for 12 wk. Chemical composition and nutritional components in egg yolk were measured every 2 wk. The results showed that egg yolk from hens fed a DDGS-containing diet tended to have higher fat content and lower protein content. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly increased by the DDGS diet. The contents of choline and cholesterol were initially higher in the 50% DDGS treatment group, but were not different in the later period, especially during the last 4 wk. Lutein content increased linearly as DDGS level increased. The results indicated that feeding a high level of DDGS can increase the content of lutein and polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk, but may not affect the content of cholesterol and choline. PMID:23243253

Sun, H; Lee, E J; Samaraweera, H; Persia, M; Ahn, Dong U



Sugar, ethics and legislation.  


There are serious ethical and legal issues concerning the sale of sugar products, especially to children, yet one cannot address children's consumption without addressing consumption across society. The ethical principles are not even controversial. However, sugar has been insufficiently scrutinised, probably because sweetness is popular and plays a prominent, but dispensable, cultural role. Sugar is both addictive and toxic, although it is a very mild, very slow-working poison. Yet, over time, its effects can be quite serious. The social and health problems have proved grave and intractable. Given the nature of sugar, it should be regulated like alcohol and tobacco, if not more stringently, given its greater social and cultural penetration across all ages. That is, sales of sugar products at school canteens should be banned, advertising severely limited, full disclosure of sugar content made mandatory, warnings placed on certain products, and sugar itself should be taxed. PMID:20552941

Azize, Joseph



Effects of CO2 concentration and moisture content of sugar-free media on the tissue-cultured plantlets in a large growth chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic fluctuations of CO2 concentration in the tissue culture growth chamber after transplantation of petunia, chrysanthemum and tomato plantlets were recorded with a real-time control system to determine the critical CO2 concentration levels of 35 ?l l-1 at which CO2 enrichment is needed. The experimental data showed that the tissue-cultured plantlets of petunia, chrysanthemum and tomato had the same CO2 concentration dynamics. The results indicated that CO2 enrichment was proper on the second day after transplantation. Petunia plantlets were used to conduct experiments under PPFD of 80 ?mol m-2 s-1, and CO2 concentrations of 350 ± 50 ?l l-1, 650 ± 50 ?l l-1 and 950 ± 50 ?l l-1 as well as medium moisture contents of 60%, 70% and 80%, with the result that plantlets grew better under CO2 concentration of 650 ± 50 ?l l-1 than under the other two concentrations with all the different media water contents. Three media water contents under the same CO2 concentration produced plantlets with the same quality. The impacts of CO2 concentrations on plantlets are more important than those of the media water contents. Sugar-free tissue culture, as compared with the conventional culture, showed that CO2 enrichment to 350 ± 50 ?l l-1 can promote the growth of the cultured plantlets. Sugar-free tissue culture produced healthy plantlets with thick roots, almost equivalent to the common plantlets.

Qu, Y. H.; Lin, C.; Zhou, W.; Li, Y.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.



Looking beyond sugars: the role of amphiphilic solutes in preventing adventitious reactions in anhydrobiotes at low water contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants and animals that can survive dehydration accumulate high concentrations of disaccharides in their cells and tissues during desiccation. These sugars are necessary both for the depression of the membrane phase transition temperature of the dry lipid and for the formation of a carbohydrate glass. In the past decade, however, it has become clear that certain types of adventitious enzymatic

Ann E Oliver; Dirk K Hincha; John H Crowe



Weight indicators and nutrient intake in children and adolescents do not vary by sugar content in ready-to-eat cereal: results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have explored the relationship between sugar content in cereal and health outcome among children and adolescents. This study was designed to investigate the associations between ready-to-eat cereals, categorized by sugar content, with weight indicators and nutrient intake profiles. Data collected from 6- to 18-year-old US children and adolescents (N = 9660) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination

Ann M. Albertson; Douglas R. Thompson; Debra L. Franko; Norton M. Holschuh



The relationship between estimated water content and water soluble organic carbon of PM10 at Seoul, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organic carbon (OC) in atmospheric aerosols can be divided in water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water insoluble organic carbon (WISOC). WSOC constitutes a significant fraction of the carbon mass of aerosols, ranging from 27% to 83% (Yu et al., 2004). WSOC and absorbed water in atmospheric aerosol can impact climate directly by scattering solar radiation. Also, these can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) (Saxena et al., 1995; Yu et al., 2004). The role of WSOC in water absorption is especially unclear. So, it is essential to understand the relevance of water content and WSOC. In this study, we have analyzed relationship between the measured WSOC concentrations and estimated aerosol water content of PM10 (particles in the atmosphere with a diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 ?m) for the period between September 2006 and August 2007 at Seoul, Korea. Water content of PM10 was estimated by using a gas/particle equilibrium model, SCAPE2 (Kim et al., 1993). WSOC and estimated water content showed a positive correlation when the ambient relative humidity (RH) was less than 70%. But when RH was higher than 70%, WSOC and estimated water content did not show a correlation. However, WISOC over OC showed negative correlation with estimated water content of PM10 when RH was less than 70%. It was found that WSOC was correlated well with NO3- that is a secondary component formed by photochemical oxidation. References Kim, Y. P., Seinfeld, J. H., Saxena, P., 1993, Atmospheric gas-aerosol equilibrium I. Thermodynamic model, Aerosol Science and Technology, 19, 157-181. Saxena, P., Hildemann, L. M., McMurry, P. H., Seinfeld, J. H., 1995, Organics alter hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100(D9), 18755-18770. Yu, J. Z., Yang, H., Zhang, H. and Lau, A. K. H., 2004, Size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon in ambient aerosols and its size-resolved thermal characteristics, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 1061-1071.

Lee, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Yi, S.



Platinum traces in airborne particulate matter. Determination of whole content, particle size distribution and soluble platinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a period of almost one year airborne dust was collected at the area of ISAS, Dortmund. The total platinum content varied from 0.6 to 130 µg\\/kg, respectively from 0.02 to 5.1 pg\\/m3. The impactor measurements resulted in an equal distribution of platinum in combination with particle sizes ranging between 0.5 and 8 µm. The lowest concentrations were observed for

F. Alt; A. Bambauer; K. Hoppstock; B. Mergler; G. Tölg



Effect of cadmium on collagen content and solubility in rat bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic action of cadmium in the bone tissue is known, but its mechanisms are still unexplained. We examined whether Cd influences collagen content and its solu- bility in the femoral bone of three-week-old female rats exposed to 5 or 50 mg Cd\\/l in drinking water. Non-cross linked collagen was extracted with 0.5 M acetic acid, and two acid-insoluble collagen

Anna Galicka; M. Brzóska; Krystyna ?redzi?ska; Andrzej Gindzienski



Effects of energy-content labels and motivational posters on sales of sugar-sweetened beverages: stimulating sales of diet drinks among adults study.  


This study examined the effects of an environmental intervention promoting more non-energy-containing beverage consumption compared to sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption through vending machines in an urban college setting. Eight soft drink vending machines were randomly selected and assigned to one of three conditions over a 9-week period: energy-content labels on non-energy-containing beverage selection panels (intervention I), labels plus motivational posters (intervention II), or control. The totals of all beverages sold and machine revenue were recorded at baseline (2 weeks), intervention (5 weeks), and postintervention (2 weeks) periods. Use of energy-content labels and motivational posters, compared with control group, resulted in a significantly lower growth rate of sugar-sweetened beverage sales (P<0.05). Total revenue for all beverages increased during the intervention period. It is estimated that the non-energy-containing beverages combined accounted for 70.52% of the increased revenue. Results of this study suggest that energy-content labels and motivational posters on beverage vending machines may be an effective way to influence beverage sales. PMID:17081839

Bergen, Dara; Yeh, Ming-Chin



Sweeteners - sugars  


... for type 2 diabetes , metabolic syndrome , and high blood pressure . Sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol may have ... and beverages containing sugar, and to check your blood sugar levels ... alcohols may have fewer calories, read labels carefully for ...


The influence of caffeine on energy content of sugar-sweetened beverages: ‘the caffeine–calorie effect’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Caffeine is a mildly addictive psychoactive chemical and controversial additive to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). The objective of this study is to assess if removal of caffeine from SSBs allows co-removal of sucrose (energy) without affecting flavour of SSBs, and if removal of caffeine could potentially affect population weight gain.Subjects\\/Methods:The research comprised of three studies; study 1 used three-alternate forced choice

R S J Keast; D Sayompark; G Sacks; B A Swinburn; L J Riddell; RSJ Keast



Bacterial profile from caecal contents and soft faeces in growing rabbits given diets differing in soluble and insoluble fibre levels.  


To verify if non-invasive collection of soft faeces (SF) from rabbits can be used as an index of bacterial biodiversity in caecal contents (CC), 24 weaned rabbits were given diets with low (LI) and high (HI) levels of insoluble fibre (neutral detergent fibre, NDF) and low (LS) and high (HS) levels of soluble fibre (neutral detergent soluble fibre, NDSF). After 21 days, animals were fitted with neck collars for SF collection. Two days later, animals were slaughtered and CC sampled. Total bacterial concentration quantified by real time PCR (log(10) ng DNA/mg DM) was higher in SF than CC (2.615 vs. 2.383). Among diets, in CC it was (P = 0.059) lowest in LILS diet, whereas in SF it decreased (P = 0.025) with the NDF level. DGGE profiles showed that structure of bacterial communities of SF was close to that of CC; however, similarity was higher in LI than HI diets (0.82 vs. 0.74). Diversity indexes in CC decreased with NDSF (P < 0.05), whereas the effect of NDF (P < 0.05) was also appreciated in SF. Soft faeces can be an alternative to surgery or slaughter techniques to monitor changes in caecal bacterial community; however, high dietary NDF may decrease similarity between both communities. PMID:23123831

Rodríguez-Romero, Norelys; Abecia, Leticia; Fondevila, Manuel



Design and validation of software for real-time soluble solids content evaluation of peach by near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible/near infrared spectroscopy on-line determination had been widely used in agricultural products and food samples non-destructive internal quality determination. This research proposed to design real-time determination software in order to estimate soluble solids content (SSC) of fruit on line. Functions of the software included real-time spectroscopy pre-processing, real-time spectroscopy viewing, model building, SSC estimating, etc. In addition, Fenghua juicy peaches were used to validate the practicability and the real-time capability. And SSCs of peach samples were predicted by the software on line. The research provided some help to the real-time non-destructive internal quality determination of the fruit. As the important part of the real-time determination, the determination method and technology were fully accordance with the need at real-time and model's precision.

Jiang, Minmin; Lu, Huishan; Ying, Yibin; Xu, Huirong



Effect of Single-Screw Extruder Die Temperature, Amount of Distillers' Dried Grains With Solubles (DDGS), and Initial Moisture Content on Extrudates 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 82(1):34-37 Corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) was extruded with corn meal in a pilot plant single-screw extruder at different extruder die temperatures (100, 120, and 150°C), levels of DDGS (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and initial moisture contents (11, 15, and 20% wb). In general, there was a decrease in water absorption index (WAI), water solubility

C. Y. Shukla; K. Muthukumarappan; J. L. Julson



Metabolism of soluble rapeseed meal (Brassica rapa L.) protein during incubations with buffered bovine rumen contents in vitro.  


Accurate quantitative information on the fate of dietary protein in the rumen is central to modern metabolizable protein systems developed to improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization in ruminants. An in vitro method was developed to estimate the rate of soluble rapeseed meal (Brassica rapa L.) protein (SRMP) degradation. Unlabeled and (15)N-labeled solvent-extracted rapeseed meal were incubated alone or as an equal mixture (125 mg of N/L) with buffered rumen contents and a mixture of carbohydrates formulated to provide a constant source of fermentable energy during the course of all incubations. Incubations were made over 0.33, 0.67, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 h. Enrichment of (14)N and (15)N isotopes in total N of ammonia (AN), soluble nonammonia (SNAN), and insoluble (ISN) fractions liberated during incubations with test proteins was determined. A model with 4 pools that accounted for both intracellular and extracellular N transformations was used to estimate the rate of SRMP degradation. Parameter values used in the model were adjusted based on the size of A(14)N, A(15)N, SNA(14)N, SNA(15)N, IS(14)N, and IS(15)N pools, measured at different time points during incubations with buffered rumen fluid. The mean rate of N degradation for SRMP was estimated at 0.126 (SD 0.0499) h(-1). No substantive difference in the rate of protein degradation or microbial protein synthesis was observed during incubations of labeled and unlabeled substrates with rumen fluid. In conclusion, combined use of data from incubations of unlabeled and (15)N-labeled rapeseed protein with buffered rumen inoculum provided sufficient information to allow for estimation of parameter values in a complex dynamic model of soluble protein degradation. Results indicate the potential of the technique to evaluate the degradability of SNAN of other dietary protein sources and implicate ruminal escape of soluble rapeseed protein as an important source of amino acids in ruminants. PMID:23127902

Stefa?ski, T; Ahvenjärvi, S; Huhtanen, P; Shingfield, K J



Antimicrobial effect of sugar osazones and anhydro sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial effect of 14 sugar osazones and anhydro sugars was studied with model strains ofMicrococcus luteus, Bacillus licheniformis, Escherichia coli and strainsStaphylococcus aureus andPseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical material. The relationship between the structure of these compounds, their solubility in water and\\u000a 1-octanol and antimicrobial effect was investigated.

J. Zemek; K. Linbk; B. Kadle?íková; Š. Ku?ár; L. Somogyi



Effect of maturity and processing on total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber contents of Indian green leafy vegetables.  


Vegetables are very important in the diet and provide minerals, vitamins, antioxidants and fiber. A beneficial role of dietary fiber in human nutrition is known but the data on the effect of maturity and processing of Indian vegetables on dietary fiber and its fractions are not available. Hence, the present study was undertaken to generate data on total (TDF), insoluble (IDF) and soluble (SDF) dietary fiber contents of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and to assess the effect of leaf maturity and cooking on these parameters. Sixteen GLV (namely, agathi, alternanthera, amaranth, basella, cabbage, colocasia, coriander, curry leaves, drumstick, fenugreek, hibiscus, mint, portulaca, rumex, spinach and tender tamarind leaves) were analysed for TDF, IDF and SDF by the enzymatic and gravimetric method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Among the GLV analysed, the TDF and IDF contents were the lowest (2.5 g% and 1.6 g%) in basella and were the highest (16.3 g% and 13.4 g%) in curry leaves. The SDF content ranged from 0.7 g% in spinach to 2.9 g% in curry leaves. The SDF as a percentage of the TDF ranged from 11.3% in tender tamarind leaves to 36.0% in basella, but the majority of GLV had around 25% of the TDF as SDF. Significant (P < 0.01) variation was observed between inter-species and intra-species in TDF, IDF and SDF contents of all the GLV. As the leaf matured from tender to mature and to coarse stage, the TDF and IDF contents of amaranth, basella, hibiscus, rumex and spinach increased significantly (P < 0.05), The SDF content significantly (P < 0.05) increased from tender to mature stage in all five GLV, but there was no further increase from mature to coarse stage except in rumex, where a significant (P < 0.01) increase (25%) was observed. Processing/cooking of GLV had no significant effect on their TDF, IDF and SDF contents. PMID:16019300

Punna, Ramulu; Rao Paruchuri, Udayasekhara



Effect of sugar content and storage temperature on the survival and recovery of irradiated Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the influence of fruit maturity on the killing effectiveness of electron beam irradiation using model foods systems resembling melons. The model systems consisted of mixtures of 100g\\/l of unflavored gelatin and sugars at three ratios (fructose : glucose : sucrose) and levels designated as early ripe, ER, 3.0g\\/l, 1.5:1.5:0; moderately ripe, MR, 5.5g\\/l, 1:1:1.0 and ripe, R, 8.0g\\/l,

O. Rodriguez; M. E. Castell-Perez; R. G. Moreira



Selected Articles on Sugar Beet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Scientific and technical progress in beet growing; Structure of sugar beet root under a different mineral nutrition regime; Characteristics of growth and cell division in high-sugar and high-yielding strains of sugar beet; Intake of root nutriti...



Sugar Backgrounder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sugar title in the 2007 Farm Bill will determine how U.S. sugar policy is to be conducted. Currently, the U.S. sugar program uses domestic marketing allotments, price supports, and tariff-rate quotas to influence the amount of sugar available to the U...

M. Ali S. Haley



Biodegradable water-soluble polycarboxylic acid design: Biodegradability and builder performance in detergent formulation of partially dicarboxylated polyuronide containing sugar residues in the backbone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially dicarboxylated polyuronide having a variable amount of unreacted sugar blocks as an enzymatically cleavable segment was prepared by the controlled oxidation of pectic acid and alginic acid. It was found that partially dicarboxylated polyuronides containing uronide blocks showed better biodegradability than those having no uronide block in the polycarboxylate chain. The rate of biodegradation varies according to the degree

Shuichi Matsumura; Kiminori Amaya; Sadao Yoshikawa



Nitrogen Addition Reduces Decomposition of Native Recalcitrant Soil Carbon Under Plants With High Root Lignin and Low Cell Soluble Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on long-term soil carbon (C) storage remains unclear. Both enhanced and retarded decomposition of lignin and other recalcitrant C substrates in the soil have been reported with N addition. We examined the effect of N addition on soil C pools under 12 different grassland species planted as monoculture plots treated with 560 ppm atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and 0 and 4 g N fertilizer m-2 yr-1 in Minnesota, USA. After 5 years of treatment we separated soil C into light and heavy fractions and used the distinct 13C isotopic signature of C3 plants in elevated CO2 plots to separate the more recalcitrant native or pre-treatment C from newly formed C. As fertilizer N was labeled with 15N, we also calculated the amount of N fertilizer retained in the soil. Nitrogen addition significantly increased the pre-treatment C pool of the light soil fraction by 18% compared to plots receiving no N addition, suggesting reduced decomposition of C with added N. Added N did not affect the more stable heavy soil C fraction. In plots with added N, the pre-treatment C pool of the light fraction was especially high for plants that produced roots high in lignin and low in cell soluble content. These results suggest that high lignin content interacted with high levels of N to stimulate chemical stabilization of native soil C. The amount of fertilizer N retained in the light fraction was significantly positively related to pre-treatment soil C content, further evidence that N fertilization promoted stabilization of pre-treatment C. We conclude that plant species composition (via its effects on root lignin concentrations) determines the influence of atmospheric N deposition on the decomposition of soil organic matter under elevated CO2.

Dijkstra, F. A.; Hobbie, S. E.; Knops, J. M.; Reich, P. B.



Studies in the Respiratory and Carbohydrate Metabolism of Plant Tissues. IV. The Relation between the Rate of Carbon Dioxide Production in Potato Tubers in Air Following Anaerobic Conditions, and the Accompanying Changes in Lactic Acid Content and Sugar Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In part III of this series data were presented for the changes in air following periods of anaerobiosis in the rate of CO2 production of potato tubers and in the contents of sugar, lactic acid and other constituents. Here these experimental data are analyzed and further discussed. The time curve for decrease in the content of lactic acid in air

J. Barker; A. F. El Saifi



The Measurement of Dextran in Raw Sugars Using H NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cane sugar industry the purchase price of raw cane sugar, the product of sugar cane processing, is determined by polarimetric measurement of sucrose content in raw sugar solutions, expressed as Pol. Raw sugar generally contains more than 96% sucrose, but also contains other saccharides and non-sugars which can contribute to Pol. Dextrans, one class of polysaccharides often found

Les A. Edye; Shaoxiong Wu; Margaret A. Clarke



Evaluation of sugar content and composition in commonly consumed Korean vegetables, fruits, cereals, seed plants, and leaves by HPLC-ELSD.  


In the present investigation, evaluation of sugars viz. fructose, galactose, glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, and raffinose in commonly consumed raw Korean vegetables, fruits, cereals, seed plants, and leaves has been analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). Of the 58 samples analyzed, Onion showed the highest content of fructose (27.74g/100g) and glucose (31.80g/100g) and Chestnuts showed the highest content of sucrose (21.82g/100g). On the other hand, Glutinous sorghum (polished grain), Green tea leaves, and Paddy rice (well-polished rice) showed the lowest content of fructose (0.20g/100g), glucose (0.68g/100g) and sucrose (0.23g/100g), respectively. Glutinous barley (Hopimbori-whole grain) and Green tea leaves showed 0.17g/100g and 0.57g/100g of galactose and lactose respectively. Glutinous barley (Seodunchalbori-polished grain) and Black soybeans (Cheongjaho, dried) showed the highest content of maltose (0.51g/100g) and raffinose (1.82g/100g), respectively. In few samples, galactose, maltose, lactose, and raffinose were detected in trace quantities. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was also performed to discriminate the analyzed samples. PMID:24021435

Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Kim, Su Yeon; Kim, Jung Bong; Kim, Heon Woong; Cho, Soo Muk; Kim, Se Na; Kim, So Young; Cho, Young Sook; Kim, Haeng Ran



Influence of heat treatment of casein in presence of reducing sugars on Zn solubility and Zn uptake by Caco-2 cells after in vitro digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the heat treatment of casein in presence of reducing sugars on some aspects of Zn availability was investigated.\\u000a Samples were prepared by mixing casein with glucose-fructose, and were used unprocessed (C) or heated (HC). Changes in Zn\\u000a speciation after the in vitro digestion of the samples, both as part of a diet and in isolation, were studied.

I. Seiquer; A. Valverde; C. Delgado-Andrade; M. P. Navarro



Amino Acid Availability and True Metabolizable Energy Content of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Adult Cecectomized Roosters1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which varied in darkness of color, were collected from several processing plants in the Mid- western United States. Sources of DDGS were analyzed for their amino acid and energy contents, measured for color score, and evaluated for TMEn, apparent amino acid digestibility, and true amino acid digestibility. A preci- sion-fed

N. D. Fastinger; J. D. Latshaw; D. C. Mahan


Prediction of the digestibility of primary growth and regrowth grass silages from chemical composition, pepsin-cellulase solubility and indigestible cell wall content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of organic matter (OM) digestibility (OMD) of primary growth and regrowth grass silages was studied based on their chemical composition, pepsin-cellulase solubility of OM (OMS) and indigestible neutral detergent fibre (INDF) content. Twenty-five primary and 28 regrowth silages were harvested from mixed timothy (Phleum pratense) meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) or timothy cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) swards by varying the dates

J Nousiainen; M Rinne; M Hellämäki; P Huhtanen



Real-time PCR detection of lactic acid bacteria in cecal contents of Eimeria tenella-infected broilers fed soybean oligosaccharides and soluble soybean polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to test whether dietary soybean meal oligosaccharides (SMO) and water-soluble polysaccharides (SMP) can assist broiler chickens in resisting Eimeria tenella, and to determine the survival of lactic acid bacteria in cecal contents postinfection. All birds received a soybean meal-free diet. The 6 experimental treatments were as follows: positive (COR) and negative (COW) control groups, 2 groups

Y. Lan; S. Xun; S. Tamminga; B. A. Williams; M. W. A. Verstegen; G. Erdi



Improved Sugar Conversion and Ethanol Yield for Forage Sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Lines with Reduced Lignin Contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin is known to impede conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. In this study, forage sorghum plants carrying brown midrib (bmr) mutations, which reduce lignin contents, were evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks. The near-isogenic lines evaluated were:\\u000a wild type, bmr-6, bmr-12, and bmr-6 bmr-12 double mutant. The bmr-6 and bmr-12 mutations were equally efficient at reducing lignin contents (by 13% and 15%,

Bruce S. Dien; Gautam Sarath; Jeffrey F. Pedersen; Scott E. Sattler; Han Chen; Deanna L. Funnell-Harris; Nancy N. Nichols; Michael A. Cotta



Application FT-NIR in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact kiwifruits by reflectance mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of kiwifruit was developed by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) reflectance and fiber optics. Also, the models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of the fruit were developed and evaluated. To develop the models several different NIR reflectance spectra were acquired for each fruit from a commercial supermarket. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this work. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of kiwifruits were analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method using TQ 6.2.1 quantitative software (Thermo Nicolet Co., USA). Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all measured spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, noise of instrument, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and to obtain optimal calibration models. Total 480 NIR spectra were acquired from 120 kiwifruits and 90 samples were used to develop the calibration model, the rest samples were used to validate the model. Developed PLS model, which describes the relationship between SSC and NIR spectra, could predict SSC of 84 unknown samples with correlation coefficient of 0.9828 and SEP of 0.679 Brix.

Ying, Yibin; Lu, Huishan; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande; Xu, Huirong; Yu, Haiyan



Application Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact citrus fruits*  

PubMed Central

Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of citrus fruits was developed using Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) measurements collected through optics fiber. The models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of citrus fruits were developed and evaluated. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this study. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of citrus fruits was analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, instrument noise, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and yielded optimal calibration models. A total of 170 NIR spectra were acquired; 135 NIR spectra were used to develop the calibration model; the remaining spectra were used to validate the model. The developed PLS model describing the relationship between SSC and NIR reflectance spectra could predict SSC of 35 samples with correlation coefficient of 0.995 and RMSEP of 0.79 °Brix.

Lu, Hui-shan; Xu, Hui-rong; Ying, Yi-bin; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan; Tian, Hai-qing



Translucent Tissue Defects in Solanum tuberosum L: I. Alterations in Amyloplast Membrane Integrity, Enzyme Activities, Sugars, and Starch Content.  


Kennebec (cv) potatoes randomly developed translucent areas in their centrally located pith-parenchymal cells during storage. These defective areas were characterized as having reduced starch concentration and increased levels of free sugars (i. e. sucrose and glucose) and inorganic phosphate. Electron micrographs of potato tubers stored at 10 degrees +/- 1 degrees C for 8 months indicated that the amyloplast membrane was still intact and continuous around starch granules in both normal and prematurely sweetened tissue. The total activities of phosphorylase and sucrose-6-P synthase were elevated 5.4- and 3.8-fold, respectively, in the defective tissue compared to healthy nonsweetened tubers while there were no significant differences in the levels of sucrose synthase, UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase, invertase, or alpha-amylase. Total and specific activities of acid phosphatase were only slightly elevated in translucent tissue but their increase was significant (P < 0.05, t test) over that seen in healthy tubers. The premature sweetening in storage may have been indirectly triggered by moisture and heat stress experienced during development. Translucency eventually led to physical deterioration of the tissue. PMID:16664271

Sowokinos, J R; Lulai, E C; Knoper, J A



Improved Sugar Conversion and Ethanol Yield for Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Lines with Reduced Lignin Contents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lignin is known to impede conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. In this study, forage sorghum plants carrying brown midrib (bmr) mutations, which reduce lignin contents, were evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks. The near isogenic lines evaluated were: wild-type, bmr-6, bmr-12, and bmr-6 bmr-12...


Association of candidate genes with flowering time and water-soluble carbohydrate content in Lolium perenne (L.).  


We describe a candidate gene approach for associating SNPs with variation in flowering time and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content and other quality traits in the temperate forage grass species Lolium perenne. Three analysis methods were used, which took the significant population structure into account. First, a linear mixed model was used enabling a structured association analysis to be incorporated with the nine populations identified in the structure analysis as random variables. Second, a within-population analysis of variance was performed. Third, a tree-scanning method was used, in which haplotype trees were associated with phenotypes on the basis of inferred haplotypes. Analysis of variance within populations identified several associations between WSC, nitrogen (N), and dry matter digestibility with allelic variants within an alkaline invertase candidate gene LpcAI. These associations were only detected in material harvested in one of the two years. By contrast, consistent associations between the L. perenne homolog (LpHD1) of the rice photoperiod control gene HD1 and flowering time were identified. One SNP, in the immediate upstream region of the LpHD1 coding sequence (C-4443-A), was significant in the linear mixed model. Within-population analysis of variance and tree-scanning analysis confirmed and extended this result to the 2118 polymorphisms in some of the populations. The merits of the tree-scanning method are compared to the single SNP analysis. The potential usefulness of the 4443 SNP in marker-assisted selection is currently being evaluated in test crosses of genotypes from this work with turf-grass varieties. PMID:17660575

Skøt, Leif; Humphreys, Jan; Humphreys, Mervyn O; Thorogood, Danny; Gallagher, Joe; Sanderson, Ruth; Armstead, Ian P; Thomas, Ian D



Studies on dehydration of figs using different sugar syrup treatments.  


The ripe fig (Ficus carica L) fruits of cultivar cv., 'Deanna' were steam treated at 90°C and 10 psi for 5 min in autoclave. Steamed fruits were dipped in sucrose, glucose, fructose and invert sugar syrups at 50°Brix for 24 h for getting desired total soluble solids content. The treated fruits were further dried to 20% moisture in a cabinet dryer at 50-55°C. Good quality and acceptable dried figs could be prepared by using invert sugar syrup treatment. Dried figs prepared using invert sugar and packed in aluminum foil pouch and stored at ambient (27 ± 2°C) as well as refrigerated (10 ± 2°C) temperature remained in excellent condition up to 6 months. PMID:23572667

Naikwadi, P M; Chavan, U D; Pawar, V D; Amarowicz, R



Zinc availability and digestive zinc solubility in piglets and broilers fed diets varying in their phytate contents, phytase activity and supplemented zinc source.  


The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary zinc addition (0 or 15 mg/kg of Zn as inorganic or organic zinc) to three maize-soybean meal basal diets varying in their native Zn, phytic P contents and phytase activity (expressed in kg of feed: P- with 25 mg Zn and 1.3 g phytic P, P+ with 38 mg Zn and 2.3 g phytic P or P+/ENZ being P+ including 500 units (FTU) of microbial phytase per kg) in two monogastric species (piglets, broilers). Measured parameters were growth performance, zinc status (plasma, and bone zinc) and soluble zinc in digesta (stomach, gizzard and intestine). The nine experimental diets were fed for 20 days either to weaned piglets (six replicates per treatment) or to 1-day-old broilers (10 replicates per treatment). Animal performance was not affected by dietary treatments (P > 0.05) except that all P- diets improved body weight gain and feed conversion ratio in piglets (P < 0.05). Piglets fed P- diets had a better Zn status than those fed P+ diets (P < 0.05). In both species, Zn status was improved with supplemental Zn (P < 0.05), irrespective of Zn source. Phytase supplementation improved piglet Zn status to a higher extent than adding dietary Zn, whereas in broilers, phytase was less efficient than supplemental Zn. Digestive Zn concentrations reflected the quantity of ingested Zn. Soluble Zn (mg/kg dry matter) and Zn solubility (% of total Zn content) were highest in gizzard contents, which also presented lower pH values than stomach or intestines. The intestinal Zn solubility was higher in piglet fed organic Zn than those fed inorganic Zn (P < 0.01). Phytase increased soluble Zn in piglet stomach (P < 0.001) and intestine (P = 0.1), but not in broiler gizzard and intestinal contents. These results demonstrate (i) that dietary zinc was used more efficiently by broilers than by piglets, most probably due to the lower gizzard pH and its related higher zinc solubility; (ii) that zinc supplementation, irrespective of zinc source, was successful in improving animal's zinc status; and (iii) suggest that supplemented Zn availability was independent from the diet formulation. Finally, the present data confirm that phytase was efficient in increasing digestive soluble Zn and improving zinc status in piglets. However, the magnitude of these effects was lower in broilers probably due to the naturally higher Zn availability in poultry than in swine. PMID:22443873

Schlegel, P; Nys, Y; Jondreville, C



Non-destructive tests on the prediction of apple fruit flesh firmness and soluble solids content on tree and in shelf life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic impulse resonance frequency sensor and miniaturized VIS\\/NIR spectrometer were applied on apple fruit Malus domestica ‘Idared’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ (n=800) to predict fruit flesh firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) on tree and in shelf life. Partial least-squares calibration models on acoustic data and VIS spectra of ‘Golden Delicious’\\/‘Idared’ apple fruits on tree were built for predicting the fruit

Manuela Zude; Bernd Herold; Jean-Michel Roger; Veronique Bellon-Maurel; Sandra Landahl



Application of Least Squares-Support Vector Machine for Measurement of Soluble Solids Content of Rice Vinegars Using Vis\\/NIR Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible and near infrared (Vis\\/NIR) spectroscopy was investigated to predict soluble solids content (SSC) of rice vinegars based on least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM). Five varieties of rice vinegars and 300 samples were prepared. After some preprocessing, PLS was implemented for calibration as well as the extraction of principal components (PCs). Wavelet transform (WT) was use to compress the variables.

Fei Liu; Yong He; Li Wang



Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beet sugar and cane sugar constitute 25% and 75%, respectively, of the world sucrose production of about 145×10 6 ty ear ?1 .S ugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Döll) is grown mainly in Europe, producing 28×10 6 t beet sugar (hereof 20×10 6 t in the EU), North America (4.0×10 6 t) and Asia (2.5×10 6 t).

M. Joersbo


Effects of soil freezing and drought stress on abscisic acid content of sugar maple sap and leaves.  


In 1991 and 1992, mature maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were freeze-stressed or drought-stressed by preventing precipitation (snow or rain) from reaching the forest floor under selected trees. Lack of snow cover caused a decrease in soil temperature to well below 0 degrees C from December to April and a lowering of the soil water content to 10%. The abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in the spring sap of deep-soil frost-stressed trees was significantly higher than in control or drought-stressed trees. The increase in ABA concentration in the xylem sap in the spring of 1991 and 1992 preceded symptoms of canopy decline and a decrease in leaf area that were observed during the summers of 1991 and 1992. These results suggest a role for ABA in root-to-shoot communication in response to environmental stress. The largest differences in ABA concentration induced by the treatments was found in sap collected at the end of sap flow. The increase in ABA concentration in spring sap at the end of the sap flow could be used as an early indicator of stress suffered by trees during the winter. Not only did the increase in ABA concentration occur before any visible symptoms of tree decline appeared, but the trees that showed the most evident decline had the highest ABA concentrations in the spring sap. Leaf ABA concentration was not a good indicator of induced stress. PMID:14967696

Bertrand, A; Robitaille, G; Nadeau, P; Boutin, R



Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC\\/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in

K. E. Yttri; C. Dye; G. Kiss



Structure formation in sugar containing pectin gels - Influence of tartaric acid content (pH) and cooling rate on the gelation of high-methoxylated pectin.  


The aim of the study was the application of a recently published method, using structuring parameters calculated from dG'/dt, for the characterisation of the pectin sugar acid gelation process. The influence of cooling rate and pH on structure formation of HM pectin gels containing 65wt.% sucrose were investigated. The results show that the structure formation process as well as the properties of the final gels strongly depended on both parameters. With increasing cooling rates from 0.5 to 1.0K/min the initial structuring temperature slightly decreased and the maximum structuring velocity increased. The lower the cooling rates, the firmer and more elastic were the final gels. With increasing acid content (decreasing pH from 2.5-2.0) the initial structuring temperatures were nearly constant. The final gel properties varied visibly but not systematically. Gels with the lowest and highest pH were less elastic and weaker compared to those with medium acid concentrations. PMID:24099540

Kastner, H; Kern, K; Wilde, R; Berthold, A; Einhorn-Stoll, U; Drusch, S



Domestic processing effects on available carbohydrate content and starch digestibility of black grams ( Vigna mungo) and chick peas ( Cicer arietium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic processing effects on available carbohydrate contents and starch digestibility of black grams and chick peas were investigated. The food legumes were soaked in tap water and alkaline solution of sodium bicarbonate at 30 and 100°C for 1–2h before cooking under pressure. Total soluble sugars, reducing sugars and starch contents of black grams and chick peas were 9.64% and 9.83%,



Fractionation of wheat distiller's dried grains and solubles using sieving increases digestible nutrient content in rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from maize and more recently wheat contain moderate levels of protein at an economical cost. However, they also contain high levels of fibre which reduce the value of DDGS in aquaculture feeds. In this study, sieving was used to fractionate wheat DDGS. Wheat DDGS was ground using a hammer mill with a 3mm screen

K. M. Randall; M. D. Drew



Implementation and evaluation of the pulse field gradient technique for the prediction of soluble solids content of fruit juices and soluble solids content and defects in apple tissue using a low frequency proton magnetic resonance sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulsed field gradient technique (PFG) was implemented in a 5.40 MHz $\\\\sp1$H-MR system. A quadrupole coil was used for applying 10 to 15 G\\/cm gradient pulses. The self-diffusion coefficient of water, $\\\\rm D\\\\sb{w},$ and spin-spin relaxation time, T$\\\\sb2,$ were measured in aqueous solutions of citric acid and\\/or Na-citrate buffer. Soluble solids of the solutions ranged from 0% to 16%.

Kevin Michael Keener



Correlation between the Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Leaf Starch and Sugars of C3 Plants and the Ratio of Intercellular and Atmospheric Partial Pressures of Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

Carbon isotope discrimination (?) was analyzed in leaf starch and soluble sugars, which represent most of the recently fixed carbon. Plants of three C3 species (Populus nigra L. × P. deltoides Marsh., Gossypium hirsutum L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were kept in the dark for 24 hours to decrease contents of starch and sugar in leaves. Then gas exchange measurements were made with constant conditions for 8 hours, and subsequently starch and soluble sugars were extracted for analysis of carbon isotope composition. The ratio of intercellular, pi, and atmospheric, pa, partial pressures of CO2, was calculated from gas exchange measurements, integrated over time and weighted by assimilation rate, for comparison with the carbon isotope ratios in soluble sugars and starch. Carbon isotope discrimination in soluble sugars correlated strongly (r = 0.93) with pi/pa in all species, as did ? in leaf starch (r = 0.84). Starch was found to contain significantly more 13C than soluble sugar, and possible explanations are discussed. The strong correlation found between ? and pi/pa suggests that carbon isotope analysis in leaf starch and soluble sugars may be used for monitoring, indirectly, the average of pi/pa weighted by CO2 assimilation rate, over a day. Because pi/pa has a negative correlation with transpiration efficiency (mol CO2/mol H2O) of isolated plants, ? in starch and sugars may be used to predict differences in this efficiency. This new method may be useful in ecophysiological studies and in selection for improved transpiration efficiency in breeding programs for C3 species.

Brugnoli, Enrico; Hubick, Kerry T.; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Wong, Suan Chin; Farquhar, Graham D.



Changes to the content of sugars, sugar alcohols, myo-inositol, carboxylic acids and inorganic anions in developing grains from different varieties of Robusta ( Coffea canephora) and Arabica ( C. arabica) coffees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in concentration of mono- and oligosaccharides, sugar alcohols, myo-inositol, carboxylic acids and inorganic anions in coffee grains were analysed during grain development in three cultivars of Coffea arabica L (Arabica) and two of C. canephora L var. Robusta (Robusta) by high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled to pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAE-PED). The majority of the components analysed either decreased

William John Rogers; Stéphane Michaux; Maryse Bastin; Peter Bucheli



Sugar test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Metabolism is the conversion or breakdown of a substance from one form to another by a living organism for energy. Yeast is an indicator of how much sugar is in food. Yeast releases carbon dioxide and is a direct indicator of the rate of metabolism. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. Cereals contain sugars, which are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are chemicals that provide energy.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)



The Effect of Water, Sugars, and Proteins on the Pattern of Ice Nucleation and Propagation in Acclimated and Nonacclimated Canola Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared video thermography was used to observe ice nucleation temperatures, patterns of ice formation, and freezing rates in nonacclimated and cold acclimated leaves of a spring (cv Quest) and a winter (cv Express) canola (Brassica napus). Distinctly different freezing patterns were observed, and the effect of water content, sugars, and soluble proteins on the freezing process was characterized. When freezing

L. V. Gusta; M. Wisniewski; N. T. Nesbitt; M. L. Gusta



Effects of high-sugar ryegrass silage and mixtures with red clover silage on ruminant digestion. 1. In vitro and in vivo studies of nitrogen utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out to determine the effects of feeding grass silages differing in their water-soluble carbohydrate content, with or without red clover silage, on the efficiency of nutrient use. High-sugar grass, control grass, and red clover were ensiled in laboratory silos for use in an in vitro experiment (Exp. 1). For an in vivo experiment (Exp. 2), the

R. J. Merry; M. R. F. Lee; D. R. Davies; R. J. Dewhurst; J. M. Moorby; N. D. Scollan; M. K. Theodorou



Modification of Sugar Composition in Strawberry Fruit by Antisense Suppression of an ADP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

To modulate the soluble sugar content of strawberry fruits, we generated transgenic plants that incorporated an antisense\\u000a cDNA of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) small subunit (FagpS) under the control of the strawberry fruit-dominant ascorbate peroxidase (APX) promoter (cv. Anther). Several independent\\u000a transgenic lines were obtained and grown in the greenhouse for analysis of agronomic traits. Most transgenic fruit did not\\u000a show

Jung-Il Park; Young-Koung Lee; Won-Il Chung; In-Ha Lee; Jae-Hyun Choi; Woo-Moon Lee; Hiroshi Ezura; Sam-Pin Lee; In-Jung Kim



Characterization of Sugar-Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understo...

S. I. Gibson



Effect of UV-B light on soluble phenolic content of various whole and fresh-cut vegetables  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase through abiotic stress caused by UV-B light exposure is the basis of a novel value-added processing method that enhances the nutrient content of specialty crops by increasing the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including terpe...


Managing your blood sugar  


Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...


Technology and economics of sugar concentrate production from cannery wastes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project was to determine the best way to divert massive amounts of carbohydrate present in vegetable cannery wastes to feedstock for fuel-grade alcohol production. Because huge quantities of water are used during the processing of vegetables, it was postulated that the major portion of the soluble carbohydrate of the byproduct wastes would be present in effluent wastewaters from canning plants. Thus, the specific objectives of this project became twofold - to determine the soluble carbohydrate content of cannery wastewaters and to determine how best to harvest their fermentable sugars to produce alcohol feedstock. Our findings suggest that approximately 1.5 million tons of readily fermentable carbohydrate are recoverable annually from US cannery wastewaters by combined ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology to produce 15 to 20% sugar concentrates. The fuel alcohol potential of this feedstock is approximately 220 million gallons per annum. Technical innovations required to insure cost-effective recovery of fermentable sugars include extensive use of 0.2 micron prefiltration devices and combined UF/RO stages to prevent decay of permeate flux by omnipresent membrane foulants. Industrial participation in the recovery of fermentable sugars from process waste streams has been shown to be favored by estimated economics of sugar concentrate production and by savings in downstream waste disposal costs.

Harkin, J.M.



Water solubility in aluminosilicate melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compiled water solubility data for a wide range of natural and synthetic aluminosilicate melts in a search for correlations between melt composition and solubility. The published data reveal some interesting systematics. For example, molar water solubility increases with decreasing silica content in binary and pseudobinary silicates, and much higher solubilities are associated with alkali systems compared to alkaline

Paul F. McMillan; John R. Holloway



Carbonaceous content and water-soluble organic functionality of atmospheric aerosols at a semi-rural New England location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient aerosol samples (n = 287) collected at a semi-rural location, Thompson Farm (TF) in Durham, New Hampshire, from August 2007 to 2008 exhibited seasonal variation, characterized by the largest total carbon (TC) concentrations during winter (3.74 ± 2.55 ?g C m-3) and the smallest during summer (1.21 ± 1.22 ?g C m-3). On average, 92% of TC was organic (OC), of which 69% on average was observed to be water-soluble (WSOC). This study focuses on characterizing the WSOC functional groups using Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy on a subset of the samples (n = 108). Three aliphatic groups (H-C, H-C-C=, and H-C-O) are estimated to account for 79% of the characterized WSOC carbon mass. Pure aliphatic (H-C), oxygenated aliphatic (H-C-O), and unsaturated aliphatic (H-C-C=) groups were the dominant functional groups contributing to an average of 31%, 25%, and 23% of the WSOC carbon mass, respectively. The arylic group contributed an average of 21% of the WSOC carbon mass but exhibited large seasonal variation compared to the other groups. Precipitation affected mainly the WSOC and the H-C-C= functional group, which showed consistent decreases following rainfall events. Strong correlation between elemental carbon and OC and the dominance of air masses from the continental Midwest during winter shows that primary emissions (from local heating or industrial emissions) were the main sources during winter. Air masses originating from the continental Midwest were associated with the high levels of EC, primary OC, and H-C-O at TF. In contrast to winter, enhanced secondary formation and processed aerosols were dominant during other seasons.

Shakya, Kabindra M.; Place, Philip F., Jr.; Griffin, Robert J.; Talbot, Robert W.



Nondestructive quantification of the soluble-solids content and the available acidity of apples by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This research evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to quantify the soluble-solids content (SSC) and the available acidity (VA) in intact apples. Partial least-squares calibration models, obtained from several preprocessing techniques (smoothing, derivative, etc.) in several wave-number ranges were compared. The best models were obtained with the high coefficient determination (r{sup 2}) 0.940 for the SSC and a moderate r{sup 2} of 0.801 for the VA, root-mean-square errors of prediction of 0.272% and 0.053%, and root-mean-square errors of calibration of 0.261% and 0.046%, respectively. The results indicate that the FT-NIR spectroscopy yields good predictions of the SSC and also showed the feasibility of using it to predict the VA of apples.

Ying Yibin; Liu Yande; Tao Yang



The influence of light and maturity on fruit quality and flavonoid content of red raspberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various fruit maturities and different light intensities on berry fruit quality, antioxidant capacity and phytonutrient levels in red raspberries (Rubus ideaus L.) were determined. At harvest, immature berries contained significantly lower levels of sugars and acids than ripe berries. When berries were harvested at 5% or 20% maturity, they never developed the levels of soluble solids content

Shiow Y. Wang; Chi-Tsun Chen; Chien Y. Wang



A Sugar-Inducible Protein Kinase, VvSK1, Regulates Hexose Transport and Sugar Accumulation in Grapevine Cells  

PubMed Central

In grapevine (Vitis vinifera), as in many crops, soluble sugar content is a major component of yield and economical value. This paper identifies and characterizes a Glycogen Synthase Kinase3 protein kinase, cloned from a cDNA library of grape Cabernet Sauvignon berries harvested at the ripening stage. This gene, called VvSK1, was mainly expressed in flowers, berries, and roots. In the berries, it was strongly expressed at postvéraison, when the berries accumulate glucose, fructose, and abscisic acid. In grapevine cell suspensions, VvSK1 transcript abundance is increased by sugars and abscisic acid. In transgenic grapevine cells overexpressing VvSK1, the expression of four monosaccharide transporters (VvHT3, VvHT4, VvHT5, and VvHT6) was up-regulated, the rate of glucose uptake was increased 3- to 5-fold, and the amount of glucose and sucrose accumulation was more than doubled, while the starch amount was not affected. This work provides, to our knowledge, the first example of the control of sugar uptake and accumulation by a sugar-inducible protein kinase.

Lecourieux, Fatma; Lecourieux, David; Vignault, Celine; Delrot, Serge



The effect of idebenone on the total content and solubility characteristics of proteins and osmometric behavior of the intracellular mass in brain of CFY and SHRsp rats.  


Female CFY rats (21 months old) and male spontaneously hypertensive, stroke-prone (SHRsp) rats (3 months old), in conventional housing conditions, received placebo (5% gum arabic solution) or 50 mg/kg bw/day idebenone suspended in 5% gum arabic, through a gastric tube for 5 weeks; then their brains were elaborated as follows: (1) Total proteins as well as water-soluble and water-insoluble proteins (WSP and WIP, respectively) were separated from the brain homogenate by centrifugation at 500 X g. The WIP fractions were tested also in vitro by heat denaturation at 64 degrees C (10 min) and by 3 M urea treatment. In the placebo group of CFY rats the total protein content was 113.9 mg per g fresh weight. WIP amounted to 27.2% of the total proteins. Idebenone-treatment did not alter the protein composition in these old rats. In the SHRsp rats the total protein content of the brain cortex was almost identical with that of the normal, Wistar-derived CFY rats of much more advanced age (about 2 years). The idebenone-treatment did not alter the protein content of the brain cortex, although the WIP content and the heat-resistant fraction of it increased significantly in this strain. (2) The osmotic potential of brain tissue was determined by measuring swelling or shrinkage velocities in Ringer solution, the osmotic concentration of which was rendered hypo- or hyperosmotic by dilution or addition of polythylene glycol (PEG 6000), respectively. Idebenone treatment exerted no effect on the osmometric properties of the brain tissue in either the normal old or the SHRsp rats. PMID:15374476

Lustyik, G; Nagy, K; Szállási, Z; Zs-Nagy, I


Roles of small, acid-soluble spore proteins and core water content in survival of Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to environmental solar UV radiation.  


Spores of Bacillus subtilis contain a number of small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) which comprise up to 20% of total spore core protein. The multiple alpha/beta-type SASP have been shown to confer resistance to UV radiation, heat, peroxides, and other sporicidal treatments. In this study, SASP-defective mutants of B. subtilis and spores deficient in dacB, a mutation leading to an increased core water content, were used to study the relative contributions of SASP and increased core water content to spore resistance to germicidal 254-nm and simulated environmental UV exposure (280 to 400 nm, 290 to 400 nm, and 320 to 400 nm). Spores of strains carrying mutations in sspA, sspB, and both sspA and sspB (lacking the major SASP-alpha and/or SASP-beta) were significantly more sensitive to 254-nm and all polychromatic UV exposures, whereas the UV resistance of spores of the sspE strain (lacking SASP-gamma) was essentially identical to that of the wild type. Spores of the dacB-defective strain were as resistant to 254-nm UV-C radiation as wild-type spores. However, spores of the dacB strain were significantly more sensitive than wild-type spores to environmental UV treatments of >280 nm. Air-dried spores of the dacB mutant strain had a significantly higher water content than air-dried wild-type spores. Our results indicate that alpha/beta-type SASP and decreased spore core water content play an essential role in spore resistance to environmentally relevant UV wavelengths whereas SASP-gamma does not. PMID:19542328

Moeller, Ralf; Setlow, Peter; Reitz, Günther; Nicholson, Wayne L



Characterization of a sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.) gene homolog to the brassinosteroid insensitive1-associated receptor kinase 1 that is associated to sugar content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reports on the characterization of ScBAK1, a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), expressed predominantly in bundle-sheath cells of the mature leaf and potentially involved in cellular signaling cascades\\u000a mediated by high levels of sugar in this organ. In this report, it was shown that the ScBAK1 sequence was similar to the brassinosteroid\\u000a insensitive1-associated receptor

Renato Vicentini; Juliana de Maria Felix; Marcelo Carnier Dornelas; Marcelo Menossi



Effect of soluble calcium on the determination of the labile metal content of sediments with ion-exchangers.  


Equilibration of sediments with cation-exchangers results in a transfer of loosely bound labile metal species to the exchanger phase. Dissolution of the matrix is also promoted and selectivity rules suggest that some of the cations released (particularly Ca) could effectively compete with metal ions for exchange sites. This potential source of error has been evaluated by studying synthetic mixtures of Ca(2+) and other metal ions (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+)) and by analysis of two calcium-rich wastes (a calcine and a jarosite). The ion uptake most influenced by calcium competition was that of zinc; uptake of lead was least affected. For minimum error, i.e., optimum transfer of "available" or "labile" metal ion, the level of free Ca(2+) introduced into the solution should not exceed 300 mg/l., and the amount of exchanger added must provide an excess of exchange sites relative to the amount of cations released from the sample. By use of exchangers of different types it is possible to attempt some classification of the labile metal content, e.g., acid-displaced, exchangeable, salts of weak acids. PMID:18964894

Beveridge, A; Waller, P; Pickering, W F



Real-time PCR detection of lactic acid bacteria in cecal contents of eimeria tenella-lnfected broilers fed soybean oligosaccharides and soluble soybean polysaccharides.  


This experiment was conducted to test whether dietary soybean meal oligosaccharides (SMO) and water-soluble polysaccharides (SMP) can assist broiler chickens in resisting Eimeria tenella, and to determine the survival of lactic acid bacteria in cecal contents postinfection. All birds received a soybean meal-free diet. The 6 experimental treatments were as follows: positive (COR) and negative (COW) control groups, 2 groups fed diets containing either 1% SMO or 0.5% SMP from 1 to 11 d of age; a vaccinated group (VAC), and an anticoccidial medicated group (ANT). Chickens of all treatments except COW were orally infected with 1000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella on d 15. Fecal oocyst shedding was monitored per treatment group between d 5 and 13 postinfection. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in cecal contents were evaluated by a real-time PCR technique on d 7 postinfection. The results showed that the SMO and SMP groups had a lower number of oocysts per gram of feces during the monitoring period than the COR group. Threshold cycles were 22.21, 27.68, 13.99, 14.92, 12.97, and 14.85, for COW, COR, SMO, SMP, VAC, and ANT groups, respectively; specific PCR products were confirmed by the results of melting curve analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results suggest that these LAB communities were promoted by SMO and SMP and have a competitive exclusion function when broiler chickens are infected with E. tenella. PMID:15510555

Lan, Y; Xun, S; Tamminga, S; Williams, B A; Verstegen, M W A; Erdi, G



Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners – A risk benefit assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and

T. Husøy; B. Mangschou; T. Ø. Fotland; S. O. Kolset; H. Nøtvik Jakobsen; I. Tømmerberg; C. Bergsten; J. Alexander; L. Frost Andersen



Effects of Watering and Fertilization on Carbohydrate Reserves in Sugar Maple Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sugar maple seedlings, grown under three nutrient and three moisture levels, were analyzed after three growing seasons for starch and ethanol-soluble sugars. Fertilization did not affect carbohydrate levels in stems or roots. Water stress caused a signifi...

C. M. Carl J. R. Donnelly B. W. Post



Changes in sugar, organic acid, flavonol and carotenoid composition during ripening of berries of three seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble solid, sugar, organic acid, flavonol and carotenoid content were determined in seabuckthorn berries of the three German cultivars Askola, Hergo and Leikora, collected at different harvesting times, to provide a more thorough knowledge of quality changes occurring during ripening of the berries. The main organic acids were malic (1940–4660 mg\\/100 g), quinic (810–2820 mg\\/100 g), ascorbic (180–370 mg\\/100 g) and citric acid (90–160 mg\\/100 g). In all

Antonio Raffo; Flavio Paoletti; Marco Antonelli



Size-fractionated water-soluble ions, situ pH and water content in aerosol on hazy days and the influences on visibility impairment in Jinan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the size-fractionated characteristics of aerosol chemical compounds including major water-soluble inorganic and organic ions, situ pH and water content as well as their influences on visibility, field sample collections using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) combined with simulations by Aerosol Inorganic Model (AIM) were conducted on hazy and clear days in Jinan, China from April, 2006 to January, 2007. Average concentrations of TSP, PM10 and PM1.8 on hazy days were found to be 1.49-5.13, 1.54-5.48 and 1.30-5.48 times those on clear days during the sampling periods, indicating that particulate pollution was very serious on hazy days. Size distributions of mass, SO42-, NO3-, formate and acetate were all bimodal with fine mode predominant on hazy days, demonstrating that fine particles and secondary pollutants were more easily formed on hazy days. The average total aerosol concentration of H+ ([H+]total), of which free H+ concentration ([H+]ins) inside aerosol accounted for 30%, was 2.36-4.21 times that in other cities in China and US. The [H+]ins on hazy days was 2.43-13.11 times that on clear days and the estimated situ pH was mainly influenced by RH and mole ratios of [NH4+]/[SO42-]. Size distributions of situ pH were unimodal peaked at 0.56 ?m on clear days in spring and autumn as well as on hazy days in autumn, while a trend of increasing was shown on hazy days in spring and summer. The normalized water content (NWC) was higher on hazy days in autumn and winter because of the easier uptake of water by aerosol. It was found that when NWC < 2, if [NH4+]/[SO42-] < 2.0, aerosol chemical components were more sensitive to water content, while if [NH4+]/[SO42-] > 2.0, relative humidity (RH) was more important. Size distributions of water content showed a trend of sharp increasing on hazy days in spring and autumn. Correlation and regression analysis indicated that visibility was significantly influenced by the concentrations of SO42- and water content in the range of 1.0-1.8 ?m.

Cheng, Shu-Hui; Yang, Ling-Xiao; Zhou, Xue-Hua; Xue, Li-Kun; Gao, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Wen-Xing



Effects of Two Different Ozone Exposure Regimes on Chlorophyll and Sucrose Content of Leaves and Yield Parameters of Sugar Beet ( Beta Vulgaris L.) and Rape ( Brassica Napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv. Loretta) and rape (Brassica napus cv. Licolly) plants were exposed under equaldose conditions in closed fumigation chambers under twodifferent ozone (O3) pattern: Var130 (17:00–09:00 h: 40 µg O3 m-3; 09:00–17:00 h: 130µgO3 m-3) and Var220 (16:00-12:00 h: 40 µgO3 m-3; 12:00–16:00 h: 220µg O3 m-3).Control plants were exposed under carbon filtered airconditions (ozone free, CF-control).

B. Köllner; G. H. M. Krause



[Reponses of sugar metabolism in seed germination of three various acid-fast plants to acid rain].  


Responses of sugar metabolism during germination of rice (O. sativa ), wheat (T. aestivum) and rape (B. chinensis var. oleifera) seeds to simulated acid rain (pH 2.0, pH 2.5, pH 3.0, pH 3.5, pH 4.0, pH 4.5, pH 5.0) were investigated. The purpose was to clarify the mechanism of acid rain affecting seed germination. The results show that the alpha-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar of the rice, wheat and rape seeds decrease with increased stress level (pH 5.0 - 2.0), and are lower than CK. The response order of three indexes to stress level of acid rain is that rice (pH 3.5 - 4.0/53.88% - 77.7%) is smaller than wheat (pH 3.5 - 4.5/58.60% - 89.41%), and rape (pH 4.0 - 5.0/60.14% - 100%) is the smallest, alpha-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar of rice increase with prolonged stress time, but the three indexes of wheat and rape increase at first, and then decrease. In the same stress time (3 - 7 d), the three indexes of the three species for all treatment groups are lower than CK, and decrease with increased stress level. The stress time when the maximum damage of a-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar appeared is that rice (7 d, 7 d, 7 d) > wheat (7 d, 6 d, 5 d) > rape (3 d, 7 d, 5 d). Responses of three indexes to stress level and stress time of acid rain show that the ability of sugar metabolism resisting acid rain is that rice is stronger than wheat and rape is the worst, and the difference in sugar metabolism of 3 species is one of the internal reasons why the germination indexes behave differently. PMID:18649547

Wang, Li-Hong; Zhou, Qing; Zeng, Qing-Ling



Sugar (sucrose) holograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey “water and diluted sugar” easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose

E. L Ponce-Lee; A. Olivares-Perez; I. Fuentes-Tapia



Effect of sugar composition on the water sorption and softening properties of cookie.  


In order to elucidate the effect of sugar composition on the water sorption and softening properties of cookie, three types of sugar composition (sugar alone, sugar-trehalose, and sugar-sorbitol) were employed as an ingredient of cookie, and softening temperature (Ts) of the cookie samples, adjusted to various water contents, was investigated using thermal rheological analysis. Ts decreased linearly with increasing water content of the cookie samples. At each water content, Ts of samples was higher in the order of sugar-trehalose>sugaralone >sugar-sorbitol. On the other hand, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the sugar and/or sugar alcohol mixtures used for cookie preparation was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. A linear relationship was found between anhydrous Ts of the cookie samples and anhydrous Tg of the sugar and/or sugar alcohol mixtures. These results suggest that sugar composition plays an important role in the softening properties of cookie samples. PMID:24128543

Kawai, Kiyoshi; Toh, Midori; Hagura, Yoshio



Soluble inhibitors\\/deactivators of cellulase enzymes from lignocellulosic biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid hot water, steam explosion, and dilute acid pretreatments of lignocellulose generate soluble inhibitors which hamper enzymatic hydrolysis as well as fermentation of sugars to ethanol. Toxic and inhibitory compounds will vary with pretreatment and include soluble sugars, furan derivatives (hydroxymethyl fulfural, furfural), organic acids (acetic, formic and, levulinic acid), and phenolic compounds. Their effect is seen when an increase

Youngmi Kim; Eduardo Ximenes; Nathan S. Mosier; Michael R. Ladisch



Evaluation of enzyme activity and fiber content of soybean cotyledon fiber and distiller's dried grains with solubles by solid state fermentation.  


To increase the value of coproducts from corn ethanol fermentation and soybean aqueous processing, distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean cotyledon fiber were used as the substrates for solid state fermentation (SSF) to improve feed digestibility. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were chosen as they produce desirable enzymes and are widely used in SSF for feed. The results showed that the cellulase and xylanase activities were significantly increased after 7 days of fermentation, and cellulose and hemicellulose degradation was also greatly increased. When soybean fiber was used as SSF substrate, the maximum activities of the cellulase and xylanase were 10.3 and 84.2 IU/g substrate (dry weight basis) after SSF treatment, respectively. However, the enzyme activities were relatively low in DDGS, and the growth of the three fungi was poor. The fungi grew better when soybean cotyledon fiber was added to DDGS, and cellulase and xylanase activity increased with the increase of soybean fiber content. Porosity was identified as an important factor for SSF because the addition of inert soybean hull alone improved the fungi growth significantly. These data suggest that the nutritional value of DDGS and soybean cotyledon fiber as monogastric animal feed could be greatly enhanced by SSF treatment. PMID:22528656

Yang, Shengli; Lio, JunYi; Wang, Tong



Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis  

SciTech Connect

Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation. Characterization of mutant and wild-type plants has revealed that sugars inhibit breakdown of seed storage lipids. In addition, high concentrations of exogenous sugars largely eliminate the development of mature chloroplasts by developing seedlings. Affymetrix GeneChip experiments have revealed that expression of many plant genes is partially regulated by sugar levels, with approximately two percent of genes exhibiting alterations in steady-state mRNA levels in response to changing sugar concentrations. Ultimately, a better understanding of plant sugar responses may allow improvements in rates of carbon fixation and manipulation of carbon partitioning. These improvements will be needed to help make production of energy from biomass more economically attractive.

Gibson, Susan I.



Sugar partitioning between growth and storage in sugarcane internodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) stores large amounts of sugar in internodes of the stalk, while wild species (e.g. S. spontaneum) store more insoluble cell wall material (fiber) and little sugar. The reason for this difference is not clear. To test the hypothesis that the activity of soluble acid...


Impact of distillers dried grains with solubles particle size on nutrient digestibility, DE and ME content, and flowability in diets for growing pigs.  


A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on DE and ME content, diet DM, energy, N, P digestibility, and diet flowability for growing pigs. One DDGS source was processed through an Urshel Commitrol mill or a hammer mill to achieve mean particle sizes of 818, 595, and 308 ?m. The basal control diet consisted of 96.8% corn with supplemental minerals and vitamins. Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 30% of corn from the basal diet with DDGS of different particle sizes. Thirty-six growing pigs (initial BW of 40 ± 1.13 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their BW block and housed in individual metabolic crates for a 9-d adaptation period followed by a 4-d total collection of feces and urine. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to water and fed an amount of their respective experimental diets equivalent to 3% of the initial BW of each pig. Feed, feces, and urine samples were analyzed for DM, GE, N, and P and used to calculate diet apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Gross energy was also used to calculate DE and ME of diets as well as the DE and ME content of corn and DDGS with different particle sizes. Diet drained and poured angles of repose were measured using a modified Hele-Shaw cell method to evaluate the diet flowability. Inclusion of 30% DDGS with an average particle size of 308 ?m improved (P < 0.05) dietary ATTD of DM and GE as well as DE (4,006 vs. 3,783 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3,861 vs. 3,583 kcal/kg DM) compared with 818 ?m DDGS. No differences (P > 0.05) were found in N and P digestibility among the 3 DDGS diets. The DDGS particle size of 595 ?m had greater (P < 0.05) DE but not ME compared with 818 ?m DDGS, and DE and ME were not different between 308 and 595 ?m. Compared with a 595 or 818 ?m DDGS, grinding DDGS to 308 ?m reduced diet flowability as indicated by a greater (P < 0.05) drained angle of repose. These results suggested that for each 25 ?m decrease in DDGS particle size from 818 ?m to 308 ?m, the ME contribution of DDGS to the diet is 13.46 kcal/kg DM, but diet flowability will be reduced. PMID:22851246

Liu, P; Souza, L W O; Baidoo, S K; Shurson, G C



Ethanol from Sugar Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and relatively low profit for sugar are putting pressure on the sugar industry to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, mainly sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum, fit well into the emerging concept of a renewable car...


Contents of soluble, cell-wall-bound and exuded phlorotannins in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, with implications on their ecological functions.  


Phlorotannins are ubiquitous secondary metabolites in brown algae that are phenotypically plastic and suggested to have multiple ecological roles. Traditionally, phlorotannins have been quantified as total soluble phlorotannins. Here, we modify a quantification procedure to measure, for the first time, the amount of cell-wall-bound phlorotannins. We also optimize the quantification of soluble phlorotannins. We use these methods to study the responses of soluble and cell-wall-bound phlorotannin to nutrient enrichment in growing and nongrowing parts of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. We also examine the effects of nutrient shortage and herbivory on the rate of phlorotannin exudation. Concentrations of cell-wall-bound phlorotannins were much lower than concentrations of soluble phlorotannins; we also found that nutrient treatment over a period of 41 days affected only soluble phlorotannins. Concentrations of each phlorotannin type correlated positively between growing and nongrowing parts of individual seaweeds. However, within nongrowing thalli, soluble and cell-wall-bound phlorotannins were negatively correlated, whereas within growing thalli there was no correlation. Phlorotannins were exuded from the thallus in all treatments. Herbivory increased exudation, while a lack of nutrients had no effect on exudation. Because the amount of cell-wall-bound phlorotannins is much smaller than the amount of soluble phlorotannins, the major function of phlorotannins appears to be a secondary one. PMID:15839490

Koivikko, Riitta; Loponen, Jyrki; Honkanen, Tuija; Jormalainen, Veijo



Association of sugar content QTL and PQL with physiological traits relevant to frost damage resistance in pea under field and controlled conditions.  


To increase yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.), autumn sowing would be preferable. Hence, frost tolerance of pea became a major trait of interest for breeders. In order to better understand the cold acclimation in pea, Champagne a frost tolerant line and Terese, a frost sensitive line, and their recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were studied. RIL frost tolerance was evaluated by a frost damage scale under field as well as controlled conditions. A quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach was used to identify chromosomal regions linked to frost tolerance. The detected QTL explained from 6.5 to 46.5% of the phenotypic variance. Amongst them, those located on linkage groups 5 and 6 were consistent with over all experiments, in field as well as in controlled environments. In order to improve the understanding of the frost tolerance mechanisms, several cold acclimation key characters such as concentration of sugars, electrolyte leakage, osmotic pressure, and activity of RuBisCO were assessed. Some of these physiological QTL colocalised with QTL for frost damage, in particular two raffinose QTL on LG5 and LG6 and one RuBisCO activity QTL on LG6, explaining 8.8 to 27.0% of the phenotypic variance. In addition, protein quantitative loci were mapped; some of them colocalised with frost damage and physiological QTL on LG5 and LG6, explaining 16.0-43.6% of the phenotypic variance. Raffinose metabolism and RuBisCO activity and its effect on photosynthesis might play a major role in cold acclimation of pea. PMID:19322559

Dumont, Estelle; Fontaine, Véronique; Vuylsteker, Christophe; Sellier, Hélène; Bodèle, Sylvie; Voedts, Najia; Devaux, Rosemonde; Frise, Marlène; Avia, Komlan; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Bahrman, Nasser; Hanocq, Eric; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Delbreil, Bruno



Non-osmotic effects of external sugars on the cell water content and transport of cations across the plasmalemma in Hydrodictyon reticulatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharides added to the cultivation medium influence the properties of the cell wall of the strictly autotrophic green algaHydrodictyon reticulatum, most probably in such a way that they interfere with the processes of growth and repair of microfibrils. Natural monosaccharides\\u000a (glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose, sucrose, cellobiose, raffinose) reduce the cell water content, increase the intracellular\\u000a concentration mostly of both potassium

K. Janá?ek; L. Nešp?rková; R. Metli?ka



High sulfur content in corn dried distillers grains with solubles protects against oxidized lipids by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs.  


Some sources of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during the production process. These oxidized lipids may impair metabolic oxidation status of pigs. The objective of this study was to understand the effects of feeding corn-soybean meal diets (CON) or diets containing 30% highly oxidized DDGS with 1 of 3 levels of supplemental vitamin E (dl-?-tocopheryl acetate), none, the 1998 NRC level (11 IU/kg), and 10x the 1998 NRC level (110 IU/kg), on oxidative status of nursery pigs. The DDGS source used in this study contained the greatest thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide value, and total S content (5.2 ng/mg oil, 84.1 mEq/kg oil, and 0.95%, respectively) relative to 30 other DDGS sources sampled (mean values = 1.8 ng/mg oil, 11.5 mEq/kg oil, and 0.50%, respectively). Barrows (n = 54) were housed in pens and fed the experimental diets for 8 wk after weaning and transferred to individual metabolism cages for collection of feces, urine, blood, and liver samples. Total S content was greater in DDGS diets than in CON (0.39 vs. 0.19%). Dietary inclusion of 30% DDGS improved apparent total tract digestibility of S (86.8 vs. 84.6%; P < 0.001) and S retained (2.94 vs. 2.07 g/d; P < 0.01) compared with CON. Although pigs were fed highly oxidized DDGS in this study, serum TBARS were similar between DDGS and CON treatments. There was an interaction between DDGS and dietary vitamin E level for serum concentrations of ?-tocopherol. Serum ?-tocopherol concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in pigs fed DDGS diets than those fed CON when dl-?-tocopheryl acetate was not provided or provided at the NRC level but were similar when dl-?-tocopheryl acetate was supplemented at the 10x NRC level. Pigs fed DDGS diets had greater serum concentrations of S-containing AA, particularly Met (P < 0.001) and taurine (P = 0.002), compared with those fed CON. Liver glutathione concentration was greater in pigs fed DDGS diets than CON (56.3 vs. 41.8 nmol/g). Dietary inclusion of DDGS (P < 0.001) and vitamin E (P = 0.03) increased enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase. The elevated concentrations of S-containing antioxidants (Met, taurine, and glutathione) in vivo may protect pigs against oxidative stress when feeding highly oxidized DDGS. Therefore, the increased S content in DDGS may be beneficial, and increasing concentrations of vitamin E in diets may not be necessary to protect pigs against metabolic oxidative stress when feeding high S and highly peroxidized DDGS. PMID:23482577

Song, R; Chen, C; Wang, L; Johnston, L J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Shurson, G C



Magnesium deficiency in sugar beets alters sugar partitioning and phloem loading in young mature leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium deficiency has been reported to affect plant growth and biomass partitioning between root and shoot. The present work aims to identify how Mg deficiency alters carbon partitioning in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) plants. Fresh biomass, Mg and sugar contents were followed in diverse organs over 20 days under Mg-sufficient and Mg-deficient conditions. At the end of the treatment,

Christian Hermans; Fabienne Bourgis; Mireille Faucher; Reto J. Strasser; Serge Delrot; Nathalie Verbruggen



Remembering nutrient quality of sugar in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Taste is an early stage in food and drink selection for most animals [1, 2]. Detecting sweetness indicates the presence of sugar and possible caloric content. However, sweet taste can be an unreliable predictor of nutrient value because some sugars cannot be metabolized. In addition, discrete sugars are detected by the same sensory neurons in the mammalian [3] and insect gustatory systems [4, 5], making it difficult for animals to readily distinguish the identity of different sugars using taste alone [6–8]. Here we used an appetitive memory assay in Drosophila [9–11] to investigate the contribution of palatability and relative nutritional value of sugars to memory formation. We show that palatability and nutrient value both contribute to reinforcement of appetitive memory. Non-nutritious sugars formed less robust memory that could be augmented by supplementing with a tasteless but nutritious substance. Nutrient information is conveyed to the brain within minutes of training when it can be used to guide expression of a sugar-preference memory. Therefore flies can rapidly learn to discriminate between sugars using a post-ingestive reward evaluation system and they preferentially remember nutritious sugars.

Burke, Christopher J.; Waddell, Scott



Sugar and sugar substitutes. Comparisons and indications.  


Public confusion and concern about the use of sugar and sugar substitutes are widespread. Physicians must be prepared to answer patients' inquiries about these substances. Some population groups should avoid certain sugar substitutes. In particular, pregnant women and young children should avoid saccharin, and phenylketonuric homozygous persons should avoid aspartame. In a varied, balanced diet, the use of aspartame and saccharin is one safe way for the general population to enjoy sweet foods with fewer calories and less cariogenic potential. Sugar substitutes may be helpful in dietary compliance for overweight and diabetic patients. PMID:3615316

Alfin-Slater, R B; Pi-Sunyer, F X



Effect of typical sugars on the viscosity and colloidal stability of apple juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloudy apple juice may be modeled as a dilute colloidal dispersion of solid particles in a solution of pectins, sugars, organic acids, and salts. In order to evaluate the effect of sugars on the viscosity and stability of the juice, it was diafiltered by ultrafiltration to remove the native soluble solids, and controlled amounts of sugars (glucose, sucrose, and maltose)

Elisa I. Benítez; Diego B. Genovese; Jorge E. Lozano



Mobilization of seed storage lipid by Arabidopsis seedlings is retarded in the presence of exogenous sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Soluble sugar levels must be closely regulated in germinating seeds to ensure an adequate supply of energy and building materials for the developing seedling. Studies on germinating cereal seeds indicate that production of sugars from starch is inhibited by increasing sugar levels. Although numerous studies have focused on the regulation of starch metabolism, very few studies have addressed the

Jennifer PC To; Wolf-Dieter Reiter; Susan I Gibson



Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products  

PubMed Central

Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was a general assumption that sweeteners and other ingredients would be added in place of sugars. However, there was little awareness of the level of sugar reduction and the associated calorie reduction in products when reduced sugars claims were made on pack. In focus groups, participants felt deceived if sugar reduction claims were being made without a significant reduction in calories. This was reinforced in the quantitative research which showed that respondents expected a similar and meaningful level of calorie reduction to the level of sugar reduction. The research also identified consumer confusion around the calorie content of different nutrients, including over-estimation of the calorie content of sugars. This is crucial to consumers' expectations as they clearly link sugar to calories and therefore expect a reduction in sugar content to deliver a reduction in calorie content.

Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M



Siderite (FeCO?) and magnetite (Fe?O?) overload-dependent pulmonary toxicity is determined by the poorly soluble particle not the iron content.  


The two poorly soluble iron containing solid aerosols of siderite (FeCO?) and magnetite (Fe?O?) were compared in a 4-week inhalation study on rats at similar particle mass concentrations of approximately 30 or 100?mg/m³. The particle size distributions were essentially identical (MMAD ?1.4 ?m). The iron-based concentrations were 12 or 38 and 22 or 66?mg Fe/m³ for FeCO? and Fe?O?, respectively. Modeled and empirically determined iron lung burdens were compared with endpoints suggestive of pulmonary inflammation by determinations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and oxidative stress in lung tissue during a postexposure period of 3 months. The objective of study was to identify the most germane exposure metrics, that are the concentration of elemental iron (mg Fe/m³), total particle mass (mg PM/m³) or particle volume (?l PM/m³) and their associations with the effects observed. From this analysis it was apparent that the intensity of pulmonary inflammation was clearly dependent on the concentration of particle-mass or -volume and not of iron. Despite its lower iron content, the exposure to FeCO? caused a more pronounced and sustained inflammation as compared to Fe?O?. Similarly, borderline evidence of increased oxidative stress and inflammation occurred especially following exposure to FeCO? at moderate lung overload levels. The in situ analysis of 8-oxoguanine in epithelial cells of alveolar and bronchiolar regions supports the conclusion that both FeCO? and Fe?O? particles are effectively endocytosed by macrophages as opposed to epithelial cells. Evidence of intracellular or nuclear sources of redox-active iron did not exist. In summary, this mechanistic study supports previous conclusions, namely that the repeated inhalation exposure of rats to highly respirable pigment-type iron oxides cause nonspecific pulmonary inflammation which shows a clear dependence on the particle volume-dependent lung overload rather than any increased dissolution and/or bioavailability of redox-active iron. PMID:22035119

Pauluhn, Jürgen; Wiemann, Martin



Biomass deconstruction to sugars.  


The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass relies on the depolymerization of its polysaccharide content into fermentable sugars. Accomplishing this requires pretreatment of the biomass to reduce its size, and chemical or physical alteration of the biomass polymers to enhance the susceptibility of their glycosidic linkages to enzymatic or acid catalyzed cleavage. Well-studied approaches include dilute and concentrated acid pretreatment and catalysis, and the dissolution of biomass in organic solvents. These and recently developed approaches, such as solubilization in ionic liquids, are reviewed in terms of the chemical and physical changes occurring in biomass pretreatment. As pretreatment represents one of the major costs in converting biomass to fuels, the factors that contribute to pretreatments costs, and their impact on overall process economics, are described. PMID:21834132

Blanch, Harvey W; Simmons, Blake A; Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel



Home blood sugar testing  


Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. And some people need to check ...


Hyperactivity and sugar  


... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. This article focuses on the possible controversial link between sugar and hyperactivity in children. See also: Attention-deficit ...


High blood sugar  


High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...


Low blood sugar - newborns  


... longer period of time. If the low blood sugar continues, in rare cases the baby may also receive medication to increase blood sugar levels. In very rare cases, newborns with very severe hypoglycemia who don' ...


Sugar and Salt Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when sugar and salt are added to water? Pour in sugar, shake in salt, and evaporate water to see the effects on concentration and conductivity. Zoom in to see how different sugar and salt compounds dissolve. Zoom in again to explore the role of water.

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Reid, Sam; Moore, Emily; Chamberlain, Julia; Loeblein, Trish



Sugars – The Arch Criminal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous lines of evidence have conclusively established the role of sugars in caries etiology and the importance of sugars as the principal dietary substrate that drives the caries process has not been scientifically challenged. While sugars appear to differ little in acidogenic potential, sucrose has been given special importance, as the sole substrate for synthesis of extracellular glucans. Water-insoluble glucans

D. T. Zero



Sugar and Sugar Beet Policy Reforms in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The translog cost function is applied to analyze input demand in Turkey sugar beet production from 1975 to 2003. Sugar and sugar beet production became an important issue after the sugar act changed in 2001. Although the political aspects of sugar beet production have been studied extensively, few studies are available on the quantitative aspects of sugar beet production in

Yasar Akcay; Meral Uzunoz



9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 317.360 Section...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a...



9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 381.460 Section...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a...



9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 317.360 Section...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a...



9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 381.460 Section...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a...



Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar  


... are added sugars? Added sugars are sugars and syrups that are added to foods or beverages during processing or preparation. They do not include naturally occurring sugars such as those found in milk (lactose) and fruits (fructose). Added sugars (or added ... is the difference between added sugars and ...


Thigmomorphogenesis in Bryonia dioica : Changes in soluble and wall peroxidases, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, cellulose, lignin content and monomeric constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubbing young internodes ofBryonia dioica results in a reduced elongation and an increased diameter of the internodes. In the present study activities of some enzymes involved in the lignification process and levels of lignification were compared in rubbed and non-rubbed internodes. Rubbing caused an increase in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and soluble and ionically- and covalently-bound cell wall peroxidases.

G. De Jaegher; N. Boyer; Th. Gaspar



Soluble NCAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein involved in homophilic interactions that facilitate\\u000a cell-cell adhesion. In addition to a number of membrane-bound isoforms, NCAM also exists in several soluble isoforms that\\u000a have been identified in cerebrospinal fluid, blood serum, brain tissue, and cell culture media. Soluble NCAM can be produced\\u000a in a number of ways, such as

Thomas Secher


Total and water-soluble trace metal content of urban background PM 10, PM 2.5 and black smoke in Edinburgh, UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxicological studies have implicated trace metals in airborne particles as possible contributors to respiratory and/or cardiovascular inflammation. As part of an epidemiological study, co-located 24 h samples of PM 10, PM 2.5 and black smoke (BS) were collected for 1 year at an urban background site in Edinburgh, and each sample sequentially extracted with ultra-pure water, then concentrated HNO 3/HCl, and analysed for Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb. This yields a comprehensive data set for UK urban airborne trace metal. The median ( n>349) daily water-soluble metal concentration in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.05 ng m -3 for Ti to 5.1 ng m -3 for Pb; and in PM 10 from 0.18 ng m -3 for Ti to 11.7 ng m -3 for Fe. Median daily total (i.e. water+acid-extractable) metal concentration in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.3 ng m -3 for As to 27.6 ng m -3 for Fe; and in PM 10 from 0.37 ng m -3 for As to 183 ng m -3 for Fe. The PM 2.5:PM 10 ratio varied considerably with metal, from <17%, on average, for Ti and Fe, to >70% for V, As, Cd and Pb. The 11 trace metals constituted proportionally more of the PM 10-2.5 fraction than of the PM 2.5 fraction (0.9%). The proportion of water-soluble metal in each size-fraction varied considerably, from <10% water-soluble Fe and Ti in PM 10-2.5, to >50% water-soluble V, Zn, As and Cd in PM 2.5. Although Fe generally dominated the trace metal, water-soluble metal also contained significant Zn, Pb and Cu, and for all size and solubility fractions >90% of trace metal was comprised of Fe, Zn, Pb and Cu. Statistical analyses suggested three main sources: traffic; static combustion; and crustal. The association of metals with traffic (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn) was consistent with traffic-induced non-exhaust "resuspension" rather than direct exhaust emission. Meteorology contributed to the wide variation in daily trace metal concentration. The proportion of trace metal in particles varied significantly with the air mass source and was highest on days for trajectories traversing over land. For Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As and Pb there was greater correlation of metal concentration with BS mass than with either PM 10 or PM 2.5 mass, suggesting that BS reflectance monitoring could be a cost-effective surrogate measure of particle metal concentration in urban background air.

Heal, Mathew R.; Hibbs, Leon R.; Agius, Raymond M.; Beverland, Iain J.


[Analytical evidences of sugar added to wine].  


In many countries addition of sugar to the grape must for increasing the alcohol concentration is autorized by regulation. This addition must be supervised by a priori and a posteriori controls. The saccharose from sugar beet contrains 100 mg/kg of betain, which can be determined in wine after purification by ion exchange and gas chromatography of a decomposition product of its butylester. Methyl betaine has been used as internal standard to improve the method. The natural wine contains low quantity of betaine. For this reason it is impossible to detect an addition of sugar lower than that corresponding to 2 degrees alcohol. The other methods (13C content of ethanol, polyosides contained as impurity in sugar) seem to present the same limitation. PMID:754584

Dupuy, P



Concentration of sugars, phenolic acids, and amino acids in forest soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO 2 and O 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of soluble soil sugars, soluble phenolic acids, and free amino acids were measured in three forest communities at the FACTS-II Aspen FACE Site near Rhinelander, WI, in order to better understand how elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 are influencing soil nutrient availability and cycling. Sugars, phenolic acids, and amino acids are mostly derived from plant and microbial processes, and

Robin M. Johnson; Kurt S. Pregitzer



A GC method for simultaneous analysis of bornesitol, other polyalcohols and sugars in coffee and its substitutes.  


A GC method has been developed for the determination of polyalcohols and sugars in aqueous extracts from green coffee beans, ground roasted coffee beans submitted to either conventional or torrefacto processes, coffee blends and soluble instant coffees. Bornesitol was detected in aqueous coffee extracts for the first time. Mannitol, myo-inositol, mannose, fructose, galactose, glucose and sucrose have also been determined. Results seem to indicate that coffee manufacturing processes, such as roasting or decaffeination, do not affect the polyalcohol content. Coffee substitutes based on cereals, carob or chicory, have also been studied. The possibility to characterize their presence in coffee extracts was evaluated. PMID:17444224

Ruiz-Matute, Ana Isabel; Montilla, Antonia; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Martínez-Castro, Isabel; Sanz, Maria Luz



Effect of Sugars on Retrogradation of Waxy Maize Starch-Sugar Extrudates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 77(2):202-208 The effect of sucrose, fructose, and xylose on the retrogradation of waxy maize starch extrudates at relatively low moisture contents (20-50 g of water\\/ 100 g of dry solid) at 277-353 K was investigated using X-ray diffraction and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. The role of the sugar depended on the type of sugar and its

I. A. Farhat; J. M. V. Blanshard; M. Descamps; J. R. Mitchell



Recovery and characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins. Effect of defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment on solubility, digestibility, amino acid composition and sapogenin content.  


In order to find alternative protein sources in African regions where protein deficiency in nutrition is prevailing, solubility, in-vitro digestibility, amino acid composition and chemical score of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins were investigated as a function of different processing steps including defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment. Air classification delivered a fine fraction of 58.1% of the total protein. Applying a wet sieving process, a protein concentrate of 72.9% protein content was achieved but the recovery was very low (35.6%). However, in case of isoelectric precipitation followed by aqueous ethanol treatment both protein content (78.2%) and recovery (53.7%) were high. Data concerning the chemical score revealed, that lysine content of the defatted kernel flour amounted to 74.2% of the recommended FAO/WHO standard level. In-vitro protein digestibility was found to be higher than of legume proteins. The digestible protein of the full fat flour, defatted flour, air classified and wet sieved fine fractions and protein concentrate were 91.9, 93.7, 82.0, 86.4 and 94.2%, respectively. The sapogenin content per 100 g protein of the investigated protein preparations was significantly lower (46% to 62%) than of the initial material (oilcake). PMID:10702992

Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E



Sugars as signaling molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that, in a manner similar to classical plant hormones, sugars can act as signaling molecules that control gene expression and developmental processes in plants. Crucial evidence includes uncoupling glucose signaling from its metabolism, identification of glucose sensors, and isolation and characterization of mutants and other regulatory components in plant sugar signal transduction pathways. The emerging scenario points

Jen Sheen; Li Zhou; Jyun-Chyun Jang



Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.


Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.


Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.  


Synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. The objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. Sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arthropod pests. Dosage-mortality studies were conducted on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) on pear, tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) Blackman and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta [Johannson]) on tobacco, and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on apple in laboratory bioassays. These sugar esters were compared with insecticidal soap (M-Pede, Dow AgroSciences L.L.C., San Diego, CA), to determine how toxicologically similar these materials were against the arthropod pests. Substitutions in either the sugar or fatty acid component led to significant changes in the physical properties and insecticidal activity of these compounds. The sugar esters varied in their solubility in water and in emulsion stability, yet, droplet spread upon pear leaves occurred at low concentrations of 80-160 ppm and was strongly correlated with psylla mortalities (R2 = 0.73). Sequentially altering the sugar or fatty acid components from lower to higher numbers of carbon chains, or whether the sugar was a monosaccharide or disaccharide did not follow a predictable relationship to insecticidal activity. Intuitively, changing the hydrophile from sorbitol (C6) to xylitol (C5) would require a decrease in lipophile chain length to maintain hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) relationships, yet an increase in lipophile chain length was unexpectedly needed for increasing insecticidal activity. Thus, the HLB of these materials did not correlate with pear psylla mortalities. Initial insect bioassays and dosage-mortality data found significant differences among sugar ester compounds' toxicity to the range of arthropod species. Sucrose octanoate high in monoester content had the highest activity against the range of arthropod pests at low concentrations of 1200-2400 ppm. No single chemical structure for the xylitol or sorbitol esters were optimally effective against the range of arthropods we tested and sorbitol octanoate and xylitol decanoate had the highest insecticidal activity of this group. All of the sugar ester materials produced high T. urticae mortalities on apple at very low concentrations of 400 ppm. Overall, most of the sugar esters that were examined had superior insecticidal activity compared with insecticidal soap. Sugar ester chemistry offers a unique opportunity to design an insecticide or miticide specific to certain arthropod pests which would be valuable in crop integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Sucrose esters are currently used as additives in the food industry which makes them especially attractive as safe and effective insecticides. PMID:12852599

Puterka, Gary J; Farone, William; Palmer, Tracy; Barrington, Anthony



An analysis on quality, colour, tissue texture, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity and pH of Santol fruits (Sandoricum koetjape Burm. F.) Merr. Pui Fai cultivar, grown in Northern Thailand.  


This laboratory experiment was carried out at the Department of Agricultural Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during June to October 2007. The experiment aimed to search for the most appropriate harvesting age of fruits of Santol orchard plants with respect to colour, tissue texture, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity and pH of Santol fruits. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. Each replication consisted of 10 fruits, thus a total of 160 fruits were used. The Santol fruits were harvested at different ages, i.e., 100, 115, 130 and 145 days after full bloom of flowers and these harvested ages were used as treatments, i.e., 100 for T1 (Control), 115 for T2, 130 for T3 and 145 for T4. The results showed that the most appropriate harvesting date for high quality Santol fruits was found with T4, i.e., 145 days after full bloom of flowers where Santol fruits of T4 gave the highest mean values of fruit length, diameter, fresh weight fruit(-1) of 10.71 cm, 9.31 cm and 399.76 g, respectively. Yellowness of skin colour of fruits was evenly distributed. Total soluble solid content of pericarp, flesh tissue and seeds were highest for T4 with mean values of 13.93, 15.05 and 18.260 brix, respectively. Flesh texture density highly decreased with an increase in numbers of days after full bloom of flowers. Titratable acidity content in fruits was highly decreased with an increase in numbers of days after full bloom of flowers whereas a reverse was found with pH of fruit juices. PMID:18817267

Chutichudet, P; Chutichudet, Benjawan; Kaewsit, S



Changes in sugar profile during infant cereal manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sugar profile study of wheat-based, rice-based and oats infant cereals was conducted to determine changes produced during processing. Two extraction procedures were assayed. The fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, maltotriose, isomaltotriose and raffinose contents of the cereals were analysed by gas liquid chromatography. In untreated flours, sucrose was the main sugar; glucose, fructose, maltose and raffinose were also detected. During

Pilar Fernández-Artigas; Eduardo Guerra-Hernández; Belén Garc??a-Villanova



How Sweet It Is: Sugar, Science, and the State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans import large amounts of sugar, levy a stiff tariff on it, and base this tariff on the saccharine content of each sample, and thus the assessment of sugar quality for tax purposes was enormously important. It was also among the most difficult challenges of a scientific or technical nature facing the federal government in the nineteenth century, and the

Deborah Jean Warner



Acid-catalyzed conversion of mono- and poly-sugars into platform chemicals: effects of molecular structure of sugar substrate.  


Hydrolysis/pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass always produces a mixture of sugars with distinct structures as intermediates or products. This study tried to elucidate the effects of molecular structure of sugars on their acid-catalyzed conversions in ethanol/water. Location of carbonyl group in sugars (fructose versus glucose) and steric configuration of hydroxyl groups (glucose versus galactose) significantly affected yields of levulinic acid/ester (fructose>glucose>galactose). The dehydration of fructose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural produces much less soluble polymer than that from glucose and galactose, which results in high yields of levulinic acid/ester from fructose. Anhydrate sugar such as levoglucosan tends to undergo the undesirable decomposition to form less levulinic acid/ester. Catalytic behaviors of the poly-sugars (sucrose, maltose, raffinose, ?-cyclodextrins) were determined much by their basic units. However, their big molecular sizes create the steric hindrance that significantly affects their followed conversion over solid acid catalyst. PMID:23454803

Hu, Xun; Wu, Liping; Wang, Yi; Song, Yao; Mourant, Daniel; Gunawan, Richard; Gholizadeh, Mortaza; Li, Chun-Zhu



Cost of Maple Sugaring in Vermont.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annual maple syrup production cost series was developed for the period 1972 to 1984. Comparisons were made between plastic tubing and metal bucket technology and wood-and oil-fired evaporation. The effects of sap-sugar content and size of operation wer...

P. E. Sendak J. P. Bennink



Dietary sugar utilisation by putative oral probiotics.  


Probiotic consumption and repeated probiotic intake have shown promising results as adjunct therapies in prevention and alleviation of some chronic disease conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests that probiotics may also be beneficial in preventing oral diseases. An efficient probiotic candidate in the mouth, however, should not impose any risk to oral tissues, such as acid demineralisation of tooth enamel because of sugar fermentation. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the utilisation of some sugars and sugar alcohols by yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and to assess the influence of these carbohydrate sources on cell surface properties. For comparsion, a commercially available probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, was used. The results showed that lactose, glucose and fructose were readily metabolised by all strains tested. However, strain-specific metabolic patterns were observed when other sugars and sugar alcohols were used as sole carbohydrate source in the growth medium. Surface properties of the bacteria such as hydrophobicity and surface-associated proteins appeared to vary with the carbohydrate content of the growth medium. Based on these results it can be concluded that among the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains probiotic candidate strains are available that warrant further studies due to their inability to ferment sugars with pronounced cariogenic properties. PMID:22968411

Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Hervonen, L; Meurman, J H



Fuels from sugar crops. First quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objectives of the present study are to evaluate the feasibility of reducing the costs of fermentable sugars derived from sugar crops and to increase their availability for the following methods: (1) close space of sugar crops; (2) production of sweet sorghum varieties high in fermentable sugar, regardless of table sugar prospects; and (3) harvesting and processing of the entire aerial part of sugarcane and/or sweet sorghum. Close row spacing of sugarcane is under investigation in Florida and Louisiana. Preliminary research indicates that the cost of this sugarcane may be approximately 30 percent less than that of conventional cane. In addition, tests have shown that the close-spaced sugarcane has virtually the same content of fermentable sugars as does conventional cane. Close-spacing of sweet sorghum is being studied in Louisiana and Texas with record yields being obtained in field tests. The material and energy balances of a facility to process 8,200 metric tons/day of sugarcane into ethanol, stillage, and electricity leads to the preliminary conclusion that more than enough biomass will be available to make the facility energy self-sufficient. The mechanical difficulties of a novel rind/pith separation system have been corrected and an economic analysis of the systems is being made. (JSR)

Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.; McClure, T.A.; Lawhon, W.T.



Differential reduction in soluble and membrane-bound c-type cytochrome contents in a Paracoccus denitrificans mutant partially deficient in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity.  

PubMed Central

A mutant of Paracoccus denitrificans, DP104, unable to grow anaerobically with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor or aerobically with methanol as the electron donor and staining negatively in the dimethylphenylene diamine oxidation (Nadi) test, was isolated by transposon Tn5::phoA mutagenesis. P. denitrificans DP104 grown aerobically with succinate or choline had very low levels (2 to 3% of the wild-type levels) of spectroscopically detectable soluble c-type cytochromes. In contrast, membrane cytochromes of the a, b, and c types were present at 50% of the levels found in the wild type. The apo form of cytochrome c550, at an approximately 1:1 molar ratio with the holo form, was found in the periplasm of DP104. The TnphoA element was shown to be inserted immediately upstream of the translational start of hemA, the gene coding for 5-aminolevulinate synthase, which was sequenced. Low-level expression of this gene, driven off an incidental promoter provided by TnphoA-cointegrated suicide vector DNA, is the basis of the phenotype which could be complemented by the addition of 5-aminolevulinate to growth media. Disruption of the hemA gene generated a P. denitrificans strain auxotrophic for 5-aminolevulinate, establishing that there is no hemA-independent pathway of heme synthesis in this organism. The differential deficiency in periplasmic c-type cytochromes relative to membrane cytochromes in DP104 is suggested to arise from unequal competition for the restricted supply of heme which results from the effects of the transposon insertion. Images

Page, M D; Ferguson, S J



4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


Cytoprotective and antioxidant activity studies of jaggery sugar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaggery and other sugars namely white, refined and brown sugars were evaluated for cytoprotectivity on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and erythrocytes, DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and DNA protection. In addition, total phenol content and phenolic acid composition were also determined. Results indicated a total phenolic content of 26.5, 31.5, 372 and 3837 ?g GAE\\/g for refined, white, brown and

M. A. Harish Nayaka; U. V. Sathisha; M. P. Manohar; K. B. Chandrashekar; Shylaja M. Dharmesh



The sugar-insensitive1 ( sis1) Mutant of Arabidopsis Is Allelic to ctr1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble sugar levels affect a diverse array of plant developmental processes. For example, exposure to high levels of glucose or sucrose inhibits early seedling development of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Media-shift experiments indicate that Arabidopsis seedlings lose their sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of high sugar levels on early development within approximately two days after the start of imbibition. The

Susan I. Gibson; Ron J. Laby; Donggiun Kim



Effect of processing variables on quality of milk burfi prepared with and without sugar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk burfi is an Indian traditional confectionery prepared using concentrated milk and sugar. The texture and quality of burfi vary depending on processing conditions and storage period. The effect of processing variable namely total soluble solids\\u000a (TSS) at the end of cooking and duration of storage on the texture and sensory quality of burfi prepared with and without sugar was

R. Chetana; R. Ravi; S. Yella Reddy



Application of 2D correlation spectroscopy and outer product analysis to infrared spectra of sugar beets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reference method for the measurement of the percentage of sugar in sugar beets is polarimetry. Infrared spectroscopy is now being more and more used in the food industry. Based on polarimetric reference values and infrared spectra, regression techniques, such as partial least square regression (PLS), may be used to develop mathematical models to predict the sugar content of beets.

Jacqueline Maalouly; Luc Eveleigh; Douglas N. Rutledge; Christian. J. Ducauze



Verticillium dahliae Causes Wilt on Sugar Beet Following Potato in Eastern North Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wilt is a serious disease on sugar beet that decreases content and purity of sugar, but does not significantly decrease root yield. The disease is typically reported as caused by the microorganism Verticillium albo-atrum. The disease has not been previously reported on sugar beet in the Red River ...


5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


Sugar Policies and Marketing Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to discuss national sugar policies because of the impact they have on the international sugar trade. The high level of support and protection it receives in many countries has made sugar one of the most distorted agricultural sectors in the world. There are several methods to control the sugar market which are used differently, regarding the goals

Marcos Fava Neves


Maufacture of raw cane sugar  

SciTech Connect

Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

Not Available



Sugar and phytohormone response pathways: navigating a signalling network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plant developmental, physiological and meta- bolic processes are regulated, at least in part, by nutrient availability. In particular, alterations in the availability of soluble sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, help regulate a diverse array of processes. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that many of these processes are also regulated in response to other signalling molecules, such as phytohormones.

Susan I. Gibson



Salts & Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive simulation, learners will add different salts to water and then watch the salts dissolve and achieve a dynamic equilibrium with solid precipitate. Learners will also compare the number of ions in NaCl to other slightly soluble salts, and they will relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. Learners will also learn how to calculate Ksp values. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 20 languages.

Adams, Wendy; Koch, Linda; Lemaster, Ron; Loeblein, Trish; Perkins, Kathy; Harlow, Danielle



Sugars and acid invertase mediate the physiological response of Schenkia spicata root cultures to salt stress.  


A heterotrophic model system was established in our studies in order to differentiate the effect of high salt concentrations in external medium on growth and sugar metabolism in roots from the effect of reduced sugar availability resulting from decreased photosynthesis under salinity. Soluble sugar content and the activity of acid invertase in root cultures of salt-tolerant (ST) and salt-sensitive (SS) Schenkia spicata (L.) Mansion genotypes were investigated during exposure to different NaCl concentrations (0-200 mM). Their response to severe salinity was characterized by a metabolic adjustment that led to the accumulation of sucrose (Suc) in root tissues. There was clear evidence that cell wall invertase (CW-Inv) is the major contributor to the Suc/hexose ratio in roots during exposure to elevated salinity. The results of CW-Inv activity and immunodetection assays in our study suggest that the regulation of CW-Inv expression is most likely achieved in a salt stress dependent manner. Also, NaCl modulated soluble acid invertase (SA-Inv) expression differentially in SS and ST genotypes of S. spicata. Regardless of the salt treatment, genotype, or the amount of enzyme, SA-Inv activity was generally low, indicating regulation at the posttranslational level. The results suggest no direct role of SA-Inv in the regulation of the root tissue carbohydrate pool and therefore in the control of the availability of glucose and fructose for the primary metabolism and/or osmotic adjustment in the present heterotrophic model system. PMID:22795677

Miši?, Danijela; Dragi?evi?, Milan; Šiler, Branislav; Nestorovi? Živkovi?, Jasmina; Maksimovi?, Vuk; Mom?ilovi?, Ivana; Nikolic, Miroslav



"JCE" Classroom Activity #105. A Sticky Situation: Chewing Gum and Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this Activity, students perform several solubility tests using common food items such as chocolate, chewing gum, water, sugar, and oil. From their observations during the Activity, students will initially classify the substances tested as soluble or insoluble. They will then use their understanding of the chemistry of solubility to classify…

Montes-Gonzalez, Ingrid; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.; Perez-Medina, Ilia E.; Montes-Berrios, Veronica; Roman-Lopez, Saurie N.



Soluble vs. insoluble fiber  


Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are two different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. ...


Intestinal sugar transport.  


Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet. The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucrase-isomaltase are two disaccharidases involved in the hydrolysis of nutritionally important disaccharides. Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. This paper reviews the early studies that contributed to the development of a working model of intestinal sugar transport, and details the recent advances made in understanding the process by which sugars are absorbed in the intestine. PMID:16586532

Drozdowski, Laurie A; Thomson, Alan B R



Purification and characterization of a soluble ?-1,4-glucan from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)-cultured cells dehabituated to dichlobenil.  


Bean cells habituated to grow in the presence of dichlobenil exhibited reduced cellulose and hemicellulose content and an increase in pectic polysaccharides. Furthermore, following the extraction of pectins and hemicelluloses, a large amount of neutral sugars was released. These sugars were found to be part of a soluble ?-1,4-glucan in a preliminary characterization, as reported by Encina et al. (Physiol Plant 114:182-191, 2002). When habituated cells were subcultured in the absence of the herbicide (dehabituated cells), the release of neutral sugars after the extraction of pectins and hemicelluloses was maintained. In this study, we have isolated a soluble ?-1,4-glucan from dehabituated cells by sonication of the wall residue (cellulose fraction) remaining after fractionation. Gel filtration chromatography revealed that its average molecular size was 14 kDa. Digestion of the sample with endocellulase revealed the presence of cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose. Methylation analysis showed that 4-linked glucose was the most abundant sugar residue, but 4,6-linked glucose, terminal arabinose and 4-linked galactose for xyloglucan, and arabinogalactan were also identified. NMR analysis showed that this 1,4-glucan may be composed of various kinds of substitutions along the glucan backbone together with acetyl groups linked to the OH group of sugar residues. Thus, despite its relatively high molecular mass, the ?-glucan remains soluble because of its unique configuration. This is the first time that a glucan with such characteristics has been isolated and described. The discovery of new molecules, as this ?-glucan with unique features, may help understand the composition and arrangement of the polymers within plant cell walls, contributing to a better understanding of this complex structure. PMID:23455460

Alonso-Simón, Ana; Encina, Antonio E; Seyama, Tomoko; Kondo, Tetsuo; García-Angulo, Penélope; Álvarez, Jesús M; Acebes, Jose L; Hayashi, Takahisa



Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.  


Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism. PMID:23043616

Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G



The Liquid Glass Transition in Sugars and Sugar Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid-glass transition in sugars and sugar mixtures was studied with calorimetry, Brillouin scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy. Sugars are particular interest among other glass forming materials because sugars are main constitution of the biological system and sugar glasses play an important role in preservation and protection of biological cells. We studied a number of sugars and sugar mixtures including glucose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, trehalose, glucose/sucrose, sucrose/trehalose, using calorimetry (DTA and DSC), Brillouin scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy. We found the following: (1) Brillouin scattering technique can be used to determine the glass transition temperature. (2) In sugar mixtures, the volume compression effect from the molecule size and shape played an important role in the glass transition temperature. (3) The origin of the secondary relaxation in glucose-water mixtures maybe relate to the rotation-translation coupling constant in the schematic mode coupling theory.

Seo, Jeong-Ah; Oh, Jiyoung; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae



Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation  


The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA)



1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


Combination of sugar analysis and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to detect the use of artificial sugars in royal jelly production.  


The effects of feeding bees artificial sugars and/or proteins on the sugar compositions and (13)C isotopic measurements of royal jellies (RJs) were evaluated. The sugars fed to the bees were two C4 sugars (cane sugar and maize hydrolysate), two C3 sugars (sugar beet, cereal starch hydrolysate), and honey. The proteins fed to them were pollen, soybean, and yeast powder proteins. To evaluate the influence of the sugar and/or protein feeding over time, samples were collected during six consecutive harvests. (13)C isotopic ratio measurements of natural RJs gave values of around -25 ‰, which were also seen for RJs obtained when the bees were fed honey or C3 sugars. However, the RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane sugar or corn hydrolysate (regardless of whether they were also fed proteins) gave values of up to -17 ‰. Sugar content analysis revealed that the composition of maltose, maltotriose, sucrose, and erlose varied significantly over time in accordance with the composition of the syrup fed to the bees. When corn and cereal starch hydrolysates were fed to the bees, the maltose and maltotriose contents of the RJs increased up to 5.0 and 1.3 %, respectively, compared to the levels seen in authentic samples (i.e., samples obtained when the bees were fed natural food: honey and pollen) that were inferior to 0.2% and not detected, respectively. The sucrose and erlose contents of natural RJs were around 0.2 %, whereas those in RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane or beet sugar were as much as 4.0 and 1.3 %, respectively. The combination of sugar analysis and (13)C isotopic ratio measurements represents a very efficient analytical methodology for detecting (from early harvests onward) the use of C4 and C3 artificial sugars in the production of RJ. PMID:22451177

Wytrychowski, Marine; Daniele, Gaëlle; Casabianca, Hervé



32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


Sugar metabolism of hyperthermophiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years a number of hyperthermophiles with the ability to utilize sugars as source for carbon and energy have been isolated. Analysis of their central metabolism may reveal adaptations to the extreme environment, or give information about the evolution of the primary pathways involved. The best studied representative is Pyrococcus furiosus, which has become the model organism of the

Servé W. M. Kengen; Alfons J. M. Stams; Willem M. de Vos



The taste of sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugars evoke a distinctive perceptual quality (“sweetness” in humans) and are generally highly preferred. The neural basis for these phenomena is reviewed for rodents, in which detailed electrophysiological measurements have been made. A receptor has been identified that binds sweeteners and activates G-protein-mediated signaling in taste receptor cells, which leads to changes in neural firing rates in the brain, where

Stuart A. McCaughey



Sugar-beet Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

AT a recent meeting of the Sigma Xi Society of the University of Colorado Dr. W. W. Robbins, botanist to the Great Western Sugar Co., read a paper on beet-seed production. Dr. Robbins related that so early as 1909 Mr. Hans Mendelson, a German in the employ of the company, undertook to grow beet-seed in Montana. In those days all

T. D. A. Cockerell



Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child  


... refined carbs (refined sugars found in foods and beverages like candy and soda, and refined grains like ... is to eliminate soda and other sugar-sweetened beverages, which can cause erosion of tooth enamel from ...


Manage your blood sugar (image)  


Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...


Low blood sugar symptoms (image)  


... nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), ...


Changes in organic acid and sugars levels during ripening of five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Changes in colour and sugar and organic acid content were analysed in five loquat cultivars. Colour changes occurred when loquat fruits were in a phase of fast growth, and concomitantly with both, the decrease in organic acid content and the increase in sugar levels. In the five loquat cultivars malic acid was the prominent organic acid in Algerie

M. Serrano; P. Zapata; M. T. Pretel; M. S. Almansa; M. A. Botella; A. Amorós


Added versus accumulated sugars on color development and acrylamide formation in french-fried potato strips.  


Added (glucose addition) versus accumulated (in situ sugar development via cold-temperature storage) sugar treatments were investigated in relation to acrylamide formation within fried potato strips at standardized levels of finish-fried color (Agtron color scores ranged from 36 to 84). The added sugar treatment exhibited a relatively reduced rate of acrylamide formation and generally possessed a lower and less variable acrylamide content (61-1290 ng/g) than the accumulated sugar scheme (61-2191 ng/g). In a subsequent experiment, added fructose applied to strip surfaces via dipping prior to frying favored acrylamide formation over color development relative to added glucose, for which the reverse trend was observed. Thus, where acrylamide differences were noted between added and accumulated sugar treatments (given equivalent Agtron color scores), this result was likely aided by the relative higher fructose content in strips of the accumulated sugar scheme rather than simply a greater relative concentration of total reducing sugars. PMID:22881236

Higley, Jeremy; Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C; Smith, Gordon



The World's Cane Sugar Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

H. C. Prinsen Geerligs (b.1864) was a Dutch microbiologist and Director of the Sugar Experiment Station in Java, an important research centre at the heart of the sugar industry. A leading expert in the production of sugar and the workings of the international market, Geerligs presents a detailed and comprehensive history of the industry, from its ancient origins through to

H. C. Prinsen Geerligs


19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...



Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)



Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets  

SciTech Connect

Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.



Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m?3) was the most abundant compound

Gehui Wang; Chunlei Chen; Jianjun Li; Bianhong Zhou; Mingjie Xie; Shuyuan Hu; Kimitaka Kawamura; Yan Chen



Effects of xylooligosaccharides and sugars on the functionality of porcine myofibrillar proteins during heating and frozen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gel properties of mixed gels of salt-soluble proteins (SSP) and xylooligosaccharides (XOS) or other sugars were investigated. Furthermore, the water-holding capacity, synaeresis, and protein surface hydrophobicity of heated SSP\\/sugar mixed gels under frozen storage were evaluated. Addition of XOS and sugars lowered expressible moisture and thus elevated the water-holding capacity of mixed gels. The protein surface hydrophobicity (RSo) of

Yi-Te Chou; Kuo-Wei Lin



Determination of Soluble Carbohydrates in Yogurts by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is described that allows simultaneous identification and quantifi- cation of sucrose, lactose, glucose, galactose, and fructose by high per- formance liquid chromatography. A Sugar- Pak I column (Waters) at 85°C or 90°C and refractive index detector were used with double distilled water as mobile phase. The procedure was appropriate for determination of soluble sugars in fer- mented dairy

C. Vidal-Valverde; C. Martin-Villa; J. Herranz



Molecular design, synthesis and bioactivity of glycosyl hydrazine and hydrazone derivatives: Notable effects of the sugar moiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming that the water solubility of our previous hydrazone derivatives would improve after modification with sugars while keeping or modulating their notable biological activities, we designed and synthesized some glycosyl hydrazine and hydrazone derivatives. Bioassay results indicated that the antitumor activity of our previously prepared hydrazones reduced or disappeared after modification with sugars. On the contrary, some glycosyl derivatives displayed

Zining Cui; Xinling Yang; Yanxia Shi; Hirotaka Uzawa; Jingrong Cui; Hirofumi Dohi; Yoshihiro Nishida



Development of a 635nm-Laser Diode Spectrometer for Continuous Monitoring of Amino Nitrogen in the Beet Sugar Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of sugar beet is affected by harmful nitrogen compounds. Although nitrogen is one of the essential elements for plants, introduction of excess nitrogen as fertilizer to the soil increases the nitrogen containing compounds in beet which deteriorates the quality of sugar production. Hence, the concentration of soluble nitrogen in beets was monitored as a routine process in the

Ahmet Ulgen; Ali Gokmen; Ugur Sahin; Hulya Herdem; Hasan I. Cengiz



Sugar Cube Karst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to explore the way water moves through a porous, soluble substance and to observe the development of pits and channels as the substance dissolves in water. Students learn what karst is and how it is formed.

Mieras, Barb


Increase in Freezing Resistance of Excised Shoot Tips of Asparagus officinalisL. by Preculture on Sugar-Rich Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of preculture on freezing resistance, sugar and water content, and the cell structure of asparagus shoot tips (Asparagus officinalisL.) were examined. Freezing resistance of tips was increased by a 48-h preculture on a medium supplemented with a high concentration of sugar. The optimal concentration of sugar in the preculture medium was 0.5M,regardless of the sugar. The results of

Takashi Suzuki; Manabu Kaneko; Takashi Harada



Signaling from an Altered Cell Wall to the Nucleus Mediates Sugar-Responsive Growth and Development in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugars such as glucose function as signal molecules that regulate gene expression, growth, and development in plants, animals, and yeast. To understand the molecular mechanisms of sugar responses, we isolated and characterized an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, high sugar response8 (hsr8), which enhances sugar-responsive growth and gene expression. Light-grown hsr8 plants exhibited increased starch and anthocyanin and reduced chlorophyll content in

Yunhai Li; Caroline Smith; Fiona Corke; Leiying Zheng; Zara Merali; Peter Ryden; Paul Derbyshire; Keith Waldron; M. W. Bevan



Primordial transport of sugars and amino acids via Schiff bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental support is given for a model concerning the origin of a primordial transport system. The model is based on the facilitated diffusion of amino acids stimulated by aliphatic aldehyde carriers and sugars stimulated by aliphatic amine carriers. The lipid-soluble diffusing species is the Schiff base. The possible role of this simple transport system in the origin of an early protocell is discussed.

Stillwell, William; Rau, Aruna



Effects of low nitrogen supply on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit yield and quality with special emphasis on sugars, acids, ascorbate, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.  


The objective of this study was to determine the impact of lowering nitrogen supply from 12 to 6 or 4 mM NO(3)(-) on tomato fruit yield and quality during the growing season. Lowering nitrogen supply had a low impact on fruit commercial yield (-7.5%), but it reduced plant vegetative growth and increased fruit dry matter content, improving consequently fruit quality. Fruit quality was improved due to lower acid (10-16%) and increased soluble sugar content (5-17%). The content of some phenolic compounds (rutin, a caffeic acid glycoside, and a caffeic acid derivate) and total ascorbic acid tended to be higher in fruit with the lowest nitrogen supply, but differences were significant in only a few cases (trusses). With regard to carotenoids, data did not show significant and univocal differences related to different levels of nitrogen supply. Thus, reducing nitrogen fertilization limited environmental pollution, on the one hand, and may improve, on the other hand, both growers' profits, by limiting nitrogen inputs, and fruit quality for consumers, by increasing tomato sugars content. It was concluded that primary and secondary metabolites could be affected as a result of a specific response to low nitrogen, combined with a lower degree of vegetative development, increasing fruit irradiance, and therefore modifying fruit composition. PMID:19348424

Bénard, Camille; Gautier, Hélène; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Grasselly, Dominique; Navez, Brigitte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Weiss, Marie; Génard, Michel



14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


Involvement of the ethylene-signalling pathway in sugar-induced tolerance to the herbicide atrazine in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.  


Soluble sugars can induce tolerance to otherwise lethal concentrations of the herbicide atrazine in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. This sugar-induced tolerance involves modifications of gene expression which are likely to be related to sugar and xenobiotic signal transduction. Since it has been suggested that ethylene- and sugar-signalling pathways may interact, the effects of glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc) on seedling growth and tolerance to atrazine were analysed in etr1-1, ein2-1, ein4, and sis1/ctr1-12 ethylene-signalling mutant backgrounds, where key steps of ethylene signal transduction are affected. Both ethylene-insensitive and ethylene-constitutive types of mutants were found to be affected in sugar-induced chlorophyll accumulation and root growth and in sugar-induced tolerance to atrazine. Interactions between ethylene and sugars were thus shown to take place during enhancement of seedling growth by low-to-moderate (up to 80 mM) sugar concentrations. The strong impairment of sugar-induced atrazine tolerance in etr1-1, ein2-1, and ein4 mutants demonstrated that this tolerance required active signalling pathways and could not be ascribed to mere metabolic effects nor to mere growth enhancement. Sugar-induced atrazine tolerance thus seemed to involve activation by sugar and atrazine of hexokinase-independent sugar signalling pathways and of ethylene signalling pathways, resulting in derepression of hexokinase-mediated Glc repression and in induction of protection mechanisms against atrazine injury. PMID:17293001

Sulmon, Cécile; Gouesbet, Gwenola; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Couée, Ivan



Antioxidant activity of water-soluble Maillard reaction products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maillard reaction products (MRP) results from a condensation reaction between amino acids (or proteins) and reducing sugars or lipid oxidation products, and MRP exhibit in vitro antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant activities of water-soluble MRP from the reaction between histidine (His) and glucose (Glu) by using the oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORACPE) assay with

Yusuf Yilmaz; Romeo Toledo



Properties and Solubility of Phenolase in Isolated Chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE phenolase complex in green plant tissue has often been assumed to be present only in the chloroplasts1; but it has recently been shown that in sugar beet leaf phenolase is also present in the mitochondria and `Soluble' fraction of homogenates. The enzyme associated with chloroplasts was shown to be characterized by a high cresolase activity, the ratio of catecholase

A. M. Mayer; J. Friend



Antioxidant, sugar, mineral, and phytonutrient concentrations across edible fruit tissues of orange-fleshed honeydew melon (Cucumis melo L.).  


Orange-fleshed, non-netted honeydew ( Cucumis melo L.) is a relatively new melon in the marketplace and has shown a lot of potential as an alternative to netted muskmelons (cantaloupes), which are often prone to surface contamination by enteric bacteria. Orange-fleshed honeydew is a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and non-netted, green-fleshed honeydew. This glasshouse study investigated the nutritional profile (phytonutrient and sugar contents) in different tissues of mature orange-fleshed honeydew melon fruit. The equatorial mesocarp of ripe fruit was segmented into hypodermal (subpeel), outer, middle, and inner (near the seed cavity) tissues and then assayed for total sugars, mineral nutrients, phytonutrients, total proteins, and enzymatic antioxidant activities. The concentrations of soluble solids, sucrose, total sugars, beta-carotene, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid increased in an inward direction from the subpeel mesocarp tissues toward the seed cavity. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase also increased in an inward direction. The concentrations of calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and sodium all decreased in the inward direction. When expressed on a dry weight basis, the concentrations of ascorbic acid, boron, copper, fructose, glucose, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc were higher in the subpeel region compared to the inner mesocarp tissues, but the reverse was true when data were expressed on a fresh weight basis. These data reveal that there is considerable variation in sugars, minerals, and phytonutrients across the mesocarp regions and that expressing the data on a fresh or dry weight basis can alter interpretations of the nutritional significance and health benefits of fruit. The data also confirm that orange-fleshed honeydew melon can be a rich source of many human health-related nutrients. PMID:18454549

Lester, Gene E



Changes in the water status and osmotic solute contents in response to drought and salicylic acid treatments in four different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum).  


Salicylic acid (SA) controls growth and stress responses in plants. It also induces drought tolerance in plants. In this paper, four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with different drought responses were treated with SA in three levels of drain (90, 60, 30% of maximum field capacity) to examine its interactive effects on drought responses and contents of osmotic solutes that may be involved in growth and osmotic adjustment. Under drought condition, the cultivars Geza 164 and Sakha 69 had the plant biomass and leaf relative water content (LRWC) greater than the cultivars Gemaza 1 and Gemaza 3. In all cultivars, drought stress decreased the biomass, LRWC, and the contents of inorganic solutes (Ca, K, Mg) and largely increased the contents of organic solutes (soluble sugars and proline). By contrast, SA increased the biomass, LRWC and the inorganic and organic solute contents, except proline. Correlation analysis revealed that the LRWC correlated positively with the inorganic solute contents but negatively with proline in all cultivars. SA caused maximum accumulations of soluble sugars in roots under drought. These results indicated that SA-enhanced tolerance might involve solute accumulations but independently of proline biosynthesis. Drought-sensitive cultivars had a trait lowering Ca and K levels especially in shoots. Possible functions of the ions and different traits of cultivars were discussed. PMID:21445718

Loutfy, Naglaa; El-Tayeb, Mohamed A; Hassanen, Ahmed M; Moustafa, Mahmoud F M; Sakuma, Yoh; Inouhe, Masahiro



Lanthanide complexes as fluorescent indicators for neutral sugars and cancer biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple water-soluble lanthanum and europium complexes are effective at detecting neutral sugars as well as glycolipids and phospholipids. In solutions at physiologically relevant pH the fluorescent lanthanum complex binds neutral sugars with apparent binding constants comparable to those of arylboronic acids. Interference from commonly occurring anions is minimal. The europium complex detects sialic acid-containing gangliosides at pH 7.0 over an

Onur Alptürk; Oleksandr Rusin; Sayo O. Fakayode; Weihua Wang; Jorge O. Escobedo; Isiah M. Warner; William E. Crowe; Vladimir Král; Jeff M. Pruet; Robert M. Strongin



Interaction of methylparaben preservative with selected sugars and sugar alcohols.  


The interaction of methylparaben preservative with selected sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, cellobiose) and sugar alcohols (lactitol, maltitol) were demonstrated in this study. It was observed that the formation of transesterification reaction products between methylparaben and the selected sugars occurred only under mild reaction conditions (e.g., pH 7.4 at 50 degrees C ), which were confirmed by HPLC-UV studies and mass spectrometry. On the other hand, under alkaline conditions and high temperature, degradation of the sugars predominated. Because sugars could easily undergo many possible degradation reactions and isomerization including on-column anomerization, the chromatograms of the reaction products were more complicated than those obtained from sugar alcohols. Sucrose, a nonreducing sugar, was much more stable than other selected sugars. The chromatogram of the transesterification reaction products of methylparaben with sucrose clearly showed eight peaks, which were likely to correspond to the same number of hydroxyl groups of sucrose. To compare the rate of the transesterification reaction of methylparaben with sucrose to that with sorbitol, kinetic studies were carried out. Similar rate constants were observed: 5.4 x 10(-7) L mol(-1) s(-1) and 4.9 x 10(-7) L mol(-1) s(-1) for sucrose and sorbitol, respectively. PMID:12115834

Ma, Minhui; Lee, Tony; Kwong, Elizabeth



Moisture measurements of wood and sugar samples using neutron transmission technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moisture contents of sugar and shredded wood samples were measured using fast neutron transmission technique. Neutrons with 2.8MeV energy were produced via /D(d,n) reaction. The neutrons transmitted through the wood and sugar samples containing different moisture contents were detected by an NE213 scintillation detector. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to calculate fast neutron detector counts as a function of water contents (wt%) of wood and sugar samples as well. The experimental results were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations. Within the experimental uncertainties, a good agreement has been achieved between the experimental results and the results of the Monte Carlo simulations.

Naqvi, A. A.



Industry and Trade Summary: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a summary of the U.S. sugar market, covering the basic factors affecting trends in consumption, production, and trade, as well as those bearing on the competitiveness of U.S. industry in domestic and foreign markets. Sugar and its pro...



Biotechnology Applications for Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop, being one of only two plant sources from which sucrose (i.e., sugar) can be economically produced. Despite its relatively short period of cultivation (ca. 200 years), its yield and quality parameters have been significantly improved by conventional breeding methods. However, during the last two decades or so, advanced in vitro

Ekrem Gurel; Songul Gurel; Peggy G. Lemaux



Sugar Concentrations in Guard Cells of Vicia faba Illuminated with Red or Blue Light 1  

PubMed Central

Concentrations of soluble sugars in guard cells in detached, sonicated epidermis from Vicia faba leaves were analyzed quantitatively by high performance liquid chromatography to determine the extent to which sugars could contribute to changes in the osmotic potentials of guard cells during stomatal opening. Stomata were illuminated over a period of 4 hours with saturating levels of red or blue light, or a combination of red and blue light. When stomata were irradiated for 3 hours with red light (50 micromoles per square meter per second) in a solution of 5 millimolar KCl and 0.1 millimolar CaCl2, stomatal apertures increased a net maximum of 6.7 micrometers and the concentration of total soluble sugar was 289 femtomoles per guard cell (70% sucrose, 30% fructose). In an identical solution, 2.5 hours of irradiation with 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light caused a maximum net increase of 7.1 micrometers in stomatal aperture and the total soluble sugar concentration was 550 femtomoles per guard cell (91% sucrose, 9% fructose). Illumination with blue light at 25 micromoles per square meter per second in a solution lacking KCl caused a maximum net increase in stomatal aperture of 3.5 micrometers and the sugar concentration was 382 femtomoles per guard cell (82% sucrose, 18% fructose). In dual beam experiments, stomata irradiated with 50 micromoles per square meter per second of red light opened steadily with a concomitant increase in sugar production. Addition of 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light caused a further net gain of 3.7 micrometers in stomatal aperture and, after 2 hours, sugar concentrations had increased by an additional 138 femtomoles per guard cell. Experiments with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) were performed with epidermis illuminated with 50 micromoles per square meter per second of red light or with 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light in solutions containing or lacking KCl. DCMU completely inhibited sugar production under red light, had no effect on guard cell sugar production under blue light when KCl was present, and inhibited sugar production by about 50% when guard cells were illuminated with blue light in solutions lacking KCl. We conclude that soluble sugars can contribute significantly to the osmoregulation of guard cells in detached leaf epidermis of V. faba. These results are consistent with the operation of two different sugar-producing pathways in guard cells: a photosynthetic carbon reduction pathway and a pathway of blue light-induced starch degradation. ImagesFigure 1

Poffenroth, Matthew; Green, David B.; Tallman, Gary



Mechanism study of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis using 1,3-diol model compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the bond cleavage mechanism governing sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis is important to control of the selectivity of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis. Previous work by others has resulted in the suggestion of a variety of mechanisms to explain the C{single_bond}C cleavage in sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis, and has not provided any definitive evidence to elucidate either

Keyi Wang; Martin C. Hawley; Todd D. Furney



Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods  

PubMed Central

Background Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa) and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation) regarding their 1) carbohydrate composition, 2) viscosity and water solubility index (WSI), and 3) sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low starch content that reduce the viscosity, increase the solubility, impart desirable sensory characteristics, and potentially avoid excessive energy and nutrient thinning.

Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Mutukumira, Anthony N.; Brough, Louise; Weber, Janet L.; Hardacre, Allan; Coad, Jane



Edible films made from sodium casemate, starches, sugars or glycerol. Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of edible films, based on blends of sodium caseinate with starches of different origin (corn and wheat) plasticized with water, glycerol or sugars, were studied. An increase in water or sugar\\/glycerol content resulted in a considerable decrease in the modulus of elasticity and in the tensile strength of films. The tensile strength and the water vapor permeability

Ioannis Arvanitoyannis; Eleni Psomiadou; Atsuyoshi Nakayama



7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...



When Blood Sugar Is Too Low  


... an insulin shot Continue Signs That Blood Sugar Levels Are Low There are a bunch of symptoms ... start feeling better. How Are Low Blood Sugar Levels Treated? When blood sugar levels are low, the ...


33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


Soluble oil additive concentrate  

SciTech Connect

An additive concentrate was proposed which consisted of 1 to 12 parts alkyl aryl sulfonates (mixture of oil-soluble and water-soluble sulfonates) per part of secondary butyl alcohol. This concentrate was to be combined with the appropriate proportions of liquid hydrocarbon and water to form anhydrous and water-containing soluble oils.

Holm, L.W.



Sugar and the Production of Bacteria in the Human Mouth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to elucidate if sugar is a limiting substrate for the growth of the oral microflora. Six subjects were used. Water, glucose solution or peptone yeast extract broth were pumped into the mouth during 4-hour periods and all oral fluid was collected. The number of viable bacteria and the contents of RNA and DNA were

J. Carlsson; T. Johansson




EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...


Oxygen solubility and permeability of carbohydrates.  


The saturated oxygen concentration in a series of aqueous solutions of sorbitol (up to 35% w/w) and maltitol (up to 50% w/w) was measured using colorimetric reagent vials based on Rhodazine D. The results indicate that the solubility of oxygen in low-water carbohydrates is considerably lower than its solubility in pure water. It was concluded that the low-oxygen solubility is a major factor contributing to the barrier properties of low-water content carbohydrates used in the encapsulation of flavours, lipids, peptides and other oxidisable species. PMID:15882849

Whitcombe, Michael J; Parker, Roger; Ring, Stephen G



12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


Effect of different cultural systems on antioxidant capacity, phenolic content, and fruit quality of strawberries (Fragaria x aranassa Duch.).  


The effect of cultivation practices for controlling strawberry black root rot (BRR) on fruit quality, antioxidant capacity, and flavonoid content in two strawberry cultivars Allstar and Chandler (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) was evaluated. Strawberry fruits used in this study were from plants grown in soils which had a prior history of BRR and red stele, and had not been fumigated during the seven years prior to the study. Results from this study showed that fruit from plants grown in compost socks had significantly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), flavonoids, anthocyanins, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acid (TA), fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, and citric acid than fruit produced in the black plastic mulch or matted row systems. Cultivar Chandler surpassed cv. Allstar in sugar content, acid content, and flavonoid content regardless of preplanting vinegar drenching and various culture treatments. However, preplanting vinegar treatment increased cyanidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins but decreased sugar content in fruits of both cultivars. PMID:20560628

Wang, Shiow Y; Millner, Patricia



A Fascination with Sugars  

PubMed Central

We now recognize that a large number of membrane and soluble proteins contain covalently linked oligosaccharides that exhibit a vast array of structures and participate in a wide variety of biological processes. Nowhere is this better illustrated than the mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) recognition system that mediates the trafficking of newly synthesized acid hydrolases to lysosomes in higher eukaryotes. The Asn-linked high-mannose oligosaccharides of these hydrolases facilitate folding of the nascent proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum via interaction with lectin-type chaperones and after phosphorylation in the Golgi, function as ligands for binding to Man-6-P receptors, a critical step in their transport to lysosomes. Failure to synthesize the Man-6-P recognition marker results in a serious lysosomal storage disease, one of a growing number of genetic conditions, termed congenital disorders of glycosylation, that result from faulty glycan biosynthesis.



History of sugar maple decline  


Sugar maple ecology and health: proceedings of an international symposium; ... compaction, drought, impeded soil water availability, or toxic effects of road deicing salt. ... In the past two decades, freezing of roots associated with periods of ...


Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers  


... Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood glucose (sugar) numbers in your target range can help you ... a lab test that measures your average blood glucose level over the last 2 to 3 months. ...


History of sugar maple decline  


Sugar maple ecology and health: proceedings of an international ... major decline episodes In eastern Canada and northern New England and New York. ... by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.



PubMed Central

1. Refinements in the methods for the isolation of the soluble specific substances of Types II and III pneumococcus are described. These improvements have resulted in the isolation of the end-products in a form free from nitrogen and of enhanced activity with immune serum. 2. The soluble specific substance of Type I pneumococcus is described and shown to differ sharply from the corresponding substances of the other two types, each of which, in turn, differs from the other. 3. Progress is reported on the identification of the sugar units from which the polysaccharides are built up. 4. The evidence so far accumulated is believed to favor strongly the view that the polysaccharides isolated are the actual specific substances of Pneumococcus.

Heidelberger, Michael; Goebel, Walther F.; Avery, Oswald T.



Diffusion of moisture in drying of sugar cane fibers and bundles  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane fibers and arrangements of fibers in cylindrical bundles were dried in a thermoanalyzer and their diffusive coefficients were calculated using the slope method. The effect of temperature, moisture content as well as structural changes were analyzed. Diffusion coefficients changed nonlinearly with moisture content and followed an Arrhenius-like functionality with temperature. The analysis of these effects suggested a liquid diffusion transport mechanism of moisture transfer inside sugar cane fibers and bundles.

Rodriguez-Ramirez, J.; Quintana-Hernandez, P.A.; Mendez-Lagunas, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, G.; Gonzalez-Alatorre, G.



[Effects of ca(2+) -carrier A23187 and Ca(2+) -chelator EGTA on the flower formation of chrysanthemum under photoperiodic induction and the Ca2+ distribution and carbohydrate contents in leaves during the flower formation].  


This paper studied the effects of Ca(2+) -carrier A23187 and Ca(2+) -chelator EGTA on the bud differentiation of cut flower chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorium 'Shenma') under photoperiodic induction, as well as the Ca2+ distribution and the sucrose, soluble sugar, and starch contents in 'Shenma' leaves during the differentiation. In the control, the leaf Ca2+ content was lower at the vegetative stage of apical bud (I), increased rapidly and reached a peak at the stage of initial differentiation (II), and decreased then. At stage I, the Ca2+ was mainly allocated in vacuole, cell wall, and cell lacuna; while at stage II, it was more in cytoplasm. Compared with the control, the leaf Ca2+ content of A23187-treated plants increased significantly, and the days of initiation and ending of bud differentiation were advanced by 2 days and 3 days, respectively. On the other hand, the leaf Ca2+ content of EGTA-treated plants decreased significantly, and the days of initiation and ending of bud differentiation were postponed by 4 days and 8 days, respectively. For both A23187- and EGTA-treated plants, their leaf Ca2+ at stage II was more allocated in cytoplasm. The leaf sucrose and soluble sugar contents of A23187-treated plants reached a peak on the 2nd day after treatment, and the time to reach the peak was shortened by 2 days, compared with the control, which was consistent with the peak time of Ca2+. The leaf sucrose and soluble sugar contents of EGTA-treated plants had no significant changes on the 2nd day of treatment, but increased rapidly and reached the peak on the 8th day of treatment (stage II), and then decreased. However, the leaf sucrose and soluble sugar contents during the whole period of bud differentiation were higher than those before photoperiodic induction. The leaf starch content of A23187-treated plants and the control decreased 2 days after treatment, while that of EGTA-treated plants began to decrease 8 days after treatment, and maintained at a lower level by the end of bud differentiation. The results indicated that Ca2+ and carbohydrates participated in the flower formation of chrysanthemum under photoperiodic induction. PMID:20560324

Wang, Wen-Li; Wang, Xiu-Feng; Zheng, Cheng-Shu; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Lin, Gui-Yu



Abiotic Stress in Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is often limited by environmental conditions that cause decreased rates of photosynthesis, canopy expansion, root growth\\u000a and sucrose accumulation. These conditions include insufficient water, heat, freezing temperatures and salinity. Compared\\u000a to other crops such as cereals, harvestable sugar yields can be obtained even under harsh growing conditions. However, the\\u000a realization of maximum

Eric S. Ober; Abazar Rajabi



History of Sugar Maple Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a few episodes of sugar maple dieback or decline were recorded during the first half of the 20th Century. In coritrast, the last 50 years have provided nume!ous reports of both urban and forest diebackideciine. In the late 1950s. a defoliation-triggered decline. termed rnaple blight, that occurred in Wisconsin prompted the first compreherrsive, multidiscipl~rrary study of a sugar maple

Sugar Maple Dectines


DNA Bending and Sugar Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using high frequency antiphase NMR spectroscopy and computer simulations of the antiphase spectra, we studied the equlibria in the sugar conformations in the DNA duplex 11-mer containing the AAA tract surrounded by cytosines. We demonstrate that at the 3?-end of the A-tract, the sugar switches from the common S-conformer (B-like form) to the N-conformer (A-like form) with the probability of

Shantaram Kamath; Mukti H. Sarma; Victor B. Zhurkin; Christopher J. Turner; Ramaswamy H. Sarma



The tropical white rot fungus, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont.: lignocellulolytic enzymes activities and sugar release from cornstalks under solid state fermentation.  


Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., a high temperature tolerant white rot fungus that is found across sub-Saharan Africa and many parts of Asia, is attracting attention due to its rapid mycelia growth and potential for use in food and biodegradation. A solid state fermentation (SSF) experiment with L. squarrosulus (strain MBFBL 201) on cornstalks was conducted. The study evaluated lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, loss of organic matter (LOM), exopolysaccharide content, and the release of water soluble sugars from degraded substrate. The results showed that L. squarrosulus was able to degrade cornstalks significantly, with 58.8% LOM after 30 days of SSF. Maximum lignocellulolytic enzyme activities were obtained on day 6 of cultivation: laccase = 154.5 U/L, MnP = 13 U/L, peroxidase = 27.4 U/L, CMCase = 6.0 U/mL and xylanase = 14.5 U/mL. L. squarrosulus is a good producer of exopolysaccharides (3.0-5.13 mg/mL). Glucose and galactose were the most abundant sugars detected in the substrate during SSF, while fructose, xylose and trehalose, although detected on day zero of the experiment, were absent in treated substrates. The preference for hemicellulose over cellulose, combined with the high temperature tolerance and the very fast growth rate characteristics of L. squarrosulus could make it an ideal candidate for application in industrial pretreatment and biodelignification of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:22806017

Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Adenipekun, Clementina O; Ohimain, Elijah I; Shahbazi, Ghasem



Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of

Byung Y. Yang; Rex Montgomery



Background for 1990 Farm Legislation: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sugar support program and rapid adoption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) played important roles in transforming the U.S. sugar industry in the 1980s. While sugar output and productivity increased, consumption of sugar fell dramatically as HFCS disp...

F. Gray L. Angelo P. J. Buzzanell R. D. Barry



Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar  


... On Track Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar htmDiab1OnTrack_Dangers Illness, insulin, food and exercise all can affect blood sugar. When these elements get out of balance, sugar ...


Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar

E. S. Lipinsky; B. R. Allen; A. Bose; S. Kresovich



Polysaccharides isolated from sugar beet pulp by quaternization under acidic conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar beet pulp was extracted and chemically modified under acidic conditions using glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride in the presence of trifuoroacetic (TFA), HCl or H3PO4. The goal was to find out how the type of acid used and quaternization could affect the yield of soluble polysaccharide, its mo...


15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: South side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace (east) end to the smokestack (west) end of the boiling range. The sorghum pan sides are of redwood. The flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI


Fatty Acids, Membrane Permeability, and Sugars of Stored Potato Tubers 1  

PubMed Central

The relationships of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber membrane permeability and membrane lipid composition to sugar accumulation were examined. Tubers from four potato cultivars were stored for 40 weeks at 3°C and 9°C. Rates of tuber membrane electrolyte leakage, total fatty acid composition, free fatty acid composition, and sugar content were measured throughout the storage period. Storage of tubers at 3°C caused dramatic increases in total fatty acid unsaturation, membrane permeability, and sugar content compared to tubers stored at 9°C. Cultivars with higher levels of fatty acid unsaturation had lower rates of membrane electrolyte leakage and lower sugar contents. We propose that high initial levels or high induced levels of membrane lipid unsaturation mitigate increases in tuber membrane permeability during storage, thus positively influencing the processing quality of stored potato tubers.

Spychalla, James P.; Desborough, Sharon L.



Lipid dependencies, biogenesis and cytoplasmic micellar forms of integral membrane sugar transport proteins of the bacterial phosphotransferase system.  


Permeases of the prokaryotic phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) catalyse sugar transport coupled to sugar phosphorylation. The lipid composition of a membrane determines the activities of these enzyme/transporters as well as the degree of coupling of phosphorylation to transport. We have investigated mechanisms of PTS permease biogenesis and identified cytoplasmic (soluble) forms of these integral membrane proteins. We found that the catalytic activities of the soluble forms differ from those of the membrane-embedded forms. Transport via the latter is much more sensitive to lipid composition than to phosphorylation, and some of these enzymes are much more sensitive to the lipid environment than others. While the membrane-embedded PTS permeases are always dimeric, the cytoplasmic forms are micellar, either monomeric or dimeric. Scattered published evidence suggests that other integral membrane proteins also exist in cytoplasmic micellar forms. The possible functions of cytoplasmic PTS permeases in biogenesis, intracellular sugar phosphorylation and permease storage are discussed. PMID:23985145

Aboulwafa, Mohammad; Saier, Milton H



Leishmania UDP-sugar Pyrophosphorylase  

PubMed Central

The Leishmania parasite glycocalyx is rich in galactose-containing glycoconjugates that are synthesized by specific glycosyltransferases that use UDP-galactose as a glycosyl donor. UDP-galactose biosynthesis is thought to be predominantly a de novo process involving epimerization of the abundant nucleotide sugar UDP-glucose by the UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, although galactose salvage from the environment has been demonstrated for Leishmania major. Here, we present the characterization of an L. major UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase able to reversibly activate galactose 1-phosphate into UDP-galactose thus proving the existence of the Isselbacher salvage pathway in this parasite. The ordered bisubstrate mechanism and high affinity of the enzyme for UTP seem to favor the synthesis of nucleotide sugar rather than their pyrophosphorolysis. Although L. major UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase preferentially activates galactose 1-phosphate and glucose 1-phosphate, the enzyme is able to act on a variety of hexose 1-phosphates as well as pentose 1-phosphates but not hexosamine 1-phosphates and hence presents a broad in vitro specificity. The newly identified enzyme exhibits a low but significant homology with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases and conserved in particular is the pyrophosphorylase consensus sequence and residues involved in nucleotide and phosphate binding. Saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy experiments confirm the importance of these moieties for substrate binding. The described leishmanial enzyme is closely related to plant UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylases and presents a similar substrate specificity suggesting their common origin.

Damerow, Sebastian; Lamerz, Anne-Christin; Haselhorst, Thomas; Fuhring, Jana; Zarnovican, Patricia; von Itzstein, Mark; Routier, Francoise H.



Application of mineral bed materials during fast pyrolysis of rice husk to improve water-soluble organics production.  


Fast pyrolysis of rice husk was performed in a spout-fluid bed to produce water-soluble organics. The effects of mineral bed materials (red brick, calcite, limestone, and dolomite) on yield and quality of organics were evaluated with the help of principal component analysis (PCA). Compared to quartz sand, red brick, limestone, and dolomite increased the yield of the water-soluble organics by 6-55% and the heating value by 16-19%. The relative content of acetic acid was reduced by 23-43% with calcite, limestone and dolomite when compared with quartz sand. The results from PCA showed all minerals enhanced the ring-opening reactions of cellulose into furans and carbonyl compounds rather than into monomeric sugars. Moreover, calcite, limestone, and dolomite displayed the ability to catalyze the degradation of heavy compounds and the demethoxylation reaction of guaiacols into phenols. Minerals, especially limestone and dolomite, were beneficial to the production of water-soluble organics. PMID:22750499

Li, R; Zhong, Z P; Jin, B S; Zheng, A J



Drug Binding and Solubility in Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binding and solubility of nitrofurantoin, piroxicam, indomethacin, prednisolone, diazepam, dicumarol, and griseofulvin in milk were determined at 15, 25, and 37°C in bovine milk samples with fat contents of 0.75 and 3.50%. Drug binding to milk components was independent of drug concentration over the drug concentration studied, and the fat content of milk strongly affected binding values of most

Panayotis E. Macheras; Michael A. Koupparis; Sophia G. Antimisiaris



Applications of Solubility Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)|

Tomkins, Reginald P. T.



Transcript expression and soluble acid invertase activity during sucrose accumulation in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble acid invertase (SAI, EC, catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into hexose sugars, and it has been considered\\u000a a key enzyme for carbohydrate metabolism. In the present study, the activity of SAI enzyme was determined to establish a correlation\\u000a between the change in transcript levels and enzyme activity in high and low sugar accumulating sugarcane cultivars, in various\\u000a internodal

Ashok K. VermaSantosh; Santosh K. Upadhyay; Manoj K. Srivastava; Praveen C. Verma; S. Solomon; S. B. Singh


Relationship between Recrystallization Rate of Ice Crystals in Sugar Solutions and Water Mobility in Freeze-Concentrated Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the relation between recrystallization rate and water mobility in freeze-concentrated matrix, isothermal ice recrystallization rates in several sugar aqueous solutions and self-diffusion coefficients of water component in corresponding freeze-concentrated matrix were measured. The sugars used were fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose. The sugar concentrations and temperature were varied so that ice contents for all samples were almost

Tomoaki Hagiwara; Richard W. Hartel; Shingo Matsukawa



Sugar exudation by roots of kallar grass [ Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth] is strongly affected by the nitrogen source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exudation of sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and that of cations and anions from intact roots of kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth] grown hydroponically with ammonium or nitrate (3 mM) as N source was investigated. In different experiments, plants grown on ammonium had slightly higher sugar contents than nitrate-grown plants, but their total sugar exudation during a 2-h period

Tariq Mahmood; Markus Woitke; Hartmut Gimmler; Werner M. Kaiser



Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw


Integrated hydrolyzation and fermentation of sugar beet pulp to bioethanol.  


Sugar beet pulp is an abundant industrial waste material that holds a great potential for bioethanol production owing to its high content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. Its structural and chemical robustness limits the yield of fermentable sugars obtained by hydrolyzation and represents the main bottleneck for bioethanol production. Physical (ultrasound and thermal) pretreatment methods were tested and combined with enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase and pectinase to evaluate the most efficient strategy. The optimized hydrolysis process was combined with a fermentation step using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in a single-tank bioreactor. Optimal sugar beet pulp conversion was achieved at a concentration of 60 g/l (39% of dry weight) and a bioreactor stirrer speed of 960 rpm. The maximum ethanol yield was 0.1 g ethanol/g of dry weight (0.25 g ethanol/g total sugar content), the efficiency of ethanol production was 49%, and the productivity of the bioprocess was 0.29 g/l·h, respectively. PMID:23851274

Rezi?, Ton?i; Oros, Damir; Markovi?, Iva; Kracher, Daniel; Ludwig, Roland; Santek, Božidar



Process for the production of invert liquid sugar  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A process for the production of liquid sugar by forming a sugar solution of water and natural sugar containing juice, adjusting the pH of a sugar solution to the range of from 1.0 to 2.0 to obtain an inverted juice, filtering the inverted juice, decolorizing the inverted juice to obtain sugar syrup, demineralizing the sugar syrup, evaporating the demineralized sugar syrup, and cooling the sugar syrup to form the liquid sugar.

Granguillhome; Enrique R. Cardenas (Monterrey, MX); Barranon; Jose Angel Cardenas (Monterrey, MX); Garza; Juan Jose Gonzalez (Monterrey, MX)



Influence of nitrogen fertilizer and endophyte infection on ecophysiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass.  


An experiment was designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennel L.), when growing at two N supply levels. Endophyte infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high N supply treatment. At high N supply, endophyte-infected (EI) plants accumulated more soluble sugar in the sheath and the root than endophyte-free (EF) plants. Endophyte infection affected mineral element concentrations in the root more than in the shoot. We found a significant effect of endophyte infection on B, Mn and Mg in the root, but significant effect was only found on B in the shoot. EI plants tended to accumulate less B in the shoot at both N levels, but accumulated more B, Mn and Mg in the root at low N levels. The difference of growth parameters in different periods was significant. The content of soluble sugar and crude protein in the sheath were also dependent on the growth stages of both EI and EF plants. PMID:19166497

Ren, An-Zhi; Gao, Yu-Bao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jin-Long; Zhao, Nian-Xi



Determination of different soluble species in yamuna river waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality parameters, total metal content and soluble metal species have been determined in the Yamuna river water from Dakpathar to Agra. Anodic stripping voltammetry, in conjunction with chelating resin was used to classify the soluble metal as “very labile”;, “moderately labile”;, “slowly labile”; and “inert”;. The studies reveal that cadmium is mostly found in “very labile”; and “moderately labile”;

Ranu Gadh; O. V. Singh; S. N. Tandon; R. P. Mathur




Microsoft Academic Search

During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar production) and qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and ?-amino nitrogen content) of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive) was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM



Detection of tissue-specific sugar chains by two-dimensional HPLC sugar mapping of pyridylaminated sugar chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to detect sugar chains specific to a tissue or a disease, we introduced the differential display of glycans using pyridylaminated (PA) sugar chains combined with two-dimensional HPLC sugar mapping. The method is fairly sensitive, and 2 mg of freeze-dried tissue was enough to detect the peaks due to PA-N-linked sugar chains, without any pretreatment of the tissue. The

Shin-ichi Nakakita; Kazuhiro Ikenaka; Sumihiro Hase



A divergent strategy for constructing a sugar library containing 2,6-dideoxy sugars and uncommon sugars with 4-substitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical strategy has been developed for delivering 2,6-dideoxy sugars and uncommon sugars with 4-substitution. This strategy employed Ferrier rearrangement reaction and BF3·OEt2-induced peroxidation to construct key intermediates 2,3-unsaturated glycosides and ?,?-unsaturated lactones from peracetyl rhamnal. After further derivatization, four uncommon sugars with 4-substitution and eight uncommon sugar units with 3,4-disubstitution were successfully synthesized.

Guisheng Zhang; Lei Shi; Qingfeng Liu; Jingmei Wang; Lu Li; Xiaobing Liu



Water soluble feruloyl arabinoxylans from rice and ragi: changes upon malting and their consequence on antioxidant activity.  


The objective of this study is to determine the changes brought about by germination on water soluble feruloyl arabinoxylans (feraxans), one of the major components of soluble fibre from rice and ragi and their consequence on antioxidant activity. Soluble feraxans, isolated from native and malted rice and ragi were fractionated on DEAE-cellulose. Ferulic acid content of the major [0.1 molar ammonium carbonate (AC) eluted] fraction was higher in malts (rice: 1045 microg/g; ragi: 1404 microg/g) than in native (rice: 119 microg/g; ragi: 147 microg/g) and this fraction was separated by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography into two peaks each in rice (native: 232 and 24.4 kDa; malt: 75.4 and 39.6 kDa) and ragi (native: 140 and 15.4 kDa; malt: 38.9 and 15.4 kDa). 0.1 molar AC eluted fractions showed very strong antioxidant activity in vitro as determined by beta-carotene-linoleate emulsion (IC50: 0.16-0.24 mg), DPPH* (IC50: 4.1-11.4 mg) and Ferric reducing/antioxidant power, FRAP (EC1: 0.76-3.1mg) assays. Antioxidant activity of feraxans was several (4.9-1400) folds higher than the expected activity due to their bound ferulic acid content. Apart from ferulic acid, presence of sugars with >C=O (uronyl/acetyl) groups and degree/nature of glycan-polymerization were observed to influence antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides. Malting resulted in many dynamic changes in the ferulic acid content in different feraxan types and affected their antioxidant activity. PMID:16289622

Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Muralikrishna, G



Universal patterns of equilibrium cluster growth in aqueous sugars observed by dynamic light scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic light scattering performed on aqueous solutions of three sugars (glucose, maltose and sucrose) reveal a common pattern of sugar cluster formation with a narrow cluster size distribution. In each case, equilibrium clusters form whose size increases with increasing sugar content in an identical power law manner in advance of a common, critical-like, percolation threshold near 83wt% sugar. The critical exponent of the power law divergence of the cluster size varies with temperature, increasing with decreasing temperature, due to changes in the strength of the intermolecular hydrogen bond and appears to vanish for temperatures in excess of 90°C . Detailed analysis of the cluster growth process suggests a two-stage process: an initial cluster phase formed at low volume fractions, ? , consisting of noninteracting, monodisperse sugar clusters whose size increases ?1/3 followed by an aggregation stage, active at concentrations above about ?=40% , where cluster-cluster contact first occurs.

Sidebottom, D. L.; Tran, Tri D.



Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfa, Alfredo; Porto, Weber



Sugar Canes as Bioenergy Feedstocks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugar cane crops currently being grown in the South can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for both renewable transportation fuel and food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service’s Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is g...


Seed Mapping of Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual plant care may well become embodied in precision farming in the future and will lead to new opportunities in agricultural crop management. The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate a data logging system attached to a precision seeder to enable high accuracy seed position mapping of a field of sugar beet. A Real Time Kinematic Global

H. W. Griepentrog; M. Nørremark; H. Nielsen; B. S. Blackmore



SUGAR Volt: One Possible Future  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA partnered with the Boeing Company, among others, to come up with designs for possible future aircraft that meet our goals of significant reductions in noise, fuel use and emissions. In this video, Boeing reveals how they created one of their ideas -- the SUGAR Volt. › Read More About NextGen Aircraft

Christopher O



The Effect of Water, Sugars, and Proteins on the Pattern of Ice Nucleation and Propagation in Acclimated and Nonacclimated Canola Leaves1  

PubMed Central

Infrared video thermography was used to observe ice nucleation temperatures, patterns of ice formation, and freezing rates in nonacclimated and cold acclimated leaves of a spring (cv Quest) and a winter (cv Express) canola (Brassica napus). Distinctly different freezing patterns were observed, and the effect of water content, sugars, and soluble proteins on the freezing process was characterized. When freezing was initiated at a warm subzero temperature, ice growth rapidly spread throughout nonacclimated leaves. In contrast, acclimated leaves initiated freezing in a horseshoe pattern beginning at the uppermost edge followed by a slow progression of ice formation across the leaf. However, when acclimated leaves, either previously killed by a slow freeze (2°C h?1) or by direct submersion in liquid nitrogen, were refrozen their freezing pattern was similar to nonacclimated leaves. A novel technique was developed using filter paper strips to determine the effects of both sugars and proteins on the rate of freezing of cell extracts. Cell sap from nonacclimated leaves froze 3-fold faster than extracts from acclimated leaves. The rate of freezing in leaves was strongly dependent upon the osmotic potential of the leaves. Simple sugars had a much greater effect on freezing rate than proteins. Nonacclimated leaves containing high water content did not supercool as much as acclimated leaves. Additionally, wetted leaves did not supercool as much as nonwetted leaves. As expected, cell solutes depressed the nucleation temperature of leaves. The use of infrared thermography has revealed that the freezing process in plants is a complex process, reminding us that many aspects of freezing tolerance occur at a whole plant level involving aspects of plant structure and metabolites rather than just the expression of specific genes alone.

Gusta, L.V.; Wisniewski, M.; Nesbitt, N.T.; Gusta, M.L.



Variation in sugar levels and invertase activity in mature fruit representing a broad spectrum of Cucumis melo genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar accumulation is a very important physiological process that determines dessert-melon fruit quality. Considerable variation in the sugar content and composition in the mature flesh of Cucumis melo L. fruits was observed among 56 genotypes which represent the wide range of morphological and horticultural types found in this species. Sucrose accumulation was observed not only among 'dessert melons' of the

Asya Stepansky; Irina Kovalski; Arthur A. Schaffer; Rafael Perl-Treves



Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition of two amaranth species: oil, sugars, fibres, minerals and vitamins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping, germination and flour air classification on several components of Amaranthus caudatus and A. cruentus seeds, including oil, sugars, fibre, minerals and vitamins were studied. The lipid, crude and dietary fibre, ash, and sugar contents were 71, 43, 140, 30 and 18 g kg-1 in raw A. caudatus and 85, 39, 134, 40

Tamer H Gamel; Jozef P Linssen; Ahmed S Mesallam; Ahmed A Damir; Lila A Shekib



ConcepTest: Sugar-Rock Analogy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water containing dissolved sugar evaporates to leave a deposit of sugar in the bottom of a glass. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a type of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary ...


Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with h...

P. Simon



Growing of sugar cane for energy  

SciTech Connect

The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

Humbert, R.P.



Organic acids and sugars composition of harvested pomegranate fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

For two consecutive seasons, 40 Spanish pomegranate cultivars (cvs) were analysed and their individual organic acids and\\u000a sugars compositions were examined. Intervarietal differences in acidity content reported by different authors were confirmed.\\u000a According to organoleptic characteristics and chemical compositions three groups of varieties were established: sweet (SWV),\\u000a soursweet (SSWV) and sour (SV). On average, for two seasons, total organic acids

Pablo Melgarejo; Domingo Manuel Salazar; F. Artés



Regulation of photosynthesis by sugars in sugarcane leaves.  


In sugarcane, increased sink demand has previously been shown to result in increased photosynthetic rates that are correlated with a reduction in leaf hexose concentrations. To establish whether sink limitation of photosynthesis is a result of sugar accumulation in the leaf, excision and cold-girdling techniques were used to modify leaf sugar concentrations in pot-grown sugarcane. In excised leaves that were preincubated in darkness for 3h, sucrose accumulation was reduced but accumulated again upon transfer to the light, while hexose concentrations remained lower than in controls (7.7 micromol mg(-1)FW versus 18.6 micromol mg(-1)FW hexose in controls). These results were associated with a 66% and 59% increase in photosynthetic assimilation (A) and electron transport rate (ETR), respectively, compared to controls maintained in the light. Similar increases in photosynthesis were observed when dark-treated leaves were supplied with 5mM sorbitol, but not when supplied with 5mM sucrose. Further analyses of (14)C-labeled sugars indicated rapid turnover between sucrose and hexose. Cold-girdling (5 degrees C) increased sucrose and hexose levels and resulted in a decline of photosynthetic rates over 5d (48% and 35% decline in assimilation rate and ETR, respectively). These sugar-induced changes in photosynthesis were independent of changes in stomatal conductance. This study demonstrates that the down-regulation of photosynthesis in response to culm sugar accumulation reported previously could be due to the knock-on effect of accumulation of sugar in leaf tissue, and supports the contention that hexose, rather than sucrose, is responsible for the modulation of photosynthetic activity. PMID:18430487

McCormick, Alistair James; Cramer, Michael D; Watt, Derek A



Vitamin Content of Camel Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The content of vitamin C, vitamin B2 and fat-soluble vitamins E and A in camel milk was studied. The milk samples were collected from 20 individual camels (Camelus dromedarius) in two different occasions. The study showed that camel milk contains considerably less vitamin A and B2 than cow milk while the content of vitamin E was about the same




Microsoft Academic Search

The bagasse is the only fuel used in the sugar - alcohol industry in Brazil, the biggest producer of sugar cane in the world. The sugar - alcohol industry produces, by cogeneration, electric energy for its own use and for selling. The improvement of the use of bagasse in the furnaces is an important industrial strategy nowadays. This subject has

Juan H. Sosa-Arnao?; Fabiano Marquezi de Oliveira; Jefferson L. G. Corrêa


The Sugar Industry's Structure, Pricing and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure, pricing, and performance of the U.S. sugar industry were studied with special emphasis on the industry's performance during the recent years of economic stress. The major causes of high U.S. sugar prices in 1974 were tight world sugar suppl...

R. Bohall F. Hulse C. Powe L. Angelo F. Gray



27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...



Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)|

Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.



The Rocky Mountain Sugar Growers' Cooperative: “Sweet” or “Sugar-Coated” Visions of the Future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 2001, sugarbeet producers in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and Nebraska were contemplating the formation of a new generation cooperative to purchase sugarbeet processing facilities from Tate and Lyle North American Sugars, Inc. The U.S. sugar industry critically depends upon U.S. sugar policy. In recent years, sugar and sugarbeet prices have been relatively low. This case examines the competitive, strategic,

Gary W. Brester; Michael A. Boland



Reform in the EU Sugar Regime: Impact on the Global Sugar Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing trade negotiations, unilateral trade concessions and obligations under the WTO are pushing the EU sugar regime to undertake reforms. These reforms will alter the positions of developing countries in the global sugar markets. A complete unilateral liberalisation of the EU sugar sector is simulated to depict the winners and losers in the global sugar markets if no preferences

Ellen Huan-Niemi; Leena Kerkela



Nutrient Content Claims and Percentage  


... Non-starchy Vegetables Protein Foods Sugar and Desserts Artificial Sweeteners Sugar Alcohols Grains and Starchy Vegetables Taking ... Without added sugars: no sugar or sugar-containing ingredient is added during processing Claims for Fiber High ...


7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...



7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...



7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...



7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...



7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...



19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...



7 CFR 1435.306 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.306 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.306 State cane sugar...



[Sugar characterization of mini-watermelon and rapid sugar determination by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].  


In the present paper, the distribution of sugar level within the mini-watermelon was studied, a new sugar characterization method of mini-watermelon using average sugar level, the highest sugar level and the lowest sugar level index is proposed. Feasibility of nondestructive determination of mini-watermenlon sugar level using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy information was investigated by an experiment. PLS models for measuring the 3 sugar levels were established. The results obtained by near infrared spectroscopy agreed with that of the new method established above. PMID:23156764

Wang, Shuo; Yuan, Hong-fu; Song, Chun-feng; Xie, Jin-chun; Li, Xiao-yu; Feng, Le-ping



Kinetics of the lamellar gel?fluid transition in phosphatidylcholine membranes in the presence of sugars  

SciTech Connect

Phase diagrams are presented for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the presence of sugars (sucrose) over a wide range of relative humidities (RHs). The phase information presented here, determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), is shown to be consistent with previous results achieved by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both techniques show a significant effect of sucrose concentration on the phase behaviour of this phospholipid bilayer. An experimental investigation into the effect of sugars on the kinetic behaviour of the gel to fluid transition is also presented showing that increasing the sugar content appears to slightly increase the rate at which the transition occurs.

Lenné, Thomas; Garvey, Christopher J.; Koster, Karen L.; Bryant, Gary (ANSTO); (USD); (RMIT)



Sugar accumulation, photosynthesis and growth of two indica rice varieties in response to salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar, a final product of photosynthesis, is reported to be involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against abiotic stresses\\u000a such as salinity, water deficiency, extreme temperature and mineral toxicity. Elements involved in photosynthesis, sugar content,\\u000a water oxidation, net photosynthetic rate, activity of enzyme and gene expression have therefore been studied in Homjan (HJ),\\u000a salt-tolerant, and Pathumthani 1 (PT1), salt-sensitive,

S. Cha-um; A. Charoenpanich; S. Roytrakul; C. Kirdmanee



Effects of sugars and sugar alcohols on thermal transition and cold stability of corn starch gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various sugars and sugar alcohols (ribose, xylose, glucose, fructose, mannose, sucrose, maltose, isomaltose, trehalose, xylitol, mannitol, and sorbitol) were compared in their effects on thermal transitions and cold-storage stability of a corn starch–sugar gel (40% starch, starch:sugar=10:1 or 10:3 dry solids basis) using a differential scanning calorimetry. As the molar concentration of sugar increased, the onset temperature and enthalpy for

M. H Baek; B Yoo; S.-T Lim



The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others,\\u000afor the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for\\u000abio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The aim of this study is to assess\\u000athe green, blue

P. W. Gerbens-Leenes; A. Y. Hoekstra



[Effect of the time of ethrel use on the sugar levels in onions].  


Two groups of onion plants were treated with Ethrel on two different dates; onions were then stored, and the changes in their sugar contents were compared. Two onion cultivars: Czerniakowska and Wolska, were investigated in simple sugar contents between treated onions (on the I and II date) and untreated controls. Mean contents of simple sugars were lower in onions treated on the I date, as compared with the II date. Ethrel treatment (on the I and II date) caused a decrease in oligosugar contents; this drop amounted, respectively, for the Czerniakowska cultivar to 14.3 and 15.4% and for the Wolska cultivar to 15.8 and 18.8%. Ethrel treatment, as compared with control, significantly decreased total sugar contents; this decrease was for the Czerniakowska cultivar 4.8-7.6%, and for the Wolska cultivar 7.2-7.6%. The date of Ethrel treatment exerted no univocal effect on the decrease in oligosugars and total sugars. PMID:1803442

Ostrzycka, J; Górecki, R



Evidence to support a food-based dietary guideline on sugar consumption in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background To review studies undertaken in South Africa (SA) which included sugar intake associated with dental caries, non-communicable diseases, diabetes, obesity and/or micronutrient dilution, since the food-based dietary guideline: “Use foods and drinks that contain sugar sparingly and not between meals” was promulgated by the Department of Health (DOH) in 2002. Methods Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ScienceDirect), and SA Journal of Clinical Nutrition (SAJCN), DOH and SA Medical Research Council (SAMRC) websites were searched for SA studies on sugar intake published between 2000 and January 2012. Studies were included in the review if they evaluated the following: sugar intake and dental caries; sugar intake and non-communicable diseases; sugar and diabetes; sugar and obesity and/or sugar and micronutrient dilution. Results The initial search led to 12 articles in PubMed, 0 in Cochrane, 35 in ScienceDirect, 5 in the SAJCN and 3 reports from DOH/SAMRC. However, after reading the abstracts only 7 articles from PubMed, 4 from SAJCN and 3 reports were retained for use as being relevant to the current review. Hand searching of reference lists of SAJCN articles produced two more articles. Intake of sugar appears to be increasing steadily across the South African (SA) population. Children typically consume about 50?g per day, rising to as much as 100?g per day in adolescents. This represents about 10% of dietary energy, possibly as much as 20%. It has been firmly established that sugar plays a major role in development of dental caries. Furthermore, a few studies have shown that sugar has a diluting effect on the micronutrient content of the diet which lowers the intake of micronutrients. Data from numerous systematic reviews have shown that dietary sugar increases the risk for development of both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Risk for development of these conditions appears to be especially strong when sugar is consumed as sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusion Based on the evidence provided the current DOH food-based dietary guideline on sugar intake should remain as is.



29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...



29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...



21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling...



29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...



29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...



Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills.  


Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars™. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20% ds (dry solids) or 30% ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E(R) (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO(2) utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000 ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530 ha algae farm can produce 5.8 million L of biodiesel/yr and reduce CO(2) emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels. PMID:22265980

Lohrey, Christian; Kochergin, Vadim



Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. First, they investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. Then they analyze data collected from the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, students use the data they have analyzed to design cost-effective solutions with particular boiling points---similar to the everyday work of chemical engineers.

Culturally Relevant Engineering Application in Mathematics GK-12 Program,


Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. In Section 1, students first investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. In Section 2 they analyze data collected from the entire class to generate two boiling point curves (one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions). Finally, in Section 3, students will use the data they have analyzed to determine how to create a solution that has a particular boiling point and is a cost effective design.

Culturally Relevant Engineering Application In Mathematics Program


Consolidated conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) treatment.  


A novel process using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic treatment for conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars was developed. The purpose of this process is to convert both lignocellulosic polysaccharides and starch in hulled barley grains into fermentable sugars simultaneously without a need for grinding and hull separation. In this study, hulled barley grains were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 wt.-% sulfuric acid at various temperatures ranging from 110 to 170 °C in a 63-ml flow-through packed-bed stainless steel reactor. After sulfuric acid pretreatment, simultaneous conversion of lignocellulose and starch in the barley grains into fermentable sugars was performed using an enzyme cocktail, which included ?-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, and ?-glucosidase. Both starch and non-starch polysaccharides in the pre-treated barley grains were readily converted to fermentable sugars. The treated hulled barley grains, including their hull, were completely hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars with recovery of almost 100% of the available glucose and xylose. The pretreatment conditions of this chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) process for achieving maximum yield of fermentable sugars were 1.0 wt.% sulfuric acid and 110 °C. In addition to starch, the acid pretreatment also retained most of the available proteins in solid form, which is essential for subsequent production of fuel ethanol and high protein distiller's dried grains with solubles co-product. PMID:21229334

Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Taylor, Frank; Hicks, Kevin B



Furanose-specific Sugar Transport  

PubMed Central

The widespread utilization of sugars by microbes is reflected in the diversity and multiplicity of cellular transporters used to acquire these compounds from the environment. The model bacterium Escherichia coli has numerous transporters that allow it to take up hexoses and pentoses, which recognize the more abundant pyranose forms of these sugars. Here we report the biochemical and structural characterization of a transporter protein YtfQ from E. coli that forms part of an uncharacterized ABC transporter system. Remarkably the crystal structure of this protein, solved to 1.2 Å using x-ray crystallography, revealed that YtfQ binds a single molecule of galactofuranose in its ligand binding pocket. Selective binding of galactofuranose over galactopyranose was also observed using NMR methods that determined the form of the sugar released from the protein. The pattern of expression of the ytfQRTyjfF operon encoding this transporter mirrors that of the high affinity galactopyranose transporter of E. coli, suggesting that this bacterium has evolved complementary transporters that enable it to use all the available galactose present during carbon limiting conditions.

Horler, Richard S. P.; Muller, Axel; Williamson, David C.; Potts, Jennifer R.; Wilson, Keith S.; Thomas, Gavin H.



Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass.  


Depolymerization of cellulose offers the prospect of inexpensive sugars from biomass. Breaking the glycosidic bonds of cellulose to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily the anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG) whereas the presence of naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) in biomass strongly catalyzes ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates. Here, we show a method of significantly increasing the yield of sugars from biomass by purely thermal means through infusion of certain mineral acids (phosphoric and sulfuric acid) into the biomass to convert the AAEMs into thermally stable salts (particularly potassium sulfates and phosphates). These salts not only passivate AAEMs that normally catalyze fragmentation of pyranose rings, but also buffer the system at pH levels that favor glycosidic bond breakage. It appears that AAEM passivation contributes to 80?% of the enhancement in LG yield while the buffering effect of the acid salts contributes to the balance of the enhancement. PMID:22976992

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb; Dalluge, Dustin; Bai, Xianglan; Kim, Kwang Ho; Brown, Robert C



Synthesis of novel water-soluble sulfonated cellulose.  


Water-soluble sulfonated cellulose (SC) samples were synthesized by oxidizing hardwood kraft pulp with sodium periodate followed by the sulfonation reaction with sodium bisulfite. Six levels of oxidation/sulfonation were obtained by using different mmols (0.93-4.67) of periodate per gram of pulp. The aldehyde and sulfonic acid contents, surface morphology, and water solubility property of these treated fibers were characterized. It was found that carbonyl group content increased with the periodate charge and so did the sulfonic acid content in subsequent sulfonation step. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a significant change in surface morphology of the sulfonated samples. Solubility of sulfonated cellulose in water was determined from (1)H NMR spectra and a solubility of 28.57 g/L was found when cellulose was oxidized with 4.67 mmol periodate per gram cellulose followed by the sulfonation reaction. PMID:19959161

Rajalaxmi, Dash; Jiang, Nan; Leslie, Gelbaum; Ragauskas, Arthur J



Solubility of Mg-containing ?-tricalcium phosphate at 25 ?C  

PubMed Central

The equilibrium solubility of Mg-containing ?-tricalcium phosphate (?MgTCP) with various magnesium contents was determined by immersing ?MgTCP powder for 27 months in a CH3COOH–CH3COONa buffer solution at 25 °C under a nitrogen gas atmosphere. The negative logarithm of the solubility product (pKsp) of ?MgTCP was expressed as pKsp = 28.87432 + 1.40348C ? 0.3163C2 + 0.04218C3 ? 0.00275C4 + 0.0000681659C5, where C is the magnesium content in ?MgTCP (mol.%). The solubility of ?MgTCP decreased with increasing magnesium content owing to the increased structural stability and possible formation of a whitlockite-type phase on the surface. As a result, ?MgTCP with 10.1 mol.% magnesium had a lower solubility than that of hydroxyapatite below pH 6.0. ?MgTCP was found to be more soluble than zinc-containing ?-tricalcium phosphate given the same molar content of zinc or magnesium. The solubility of ?MgTCP and release rate of magnesium from ?MgTCP can be controlled by adjusting the Mg content by selecting the appropriate pKsp.

Li, Xia; Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Wang, Xiupeng; LeGeros, R.Z.



Mechanism study of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis using 1,3-diol model compounds  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the bond cleavage mechanism governing sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis is important to control of the selectivity of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis. Previous work by others has resulted in the suggestion of a variety of mechanisms to explain the C{single_bond}C cleavage in sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis, and has not provided any definitive evidence to elucidate either the C{single_bond}C or C{single_bond}O cleavage mechanism. In this work, the authors present a mechanism study carried out using 1,3-diol model compounds. Experimental results indicate that cleavage of the C{single_bond}C and C{single_bond}O bonds in hydrogenolysis is through retro-aldolization and dehydration of a {beta}-hydroxyl carbonyl, respectively. The structure of this {beta}-hydroxyl carbonyl is already contained in an open-chain sugar molecule, and is generated from the sugar alcohol molecule by dehydrogenation. The intermediates from both C{single_bond}C and C{single_bond}O cleavage are subsequently hydrogenated to yield alcohols or polyols. This mechanism of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis provides a good background to understand factors that control the selectivity in sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis. Based on this understanding, a rational approach to control of the selectivity of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis may be developed.

Wang, K.; Hawley, M.C.; Furney, T.D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering



Decolorization of sugar syrups using commercial and sugar beet pulp based activated carbons.  


Sugar syrup decolorization was studied using two commercial and eight beet pulp based activated carbons. In an attempt to relate decolorizing performances to other characteristics, surface areas, pore volumes, bulk densities and ash contents of the carbons in the powdered form; pH and electrical conductivities of their suspensions and their color adsorption properties from iodine and molasses solution were determined. The color removal capabilities of all carbons were measured at 1/100 (w/w) dosage, and isotherms were determined on better samples. The two commercial activated carbons showed different decolorization efficiencies; which could be related to their physical and chemical properties. The decolorization efficiency of beet pulp carbon prepared at 750 degrees C and activated for 5h using CO2 was much better than the others and close to the better one of the commercial activated carbons used. It is evident that beet pulp is an inexpensive potential precursor for activated carbons for use in sugar refining. PMID:17826086

Mudoga, H L; Yucel, H; Kincal, N S



Effect of seed stimulation on germination and sugar beet yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germination and sugar beet yield after seed stimulation were investigated. The seeds came from the energ'hill technology and were subject to laser irradiation. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory and field conditions. Lengthening of germinal roots and hypocotyls was observed. A positive effect of the stimulation on the morphological features was observed for the Eh seeds and laser irradiation applied in a three-fold dose. The energ'hill seeds exhibited a significantly higher content of carotenoids in seedlings and an increase in the content of chlorophylls. Laser light irradiation favourably modified the ratio of chlorophyll a to b. The leaves and roots of plants developed from the energ'hill and irradiated seeds were characterized by higher dry matter content thanin non-stimulated seeds. Seed stimulation had a positive influence on yielding and the saccharose content.

Prooeba-Bia?czyk, U.; Szajsner, H.; Grzyoe, E.; Demczuk, A.; Saca?a, E.; B?k, K.



Interactions between temperature and sugars in the regulation of leaf senescence in the perennial herb Arabis alpina L.  


Annual plants usually flower and set seed once before senescence results in the death of the whole plant (monocarpic senescence). Leaf senescence also occurs in polycarpic perennials; even in "evergreen" species individual leaves senesce. In the annual model Arabidopsis thaliana sugars accumulate in the senescent leaves and senescence is accelerated by high sugar availability. Similar to A. thaliana, sugar contents increased with leaf age in the perennial Arabis alpina grown under warm conditions (22 °C day/18 night). At 5 °C, sugar contents in non-senescent leaves were higher than at a warm temperature, but dependent on the accession, either sugars did not accumulate or their contents decreased in old leaves. In A. alpina plants grown in their natural habitat in the Alps, sugar contents declined with leaf age. Growth at a cold temperature slightly delayed senescence in A. alpina. In both warm and cold conditions, an external glucose supply accelerated senescence, but natural variation was found in this response. In conclusion, sugar accumulation under warm conditions could accelerate leaf senescence in A. alpina plants, but genotype-specific responses and interactions with growth temperature are likely to influence senescence under natural conditions. PMID:22788771

Wingler, Astrid; Stangberg, Emma Josefine; Saxena, Triambak; Mistry, Rupal



High-level production of the low-calorie sugar sorbitol by Lactobacillus plantarum through metabolic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorbitol is a low-calorie sugar alcohol that is largely used as an ingredient in the food industry, based on its sweetness and its high solubility. Here, we investigated the capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum, a lactic acid bacterium found in many fermented food products and in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, to produce sorbitol from fructose-6-phosphate by reverting the sorbitol catabolic

Victor Ladero; Ana Ramos; Anne Wiersma; Philippe Goffin; A. Schanck; M. Kleerebezem; J. Hugenholtz; E. J. Smid; P. Hols



Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.  


To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. PMID:23871368

Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P



Fractionation and delignification of empty fruit bunches with low reaction severity for high sugar recovery.  


Fractionation and delignification of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was conducted in a series of two steps under low reaction severity with the aim of minimizing the neutralization of hydrolyzates. In EFB underwent acid fractionation, the glucan content was increased to 62.4%, at which point 86.9% of the hemicellulosic sugar and 20.5% of the lignin were extracted from the raw EFB. Xylose-rich hydrolyzate, indicating a high selectivity of 17.7 could be separated. Through the consecutive delignification of acid-fractionated EFB using sodium hydroxide, solid residue with a high glucan content (70.4%) and low hemicellulosic sugar content (3.7%) could be obtained, which indicated that 95.9% of the hemicellulosic sugar and 67.5% of the lignin were extracted based on raw EFB. The final pretreated solid residue was converted to glucose through enzyme hydrolysis, which resulted in an enzymatic digestibility of 76.9% was achieved. PMID:23933025

Hong, Jin Young; Kim, Young Soo; Oh, Kyeong Keun



Ozone Solubility in Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive and critical survey of the available data on ozone solubility in different liquids—in water and aqueous solutions, as well as in organic solvents has been made. Apart of comparing the data published by the various authors after 1981 for water and aqueous solutions, special attention has been paid to the effects of pH and the composition of the

Andrzej K. Bi?



Water soluble conductive polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having




Changes in Assimilated 13C Distribution and Soluble Acid Invertase Activity of Zinnia elegans Induced by Uniconazol, an Inhibitor of Gibberellin Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

The physiological aspects involved in the Uniconazol-induced morphological changes in Zinnia elegans Jacq. cv Red Sun were clarified biochemically by determining the distribution of assimilated 13C as well as the soluble acid invertase activity. The application of Uniconazol, (E)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-pentane-3-ol, reduced the growth of stems and leaves without affecting the roots. In addition, the translocation of assimilated 13C from leaf to other organs was inhibited, with the stem being more restricted than the root. These changes were matched by a corresponding decrease in the specific activity of soluble acid invertase. Subsequent treatment of GA3 counteracted these effects of Uniconazol. Moreover, the total and reducing sugar content was closely correlated with the soluble acid invertase activity in the stem. It is concluded that the reduction in invertase activity of stem is a biochemical manifestation of the retardation of stem growth induced by Uniconazol.

Kim, Hong-Yul; Suzuki, Yoshio



Influence of Plant Growth at High CO2 Concentrations on Leaf Content of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase and Intracellular Distribution of Soluble Carbohydrates in Tobacco, Snapdragon, and Parsley.  

PubMed Central

We have examined the possible role of leaf cytosolic hexoses and the expression of mannitol metabolism as mechanisms that may affect the repression of photosynthetic capacity when plants are grown at 1000 versus 380 [mu]L L-1 CO2. In plants grown at high CO2, leaf ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase content declined by [greater than or equal to]20% in tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) but was not affected in the mannitol-producing species snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and parsley (Petroselinum hortense). In the three species mesophyll glucose and fructose at midday occurred almost entirely in the vacuole (>99%), irrespective of growth CO2 levels. The estimated cytosolic concentrations of glucose and fructose were [less than or equal to]100 [mu]M. In the three species grown at high CO2, total leaf carbohydrates increased 60 to 100%, but mannitol metabolism did not function as an overflow mechanism for the increased accumulation of carbohydrate. In both snapdragon and parsley grown at ambient or high CO2, mannitol occurred in the chloroplast and cytosol at estimated midday concentrations of 0.1 M or more each. The compartmentation of leaf hexoses and the metabolism of alternate carbohydrates are further considered in relation to photosynthetic acclimation to high levels of CO2.

Moore, Bd.; Palmquist, D. E.; Seemann, J. R.




Microsoft Academic Search

Glucoamylase (?-amylase, EC from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze the soluble sago starch to reducing sugars without any major pretreatment of the substrate. A 2 L stirred tank reactor was used for the hydrolysis. The effects of pH, temperature, agitation speed, substrate concentration, and enzyme concentration on the reaction were investigated in order to maximize both the initial reaction

L. Long Wee; M. S. M. Annuar; S. Ibrahim; Y. Chisti



Sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar selection in two species of Neotropical nectar-eating bats.  


Nectar-feeding bats play an important role in natural communities acting as pollinators; however, the characteristics that affect their food selection are unclear. Here we explore the role that sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar concentration play on sugar selection of Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. We offered bats paired feeders containing sugar solutions of sucrose (S), glucose (G) or fructose (F) vs. pure water, and sucrose vs. 1:1 equicaloric solutions of glucose-fructose at 5, 15 and 35% (wt./vol.). To see the effect of sweetness on sugar selection, we habituated the bats with a diet containing either sucrose or hexoses and subsequently evaluated sugar preferences. Sugar thresholds were Ssugar preferences when the bats fed on dilute nectars. L. yerbabuenae changed its sugar preferences with concentration while G. soricina did not. Finally, the bats consistently preferred the sugar they were habituated to. Our results suggest that bats become accustomed to the sugar found in the most abundant plants they use, and thus prefer the most common sugars included in their diet. This could confer an advantage by allowing them shifting sugar preferences on the most common food present in their environment. PMID:23085289

Ayala-Berdon, Jorge; Rodríguez-Peña, Nelly; García Leal, Cristian; Stoner, Kathryn E; Schondube, Jorge E



Sugar-free medicines are counterproductive.  


Sugar in food and drinks is responsible for the poor dental health of many children and adults. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the small amount of sugar in medicines has been responsible for any dental problems. A recent British Heart Foundation survey found that nearly one in three UK children are eating sweets, chocolate and crisps three or more times a day. Hence it is futile administering sugar-free medicine to a child consuming lot of sweets. Moreover, sugar in medicines makes them palatable and bitter medicines inevitably affect compliance with the prescribed treatment. Poor compliance leads to inadequate treatment of illness and consequently increases the risk of complications from illness. Hence sugar-free medicines promoted as a public health policy could have actually caused more harm than any meaningful net benefit. There is an urgent need for a healthy debate and a fresh look at the policy of promoting sugar-free medicines. PMID:22955756

Sundar, S



China: An emerging sugar super power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane production in China has more than 3000 years of history. Prior to 1840 A.D., China dominated the world trade of\\u000a cane sugar but the sugar industry became very week since then due to long time of wars and unstable social conditions. It\\u000a has been developing rapidly again since early 1980s. China has become the third largest sugar producer in

Yang-rui Li



Ethanol-soluble and insoluble fractions of humic substances in soil fulvic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humic substances in fulvic acids (FAs) obtained as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-adsorbed fractions were further fractionated based on their solubility in ethanol. Elementary composition, IR spectra, UV-Vis spectra, saccharide contents, molecular size distribution, and C-NMR spectra were clearly different between the ethanol-soluble and the insoluble fractions. The yield of the ethanol-soluble fractions exceeded 80%. These fractions showed higher aromatic-and carbonyl-C contents than

Akira Watanabe; Shozo Kuwatsuka



[Preliminary study on correlation between diversity of soluble proteins and producing area of Cordyceps sinensis].  


To analyze the content and type of soluble proteins in Cordyceps sinensis from different producing areas and processed with different methods with bradford method and 2-DE technology, in order to discover significant differences in soluble proteins in C. sinensis processed with different methods and from different producing areas. The preliminary study indicated that the content and diversity of soluble proteins were related to producing areas and processing methods to some extent. PMID:23944072

Ren, Yan; Qiu, Yi; Wan, De-Guang; Lu, Xian-Ming; Guo, Jin-Lin



Estimation of canopy average mesophyll conductance using ?(13) C of phloem contents.  


Conductance to CO(2) inside leaves, known as mesophyll conductance (g(m)), imposes large limitations on photosynthesis. Because g(m) is difficult to quantify, it is often neglected in calculations of (13)C photosynthetic discrimination. The 'soluble sugar method' estimates g(m) via differences between observed photosynthetic discrimination, calculated from the ?(13)C of soluble sugars, and discrimination when g(m) is infinite. We expand upon this approach and calculate a photosynthesis-weighted average for canopy mesophyll conductance ((c) g(m)) using ?(13)C of stem phloem contents. We measured gas exchange at three canopy positions and collected stem phloem contents in mature trees of three conifer species (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thuja plicata and Larix occidentalis). We generated species-specific and seasonally variable estimates of (c)g(m) . We found that (c)g(m) was significantly different among species (0.41, 0.22 and 0.09 mol m(-2) s(-1) for Larix, Pseudotsuga and Thuja, respectively), but was similar throughout the season. Ignoring respiratory and photorespiratory fractionations ((c)?(ef)) resulted in ?30% underestimation of (c)g(m) in Larix and Pseudotsuga, but was innocuous in Thuja. Substantial errors (~1-4‰) in photosynthetic discrimination calculations were introduced by neglecting (c)g(m) and (c)?(ef) . Our method is easy to apply and cost-effective, captures species variation and would have captured seasonal variation had it existed. The method provides an average canopy value, which makes it suitable for parameterization of canopy-scale models of photosynthesis, even in tall trees. PMID:21554329

Ubierna, Nerea; Marshall, John D



Effect of ozonation on the reactivity of lignocellulose substrates in enzymatic hydrolyses to sugars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of pre-treatment of aspen wood with ozone for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis into sugars is determined by the amount of absorbed ozone. The ozone absorption rate depended on the water content in the sample being ozonized and was maximum at a relative humidity of wood of ˜40%. As a result of ozone pre-treatment, the initial rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis of wood under the action of a cellulase complex increased eightfold, and the maximum yield of sugars increased tenfold depending on the ozone dose. The ozonation at ozone doses of more than 3 mol/PPU (phenylpropane structural unit of lignin) led to a decrease in the yield of sugars because of the oxidative destruction of cellulose and hemicellulose. The alkaline ozonation in 2 and 12% NaOH was inefficient because of the accompanying oxidation of carbohydrates and considerably decreased the yield of sugars.

Ben'ko, E. M.; Manisova, O. R.; Lunin, V. V.



[Effects of endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa S-7 on photosynthesis, yield, and quality of sugar beet].  


This study showed that inoculation of endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa S-7 could significantly (P < 0.05) promote the photosynthesis of sugar beet. After the inoculation, the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal limitation (Ls), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) increased by 16.11%, 23.82%, 41.91%, and 34.80%, respectively, while the stomatal intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) decreased by 21.09%. Inoculation of endophytic P. polymyxa S-7 could also increase sugar beet yield and its quality significantly (P < 0.05), with the tuberous root biomass and its sugar content increased by 25.63% and 17.46%, respectively. It was concluded that endophytic P. polymyxa S-7 not only affected the photosynthetic parameters, but also promoted the yield and quality of sugar beet. PMID:19637598

Shi, Ying-wu; Lou, Kai; Li, Chun; Yang, Liang; Wang, Xing-qin; Liu, Wen-yu



Scientists Discover Sugar in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds. Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescop




Microsoft Academic Search

Salequzzaman M., Tariqul Islam S. M., Tasnuva A., Kashem M. A. and Mahedi Al Masud M. 2008. Environmental Impact of Sugar Industry - A Case Study on Kushtia Sugar Mills in Bangladesh. j. 2(3): 31-35 The study was conducted at the adjacent area of Kushtia Sugar Mill to determine the physico-chemical properties of effluent of Kushtia sugar Mills and




Effects of genotype, sugar, and concentration on sugar preference of laboratory mice (Mus musculus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested each of 5 genotypes of mice (N = 160 individuals) in a 2-bottle (water vs sugar solution) preference test with 5 concentrations of glucose and sucrose. Results are compared to sugar-preference data from other rodent species and to saccharin-preference data from the same genotypes of mice. Heritability varied with concentration and sugar from essentially zero to about .52. Differences

Michael D. Stockton; Glayde Whitney



Fuels from sugar crops: systems study for sugarcane, sweet sorghum, and sugar beets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive analysis is made of the technical and economic feasibility of producing fuels and chemicals from the sugar crops (sugar cane, sweet sorghum, and sugar beets). It is concluded that ethanol and ammonia are the most promising products. Ethanol produced by fermentation on juice or molasses is close to economic competitiveness. The ammonia cost is not yet competitive but




Synthesis of higher carbon sugars. Unexpected rearrangement of higher sugar allylic alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupling of a sugar phosphonate with a sugar aldehyde afforded a C13-higher sugar enone. Reduction of the carbonyl function provided both stereoisomeric allylic alcohols. Inversion of the configuration at the carbinol centre in these derivatives did not yield the expected SN2 product, but proceeded with rearrangement to the tetrahydrofuran derivative.

Slawomir Jarosz; Agnieszka Gajewska; Roman Luboradzki



Soluble VEGF receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three human VEGF receptors 1–3 mediate biological signals important for new blood vessel formation and lymphangiogenesis.\\u000a Soluble VEGF receptors contain all the information necessary for high affinity ligand binding and have been used as experimental\\u000a tools and regulators in several angiogenic in vitro and in vivo models. Recombinant receptor molecules can be used for specific\\u000a inhibition of VEGF mediated

Carsten Hornig; Herbert A. Weich



Quality evaluation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by near-infrared spectroscopy.  


The legal method (polarimetric measurement) for the determination of sucrose content and the wet chemical analysis for the quality control of sugar beet uses lead acetate. Because heavy metals are pollutants, the law could forbid their use in the future. Therefore, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated as a procedure to replace these methods. However, there are alternatives to lead clarification, such as the use of aluminum salts, which have been applied at many sugar companies. The real advantage of NIRS is in speed and ease of analysis. The aim of this study was to determine simultaneously the concentration of several components which define the industrial quality of beets. The first objective was the determination of sucrose content, which determines the sugar beet price. The standard error of prediction (SEP) was low: 0.11 g of sucrose/100 g of fresh beet. NIRS was also able to determine other beet quality parameters: brix, marc, glucose, nitrogen, sodium, potassium, sugar in molasses (i.e. sucrose in molasses), and juice purity. The results concerning brix, marc, sugar in molasses, and juice purity were satisfactory. NIRS accuracy was lower for the other parameters. Nevertheless, RPD (ratio standard deviation of concentration/SEP) and RER (ratio concentration range/SEP ratio) show that NIRS might be used for the sample screening on nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and glucose content. PMID:14995097

Roggo, Yves; Duponchel, Ludovic; Huvenne, Jean-Pierre



Remote detection of rhizomania in sugar beets.  


ABSTRACT As a prelude to remote sensing of rhizomania, hyper-spectral leaf reflectance and multi-spectral canopy reflectance were used to study the physiological differences between healthy sugar beets and beets infested with Beet necrotic yellow vein virus. This study was conducted over time in the presence of declining nitrogen levels. Total leaf nitrogen was significantly lower in symptomatic beets than in healthy beets. Chlorophyll and carotenoid levels were reduced in symptomatic beets. Vegetative indices calculated from leaf spectra showed reductions in chlorophyll and carotenoids in symptomatic beets. Betacyanin levels estimated from leaf spectra were decreased at the end of the 2000 season and not in 2001. The ratio of betacyanins to chlorophyll, estimated from canopy spectra, was increased in symptomatic beets at four of seven sampling dates. Differences in betacyanin and carotenoid levels appeared to be related to disease and not nitrogen content. Vegetative indices calculated from multi-spectral canopy spectra supported results from leaf spectra. Logistic regression models that incorporate vegetative indices and reflectance correctly predicted 88.8% of the observations from leaf spectra and 87.9% of the observations for canopy reflectance into healthy or symptomatic classes. Classification was best in August with a gradual decrease in accuracy until harvest. These results indicate that remote sensing technologies can facilitate detection of rhizomania. PMID:18943059

Steddom, K; Heidel, G; Jones, D; Rush, C M



Aggregation and solubility behavior of asphaltenes and their subfractions.  


Asphaltenes from four different crude oils (Arab Heavy, B6, Canadon Seco, and Hondo) were fractionated in mixtures of heptane and toluene and analyzed chemically, by vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), and by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Solubility profiles of the asphaltenes and their subfractions indicated strong cooperative asphaltene interactions of a particular subfraction that is polar and hydrogen bonding. This subfraction had lower H/C ratios and modestly higher N, V, Ni, and Fe contents than the less polar and more soluble subfraction of asphaltenes. VPO and SANS studies indicated that the less soluble subfractions formed aggregates that were considerably larger than the more soluble subfractions. In general, asphaltene aggregate size increased with decreasing solvent aromaticity up to the solubility limit, beyond which the aggregate size decreased with heptane addition. The presence of a low wavevector Q feature in the scattering curves at 25 degrees C indicated that the individual aggregates were flocculating; however, the intensity of the feature was diminished upon heating of the samples to 80 degrees C. The solubility mechanism for Canadon Seco asphaltenes, the largest aggregate formers, appears to be dominated by aromatic pi-bonding interactions due to their low H/C ratio and low nitrogen content. B6 and Hondo asphaltenes formed similar-sized aggregates in heptol and the solubility mechanism is most likely driven by polar interactions due to their relatively high H/C ratios and high nitrogen contents. Arab Heavy, the least polar asphaltene, had a H/C ratio similar to Canadon Seco but formed the smallest aggregates in heptol. The enhancement in polar and pi-bonding interactions for the less soluble subfraction indicated by elemental analysis is reflected by the aggregate size from SANS. The less soluble asphaltenes contribute the majority of species responsible for aggregation and likely cause many petroleum production problems such as pipeline deposition and water-in-oil emulsion stabilization. PMID:14554184

Spiecker, P Matthew; Gawrys, Keith L; Kilpatrick, Peter K



Oral Contraceptives and Increased Formation of Soluble Fibrin  

PubMed Central

Soluble fibrin was measured weekly for two months in 12 normal women and in 12 women on combined oestrogen-progestogen therapy (Ortho-Novin, Norinyl, Enavid, Ovral, Ovulen, Demulen). Plasma soluble fibrin concentration in women on oral contraceptives showed an increase of 97·2% (P <0·001) above that of normal women. In three cases, where each woman on the oral contraceptive served as her own control, stopping medication led to a return to normal of the plasma content of soluble fibrin.

Pilgeram, L. O.; Ellison, J.; Bussche, G. Von Dem



Oral contraceptives and increased formation of soluble fibrin.  


Soluble fibrin was measured weekly for two months in 12 normal women and in 12 women on combined oestrogen-progestogen therapy (Ortho-Novin, Norinyl, Enavid, Ovral, Ovulen, Demulen). Plasma soluble fibrin concentration in women on oral contraceptives showed an increase of 97.2% (P <0.001) above that of normal women. In three cases, where each woman on the oral contraceptive served as her own control, stopping medication led to a return to normal of the plasma content of soluble fibrin. PMID:4414937

Pilgeram, L O; Ellison, J; Von dem Bussche, G



78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing...concerning the determination of the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar...containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and...



Background for 1995 Farm Legislation: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current U.S. sugar price support programs have their origin in 1981 legislation. The price support program has resulted in significant expansion of the industry in the last decade. Beet sugar production has expanded in many regions, but has contracted in ...

R. Lord



M&M's in Different Sugar Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate whether having sugar already dissolved in water affects the speed of dissolving and the movement of sugar and color through the water. Learners design their own experiment and identify and control variables. This activity is a follow-up to the activity "Racing M&M Colors" (see related resources).

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.



Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level  


... to Web version Diabetes | Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level What tests can I use to check my blood sugar level? There are 2 blood tests that can help ... the past 2-3 months. Testing your A1C level every 3 months is the best way for ...


Epidemiology of rhizomania disease of sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizomania disease of sugar beet is caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae. The disease can cause severe losses in sugar yield, depending on the level of infestation in the soil, the environmental conditions during the growing season and the susceptibility of the beet cultivar. Several aspects of the

G. Tuitert



United States Sugar Policy: An Analysis,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal purpose of the paper is to describe and analyze the effects of the U.S. sugar program on the domestic economy and on the economies of key sugar-exporting developing countries, mainly in the Caribbean Basin and the Philippines. The main time ...

R. Ives J. Hurley



Airflow obstruction in chalkpowder and sugar workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suspected occupational hazards and airflow obstruction in industrial workers. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 314 male workers from a chalkpowder plant (n = 158) and from a sugar refinery (n = 156). Occupational exposure to chalkpowder and sugar dust was assessed by individual job classification. Outcome variables included respiratory symptoms

A. B. Bohadana; N. Massin; P. Wild; G. Berthiot




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar beet transformation methods in the public domain are not readily reproducible and yield low transformation frequencies. These methods utilize sugar beet cotyledons, shoot basal tissues, and hypocotyl callus generated in tissue culture for gene transfer experiments. We developed a particle bo...


Analysis of sucrose from sugar beet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Sucrose is a product of photosynthesis and is a key carbohydrate resource for growth and metabolism in many organisms. Economic sources of sucrose include sugar cane and sugar beet, where fresh weight sucrose concentrati...


Sugar and Sweetener: Outlook and Situation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World sugar prices in April plunged below 9 cents a pound as 1981/82 production prospects improved and demand continued sluggish. World output of centrifugal sugar, now estimated at a record 96.3 million metric tons, raw value, is up 9.3 million from 1980...




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani n sugar beets include post-emergence damping off of seedlings, and crown and root rot of mature plants. Sugar beet varieties show varying degree of susceptibility to R. solani. Project goals include development of a reliable method to screen for Rhizoctonia se...


Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo



Sugar profiles of Spanish unifloral honeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of various sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, maltulose, kojibiose, isomaltose, raffinose, erlöse and melezitose) as well as the glucose\\/fructose and glucose\\/water ratios were determined in different Spanish unifloral honey types (rosemary, orange blossom, lavender, sunflower, eucalyptus, heather, honeydew). Sugars were determined by gas chromatography of the trimethylsilyloxime derivatives. There were significant differences among the honey types in relation

Rufino Mateo; Francisco Bosch-Reig



Nitrogen solubility in upper mantle minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen solubility in the upper mantle minerals forsterite, diopside, enstatite and pyrope has been quantified by SIMS measurements of nitrogen-saturated, synthetic samples. The crystals were grown in a 15N–H–O fluid buffered by Ni–NiO, Co–CoO, and Fe–FeO, at 1000–1300?°C and 15–35 kbar in a piston cylinder apparatus. Nitrogen solubility in minerals is significantly affected by temperature, pressure, mineral composition and, in particular, by oxygen fugacity. Nitrogen in all crystals buffered by Ni–NiO or Co–CoO is below detection limit or at most a few ?g/g at very high pressures. Concentrations of 5–24 ?g/g nitrogen have been quantified in diopside, enstatite and pyrope buffered by Fe–FeO at 1100?°C/15 kbar. Very high nitrogen solubility up to 100 ?g/g is observed at the Fe–FeO buffer in enstatite at high-temperature or in Al-bearing enstatite and diopside. The nitrogen solubility in forsterite at the Fe–FeO buffer also clearly increases with temperature and pressure; a maximum solubility of 10 ppm is obtained at 1300?°C/35 kbar. The strong enhancement of nitrogen solubility under reducing conditions may be related to nitrogen dissolution as either NH+4 or as N3? directly replacing O2?. Both mechanisms require some charge compensation, consistent with the enhancement of nitrogen solubility with Al content in enstatite. Our results demonstrate that the reduced lower part of the upper mantle has a large nitrogen storage capacity, and may store ˜20–50 times more nitrogen than the present atmosphere. Therefore, some 'missing' nitrogen may still be retained in the Earth's deep, reduced mantle. The calculated nitrogen partition coefficients between upper mantle minerals and silicate melt reveal that an oxidized mantle source would lose almost its entire nitrogen during partial melting, whereas under reducing conditions a considerable fraction of nitrogen could be retained in the residual solids. The high nitrogen solubility in upper mantle minerals at reducing conditions also suggests that solidification of the magma ocean on the early Earth should have retained significant nitrogen, yielding higher N/Ar and N/C ratios in the young upper mantle as compared to the young atmosphere.

Li, Yuan; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Shcheka, Svyatoslav; Keppler, Hans



Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.




PubMed Central

1. By partial acid hydrolysis a specific carbohydrate may be isolated from gum arabic (gum acacia). This carbohydrate is comparable in its precipitating activity for Type II (and Type III) antipneumococcus serum with the bacterial soluble specific substances themselves. 2. On hydrolysis this fraction yields galactose and two or more complex sugar acids, one of which appears to be a disaccharide add comparable with those isolated from the specific polysaccharides of the Type III pneumococcus and the Type A Friedländer bacillus. 3. The significance of these findings is discussed.

Heidelberger, Michael; Avery, Oswald T.; Goebel, Walther F.



Identification, cloning and characterization of sis7 and sis10 sugar-insensitive mutants of Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Background The levels of soluble sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, help regulate many plant metabolic, physiological and developmental processes. Genetic screens are helping identify some of the loci involved in plant sugar response and reveal extensive cross-talk between sugar and phytohormone response pathways. Results A forward genetic screen was performed to identify mutants with increased resistance to the inhibitory effects of high levels of exogenous sugars on early Arabidopsis seedling development. The positional cloning and characterization of two of these sugar insensitive (sis) mutants, both of which are also involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis or response, are reported. Plants carrying mutations in SIS7/NCED3/STO1 or SIS10/ABI3 are resistant to the inhibitory effects of high levels of exogenous Glc and Suc. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicate transcriptional upregulation of ABA biosynthesis genes by high concentrations of Glc in wild-type germinating seeds. Gene expression profiling revealed that a significant number of genes that are expressed at lower levels in germinating sis7-1/nced3-4/sto1-4 seeds than in wild-type seeds are implicated in auxin biosynthesis or transport, suggesting cross-talk between ABA and auxin response pathways. The degree of sugar insensitivity of different sis10/abi3 mutant seedlings shows a strong positive correlation with their level of ABA insensitivity during seed germination. Conclusion Mutations in the SIS7/NCED3/STO1 gene, which is primarily required for ABA biosynthesis under drought conditions, confer a sugar-insensitive phenotype, indicating that a constitutive role in ABA biosynthesis is not necessary to confer sugar insensitivity. Findings presented here clearly demonstrate that mutations in ABI3 can confer a sugar-insensitive phenotype and help explain previous, mixed reports on this topic by showing that ABA and sugar insensitivity exhibit a strong positive correlation in different abi3 mutants. Expression profiling revealed a potentially novel regulation of auxin metabolism and transport in an ABA deficient mutant, sis7-1/nced3-4/sto1-4.

Huang, Yadong; Li, Chun Yao; Biddle, Kelly D; Gibson, Susan I