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1

Changes in germination, growth and soluble sugar contents of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seeds under various abiotic stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various abiotic stresses on germination rate, growth and soluble sugar content in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. CSH 6 seed embryos and endosperm during early germination was investigated. Under stress conditions germination, water potential and tissue water content decreased markedly. Subsequently, this reduction resulted in marked decreases in fresh weight both in embryos and endosperm. Conversely, a

Prabhjot Kaur Gill; Arun Dev Sharma; Prabhjeet Singh; Sukhdev Singh Bhullar

2003-01-01

2

OSMOTIC STRESS-INDUCED CHANGES IN GERMINATION, GROWTH AND SOLUBLE SUGAR CONTENT OF SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH SEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The effect of osmotic stress on germination, growth and soluble sugar content in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. CSH 9 seeds and seedling components (endosperm and embryos) during early germination was inves- tigated. Under stress conditions germination decreased markedly, whereas the control at the same time reached its maximum germination (99%). A high percentage (67%) of ungerminated seeds from

Prabhjot Kaur Gill; Arun Dev Sharma; Prabhjeet Singh; Sukdev Singh Bhullar

2002-01-01

3

Soluble Sugar Contents, Germination, and Vigor of Soybean Seeds in Response to Drought Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of drought stress on seed germination and vigor of soybean in relation with soluble sugars. Three drought stress treatments, well-watered treatment (WW), gradual stress (GS) imposed prior to severe stress treatment, and sudden severe stress (SS), were imposed on soybean plants at beginning seed fill stage (R5) for 20–23 d. Drought

N. H. Samarah; R. E. Mullen; I. Anderson

2009-01-01

4

Ultraviolet-visible transmittance techniques for rapid analysis of sugar content and soluble solids content of fresh navel orange juices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar content (SC) and soluble solids content (SSC) are very important factors of navel orange internal quality and can be measured non-invasively by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. The feasibility and methods of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic techniques for rapid quantifying SC and SSC of navel orange fresh juices was investigated by its spectral transmittance. A total 55 juice samples were used to develop the calibration and prediction models. Different spectra correction algorithms (constant, multiplicative signal correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) were compared in our work. Three different kinds of mathematical spectra treatments (original, first derivative and second derivative) of spectra in the range of 200-800 nm and two kinds of reference standards were also investigated. Three kinds of models including partial least square regression (PLSR), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principle component regression (PCR) were evaluated for the determination of SC and SSC in navel orange juice. Calibration models based on the different spectral ranges were also compared. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of prediction set of samples. The correlation coefficients of calibration models for SC and SSC were 0.965 and 0.961, the correlation coefficients of prediction models for SC and SSC were 0.857 and 0.888, and the corresponding RMSEP were 0.562 and 0.492 respectively. The results show that ultraviolet-visible transmittance technique is a feasible method for non-invasive estimation of fruit juice SC and SSC.

Liu, Yande; Ouyang, Aiguo; Luo, Ji; Ying, Yibin

2005-11-01

5

Light exposure during storage preserving soluble sugar and l-ascorbic acid content of minimally processed romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.var. longifolia).  

PubMed

Minimally processed romaine lettuce (MPRL) leaves were stored in light condition (2500lux) or darkness at 4°C for 7d. Light exposure significantly delayed the degradation of chlorophyll and decrease of glucose, reducing sugar, and sucrose content, and thus preserved more total soluble solid (TSS) content at the end of storage in comparison with darkness. While, it did not influenced starch content that progressively decreased over time. The l-ascorbic acid (AA) accumulated in light-stored leaves, but deteriorated in dark-stored leaves during storage. The dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) increased in all leaves stored in both light and dark condition, of which light condition resulted in less DHA than darkness. In addition, the fresh weight loss and dry matter significantly increased and these increases were accelerated by light exposure. Conclusively, light exposure in applied intensity effectively alleviated MPRL quality deterioration by delaying the decreases of pigments, soluble sugar, TSS content and accumulating AA. PMID:23017423

Zhan, Lijuan; Hu, Jinqiang; Ai, Zhilu; Pang, Lingyun; Li, Yu; Zhu, Meiyun

2013-01-01

6

The effects of high CO 2 levels on anthocyanin composition, antioxidant activity and soluble sugar content of strawberries stored at low non-freezing temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins and sugars are involved in the responses of fruit to environmental stress. The effect of low temperature (0°C) in ‘Camarosa’ strawberries and also the influence of high CO2 levels (20% CO2 for 3days) on the water-soluble sugars and on the levels of individual anthocyanins were assessed, as well as their association with antioxidant activity, total phenolics and colour. Anthocyanins

Oscar G. Bodelón; María Blanch; María T. Sanchez-Ballesta; María I. Escribano; Carmen Merodio

2010-01-01

7

Soluble sugars--Metabolism, sensing and abiotic stress  

PubMed Central

Plants are autotrophic and photosynthetic organisms that both produce and consume sugars. Soluble sugars are highly sensitive to environmental stresses, which act on the supply of carbohydrates from source organs to sink ones. Sucrose and hexoses both play dual functions in gene regulation as exemplified by the upregulation of growth-related genes and downregulation of stress-related genes. Although coordinately regulated by sugars, these growth- and stress-related genes are upregulated or downregulated through HXK-dependent and/or HXK-independent pathways. Sucrose-non-fermenting-1- (SNF1-) related protein pathway, analogue to the protein kinase (SNF-) yeast-signalling pathway, seems also involved in sugar sensing and transduction in plants. However, even if plants share with yeast some elements involved in sugar sensing, several aspects of sugar perception are likely to be peculiar to higher plants. In this paper, we have reviewed recent evidences how plants sense and respond to environmental factors through sugar-sensing mechanisms. However, we think that forward and reverse genetic analysis in combination with expression profiling must be continued to uncover many signalling components, and a full biochemical characterization of the signalling complexes will be required to determine specificity and cross-talk in abiotic stress signalling pathways. PMID:19816104

Rosa, Mariana; Prado, Carolina; Podazza, Griselda; Interdonato, Roque; Gonzalez, Juan A; Hilal, Mirna

2009-01-01

8

Freezing tolerance and soluble sugar contents affected by water stress during cold-acclimation and de-acclimation in cabbage seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water stress on freezing tolerance during cold-acclimation and de-acclimation in cabbage seedlings were studied. The seedlings were subjected to water stress by withholding water. The treatment wilted the seedlings and decreased the water content of their shoots. Exposure of seedlings to low temperatures (5°C) for 7 days induced freezing tolerance. Water stress promoted the increase in freezing

Hidekazu Sasaki; Kazuo Ichimura; Kunihiko Okada; Masayuki Oda

1998-01-01

9

So Sweet: Predict Sugar Content in Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will predict how much sugar is in familiar cereals and then use Nutrition Fact Labels to find out. Which cereals are the healthiest? Which has the least sugar? Learners also discuss whether advertisers are likely to tout or hide the amount of sugar in their foods. Variations include trying this basic activity with different foods and with salty snacks. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

10

Sugar Monomer and Oligomer Solubility 179 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 105108, 2003  

E-print Network

Sugar Monomer and Oligomer Solubility 179 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 105­108, 2003 and Oligomer Solubility Data and Predictions for Application to Biomass Hydrolysis MATTHEW C. GRAY, ALVIN O, NH 03755, E-mail: charles.e.wyman@dartmouth.edu Abstract Oligomer solubility could potentially play

California at Riverside, University of

11

Solubility and Dissolution Enhancement of Etoricoxib by Solid Dispersion Technique Using Sugar Carriers  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to improve solubility and dissolution of the poorly aqueous soluble drug, etoricoxib by solvent evaporation technique using various sugar carriers, such as lactose, sucrose, and mannitol. Etoricoxib solid dispersions and their respective physical mixtures using lactose, sucrose, and mannitol were prepared in different ratios by solvent evaporation technique. The percent yield, drug content, saturation solubility, and in vitro dissolution of etoricoxib solid dispersions and physical mixtures were analyzed. Etoricoxib solid dispersions were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, and DSC analysis. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the possibility of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in various solid dispersions. The XRD and DSC studies indicated the transformation of crystalline etoricoxib (in pure drug) to amorphous etoricoxib (in solid dispersions) by the solid dispersion technology. Both the aqueous solubility and dissolution of etoricoxib were observed in all etoricoxib solid dispersions as compared with pure etoricoxib and their physical mixtures. The in vitro dissolution studies exhibited improved dissolution in case of solid dispersion using lactose than the solid dispersions using both sucrose and mannitol. The in vitro dissolution of etoricoxib from these solid dispersions followed Hixson-Crowell model. PMID:22389861

Das, Abhisekh; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Panda, Satyabrata

2011-01-01

12

Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release  

E-print Network

and guaiacyl units (S/G ratio) on recal- citrance to sugar release, because these two traits were previously identified as dominant factors (6). Although it is generally per- ceived that low lignin contents increase

California at Riverside, University of

13

Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release  

PubMed Central

The primary obstacle to producing renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass is a plant's recalcitrance to releasing sugars bound in the cell wall. From a sample set of wood cores representing 1,100 individual undomesticated Populus trichocarpa trees, 47 extreme phenotypes were selected across measured lignin content and ratio of syringyl and guaiacyl units (S/G ratio). This subset was tested for total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis alone as well as through combined hot-water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using a high-throughput screening method. The total amount of glucan and xylan released varied widely among samples, with total sugar yields of up to 92% of the theoretical maximum. A strong negative correlation between sugar release and lignin content was only found for pretreated samples with an S/G ratio < 2.0. For higher S/G ratios, sugar release was generally higher, and the negative influence of lignin was less pronounced. When examined separately, only glucose release was correlated with lignin content and S/G ratio in this manner, whereas xylose release depended on the S/G ratio alone. For enzymatic hydrolysis without pretreatment, sugar release increased significantly with decreasing lignin content below 20%, irrespective of the S/G ratio. Furthermore, certain samples featuring average lignin content and S/G ratios exhibited exceptional sugar release. These facts suggest that factors beyond lignin and S/G ratio influence recalcitrance to sugar release and point to a critical need for deeper understanding of cell-wall structure before plants can be rationally engineered for reduced recalcitrance and efficient biofuels production. PMID:21444820

Studer, Michael H.; DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Davis, Mark F.; Sykes, Robert W.; Davison, Brian; Keller, Martin; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Wyman, Charles E.

2011-01-01

14

Soluble Sugars and Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes Related to Cold Acclimation of Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grafted on Different Rootstocks  

PubMed Central

The bark tissues were collected from 4-year-old sweet cherry trees cvs. 0900 Ziraat and Lambert grafted on Gisela 5 and Mazzard rootstocks in cold-acclimated (CA) and nonacclimated (NA) stages. Bark tissues subjected to 4°C and ?5°C injured to a limited extent in both stages. However, more than 50% injury occurred by temperatures equal to or colder than ?15°C only in NA period. Total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars, and sucrose contents were higher in CA than those in NA stages in all samples. The activities of acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and sucrose synthase (SS) (EC 2.4.2.13) enzymes were higher in NA stage than those in CA stage. Considering the rootstocks, reducing sugars were higher in both cultivars grafted on Gisela 5 whereas sucrose contents were higher in both cultivars grafted on Mazzard. However, the enzyme activities of both cultivars were higher on Mazzard rootstock than on Gisela 5. In conclusion, cold hardiness of sweet cherry graft combinations was suggested by increasing their TSS, reducing sugars, and sucrose contents significantly in the CA stage. Moreover, acid invertase and SS are down regulated during cold acclimation. Indeed the results suggested that Mazzard is more cold-hardy rootstock than Gisela 5. PMID:22629228

Turhan, Ece; Ergin, Sergul

2012-01-01

15

The Complement of Soluble Sugars in the Saccharum Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of sugarcane as a biofactory and source of renewable biomass is being investigated increasingly due to its vigorous\\u000a growth and ability to fix a large amount of carbon dioxide compared to other crops. The high biomass resulting from sugarcane\\u000a production (up to 80 t\\/ha) makes it a candidate for genetic manipulation to increase the production of other sugars found

Donna Glassop; Louise P. Ryan; Graham D. Bonnett; Anne L. Rae

2010-01-01

16

Soluble Sugar Concentrations Associated with Tuber and Winter Bud Sprouting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aquatic weeds rely on vegetative structures for surviv- al and propagation, rather than seeds. American pondweed ( Potamogeton nodosus Poiret) winter buds , and hydrilla ( Hydril- la verticillata (L.f.) Royle, monoecious and dioecious types) tubers were allowed to sprout in water in the dark. At two-to- three day intervals individual propagules and dependent shoots were analyzed for soluble

D. F. SPENCER; F. J. RYAN; L. AUNG; G. G. KSANDER

2001-01-01

17

EFFECT OF VARIOUS ABIOTIC STRESSES ON THE GROWTH, SOLUBLE SUGARS AND WATER RELATIONS OF SORGHUM SEEDLINGS GROWN IN LIGHT AND DARKNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The effect of NaCl, PEG, heat and cold treatments on growth, water content, FW, DW and soluble sugar levels in 3 day old seedlings of Sorghum bicolor CSH-6 were studied. Under these stress conditions, RWC and water potential of seedlings decreased dramatically. Subsequently this reduction resulted in the markable decrease in FW of different parts of stress imposed seedlings.

Prabhjot Kaur Gill; Arun Dev Sharma; Prabhjeet Singh; Sukdev Singh Bhullar

2001-01-01

18

Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.  

PubMed

Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats. PMID:17354417

Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

2005-01-01

19

Involvement of soluble sugars in reactive oxygen species balance and responses to oxidative stress in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble sugars, especially sucrose, glucose, and fruc- tose, play an obviously central role in plant structure and metabolism at the cellular and whole-organism levels. They are involved in the responses to a number of stresses, and they act as nutrient and metabolite signalling molecules that activate specific or hormone- crosstalk transduction pathways, thus resulting in important modifications of gene expression

Ivan Couee; Cecile Sulmon; Gwenola Gouesbet; Abdelhak El Amrani

2006-01-01

20

Nondestructive Measurement of Sugar Content in Apples by Millimeter-Wave Reflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A millimeter-wave reflectometer has been developed for the nondestructive measurement of the sugar content in apples. The intensity of the reflected wave from fruit was confirmed to depend on the sugar content and temperature by performing reflectometry with a vector network analyzer of aqueous sucrose solutions. Moreover, the developed reflectometer was applied to the sugar content measurement of apples. We obtained a strong, almost linear relationship between the intensity of the reflected wave and the sugar content in apples.

Oda, Makoto; Mase, Atsushi; Uchino, Kiichiro

2012-02-01

21

Study on fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt using Vis/NIR spectroscopy techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to measuring the sugar content of yogurt rapidly, a fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt using Vis/NIR-spectroscopy techniques was established. 25 samples selected separately from five different brands of yogurt were measured by Vis/NIR-spectroscopy. The sugar content of yogurt on positions scanned by spectrum were measured by a sugar content meter. The mathematical model between sugar content and Vis/NIR spectral measurements was established and developed based on partial least squares (PLS). The correlation coefficient of sugar content based on PLS model is more than 0.894, and standard error of calibration (SEC) is 0.356, standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.389. Through predicting the sugar content quantitatively of 35 samples of yogurt from 5 different brands, the correlation coefficient between predictive value and measured value of those samples is more than 0.934. The results show the good to excellent prediction performance. The Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique had significantly greater accuracy for determining the sugar content. It was concluded that the Vis/NIRS measurement technique seems reliable to assess the fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt, and a new method for the measurement of sugar content of yogurt was established.

He, Yong; Feng, Shuijuan; Wu, Di; Li, Xiaoli

2006-09-01

22

PtrBAM1, a ?-amylase-coding gene of Poncirus trifoliata, is a CBF regulon member with function in cold tolerance by modulating soluble sugar levels.  

PubMed

?-Amylase (BAM) catalyses starch breakdown to generate maltose, which can be incorporated into sugar metabolism. However, the role of BAM genes in cold tolerance is less characterized. In this study, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a chloroplast-localizing BAM-encoding gene PtrBAM1 from Poncirus trifoliata. PtrBAM1 was induced by cold, dehydration and salt, but repressed by maltose. Overexpression of PtrBAM1 in tobacco (Nicotiana nudicaulis) increased BAM activity, promoted starch degradation and enhanced the contents of maltose and soluble sugars, whereas opposite changes were observed when PtrBAM1 homolog in lemon (Citrus lemon) was knocked down. The tobacco overexpressing lines exhibited enhanced tolerance to cold at chilling or freezing temperatures. Under cold stress, higher BAM activity and greater accumulation of maltose and soluble sugars were observed in the overexpressing lines when compared with the wild-type or empty vector transformants. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that PtrBAM1 promoter contained a CBF-recognizing element. Yeast one-hybrid assay demonstrated that PtrCBF could interact with the promoter fragment containing the element. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PtrBAM1 is a member of CBF regulon and plays an important role in cold tolerance by modulating the levels of soluble sugars acting as osmolytes or antioxidants. PMID:24905016

Peng, Ting; Zhu, Xiaofang; Duan, Nian; Liu, Ji-Hong

2014-12-01

23

Soluble Sugars as the Carbohydrate Reserve for CAM in Pineapple Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

Neutral ethanol-soluble sugar pools serve as carbohydrate reserves for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) leaves. Levels of neutral soluble sugars and glucans fluctuated reciprocally with concentrations of malic acid. Hexose loss from neutral soluble-sugar pools was sufficient to account for malic acid accumulation with about 95% of the required hexose accounted for by turnover of fructose and glucose pools. Hexose loss from starch or starch plus lower molecular weight glucan pools was insufficient to account for nocturnal accumulation of malic acid. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of pyrophosphate:6-phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) at 15°C was about 16 times higher than the mean maximum rate of glycolysis that occurred to support malic acid accumulation in pineapple leaves at night and 12 times higher than the mean maximum rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of ATP-PFK at 15°C was about 70% of the activity required to account for the mean maximal rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools if turnover were completely via glycolysis, and marginally sufficient to account for mean maximal rates of acidification. Therefore, at low night temperatures conducive to CAM and under subsaturating substrate concentrations, PPi-PFK activity, but not ATP-PFK activity, would be sufficient to support the rate of glycolytic carbohydrate processing required for acid accumulation. These data for pineapple establish that there are at least two types of CAM plants with respect to the nature of the carbohydrate reserve utilized to support nighttime CO2 accumulation. The data further indicate that the glycolytic carbohydrate processing that supports acidification proceeds in different subcellular compartments in plants utilizing different carbohydrate reserves. PMID:16666775

Carnal, Nancy Wieland; Black, Clanton C.

1989-01-01

24

Solubility behavior of cyanophycin depending on lysine content.  

PubMed

Study of the synthesis of cyanophycin (CGP) in recombinant organisms focused for a long time mostly on the insoluble form of CGP, due to its easy purification and its putative use as a precursor for biodegradable chemicals. Recently, another form of CGP, which, in contrast to the insoluble form, was soluble at neutral pH, became interesting due to its high lysine content, which was also assumed to be the reason for the solubility of the polymer. In this study, we demonstrate that lysine incorporated into insoluble CGP affected the solubility of the polymer in relation to its lysine content. Insoluble CGP can be separated along a temperature gradient of 90°C to 30°C, where CGP showed an increasing lysine content corresponding to a decreasing temperature needed for solubilization. CGP with less than 3 to 4 mol% lysine did not become soluble even at 90°C, while CGP with 31 mol% lysine was soluble at 30°C. In lysine fractions at higher than 31 mol%, CGP was soluble. The temperature separation will be suitable for improving the downstream processing of CGP synthesized in large-scale fermentations, including faster and more efficient purification of CGP, as well as enrichment and separation of dipeptides and CGP with specific amino acid compositions. PMID:24271185

Wiefel, Lars; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2014-02-01

25

Solubility Behavior of Cyanophycin Depending on Lysine Content  

PubMed Central

Study of the synthesis of cyanophycin (CGP) in recombinant organisms focused for a long time mostly on the insoluble form of CGP, due to its easy purification and its putative use as a precursor for biodegradable chemicals. Recently, another form of CGP, which, in contrast to the insoluble form, was soluble at neutral pH, became interesting due to its high lysine content, which was also assumed to be the reason for the solubility of the polymer. In this study, we demonstrate that lysine incorporated into insoluble CGP affected the solubility of the polymer in relation to its lysine content. Insoluble CGP can be separated along a temperature gradient of 90°C to 30°C, where CGP showed an increasing lysine content corresponding to a decreasing temperature needed for solubilization. CGP with less than 3 to 4 mol% lysine did not become soluble even at 90°C, while CGP with 31 mol% lysine was soluble at 30°C. In lysine fractions at higher than 31 mol%, CGP was soluble. The temperature separation will be suitable for improving the downstream processing of CGP synthesized in large-scale fermentations, including faster and more efficient purification of CGP, as well as enrichment and separation of dipeptides and CGP with specific amino acid compositions. PMID:24271185

Wiefel, Lars

2014-01-01

26

Content of starch and sugars and in vitro digestion of starch by alpha-amylase in five minor millets.  

PubMed

Five varieties of minor millets were studied for their amylose, soluble amylose, amylopectin, soluble amylopectin, reducing sugar, total sugar and starch contents. Pure starch was isolated from each variety and the enzymic degradation of starch by porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase were examined with and without gelatinisation. Gelatinised sample of Echinochloa frumentacea (var. K2) showed minimal hydrolysis and gelatinised sample of Panicum miliaceum (var. CO3) showed maximum hydrolysis of starch by porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase. Gelatinised starch was highly susceptible to enzymic digestion when compared to ungelatinised starch. The extent of starch degradation varied from 71 to 85 percent in gelatinised samples and starch degradation in ungelatinised sample varied from 10 to 18 percent. PMID:8882370

Krishnakumari, S; Thayumanavan, B

1995-12-01

27

Accumulation of pinitol and other soluble sugars in water?stressed phyllodes of tropical Acacia auriculiformis in northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water stress on leaf sugars and photosynthesis was examined in clones of Acacia auriculiformis in Darwin, northern Australia. Compared with the wet season or irrigated or watered?site plants, phyllodes of plants grown in the dry season on unirrigated or water?stressed sites had significantly higher contents of pinitol and total sugars. The pinitol content constituted 50% of the

K. C. Woo

2008-01-01

28

The relationship between growth and soluble sugar concentration of Aloe vera plants grown under three levels of irradiance  

SciTech Connect

The CAM plant Aloe vera was vegetatively propagated and grown under three irradiances: full sun, partial and deep shade (30% and 10% of ambient light, respectively) to determine the effect on growth, biomass allocation, and sugar concentration. After one year, the plants were harvested to determine final dry weight and the sugar concentration of the leaf mucilaginous gel. Plants grown under full sun produced twice the total dry weight of those grown under partial shade, with the difference equally partitioned between the shoot and root. Plants grown under full sun also produced thicker leaves, and more numerous and large auxiliary shoots. The dry weight of plants grown under deep shade was 8.6% that of plants grown under full sun, which was directly proportional to the irradiance received. Partial shade increased the number and length of leaves produced on the primary shoot, but the allocation of carbon to roots was the lowest of all treatments. Partial shade reduced the total sugar concentration of the leaf gel matrix to 34% that of plants under full sun, due to reductions in all sugars measured. Glucose was the most abundant soluble sugar, with its relative contribution to the total pool increasing under shade. In summary, the proportional effects of partial shading were greater on soluble sugar concentrations than on the total plant biomass produced.

Paez, A.; Gebre, G.M.; Tschaplinski, T.J. (Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela))

1994-06-01

29

Characterization of shortday onion cultivars of 3 pungency levels with flavor precursor, free amino acid, sulfur, and sugar contents.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to characterize shortday onions of 3 pungency levels with regard to the composition of flavor related compounds. A total of 9 onion breeding lines/cultivars were selected, per each of low, medium, and high pungency level, with pyruvic acid contents of 1.9 to 2.8, 4.8 to 5.4, and 7.2 to 8.3 micromoles/mL, respectively. The contents of flavor precursors (S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide [1-PeCSO] and S-methyl-L-cysteine-sulfoxide [MCSO]), free amino acids, free sugars, soluble solids (SSC), and total sulfur (S) in onion bulbs were measured. The flavor precursor contents ranged from 0.03 to 0.16 mg/g fresh weight (FW) for MCSO, 0.07 to 0.65 mg for 1-PeCSO, and 0.12 to 0.77 mg in total, and precursor contents increased with the pungency levels. Onions of different pungency levels did not differ in the contents of individual or total free amino acids, and the most abundant amino acids were glutamine and arginine. The total sugar contents ranged from 50 to 75 mg/g FW, and total S contents (3.5 to 5.1 mg/g dry weight) were not correlated with the pungency levels. However, pungency levels were correlated inversely with bulb weight and positively with SSC, presumably by the effect of dilution. This study indicates that onion pungency is primarily determined by the content of flavor precursor compounds and not by total S, total sugars, or individual/total free amino acids in shortday bulbs. PMID:19723185

Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Jifon, John; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

2009-08-01

30

Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

1975-01-01

31

SUGAR CONTENT OF THE NECTARY EXUDATE EPIPACTIS ATROPURPUREA RAFIN  

E-print Network

in #12;orchid nectars has been attempted by several authors mainly by means of paper chromatography of capillary gas chromatography. Application of capillary columns allowed the analysis of components of raffinose was also found. Key-Words : Epipactis - Gas chromatography - Nectaries - Orchids - Sugars

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

Influence of Salinity on Chlorophyll, Leaf Water Potential, Total Soluble Sugars, and Mineral Nutrients in Two Young Olive Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of salinity (NaCl) on chlorophyll, leaf water potential, total soluble sugars, and mineral nutrients in two young Iranian commercial olive cultivars (‘Zard’ and ‘Roghani’) was studied. One-year-old trees of these cultivars were planted in 10-L plastic pots containing equal ratio of sand-perlite mixture (1:1). Sodium chloride at concentrations of 0, 40, 80, 120, or 160 mM plus Hoagland's

A. Mousavi; H. Lessani; M. Babalar; A. R. Talaei; E. Fallahi

2008-01-01

33

Deconstruction of lignocellulose into soluble sugars by native and designer cellulosomes.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic biomass, the most abundant polymer on Earth, is typically composed of three major constituents: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The crystallinity of cellulose, hydrophobicity of lignin, and encapsulation of cellulose by the lignin-hemicellulose matrix are three major factors that contribute to the observed recalcitrance of lignocellulose. By means of designer cellulosome technology, we can overcome the recalcitrant properties of lignocellulosic substrates and thus increase the level of native enzymatic degradation. In this context, we have integrated six dockerin-bearing cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, into a chimeric scaffoldin engineered to bear a cellulose-binding module and the appropriate matching cohesin modules. The resultant hexavalent designer cellulosome represents the most elaborate artificial enzyme composite yet constructed, and the fully functional complex achieved enhanced levels (up to 1.6-fold) of degradation of untreated wheat straw compared to those of the wild-type free enzymes. The action of these designer cellulosomes on wheat straw was 33 to 42% as efficient as the natural cellulosomes of Clostridium thermocellum. In contrast, the reduction of substrate complexity by chemical or biological pretreatment of the substrate removed the advantage of the designer cellulosomes, as the free enzymes displayed higher levels of activity, indicating that enzyme proximity between these selected enzymes was less significant on pretreated substrates. Pretreatment of the substrate caused an increase in activity for all the systems, and the native cellulosome completely converted the substrate into soluble saccharides. IMPORTANCE Cellulosic biomass is a potential alternative resource which could satisfy future demands of transportation fuel. However, overcoming the natural lignocellulose recalcitrance remains challenging. Current research and development efforts have concentrated on the efficient cellulose-degrading strategies of cellulosome-producing anaerobic bacteria. Cellulosomes are multienzyme complexes capable of converting the plant cell wall polysaccharides into soluble sugar products en route to biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels. Using a designer cellulosome approach, we have constructed the largest form of homogeneous artificial cellulosomes reported to date, which bear a total of six different cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium Thermobifida fusca. These designer cellulosomes were comparable in size to natural cellulosomes and displayed enhanced synergistic activities compared to their free wild-type enzyme counterparts. Future efforts should be invested to improve these processes to approach or surpass the efficiency of natural cellulosomes for cost-effective production of biofuels. PMID:23232718

Moraïs, Sarah; Morag, Ely; Barak, Yoav; Goldman, Dan; Hadar, Yitzhak; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Wilson, David B; Bayer, Edward A

2012-01-01

34

Effects of ascorbic acid and sugars on solubility, thermal, and mechanical properties of egg white protein gels.  

PubMed

The effects of reducing sugars (fructose, glucose, ribose, and arabinose), sucrose, and ascorbic acid were studied on thermo-mechanical properties and crosslinking of egg white proteins (EWP) through Maillard reaction. Sugars (0%, 1%, 5%, and 10%) and ascorbic acid (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 2.5%) were added to EWP solutions. Thermal denaturation and crosslinking of EWP were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Mechanical properties (failure strength, failure strain and Young's modulus) of modified and unmodified EWP gels were evaluated by texture analyzer. Ascorbic acid decreased thermal denaturation temperature of EWP, but the reducing sugars increased the denaturation temperature. DSC thermograms of EWP showed that ascorbic acid exhibited an exothermic transition (?110 °C) which was attributed to Maillard crosslinking of the protein. The reduction in pH (from 7.21 to ?6) and protein solubility of egg white protein gel (from ?70% to ?10%) provides further evidence of the formation of Maillard cross-linking. Reactive sugars (ribose and arabinose) increased the mechanical properties of EWP gels, whereas ascorbic acid decreased the mechanical properties. Generally, the effect of ascorbic acid was more pronounced than that of various reducing sugars on the thermal and mechanical properties of egg white proteins. PMID:24099933

Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Tabatabaei, Ramin H; Pashania, Bita; Rajabi, Hadiseh Z; Karim, A A

2013-11-01

35

Comparative material balances around pretreatment technologies for the conversion of switchgrass to soluble sugars  

E-print Network

for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), dilute sulfuric acid (DA), lime, liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). For each world-wide production is derived from starch-based (e.g. corn) or sugar-based materials (e.g. sugar cane

California at Riverside, University of

36

Influence of processing on the content of sugars in green Arabica coffee beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analyses of low molecular sugars in green coffees (Coffea arabica L. var. Acaià) that were processed in parallel either by the traditional wet or the traditional dry method, revealed a close correlation between the kind of post-harvest treatment and the contents of fructose and glucose. While in washed coffee beans (wet processing) only low amounts of these both hexoses

Sven Knopp; Gerhard Bytof; Dirk Selmar

2006-01-01

37

Impact of genes and proportional contribution of parental genotypes to inheritance of root yield and sugar content in diploid hybrids of sugar beet.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the impact of genes and proportional contribution of parental genotypes on the inheritance of root yield and sugar content in diploid hybrids of sugar beet. The survey included two diploid male-sterile monogerm lines and three single (SC) male-sterile hybrids as maternal components, while three multigerm diploids were used as pollinators. The partitioning of genotypic variance into additive and dominant components was performed by half sibling (HS) and full sibling (FS) covariance. The proportional contribution of individual components of crossbreeding (lines, testers, and interactions) was exhibited in the expression of certain characteristics of F1 generation. Genotypic variance components showed a significant effect of nonadditive gene action (dominance) in the inheritance of root yield and sugar content, while the additive effect of genes was less significant. Maternal components had a greater proportional contribution to root yield, while lines, pollinators, and their interactions had an equal contribution to sugar content. PMID:24600330

Stancic, Ivica; Zivic, Jelica; Petrovic, Sasa; Knezevic, Desimir

2014-01-01

38

Apparatus automatically measures soluble residue content of volatile solvents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solvent Purity Meter /SPM/ automatically measures the soluble residue in volatile solvents used in cleaning or extraction of oils, greases, and other nonvolatile materials. The SPM gives instantaneous and continuous readout of soluble contaminant residues in concentrations as low as one part per million of solution.

Oswalt, F. W.

1969-01-01

39

Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.  

PubMed

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

2015-01-15

40

SNPs in Genes Functional in Starch-Sugar Interconversion Associate with Natural Variation of Tuber Starch and Sugar Content of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).  

PubMed

Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown. PMID:25081979

Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

2014-01-01

41

SNPs in Genes Functional in Starch-Sugar Interconversion Associate with Natural Variation of Tuber Starch and Sugar Content of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)  

PubMed Central

Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown. PMID:25081979

Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schonhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

2014-01-01

42

Relationship between water soluble carbohydrate content, aphid endosymbionts and clonal performance of Sitobion avenae on cocksfoot cultivars.  

PubMed

Aphids feed on plant phloem sap, rich in sugars but poor in essential amino acids. However, sugars cause osmotic regulation problems for aphids, which they overcome by hydrolysing the sugars in their gut and polymerising the hydrolysis products into oligosaccharides, excreted with honeydew. Aphids harbour primary bacterial endosymbionts, which supply them with essential amino acids necessary for survival. They also harbour secondary (facultative) endosymbionts (sfS), some of which have a positive impact on life history traits, although it is not yet known whether they also play a role in providing effective tolerance to differing levels of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs). We investigated the relationship between WSC content of cocksfoot cultivars and performance of clones of the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae F. We evaluated how clone genotype and their sfS modulate performance on these different cultivars. We therefore examined the performance of genetically defined clones of S. avenae, collected from different host plants, harbouring different sfS. The performance was tested on 10 Dactylis glomerata L. cultivars with varying WSC content. D. glomerata is known as a wild host plant for S. avenae and is also commercially planted. We found that high WSCs levels are responsible for the resistance of D. glomerata cultivars to specific S. avenae clones. The minimum level of WSCs conferring resistance to D. glomerata cultivars was 1.7% dw. Cultivars with a WSC content of 2.2% or higher were resistant to S. avenae and did not allow reproduction. Our results further indicate that sfS modulate to some extend host plant cultivar adaptation in S. avenae. This is the first study revealing the importance of WSCs for aphid performance. Cocksfoot cultivars with a high content of WSCs might be therefore considered for aphid control or used for resistance breeding in this and other grass species, including cereals. PMID:23342134

Alkhedir, Hussein; Karlovsky, Petr; Vidal, Stefan

2013-01-01

43

Effects of deforestation on contents and distribution of amino sugars within particle-size fractions of mountain soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying amino sugar pools in soil may advance our knowledge about microbially derived substances. Our objective was to study the effects of deforestation followed by pasture establishment on amino sugar contents and patterns in mountain soils of the Sui Checti Valley in the Alay Range, Kyrgyzia. Soil A horizons (0-10 cm) under pasture and forest were fractionated into clay, silt,

María-Belén Turrión; Bruno Glaser; Wolfgang Zech

2002-01-01

44

Accumulation of soluble sugars in peel at high temperature leads to stay-green ripe banana fruit.  

PubMed

Bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA group) fail to develop a yellow peel and stay green when ripening at temperatures >24 degrees C. The identification of the mechanisms leading to the development of stay-green ripe bananas has practical value and is helpful in revealing pathways involved in the regulation of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation. In the present study, the Chl degradation pathway was characterized and the progress of ripening and senescence was assessed in banana peel at 30 degrees C versus 20 degrees C, by monitoring relevant gene expression and ripening and senescence parameters. A marked reduction in the expression levels of the genes for Chl b reductase, SGR (Stay-green protein), and pheophorbide a oxygenase was detected for the fruit ripening at 30 degrees C, when compared with fruit at 20 degrees C, indicating that Chl degradation was repressed at 30 degrees C at various steps along the Chl catabolic pathway. The repressed Chl degradation was not due to delayed ripening and senescence, since the fruit at 30 degrees C displayed faster onset of various ripening and senescence symptoms, suggesting that the stay-green ripe bananas are of similar phenotype to type C stay-green mutants. Faster accumulation of high levels of fructose and glucose in the peel at 30 degrees C prompted investigation of the roles of soluble sugars in Chl degradation. In vitro incubation of detached pieces of banana peel showed that the pieces of peel stayed green when incubated with 150 mM glucose or fructose, but turned completely yellow in the absence of sugars or with 150 mM mannitol, at either 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C. The results suggest that accumulation of sugars in the peel induced by a temperature of 30 degrees C may be a major factor regulating Chl degradation independently of fruit senescence. PMID:19700495

Yang, Xiaotang; Pang, Xuequn; Xu, Lanying; Fang, Ruiqiu; Huang, Xuemei; Guan, Peijian; Lu, Wangjin; Zhang, Zhaoqi

2009-01-01

45

Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g?2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:25308651

Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

2015-03-15

46

Temperature-dependent impact of 24-epibrassinolide on the fatty acid composition and sugar content in winter oilseed rape callus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (BR27) on fatty acids composition and sugar content in winter oilseed rape callus cultured at 20 and 5°C. Studies have showed that\\u000a BR27 action is highly temperature-dependent. The increase in sugar content (sucrose, glucose and fructose) by BR27 in concentration 100 nM was observed only in calli cultured at

Anna Janeczko; Katarzyna Hura; Andrzej Skoczowski; Iwona Idzik; Jolanta Biesaga-Ko?cielniak; El?bieta Niemczyk

2009-01-01

47

The influence of storage and conditioning on the content of reducing sugars in potatoes grown in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The content of reducing sugars decreases rapidly in the last part of the growing season. It is shown that one week's storage\\u000a (7 C) at this stage of the tubers' development induces a remarkable increase in the reducing sugar content.\\u000a \\u000a Storage experiments during the period December–March show first-order interactions, viz. variety storage temperature, and\\u000a time of sampling during the storage

K. Rønsen; S. Frogner

1969-01-01

48

Changes in soluble sugars in relation to desiccation tolerance and effects of dehydration on freezing characteristics of Acer platanoides and Acer pseudoplatanus seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of soluble sugars in desiccation tolerance was investigated in seeds of two species from the genus Acer: Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) — tolerant and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) — intolerant to dehydration. During two years of observations it was found that seeds of Norway maple acquire desiccation\\u000a tolerance at the end of August i.e. about 125 days

S. Pukacka; P. M. Pukacki

1997-01-01

49

A holistic high-throughput screening framework for biofuel feedstock assessment that characterises variations in soluble sugars and cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor  

PubMed Central

Background A major hindrance to the development of high yielding biofuel feedstocks is the ability to rapidly assess large populations for fermentable sugar yields. Whilst recent advances have outlined methods for the rapid assessment of biomass saccharification efficiency, none take into account the total biomass, or the soluble sugar fraction of the plant. Here we present a holistic high-throughput methodology for assessing sweet Sorghum bicolor feedstocks at 10 days post-anthesis for total fermentable sugar yields including stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall saccharification efficiency. Results A mathematical method for assessing whole S. bicolor stalks using the fourth internode from the base of the plant proved to be an effective high-throughput strategy for assessing stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall composition and allowed calculation of total stalk fermentable sugars. A high-throughput method for measuring soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose using partial least squares (PLS) modelling of juice Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be highly accurate with each sugar attaining a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.99 with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 11.93, 5.52, and 3.23 mM for sucrose, glucose, and fructose, respectively, which constitutes an error of <4% in each case. The sugar PLS model correlated well with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and brix measures. Similarly, a high-throughput method for predicting enzymatic cell wall digestibility using PLS modelling of FTIR spectra obtained from S. bicolor bagasse was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be accurate with an R 2 of 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.64 ?g.mgDW-1.h-1. Conclusions This methodology has been demonstrated as an efficient and effective way to screen large biofuel feedstock populations for biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall digestibility simultaneously allowing a total fermentable yield calculation. It unifies and simplifies previous screening methodologies to produce a holistic assessment of biofuel feedstock potential. PMID:24365407

2013-01-01

50

Seasonal Variations in Sugar Contents and Microbial Community Behavior in a Ryegrass Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil is a complex mixture of numerous inorganic and organic constituents that vary in size, shape, chemical constitution and reactivity, and hosts numerous organisms. Total sugars have been estimated to constitute 10% (average) of soil organic matter, occurring in living and decaying organisms, as well as in extracellular materials. The role of sugars in soils is attributed to their influence on soil structure, chemical processes, plant nutrition and microbial activity. The sources of sugars in soils are: a) plants (the primary source); b) animals (the minor source), and c) microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, algae), which decompose the primary plant and animal material, and synthesize the major part of soil carbohydrates. A particular soil sample provides a momentary glimpse into a dynamic system (continuous addition, degradation and synthesis) that might, except for seasonal variations, be in equilibrium. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the major sugars in a grass soil and characterize the relationship between their concentration variations and soil microbial behavior over an annual cycle. Soil samples were collected monthly in a ryegrass field close to Corvallis, Oregon, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as total silylated extracts for sugar composition, and by gas chromatography-flame ionization as fatty acid methyl esters derived from phospholipids and neutral lipids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively). The preliminary results of the first six-month experiment (from January to June, 2004) show that as the ambient temperatures increase the sugar concentrations (glucose, fructose, sucrose and trehalose) also tend to increase in the soil. A decrease is observed in March when precipitation was low during the whole month. The same trend is observed for the active biomass of fungi and bacteria estimated by their fatty acids derived from phospholipids. Fatty acids 18:2? 6c and 18:3? 6c are used as fungal biomarkers. Branched (15:0i, 15:0a, 16:0i) and monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1? 7c) are used as biomarkers for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. The contents of 18:2? 6c and 18:3? 6c from neutral lipids, which are used as an index of fungal storage, have a significant increase in June, similarly to the disaccharide trehalose. This increase in fungal lipid storage may have occurred in response to the large input of detrital carbon into the soil from cutting the grass early in that month.

Medeiros, P. M.; Fernandes, M. F.; Dick, R. P.; Simoneit, B. R.

2004-12-01

51

Survey on some contaminants in white sugar from Serbian sugar beet refineries.  

PubMed

Refined white sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The main quality criteria used to indicate the content of these impurities are ash and colour. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the quality according to the EU sugar market regime and the content of iron, copper and zinc in white sugar samples from Serbian sugar beet refineries during the 2003 campaign. A total of 166 samples representative of the production of four Serbian sugar refineries were investigated. After wet digestion the concentrations of iron, copper and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean content of iron, copper and zinc in sugar samples was 0.37 mg/kg, 0.06 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg and was significantly different from the average content 0.28 mg/kg, 0.09 mg/kg and 0.07 mg/kg respectively in the analysed European sugar factories. The data were also compared with literature values for commercial white sugar samples from European sugar beet refineries and European legislation set for copper and zinc. Furthermore, the quality of produced sugar was evaluated according to the standards of the European Union indicating that 76% of all investigated Serbian samples belonged to the second sugar quality category. PMID:16393812

Skrbi?, Biljana; Gyura, Julianna

2006-01-01

52

Effect of Cooking on the Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Content of Some New Zealand Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxalates occur as end products of metabolism in a number of plant tissues; some leafy plants and some root crops contain markedly high levels of soluble and insoluble oxalates. When consumed these oxalates can bind calcium and other minerals. Measurement of oxalate content in vegetables commonly consumed in New Zealand shows that cooking reduces the oxalate content of the food

G. P. Savage; L. Vanhanen; S. M. Mason; A. B. Ross

2000-01-01

53

Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigate what makes something soluble by exploring the effects of intermolecular attractions and what properties are necessary in a solution to overcome them. Interactive models simulate the process of dissolution, allowing you to experiment with how external factors, such as heat, can affect a substance's solubility.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

54

Deconstruction of Lignocellulose into Soluble Sugars by Native and Designer Cellulosomes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Lignocellulosic biomass, the most abundant polymer on Earth, is typically composed of three major constituents: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The crystallinity of cellulose, hydrophobicity of lignin, and encapsulation of cellulose by the lignin-hemicellulose matrix are three major factors that contribute to the observed recalcitrance of lignocellulose. By means of designer cellulosome technology, we can overcome the recalcitrant properties of lignocellulosic substrates and thus increase the level of native enzymatic degradation. In this context, we have integrated six dockerin-bearing cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, into a chimeric scaffoldin engineered to bear a cellulose-binding module and the appropriate matching cohesin modules. The resultant hexavalent designer cellulosome represents the most elaborate artificial enzyme composite yet constructed, and the fully functional complex achieved enhanced levels (up to 1.6-fold) of degradation of untreated wheat straw compared to those of the wild-type free enzymes. The action of these designer cellulosomes on wheat straw was 33 to 42% as efficient as the natural cellulosomes of Clostridium thermocellum. In contrast, the reduction of substrate complexity by chemical or biological pretreatment of the substrate removed the advantage of the designer cellulosomes, as the free enzymes displayed higher levels of activity, indicating that enzyme proximity between these selected enzymes was less significant on pretreated substrates. Pretreatment of the substrate caused an increase in activity for all the systems, and the native cellulosome completely converted the substrate into soluble saccharides. PMID:23232718

Morais, Sarah; Morag, Ely; Barak, Yoav; Goldman, Dan; Hadar, Yitzhak; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Wilson, David B.; Bayer, Edward A.

2012-01-01

55

Rapid analysis of sugar content of intact orange fruit using ultraviolet and visible transmittance techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar content (SC) is very important factors of navel orange internal quality and can be measured non-destructive by visible and near infrared spectroscopy. The feasibility of visible and near infrared spectroscopy for nondestructively measuring SC of navel orange fresh juices was investigated by means of spectral transmittance technique. A total 55 juice samples were used to develop the calibration and prediction models. Three different kinds of mathematical treatments (original, first derivative and second derivative) of spectra in the range of 400-800 nm were discussed and two kinds of reference standards were used. Different spectra correction algorithms (constant, multiplicative signal correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) were compared. Three kinds of calibration models including partial least square (PLS) regression, stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principle component regression (PCR) were evaluated for the determination of SC in navel orange juice. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of validation set of samples. The correlation coefficients of calibration models for SC was 0.97, the correlation coefficients of prediction models for SC was 0.86, and the corresponding RMSEP was 0.56. The results show that visible near infrared transmittance technique is a feasible method for non-destructive measurement of sugar content of fruit juice.

Liu, Yande; Wen, Jianping; Ouyang, Aiguo; Ying, Yibin

2006-10-01

56

Sugar Sugar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the required amount of sugar to pour into a mug or mugs. The game has 30 stages of increasing complexity.

Bonte, Bart

2012-01-01

57

Cold-season patterns of reserve and soluble carbohydrates in sugar maple and ice-damaged trees of two age classes following drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of summer drought on the composition and profiles of cold-season reserve and soluble carbohydrates in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees (50-100 years old or-200 years old) in which the crowns were nondamaged or damaged by the 1998 ice storm. The overall cold season reserve carbohydrate profiles in twig wood tissue of drought-stressed (DS) trees

B. L. Wong; K. L. Baggett; A. H. Rye

2009-01-01

58

Different effects of galactose and mannose on cell proliferation and intracellular soluble sugar levels in Vigna angularis suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cells utilize various sugars as carbon sources for growth, respiration and biosynthesis of cellular components. Suspension-cultured\\u000a cells of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) proliferated actively in liquid growth medium containing 1% (w\\/v) sucrose, glucose, fructose, arabinose or xylose, but did\\u000a not proliferate in medium containing galactose or mannose. These two latter sugars thus appeared distinct from other sugars\\u000a used as

Aki Kato; Hiroshi Tohoyama; Masanori Joho; Masahiro Inouhe

2007-01-01

59

Lysine and Arginine Content of Proteins: Computational Analysis Suggests a New Tool for Solubility Design  

PubMed Central

Prediction and engineering of protein solubility is an important but imprecise area. While some features are routinely used, such as the avoidance of extensive non-polar surface area, scope remains for benchmarking of sequence and structural features with experimental data. We study properties in the context of experimental solubilities, protein gene expression levels, and families of abundant proteins (serum albumin and myoglobin) and their less abundant paralogues. A common feature that emerges for proteins with elevated solubility and at higher expression and abundance levels is an increased ratio of lysine content to arginine content. We suggest that the same properties of arginine that give rise to its recorded propensity for specific interaction surfaces also lead to favorable interactions at nonspecific contacts, and thus lysine is favored for proteins at relatively high concentration. A survey of protein therapeutics shows that a significant subset possesses a relatively low lysine to arginine ratio, and therefore may not be favored for high protein concentration. We conclude that modulation of lysine and arginine content could prove a useful and relatively simple addition to the toolkit available for engineering protein solubility in biotechnological applications. PMID:24283752

2013-01-01

60

Climate-Induced Changes in Grapevine Yield and Must Sugar Content in Franconia (Germany) between 1805 and 2010  

PubMed Central

When attempting to estimate the impacts of future climate change it is important to reflect on information gathered during the past. Understanding historical trends may also aid in the assessment of likely future agricultural and horticultural changes. The timing of agricultural activities, such as grape harvest dates, is known to be influenced by climate and weather. However, fewer studies have been carried out on grapevine yield and quality. In this paper an analysis is undertaken of long-term data from the period 1805–2010 on grapevine yield (hl/ha) and must sugar content (°Oe) and their relation to temperature. Monthly mean temperatures were obtained for the same time period. Multiple regression was used to relate the viticulture variables to temperature, and long-term trends were calculated. Overall, the observed trends over time are compatible with results from other long term studies. The findings confirm a relationship between yield, must sugar content and temperature data; increased temperatures were associated with higher yields and higher must sugar content. However, the potential increase in yield is currently limited by legislation, while must sugar content is likely to further increase with rising temperatures. PMID:23894395

Bock, Anna; Sparks, Tim H.; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

2013-01-01

61

Effects of Soil Compaction, Water and Organic Matter Contents on Emergence and Initial Plant Growth of Cotton and Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of compaction on the emergence and initial growth of cotton andd sugar beet plants were studied in pots in a glasshouse experiment. Apart from compaction, the factors studied were two soil types, two initial soil water contents before compaction and the addition of 1% organic matter in the form of vinasse, an alcohol industry waste. Measurements were made

T. A. Gemtos; Th. Lellis

1997-01-01

62

Doubled sugar content in sugarcane plants modified to produce a sucrose isomer.  

PubMed

Sucrose is the feedstock for more than half of the world's fuel ethanol production and a major human food. It is harvested primarily from sugarcane and beet. Despite attempts through conventional and molecular breeding, the stored sugar concentration in elite sugarcane cultivars has not been increased for several decades. Recently, genes have been cloned for bacterial isomerase enzymes that convert sucrose into sugars which are not metabolized by plants, but which are digested by humans, with health benefits over sucrose. We hypothesized that an appropriate sucrose isomerase (SI) expression pattern might simultaneously provide a valuable source of beneficial sugars and overcome the sugar yield ceiling in plants. The introduction of an SI gene tailored for vacuolar compartmentation resulted in sugarcane lines with remarkable increases in total stored sugar levels. The high-value sugar isomaltulose was accumulated in storage tissues without any decrease in stored sucrose concentration, resulting in up to doubled total sugar concentrations in harvested juice. The lines with enhanced sugar accumulation also showed increased photosynthesis, sucrose transport and sink strength. This remarkable step above the former ceiling in stored sugar concentration provides a new perspective into plant source-sink relationships, and has substantial potential for enhanced food and biofuel production. PMID:17207261

Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

2007-01-01

63

Suspicious minds: perceived vitamin content of ordinary and diet foods with added fat, sugar or salt.  

PubMed

Male and female dieters and non-dieters (mean age 18.5 years) rated the vitamin levels of ordinary foods (e.g. 'sliced fresh peaches') and counterparts with added fat, sugar or salt (e.g. 'sliced fresh peaches with sugar'). Unlike previous studies, in addition diet foods ('sugar-free ice cream') were compared to their ordinary fat- and/or sugar-rich counterparts ('ice cream'). Some respondents believed diet products to be lower in vitamins, particularly when the corresponding ordinary food was considered to be wholesome (e.g. milk or muffins). PMID:15262023

Oakes, Michael E

2004-08-01

64

Analysis of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber contents in school meal  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to estimate the contents of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber in school meal. Samples of the school meals were collected from May to June in 2008. Three elementary schools and three middle schools around Masan area were selected for analysis. Dietary soluble and insoluble fibers in the school meals were analyzed directly by the AOAC method. From the initial experiment phase, we used cellulose and pectin as a standard of dietary fiber, and average recovery rate of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber was calculated. The recovery rate was observed, the cellulose 109.7±11.7% (range 90~150%) and pectin 77.8±10.8% (range 64.7~96.7%), respectively. The amounts of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber were analyzed in the total of 66 dishes, which included 7 kinds of cooked rice (bab) made with some cereal products and vegetables, 19 kinds of soup (guk) made with meats or vegetables, 11 kinds of kimchi, 21 kinds of entrées or side dishes, and 8 special dishes. Conclusively the school meal, per serving size, would provide above 75% KDRI of total dietary fibers through mainly soups and special menu, with the exception to fruits. In addition, it might be expected that children could consume more soluble fiber from the meals with the special dishes than from the regular ones. PMID:22413038

2012-01-01

65

The Effect of Cooking and Drying on the Water-Soluble Vitamins Content of Bulgur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulgur is a whole-wheat product cooked, dried, cracked, and sifted for sizing. This paper, evaluated the effect of cooking in beaker (90 and 100°C) and in autoclave at 121°C for 17min and drying in a hot-air oven (60, 70, and 80°C) or sun-drying in open air, on the content of several water-soluble vitamins [thiamin (vitamin B 1), niacin, panthothenic acid

Ç. Kadakal; R. Ekinci; A. Yapar

2007-01-01

66

Amino acid composition protein quality and water-soluble vitamin content of germinated cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid composition, protein digestibility, calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER and DC-PER), chemical scores and water-soluble vitamin content of cowpea seeds germinated at 25°C or 30°C for 24h were determined. Also, the effect of processing steps (heated-air drying, decortication and cooking) on these parameters were examined. Germination had little effect on amino acid profile of cowpeas. In vitro protein digestibility

Ifendu A. Nnanna; R. Dixon Phillips

1989-01-01

67

The Science of Sugaring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sugar content and sap volume within and among trees speces can vary considerably. The introductory material describes the process of maple sugaring. The associated field exercise is intended to enhance students field experimental design, data collection, and analysis through examining the variability of trees sap volume and sugar content for sugar maple trees.

Baer, Nicholas

68

Metabolism of soluble sugars in developing melon fruit: a global transcriptional view of the metabolic transition to sucrose accumulation.  

PubMed

The sweet melon fruit is characterized by a metabolic transition during its development that leads to extensive accumulation of the disaccharide sucrose in the mature fruit. While the biochemistry of the sugar metabolism pathway of the cucurbits has been well studied, a comprehensive analysis of the pathway at the transcriptional level allows for a global genomic view of sugar metabolism during fruit sink development. We identified 42 genes encoding the enzymatic reactions of the sugar metabolism pathway in melon. The expression pattern of the 42 genes during fruit development of the sweet melon cv Dulce was determined from a deep sequencing analysis performed by 454 pyrosequencing technology, comprising over 350,000 transcripts from four stages of developing melon fruit flesh, allowing for digital expression of the complete metabolic pathway. The results shed light on the transcriptional control of sugar metabolism in the developing sweet melon fruit, particularly the metabolic transition to sucrose accumulation, and point to a concerted metabolic transition that occurs during fruit development. PMID:21387125

Dai, Nir; Cohen, Shahar; Portnoy, Vitaly; Tzuri, Galil; Harel-Beja, Rotem; Pompan-Lotan, Maya; Carmi, Nir; Zhang, Genfa; Diber, Alex; Pollock, Sarah; Karchi, Hagai; Yeselson, Yelena; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Sahar, Uzi; Hovav, Ran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yakov; Granot, David; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A

2011-05-01

69

Solubility of plutonium from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium- contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert ; vegetation at the Nevada Test Site were incubated in simulated bovine ; gastrointestinal fluids to study the alimentary solubility of plutonium. Trials ; were run during November 1973, and during February, May, July and August 1974. ; During the May and July trials, a large increase in plutonium solubility ; accompanied

J. Barth; M. G. White; P. B. Dunaway

1975-01-01

70

Effect of electron beam irradiation and sugar content on kinetics of microbial survival  

E-print Network

to 5.0 kGy), using different configurations, on gelatin-based systems with the addition of sugars. The systems were inoculated with pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria strains (surrogates). Initial studies showed that Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655...

Rodriguez Gonzalez, Oscar

2006-10-30

71

[Soil soluble organic nitrogen content in different forest stands in Wanmulin Nature Reserve].  

PubMed

An investigation was made on the soil soluble organic nitrogen (SON) in two natural forests Altingia gracilies (ALG) and Castanopsis carlesii (CAC) and an adjacent 35-year-old Cunninghamia lanceolata (CUL) plantation in Wanmulin Nature Reserve in Jianou, Fujian Province. Among the three forest stands, ALG had a significantly higher content of soil SON, being 95.3, 78.3, and 72.5 mg x kg(-1) in 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, and 10-20 cm soil layers, respectively (P<0.05), while CAC and CUL had lesser differences in their soil SON content, which was 74.5, 70.1, and 65.6 mg x kg(-1) in the three soil layers for CAC, and 78.6, 68.9, and 69.1 mg x kg(-1) in the three soil layers for CUL, respectively. The proportion of SON to total soluble nitrogen (TSN) in 0-20 cm soil layer was 79.17-80.78% for CAC, 68.64%-74.51% for CUL, and 59.97%-69.66% for ALG. With increasing soil depth, the proportion of soil SON to soil TSN and total nitrogen (TN) for the three forest stands all increased. Soil SON content had a significant positive correlation with soil organic carbon (r=0.982, P<0.01), and also, had definite correlations with soil TSN, TN, NH4(+)-N, and NO3(-)-N. It also correlated with the factors such as forest type, topography, altitude, and tree age. PMID:20879517

Zhang, Biao; Gao, Ren; Yang, Yu-sheng; Yang, Zhi-jie; Chen, Guang-shui

2010-07-01

72

Phenolic composition, sugar contents and antioxidant activity of Tunisian sweet olive cultivar with regard to fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Dhokar olive cultivar growing in the south of Tunisia is an unusual olive tree which is characterized by the sweet taste of its fruit. We were particularly interested in the phenolic compounds of this cultivar in comparison to Chemlali cv. During the different maturation stages of olive fruits, the phenolic composition, sugar content, antioxidant activity and enzymatic change were examined. The phenolic composition was studied by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by LC-MS and GC-MS analysis. Oleuropein, the major olive fruit biophenolic compound, decreased significantly during all the ripeness stages, and its level decreased from 3.29 g/kg fresh olive (July) to 0.16 g/kg (October) in Dhokar cv. and from 5.7 g/kg (July) to 3.75 g/kg (October) in Chemlali cv. This decrease inversely correlated with hydroxytyrosol concentrations until September. DPPH and ABTS assays show that the more important antioxidant capacity of olive extracts was found at the last stage of maturation. beta-Glucosidase and esterase activities were evaluated during the ripening stage. The data obtained during the ripening indicate that polyphenol content and composition, in particular the oleuropein concentration, were in correlation with the measured enzymatic activities. Glucosidase and esterase showed their maximum values in September reaching 179.75 and 39.03 U/g of olive pulp, respectively. In addition, sugar content was quantified using colorimetric and chromatographic methods and was compared to its concentration in Chemlali olive fruit cultivar. Glucose and mannitol were the main sugars; they reached their highest level at the last stage of ripening: 8.3 and 79.8 g/kg respectively. PMID:19334763

Jemai, Hedya; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami

2009-04-01

73

Prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Effects of foods and beverages that are sweet or high in sugar content.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether certain foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet are related to the prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Specifically, we sought to evaluate whether consumption of "junk foods", chocolate, caffeine-free cola, fruit juices or alcoholic beverages might exert an effect on the premenstrual syndrome apart from any effects of daily consumption of beverages that are high in caffeine (caffeine-containing coffee, tea and colas). The study was based on 853 responses to a questionnaire probing menstrual and premenstrual health and certain daily dietary practices; it was mailed to female university students in Oregon. An analysis of the data revealed that the consumption of chocolate, but not of other junk foods, was related to the prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome among women with more severe premenstrual symptoms. Likewise, the consumption of alcoholic beverages (all alcoholic beverages and beer only) was related to the prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome among women with more severe symptoms, as were both fruit juice and caffeine-free soda. None of the associations was substantially altered when the daily consumption of beverages high in caffeine content was controlled for. Taken together, these data suggest that the consumption of foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet is associated with prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome. PMID:2010896

Rossignol, A M; Bonnlander, H

1991-02-01

74

A high sugar content, low caffeine drink does not alleviate sleepiness but may worsen it.  

PubMed

Although the ingestion of high levels of glucose might have a short acting alerting effect, there is evidence of an ensuing enhancement of sleepiness in people already sleepy. Some 'energy drinks' contain large quantity of sugars. We compared 250 ml of a well known 'energy drink' (42 g sugars, containing a low [30 mg] level of caffeine for 'flavouring') with a nil sugar nil caffeine, similar tasting control. These were given a week apart, in a repeated measures, double blind, balanced design, to 10 participants sleep restricted to 5 h the prior night. They had a light lunch, consumed a drink at 13:50 h, and 10 min later underwent 3 x 30 min consecutive periods at a reaction time (RT) task (the Psychomotor Vigilance Test), separated by 3 min breaks when self-ratings of sleepiness were made. The energy drink did not counteract sleepiness, and led to slower RTs and more lapses during the final 30 min session, around 80 min after consumption. PMID:16856218

Anderson, C; Horne, J A

2006-07-01

75

Potable NIR spectroscopy predicting soluble solids content of pears based on LEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable near-infrared (NIR) instrument was developed for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of pears equipped with light emitting diodes (LEDs). NIR spectra were collected on the calibration and prediction sets (145:45). Relationships between spectra and SSC were developed by multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the calibration set. The 45 unknown pears were applied to evaluate the performance of them in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (r). The best result was obtained by PLS with RMSEP of 0.62°Brix and r of 0.82. The results showed that the SSC of pears could be predicted by the portable NIR instrument.

Liu, Yande; Liu, Wei; Sun, Xudong; Gao, Rongjie; Pan, Yuanyuan; Ouyang, Aiguo

2011-01-01

76

Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.  

PubMed

Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound. PMID:21413793

Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

2011-04-27

77

Use of Vis/NIRS for the determination of sugar content of cola soft drinks based on chemometric methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different chemometric methods were performed for the determination of sugar content of cola soft drinks using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS). Four varieties of colas were prepared and 180 samples (45 samples for each variety) were selected for the calibration set, while 60 samples (15 samples for each variety) for the validation set. The smoothing way of Savitzky-Golay, standard normal variate (SNV) and Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation were applied for the pre-processing of spectral data. The first eleven principal components (PCs) extracted by partial least squares (PLS) analysis were employed as the inputs of BP neural network (BPNN) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model. Then the BPNN model with the optimal structural parameters and LS-SVM model with radial basis function (RBF) kernel were applied to build the regression model with a comparison of PLS regression. The correlation coefficient (r), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias for prediction were 0.971, 1.259 and -0.335 for PLS, 0.986, 0.763, and -0.042 for BPNN, while 0.978, 0.995 and -0.227 for LS-SVM, respectively. All the three methods supplied a high and satisfying precision. The results indicated that Vis/NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods could be utilized as a high precision way for the determination of sugar content of cola soft drinks.

Liu, Fei; He, Yong

2008-03-01

78

A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income new york city supermarkets.  

PubMed

Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase. PMID:25168992

Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

2014-09-01

79

Changes in ratio of soluble sugars and free amino nitrogen in the apical meristem during floral transition of tobacco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a modification of the nutrient diversion hypothesis, we propose that an inequality in carbohydrate and nitrogen translocation to the apical meristem may be a controlling factor in floral transition. Experiments were conducted in controlled-environment chambers to determine the associations between microscopic characteristics of the transition from vegetative to floral stages of the apical meristem of flue-cured tobacco and to assimilate concentrations in the plant and apical meristem. Low temperature, nitrogen withdrawal, and restriction of nitrogen uptake were used as treatment variables. In all of these stress treatments, flowering occurred at a lesser number of leaves than in control treatments. Low temperature stress accelerated the time of transition to the floral stage as compared with a high temperature control; however, nitrogen stress did not accelerate the time of transition. All stress treatments affected the levels of nitrogen and carbohydrate in whole plants. Most notable was an increase in the percentage of starch and a decrease in the percentage of total soluble carbohydrate induced by the stress treatments. These data indicate that tobacco plants under stress accumulate excess carbohydrate in the form of starch. An apparent inequality in the relative concentrations of carbohydrate and nitrogen in the apical meristem was observed in all treatments at the time of floral transition and is in support of the nutrient diversion hypothesis.

Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Miner, G. S.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

80

Changes in soluble sugar, starch, and alcohol dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to N2 diluted atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proper exchange of atmospheric gases is important for normal root and shoot metabolism in plants. This study was conducted to determine how restricted air supply affects foliar carbohydrates, while using the marker enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) to report on the oxygenation status of the rootzone. Fourteen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants grown singly in 7-ml tubes containing agarified nutrient medium were placed in coupled Magenta vessels and exposed for six days to either ambient air or one of six different air/nitrogen dilutions. Redox potential of the agar medium was measured immediately after harvesting and freezing leaf tissue, and then root systems were quickly extracted from the agar and frozen for subsequent analyses. Redox potential measurements indicated that this series of gas mixtures produced a transition from hypoxia to anoxia in the root zones. Root ADH activity increased at higher rates as the redox potential neared anoxic levels. In contrast, ADH mRNA expression quickly neared its maximum as the medium became hypoxic and showed little further increase as it became anoxic. Foliar carbohydrate levels increased 1.5- to 2-fold with decreased availability of metabolic gases, with starch increasing at higher concentrations of air than soluble carbohydrate. The results serve as a model for plant performance under microgravity conditions, where absence of convective air movement prevents replenishment of metabolic gases.

Porterfield, D. M.; Crispi, M. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

1997-01-01

81

Nondestructive evaluation of soluble solid content in strawberry by near infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper indicates the feasibility to use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) algorithms as a rapid nondestructive method to estimate the soluble solid content (SSC) in strawberry. Spectral preprocessing methods were optimized selected by cross-validation in the model calibration. Partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was conducted on the calibration of regression model. The performance of the final model was back-evaluated according to root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and correlation coefficient (R2 c) in calibration set, and tested by mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R2 p) in prediction set. The optimal siPLS model was obtained with after first derivation spectra preprocessing. The measurement results of best model were achieved as follow: RMSEC = 0.2259, R2 c = 0.9590 in the calibration set; and RMSEP = 0.2892, R2 p = 0.9390 in the prediction set. This work demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy and siPLS with efficient spectral preprocessing is a useful tool for nondestructively evaluation SSC in strawberry.

Guo, Zhiming; Huang, Wenqian; Chen, Liping; Wang, Xiu; Peng, Yankun

82

Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison*  

PubMed Central

Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400–1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR. PMID:22302428

Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

2012-01-01

83

Analysis of hyperspectral scattering characteristics for predicting apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral scattering is useful for assessing the firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) of apples because it provides an effective means for characterizing light scattering in the fruit. This research compared three methods for quantifying the spectral scattering profiles acquired from 'Golden Delicious' apples using a hyperspectral imaging system for the spectral region of 500-1000 nm. The first method relied on a diffusion theory model to describe the scattering profiles, from which the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were obtained. The second method utilized a four-parameter Lorentzian function, an empirical model, to describe the scattering profiles. And the third method was calculation of mean reflectance from the scattering profiles for a scattering distance of 10 mm. Calibration models were developed, using multi-linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS), relating function parameters for each scattering characterization method to the fruit firmness and SSC of 'Golden Delicious' apples. The diffusion theory model gave poorer prediction results for fruit firmness and SSC (the average values of r obtained with PLS were 0.837 and 0.664 respectively for the validation samples). Lorentzian function and mean reflectance performed better than the diffusion theory model; their average r values for PLS validations were 0.860 and 0.852 for firmness and 0.828 and 0.842 for SSC respectively. The mean reflectance method is recommended for firmness and SSC prediction because it is simple and much faster for characterizing spectral scattering profiles for apples.

Lu, Renfu; Huang, Min; Qin, Jianwei

2009-05-01

84

Added Sugars  

MedlinePLUS

Added Sugars Updated:Jun 12,2014 Sugars in your diet can be naturally occurring or added. Naturally occurring sugars ... or added at the table. Foods Containing Added Sugars The major sources of added sugars are regular ...

85

Use of molecular markers in breeding for soluble solids content in tomato — a re-examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through earlier breeding efforts, portions of the genome of the wild species Lycopersicon chmielewskii have been introgressed into the cultivated tomato (Rick 1974). These introgressed chromosomal segments have been reported to increase soluble solids in fruit of certain tomato varieties (Rick 1974). Recently, two of the introgressed segments have been identified with RFLP markers and tested for effects on soluble

S. D. Tanksley; J. Hewitt

1988-01-01

86

Soluble carbohydrate content of shoots of Arctic wetland plants that are consumed by lesser snow geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recorded seasonal changes in the total amounts of soluble carbohydrates in shoots of salt- and fresh-water coastal plants at La Perouse Bay, northern Manitoba, to determine whether adult snow geese and their goslings selected forage rich in soluble carbohydrates during the breeding season. The selection of forage plants in spring and summer by adults and goslings was strongly linked

Robert L. Jefferies; Kate A. Edwards

2008-01-01

87

Antioxidant potential, anti-proliferative activities, and phenolic content in water-soluble fractions of some commonly consumed vegetables: Effects of thermal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal treatments associated with food processing can alter the phenolic content of vegetables; yet, the biological properties associated with altered phenolic content have not been well delineated. We assessed the effects of various thermal treatments on total phenolic content, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities of water-soluble fractions from six commonly consumed vegetables. Phenolic content in the water-soluble fraction of the tested

Molay Kumar Roy; Makiko Takenaka; Seiichiro Isobe; Tojiro Tsushida

2007-01-01

88

The effect of fermentation and drying on the water-soluble vitamin content of tarhana, a traditional Turkish cereal food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tarhana is a popular and widely consumed traditional Turkish fermented wheat-flour-yoghurt mixture. The effects of fermentation (30 °C for 4 days) and drying (50, 60 and 70 °C) on the contents of several water-soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), thiamine (vitamin B1), folic acid and riboflavin (vitamin B2)) in tarhana, a traditional Turkish cereal

Raci Ek?nc?

2005-01-01

89

Varying protein content and nitrogen solubility for pluriparous, lactating Holstein cows: lactation performance and profitability.  

PubMed

Effects on total lactation performance of varying ration crude protein (15.3 vs. 13.6% of dry matter) and nitrogen solubility (35 vs. 45% of total nitrogen) in early lactation was studied using 57 pluriparous Holstein cows. Grain was fed according to production so as to minimize change in body weight throughout lactation. Forages high in nitrogen solubility, corn and grass silages, were fed free-choice. Percent concentrate in ration dry matter was highest (64%) 5 to 8 wk postpartum and lowest (3%) 33 to 44 wk postpartum. Protein and nitrogen solubility were varied by formulating four protein supplements fed as 10% of the grain allocation, so differences in treatments applied narrowed as lactation progressed. Cows fed the medium-protein diets produced 196 kg more milk than those receiving low-protein diets, but their peak daily milk yield was only .6 kg higher. Cows receiving rations with reduced nitrogen solubility produced 347 kg more milk than those fed the higher solubility diets, but their peak daily milk yield was 1.0 kg lower. Income above fed cost for the lactation was highest and postpartum loss in body weight was least for cows receiving medium-protein and low-solubility rations in early lactation, but no differences were significant. Both milk yield (38.3 to 40.6 kg) and total dry matter intake (3.74 to 3.91% body weight) means were maximum 6 to 7 wk postpartum, but lactation performance was not proportional to peak milk yield. When cows are fed to minimize body fat mobilization, response to increased protein in the diet is small. Reducing nitrogen solubility of silage-based diets increased milk produced per unit grain fed. There were no adverse effects of treatments on breeding efficiency or herd health. PMID:4044963

Holter, J B; Hylton, W E; Bozak, C K

1985-08-01

90

Increased Lysine Content Is the Main Characteristic of the Soluble Form of the Polyamide Cyanophycin Synthesized by Recombinant Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Cyanophycin, a polyamide of cyanobacterial or noncyanobacterial origin consisting of aspartate, arginine, and lysine, was synthesized in different recombinant strains of Escherichia coli expressing cphA from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308 or PCC 6803, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, or Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1. The molar aspartate/arginine/lysine ratio of the water-soluble form isolated from a recombinant strain expressing CphA6308 was 1:0.5:0.5, with a lysine content higher than any ever described before. The water-insoluble form consisted instead of mainly aspartate and arginine residues and had a lower proportion of lysine, amounting to a maximum of only 5 mol%. It could be confirmed that the synthesis of soluble cyanobacterial granule polypeptide (CGP) is independent of the origin of cphA. Soluble CGP isolated from all recombinant strains contained a least 17 mol% lysine. The total CGP portion of cell dry matter synthesized by CphA6308 from recombinant E. coli was about 30% (wt/wt), including 23% (wt/wt) soluble CGP, by using terrific broth complex medium for cultivation at 30°C for 72 h. Enhanced production of soluble CGP instead of its insoluble form is interesting for further application and makes recombinant E. coli more attractive as a suitable source for the production of polyaspartic acid or dipeptides. In addition, a new low-cost, time-saving, effective, and common isolation procedure for mainly soluble CGP, suitable for large-scale application, was established in this study. PMID:23686266

Frommeyer, Maja

2013-01-01

91

Increased lysine content is the main characteristic of the soluble form of the polyamide cyanophycin synthesized by recombinant Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Cyanophycin, a polyamide of cyanobacterial or noncyanobacterial origin consisting of aspartate, arginine, and lysine, was synthesized in different recombinant strains of Escherichia coli expressing cphA from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308 or PCC 6803, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, or Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1. The molar aspartate/arginine/lysine ratio of the water-soluble form isolated from a recombinant strain expressing CphA6308 was 1:0.5:0.5, with a lysine content higher than any ever described before. The water-insoluble form consisted instead of mainly aspartate and arginine residues and had a lower proportion of lysine, amounting to a maximum of only 5 mol%. It could be confirmed that the synthesis of soluble cyanobacterial granule polypeptide (CGP) is independent of the origin of cphA. Soluble CGP isolated from all recombinant strains contained a least 17 mol% lysine. The total CGP portion of cell dry matter synthesized by CphA6308 from recombinant E. coli was about 30% (wt/wt), including 23% (wt/wt) soluble CGP, by using terrific broth complex medium for cultivation at 30°C for 72 h. Enhanced production of soluble CGP instead of its insoluble form is interesting for further application and makes recombinant E. coli more attractive as a suitable source for the production of polyaspartic acid or dipeptides. In addition, a new low-cost, time-saving, effective, and common isolation procedure for mainly soluble CGP, suitable for large-scale application, was established in this study. PMID:23686266

Frommeyer, Maja; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2013-07-01

92

Hydraulic lift and its influence on the water content of the rhizosphere: an example from sugar maple, Acer saccharum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic lift, the transport of water from deep in the soil through plant root systems into the drier upper soil layers, has been demonstrated in several woody plant species. Here the volume of water involved in hydraulic lift by a mature sugar maple tree is estimated. Twenty-four intact soil cores were collected from the vicinity of a sugar maple tree

Steven H. Emerman; Todd E. Dawson

1996-01-01

93

Proline content of sugar beet storage roots: Response to water deficit and nitrogen fertilization at field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought stress is one of the major factors causing profit loss of the sugar beet crop. The accumulation of proline, an indicator of water stress, has been reported in response to osmotic and salt stress in sugar beet leaves, but there is little information about its levels in storage roots. Proline in storage roots is potentially useful as indicator of

J. A. Monreal; E. T. Jiménez; E. Remesal; R. Morillo-Velarde; S. García-Mauriño; C. Echevarría

2007-01-01

94

Dependence of the toxic and protective properties of shale oils on their contents of water-soluble phenols  

SciTech Connect

Dependence of the Toxic and Protective Properties of Shale Oils on their Content of Water-Soluble Phenols. A large propertion of water-soluble phenols, which are valuable intermediates for synthesis of various high polymers, is now extracted from shale oil, which is largely used for impregnation of wood. Changes in the technology of production of shale impregnaing oil make it necessary to examine the rationality of removing water-soluble phenols from shale distillate oil in relation to changes in its physicochemical characteristics, toxicity, and protective action. Four samples of shale oil, physicochemical properties included, were investigated. The toxicity of the four oil samples and of water-soluble phenols was estimated by determination of the threshold absorption A/sub 95/ in accordance with State All-Union Standard specifications on a culture of one of the most active wood-destroying fungi, Coniophor cerebella. Pine sapwood spcimens were used. It was concluded that there is no definite correlation between the toxicity, which is the main indicator of the suitability of a given antiseptic for protecting wood against wood-destroying fungi, and the presence of water-soluble phenols in the shale oil. Experimental data showed no significant differences in destruction of wood impregnated with the shale oil and subjected to heat treatment. Experimental data was also included for the influence of washing out of shale oils from impregnated wood with water on destruction of the wood. All the protective properties of impregnating oils are a complex function of their composition and of the structure of their compounds. 3 tables. (DP)

Kucherenko, L.A.; Kamyshova, V.K.

1981-07-10

95

Quantitation of sugar content in pyrolysis liquids after acid hydrolysis using high-performance liquid chromatography without neutralization.  

PubMed

A rapid method for the quantitation of total sugars in pyrolysis liquids using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The method avoids the tedious and time-consuming sample preparation required by current analytical methods. It is possible to directly analyze hydrolyzed pyrolysis liquids, bypassing the neutralization step usually required in determination of total sugars. A comparison with traditional methods was used to determine the validity of the results. The calibration curve coefficient of determination on all standard compounds was >0.999 using a refractive index detector. The relative standard deviation for the new method was 1.13%. The spiked sugar recoveries on the pyrolysis liquid samples were between 104 and 105%. The research demonstrates that it is possible to obtain excellent accuracy and efficiency using HPLC to quantitate glucose after acid hydrolysis of polymeric and oligomeric sugars found in fast pyrolysis bio-oils without neutralization. PMID:25093902

Johnston, Patrick A; Brown, Robert C

2014-08-13

96

Identification of restriction fragment length polymorphisms linked to genes controlling soluble solids content in tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene(s) conferring high soluble solids (SS) in tomato fruit had been backcrossed previously from a wild tomato species, Lycopersicon chmielewskii LA1028 (~ 10% SS), into a L. esculentum cultivar, VF36 (~ 5% SS), to derive a BC5S5 line, LA1563, similar to ‘VF 36’ but with 7–8% SS. DNAs from these lines and a tomato breeding line, H2038, were screened for

T. C. Osborn; D. C. Alexander; J. F. Fobes

1987-01-01

97

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in Diabetes Mellitus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hypoglycemia Patient information Patient information: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics) Author David ... Find Print Contents of this article LOW BLOOD SUGAR OVERVIEW WHY DO I GET LOW BLOOD SUGAR? ...

98

Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.  

PubMed

Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times. PMID:23532418

Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

2013-02-01

99

Comparative effects of irradiation, fumigation, and storage on the free amino acids and sugar contents of green, black and oolong teas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food irradiation or chemical fumigation can be used to ensure the hygienic quality of teas. The comparative effects of gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) and fumigation (MeBr and PH3) were investigated on the amino acids and sugar contents of Camellia sinensis (green, black and oolong teas) during storage (15±12 °C). The major amino acids found in teas were theanine and glutamic acid. Irradiation increased amino acids such as, leucine, alanine, and glutamic acid, and decreased the histidine. PH3 fumigation resulted in a decrease of tyrosine content; however, the effect of MeBr fumigation was negligible. Storage showed no significant effect on the amino acid content of the irradiated and fumigated teas. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents significantly increased upon gamma irradiation (p?0.05). However, fumigation and subsequent storage did not affect the sugar contents. Irradiation could be a preferred alternative choice to address food safety problems as fumigation is restricted in many countries.

Kausar, Tusneem; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

2013-05-01

100

The influence of aqueous content in small scale salt screening--improving hit rate for weakly basic, low solubility drugs.  

PubMed

Salt screening and selection is a well established approach for improving the properties of drug candidates, including dissolution rate and bioavailability. Typically during early development only small amounts of compound are available for solid state profiling, including salt screening. In order to probe large areas of experimental space, high-throughput screening is utilized and is often designed in a way to search for suitable crystallization parameters within hundreds or even thousands of conditions. However, the hit rate in these types of screens can be very low. In order to allow for selection of a salt form early within the drug development process whilst using smaller amounts of compounds, a screening procedure taking into account the compounds properties and the driving forces for salt formation is described. Experiments were carried out on the model compounds clotrimazole, cinnarizine itraconazole and atropine. We found an increase in crystalline hit rate for water-insoluble drugs crystallized from solutions that included at least 10% aqueous content. Conversely it was observed that compounds with greater water solubility did not benefit from aqueous content in salt screening, instead organic solvents lead to more crystalline screening hits. Results from four model compounds show that the inclusion of an aqueous component to the salt reaction can enhance the chance of salt formation and significantly improve the crystalline hit rate for low water soluble drugs. PMID:20553863

Tarsa, Peter B; Towler, Christopher S; Woollam, Grahame; Berghausen, Jörg

2010-09-11

101

Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.  

PubMed

In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality. PMID:25236242

Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

2015-02-15

102

The relationship between estimated water content and water soluble organic carbon of PM10 at Seoul, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organic carbon (OC) in atmospheric aerosols can be divided in water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water insoluble organic carbon (WISOC). WSOC constitutes a significant fraction of the carbon mass of aerosols, ranging from 27% to 83% (Yu et al., 2004). WSOC and absorbed water in atmospheric aerosol can impact climate directly by scattering solar radiation. Also, these can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) (Saxena et al., 1995; Yu et al., 2004). The role of WSOC in water absorption is especially unclear. So, it is essential to understand the relevance of water content and WSOC. In this study, we have analyzed relationship between the measured WSOC concentrations and estimated aerosol water content of PM10 (particles in the atmosphere with a diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 ?m) for the period between September 2006 and August 2007 at Seoul, Korea. Water content of PM10 was estimated by using a gas/particle equilibrium model, SCAPE2 (Kim et al., 1993). WSOC and estimated water content showed a positive correlation when the ambient relative humidity (RH) was less than 70%. But when RH was higher than 70%, WSOC and estimated water content did not show a correlation. However, WISOC over OC showed negative correlation with estimated water content of PM10 when RH was less than 70%. It was found that WSOC was correlated well with NO3- that is a secondary component formed by photochemical oxidation. References Kim, Y. P., Seinfeld, J. H., Saxena, P., 1993, Atmospheric gas-aerosol equilibrium I. Thermodynamic model, Aerosol Science and Technology, 19, 157-181. Saxena, P., Hildemann, L. M., McMurry, P. H., Seinfeld, J. H., 1995, Organics alter hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100(D9), 18755-18770. Yu, J. Z., Yang, H., Zhang, H. and Lau, A. K. H., 2004, Size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon in ambient aerosols and its size-resolved thermal characteristics, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 1061-1071.

Lee, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Yi, S.

2011-12-01

103

Sugar Modulation of ??Amylase Genes under Anoxia  

PubMed Central

Tolerance to low oxygen availability is likely to be due to the interaction of several factors. Sugar availability is one of the elements required to support anaerobic metabolism. In cereal grains the availability of soluble sugars is limited, while starch is stored in large amounts. Degradation of starch under anoxia is therefore needed to avoid sugar starvation leading to rapid cell death. The striking difference in the ability to produce ??amylase when comparing the anoxia?tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains with grains of other cereals is not easily explained. Rice is able to respond to gibberellins under anoxia, but the response is too slow to explain the rapid production of ??amylase enzyme. In the present work we demonstrated that ??amylase production during the first 2 d after imbibition is mostly due to the activity of the Ramy3D gene, encoding for the G and H isoforms of ??amylase. The induction of Ramy3D transcription is likely to result from a low sugar content in the grains incubated under anoxia. The ability of rice embryos to sense sugars under anoxia is reported. PMID:12509335

LORETI, ELENA; YAMAGUCHI, JUNJI; ALPI, AMEDEO; PERATA, PIERDOMENICO

2003-01-01

104

Sugar Backgrounder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sugar title in the 2007 Farm Bill will determine how U.S. sugar policy is to be conducted. Currently, the U.S. sugar program uses domestic marketing allotments, price supports, and tariff-rate quotas to influence the amount of sugar available to the U...

M. Ali, S. Haley

2007-01-01

105

Rhizosphere microorganism effects on soluble amino acids, sugars and organic acids in the root zone of Agropyron cristatum, A. smithii and Bouteloua gracilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three axenic and rhizosphere microorganism-inoculated shortgrass steppe plant species were evaluated for possible differences in residual organic carbon and nitrogen present as sugars, organic acids and amino acids. IntroducedAgropyron cristatum was compared toA. smithii andBouteloua gracilis, which are dominant species in the native shortgrass steppe. These plants, grown for 90 days in root growth chambers, showed differences in residual organic

D. A. Klein; B. A. Frederick; M. Biondini; M. J. Trlica

1988-01-01

106

Amino acid availability and true metabolizable energy content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in adult cecectomized roosters.  

PubMed

Five sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which varied in darkness of color, were collected from several processing plants in the Midwestern United States. Sources of DDGS were analyzed for their amino acid and energy contents, measured for color score, and evaluated for TMEn, apparent amino acid digestibility, and true amino acid digestibility. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, in which each DDGS sample was tube fed (25 g) to adult cecectomized roosters, and the excreta were collected for 48 h. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 8 replicates. Seven adult roosters (averaging 75 wk of age) were used in each period, with 5 fed the DDGS sources and 2 fasted to estimate basal endogenous amino acid losses. One source (no. 5) was the darkest, 2 sources (no. 2 and 4) were light, whereas 2 other sources (no. 1 and 3) were intermediate in color as measured by a colorimeter. Total lysine content of the DDGS sources ranged from 0.48 to 0.76%, with the lowest lysine content in the darkest DDGS source. Apparent and true lysine digestibility was approximately 30 and 15 percentage units lower (P < 0.05), respectively, in the dark-colored source (no. 5) than in the other 4 sources. Average apparent and true digestibility of the essential amino acids were 10 and 8 percentage units lower (P < 0.05), respectively, in source 5 than the other 4 sources. The TMEn content of the 5 DDGS sources was also lower (P < 0.05) in the darkest DDGS (no. 5). Our results suggest that when the color score of a DDGS source, as measured by a colorimeter, reached a certain threshold (lightness between 28 and 34), amino acid availability and true metabolizable energy content may be reduced. This reduction was particularly evident for lysine, which had the lowest digestibility in the darkest DDGS source. These results suggest that dark-colored DDGS may have been overheated during drying, causing Maillard reactions to be more extensive and resulting in a lowered total lysine content, lysine digestibility, and TMEn content. PMID:16830861

Fastinger, N D; Latshaw, J D; Mahan, D C

2006-07-01

107

Influence of Phosphorus Application on Water Relations, Biochemical Parameters and Gum Content in Cluster Bean Under Water Deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative water content (RWC), leaf water potential (?w) and osmotic potential (?s), contents of chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, soluble sugars, and seed quality (gum content) were used to evaluate the role of phosphorus in alleviation of the deleterious effect of water deficit in clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub). Under water stress, ?w, ?s, and Chl and gum contents decreased

Shubhra; J. Dayal; C. L. Goswami; R. Munjal

2004-01-01

108

Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria pur- p urascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp), H. sinuata (Hs), Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum basilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble

M. Castrillo; D. Vizcaíno; E. Moreno; Z. Latorraca

2005-01-01

109

Seasonal Fluctuations in Brain Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Soluble Protein Content in Roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.): A Freshwater Fish from Northwest Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal fluctuations in brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and soluble protein (SP) content were studied over a 6-year period in roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from Rybinsk Reservoir in Russia. There was a significant positive linear correlation between AChE activity and SP content in roach brain for all years (r = 0.49–0.95, p < 0.001). No correlations were found, however, between either

G. M Chuiko; Y Zhelnin; V. A Pod'gornaya

1997-01-01

110

Influence of lipid content of a liposome formulation used for solubilization of a poorly water-soluble drug on absorption through Caco-2 monolayers  

E-print Network

23 August 2006 INFLUENCE OF LIPID CONTENT OF A LIPOSOME FORMULATION USED FOR SOLUBILIZATION OF A POORLY WATER-SOLUBLE DRUG ON ABSORPTION THROUGH CACO-2 MONOLAYERS Schneider, M. and Imanidis G. Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, University... of Basel,Klingelbergerstrasse50, 4056 Basel, Switzerland envelopebackmarcel.schneider@unibas.ch 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 c [ ?M ] t [min] Transport Profiles with Different Lipid contents apical-basal(left) and basal...

Schneider, M.; Imanidis, G.

2006-10-27

111

Application Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact citrus fruits*  

PubMed Central

Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of citrus fruits was developed using Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) measurements collected through optics fiber. The models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of citrus fruits were developed and evaluated. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this study. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of citrus fruits was analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, instrument noise, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and yielded optimal calibration models. A total of 170 NIR spectra were acquired; 135 NIR spectra were used to develop the calibration model; the remaining spectra were used to validate the model. The developed PLS model describing the relationship between SSC and NIR reflectance spectra could predict SSC of 35 samples with correlation coefficient of 0.995 and RMSEP of 0.79 °Brix. PMID:16972321

Lu, Hui-shan; Xu, Hui-rong; Ying, Yi-bin; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan; Tian, Hai-qing

2006-01-01

112

Application FT-NIR in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact kiwifruits by reflectance mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of kiwifruit was developed by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) reflectance and fiber optics. Also, the models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of the fruit were developed and evaluated. To develop the models several different NIR reflectance spectra were acquired for each fruit from a commercial supermarket. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this work. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of kiwifruits were analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method using TQ 6.2.1 quantitative software (Thermo Nicolet Co., USA). Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all measured spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, noise of instrument, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and to obtain optimal calibration models. Total 480 NIR spectra were acquired from 120 kiwifruits and 90 samples were used to develop the calibration model, the rest samples were used to validate the model. Developed PLS model, which describes the relationship between SSC and NIR spectra, could predict SSC of 84 unknown samples with correlation coefficient of 0.9828 and SEP of 0.679 Brix.

Ying, Yibin; Lu, Huishan; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande; Xu, Huirong; Yu, Haiyan

2005-11-01

113

Evaluation of sugar content and composition in commonly consumed Korean vegetables, fruits, cereals, seed plants, and leaves by HPLC-ELSD.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, evaluation of sugars viz. fructose, galactose, glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, and raffinose in commonly consumed raw Korean vegetables, fruits, cereals, seed plants, and leaves has been analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). Of the 58 samples analyzed, Onion showed the highest content of fructose (27.74g/100g) and glucose (31.80g/100g) and Chestnuts showed the highest content of sucrose (21.82g/100g). On the other hand, Glutinous sorghum (polished grain), Green tea leaves, and Paddy rice (well-polished rice) showed the lowest content of fructose (0.20g/100g), glucose (0.68g/100g) and sucrose (0.23g/100g), respectively. Glutinous barley (Hopimbori-whole grain) and Green tea leaves showed 0.17g/100g and 0.57g/100g of galactose and lactose respectively. Glutinous barley (Seodunchalbori-polished grain) and Black soybeans (Cheongjaho, dried) showed the highest content of maltose (0.51g/100g) and raffinose (1.82g/100g), respectively. In few samples, galactose, maltose, lactose, and raffinose were detected in trace quantities. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was also performed to discriminate the analyzed samples. PMID:24021435

Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Kim, Su Yeon; Kim, Jung Bong; Kim, Heon Woong; Cho, Soo Muk; Kim, Se Na; Kim, So Young; Cho, Young Sook; Kim, Haeng Ran

2013-10-18

114

Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.  

PubMed

This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93?wt?% of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. PMID:24706373

Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

2014-06-01

115

Silencing of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase in switchgrass leads to reduced lignin content and improved fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production.  

PubMed

• The lignin content of feedstock has been proposed as one key agronomic trait impacting biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is one of the key enzymes involved in the monolignol biosynthethic pathway. • Two homologous 4CL genes, Pv4CL1 and Pv4CL2, were identified in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) through phylogenetic analysis. Gene expression patterns and enzymatic activity assays suggested that Pv4CL1 is involved in monolignol biosynthesis. Stable transgenic plants were obtained with Pv4CL1 down-regulated. • RNA interference of Pv4CL1 reduced extractable 4CL activity by 80%, leading to a reduction in lignin content with decreased guaiacyl unit composition. Altered lignification patterns in the stems of RNAi transgenic plants were observed with phloroglucinol-HCl staining. The transgenic plants also had uncompromised biomass yields. After dilute acid pretreatment, the low lignin transgenic biomass had significantly increased cellulose hydrolysis (saccharification) efficiency. • The results demonstrate that Pv4CL1, but not Pv4CL2, is the key 4CL isozyme involved in lignin biosynthesis, and reducing lignin content in switchgrass biomass by silencing Pv4CL1 can remarkably increase the efficiency of fermentable sugar release for biofuel production. PMID:21790609

Xu, Bin; Escamilla-Treviño, Luis L; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Shen, Zhengxing; Shen, Hui; Zhang, Y-H Percival; Dixon, Richard A; Zhao, Bingyu

2011-11-01

116

Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beet sugar and cane sugar constitute 25% and 75%, respectively, of the world sucrose production of about 145×10 6 ty ear ?1 .S ugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Döll) is grown mainly in Europe, producing 28×10 6 t beet sugar (hereof 20×10 6 t in the EU), North America (4.0×10 6 t) and Asia (2.5×10 6 t).

M. Joersbo

117

Association of Candidate Genes With Flowering Time and Water-Soluble Carbohydrate Content in Lolium perenne (L.)  

PubMed Central

We describe a candidate gene approach for associating SNPs with variation in flowering time and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content and other quality traits in the temperate forage grass species Lolium perenne. Three analysis methods were used, which took the significant population structure into account. First, a linear mixed model was used enabling a structured association analysis to be incorporated with the nine populations identified in the structure analysis as random variables. Second, a within-population analysis of variance was performed. Third, a tree-scanning method was used, in which haplotype trees were associated with phenotypes on the basis of inferred haplotypes. Analysis of variance within populations identified several associations between WSC, nitrogen (N), and dry matter digestibility with allelic variants within an alkaline invertase candidate gene LpcAI. These associations were only detected in material harvested in one of the two years. By contrast, consistent associations between the L. perenne homolog (LpHD1) of the rice photoperiod control gene HD1 and flowering time were identified. One SNP, in the immediate upstream region of the LpHD1 coding sequence (C-4443-A), was significant in the linear mixed model. Within-population analysis of variance and tree-scanning analysis confirmed and extended this result to the 2118 polymorphisms in some of the populations. The merits of the tree-scanning method are compared to the single SNP analysis. The potential usefulness of the 4443 SNP in marker-assisted selection is currently being evaluated in test crosses of genotypes from this work with turf-grass varieties. PMID:17660575

Sk?t, Leif; Humphreys, Jan; Humphreys, Mervyn O.; Thorogood, Danny; Gallagher, Joe; Sanderson, Ruth; Armstead, Ian P.; Thomas, Ian D.

2007-01-01

118

Characteristics and antioxidant activity of water-soluble Maillard reaction products from interactions in a whey protein isolate and sugars system.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant activities of water-soluble MRPs (Maillard reaction products) from the reactions between whey protein isolate (WPI) and xylose (X), glucose (G), fructose (F), lactose (L), maltose (M) and sucrose (S) at different initial pH values (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). MRPs derived from the WPI-X system with increasing of pH rendered the highest browning, reducing power and DPPH radical-scavenging activity. SDS-PAGE analyses indicated formation of cross-linked proteins of large molecular mass produced from WPI-X systems. Results of FT-IR analysis indicated that the amide I, II and III bands of WPI from the WPI-X and WPI-G systems were changed by the Maillard reaction. CD spectroscopy showed that ?-sheet, ?-turns and random coil were increased while the ?-helix was decreased after the WPI-G and WPI-X system aqueous solutions were heated. In conclusion, MRPs obtained from the WPI-X system had high antioxidant activity. PMID:23561117

Wang, Wen-qiong; Bao, Yi-hong; Chen, Ying

2013-08-15

119

Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... an A1C. It checks your average blood sugar level over the past three months. If your blood sugar is too high, you may need to take medicines and/or follow a special diet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

120

Sugar gliders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar gliders have become popular pocket pets particularly in the United States, Canada and Japan. They are also a popular small marsupial in zoo collections throughout the world. In zoo collections they are generally hardy, presenting to the veterinarian mainly with issues of periodontal disease or traumatic injuries. Pet sugar gliders may present with more veterinary problems particularly associated with

Rosemary Booth

2003-01-01

121

Changes in flavor precursors, pungency, and sugar content in short-day onion bulbs during 5-month storage at various temperatures or in controlled atmosphere.  

PubMed

Short-day onion bulbs (cv. TG 1015Y) were stored in 1% O(2,) 99% N(2) air at 5 °C (controlled atmosphere [CA]), or in ambient air at 5, 24, or 30 °C, for 5 mo. Changes in flavor precursors, pungency, and sugar content were investigated. After 5 mo of storage, 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide concentrations increased continuously at 5 °C, gradually decreased in CA, slightly increased for 3 mo, and returned to initial levels at 24 °C and decreased below initial levels at 34 °C. Methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide concentrations remained unchanged in all storage conditions. Onion pungency levels significantly increased at 5 °C, and decreased at 30 °C. Storage in CA and at 24 °C resulted in some fluctuations in pungency but the levels remained similar to initial levels. The calculated pyruvic acid concentrations were approximately 1.0 ?mole/mL higher than the measured concentrations, and showed an increase at 5 °C and a slight reduction at 30 °C, consistent with the pungency results. Storage at 5 °C and in CA resulted in slight increases in fructose and glucose concentrations for 3 to 4 mo with subsequent rapid decreases, while sucrose concentrations remained unchanged. However, at 24 and 30 °C, fructose and glucose concentrations continuously decreased, accompanied by a continuous increase in sucrose concentrations. Storage in CA maintained the quality of onions best, as evidenced by the smallest changes in flavor precursors, pungency, and sugar concentrations, while storage at 5 °C resulted in increased pungency. Storage at 24 and 30 °C was tested for the purpose of comparison only; these temperatures are not recommended for commercial storage. PMID:22242977

Yoo, Kil S; Lee, Eun J; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

2012-02-01

122

Correlation between the Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Leaf Starch and Sugars of C3 Plants and the Ratio of Intercellular and Atmospheric Partial Pressures of Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

Carbon isotope discrimination (?) was analyzed in leaf starch and soluble sugars, which represent most of the recently fixed carbon. Plants of three C3 species (Populus nigra L. × P. deltoides Marsh., Gossypium hirsutum L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were kept in the dark for 24 hours to decrease contents of starch and sugar in leaves. Then gas exchange measurements were made with constant conditions for 8 hours, and subsequently starch and soluble sugars were extracted for analysis of carbon isotope composition. The ratio of intercellular, pi, and atmospheric, pa, partial pressures of CO2, was calculated from gas exchange measurements, integrated over time and weighted by assimilation rate, for comparison with the carbon isotope ratios in soluble sugars and starch. Carbon isotope discrimination in soluble sugars correlated strongly (r = 0.93) with pi/pa in all species, as did ? in leaf starch (r = 0.84). Starch was found to contain significantly more 13C than soluble sugar, and possible explanations are discussed. The strong correlation found between ? and pi/pa suggests that carbon isotope analysis in leaf starch and soluble sugars may be used for monitoring, indirectly, the average of pi/pa weighted by CO2 assimilation rate, over a day. Because pi/pa has a negative correlation with transpiration efficiency (mol CO2/mol H2O) of isolated plants, ? in starch and sugars may be used to predict differences in this efficiency. This new method may be useful in ecophysiological studies and in selection for improved transpiration efficiency in breeding programs for C3 species. PMID:16666476

Brugnoli, Enrico; Hubick, Kerry T.; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Wong, Suan Chin; Farquhar, Graham D.

1988-01-01

123

Modulation of organic acids and sugar content in tomato fruits by an abscisic acid-regulated transcription factor.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in fruit development. ABA signaling components of developmental programs and responses to stress conditions include the group of basic leucine zipper transcriptional activators known as ABA-response element binding factors (AREBs/ABFs). AREB transcription factors mediate ABA-regulated gene expression involved in desiccation tolerance and are expressed mainly in seeds and in vegetative tissues under stress; however, they are also expressed in some fruits such as tomato. In order to get an insight into the role of ABA signaling in fruit development, the expression of two AREB-like factors were investigated during different developmental stages. In addition, tomato transgenic lines that overexpress and downregulate one AREB-like transcription factor, SlAREB1, were used to determine its effect on the levels of some metabolites determining fruit quality. Higher levels of citric acid, malic acid, glutamic acid, glucose and fructose were observed in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with those in antisense suppression lines in red mature fruit pericarp. The higher hexose concentration correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13). No significant changes were found in ethylene content which agrees with the normal ripening phenotype observed in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that an AREB-mediated ABA signal affects the metabolism of these compounds during the fruit developmental program. PMID:21128945

Bastías, Adriana; López-Climent, María; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Rosello, Salvador; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Casaretto, José A

2011-03-01

124

Domestic processing effects on available carbohydrate content and starch digestibility of black grams ( Vigna mungo) and chick peas ( Cicer arietium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic processing effects on available carbohydrate contents and starch digestibility of black grams and chick peas were investigated. The food legumes were soaked in tap water and alkaline solution of sodium bicarbonate at 30 and 100°C for 1–2h before cooking under pressure. Total soluble sugars, reducing sugars and starch contents of black grams and chick peas were 9.64% and 9.83%,

2007-01-01

125

Sugar test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Metabolism is the conversion or breakdown of a substance from one form to another by a living organism for energy. Yeast is an indicator of how much sugar is in food. Yeast releases carbon dioxide and is a direct indicator of the rate of metabolism. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. Cereals contain sugars, which are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are chemicals that provide energy.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

126

Seasonal changes in starch and sugar content of poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra cv. Dorskamp) and the impact of stem girdling on carbohydrate allocation to roots.  

PubMed

Trees need to store reserves to allow their survival during winter and for bud flush and leaf growth in the following spring. In many tree species, these reserve functions are mainly covered by starch, which is degraded to soluble carbohydrates during the dormant season for maintenance respiration and in spring during bud flush. We conducted girdling experiments on poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra cv. Dorskamp) in order to elucidate how interrupted transport of carbohydrates to the roots during autumn affects plant survival during winter and bud flush in spring. We measured the content of starch, sucrose, glucose, fructose, raffinose and stachyose in stems (above and below the girdle), coarse roots and fine roots over 1 year. We found that, in response to girdling, carbohydrates accumulated in stems above the girdle. As a result of interrupted reserve allocation, girdled plants depleted their root starch reserves nearly to zero, whereas in stems below the girdle, reserves were maintained close to control values, presumably in order to facilitate dormancy release and re-sprouting from buds below the girdle. Furthermore, we showed that stachyose accumulated during winter also in the roots, even in girdled plants, consistent with its importance as freezing protectant. The lower stachyose content of roots compared with shoots was likely due to protection of the roots from cold by the soil. PMID:20538808

Regier, Nicole; Streb, Sebastian; Zeeman, Samuel C; Frey, Beat

2010-08-01

127

Changes to the content of sugars, sugar alcohols, myo-inositol, carboxylic acids and inorganic anions in developing grains from different varieties of Robusta ( Coffea canephora) and Arabica ( C. arabica) coffees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in concentration of mono- and oligosaccharides, sugar alcohols, myo-inositol, carboxylic acids and inorganic anions in coffee grains were analysed during grain development in three cultivars of Coffea arabica L (Arabica) and two of C. canephora L var. Robusta (Robusta) by high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled to pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAE-PED). The majority of the components analysed either decreased

William John Rogers; Stéphane Michaux; Maryse Bastin; Peter Bucheli

1999-01-01

128

Effects of faunation and type of dietary protein on gastric solubility and liver content of copper in sheep.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of the presence of protozoa on copper (Cu) metabolism in sheep fed corn silage or corn silage supplemented with casein, fish meal or soybean meal. For each diet, eight rams were kept fauna-free; eight additional rams were faunated and housed separately from them. The faunated rams in all treatments grew faster and consumed more feed and, consequently, more Cu. However, they had a lower (P less than .01) ruminal Cu solubility and accumulated less Cu in their livers than the fauna-free rams when fed corn silage alone or in combination with soybean meal (insoluble, ruminally degraded protein). Such effects were not significant when corn silage was supplemented with fish meal (protein resistant to ruminal degradation). The presence of ciliate protozoa in the rumen had no effect on the accumulation of Cu in the liver of sheep fed corn silage supplemented with casein (soluble, ruminally degraded protein) and produced conflicting results on ruminal Cu solubility. Hence, the effect of protozoa on Cu metabolism is indirect and depends on the type of protein present in the diet. PMID:2531733

Ivan, M

1989-11-01

129

Design and Information Content of Arrays of Sorption-based Vapor Sensors using Solubility Interactions and Linear Solvation Energy Relationships  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of vapors by the selective polymeric layer on a chemical vapor sensor is described in detail and dissected into fundamental solubility interactions. The sorption process is modeled in terms of solvation parameters for vapor solubility properties and linear solvation energy relationships. The latter relationships model the log of the partition coefficient as the sum of terms related to specific types of interactions. The approaches are particularly applicable to the design and understanding of acoustic wave chemical vapor sensors such as those based on surface acoustic wave devices. It is shown how an understanding of solubility interactions informs the selection of polymers to obtain chemical diversity in sensor arrays and obtain the maximum amount of chemical information. The inherent dimensionality of the array data, as analyzed by principle components analysis, is consistent with this formulation. Furthermore, it is shown how new chemometric methods have been developed to extract the chemical information from array responses in terms of solvation parameters serving as de-scriptors of the detected vapor.

Grate, Jay W.; Abraham, Michael H.; Wise, Barry M.

2009-11-01

130

Origin of the ‘Weisse Schlesische Rübe’ (white Silesian beet) and resynthesis of sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beet-besides fodder beet, red beet, and chard-belongs to Beta vulgaris L. After it had been confirmed that the sugar of Beta beet is chemically identical with cane sugar, ACHARD started experiments on the production of sugar from fodder beet. He noticed that conical white beets seemed to have the highest sugar content. This first sugar beet, the ‘Weiße Schlesische

Hans Eberhard Fischer

1989-01-01

131

[Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid biochemical properties].  

PubMed

Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid protein and carbohydrate content, as well as oxidative balance were studied in 60 medical school students in compare with conventional sugar. Sugar intake proved to cause cariesogenic carbohydrate metabolism disorders in oral fluid, intensification of lipoperoxidation and decrease in antioxidation activity. Sugar substitute products help to prevent dental decay. PMID:22810570

Tsapok, P I; Imbriakov, K V; Chuchkova, M R

2012-01-01

132

Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of "Catherine" Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks  

PubMed Central

The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1) on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol) and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC). Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties. PMID:24496242

Font i Forcada, Carolina; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Moreno, Maria Angeles

2014-01-01

133

Changes in wheat seed germination ability, soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant enzyme activities in the embryo during the desiccation phase of maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble sugar contents and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured in the embryo of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds throughout the desiccation phase of maturation in 2003 and 2004 to investigate whether they were related to seed quality. Whatever the date of harvest after the end of filling, seeds tolerated artificial drying in the ears, and almost all of them germinated at

A. Lehner; C. Bailly; B. Flechel; P. Poels; D. Côme; F. Corbineau

2006-01-01

134

A Sugar-Inducible Protein Kinase, VvSK1, Regulates Hexose Transport and Sugar Accumulation in Grapevine Cells  

PubMed Central

In grapevine (Vitis vinifera), as in many crops, soluble sugar content is a major component of yield and economical value. This paper identifies and characterizes a Glycogen Synthase Kinase3 protein kinase, cloned from a cDNA library of grape Cabernet Sauvignon berries harvested at the ripening stage. This gene, called VvSK1, was mainly expressed in flowers, berries, and roots. In the berries, it was strongly expressed at postvéraison, when the berries accumulate glucose, fructose, and abscisic acid. In grapevine cell suspensions, VvSK1 transcript abundance is increased by sugars and abscisic acid. In transgenic grapevine cells overexpressing VvSK1, the expression of four monosaccharide transporters (VvHT3, VvHT4, VvHT5, and VvHT6) was up-regulated, the rate of glucose uptake was increased 3- to 5-fold, and the amount of glucose and sucrose accumulation was more than doubled, while the starch amount was not affected. This work provides, to our knowledge, the first example of the control of sugar uptake and accumulation by a sugar-inducible protein kinase. PMID:19923236

Lecourieux, Fatma; Lecourieux, David; Vignault, Celine; Delrot, Serge

2010-01-01

135

Modification of the Potassium Ferricyanide Reducing Sugar Test for Sugars from Extracts of Cotton Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years the potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) standard sugar test-also known as the Perkins test-has been used by the textile industry to quantify the content of sticky sugars on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint. This test, however, is a reducing sugar test and does not detect non-reducing sugars, which are known to contribute to the stickiness potential of the lint.

Donald E. Brushwood

136

Effects of infestation on the nutrient content and physiocochemical properties of two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties.  

PubMed

Two cowpea varieties (Ife-brown and Kano-white varieties) were used for the study. The effects of insect infestation on the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of these cowpea seeds were studied. The proximate composition, mineral content, total starch, total soluble sugars, bulk density, fat and water absorption capacities, viscosity, gelation capacity and emulsion properties of infested cowpea varieties were compared with those of uninfested cowpeas. Effects of infestation on nitrogen solubility and on the protein fractions were also determined. Infestation depleted the protein, starch and soluble sugar contents of cowpeas. Oil and water absorption capacities were increased while emulsification, foam and viscosity properties were reduced. The nitrogen solubility pattern was altered. Uninfested Kano-white cowpeas (UKW) possessed better foam properties than uninfested Ife-brown cowpeas (UFB). On the other hand, UFB had better emulsification properties than UKW. PMID:10540984

Ojimelukwe, P C; Onweluzo, J C; Okechukwu, E

1999-01-01

137

Soluble factors produced by PC-3 prostate cells decrease collagen content and mineralisation rate in fetal rat osteoblasts in culture.  

PubMed Central

Approximately 70% of patients with prostate cancer develop bone metastases in the advanced state of the disease. In the present study, we sought to test the hypothesis that prostatic cancer cells produce factors that inhibit the mineralisation process in vitro, decreasing the content of type I collagen in rat fetal calvaria osteoblasts. We investigated the capacity of conditioned media (CM) from the human prostatic tumour cell line PC-3 to inhibit the expression of the differentiation programme on osteoblasts in culture, with a primary focus on type I collagen synthesis and degradation. Our results show that PC-3 CM inhibits collagen synthesis and stimulates the production of interstitial collagenase from osteoblasts. A consequential decrease in the content of immunoreactive type I collagen was observed. We have previously demonstrated that PC-3 CM blocks osteoblast differentiation in culture. We propose that under the effect of factors present in PC-3 CM, osteoblastic cells retain the undifferentiated phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8695358

Santibanez, J. F.; Silva, S.; Martinez, J.

1996-01-01

138

What Variables Affect Solubility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

2003-01-01

139

Increased Expression of a Phloem Membrane Protein Encoded by NHL26 Alters Phloem Export and Sugar Partitioning in Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

The complex process of phloem sugar transport involves symplasmic and apoplasmic events. We characterized Arabidopsis thaliana lines ectopically expressing a phloem-specific gene encoding NDR1/HIN1-like26 (NHL26), a putative membrane protein. NHL26 overexpressor plants grew more slowly than wild-type plants, accumulated high levels of carbohydrates in mature leaves, and had a higher shoot biomass, contrasting with slower root growth and a lower seed yield. Similar effects were observed when NHL26 was overexpressed in companion cells, under the control of a companion cell–specific promoter. The soluble sugar content of the phloem sap and sink organs was lower than that in the wild type, providing evidence of a sugar export defect. This was confirmed in a phloem-export assay with the symplastic tracer carboxyfluorescein diacetate. Leaf sugar accumulation was accompanied by higher organic acid, amino acid, and protein contents, whereas analysis of the metabolite profile of phloem sap exudate revealed no change in amino acid or organic acid content, indicating a specific effect on sugar export. NHL26 was found to be located in the phloem plasmodesmata and the endoplasmic reticulum. These findings reveal that NHL26 accumulation affects either the permeability of plasmodesmata or sugar signaling in companion cells, with a specific effect on sugar export. PMID:23715470

Vilaine, Francoise; Kerchev, Pavel; Clement, Gilles; Batailler, Brigitte; Cayla, Thibaud; Bill, Laurence; Gissot, Lionel; Dinant, Sylvie

2013-01-01

140

Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners – A risk benefit assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and

T. Husøy; B. Mangschou; T. Ø. Fotland; S. O. Kolset; H. Nøtvik Jakobsen; I. Tømmerberg; C. Bergsten; J. Alexander; L. Frost Andersen

2008-01-01

141

Supplementation of alkaline phytase (Ds11) in whole-wheat bread reduces phytate content and improves mineral solubility.  

PubMed

In this study, alkaline phytase was added to whole-wheat bread and the phytate content and mineral profiles were compared to commercially available acidic phytase. At neutral pH, some phytate (approximately 20%) was degraded by endogenous phytase in wheat flour, while 40% of phytate was hydrolyzed by alkaline phytase DS11 and a 35% reduction was observed with acidic phytase. Most of the enzymatic activity occurred during the proofing stage, and the rate of reaction depended on pH. DS11 phytase effectively degraded the phytate level within a 30 min treatment at pH 7; however, at least 60 min was needed with acidic phytase to achieve the same hydrolysis level. Mineral profiles were also dramatically affected by the phytate reduction. The biggest increase was observed in Fe²? by the phytase treatment. The Fe²? content increased 10-fold at pH 7 and 8-fold at pH 5 with alkaline phytase DS11. Alkaline phytase DS11 was shown to be effective at phytate reduction in whole-wheat bread preparation. Additionally, phytate degradation enhanced the mineral availability of bread. PMID:21623782

Park, Yun-Jong; Park, Jiwon; Park, Ki-Hwan; Oh, Byung-Chul; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

2011-08-01

142

Salt stress induced changes in germination, sugars, starch and enzyme of carbohydrate metabolism in Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

During germination stage, the influence of NaCl on cumulative germination percentage, starch, total soluble sugar and phenol content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, cultivar Marsaouia) seeds and growth seedlings components (cotyledons and embryonic axes) were studied. Seeds were sown in Petri dishes with varying concentrations of saline solutions (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mM NaCl) at 25°C.

Besma Ben Dkhil; Mounir Denden

2010-01-01

143

Changes in sugar, organic acid, flavonol and carotenoid composition during ripening of berries of three seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble solid, sugar, organic acid, flavonol and carotenoid content were determined in seabuckthorn berries of the three German cultivars Askola, Hergo and Leikora, collected at different harvesting times, to provide a more thorough knowledge of quality changes occurring during ripening of the berries. The main organic acids were malic (1940–4660 mg\\/100 g), quinic (810–2820 mg\\/100 g), ascorbic (180–370 mg\\/100 g) and citric acid (90–160 mg\\/100 g). In all

Antonio Raffo; Flavio Paoletti; Marco Antonelli

2004-01-01

144

Production and utilization of sugar beets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing of sugar beets has become a major chemical industry in the United States. About one-quarter of the country’s sugar\\u000a requirement is obtained from about 12 million tons of beets grown on 700 thousand acres of land. This industry has succeeded\\u000a through the combined efforts of scientists in many fields, who have improved resistance to diseases, sugar content of beets,

H. S. Owens; C. L. Rasmussen; W. D. Maclay

1951-01-01

145

Effect of soluble calcium on the determination of the labile metal content of sediments with ion-exchangers.  

PubMed

Equilibration of sediments with cation-exchangers results in a transfer of loosely bound labile metal species to the exchanger phase. Dissolution of the matrix is also promoted and selectivity rules suggest that some of the cations released (particularly Ca) could effectively compete with metal ions for exchange sites. This potential source of error has been evaluated by studying synthetic mixtures of Ca(2+) and other metal ions (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+)) and by analysis of two calcium-rich wastes (a calcine and a jarosite). The ion uptake most influenced by calcium competition was that of zinc; uptake of lead was least affected. For minimum error, i.e., optimum transfer of "available" or "labile" metal ion, the level of free Ca(2+) introduced into the solution should not exceed 300 mg/l., and the amount of exchanger added must provide an excess of exchange sites relative to the amount of cations released from the sample. By use of exchangers of different types it is possible to attempt some classification of the labile metal content, e.g., acid-displaced, exchangeable, salts of weak acids. PMID:18964894

Beveridge, A; Waller, P; Pickering, W F

1989-12-01

146

Simultaneous identification and quantification of the sugar, sugar alcohol, and carboxylic acid contents of sour cherry, apple, and ber fruits, as their trimethylsilyl derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method--developed for the simultaneous quantitation of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides, sugar alcohols, caboxylic and amino acids, measured as their trimethylsilyl-(oxime) ether/ester derivatives, from one solution by a single injection, prepared in the presence of the fruit matrix--has been extended/utilized for special purposes. The compositions of (i) freshly harvested and stored sour cherries (Prunus cerasus), (ii) apples obtained from organic and integrated productions (Malus domestica), and (iii) green and ripe bers (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) were compared. On the basis of earlier, basic researches (derivatization, quantitation, and fragmentation studies of authentic compounds), we demonstrate the reproducible quantitation of the main and minor constituents in a wide concentration range (approximately 1 x 10(-)(3) to >/=40%, in total up to < or =98%, calculated on dry matter basis of the fruit matrices). Reproducibility of quantitations, calculated on the basis of their total ion current values, provided an average reproducibility of 3.3 (sour cherries), 6.2 (apple), and 4.3 (ber) RSD %, respectively. PMID:15675786

Füzfai, Zsófia; Katona, Zsolt F; Kovács, Etelka; Molnár-Perl, Ibolya

2004-12-15

147

Effect of sugar composition on the water sorption and softening properties of cookie.  

PubMed

In order to elucidate the effect of sugar composition on the water sorption and softening properties of cookie, three types of sugar composition (sugar alone, sugar-trehalose, and sugar-sorbitol) were employed as an ingredient of cookie, and softening temperature (Ts) of the cookie samples, adjusted to various water contents, was investigated using thermal rheological analysis. Ts decreased linearly with increasing water content of the cookie samples. At each water content, Ts of samples was higher in the order of sugar-trehalose>sugaralone >sugar-sorbitol. On the other hand, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the sugar and/or sugar alcohol mixtures used for cookie preparation was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. A linear relationship was found between anhydrous Ts of the cookie samples and anhydrous Tg of the sugar and/or sugar alcohol mixtures. These results suggest that sugar composition plays an important role in the softening properties of cookie samples. PMID:24128543

Kawai, Kiyoshi; Toh, Midori; Hagura, Yoshio

2014-02-15

148

Assessment of energy content of low-solubles corn distillers dried grains and effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat quality in growing-finishing pigs.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to assess the energy content of low-solubles distillers dried grains (LS-DDG) and their effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat quality in grow-finish pigs. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc; 80 to 90 d of age) in 2 successive periods were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. In individual metabolism stalls, pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet (control); control replaced by 30, 40, or 50% LS-DDG; or control replaced by 30 or 40% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) at 3% of their initial BW for 12 d. All diets contained 0.25% CrO(2). During the 5-d collection period, feces and urine were collected from each pig. Feed, feces, and urine were analyzed for DM, GE, and N concentrations, and feed and feces were analyzed for Cr content. The ME content of LS-DDG (2,959 ± 100 kcal/kg of DM) was similar to that determined for DDGS (2,964 ± 81 kcal/kg of DM). In Exp. 2, 216 Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc pigs were blocked by initial BW (18.8 ± 0.76 kg) and assigned to 1 of 24 pens (9 pigs/pen). Pens within block were allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments (8 pens/treatment) in a 4-phase feeding program: a corn-soybean meal control (control), control containing 20% LS-DDG, or control containing 20% DDGS. Treatment had no effect on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or HCW. Pigs fed LS-DDG had similar G:F (0.367) compared with pigs fed DDGS (0.370), but tended (P = 0.09) to have decreased G:F compared with pigs fed the control (0.380; pooled SEM = 0.004). Dressing percent was less (P < 0.01) for pigs fed LS-DDG (72.8%) and DDGS (72.8%) compared with the control (73.8%; pooled SEM = 0.22). Pigs fed LS-DDG (54.8%) had greater (P = 0.02) carcass lean compared with pigs fed DDGS (53.4%), but were similar to pigs fed control (54.1%; pooled SEM = 0.33). Bellies from pigs fed DDGS (12.9°) were softer (P < 0.01) than those from pigs fed control (17.7°; pooled SEM = 1.07) as determined by the belly flop angle test. Feeding LS-DDG (14.1°) tended (P < 0.10) to create softer bellies compared with control-fed pigs. The PUFA content of belly fat was reduced (P < 0.01) by LS-DDG (14.0%) compared with DDGS (15.4%), but was increased (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the control (9.4%; pooled SEM = 0.34). In conclusion, LS-DDG and DDGS had similar ME values and inclusion of 20% LS-DDG in diets for growing-finishing pigs supports ADG and ADFI similar to that of diets containing 20% DDGS, and may reduce negative effects on pork fat compared with DDGS. PMID:21571900

Dahlen, R B A; Baidoo, S K; Shurson, G C; Anderson, J E; Dahlen, C R; Johnston, L J

2011-10-01

149

Variable selection in visible/near infrared spectra for linear and nonlinear calibrations: a case study to determine soluble solids content of beer.  

PubMed

Three effective wavelength (EW) selection methods combined with visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy were investigated to determine the soluble solids content (SSC) of beer, including successive projections algorithm (SPA), regression coefficient analysis (RCA) and independent component analysis (ICA). A total of 360 samples were prepared for the calibration (n=180), validation (n=90) and prediction (n=90) sets. The performance of different preprocessing was compared. Three calibrations using EWs selected by SPA, RCA and ICA were developed, including linear regression of partial least squares analysis (PLS) and multiple linear regression (MLR), and nonlinear regression of least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM). Ten EWs selected by SPA achieved the optimal linear SPA-MLR model compared with SPA-PLS, RCA-MLR, RCA-PLS, ICA-MLR and ICA-PLS. The correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) by SPA-MLR were 0.9762 and 0.1808, respectively. Moreover, the newly proposed SPA-LS-SVM model obtained almost the same excellent performance with RCA-LS-SVM and ICA-LS-SVM models, and the r value and RMSEP were 0.9818 and 0.1628, respectively. The nonlinear model SPA-LS-SVM outperformed SPA-MLR model. The overall results indicated that SPA was a powerful way for the selection of EWs, and Vis/NIR spectroscopy incorporated to SPA-LS-SVM was successful for the accurate determination of SSC of beer. PMID:19200477

Liu, Fei; Jiang, Yihong; He, Yong

2009-03-01

150

Use of visible and near infrared spectroscopy and least squares-support vector machine to determine soluble solids content and pH of cola beverage.  

PubMed

Visible and near infrared (VIS/NIR) transmission spectroscopy and chemometric methods were utilized for the fast determination of soluble solids content (SSC) and pH of cola beverage. A total of 180 samples were used for the calibration set, whereas 60 samples were used for the validation set. Some preprocessing methods were applied before developing the calibration models. Several PLS factors, extracted by partial least squares (PLS) analysis, were used as the inputs of least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model according to their accumulative reliabilities. The correlation coefficient (r), root mean square error of prediction (rmsEP), bias, and RPD were 0.959, 1.136, -0.185, and 3.5 for SSC, whereas 0.973, 0.053, 0.017, and 4.1 for pH, respectively. An excellent prediction precision was achieved by LS-SVM compared with PLS. The results indicated that VIS/NIR spectroscopy combined with LS-SVM could be applied as a rapid and alternative way for the fast determination of SSC and pH of cola beverage. PMID:17960870

Liu, Fei; He, Yong

2007-10-31

151

Do Your Level Best: Start Controlling Your Blood Sugar Today.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: What is diabetes (How do you get high blood sugar, Whay do you need to take care of your diabetes); Taking care of your diabetes every day (Eat health food, Test your blood sugar every day, Keep daily records); When your blood sugar is t...

1995-01-01

152

Added Sugars  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

153

Mobilization of seed storage lipid by Arabidopsis seedlings is retarded in the presence of exogenous sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Soluble sugar levels must be closely regulated in germinating seeds to ensure an adequate supply of energy and building materials for the developing seedling. Studies on germinating cereal seeds indicate that production of sugars from starch is inhibited by increasing sugar levels. Although numerous studies have focused on the regulation of starch metabolism, very few studies have addressed the

Jennifer PC To; Wolf-Dieter Reiter; Susan I Gibson

2002-01-01

154

Impact of distillers dried grains with solubles particle size on nutrient digestibility, DE and ME content, and flowability in diets for growing pigs.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on DE and ME content, diet DM, energy, N, P digestibility, and diet flowability for growing pigs. One DDGS source was processed through an Urshel Commitrol mill or a hammer mill to achieve mean particle sizes of 818, 595, and 308 ?m. The basal control diet consisted of 96.8% corn with supplemental minerals and vitamins. Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 30% of corn from the basal diet with DDGS of different particle sizes. Thirty-six growing pigs (initial BW of 40 ± 1.13 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their BW block and housed in individual metabolic crates for a 9-d adaptation period followed by a 4-d total collection of feces and urine. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to water and fed an amount of their respective experimental diets equivalent to 3% of the initial BW of each pig. Feed, feces, and urine samples were analyzed for DM, GE, N, and P and used to calculate diet apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Gross energy was also used to calculate DE and ME of diets as well as the DE and ME content of corn and DDGS with different particle sizes. Diet drained and poured angles of repose were measured using a modified Hele-Shaw cell method to evaluate the diet flowability. Inclusion of 30% DDGS with an average particle size of 308 ?m improved (P < 0.05) dietary ATTD of DM and GE as well as DE (4,006 vs. 3,783 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3,861 vs. 3,583 kcal/kg DM) compared with 818 ?m DDGS. No differences (P > 0.05) were found in N and P digestibility among the 3 DDGS diets. The DDGS particle size of 595 ?m had greater (P < 0.05) DE but not ME compared with 818 ?m DDGS, and DE and ME were not different between 308 and 595 ?m. Compared with a 595 or 818 ?m DDGS, grinding DDGS to 308 ?m reduced diet flowability as indicated by a greater (P < 0.05) drained angle of repose. These results suggested that for each 25 ?m decrease in DDGS particle size from 818 ?m to 308 ?m, the ME contribution of DDGS to the diet is 13.46 kcal/kg DM, but diet flowability will be reduced. PMID:22851246

Liu, P; Souza, L W O; Baidoo, S K; Shurson, G C

2012-12-01

155

Solubility Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

156

Contents of soluble, cell-wall-bound and exuded phlorotannins in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, with implications on their ecological functions.  

PubMed

Phlorotannins are ubiquitous secondary metabolites in brown algae that are phenotypically plastic and suggested to have multiple ecological roles. Traditionally, phlorotannins have been quantified as total soluble phlorotannins. Here, we modify a quantification procedure to measure, for the first time, the amount of cell-wall-bound phlorotannins. We also optimize the quantification of soluble phlorotannins. We use these methods to study the responses of soluble and cell-wall-bound phlorotannin to nutrient enrichment in growing and nongrowing parts of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. We also examine the effects of nutrient shortage and herbivory on the rate of phlorotannin exudation. Concentrations of cell-wall-bound phlorotannins were much lower than concentrations of soluble phlorotannins; we also found that nutrient treatment over a period of 41 days affected only soluble phlorotannins. Concentrations of each phlorotannin type correlated positively between growing and nongrowing parts of individual seaweeds. However, within nongrowing thalli, soluble and cell-wall-bound phlorotannins were negatively correlated, whereas within growing thalli there was no correlation. Phlorotannins were exuded from the thallus in all treatments. Herbivory increased exudation, while a lack of nutrients had no effect on exudation. Because the amount of cell-wall-bound phlorotannins is much smaller than the amount of soluble phlorotannins, the major function of phlorotannins appears to be a secondary one. PMID:15839490

Koivikko, Riitta; Loponen, Jyrki; Honkanen, Tuija; Jormalainen, Veijo

2005-01-01

157

Salts & Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Add different salts to water, then watch them dissolve and achieve a dynamic equilibrium with solid precipitate. Compare the number of ions in solution for highly soluble NaCl to other slightly soluble salts. Relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. Calculate Ksp values.

Simulations, Phet I.; Adams, Wendy; Koch, Linda; Lemaster, Ron; Loeblein, Trish; Perkins, Kathy

2006-04-01

158

Blood Sugar and Fats  

MedlinePLUS

... For more information, see Fact Sheet 553 on lipodystrophy (body shape changes). BLOOD SUGAR Glucose is sugar. ... can reduce the oxygen supply to your heart muscle and cause heart disease or a heart attack. ...

159

High blood sugar  

MedlinePLUS

High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

160

Home blood sugar testing  

MedlinePLUS

Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. And some people need to check ...

161

Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction (WSOC), and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

2007-04-01

162

Siderite (FeCO?) and magnetite (Fe?O?) overload-dependent pulmonary toxicity is determined by the poorly soluble particle not the iron content.  

PubMed

The two poorly soluble iron containing solid aerosols of siderite (FeCO?) and magnetite (Fe?O?) were compared in a 4-week inhalation study on rats at similar particle mass concentrations of approximately 30 or 100?mg/m³. The particle size distributions were essentially identical (MMAD ?1.4 ?m). The iron-based concentrations were 12 or 38 and 22 or 66?mg Fe/m³ for FeCO? and Fe?O?, respectively. Modeled and empirically determined iron lung burdens were compared with endpoints suggestive of pulmonary inflammation by determinations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and oxidative stress in lung tissue during a postexposure period of 3 months. The objective of study was to identify the most germane exposure metrics, that are the concentration of elemental iron (mg Fe/m³), total particle mass (mg PM/m³) or particle volume (?l PM/m³) and their associations with the effects observed. From this analysis it was apparent that the intensity of pulmonary inflammation was clearly dependent on the concentration of particle-mass or -volume and not of iron. Despite its lower iron content, the exposure to FeCO? caused a more pronounced and sustained inflammation as compared to Fe?O?. Similarly, borderline evidence of increased oxidative stress and inflammation occurred especially following exposure to FeCO? at moderate lung overload levels. The in situ analysis of 8-oxoguanine in epithelial cells of alveolar and bronchiolar regions supports the conclusion that both FeCO? and Fe?O? particles are effectively endocytosed by macrophages as opposed to epithelial cells. Evidence of intracellular or nuclear sources of redox-active iron did not exist. In summary, this mechanistic study supports previous conclusions, namely that the repeated inhalation exposure of rats to highly respirable pigment-type iron oxides cause nonspecific pulmonary inflammation which shows a clear dependence on the particle volume-dependent lung overload rather than any increased dissolution and/or bioavailability of redox-active iron. PMID:22035119

Pauluhn, Jürgen; Wiemann, Martin

2011-11-01

163

Interactive effects of phytase and xylanase supplementation with extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn in diets with adequate calcium and nonphytate phosphorus fed to broilers.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine the effects of extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn (PS) and exogenous enzyme supplementation on N, starch, and energy digestibility in broilers fed diets adequate in Ca and nonphytate P. Broilers were randomly distributed into floor pens (6 replicate pens per treatment) with 28 birds per pen at 1 d of age. Treatments consisting of 4 sources of corn varying in PS (A, 58.1; B, 54.2; C, 53.7; and D, 30.6 mg of BSA equivalent values) with or without phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg) and xylanase (0 and 16,000 units of xylanase activity/kg) were randomly assigned to each pen. Different sources of corn were provided from 1 to 9 and 24 to 29 d of age. However, enzyme treatments were provided throughout the experiment. From 1 to 9 d of age, no interactions were observed. Apparent ileal N digestibility (AIND) and apparent ileal digestible energy (IDE) of diets with the lowest PS (based on corn D) were lower (P ? 0.05) than those of diets with a higher PS. Phytase increased (P ? 0.01) AIND and IDE by 5 and 16%, respectively, and xylanase exerted the opposite effect (P ? 0.03). From 24 to 29 d of age, phytase and xylanase in combination resulted in reduced (P ? 0.05) AIND of diets with a low PS (based on corn D) compared with the basal diet in broilers. Broilers fed diets with the highest or lowest PS (based on corn A or D) had lower (3-way interaction; P ? 0.05) IDE when phytase and xylanase were supplemented in combination compared with either enzyme alone. In conclusion, responses to exogenous enzyme supplementation are not constant and are influenced by the source of ingredients as well as the age of broilers. The magnitudes of the responses to phytase on nutrient and energy digestibility were greater at 9 compared with 29 d of age. PMID:23776274

Gehring, C K; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

2013-07-01

164

Soluble NCAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein involved in homophilic interactions that facilitate\\u000a cell-cell adhesion. In addition to a number of membrane-bound isoforms, NCAM also exists in several soluble isoforms that\\u000a have been identified in cerebrospinal fluid, blood serum, brain tissue, and cell culture media. Soluble NCAM can be produced\\u000a in a number of ways, such as

Thomas Secher

165

Solubility Equilibria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 11-page PDF document is part of an environmental geochemistry course taught by Dr. David Sherman at the University of Bristol. Topics include the formation of insoluble carbonates, sulfates, sulfides and hydroxides from +2 and +3 cations, solubility expression (congruent vs. incongruent), and the common ion effect. Also discussed are the effects of solid solution and pH dependence of hydroxide and sulfide and carbonate solubilities. Informative diagrams augment the text.

Sherman, David M.; Bristol, University O.

166

A recombination hotspot delimits a wild-species quantitative trait locus for tomato sugar content to 484 bp within an invertase gene.  

PubMed

In nature, genetic variation usually takes the form of a continuous phenotypic range rather than discrete classes. The genetic variation underlying quantitative traits results from the segregation of numerous interacting quantitative trait loci (QTLs), whose expression is modified by the environment. To uncover the molecular basis of this variation, we characterized a QTL (Brix9-2-5) derived from the green-fruited tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii. The wild-species allele increased glucose and fructose contents in cultivated tomato fruits in various genetic backgrounds and environments. Using nearly isogenic lines for the QTL, high-resolution mapping analysis delimited Brix9-2-5 to a single nucleotide polymorphism-defined recombination hotspot of 484 bp spanning an exon and intron of a fruit-specific apoplastic invertase. We suggest that the differences between the Brix9-2-5 alleles of the two species are associated with a polymorphic intronic element that modulates sink strength of tomato fruits. Our results demonstrate a link between naturally occurring DNA variation and a Mendelian determinant of a complex phenotype for a yield-associated trait. PMID:10781077

Fridman, E; Pleban, T; Zamir, D

2000-04-25

167

Use of green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract and water-soluble nanomicelles of green rooibos extract encapsulated with ascorbic acid for enhanced aspalathin content in ready-to-drink iced teas.  

PubMed

Heat-induced changes in aspalathin, iso-orientin, and orientin content of ready-to-drink (RTD) green rooibos iced tea formulations were investigated. An organic-solvent-based aspalathin-enriched extract prepared from green rooibos was used "as-is" or encapsulated with ascorbic acid in a water-soluble nanomicelle-based carrier system. The common iced tea ingredients, ascorbic acid, and/or citric acid were added to the iced tea containing green rooibos extract. Only citric acid was added to the iced tea containing the nanomicelles. Heat treatments consisted of pasteurization (93 °C/5 min and 93 °C/30 min), normal-temperature sterilization (NTS; 121 °C/15 min), and high-temperature sterilization (HTS; 135 °C/4 min). Pasteurization had little or no effect on the flavonoid content. NTS and HTS induced significant losses in the flavonoids. The addition of citric and ascorbic acids improved the stability of the flavonoids, but encapsulation of green rooibos extract with ascorbic acid in nanomicelles did not offer additional stability. The only benefit of using the water-soluble nanomicelles was the improved clarity of the RTD product. Iso-orientin and orientin contents were substantially less affected than aspalathin by the heat treatments, partially because of conversion of aspalathin to these flavones, which countered losses. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a known dehydration product of hexoses under mild acidic conditions and also a degradation product of ascorbic acid, was observed in formulations containing citric and/or ascorbic acids. PMID:20923193

Joubert, Elizabeth; Viljoen, Melvi; De Beer, Dalene; Malherbe, Christiaan J; Brand, D Jacobus; Manley, Marena

2010-10-27

168

Soluble dietary fiber from Canna edulis Ker by-product and its physicochemical properties.  

PubMed

Using Canna edulis Ker by-product as raw materials, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared using six different methods, including chemical, physical-chemical, enzymatic, physical-enzymatic, chemical-enzymatic and physical-chemical-enzymatic methods. As main component in the C. edulis by-product composed of cellulose, glucose converts to other single sugars, which form a series of compounds in the SDF. The treated methods have impact effects on single sugar composition, metal ion content, molecular size distribution, chemical bonds and groups in the structure, thermal property and color of the final product. In view of security, high yield and homogeneity as well as good thermal stability of final product, physical-enzymatic method will be a best choice for the production of SDF from C. edulis by-product. The SDF obtained can be used as dietary supplement and additive in the food industry. PMID:23218297

Zhang, Juan; Wang, Zheng-Wu

2013-01-30

169

Sugars as signaling molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that, in a manner similar to classical plant hormones, sugars can act as signaling molecules that control gene expression and developmental processes in plants. Crucial evidence includes uncoupling glucose signaling from its metabolism, identification of glucose sensors, and isolation and characterization of mutants and other regulatory components in plant sugar signal transduction pathways. The emerging scenario points

Jen Sheen; Li Zhou; Jyun-Chyun Jang

1999-01-01

170

Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

171

Sugar Crystal Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on surface area and how the shape of sugar crystals may differ as they are grown from sugars of different coarseness. Learners explore surface area, nanostructures, and work in teams and participate in hands-on activities. Safety: need an adult to handle the very hot water.

Ieee

2013-02-25

172

Effect of Sugars on Retrogradation of Waxy Maize Starch-Sugar Extrudates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 77(2):202-208 The effect of sucrose, fructose, and xylose on the retrogradation of waxy maize starch extrudates at relatively low moisture contents (20-50 g of water\\/ 100 g of dry solid) at 277-353 K was investigated using X-ray diffraction and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. The role of the sugar depended on the type of sugar and its

I. A. Farhat; J. M. V. Blanshard; M. Descamps; J. R. Mitchell

2000-01-01

173

CPPU elevates photosynthetic abilities, growth performances and yield traits in salt stressed rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica) via free proline and sugar accumulation.  

PubMed

Application of N-2-(chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenyl urea (CPPU) to salt susceptible cultivar of indica rice (cv. PTT1) effected on free proline and soluble sugar accumulation and regulated the physio-morphological responses when subjected to salt stress condition was firstly demonstrated in this study. Soluble sugars, including sucrose, glucose and fructose, in leaf blade and leaf sheath were enriched in 0.1 mM CPPU pretreated plants subsequently exposed to 16.6 dS m(-1) NaCl for 10 days. In the long period (15 days) salt stress, free proline content in the leaf blade and leaf sheath were evidently peaked to act as osmotic adjustment in the salt-stressed plants. In addition, the photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids, were maintained by the functional regulation of soluble sugar and free proline in the cellular levels, thereby leading to higher net photosynthetic rate. Further, the stomatal closure and transpiration rate in CPPU pretreated plants were retained under salt stress, thereby resulting in alleviation of growth performance and yield traits. This study suggested that exogenous application of CPPU may alternatively play effective role to improve the salt tolerant abilities of salt susceptible rice crop. PMID:24485312

Gashaw, Arega; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

2014-01-01

174

Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

2007-08-01

175

Sugar composition of biofilms produced by paper mill bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms of paper mill bacteria were cultivated in paper mill white water-simulating conditions on glass slides or stainless steel coupons in a laboratory culture system. The sugar content and composition of the biofilms were analysed and compared with the sugar composition of paper mill slimes. Acid methanolysis followed by gas chromatography revealed that Burkholderia was the major biofilm producer in

L. E. Lindberg; B. R. Holmbom; O. M. Väisänen; A. M.-L. Weber; M. S. Salkinoja-Salonen

2001-01-01

176

Transcript profiling of fructan biosynthetic pathway genes reveals association of a specific fructosyltransferase isoform with the high sugar trait in Lolium perenne.  

PubMed

Lolium perenne cultivars with elevated levels of fructans in leaf blades (high sugar-content grasses) have been developed to improve animal nutrition and reduce adverse environmental impacts of pastoral agricultural systems. Expression of the high sugar trait can vary substantially depending on genotype×environment (G×E) interactions. We grew three potential high sugar-content and a control cultivar in three temperature regimes and quantified water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) and the expression of all functionally characterised L. perenne fructan pathway genes in leaf tissues. We also analysed the distribution, expression and sequence variation of two specific isoforms of Lp6G-FFT (fructan: fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase). Our study confirmed a significant G×E interaction affecting the accumulation of fructans in the high sugar-content cultivar AberDart, which accumulated higher levels of high DP (degree of polymerisation) fructans in blades compared to the control cultivar only when grown at 20°C (day)/10°C (night) temperatures. The cultivar Expo on the other hand accumulated significantly higher levels of high DP fructans in blades independent of temperature. Fructan levels in pseudostems were higher than in blades, and they increased markedly with decreasing temperature, but there was no consistent effect of cultivar in this tissue. The expression of the high sugar trait was generally positively correlated with transcript levels of fructosyltransferases. Presence and expression of only one of the two known 6G-FFT isoforms was positively correlated with high fructan biosynthesis, while the second isoform was associated with low fructan concentrations and positively correlated with fructan exohydrolase gene expression. The presence of distinct 6G-FFT sequence variants appears to be associated with the capacity of high sugar-content grasses to accumulate higher fructan levels particularly at warmer temperatures. These findings might be exploited for the selection and breeding of 'warm-effective' high sugar-content grasses to overcome some of the limitations of current high sugar-content ryegrass cultivars. PMID:24655383

Rasmussen, Susanne; Parsons, Anthony J; Xue, Hong; Liu, Qianhe; Jones, Christopher S; Ryan, Geraldine D; Newman, Jonathan A

2014-04-15

177

Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... What is the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates? All carbohydrates are made up of units of sugar ("saccharide"). Carbohydrates containing only one unit of sugar (called "monosaccharides") ...

178

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

179

Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the rare lyxonic acid, and their relative abundances are in equilibrium proportions. In addition (in contrast to the above D-only excesses), some of the above acids are found in biology as the L enantiomer. Whether rare are common, all of the 6C sugar acids that are present in sufficient amounts to allow enantiomer analysis (Mannonic, gluconic, altronic, talonic, idonic, gulonic, and galactonic) also, apparently, possess significant D excesses.

Cooper, George

2012-01-01

180

Hyperactivity and sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts disagree with this. ... a different way when the child eliminates these foods. These ... colorings and hyperactivity. On the other hand, other studies ...

181

"JCE" Classroom Activity #105. A Sticky Situation: Chewing Gum and Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this Activity, students perform several solubility tests using common food items such as chocolate, chewing gum, water, sugar, and oil. From their observations during the Activity, students will initially classify the substances tested as soluble or insoluble. They will then use their understanding of the chemistry of solubility to classify the…

Montes-Gonzalez, Ingrid; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.; Perez-Medina, Ilia E.; Montes-Berrios, Veronica; Roman-Lopez, Saurie N.

2010-01-01

182

5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

183

Maufacture of raw cane sugar  

SciTech Connect

Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

184

Enhanced drought resistance in fructan-producing sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructans are soluble polymers of fructose that are produced by approximately 15 % of the flowering plant species. Production of bacterial fructans in tobacco has been shown previously to lead to improved biomass production under polyethylene glycol-mediated drought stress. Here, we used the same SacB gene from Bacillus subtilis to produce bacterial fructans in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The transgenic

Norman Terry; Tobin Sears; Kees van Dun

1999-01-01

185

21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.  

...ingredient containing added sugars such as jam, jelly, or concentrated...fruit juice; and (iii) The sugars content has not been increased...where the intended functional effect of the process is not to increase the sugars content of a food, and...

2014-04-01

186

21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ingredient containing added sugars such as jam, jelly, or concentrated...fruit juice; and (iii) The sugars content has not been increased...where the intended functional effect of the process is not to increase the sugars content of a food, and...

2013-04-01

187

Reversible accumulation of (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-glucan endohydrolase in wheat leaves under sugar depletion.  

PubMed

A (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucan endohydrolase [(1-->3,1-->4)-beta-glucanase, EC 3.2.1.73] was detected in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves by Western analyses and activity measurements. This enzyme is able to degrade the (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-glucans present in the cell walls of cereals and other grass species. In wheat, enzyme levels clearly increased during leaf development, reaching maximum values at full expansion and then decreasing upon leaf ageing. To test whether the abundance of (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-glucanase might be controlled by the carbohydrate status, environmental and nutritional conditions capable of altering the leaf soluble sugar contents were used. Both the activity and enzyme protein levels rapidly and markedly increased when mature leaves were depleted of sugars (e.g. during extended dark periods), whereas elevated carbohydrate contents (e.g. following continuous illumination, glucose supply in the dark or nitrogen deficiency during a light/dark cycle) caused a rapid decrease in (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-glucanase abundance or prevented its accumulation in the leaves. The physiological significance of (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-glucanase accumulation under sugar depletion remains to be elucidated. PMID:11709582

Roulin, S; Feller, U

2001-12-01

188

Sugars and acid invertase mediate the physiological response of Schenkia spicata root cultures to salt stress.  

PubMed

A heterotrophic model system was established in our studies in order to differentiate the effect of high salt concentrations in external medium on growth and sugar metabolism in roots from the effect of reduced sugar availability resulting from decreased photosynthesis under salinity. Soluble sugar content and the activity of acid invertase in root cultures of salt-tolerant (ST) and salt-sensitive (SS) Schenkia spicata (L.) Mansion genotypes were investigated during exposure to different NaCl concentrations (0-200 mM). Their response to severe salinity was characterized by a metabolic adjustment that led to the accumulation of sucrose (Suc) in root tissues. There was clear evidence that cell wall invertase (CW-Inv) is the major contributor to the Suc/hexose ratio in roots during exposure to elevated salinity. The results of CW-Inv activity and immunodetection assays in our study suggest that the regulation of CW-Inv expression is most likely achieved in a salt stress dependent manner. Also, NaCl modulated soluble acid invertase (SA-Inv) expression differentially in SS and ST genotypes of S. spicata. Regardless of the salt treatment, genotype, or the amount of enzyme, SA-Inv activity was generally low, indicating regulation at the posttranslational level. The results suggest no direct role of SA-Inv in the regulation of the root tissue carbohydrate pool and therefore in the control of the availability of glucose and fructose for the primary metabolism and/or osmotic adjustment in the present heterotrophic model system. PMID:22795677

Miši?, Danijela; Dragi?evi?, Milan; Šiler, Branislav; Nestorovi? Živkovi?, Jasmina; Maksimovi?, Vuk; Mom?ilovi?, Ivana; Nikolic, Miroslav

2012-09-01

189

What is sugar?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reading, part of a site about the science of cooking, provides general scientific information about sucrose (white table sugar) together with explanations of the science behind some candy-making procedures. The general information includes the chemical formula of sucrose and a ball-and-stick model that illustrates that sucrose is made of fructose and glucose. Regarding candy, the reading describes how heating a sugar solution produces a supersaturated solution. A discussion about common techniques used to prevent sucrose from crystallizing follows. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2004-01-01

190

Decolorization of sugar syrups using commercial and sugar beet pulp based activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar syrup decolorization was studied using two commercial and eight beet pulp based activated carbons. In an attempt to relate decolorizing performances to other characteristics, surface areas, pore volumes, bulk densities and ash contents of the carbons in the powdered form; pH and electrical conductivities of their suspensions and their color adsorption properties from iodine and molasses solution were determined.

H. L. Mudoga; H. Yucel; N. S. Kincal

2008-01-01

191

1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

192

Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA)

2003-05-27

193

The Maple Sugar Festival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

Johnston, Basil

1978-01-01

194

Sugar Cane Magic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

Mower, Nancy Alpert

195

Manage your blood sugar (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes ... as possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your ...

196

Sugar uptake and starch biosynthesis by slices of developing maize endosperm  

SciTech Connect

{sup 14}C-Sugar uptake and incorporation into starch by slices of developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm were examined and compared with sugar uptake by maize endosperm-derived suspension cultures. Rates of sucrose, fructose, and D- and L-glucose uptake by slices were similar, whereas uptake rates for these sugars differed greatly in suspension cultures. Concentration dependence of sucrose, fructose, and D-glucose uptake was biphasic (consisting of linear plus saturable components) with suspension cultures but linear with slices. These and other differences suggest that endosperm slices are freely permeable to sugars. After diffusion into the slices, sugars were metabolized and incorporated into starch. Starch synthesis, but not sugar accumulation, was greatly reduced by 2.5 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid and 0.1 millimolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Starch synthesis was dependent on kernel age and incubation temperature, but not on external pH (5 through 8). Competing sugars generally did not affect the distribution of {sup 14}C among the soluble sugars extracted from endosperm slices incubated in {sup 14}C-sugars. Competing hexoses reduced the incorporation of {sup 14}C into starch, but competing sucrose did not, suggesting that sucrose is not a necessary intermediate in starch biosynthesis. The bidirectional permeability of endosperm slices to sugars makes the characterization of sugar transport into endosperm slices impossible, however the model system is useful for experiments dealing with starch biosynthesis which occurs in the metabolically active tissue.

Felker, F.C. (Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL (USA)); Liu, Kangchien; Shannon, J.C. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

1990-11-01

197

Genotypic response to re-growth of defoliated sugar beets after re-watering in a water-limited environment: effects on yield and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defoliation produced by abiotic factors and the subsequent re-growth can reduce sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) sucrose content and final sugar yield. Field experiments were conducted during 2003 and 2004 growing seasons in the farm of Hellenic Sugar Industry SA, Larissa factory, central Greece. Three sugar beet cultivars (Rival, Europa and Corsica) were ordinary irrigated till the beginning of July

J. T. Tsialtas; E. Soulioti; N. Maslaris; D. Papakosta

198

An Attempt of Nondestructive Imaging of Sugar Distribution inside a Fruit Using Microwaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chirp Pulse Microwave Computed Tomography (CP-MCT) that was originally developed for noninvasive imaging of a human body was applied to visualize sugar distribution inside a fruit. It can visualize not only permittivity distribution itself of a fruit but also various physical- or chemical-quantities relating to the permittivity value. Almost all fruits are dielectric materials containing much water, sugar, acids and so on. But for water, the principal ingredient of a fruit is sugar. Most of the fruits contain sugar from 8% to 22% by weight at the harvest time. Therefore sugar content distribution should be measured by CP-MCT nondestructively. By using apples and Japanese pears, feasibility of sugar distribution imaging has been evaluated by comparing the gray level of CP-MCT and sugar content of the cross section. The averaged correlation coefficients of the apple and pear are 0.793 and 0.681.

Watanabe, Masakazu; Miyakawa, Michio

199

Added versus accumulated sugars on color development and acrylamide formation in french-fried potato strips.  

PubMed

Added (glucose addition) versus accumulated (in situ sugar development via cold-temperature storage) sugar treatments were investigated in relation to acrylamide formation within fried potato strips at standardized levels of finish-fried color (Agtron color scores ranged from 36 to 84). The added sugar treatment exhibited a relatively reduced rate of acrylamide formation and generally possessed a lower and less variable acrylamide content (61-1290 ng/g) than the accumulated sugar scheme (61-2191 ng/g). In a subsequent experiment, added fructose applied to strip surfaces via dipping prior to frying favored acrylamide formation over color development relative to added glucose, for which the reverse trend was observed. Thus, where acrylamide differences were noted between added and accumulated sugar treatments (given equivalent Agtron color scores), this result was likely aided by the relative higher fructose content in strips of the accumulated sugar scheme rather than simply a greater relative concentration of total reducing sugars. PMID:22881236

Higley, Jeremy; Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C; Smith, Gordon

2012-09-01

200

The World's Cane Sugar Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

H. C. Prinsen Geerligs (b.1864) was a Dutch microbiologist and Director of the Sugar Experiment Station in Java, an important research centre at the heart of the sugar industry. A leading expert in the production of sugar and the workings of the international market, Geerligs presents a detailed and comprehensive history of the industry, from its ancient origins through to

H. C. Prinsen Geerligs

201

Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2005-11-15

202

Adaptability to drought in sugar beet cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (P) activities, lipid peroxidation\\u000a (LP) and proline content in seeds and leaves of drought tolerant (FC-506 and MS-100) and drought sensitive (MS-612 and MS-13)\\u000a sugar beet cultivars were examined. After PEG and NaCl treatment in tolerant cultivars both in seeds and leaves SOD activity\\u000a mainly increased,

D. Štajner; N. Mimica-Duki?; O. Gasi?

1995-01-01

203

19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

2012-04-01

204

19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

2011-04-01

205

19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

2010-04-01

206

19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

2014-04-01

207

19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

2013-04-01

208

Isolation, purification, and biochemical characterization of a novel water soluble protein from Inca peanut (Plukenetia volubilis L.).  

PubMed

A water soluble storage albumin from Inca peanut (IPA) accounted for approximately 25% (w/w) of defatted seed flour weight, representing 31% of the total seed protein. IPA is a 3S storage protein composed of two glycosylated polypeptides, with estimated molecular weights (MW) of 32800 and 34800 Da, respectively. IPA has an estimated sugar content of 4.8% +/- 0.92% (n = 6). IPA is a basic protein (pI of approximately 9.4) and contains all of the essential amino acids in adequate amounts when compared to the FAO/WHO recommended pattern for a human adult. The tryptophan content of IPA is unusually high (44 mg/g of protein), whereas the phenylalanine content is low (9 mg/g of protein). IPA is a highly digestible protein in vitro. PMID:12166980

Sathe, Shridhar K; Hamaker, Bruce R; Sze-Tao, Kar Wai Clara; Venkatachalam, Mahesh

2002-08-14

209

7, 57695803, 2007 sugar-alcohols in  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 5769­5803, 2007 Sugars and sugar-alcohols in ambient aerosols in Norway K. E. Yttri et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four Sugars and sugar-alcohols in ambient aerosols in Norway K. E. Yttri et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

210

Foliar application of glycinebetaine—a novel product from sugar beet—as an approach to increase tomato yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycinebetaine, a novel product from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. v. altissima), is purified from molasses during sugar processing through chromatographic separation, enrichment and crystallisation. Glycinebetaine is environmentally safe, non-toxic and water-soluble and is found in animal, microbe and plant cells. Most halophytes, when grown under stress, synthesise glycinebetaine in their chloroplasts and accumulate it as an osmoprotectant. Here we

P Mäkelä; K Jokinen; M Kontturi; P Peltonen-Sainio; E Pehu; S Somersalo

1998-01-01

211

Soluble Radicals Rebecca Waldecker  

E-print Network

Soluble Radicals Rebecca Waldecker Let G be a finite group and let sol(G) denote the soluble radical of G, i.e. the largest normal soluble subgroup of G. Paul Flavell conjectured in 2001 that sol(G) coincides with the set of all elements x G such that for any y G the subgroup x, y is soluble

Waldecker, Rebecca

212

A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ) fruit soluble solids  

SciTech Connect

Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of ({sup 3}H)-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of ({sup 14}C)sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of ({sup 14}C)-(glycosyl)-1{prime}fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of ({sup 14}C) sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F{sub 2} population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes.

Damon, S.E.

1989-01-01

213

Ozone impact on vegetation: A primary lesion in sugar export from source leaves  

SciTech Connect

Ozone (O{sub 3}) remains a serious threat to native and agricultural vegetation. In many plants, including Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.), O{sub 3} reduces development of efficient root systems. To investigate the mechanism of O{sub 3}-inhibited allocation of biomass to roots, leaves were exposed to 45 min pulses of O{sub 3} ranging from 0.0 to 0.8 {micro}l 1{sup 11} followed by a 15 min pulse of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. The rapid phase of export of {sup 14}C-carbohydrate from source leaves was monitored with a Geiger Muller Tube. A single compartment model with a single exponential decay function yielded first order rate constants. O{sub 3} retarded efflux, decreased the rate constant, and increased the calculated soluble sugar pool remaining in the source leaves. With incorporation of an asymptote into the single exponential model, equivalent to the label remaining in the leaf at the end of a prolonged photoperiod, calculated rate constants and sugar contents for O{sub 3}-free control leaves were similar to values from the literature. Total carbohydrate transported from source leaves and thus available for export to the roots was reduced by O{sub 3} effects on assimilation (up to 20%) and O{sub 3} effects on efflux (up to 70%). O{sub 3}-inhibition of root system development is therefore dominated by the impact on phloem translocation rather than by effects on carbon assimilation.

Grantz, D.A.

1999-07-01

214

Free sugar profile in cycads  

PubMed Central

The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

Marler, Thomas E.; Lindstrom, Anders J.

2014-01-01

215

Sugar Cube Karst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to explore the way water moves through a porous, soluble substance and to observe the development of pits and channels as the substance dissolves in water. Students learn what karst is and how it is formed.

Mieras, Barb

216

Sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in wild Chinese sea buckthorn ( Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) with special reference to influence of latitude and altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild berries of Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis were collected from nine natural growth sites in China in three consecutive years in order to get an overall profile of the sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid, and especially of the influence of the latitude and altitude of the growth place on these components. The contents of fructose, glucose, and

Jie Zheng; Heikki Kallio; Kaisa Linderborg; Baoru Yang

2011-01-01

217

14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

218

Effects of low nitrogen supply on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit yield and quality with special emphasis on sugars, acids, ascorbate, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of lowering nitrogen supply from 12 to 6 or 4 mM NO(3)(-) on tomato fruit yield and quality during the growing season. Lowering nitrogen supply had a low impact on fruit commercial yield (-7.5%), but it reduced plant vegetative growth and increased fruit dry matter content, improving consequently fruit quality. Fruit quality was improved due to lower acid (10-16%) and increased soluble sugar content (5-17%). The content of some phenolic compounds (rutin, a caffeic acid glycoside, and a caffeic acid derivate) and total ascorbic acid tended to be higher in fruit with the lowest nitrogen supply, but differences were significant in only a few cases (trusses). With regard to carotenoids, data did not show significant and univocal differences related to different levels of nitrogen supply. Thus, reducing nitrogen fertilization limited environmental pollution, on the one hand, and may improve, on the other hand, both growers' profits, by limiting nitrogen inputs, and fruit quality for consumers, by increasing tomato sugars content. It was concluded that primary and secondary metabolites could be affected as a result of a specific response to low nitrogen, combined with a lower degree of vegetative development, increasing fruit irradiance, and therefore modifying fruit composition. PMID:19348424

Bénard, Camille; Gautier, Hélène; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Grasselly, Dominique; Navez, Brigitte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Weiss, Marie; Génard, Michel

2009-05-27

219

The Ups and Downs of Blood Sugar  

E-print Network

diabetes medicine makes your blood sugar go down. · The medicines also keep your blood sugar from going too diabetes medicine every day to keep your blood sugar in balance. You should exercise every day to keep your 13090 60 180 The Ups and Downs of Blood Sugar You need just the right amount of sugar in your

220

Bioconversion of oil palm frond by Aspergillus niger to enhances it's fermentable sugar production.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop an economical bioprocess to produce the fermentable sugars at laboratory scales Using Oil Palm Frond (OPF) as substrate in Solid State Fermentation (SSF). OPF waste generated by oil palm plantations is a major problem in terms of waste management. However, this lignocellulosic waste material is a cheap source of cellulose. We used OPF as substrate to produce fermentable sugars. The high content of cellulose in OPF promises the high fermentable sugars production in SSF. Saccharification of OPF waste by A. niger USMAI1 generates fermentable sugars and was evaluated through a solid state fermentation. Physical parameters, e.g., inoculum size, initial substrate moisture, initial pH, incubation temperature and the size of substrate were optimized to obtain the maximum fermentable sugars from oil palm fronds. Up to 77 mg of fermentable sugars per gram substrate was produced under the optimal physical parameter conditions. Lower productivity of fermentable sugars, 32 mg fermentable sugars per gram substrate was obtained under non optimized conditions. The results indicated that about 140.6% increase in fermentable sugar production after optimization of the physical parameters. Glucose was the major end component amongst the fermentable sugars obtained. This study indicated that under optimum physical parameter conditions, the OPF waste can be utilized to produce fermentable sugars which then convert into other products such as alcohol. PMID:24502148

Lim, Sheh-Hong; Ibrahim, Darah

2013-09-15

221

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

222

Sugars and health: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of the effect of added sugars on health has changed in the past ten to fifteen years. In North America, in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s, sugar was promoted as a health hazard in numerous books and an endless stream of articles intended for consumers. In the 1980s, this view received close examination by scientists and

G. Harvey Anderson

1997-01-01

223

Biotechnology Applications for Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop, being one of only two plant sources from which sucrose (i.e., sugar) can be economically produced. Despite its relatively short period of cultivation (ca. 200 years), its yield and quality parameters have been significantly improved by conventional breeding methods. However, during the last two decades or so, advanced in vitro

Ekrem Gurel; Songul Gurel; Peggy G. Lemaux

2008-01-01

224

7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

2012-01-01

225

7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

2010-01-01

226

7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.  

...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

2014-01-01

227

7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

2013-01-01

228

7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

2011-01-01

229

Edible films made from sodium casemate, starches, sugars or glycerol. Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of edible films, based on blends of sodium caseinate with starches of different origin (corn and wheat) plasticized with water, glycerol or sugars, were studied. An increase in water or sugar\\/glycerol content resulted in a considerable decrease in the modulus of elasticity and in the tensile strength of films. The tensile strength and the water vapor permeability

Ioannis Arvanitoyannis; Eleni Psomiadou; Atsuyoshi Nakayama

1996-01-01

230

Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spiritsB  

E-print Network

Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

231

33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

232

31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

233

34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

234

FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

235

Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions  

E-print Network

Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions Valeria Molinero, Tahir the sucrose hydrogen bond network (HBN) in amorphous sucrose with 0­50% w/w water. We find that the onset) in these mixtures shows a non-monotonic behavior with water content which is consistent with experimental

Goddard III, William A.

236

Oxygen solubility in silicon-containing Fe-Co melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic analysis of the oxygen solutions in silicon-containing Fe-Co melts is performed. The equilibrium constant of silicon deoxidation of iron-cobalt melts, the activity coefficients for infinite dilution, and the interaction parameters for melts differing in composition are determined. The dependences of the oxygen solubility in the melts under study are calculated for different cobalt and silicon contents. The deoxidizing capacity of silicon increases substantially as the cobalt content in a melt increases. The curves of oxygen solubility in Fe-Co melts have a minimum; the minimum oxygen solubility shifts to a low silicon content as the cobalt content in the melts increases. The silicon contents for the minima in the curves of oxygen solubility and the minimum oxygen concentrations corresponding to the silicon contents are determined.

Aleksandrov, A. A.; Dashevskii, V. Ya.

2013-11-01

237

Exfoliated soluble graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of graphite by lithium in liquid ammonia yields graphite salts that can be reacted with dodecyl iodide to yield soluble dodecylated graphite. The height of the soluble graphite nanoplatelets was determined by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to be 3.5nm, corresponding to approximately 10 layers of graphene. Solubility in organic solvents was determined to be 20mg\\/L in chloroform and 70mg\\/L

Jayanta Chattopadhyay; Arnab Mukherjee; Soma Chakraborty; JungHo Kang; Peter J. Loos; Kevin F. Kelly; Howard K. Schmidt; W. E. Billups

2009-01-01

238

Smashing Bubbles and Vanishing Sugar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science activities with soap bubbles for primary school children are described in this article. Another activity involves children in determining the whereabouts of sugar as it dissolves in water. (SA)

Ward, Alan

1979-01-01

239

Measurement of moisture and total reducing sugars using Near Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

industrial applications. In this project, the accuracy and feasibility of measuring moisture and total reducing sugar content in a vegetable medium using a Near Infrared Spectroscopy technique was investigated as an alternative to slow and tedious classical...

Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube

2012-06-07

240

History of Sugar Maple Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a few episodes of sugar maple dieback or decline were recorded during the first half of the 20th Century. In coritrast, the last 50 years have provided nume!ous reports of both urban and forest diebackideciine. In the late 1950s. a defoliation-triggered decline. termed rnaple blight, that occurred in Wisconsin prompted the first compreherrsive, multidiscipl~rrary study of a sugar maple

Sugar Maple Dectines

241

Background for 1990 Farm Legislation: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sugar support program and rapid adoption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) played important roles in transforming the U.S. sugar industry in the 1980s. While sugar output and productivity increased, consumption of sugar fell dramatically as HFCS disp...

F. Gray, L. Angelo, P. J. Buzzanell, R. D. Barry

1990-01-01

242

Control of Photosynthesis, Allocation and Partitioning by Sugar Regulated Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of genes, whose products are involved in diverse metabolic pathways and cellular functions, are either induced or repressed depending on the availability of soluble sugars in higher plant cells. This metabolic regulation of gene expression can be viewed at two levels. Firstly, at the cellular level, changes in gene expression result in a modification of anabolic or catabolic

Ian A. Graham; Thomas Martin

243

Effects of saline and osmotic stress on proline and sugar accumulation in Populus euphratica in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of in vitro shoot cultures to evaluate osmotic and salt tolerance and the effects of salt and mannitol in the medium on proline and sugar\\u000a accumulation were investigated in two poplar species, P. euphratica and P. alba cv. Pyramidalis × P. tomentosa. Shoot length, leaf number, whole plant dry weight, and the accumulation of proline and total soluble

Shin Watanabe; Katsumi Kojima; Yuji Ide; Satohiko Sasaki

2000-01-01

244

Dehydration Processes of Sugar Glasses and Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dehydration processes of sugar glasses and sugar crystals were studied by using Thermogravimetry — Differential Thermal Analysis method. We used three monosaccharide sugars (fructose, galactose, and glucose) and three disaccharide sugars (sucrose, maltose and trehalose). It was found that a trehalose showed different dehydration process compared to the other sugars. The amount of mass reductions in sugar glasses is larger than that in sugar crystals. However, in the case of trehalose, the amount of mass reduction in trehalose glasses is smaller than that in trehalose crystals. It seems to be possible that this unique dehydration property of trehalose glasses maybe relate to the cell protection ability during an anhydrobiosis process.

Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

2006-05-01

245

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar...mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and...

2014-04-01

246

Potential for generation of public electricity in cane sugar factories  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane is the most efficient crop for the conversion of solar energy into biomass. The possibility of conservation of energy in cane sugar producing countries by substituting bagasse for imported oil, was studied in Guyana, South America and financed by the World Bank. The concept of cogeneration was considered, where the heat energy generated by burning bagasse of high fiber content is converted into steam and used both for electricity generation and generation of internal power. Several methods of achieving energy efficiency in this process were discussed such as efficient generation and use of the steam by using high pressure boilers, drying and pelletization of bagasse, and using sugar cane trash as fuel. About 40% of the bagasse could be available for the generation of electric energy. A method for evaluation of the power potential showed that the quantity of public electricity produced, depended on certain important process parameters, fiber content, steam conditions and process steam. The cost effectiveness of the project increases with increasing fiber content in the sugar cane.

Torisson, T.

1984-04-01

247

Applications of Solubility Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

2008-01-01

248

Effects of operating parameters on countercurrent extraction of hemicellulosic sugars from pretreated softwood.  

PubMed

In a previous study using a continuous countercurrent screw extractor for two-stage dilute-acid hydrolysis, which was focused on the effects of liquid-to-insoluble solids (L/IS) ratio, we demonstrated that by using low volumes of wash water soluble sugars can be recovered from first-stage pretreated softwood at high yields and also at high sugar concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effects of important operating parameters other than the L/IS ratio, such as the feed rates of water and pretreated biomass and the extractor inclined angle, on the performance of the extractor using first-stage pretreated softwood. As biomass and water feed rates increased at the same L/IS ratio, the recovery yield of soluble sugars decreased, probably owing to a reduced solids residence time in the extractor, which is related to the solid/liquid contact time. The sugar recovery yield was higher at a higher extractor inclined angle. This may be attributed to the effects of increased back mixing and a longer residence time for solids at a higher extractor angle. Countercurrent extraction was also carried out with other pretreated biomass having smaller particle sizes and poor drainage rates. The countercurrent screw extractor was found to be unsuitable for these fine materials due to the slow liquid drainage rate and filter-clogging problems. In a test for stability of soluble sugars in first-stage softwood hydrolysate, irrespective of the storage temperature and storage form, the sugar concentration slowly decreased with storage time. However, storage in slurry form showed higher sugar stability compared with that in liquor form at the same conditions. PMID:12018244

Kim, Kyoung Heon; Tucker, Melvin P; Nguyen, Quang A

2002-01-01

249

Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols  

DOEpatents

The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

2010-08-10

250

Evidence that cellulolysis by an anaerobic ruminal fungus is catabolite regulated by glucose, cellobiose, and soluble starch  

SciTech Connect

A Piromyces-like ruminal fungus was used to study preferential carbohydrate utilization of (U-{sup 14}C)cellulose, both alone and in combination with several soluble sugars. For cells grown on cellulose alone, cellulolytic activity was immediate and, initially, greater than that observed in the presence of added carbohydrate. Cellulolytic activity remained minimal in cultures containing cellulose plus glucose or cellobiose until the soluble sugar was depleted. Soluble starch also regulated cellulose activity but to a lesser extent. The results presented suggest that some fungal cellulases are susceptible to catabolite regulatory mechanisms.

Morrison, M.; Mackie, R.I.; Kistner, A. (Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Irene (South Africa))

1990-10-01

251

What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

Hawkes, Stephen J.

1998-01-01

252

CCN activation of fumed silica aerosols mixed with soluble pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-water interactions of completely soluble or insoluble particles are fairly well understood but less is known of aerosols consisting of mixtures of soluble and insoluble components. In this study, laboratory measurements were performed to investigate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of silica particles coated with ammonium sulphate (a salt), sucrose (a sugar) and bovine serum albumin known as BSA (a protein). In addition, the agglomerated structure of the silica particles was investigated by estimating the surface equivalent diameter based on measurements with a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and an Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer (APM). By using the surface equivalent diameter the non-sphericity of the particles containing silica was accounted for when estimating CCN activation. Furthermore, characterizing critical supersaturations of particles consisting of pure soluble on insoluble compounds using existing frameworks showed that the CCN activation of single component particles was in good agreement with Köhler and adsorption theory based models when the agglomerated structure was accounted for. For mixed particles the CCN activation was governed by the soluble components, and the soluble fraction varied considerably with particle size for our wet-generated aerosols. Our results confirm the hypothesis that knowing the soluble fraction is the key parameter needed for describing the CCN activation of mixed aerosols, and highlight the importance of controlled coating techniques for acquiring a detailed understanding of the CCN activation of atmospheric insoluble particles mixed with soluble pollutants.

Dalirian, M.; Keskinen, H.; Ahlm, L.; Ylisirniö, A.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Laaksonen, A.; Virtanen, A.; Riipinen, I.

2014-09-01

253

Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid\\u000a sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft\\/gummy candy,\\u000a caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar\\u000a products is their low water activity (a\\u000a w), which is known to

Sterling Thompson

254

Protein solubility modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

1999-01-01

255

Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

256

Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.  

PubMed

Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of ?-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

2012-12-26

257

Phenolics, sugars, antimicrobial and free-radical-scavenging activities of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida.  

PubMed

Edible fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. are consumed fresh or in traditional food, drink and medicinal preparations. Some therapeutic effects of these fruits may be due to phenolics and sugars. Aqueous acetone, methanol or ethanol tissue extracts of different cultivars or collections of M. bijugatus fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida were analyzed for total phenolics and free radical scavenging activity by UV-vis spectroscopy, sugars by gas chromatography, and antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion assay. Total phenolics and free radical scavenging activities ranked: seed coat > embryo > pulp extracts. Montgomery cultivar fruits had the highest total phenolics. For sugars: pulp > embryo and highest in Punta Cana fruit pulp. In all extracts: sucrose > glucose and fructose. Glucose:fructose ratios were 1:1 (pulp) and 0.2:1 (embryo). Pulp extracts had dose-response antibacterial activity and pulp and embryo extracts had antifungal activity against one yeast species. Phenolics and sugars were confirmed with thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Sugar-free pulp fractions containing phenolics had slightly more antimicrobial activity than H2O-soluble pulp fractions with sugars. Results indicate M. bijugatus fruits contain phenolics, sugars and other H2O-soluble compounds consistent with therapeutic uses. PMID:19444610

Bystrom, Laura M; Lewis, Betty A; Brown, Dan L; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L

2009-06-01

258

Universal patterns of equilibrium cluster growth in aqueous sugars observed by dynamic light scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic light scattering performed on aqueous solutions of three sugars (glucose, maltose and sucrose) reveal a common pattern of sugar cluster formation with a narrow cluster size distribution. In each case, equilibrium clusters form whose size increases with increasing sugar content in an identical power law manner in advance of a common, critical-like, percolation threshold near 83wt% sugar. The critical exponent of the power law divergence of the cluster size varies with temperature, increasing with decreasing temperature, due to changes in the strength of the intermolecular hydrogen bond and appears to vanish for temperatures in excess of 90°C . Detailed analysis of the cluster growth process suggests a two-stage process: an initial cluster phase formed at low volume fractions, ? , consisting of noninteracting, monodisperse sugar clusters whose size increases ?1/3 followed by an aggregation stage, active at concentrations above about ?=40% , where cluster-cluster contact first occurs.

Sidebottom, D. L.; Tran, Tri D.

2010-11-01

259

SCIENTIFIC NAME Acer saccharum (sugar),  

E-print Network

), Acer rubrum (red) , Acer negundo (box elder) COMMON Maple syrup OJIBWE Ziiwaagamizigan SPANISH Jarabe), and box elder (Acer negundo). Yard trees, street trees and open-grown trees in pastures or woodlands can1 LIFE FORM Tree PART USED Sap SCIENTIFIC NAME Acer saccharum (sugar), Acer saccharinum (silver

Aukema, Brian

260

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers  

MedlinePLUS

... numbers I need to know? Yes, you need tests of your blood pressure and cholesterol (a blood fat). You and your ... team: ? Look at his A1C, blood sugar self-test record, cholesterol, and blood pressure results. ? Check to see if he is reaching ...

261

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET VPLYV VSTUPU DUSÍKA NA PRODUKCIU POLARIZA?NÉHO CUKRU A KVALITATÍVNE PARAMETRE REPY CUKROVEJ  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar production) and qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and ?-amino nitrogen content) of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive) was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM

MACÁK MILAN; A. Hlinku

262

ConcepTest: Sugar-Rock Analogy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water containing dissolved sugar evaporates to leave a deposit of sugar in the bottom of a glass. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a type of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary ...

263

Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder  

E-print Network

The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

Ang, Dexter W

2005-01-01

264

Boron deficiency causes a drastic decrease in nitrate content and nitrate reductase activity, and increases the content of carbohydrates in leaves from tobacco plants  

PubMed

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants were used to study connections between deficiency in boron and nitrate reduction. Boron deficiency caused a substantial decrease in shoot and, particularly, root weights that resulted in a notably high shoot/root ratio in comparison to boron-sufficient plants. One of the most important effects caused by boron deficiency was the strong decrease in leaf nitrate content. Leaf contents of magnesium, calcium and, especially, potassium also declined under this deficiency, but nitrate content decreased in a higher proportion than these cations. Nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) activity of boron-deficient plants declined from the beginning of the light period; this decline did not occur in boron-sufficient plants. This fact could be attributed to the faster decrease in transcript levels of Nia, the nitrate reductase structural gene, during the light period in boron-deficient plants. Leaf protein content of boron-deficient plants also declined in the course of light periods. Boron deficiency caused an appreciable accumulation of hexoses and sucrose in leaves. This build-up of soluble sugars might correct the osmotic imbalance elicited by the low content of nitrate and cations in plants subjected to boron deficiency. Boron-deficient plants had much higher starch contents than boron-sufficient ones, and there was an inverse relationship between the contents of nitrate and starch in leaves. PMID:10550635

Camacho-Cristobal; Gonzalez-Fontes

1999-10-01

265

Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition of two amaranth species: oil, sugars, fibres, minerals and vitamins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping, germination and flour air classification on several components of Amaranthus caudatus and A. cruentus seeds, including oil, sugars, fibre, minerals and vitamins were studied. The lipid, crude and dietary fibre, ash, and sugar contents were 71, 43, 140, 30 and 18 g kg-1 in raw A. caudatus and 85, 39, 134, 40

Tamer H Gamel; Jozef P Linssen; Ahmed S Mesallam; Ahmed A Damir; Lila A Shekib

2006-01-01

266

Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

1986-01-01

267

27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

2014-04-01

268

27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

2013-04-01

269

The Sugar Industry's Structure, Pricing and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure, pricing, and performance of the U.S. sugar industry were studied with special emphasis on the industry's performance during the recent years of economic stress. The major causes of high U.S. sugar prices in 1974 were tight world sugar suppl...

R. Bohall, F. Hulse, C. Powe, L. Angelo, F. Gray

1977-01-01

270

27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

2010-04-01

271

27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

2012-04-01

272

27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

2011-04-01

273

Sugar Alcohols and Diabetes:A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many foods sweetened with sugar alcohols (also known as polyols), such as isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol, are available today. Because of concerns about possible harmful effects, we reviewed government regula- tions and scientific literature on sugar alcohols. Although some sugar alcohols do not raise plasma glucose (PG), no long-term benefits regarding their ingestion have been estab- lished

Thomas M. S. Wolever; Ana Piekarz; Marjorie Hollands; Katherine Younker; Ontario Toronto

2002-01-01

274

Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar)  

PubMed Central

Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has been demonstrated to be effective on hardwood and herbaceous biomass, making it truly feedstock flexible. Conclusions Different options exist for integrating lignocellulosic sugar into sugar-using operations. A sugar conversion plant may be adjacent to a CLE Sugar plant, and the CLE Sugar can be concentrated from the initial 10% sugar as needed. Concentrated sugars, however, can be shipped to remote sites such as ethanol plants or other sugar users. In such cases, options for shipping a dense form of sugars include (1) pretreated biomass with enzyme addition, (2) lignocellulosic sugar syrup, and (3) lignocellulosic sugar solid. These could provide the advantage of maximizing the use of existing assets. PMID:23356449

2013-01-01

275

19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

2011-04-01

276

19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

2013-04-01

277

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2012-01-01

278

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2014-01-01

279

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2010-01-01

280

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2013-01-01

281

19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

2012-04-01

282

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2011-01-01

283

19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

2010-04-01

284

Effect of partial replacement of sugar with stevia on the quality of kulfi.  

PubMed

Stevia is a natural sweetener obtained from the leaf of Stevia rebaudiana plant. Its refined extract powder is 130-300 times sweeter than sucrose. Besides, it prevents diabetes, decreases weight, prevents tooth decay, increases digestion etc. Dietetic kulfi was produced, in which 50, 60 and 70% sugar was replaced with 0.05, 0.06 and 0.07% refined stevia extract powder respectively. At higher levels of sugar replacement there was a significant decrease in specific gravity, melting rate, carbohydrate percentage and total calorie content and a significant increase in freezing point, hardness and fat, protein, ash and moisture percentage. Kulfi prepared by replacing half the sugar content with stevia was adjudged on par with the control in sensory characteristics. Above 50% sugar replacement resulted in bitterness, lack of brownish appearance and presence of icy texture. PMID:25114356

Giri, Apurba; Rao, H G Ramachandra; V, Ramesh

2014-08-01

285

Platinum solubility in phosphate laser glass  

SciTech Connect

Microscopic platinum inclusions ({approximately} 10--20 {mu}m), that originate from the melt containers, have been a major cause of optical damage in phosphate laser glasses. One way to eliminate such inclusions is to dissolve them in the glass matrix. The relative solubility of platinum in three commercial phosphate laser glasses is reported. The results show that the lowest Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing phosphate glass has the highest Pt solubility. Moreover, the Pt solubility decreases linearly with increasing, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. Activation energies for Pt dissolution are found to be nearly equivalent for the three glasses. Laser-excited fluorescence of the Pt-ion is reported. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Hayden, Y.T. (Schott Glass Technologies, Inc., Duryea, PA (USA)); Campbell, J.H.; Payne, S.A.; Wilke, G.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1991-06-12

286

Changes in carbohydrate content in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) under low temperature stress.  

PubMed

The postharvest handling of zucchini fruit includes low-temperature storage, making cold stress unavoidable. We have investigated the changes of soluble carbohydrates under this stress and its relation with weight loss and chilling injury in zucchini fruit during postharvest storage at 4 °C and 20 °C for up to 14 days. Two varieties with different degrees of chilling tolerance were compared: Natura, the more tolerant variety, and Sinatra, the variety that suffered more severe chilling-injury symptoms and weight loss. In both varieties, total soluble carbohydrates, reducing soluble carbohydrates and polyols content was generally higher during storage at 4 °C than at 20 °C, thus these parameters are related to the physiological response of zucchini fruit to cold stress. However, the raffinose content increased in Natura and Sinatra fruits during storage at 4 °C and 20 °C, although at 20 °C the increase in raffinose was more remarkable than at 4 °C in both varieties, so that the role of raffinose could be more likely related to dehydration than to chilling susceptibility of zucchini fruit. Glucose, fructose, pinitol, and acid invertase activity registered opposite trends in both varieties against chilling, increasing in Natura and decreasing in Sinatra. The increase in acid invertase activity in Natura fruit during cold storage could contribute in part to the increase of these reducing sugars, whose metabolism could be involved in the adaptation to postharvest cold storage. PMID:24467899

Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Lluch, Carmen; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

2014-03-01

287

Kinetics of the lamellar gel?fluid transition in phosphatidylcholine membranes in the presence of sugars  

SciTech Connect

Phase diagrams are presented for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the presence of sugars (sucrose) over a wide range of relative humidities (RHs). The phase information presented here, determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), is shown to be consistent with previous results achieved by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both techniques show a significant effect of sucrose concentration on the phase behaviour of this phospholipid bilayer. An experimental investigation into the effect of sugars on the kinetic behaviour of the gel to fluid transition is also presented showing that increasing the sugar content appears to slightly increase the rate at which the transition occurs.

Lenné, Thomas; Garvey, Christopher J.; Koster, Karen L.; Bryant, Gary (ANSTO); (USD); (RMIT)

2010-08-04

288

29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...  

...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

2014-07-01

289

Effect of arsenic on behaviour of enzymes of sugar metabolism in germinating rice seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) is a potential contaminant of groundwater as well as soil in many parts of the world. The effects of increasing\\u000a concentration of As (25 µm and 50 µm As2O3) in the medium on the content of starch and sugars and activity levels of enzymes involved in starch and sugar metabolism\\u000a i.e. ?-amylase, ?-amylase, starch phosphorylase and acid invertase

A. B. Jha; R. S. Dubey

2005-01-01

290

Sugar, Uric Acid, and the Etiology of Diabetes and Obesity  

PubMed Central

The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructose metabolism that accounts for why fructose intake increases the risk for metabolic syndrome. Recent studies show that fructose-induced uric acid generation causes mitochondrial oxidative stress that stimulates fat accumulation independent of excessive caloric intake. These studies challenge the long-standing dogma that “a calorie is just a calorie” and suggest that the metabolic effects of food may matter as much as its energy content. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provides new insights into pathogenesis and therapies for this important disease. PMID:24065788

Johnson, Richard J.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L. Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Lanaspa, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

291

Cytokinins Enhance Sugar-Induced Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

In higher plants, the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis by various factors including light, sugars and hormones is mediated by numerous regulatory factors acting at the transcriptional level. Here, the association between sucrose and the plant hormone, cytokinin, in the presence of light was investigated to elucidate cytokinin signaling cascades leading to the transcriptional activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis seedlings. We showed that cytokinin enhances anthocyanin content and transcript levels of sugar inducible structural gene UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl transferase (UF3GT) and regulatory gene PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 (PAP1). Genetic analysis showed that cytokinin signaling modulates sugar-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis through a two-component signaling cascade involving the type-B response regulators ARR1, ARR10 and ARR12 in a redundant manner. Genetic, physiological and molecular biological approaches demonstrated that cytokinin enhancement is partially dependent on phytochrome and cryptochrome downstream component HY5, but mainly on photosynthetic electron transport. Taken together, we suggest that cytokinin acts down-stream of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in which the plastoquinone redox poise is modulated by sugars in a photoreceptor independent manner. PMID:22699753

Das, Prasanta Kumar; Shin, Dong Ho; Choi, Sang-Bong; Yoo, Sang-Dong; Choi, Giltsu; Park, Youn-II

2012-01-01

292

Sugar, uric acid, and the etiology of diabetes and obesity.  

PubMed

The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructose metabolism that accounts for why fructose intake increases the risk for metabolic syndrome. Recent studies show that fructose-induced uric acid generation causes mitochondrial oxidative stress that stimulates fat accumulation independent of excessive caloric intake. These studies challenge the long-standing dogma that "a calorie is just a calorie" and suggest that the metabolic effects of food may matter as much as its energy content. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provides new insights into pathogenesis and therapies for this important disease. PMID:24065788

Johnson, Richard J; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y; Lanaspa, Miguel A

2013-10-01

293

Edible films made from gelatin, soluble starch and polyols, Part 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal and mechanical properties of edible films based on blends of gelatin with soluble starch plasticized with water, glycerol or sugars were investigated. Two different methods, known as ‘the high temperature’ and ‘the low temperature’ methods, consisting of casting aqueous solutions of blends at 60 and 20 °C, respectively, were employed for the preparation of films. With increasing water,

I. Arvanitoyannis; E. Psomiadou; A. Nakayama; S. Aiba; N. Yamamoto

1997-01-01

294

Finding the Carbon in Sugar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about combustion and energy, learners observe a burning candle in a sealed jar and the burning of white sugar. The first part of the activity (candle burning) should be conducted as a demonstration. The second part may be conducted by learners working in groups of 2-4 or as a demonstration. This activity guide includes background information, questions for learners to think about, and bilingual (English/Spanish) handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Dresden, Judith

2011-01-01

295

Sugars proportionately affect artemisinin production.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effect of sugars in controlling secondary metabolism. In this study, sugars alone or in combination with their analogs were used to investigate their role in the production of the antimalarial drug, artemisinin, in Artemisia annua L. seedlings. Compared to sucrose, a 200% increase in artemisinin by glucose was observed. Different ratios of fructose to glucose yielded artemisinin levels directly proportional to increases in relative glucose concentration. When the glucose analog, 3-O-methylglucose, was added with glucose, artemisinin production was dramatically decreased, but hexokinase activity was significantly increased compared to glucose alone. In contrast, neither mannose nor mannitol had any significant effect on artemisinin yield. In comparison with 30 g/l sucrose, artemisinin levels were significantly reduced by 80% in the presence of 27 g/l sucrose + 3 g/l palatinose, which cannot be transported into cells through the sucrose transporter. Together these results suggest that both monosaccharide and disaccharide sugars are likely acting not only as carbon sources but also as signals to affect the downstream production of artemisinin, and that the mechanism of these effects appears to be complex. PMID:17221224

Wang, Y; Weathers, P J

2007-07-01

296

Effect of processing and storage time on the vitamin C and lycopene contents of nectar of pink guava (Psidium guajava L.).  

PubMed

In this study, the effect of processing and storage time on the vitamin C and lycopene contents was evaluated. Guavas were washed, cut in quarters, blanched, pulped and the pulp pasteurized. The pulp was used for the production of nectar: guava pulp, sugar and water were mixed in 5:3:12 proportions, and the mixture was pasteurized, poured while hot into 125 mL glass jars, and cooled rapidly to 25 degrees C. The production of nectar from fresh guava reduced vitamin C, lycopene and titratable acidity, by contrast soluble solid and pH increased significant. Vitamin C content from 168.9 to 62.3 mg/(100 g fresh weight), and lycopene content from 3.55 to 1.35 mg/(100 g fresh weight) (p < 0.001 in both cases. After 240 days at 10.0 +/- 2 degrees C, no further statistically significant change in lycopene and soluble solid content was observed (p > 0.05). Storage time did affect vitamin C, pH, and titratable acidity content, vitamin C content fell by 89.3% to 6.67 mg/(100 g fresh weight) (p < 0.001). Based on this study, guava nectar storage at 10 degrees C retained 46% of the content of vitamin C for 120 days. PMID:21612147

Ordóñez-Santos, Luís E; Vázquez-Riascos, Andrea

2010-09-01

297

Understanding Solubility and Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Solubility and Density is a graduate-level professional development course designed to enhance your understanding and teaching of physical science. In two sessions, you will investigate physical science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.

2010-01-01

298

Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. PMID:23498924

Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

2013-01-01

299

The response of sheep to big bale grass silage ensiled with, or supplemented separately with, molassed sugar beet feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second cut big bale grass silage was prepared with grass ensiled alone or with added pelleted, molassed sugar beet feed (MSBF) at 32 or 64 g MSBF kg?1 fresh weight of grass. Addition of MSBF at ensilage increased silage dry matter (DM), water soluble carbohydrate and lactic acid concentrations and decreased ammonia concentration. When fed to wether lambs, MSBF addition,

Y. Rouzbehan; H. Galbraith; J. H. Topps; J. A. Rooke

1996-01-01

300

High-level production of the low-calorie sugar sorbitol by Lactobacillus plantarum through metabolic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorbitol is a low-calorie sugar alcohol that is largely used as an ingredient in the food industry, based on its sweetness and its high solubility. Here, we investigated the capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum, a lactic acid bacterium found in many fermented food products and in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, to produce sorbitol from fructose-6-phosphate by reverting the sorbitol catabolic

Victor Ladero; Ana Ramos; Anne Wiersma; Philippe Goffin; A. Schanck; M. Kleerebezem; J. Hugenholtz; E. J. Smid; P. Hols

2007-01-01

301

Decolorization of sugar syrups using commercial and sugar beet pulp based activated carbons.  

PubMed

Sugar syrup decolorization was studied using two commercial and eight beet pulp based activated carbons. In an attempt to relate decolorizing performances to other characteristics, surface areas, pore volumes, bulk densities and ash contents of the carbons in the powdered form; pH and electrical conductivities of their suspensions and their color adsorption properties from iodine and molasses solution were determined. The color removal capabilities of all carbons were measured at 1/100 (w/w) dosage, and isotherms were determined on better samples. The two commercial activated carbons showed different decolorization efficiencies; which could be related to their physical and chemical properties. The decolorization efficiency of beet pulp carbon prepared at 750 degrees C and activated for 5h using CO2 was much better than the others and close to the better one of the commercial activated carbons used. It is evident that beet pulp is an inexpensive potential precursor for activated carbons for use in sugar refining. PMID:17826086

Mudoga, H L; Yucel, H; Kincal, N S

2008-06-01

302

ATP-DEPENDENT SUGAR TRANSPORT COMPLEXITY IN HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES  

PubMed Central

Human erythrocyte glucose sugar transport was examined in resealed red cell ghosts under equilibrium exchange conditions ([sugar]intracellular = [sugar]extracellular). Exchange 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) import and export are monophasic in the absence of cytoplasmic ATP but are biphasic when ATP is present. Biphasic exchange is observed as the rapid filling of a large compartment (66% cell volume) followed by the slow filling of the remaining cytoplasmic space. Biphasic exchange at 20 mM 3MG eliminates the possibility that the rapid exchange phase represents ATP-dependent 3MG binding to the glucose transport protein (GLUT1; cellular [GLUT1] ? 20 ?M). Immunofluorescence activated cell sorting analysis shows that biphasic exchange does not result from heterogeneity in cell size or GLUT1 content. Nucleoside transporter mediated uridine exchange proceeds as rapidly as 3MG exchange but is monoexponential regardless of cytoplasmic [ATP]. This eliminates cellular heterogeneity or an ATP-dependent, nonspecific intracellular diffusion barrier as causes of biphasic exchange. Red cell ghost 3MG and uridine equilibrium volumes (130 fL) are unaffected by ATP. GLUT1 intrinsic activity is unchanged during rapid and slow phases of 3MG exchange. Two models for biphasic sugar transport are presented in which 3MG must overcome a sugar-specific, physical (diffusional) or chemical (isomerization) barrier to equilibrate with cell water. Partial transport inhibition using cytochalasin B or maltose depresses both rapid and slow phases of transport thereby eliminating the physical barrier hypothesis. We propose that biphasic 3MG transport results from ATP-dependent, differential transport of 3MG anomers in which Vmax/Km(app) for ?-3MG exchange transport is 19-fold greater than Vmax/Km(app) for ?-3MG transport. PMID:16928769

Leitch, Jeffry; Carruthers, Anthony

2014-01-01

303

Degradation Kinetics of Anthocyanin of Traditional and Low-Sugar Blackberry Jam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to monitor the stability of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds contained in two formulations\\u000a of blackberry jam (traditional and low-sugar) during storage. For that purpose, jams were prepared with varying amounts of\\u000a hydrocolloids and investigated as to pH, total soluble solids, water activity, total acidity, total anthocyanins and total\\u000a polyphenols. In order to accompany and

Sílvia Cristina Sobottka Rolim de Moura; Paulo Eduardo da Rocha Tavares; Sílvia Pimentel Marconi Germer; Alba Lucia Andrade Coelho Nisida; Adriana Barreto Alves; Alexandre Saikali Kanaan

304

ENZYME-MEDIATED PRODUCTION OF SUGARS FROM SAGO STARCH: STATISTICAL PROCESS OPTIMIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucoamylase (?-amylase, EC 3.2.1.3) from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze the soluble sago starch to reducing sugars without any major pretreatment of the substrate. A 2 L stirred tank reactor was used for the hydrolysis. The effects of pH, temperature, agitation speed, substrate concentration, and enzyme concentration on the reaction were investigated in order to maximize both the initial reaction

L. Long Wee; M. S. M. Annuar; S. Ibrahim; Y. Chisti

2011-01-01

305

Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Dietary fiber is the part of food that is not affected by the digestive process in the body. ... of the stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and ...

306

A Perspective on Solubility Rules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

1984-01-01

307

78 FR 23918 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC 2011-0081] Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the Solubility of the Eight Elements Listed in ASTM F963-11 Correction In notice document...

2013-04-23

308

Sugar-free medicines are counterproductive.  

PubMed

Sugar in food and drinks is responsible for the poor dental health of many children and adults. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the small amount of sugar in medicines has been responsible for any dental problems. A recent British Heart Foundation survey found that nearly one in three UK children are eating sweets, chocolate and crisps three or more times a day. Hence it is futile administering sugar-free medicine to a child consuming lot of sweets. Moreover, sugar in medicines makes them palatable and bitter medicines inevitably affect compliance with the prescribed treatment. Poor compliance leads to inadequate treatment of illness and consequently increases the risk of complications from illness. Hence sugar-free medicines promoted as a public health policy could have actually caused more harm than any meaningful net benefit. There is an urgent need for a healthy debate and a fresh look at the policy of promoting sugar-free medicines. PMID:22955756

Sundar, S

2012-09-01

309

Quantitation of trans-aconitic acid in different stages of the sugar-manufacturing process.  

PubMed

The sugar cane industry has seen how biomass production in sugar mills would be converted to a readily available source of molecules besides sugar. Properly managed, byproducts would be transformed into a sustainable source of renewable and environmentally friendly chemical products. As a principal and more abundant organic acid in sugar cane juice, trans-aconitic acid (TAA) has been studied for use as a plasticizer in the polymer industry. However, up to now no industrial-scale application has been reported. As a reasonable approach to recover TAA from a sugar mill, first, an analytical method to determine its presence in all stages of the sugar-manufacturing process is needed. A new modern method was developed to measure TAA in seven stages in a sugar mill located in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The stages with higher content of TAA were syrup, with 3363.6 ± 589.3 mg/L, and honey (molasses), with 6110.05 ± 139.5 mg/L. PMID:25098840

Montoya, Guillermo; Londono, July; Cortes, Paola; Izquierdo, Olga

2014-08-20

310

Blood sugar patterns in treated diabetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The diurnal pattern of blood sugar levels in 87 diabetic subjects was studied. The subjects were divided into five groups\\u000a according to the form of diabetic treatment being used. A mid morning peak in the blood sugar level was noted in all groups.\\u000a There was marked fluctuation in the blood sugar levels throughout the day in all groups except those

C. H. Walsh; C. Twomey; D. J. O'Sullivan

1974-01-01

311

China: An emerging sugar super power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane production in China has more than 3000 years of history. Prior to 1840 A.D., China dominated the world trade of\\u000a cane sugar but the sugar industry became very week since then due to long time of wars and unstable social conditions. It\\u000a has been developing rapidly again since early 1980s. China has become the third largest sugar producer in

Yang-rui Li

2004-01-01

312

Japanese Sugar Cane as a Forage Crop.  

E-print Network

AND OTHER'_CROPS. WATER-FREE BASIS. Crop. Crude I N.-Free 1 Protein Fat ( Fiber , Extsyt Ash per cent per rent per cent per cent per cent Green Japanese Sugar Canc. No. 9174. . . . . Green Japanese Sugar Cane fro111 Angleton. No. 9522... AND OTHER'_CROPS. WATER-FREE BASIS. Crop. Crude I N.-Free 1 Protein Fat ( Fiber , Extsyt Ash per cent per rent per cent per cent per cent Green Japanese Sugar Canc. No. 9174. . . . . Green Japanese Sugar Cane fro111 Angleton. No. 9522...

Leidigh, A. H. (Arthur Henry); McNess, George Thomas; Laude, H. H. (Hilmer Henry)

1916-01-01

313

Effect of ozonation on the reactivity of lignocellulose substrates in enzymatic hydrolyses to sugars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of pre-treatment of aspen wood with ozone for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis into sugars is determined by the amount of absorbed ozone. The ozone absorption rate depended on the water content in the sample being ozonized and was maximum at a relative humidity of wood of ˜40%. As a result of ozone pre-treatment, the initial rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis of wood under the action of a cellulase complex increased eightfold, and the maximum yield of sugars increased tenfold depending on the ozone dose. The ozonation at ozone doses of more than 3 mol/PPU (phenylpropane structural unit of lignin) led to a decrease in the yield of sugars because of the oxidative destruction of cellulose and hemicellulose. The alkaline ozonation in 2 and 12% NaOH was inefficient because of the accompanying oxidation of carbohydrates and considerably decreased the yield of sugars.

Ben'ko, E. M.; Manisova, O. R.; Lunin, V. V.

2013-07-01

314

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SUGAR INDUSTRY - A CASE STUDY ON KUSHTIA SUGAR MILLS IN BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salequzzaman M., Tariqul Islam S. M., Tasnuva A., Kashem M. A. and Mahedi Al Masud M. 2008. Environmental Impact of Sugar Industry - A Case Study on Kushtia Sugar Mills in Bangladesh. j. innov.dev.strategy 2(3): 31-35 The study was conducted at the adjacent area of Kushtia Sugar Mill to determine the physico-chemical properties of effluent of Kushtia sugar Mills and

M. SALEQUZZAMAN; S. M. TARIQUL ISLAM; M. A. KASHEM; M. MAHEDI AL MASUD

2008-01-01

315

Fuels from sugar crops: systems study for sugarcane, sweet sorghum, and sugar beets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive analysis is made of the technical and economic feasibility of producing fuels and chemicals from the sugar crops (sugar cane, sweet sorghum, and sugar beets). It is concluded that ethanol and ammonia are the most promising products. Ethanol produced by fermentation on juice or molasses is close to economic competitiveness. The ammonia cost is not yet competitive but

Nathan

1978-01-01

316

Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts

Reinskje Talhout; Antoon Opperhuizen; Jan G. C. van Amsterdam

2006-01-01

317

Sugar preferences and digestive efficiency of the village weaver: a generalist avian pollinator of African plants.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown that nectar properties of flowers pollinated by generalist avian nectarivores differ markedly from those of flowers pollinated by specialist avian nectarivores. In particular, flowers pollinated by generalist avian nectarivores tend to have very dilute nectar dominated by hexose sugars. To establish whether pollinator-mediated selection can explain these traits, we tested nectar sugar preferences and digestive capabilities of the village weaver (Ploceus cucullatus), a common generalist passerine nectarivore in South Africa. When offered pairwise choices of equicaloric hexose and sucrose solutions, village weavers preferred hexose solutions at 5% and 10% sucrose equivalents (SE) but did not show significant preference for either type of sugar when higher concentrations were offered (15%, 20% and 25% SE). Birds were less efficient at absorbing sucrose than hexose sugars, as revealed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of excreta sugar content. This was true at both concentrations tested (8.22% and 25%), although apparent sucrose assimilation rates were still relatively high (89.6+/-2.9% at low concentrations and 93.6+/-1.7% at high concentrations). Transit times indicated that sucrose also passes through the digestive tract faster than hexose sugars, particularly when consumed at high concentrations. This may limit the rate at which sucrose can be hydrolyzed before absorption. These results indicate that hexose preferences in generalist avian nectarivores may help explain the low sucrose content in flowers pollinated by these birds. Moreover, the preference for hexose sugars in weavers was most evident at the low concentrations (ca. 9% sugar by mass) that are typical of nectar in flowers pollinated by generalist avian nectarivores. PMID:20581283

Odendaal, T C; Brown, M; Downs, C T; Johnson, S D

2010-07-15

318

Nitrogen solubility in upper mantle minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen solubility in the upper mantle minerals forsterite, diopside, enstatite and pyrope has been quantified by SIMS measurements of nitrogen-saturated, synthetic samples. The crystals were grown in a 15N-H-O fluid buffered by Ni-NiO, Co-CoO, and Fe-FeO, at 1000-1300?°C and 15-35 kbar in a piston cylinder apparatus. Nitrogen solubility in minerals is significantly affected by temperature, pressure, mineral composition and, in particular, by oxygen fugacity. Nitrogen in all crystals buffered by Ni-NiO or Co-CoO is below detection limit or at most a few ?g/g at very high pressures. Concentrations of 5-24 ?g/g nitrogen have been quantified in diopside, enstatite and pyrope buffered by Fe-FeO at 1100?°C/15 kbar. Very high nitrogen solubility up to 100 ?g/g is observed at the Fe-FeO buffer in enstatite at high-temperature or in Al-bearing enstatite and diopside. The nitrogen solubility in forsterite at the Fe-FeO buffer also clearly increases with temperature and pressure; a maximum solubility of 10 ppm is obtained at 1300?°C/35 kbar. The strong enhancement of nitrogen solubility under reducing conditions may be related to nitrogen dissolution as either NH+4 or as N3- directly replacing O2-. Both mechanisms require some charge compensation, consistent with the enhancement of nitrogen solubility with Al content in enstatite. Our results demonstrate that the reduced lower part of the upper mantle has a large nitrogen storage capacity, and may store ˜20-50 times more nitrogen than the present atmosphere. Therefore, some 'missing' nitrogen may still be retained in the Earth's deep, reduced mantle. The calculated nitrogen partition coefficients between upper mantle minerals and silicate melt reveal that an oxidized mantle source would lose almost its entire nitrogen during partial melting, whereas under reducing conditions a considerable fraction of nitrogen could be retained in the residual solids. The high nitrogen solubility in upper mantle minerals at reducing conditions also suggests that solidification of the magma ocean on the early Earth should have retained significant nitrogen, yielding higher N/Ar and N/C ratios in the young upper mantle as compared to the young atmosphere.

Li, Yuan; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Shcheka, Svyatoslav; Keppler, Hans

2013-09-01

319

Soluble and colorless polyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported in the form of reaction diagrams, graphs, and tables of research being conducted to synthesize and characterize linear aromatic polyimides which are soluble in common organic solvents and optically transparent in the 400-600 nm spectral range. These flexible and high-temperature polymeric films and coatings are needed for specific applications on space components such as antennas, solar cells, and thermal control coating systems. Several series of these polyimide films have been produced by making variations in the polymer molecular structure aimed at reducing the electronic interactions between the polymer chains.

St. Clair, Anne K.

1988-01-01

320

Quality evaluation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by near-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The legal method (polarimetric measurement) for the determination of sucrose content and the wet chemical analysis for the quality control of sugar beet uses lead acetate. Because heavy metals are pollutants, the law could forbid their use in the future. Therefore, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated as a procedure to replace these methods. However, there are alternatives to lead clarification, such as the use of aluminum salts, which have been applied at many sugar companies. The real advantage of NIRS is in speed and ease of analysis. The aim of this study was to determine simultaneously the concentration of several components which define the industrial quality of beets. The first objective was the determination of sucrose content, which determines the sugar beet price. The standard error of prediction (SEP) was low: 0.11 g of sucrose/100 g of fresh beet. NIRS was also able to determine other beet quality parameters: brix, marc, glucose, nitrogen, sodium, potassium, sugar in molasses (i.e. sucrose in molasses), and juice purity. The results concerning brix, marc, sugar in molasses, and juice purity were satisfactory. NIRS accuracy was lower for the other parameters. Nevertheless, RPD (ratio standard deviation of concentration/SEP) and RER (ratio concentration range/SEP ratio) show that NIRS might be used for the sample screening on nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and glucose content. PMID:14995097

Roggo, Yves; Duponchel, Ludovic; Huvenne, Jean-Pierre

2004-03-10

321

Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K2Cr2O7.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Grande-Grande, A.

2011-01-01

322

Background for 1995 Farm Legislation: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current U.S. sugar price support programs have their origin in 1981 legislation. The price support program has resulted in significant expansion of the industry in the last decade. Beet sugar production has expanded in many regions, but has contracted in ...

R. Lord

1995-01-01

323

Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

2008-01-01

324

Natural Product Sugar Biosynthesis and Enzymatic Glycodiversification**  

PubMed Central

Many biologically active small molecule natural products produced by microorganisms derive their activities from sugar substituents. Changing the structures of these sugars can have a profound impact on the biological properties of the parent compounds. This realization has inspired attempts to derivatize the sugar moieties of these natural products through exploitation of the sugar biosynthetic machinery. This approach requires an understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of each target sugar and detailed mechanistic knowledge of the key enzymes. Scientists have begun to unravel the biosynthetic logic behind the assembly of many glycosylated natural products, and have found that a core set of enzyme activities is mixed and matched to synthesize the diverse sugar structures observed in nature. Remarkably, many of these sugar biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases also exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. The promiscuity of these enzymes has prompted efforts to modify the sugar structures and/or alter the glycosylation patterns of natural products via metabolic pathway engineering and/or enzymatic glycodiversification. In applied biomedical research, these studies will enable the development of new glycosylation tools and generate novel glycoforms of secondary metabolites with useful biological activity. PMID:19058170

Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Melancon, Charles E.; Liu, Hung-wen

2009-01-01

325

When Blood Sugar Is Too High  

MedlinePLUS

... range as possible, which means following your diabetes management plan. Checking your blood sugar levels several times a day will let you know ... your blood sugar levels regularly and your ketone levels when your diabetes management plan recommends it. Stick to your diabetes management ...

326

Unusual sugar biosynthesis and natural product glycodiversification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates and the attachment of sugar units to biological acceptor molecules catalyse an array of chemical transformations and coupling reactions. In prokaryotes, both common sugar precursors and their enzymatically modified derivatives often become substituents of biologically active natural products through the action of glycosyltransferases. Recently, researchers have begun to harness the power of

Christopher J. Thibodeaux; Charles E. Melançon; Hung-wen Liu

2007-01-01

327

Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

328

Where Has All the Sugar Gone?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) came out with a report concerning the consumption of sugar in the United States, and whether this consumption of sugar had ill effects on the health of the people. The FDA based its conclusions on scientific research reported in medical journals from around the world. The FDA did not do the research

Nancy Appleton

329

Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

Thompson, Sterling

330

Symptoms and Dangers of High Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... is high. This can lead to yeast and fungal infections. Examples include: A rash in the genital area or other moist surfaces A discharge from the vagina A sore throat Athlete's foot All of these symptoms can be relieved with treatment that controls high blood sugar. If the blood sugar levels ...

331

Chemotaxis of Salmonella typhimurium to Amino Acids and Some Sugars  

PubMed Central

Patterns of chemotaxis by Salmonella typhimurium strain LT-2 to l-amino acids and to several sugars were quantitated by the Adler capillary procedure. Competition experiments indicated that LT-2 possesses three predominant receptors, or interacting sets of receptors, for amino acids. These were termed the aspartate, serine, and alanine classes, respectively. Studies with strains carrying point and deletion mutations affecting components of the phosphoenolpyruvate: glycose phosphotransferase system (PTS) made unlikely a role in primary reception of d-glucose by the three soluble PTS components, namely HPr, enzyme I, and factor III. A ptsG mutant defective in membrane-bound enzyme IIB? of the high-affinity glucose transport system was shown to exhibit normal chemotaxis providing pleiotropic effects of the mutation were eliminated by its genotypic combination with other pts mutations or, phenotypically, by addition of cyclic AMP and substrate. A correlation was demonstrated between chemotaxis to glucose and activity of the low-affinity glucose transport complex, membrane-bound enzymes IIB:IIA, and an enzyme IIB:IIA mutant was shown to have a preponderant defect in chemotaxis to glucose and mannose. Of four systems capable of galactose transport, only the ?-methylgalactoside transport system was implicated in chemotaxis to galactose. Some properties of a mutant possibly defective in processing of signals for chemotaxis to sugars is described. PMID:342504

Melton, Thoyd; Hartman, Philip E.; Stratis, John P.; Lee, Timothy L.; Davis, Alan T.

1978-01-01

332

Undigestible sugars in food products.  

PubMed

In the field of sucrose replacement, low-energy bulk ingredients must be used to lower the energy density of food. Ideally, low-energy bulk ingredients as a substitute for sucrose should have significantly less energy, possess physical and chemical properties that precisely match those of sucrose in all food applications, provide secondary health benefits (such as being noncariogenic, being useful for diabetics, and having fiber-like effects), confer no negative side effects, and be completely safe at any amount of consumption. The food industry has developed a range of low-energy bulk ingredients. Most of these are legally permitted in food applications and are undigestible sugars (eg, polyols and fructo-oligosaccharides). Their main nutritional properties (energy value, digestive tolerance, and cariogenicity) are related to their fate in the digestive tract, especially their capacity to be used and fermented by bacteria. PMID:8116563

Bornet, F R

1994-03-01

333

Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.  

PubMed

Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose. PMID:17222551

Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

2007-11-01

334

SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

335

15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

2012-01-01

336

15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

2012-01-01

337

7 CFR 1435.603 - Eligible sugar seller.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible sugar seller. 1435.603 Section 1435...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Feedstock Flexibility Program § 1435.603 Eligible sugar seller. (a) To be considered an...

2014-01-01

338

15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

2010-01-01

339

VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

340

VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR BIN AND MILL IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

341

15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

2010-01-01

342

4. View of castiron sugar kettle with mill ruins in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View of cast-iron sugar kettle with mill ruins in background, looking S. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

343

15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

2013-01-01

344

15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.  

...2014-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

2014-01-01

345

15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

2011-01-01

346

15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

2011-01-01

347

15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.  

... 2014-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

2014-01-01

348

15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

2013-01-01

349

Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water  

SciTech Connect

Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%), was solubilized, while less than 10% of the cellulose entered the liquid phase. Moreover, recovery of the hemicellulose as monomeric sugars (after a mild posthydrolysis) exceeded 80%. Less than 5% of the hemicellulose was converted to furfural. Percolation beyond that needed to immerse the biomass in hot liquid water did not result in increased solubilization. The yield of lignocellulosic residue was also not sensitive to the form of the sugar cane used (bagasse or leaves) or its moisture content (8--50%). Commercial applications for this fractionation process include the pretreatment of lignocellulosics for bioconversion to ethanol and the production of pulp and paper products.

Allen, S.G.; Kam, L.C.; Zemann, A.J.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1996-08-01

350

[Development of a questionnaire to evaluate sugar abuse and dependence].  

PubMed

This study describes the development of a questionnaire to evaluate the potential abuse of (and dependence on) non-milk extrinsic sugar (NMES). Recent studies have shown that excessive NMES consumption can cause alterations in the central nervous system due to the influence of these substances in the neurochemical reward system. The questionnaire was originally developed from a summary of reports from four focus groups utilizing the "L" module of the MINI-Plus questionnaire. Addiction specialists subsequently evaluated the draft of the questionnaire and altered the original instrument's content, substituting terms in order to better fit the substance used in this study. However, the original structure of 20 questions on abuse and dependence was maintained. It is hoped that an instrument to evaluate NMES abuse and dependence will help health professionals prevent and treat problems related to over-consumption of sugars. However, the diagnosis of sugar abuse and dependence and the instrument's potential psychometric properties require further study by the scientific community. PMID:18709227

Rosa, Marco Aurélio Camargo da; Slavutzky, Sonia Maria Blauth de; Pechansky, Flávio; Kessler, Félix

2008-08-01

351

Sugar feeding in adult stable flies.  

PubMed

Adult stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies collected on Alsynite sticky traps in rural and urban environments. In addition, stable flies were visually examined to determine whether blood was present in the gut. In laboratory studies, sugars were detectable with the anthrone technique in stable flies for approximately 3 d after being imbibed, and blood could be visually detected in the gut for 24-48 h after feeding. Twelve percent of the field-collected flies had detectable sugar with a higher percentage of the urban flies having sugar fed than the rural flies, 21 and 8%, respectively. Female flies sugar fed at a slightly higher rate than males, 13 versus 11%, respectively. Less than 1% of the field-collected flies had blood in their guts. The frequency of observable blood was slightly higher in flies collected in an urban environment compared with those collected in a rural environment and did not differ between male and female flies. The number of flies with both blood and sugar was slightly higher than would be expected based on the frequencies of each alone. Seasonal patterns of both sugar feeding and blood feeding were similar in the rural and urban environments; both peaked in the early summer, May to mid-June, and dropped through the summer and fall. Sugar feeding in the urban environment increased again in October. PMID:18559167

Taylor, David B; Berkebile, Dennis R

2008-06-01

352

Effect of nitrate and sulfate relative abundance in PM2.5 on liquid water content explored through half-hourly observations of inorganic soluble aerosols at a polluted receptor site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid water content (LWC) is the amount of liquid water on aerosols. It contributes to visibility degradation, provides a surface for gas condensation, and acts as a medium for heterogeneous gas/particle reactions. In this study, 520 half-hourly measurements of ionic chemical composition in PM2.5 at a receptor site in Hong Kong are used to investigate the dependence of LWC on ionic chemical composition, particularly on the relative abundance of sulfate and nitrate. LWC was estimated using a thermodynamic model (AIM-III). Within this data set of PM2.5 ionic compositions, LWC was highly correlated with the multivariate combination of sulfate and nitrate concentrations and RH (R2 = 0.90). The empirical linear regression result indicates that LWC is more sensitive to nitrate mass than sulfate. During a nitrate episode, the highest LWC (80.6 ± 17.9 ?g m-3) was observed and the level was 70% higher than that during a sulfate episode despite a similar ionic PM2.5 mass concentration. A series of sensitivity tests were conducted to study LWC change as a function of the relative nitrate and sulfate abundance, the trend of which is expected to shift to more nitrate in China as a result of SO2 reduction and increase in NOx emission. Starting from a base case that uses the average of measured PM2.5 ionic chemical composition (63% SO42-, 11% NO3-, 19% NH4+, and 7% other ions) and an ionic equivalence ratio, [NH4+]/(2[SO42-] + [NO3-]), set constant to 0.72, the results show LWC would increase by 204% at RH = 40% when 50% of the SO42- is replaced by NO3- mass concentration. This is largely due to inhibition of (NH4)3H(SO4)2 crystallization while PM2.5 ionic species persist in the aqueous phase. At RH = 90%, LWC would increase by 12% when 50% of the SO42- is replaced by NO3- mass concentration. The results of this study highlight the important implications to aerosol chemistry and visibility degradation associated with LWC as a result of a shift in PM2.5 ionic chemical composition to more nitrate in atmospheric environments as is expected in many Chinese cities.

Xue, Jian; Griffith, Stephen M.; Yu, Xin; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen

2014-12-01

353

Estimation of canopy average mesophyll conductance using ?(13) C of phloem contents.  

PubMed

Conductance to CO(2) inside leaves, known as mesophyll conductance (g(m)), imposes large limitations on photosynthesis. Because g(m) is difficult to quantify, it is often neglected in calculations of (13)C photosynthetic discrimination. The 'soluble sugar method' estimates g(m) via differences between observed photosynthetic discrimination, calculated from the ?(13)C of soluble sugars, and discrimination when g(m) is infinite. We expand upon this approach and calculate a photosynthesis-weighted average for canopy mesophyll conductance ((c) g(m)) using ?(13)C of stem phloem contents. We measured gas exchange at three canopy positions and collected stem phloem contents in mature trees of three conifer species (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thuja plicata and Larix occidentalis). We generated species-specific and seasonally variable estimates of (c)g(m) . We found that (c)g(m) was significantly different among species (0.41, 0.22 and 0.09 mol m(-2) s(-1) for Larix, Pseudotsuga and Thuja, respectively), but was similar throughout the season. Ignoring respiratory and photorespiratory fractionations ((c)?(ef)) resulted in ?30% underestimation of (c)g(m) in Larix and Pseudotsuga, but was innocuous in Thuja. Substantial errors (~1-4‰) in photosynthetic discrimination calculations were introduced by neglecting (c)g(m) and (c)?(ef) . Our method is easy to apply and cost-effective, captures species variation and would have captured seasonal variation had it existed. The method provides an average canopy value, which makes it suitable for parameterization of canopy-scale models of photosynthesis, even in tall trees. PMID:21554329

Ubierna, Nerea; Marshall, John D

2011-09-01

354

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

1998-01-01

355

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

1998-08-11

356

75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

2010-08-30

357

76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations...sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane states' sugar marketing allotments...

2011-04-12

358

75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations...sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane states' sugar marketing allotments...

2010-04-27

359

75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations...sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane States' sugar marketing allotments...

2010-07-06

360

[Antioxidant effect and polyphenol content of Syringodium filiforme (Cymodoceaceae)].  

PubMed

The marine phanerogam Syringodium filiforme, known as "manatee grass", is a common species that grows in coastal areas associated to Thalassia testudinum. With the aim to describe some of its possible chemical characteristics, this study was performed with a sample of 1.2 kg, collected in March 2009, in Guanabo beach, Havana, Cuba. The sample was dried (less than 12% humidity) and a total extract prepared; other three extracts were prepared with the use of solvents of increasing polarity. The phytochemical screening and analytical determinations of each fraction were undertaken Total polyphenol content was determined using pyrogallol as reference's standard; chlorophyll a and b and anthocyanin content were also quantified. Total extract and fractions antioxidant activity were evaluated by using the free radical scavenging activity assay with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl reactive (knowing as DPPH's method). The phytochemical screening of the different extracts detected the presence of high concentrations of flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, antocyanins, reducing sugars and alkaloids. The total extract and methanol fraction showed significant free radical scavenging properties, while the petroleum ether fraction showed moderate activity, and the chloroform fraction and the aqueous soluble precipitate (residual salt) obtained didn't show antioxidant properties against free radicals. The results of this work confirmed the potentialities of this species for biological purposes. PMID:21516660

González García, Kethia L; Valdés Iglesias, Olga; Laguna, Abilio; Díaz Martínez, Maylín; González Lavaut, José Antonio

2011-03-01

361

Reducing sugars production from corncobs: a comparative study of chemical and biotechnological methods.  

PubMed

Two commonly used chemical pretreatment processes, sulphuric acid, and sodium hydroxide, were tested to provide comparative performance data. A connection between solid to liquid ratio (S/L) and sugars released was observed with an increase in S/L ratio between 0.02 and 0.2. Enzymatic digestibility of 1 M of NaOH-pretreated corncobs were released 210.7 mg ml(-1) of sugars. Further, compared with different concentrations of acid pretreatments at 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, and 0.5 M concentrations, sodium hydroxide pretreatment of corncob substantially increased accessibility and digestibility of cellulose. Another additional observation made was whole-cell and crude enzymatic hydrolysis of different concentrations of acid and NaOH (0.05, 0.1, 0.25 M)-treated materials released lower amount of sugars compared with the sugars released (310.9 mg ml(-1)) with whole-cell hydrolysis of 1 M of NaOH-treated corncobs. NaOH-pretreated corncobs contained higher content of sugars and which is more suitable for production of reducing sugars. PMID:25172055

Potumarthi, Ravichandra; Baadhe, Rama Raju; Pisipati, Aparna; Jetty, Annapurna

2014-11-01

362

Reducing Added Sugars in the Food Supply Through a Cap-and-Trade Approach.  

PubMed

Objectives. We estimated the effect of a simulated cap-and-trade policy to reduce added sugar in the food supply. Methods. Using nationally representative data on added-sugar content and consumption, we constructed a mathematical model of a cap-and-trade policy and compared its health implications to those of proposals to tax sugar sweetened beverages or added sugars. Results. Capping added-sugar emissions into the food supply by food manufacturers at a rate of 1% per year would be expected to reduce the prevalence of obesity by 1.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.9, 2.4; a 4.6% decline) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 21.7 cases per 100?000 people (95% CI?=?12.9, 30.6; a 4.2% decline) over 20 years, averting approximately $9.7 billion in health care spending. Racial and ethnic minorities would be expected to experience the largest declines. By comparison, equivalent price penalties through excise taxes would be expected to generate smaller health benefits. Conclusions. A cap-and-trade policy to reduce added-sugar intake may reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes to a greater extent than currently-proposed excise taxes. PMID:25365146

Basu, Sanjay; Lewis, Kristina

2014-12-01

363

The effect of temperature on water vapor sorption by some amorphous pharmaceutical sugars.  

PubMed

To determine the effect of temperature on the water vapor sorption behavior of some amorphous pharmaceutical sugars, aqueous solutions of sucrose, lactose, trehalose, and raffinose were freeze-dried using a conventional laboratory lyophilizer. The amorphous sugars formed were stored for several months at 5, 30, and 50 degrees C and at a range of relative humidities (0-90% RH). After equilibration the extent of water vapor sorption was determined gravimetrically, and the presence of any crystalline material was determined. A significant amount of water was sorbed by each of the amorphous sugars even at moderate humidities. In every system studied, lowering the storage temperature at any given relative humidity caused an increased quantity of water to be sorbed. This indicated the predominance of an exothermic water vapor sorption process. Spontaneous crystallization of all the sugars occurred at elevated RHs, and the onset of crystallization did not necessarily coincide with attainment of the water content of the final crystalline forms(s) or the reduction of the sugars' glass transition temperature to ambient conditions. Notably, the amorphous and crystalline forms of some sugars were able to coexist in a quasi-equilibrium state under certain temperature and humidity conditions. PMID:10027221

Hancock, B C; Dalton, C R

1999-01-01

364

Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.  

PubMed

Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading. PMID:24175878

LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

2013-01-01

365

Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review  

SciTech Connect

Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

1981-01-01

366

Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced sugar chocolates formulated with natural sweeteners as sucrose alternatives.  

PubMed

In this study, sugar alcohols, dietary fibers, syrups and natural sweeteners were used as sucrose alternatives in the production of reduced sugar chocolates (50% of cocoa parts) with enhanced bioactive profile. Formulated chocolates were evaluated for their physical (particle size distribution, texture) and sensory properties, sugar composition, polyphenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity. All produced reduced sugar chocolates ensured >20% lower calorific value than conventional chocolate (prepared with sucrose). Formulated chocolates containing stevia leaves and peppermint exhibited the best sensory properties (especially with regard to mouthfeel, sweetness and herbal aroma), as well as the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Particle size and hardness of chocolates increased in comparison to conventional chocolate, in particular when the combination of fructose and isomalt or lactitol was used. The bioactive profile of produced chocolates was enriched with phenolic acids, flavone (luteolin and apigenin) and flavonol (quercetin) derivatives, which were not identified in control chocolate. PMID:25148960

Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Dujmovi?, Marko; Karlovi?, Sven; Biški?, Matija; Brn?i?, Mladen; Ježek, Damir

2015-01-15

367

Increased concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Evaluation in dairy cows in early lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in early lactation were used to investigate the potential of using perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with a high concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) to increase the efficiency of milk production. Ad libitum access to one of two varieties of zero- grazed herbage was given continuously for 3 weeks: treatment High Sugar (HS), an experimental peren-

J. M. Moorby; R. T. Evans; N. D. Scollan; J. C. MacRae; M. K. Theodorou

2006-01-01

368

Removal of chromium(III) from tannery wastewater using activated carbon from sugar industrial waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium is commonly found in huge quantities in tannery wastewaters. For this reason, the removal and recovery of the chromium content of tannery wastewaters is crucial for environmental protection and economic reasons. Removal and recovery of chromium were carried out by using low-cost potential adsorbents. For this purpose three types of activated carbon; C1, the waste generated from sugar industry

N. F. Fahim; B. N. Barsoum; A. E. Eid; M. S. Khalil

2006-01-01

369

Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Breads Supplemented with Sugar Beet Molasses-Based Ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic dehydration in sugar beet molasses as hypertonic medium was used to treat apples, plums, carrots and cabbage. Following the treatment, the fruits\\/vegetables were dried and ground. The obtained powders or pure beet molasses were incorporated into white wheat bread at 5 and 10% levels (flour basis). The results showed that the mineral content (K, Mg, Ca) and antioxidant potential

Bojana Filip?ev; Ljubinko Levi?; Marija Bodroža-Solarov; Nevena Mišljenovi?; Gordana Koprivica

2010-01-01

370

Effects of Sugar Ingestion on the Classroom and Playgroup Behavior of Attention Deficit Disordered Boys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention deficit disordered (ADD) boys fasted overnight and then received a drink containing sucrose or a placebo of comparable sweetness for four days. Examination of classroom behavior, academic productivity and accuracy, noncompliance with adult requests and peer interactions offered no support for the contention that sugar ingestion adversely…

Milich, Richards; Pelham, William E.

1986-01-01

371

How much reducing sugar may potatoes contain to avoid excessive acrylamide formation during roasting and baking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many consumers, potatoes fried or roasted in professional or private kitchens are the most important source of exposure to acrylamide. Acrylamide formation can be reduced by appropriate preparation techniques, but suitable potatoes are a prerequisite. The tendency of potato to form acrylamide can be approximated by the content of reducing sugar. Roast potatoes (hash browns, Rösti) and oven-fried potatoes

Sandra Biedermann-Brem; Anja Noti; Koni Grob; Daniel Imhof; Diego Bazzocco; Anton Pfefferle

2003-01-01

372

Comparison of the acute effects of sugar cane distillates and ethanol in mice.  

PubMed

The acute effects of 4 different brands of the most popular Brazilian alcoholic beverage, the so called "cachaças" (distilled product of sugar cane), were measured through the loss of the righting reflex and the rotarod test. The effects induced by the cachaças were greater than it could be predicted through the ethanol content alone. PMID:7202322

Masur, J; Boerngen, R

1980-01-01

373

Influence of moisture sorption history on the swelling of sugar maple wood and some tropical hardwoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of nine tropical hardwoods from Peru and sugar maple wood from Quebec were selected to perform moisture sorption tests associated with swelling tests at 25 °C. The results demonstrate that, for a given equilibrium moisture content, tangential and radial dimensions, and hence the volume of wood, are greater after desorption than after adsorption. The importance of these differences, so-called

Roger E. Hernández

1993-01-01

374

Antioxidant Activity of Phenolics Compounds From Sugar Cane ( Saccharum officinarum L.) Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice were identified and quantified by analytical high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection, showing the predominance of flavones (apigenin, luteolin and tricin derivatives), among flavonoids, and of hydroxycinnamic, caffeic and sinapic acids, among phenolic acids, representing a total content of around 160 mg\\/L. A tricin derivative was present in the highest

Joaquim Maurício Duarte-Almeida; Alexis Vidal Novoa; Adyary Fallarero Linares; Franco M. Lajolo; Maria Inés Genovese

2006-01-01

375

Dynamic Optimisation of Industrial Sugar Crystallization Process based on a Hybrid (mechanistic+ANN) Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model-based optimization of an industrial fed- batch sugar crystallisation process is considered in this paper. The objective is to define the optimal profiles of the manipulated process inputs, the feeding rate of liquor\\/syrup and the steam supply rate, such that the crystal content and the crystal size distribution (CSD) measures at the end of the batch cycle reach the

Vytautas Galvanauskas; Petia Georgieva; Sebastiao Feyo De Azevedo

2006-01-01

376

Let’s not Sugar-Coat it: Exploring Differences of Sugar Consumption Behaviours During Pregnancy Through Focused Ethnography.  

E-print Network

??Excessive sugar consumption may adversely affect maternal and fetal health. This study explored influences on women’s sugar consumption behaviours during pregnancy using focused ethnography. Fifteen… (more)

Graham, Jocelyn E.

2012-01-01

377

How Much Sugar Is in Bubble Gum?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some of the flavoring in bubble gum is due to the sugar or other sweetener it contains. As gum is chewed, the sugar dissolves and is swallowed. After a piece of gum loses its sweetness, it can be left to dry at room temperature and then the difference between its initial (unchewed) mass and its chewed mass can be used to calculate the percentage of sugar in the gum. This demonstration experiment is used to generate new questions about gums and their ingredients, and students can then design and execute new experiments based on their own questions.

Engineering K-Phd Program

378

Sensitivity and feeding efficiency of the black garden ant Lasius niger to sugar resources.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate sources such as plant exudates, nectar and honeydew represent the main source of energy for many ant species and contribute towards maintaining their mutualistic relationships with plants or aphid colonies. Here we characterise the sensitivity, feeding response curve and food intake efficiency of the aphid tending ant, Lasius niger for major sugars found in nectar, honeydew and insect haemolymph (i.e. fructose, glucose, sucrose, melezitose and trehalose). We found that sucrose concentrations - ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 M - triggered food acceptance by L.niger workers with their food intake efficiency being enhanced by sugar concentrations of 1M or higher at which points energy intake was maximised. The range of sucrose concentrations that elicit a feeding response by L. niger scouts thus overlaps with that of natural sugar resources. The response curves of feeding acceptance by scouts consistently increased with sugar concentration, except for trehalose which was disregarded by the ants. Ants are highly sensitive to sucrose and melezitose exhibiting low response thresholds. Sucrose, fructose and glucose share a same potential to act as phagostimulants as they had similar half feeding efficiency concentration values when expressed as the energetic content of sugar solution. Aphid-biosynthezised melezitose generated the highest sensitivity and phagostimulant potential. The feeding behavior of ants appears to be primarily regulated by the energy content of the food solution for the main sugars present in nectar and honeydew. However, feeding by scouts is also influenced by the informative value of individual sugars when it serves as a cue for the presence of aphid partners such as the aphid-biosynthesised melezitose. PMID:24667145

Detrain, Claire; Prieur, Jacques

2014-05-01

379

Bacterial production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids in seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after long-term bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations (32 days) with natural and artificial seawater, indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol%) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3-14 mol%). DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol%), followed by glucose (22 mol%) and the remaining neutral sugars (7-11 mol%). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural and artificial seawater samples, suggests that the microbial carbon pump also applies for neutral sugars and amino acids and that bacterially-produced biomolecules persist for long periods in the ocean.

Jørgensen, L.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, C. A.

2014-04-01

380

Production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids by bacteria in seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of combined neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after 32 days of bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations with natural seawater (sampled from water masses originating from the surface waters of the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean) and artificial seawater indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol %) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3-14 mol %). DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol %), followed by glucose (22 mol %) and the remaining neutral sugars (7-11 mol %). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days, the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural (representing marine semi-labile and refractory DOM) and artificial (representing bacterially produced DOM) seawater samples, suggests that microbes transform bioavailable neutral sugars and amino acids into a common, more persistent form.

Jørgensen, L.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, C. A.

2014-10-01

381

Modelling of oxygen solubility in titanium  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to present a thermodynamic modeling of oxygen solubility data of metallic and liquid titanium and also of thermodynamic data of titanium alloys not applied up to now for such a work. In view of focusing this work on the metallic part of the system Ti-O an attempt will be made to use fewer model parameters in comparison with previous studies, where the thermodynamics of titanium oxides were also involved. Sublattice models are chosen taking structural features of the bcc and hcp titanium solid solutions into consideration. Since higher oxygen content increases the ionic character in he liquid phase an associate model is used.

Waldner, P. [Montauniversitaet Leoben (Austria). Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie] [Montauniversitaet Leoben (Austria). Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie

1999-03-19

382

Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL  

SciTech Connect

The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility products, complex stability constants, and redox potentials for radionuclides in different oxidation states, form the underlying database to be used for those calculations. The potentially low solubilities of many radionuclides in natural waters constitute the first barrier for their migration from the repository into the environment. Evaluation of this effect requires a knowledge of the site-specific water chemistry and the expected spatial and temporal ranges of its variability. Quantitative determinations of radionuclide solubility in waters within the range of chemistry must be made. Speciation and molecular complexation must be ascertained to interpret and apply solubility results. The solubilities thus determined can be used to assess the effectiveness of solubility in limiting radionuclide migration. These solubilities can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of other retardation processes expected to occur once dissolution of the source material and migration begin. Understanding the solubility behavior of radionuclides will assist in designing valuable sorption experiments that must be conducted below the solubility limit since only soluble species participate in surface reactions and sorption processes. The present strategy for radionuclide solubility tasks has been to provide a solubility model from bulk-experiments that attempt to bracket the estimate made for this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) of water conditions on site. The long-term goal must be to develop a thermodynamic database for solution speciation and solid-state determination as a prerequisite for transport calculations and interpretation of empirical solubility data. The model has to be self-consistent and tested against known solubility studies in order to predict radionuclide solubilities over the continuous distribution ranges of potential water compositions for performance assessment of the site. Solubility studies upper limits for radionuclide concentrations in natural waters. The concentration in the aqueous phase is controlled by the radionuclide-bearing solid phase and by

C. Stockman

2001-01-26

383

Sugar Uptake by Cotton Tissues  

PubMed Central

The tissue accumulation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose has been studied in cultured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots and leaf discs. Sucrose uptake by both tissues from high apoplastic concentrations was independent of pH but has a slightly acidic pH optimum from low concentrations. Like other higher plant tissues, cotton root cells accumulate sucrose via a `saturable,' inhibitor-sensitive mechanism and a linear, inhibitor-resistant mechanism. The linear mechanism of sucrose uptake is not as pronounced in leaf disc data as it is in root data. Further, sucrose uptake by cotton leaf discs is more resistant than uptake by root cells to pH alterations, inhibitors, and monosaccharides in the uptake medium. The saturable phase of sucrose influx into cotton root is eliminated by glucose, fructose, and high pH. Sucrose influx into both tissues is not altered by osmotica up to 200 milliOsmolar. Sucrose accumulated by both tissues is rapidly converted to other chemical forms, especially in root tissue where only approximately 50% remains as neutral sugars 1 hour following the start of radiolable exposure. Although the entry of radiolabeled sucrose is faster in abraded leaf discs, they give the same response patterns to pH, inhibitors, and monosaccharide as do unabraded discs. The sucrose accumulation kinetics of cotton roots and leaf discs differ. These differences may be related to the physiological roles (source versus sink) of the two tissues in the intact plant. PMID:16663371

Hendrix, Donald L.

1984-01-01

384

Inversion techniques in radar remote sensing of agricultural fields; Case studies on sugar beet and winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is an attempt to gain insight in the retrieval of the soil moisture content and the vegetation water content from the radar backscatter of agricultural fields. Two crops have been selected: sugar beet and winter wheat. For a retrieval of the two agricultural parameters two approaches have been adopted.The first approach is based on an inversion of existing

G. J. Rijckenberg

1997-01-01

385

Cloud droplet activation: solubility revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soluble compounds present in atmospheric aerosol facilitate their transformation into cloud droplets by depressing the equilibrium vapor pressure required for activation. Their impact depends on the amount of dissolved substance in the aerosol aqueous phase, which in turn is controlled by its solubility. This study explores the impact of particle curvature on solubility, expressed in terms of a Kelvin enhancement. The augmented solubility, termed "Curvature Enhanced Solubility" (CES), is then introduced into Köhler theory for assessment of its impact on CCN activity for several organic compounds with a wide range of aqueous solubility. The interfacial energy between solute and aqueous phase required for quantification of CES is determined from existing correlations based on bulk solubility, and concurrent measurements of contact angle and surface tension. A number of important findings arise from this study: i) CES can substantially increase solubility and impact CCN activity but only if the aerosol is initially wet, ii) CES can stabilize highly supersaturated solutions, and provide a mechanism for retention of an aerosol aqueous phase even at very low relative humidity (RH), and, iii) trace amounts of surfactant impurities can magnify the impact of CES.

Padró, L. T.; Nenes, A.

2007-02-01

386

The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

1998-01-01

387

Added Sugars from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Estimated Regression Coefficients,  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

388

TryEngineering: Sugar Crystal Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry-based lesson plan that explores how nanostructures can influence surface area, as students work in teams to grow crystals from sugars of different grades of coarseness. The driving question of the lesson: If you dissolve sugars of different coarseness (granulated, powdered, cubes) in water and then grow sugar crystals, will the resulting crystals appear the same under a microscope, or will there still be a difference in appearance based on the initial coarseness of the sugar? The lesson follows a module format that includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information about the engineering connections. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

2012-12-27

389

Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars  

DOEpatents

Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

2011-04-26

390

Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... less or more medicine, depending on your diabetes management plan. If you manage your diabetes on your own most of the time, checking blood sugar levels also helps reassure your parents that you're ...

391

Red edge spectral measurements from sugar maple leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many sugar maple stands in the northeastern United States experienced extensive insect damage during the 1988 growing season. Chlorophyll data and high spectral resolution spectrometer laboratory reflectance data were acquired for multiple collections of single detached sugar maple leaves variously affected by the insect over the 1988 growing season. Reflectance data indicated consistent and diagnostic differences in the red edge portion (680-750 nm) of the spectrum among the various samples and populations of leaves. These included differences in the red edge inflection point (REIP), a ratio of reflectance at 740-720 nm (RE3/RE2), and a ratio of first derivative values at 715-705 nm (D715/D705). All three red edge parameters were highly correlated with variation in total chlorophyll content. Other spectral measures, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Simple Vegetation Index Ratio (VI), also varied among populations and over the growing season, but did not correlate well with total chlorophyll content. Leaf stacking studies on light and dark backgrounds indicated REIP, RE3/RE2 and D715/D705 to be much less influenced by differences in green leaf biomass and background condition than either NDVI or VI.

Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.; Moss, D. M.

1993-01-01

392

Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers’ activities.\\u000a In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet.\\u000a Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow

Henri Darmency; Etienne K. Klein; Thierry Gestat De Garanbé; Pierre-Henri Gouyon; Marc Richard-Molard; Claude Muchembled

2009-01-01

393

Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology\\u000a can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025\\u000a were obtained.

Francesca De Marchis; Yongxin Wang; Piergiorgio Stevanato; Sergio Arcioni; Michele Bellucci

2009-01-01

394

Intelligent clustering techniques for prediction of sugar production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate, and timely prediction of the annual sugar-beet crop yield is important to Sugar Industry because, based on it, the “harvest campaign” can be scheduled efficiently. This work presents intelligent clustering techniques for effecting efficient, small error prediction of the annual sugar-beet crop yield for the Hellenic Sugar Industry based on production and meteorological data acquired during a period

V. G Kaburlasos; V Spais; V Petridis; L Petrou; S Kazarlis; N Maslaris; A Kallinakis

2002-01-01

395

Isothermal drying of non-nucleated sugar syrup films  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to understand the mechanism of drying from sugar syrup films in order to better control the raw sugar drying process and to correctly design drying equipment. Drying raw sugar involves coupled heat and mass transfer and is complicated by the processes occurring in the syrup film. This study presents isothermal sugar film drying experiments and elucidates the

S. N. Vigh; M. E. Sheehan; P. A. Schneider

2008-01-01

396

Myanmar Sugar SMEs: History, Technology, Location and Government Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) engaged in sugar processing in Myanmar appeared in the last decade of the socialist era. An acute sugar deficit, restricted trade in white sugar, and high demand from the conventional dairy business led to the growth of sugar SMEs by appropriate blending of semi-finished products (syrup) in the fields, which were then processed in vacuum

San Thein; Toshihiro Kudo

2008-01-01

397

Are sugar-free confections really beneficial for dental health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Various sugar substitutes have been introduced and are widely used in confections and beverages to avoid tooth decay from sugar and other fermentable carbohydrates. One group of sugar substitutes are sugar alcohols or polyols. They have been specifically used in foods for diabetic patients because polyols are not readily absorbed in the intestine and blood stream, preventing post-prandial elevation

H. Nadimi; H. Wesamaa; P. Bollu; J. H. Meurman; S.-J. Janket

2011-01-01

398

UPGRADING OF SUGAR CANE BAGASSE BY THERMAL PROCESSES. 3. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRODUCTS OBTAINED FROM THE CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BAGASSE WITH MONOETHANOLAMINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The products obtained from liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse with monoethanolamine were characterized using a variety of methods: elemental analysis and UV-visible, FTIR, HNMR and CNMR spectrometries. The oils were separated by conventional solubility techniques and were further fractionated into eight fractions (saturated, monoaromatic, diaromatic, triaromatic and poliaromatic hydrocarbons, resins, asphaltenes and pre-asphaltenes). These fractions were characterized by capillary gas

Fernando M. Lanças; Sandra R. Rissato

1995-01-01

399

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON THE BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN LEAVES AND ROOT OF SUGAR BEET ASSOCIATED WITH AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N) application on the growth and metabolism of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Changes in nitrate, ammonium, soluble protein and pigment levels, nitrogen metabolism enzyme activity, biomass of leaves and beet, and sucrose and ?-amino-N were studied in relation to five different NPK application rates (0, 50, 100, 150,

D. Prvulovi?; M. Popovi?; D. Malen?i?; B. Marinkovi?; G. Ja?imovi?

2009-01-01

400

RP-HPLC determination of water-soluble vitamins in honey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment and validation of reliable analytical methods for the determination of vitamins in sugar-based matrices (e.g. honey) are still scarcely explored fields of research. This study proposes and fully validates a simple and fast RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of five water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B2, riboflavin; vitamin B3, nicotinic acid; vitamin B5, pantothenic acid; vitamin B9, folic acid;

Marco Ciulu; Silvia Solinas; Ignazio Floris; Angelo Panzanelli; Maria I. Pilo; Paola C. Piu; Nadia Spano; Gavino Sanna

2011-01-01

401

Physical properties of water-soluble pectins in hot- and cold-break tomato pastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical properties of water-soluble pectins (HP and CP) obtained from hot- and cold-break tomato pastes, respectively, and purified by anion-exchange chromatography were compared on the basis of their viscosities. The differences in viscosities between HP and CP solutions depended, not only on the average molecular mass, but also on the chemical structure. Neutral sugar-rich pectin, CP, was more flexible than

Huajuan Lin; Koichi Aizawa; Takahiro Inakuma; Ryo Yamauchi; Koji Kato

2005-01-01

402

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

403

Hypernatremia secondary to soluble paracetamol use in an elderly man: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Soluble (effervescent) paracetamol is routinely given to elderly patients for convenience. A daily dose of 4 gm in this soluble formulation can contain up to 8.7 gm of sodium chloride, which exceeds the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization. Hypernatremia secondary to soluble paracetamol has rarely been reported. We describe an elderly patient who developed hypernatremia shortly after taking soluble paracetamol. Case presentation A confused 89-year-old man with back pain secondary to metastatic prostatic carcinoma was prescribed soluble paracetamol. Ten days later, his serum sodium concentration had increased from 142 mmol/L to 165 mmol/L. Soluble paracetamol was withdrawn shortly before he died, and was believed to have contributed to his hypernatremia. Conclusion Hypernatremia is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Clinicians should be aware of the high sodium chloride content in soluble paracetamol, which can precipitate hypernatremia in elderly patients with impaired renal function. PMID:19829847

Khanna, Arun

2009-01-01

404

Biochemical and microstructural Ccharacteristics of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber prepared from mushroom sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos.  

PubMed

The proximate composition of sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinoceros, and Wolfiporia cocos, together with the yield, purity, monosaccharide profile, and microstructure of their insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions prepared from AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric methods were investigated and compared. All three sclerotia were typical carbohydrate rich sclerotia [ranging from 90.5 to 98.1% dry matter (DM)] with an exceptionally low amount of crude lipid content (ranging from 0.02 to 0.14% DM). Besides, all three sclerotia possessed substantial amounts of IDF (ranging from 77.4 to 94.6% DM) with notably high levels of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) (89.9-92.2% DM) in which glucose was the predominant sugar residue (90.6-97.2% of NSP DM). On the contrary, both the yield (only ranging from 1.45 to 2.50% DM) and the amount of NSP (ranging from 22.4 to 29.6% DM) of the three sclerotial SDF fractions were very low. Scanning electron micrographs showed fragments of interwoven hyphae and insoluble materials in the three sclerotial IDF fractions, but only an amorphous structure of soluble materials was observed in the SDF fractions. The potential use of these fiber preparations was discussed. PMID:14611193

Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K; Wu, Jin-Zhong

2003-11-19

405

Nectar Sugar Production across Floral Phases in the Gynodioecious Protandrous Plant Geranium sylvaticum  

PubMed Central

Many zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering nectar as a reward. In gynodioecious plants (i.e. populations are composed of female and hermaphrodite individuals) nectar production has been repeatedly reported to be larger in hermaphrodite compared to female flowers even though nectar production across the different floral phases in dichogamous plants (i.e. plants with time separation of pollen dispersal and stigma receptivity) has rarely been examined. In this study, sugar production in nectar standing crop and secretion rate were investigated in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant species with protandry (i.e. with hermaphrodite flowers releasing their pollen before the stigma is receptive). We found that flowers from hermaphrodites produced more nectar than female flowers in terms of total nectar sugar content. In addition, differences in nectar production among floral phases were found in hermaphrodite flowers but not in female flowers. In hermaphrodite flowers, maximum sugar content coincided with pollen presentation and declined slightly towards the female phase, indicating nectar reabsorption, whereas in female flowers sugar content did not differ between the floral phases. These differences in floral reward are discussed in relation to visitation patterns by pollinators and seed production in this species. PMID:23614053

Varga, Sandra; Nuortila, Carolin; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

2013-01-01

406

Phenylated Polyimides With Greater Solubility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In experiments, 3,6-diphenylpyromellitic dianhydride monomer prepared and polymerized with several different diamines. Polyimides with pendent phenyl groups along polymer backbones considerably more soluble than PMDA-based materials. Increased solubility eases processing, providing increased potential use in variety of applications. Because most polymers soluble in organic solvents, usable in microelectronics applications. Excellent thermal stabilities and high transition temperatures make them ideally suited. Many polymers extremely rigid and useful as reinforcing polymers in molecular composites. More flexible compositions useful as matrix resins in carbon-reinforced composites.

Harris, Frank W.

1991-01-01

407

By-products of the cane sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

Paturav, J.M.

1989-01-01

408

Solubility Characteristics of a Methacrylate Copolymer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solubility maps in several coordinate systems have been constructed to determine regions of solubility for a methacrylate copolymer. The general methodology followed was that of ASTM D 3132 Test Method for Solubility Range of Resins and Polymers. Over 90 ...

M. K. Potts

1990-01-01

409

A REVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL AND NUTRITIVE PROPERTIES OF CONDENSED FISH SOLUBLES  

E-print Network

that the indispensable amino acid tryptophan is rel- atively low and, on the content of essential inorganic elements in a gnotobiotic environment. 'I'his indicates that the presence of bacteria is not necessary for solubles solubles was recognized as an out- standing source of B vitamins and minerals for poultry and swine. Later

410

Physiological Aspects of Sugar Exchange between the Gametophyte and the Sporophyte of Polytrichum formosum  

PubMed Central

The sporophyte of bryophytes is dependent on the gametophyte for its carbon nutrition. This is especially true of the sporophytes of Polytrichum species, and it was generally thought that sucrose was the main form of sugar for long distance transport in the leptom. In Polytrichum formosum, sucrose was the main soluble sugar of the sporophyte and gametophyte tissues, and the highest concentration (about 230 mm) was found in the haustorium. In contrast, sugars collected from the vaginula apoplast were mainly hexoses, with traces of sucrose and trehalose. p-Chloromercuribenzene sulfonate, a nonpermeant inhibitor of the cell wall invertase, strongly reduced the hexose to sucrose ratio. The highest cell wall invertase activity (pH 4.5) was located in the vaginula, whereas the highest activity of a soluble invertase (pH 7.0) was found in both the vaginula and the haustorium. Glucose uptake was carrier-mediated but only weakly dependent on the external pH and the transmembrane electrical gradient, in contrast to amino acid uptake (S. Renault, C. Despeghel-Caussin, J.L. Bonnemain, S. Delrot [1989] Plant Physiol 90: 913-920). Furthermore, addition of 5 or 50 mm glucose to the incubation medium induced a marginal depolarization of the transmembrane potential difference of the transfer cells and had no effect on the pH of this medium. Glucose was converted to sucrose after its absorption into the haustorium. These results demonstrate the noncontinuity of sucrose at the gametophyte/sporophyte interface. They suggest that its conversion to glucose and fructose at this interface, and the subsequent reconversion to sucrose after hexose absorption by haustorium cells, mainly governs sugar accumulation in this latter organ. PMID:16653202

Renault, Sylvie; Bonnemain, Jean Louis; Faye, Loic; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

1992-01-01

411

FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

Rios-Corripio, M. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Rojas-López, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.

2011-01-01

412

Quantitative analysis of sugars in wood hydrolyzates with 1H NMR during the autohydrolysis of hardwoods.  

PubMed

The focus of this work was to determine the utility of (1)H NMR spectroscopy in the quantification of sugars resulting from the solubilization of hemicelluloses during the autohydrolysis of hardwoods and the use of this technique to evaluate the kinetics of this process over a range of temperatures and times. Yields of residual xylan, xylooligomers, xylose, glucose, and the degraded products of sugars, i.e., furfural and HMF (5-hydroxymethyl furfural), were determined. The monosaccharide and oligomer contents were quantified with a recently developed high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis. This method provided precise measurement of the residual xylan and cellulose remaining in the extracted wood samples and xylose and glucose in the hydrolyzates. NMR was found to exhibit good repeatability and provided carbohydrate compositional results comparable to published methods for sugar maple and aspen woods. PMID:19674893

Mittal, Ashutosh; Scott, Gary M; Amidon, Thomas E; Kiemle, David J; Stipanovic, Arthur J

2009-12-01

413

Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ

Orit Rozenberg; Amy Howell; Michael Aviram

2006-01-01

414

Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar\\/ethanol exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar\\/ethanol production have all been perverted and

Ben Richardson

2010-01-01

415

Dielectric properties of grapes and sugar solutions at 2.45 GHz.  

PubMed

Dielectric properties of grapes at 2.45 GHz were measured at moisture contents varying from 80 to 15% (wet basis) at temperatures ranging from 25-80 degrees C using the Open Ended Coaxial Transmission Line Technique. Both dielectric constant and loss factor decreased with decreasing moisture content. In low moisture samples these properties were found to be considerably influenced by higher temperatures. Dielectric properties of sugar solutions of varying concentrations (20-250% by weight in water) were also determined at different temperatures, and these values were compared to those of grapes of corresponding moisture concentration. Predictive models of the dieletric properties as functions of moisture content and temperature were generated using response surface methodology. The results are useful in estimating the volumetric heating of grapes by microwave energy, and these methods can be extended to sugar-based foods in general. PMID:7643292

Tulasidas, T N; Raghavan, G S; van de Voort, F; Girard, R

1995-01-01

416

Mineral oil soluble borate compositions  

SciTech Connect

Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

Dulat, J.

1981-09-15

417

Method for estimating solubility parameter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiempirical correlations have been developed between solubility parameters and refractive indices for series of model hydrocarbon compounds and organic polymers. Measurement of intermolecular forces is useful for assessment of material compatibility, glass-transition temperature, and transport properties.

Lawson, D. D.; Ingham, J. D.

1973-01-01

418

Checking Your Blood Sugar The only way to be sure your blood sugar is "just right" is to  

E-print Network

Blood Sugar #12; What should my A-1-C be? · To prevent problems from diabetes it is best if your A-1-C Checking Your Blood Sugar The only way to be sure your blood sugar is "just right" is to check it. Your blood sugar can be high and you may feel fine. If your blood sugar is high, it is damaging your

419

Water-soluble vitamins.  

PubMed

Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were <6.5%. The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with the method were comparable to the values declared. A disadvantage of the methods mentioned above is that sample composition has to be known in advance. According to European legislation, for example, foods might be fortified with riboflavin phosphate or thiamin phosphate, vitamers which are not included in the simultaneous separations described. Vitamin B2.--Viñas et al. elaborated an LC analysis of riboflavin vitamers in foods. Vitamin B2 can be found in nature as the free riboflavin, but in most biological materials it occurs predominantly in the form of 2 coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Several methods usually involve the conversion of these coenzymes into free riboflavin before quantification of total riboflavin. According to the authors, there is growing interest to know flavin composition of foods. The described method separates the individual vitamers isocratically. Accuracy of the method is tested with 2 certified reference materials (CRMs). Vitamin B5.-Methods for the determination of vitamin B5 in foods are limited because of their low sensitivity and poor selectivity. Pakin et al. proposed a post-column derivatization of pantothenic acid as a fluorescent compound and used this principle in a specific and sensitive method for the determination of free and bound pantothenic acid in a large variety of foods. A French laboratory invited European laboratories to participate in a series of collaborative studies for this method, which will be carried out in 2005/2006. A more sophisticated method was described by Mittermayer et al. They developed an LC-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the determination of vitamin B5 in a wide range of fortified food products. Application of the method to various samples showed consistent results with those obtained by microbiology. Vitamin B6.-Method 2004.07, an LC method for the analysis of vitamin B6 in reconstituted infant formula, was published by Mann et al. In contrast with this method, which quantifies vitamin B6 after converting the phosphorylated and free vitamers into pyridoxine, Viñas et al. published an LC method which determines 6 vitamin B6 related compounds, the 3 B6 vitamers, their corresponding phosphorylated esters, and a metabolite. Accuracy was determined using 2 CRMs. Results were within the certified ranges. Vitamin C.-Franke et al. described an extensive study to vitamin C and flavonoid levels of fruits and vegetables consumed in Hawaii. Vitamin C was determined by measuring ascorbic acid in its reduced state by LC and coulometric detection along with UV absorbance detection at 245 nm. No attempts were made to assess levels of dehydroascorbic acid. Most recent research revealed that cell uptake of dehydroascorbic acid is unlikely to play a major role, which may explain the very low vitamin C activity of orally administered L-dehydroascorbic acid in rats. The food levels found by Franke et al. are variably lower, higher, or equal in comparison to other studies. Iwase described a method for the determination of ascorbic acid in foods using L-methionine for the pre-analysis sample stabilization. Electrochemical detection wa

Konings, Erik J M

2006-01-01

420

New water-soluble carbamate ester derivatives of resveratrol.  

PubMed

Low bioavailability severely hinders exploitation of the biomedical potential of resveratrol. Extensive phase-II metabolism and poor water solubility contribute to lowering the concentrations of resveratrol in the bloodstream after oral administration. Prodrugs may provide a solution-protection of the phenolic functions hinders conjugative metabolism and can be exploited to modulate the physicochemical properties of the compound. We report here the synthesis and characterization of carbamate ester derivatives of resveratrol bearing on each nitrogen atom a methyl group and either a methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-350 (mPEG-350) or a butyl-glucosyl promoiety conferring high water solubility. Ex vivo absorption studies revealed that the butyl-glucosyl conjugate, unlike the mPEG-350 one, is able to permeate the intestinal wall. In vivo pharmacokinetics confirmed absorption after oral administration and showed that no hydrolysis of the carbamate groups takes place. Thus, sugar groups can be attached to resveratrol to obtain soluble derivatives maintaining to some degree the ability to permeate biomembranes, perhaps by facilitated or active transport. PMID:25275336

Mattarei, Andrea; Carraro, Massimo; Azzolini, Michele; Paradisi, Cristina; Zoratti, Mario; Biasutto, Lucia

2014-01-01

421

Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

422

Towards a Molecular Understanding of Protein Solubility.  

E-print Network

??Protein solubility is a problem for many protein chemists including structural biologists and those developing protein pharmaceuticals. Knowledge of how intrinsic factors influence solubility is… (more)

Kramer, Ryan 1984-

2011-01-01

423

[Quantitive variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in F1 generation of Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

Using phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method of alcohol-soluble extracts, the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in 11 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the polysaccharides contents in samples collected in May and February were 32.89%-43.07% and 25.77%-35.25%, respectively, while the extracts contents were 2.81%-4.85% and 7.90%-17.40%, respectively. They were significantly different among families. The content of polysaccharides in offspring could be significantly improved by hybridization between parents with low and high polysaccharides contents, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Cross breeding was an effective way for breeding new varieties with higher polysaccharides contents. Harvest time would significantly affect the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The contents of polysaccharides in families collected in May were higher than those of polysaccharides in families collected in February, but the extracts content had the opposite variation. The extents of quantitative variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts were different among families, and each family had its own rules. It would be significant in giving full play to their role as the excellent varieties and increasing effectiveness by studying on the quantitative accumulation regularity of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in superior families (varieties) of D. officinale to determine the best harvesting time. PMID:24494555

Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Ling-Shang; Si, Jin-Ping; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

2013-11-01

424

Determination of the relaxation characteristics of sugar glasses embedded in microfiber substrates.  

PubMed

Recently there has been considerable interest in developing sugar glasses that enable storage of biologics without refrigeration. Microfiber filter papers are good substrates for drying biologics in the presence of sugar glass-formers, providing for an even distribution of samples and an enhanced surface area for drying, but the opaqueness prevents macroscopic observation of the sample and can introduce complexities that impede physical characterization. Because drying kinetics and processing conditions can impact the relaxation dynamics (e.g., ?- and ?-relaxation), which can influence the efficacy of the glass as a stabilizer, methods are needed that can enable a determination of relaxation phenomena of sugar glasses in such complex environments. In this study we present a method which provides verification of the absence of crystallinity following drying on glass fiber filter paper and also enables the determination of relaxation characteristics of amorphous sugar compositions embedded within these filter substrates. Using material pockets to contain the sugar glass-embedded microfiber paper, the ?-relaxation temperature, T?, was determined as a function of the water content in trehalose and sucrose samples using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Results were verified by comparison with previous calorimetric and spectroscopic studies. The data also demonstrated the plasticizing effects of water, as T? was shown to correlate with water content via a Gordon-Taylor-like relationship. Our findings validate a new approach for determining the relaxation characteristics of microfiber embedded sugar glasses, and offer new insights into the relaxation characteristics of glasses prepared by microwave-assisted drying on filter papers. PMID:25280724

Weng, Lindong; Elliott, Gloria D

2014-11-01

425

Investigating C-4 sugar contamination of manuka honey and other New Zealand honey varieties using carbon isotopes.  

PubMed

Carbon isotopes (?(13)C honey and ?(13)C protein) and apparent C-4 sugar contents of 1023 New Zealand honeys from 15 different floral types were analyzed to investigate which New Zealand honey is prone to failing the AOAC 998.12 C-4 sugar test and evaluate the occurrence of false-positive results. Of the 333 honey samples that exceeded the 7% C-4 sugar threshold, 324 samples of these were New Zealand manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium, 97.2% of all fails found in the study). Three monofloral honeys (ling, kamahi, and tawari) had nine samples (2.8% of all fails found in the study) with apparent C-4 sugars exceeding 7%. All other floral types analyzed did not display C-4 sugar fails. False-positive results were found to occur for higher activity New Zealand manuka honey with a methylglyoxal content >250 mg/kg or a nonperoxide activity >10+, and for some ling, kamahi and tawari honeys. Recommendations for future interpretation of the AOAC 998.12 C-4 sugar method are proposed. PMID:24568639

Rogers, Karyne M; Sim, Mike; Stewart, Simon; Phillips, Andy; Cooper, Jannine; Douance, Cedric; Pyne, Rebecca; Rogers, Pam

2014-03-26

426

Production of fructose and ethanol from sugar beet molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36858.  

PubMed

The production of enriched fructose syrups and ethanol from beet molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36858 was studied. In batch experiments with a total sugar concentration between 94.9 and 312.4 g/L, the fructose yield was above 93% of the theoretical value. The ethanol yield and volumetric productivity in the beet molasses media with sugar concentration below 276.2 g/L were in the range of 59-76% of theoretical value and between 0.48 and 2.97 g of ethanol/(L x h), respectively. The fructose fraction in the carbohydrates content of the produced syrups was more than 95% when the total initial sugar concentration in the medium was below 242.0 g/L. Some oligosaccharides and glycerol were also produced in all tested media. Raffinose and the produced oligosaccharides were completely consumed by the end of the fermentation process when the total initial sugar concentration was below 190.1 g/L. The glycerol concentration was below 16.1 g/L. The results could be useful for a potential industrial production of ethanol and high-fructose syrup from sugar beet molasses. PMID:11934290

Atiyeh, Hasan; Duvnjak, Zdravko

2002-01-01

427

Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.  

PubMed

The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9 ?m), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties. PMID:25037392

Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

2014-10-13

428

[Sugar of substitute stevioside in chewing gum: comparative double blind controllable study].  

PubMed

In double blind controllable study on 126 volunteers - students of medical academy - influence on ?? the mixed saliva of 5 kinds of chewing gums with the different contents of substitute of sugar as xylitol and sorbitol, and also the chewing sweets R.O.C.S., two kinds of chewing gums containing a basis with substitute of sugar stevioside (1.25 and 2.5%) and placebo (a basis without additives) were investigated. Products chewed within 10 minutes. In one of groups surveyed such chewing was preceded with rinsing a mouth by a test solution of saccharose. ?? determined within 30 minutes. At chewing gums with substitute of sugar displacement ?? the mixed saliva in the alkaline side was revealed a different degree. Thus gums with stevioside did not concede and even surpassed in this action of chewing gums with other substitutes of sugar. In comparison with placebo chewing gums and sweets restored acid-alkaline balance of oral cavities faster. Hence, use of stevioside in structure of chewing gum allows at preservation of its positive actions in oral cavity essentially to reduce concentration substitute of sugar and, hence, its collateral action by an organism. PMID:21378715

Rumiantsev, V A; Beliaev, V V; Zubtsov, V A; Esaian, L K; Namestnikova, I V

2011-01-01

429

Distribution of free amino acids, polyphenols and sugars of Ziziphus jujuba pulps harvested from plants grown in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Ziziphus jujuba pulps are very much appreciated by the inhabitants and have been recently exported. This article reports on the chemical composition (amino acids, polyphenols and sugars) of the pulps of four Z. jujuba ecotypes (Choutrana, Mahdia, Mahres and Sfax). The major amino acids identified were proline, aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Among these, proline was the most abundant amino acid (17.4 mol). Considerable differences in total phenolic contents (15.85 mg/L) were found. Predominant phenols identified by using HPLC were rutin (1.09 mg/L) and chlorogenic acid (2.57 mg/100 g). Sugars isolated from Ziziphus pulps were found at a rate of 43.52%. Using HPLC method, three sugars from the pulp extract were identified: glucose, galactose and sucrose. The Mahdia ecotype was the richest in these sugars with 0.45, 136.51 and 113.28 mg/L, respectively. PMID:25253334

Elaloui, M; Laamouri, A; Fabre, J; Mathieu, C; Vilarem, G; Hasnaoui, B

2015-01-01

430

Seasonal variations of sugars in atmospheric particulate matter from Gosan, Jeju Island: Significant contributions of airborne pollen and Asian dust in spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars are important water-soluble organic constituents of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In order to better understand the sources and seasonal variations of sugars in aerosols, primary saccharides (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and trehalose) and sugar alcohols (arabitol and mannitol), together with levoglucosan, have been studied in ambient aerosols at Gosan, Jeju Island in the western North Pacific, the downwind region of the Asian outflow, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the sugar composition varied seasonally with a total concentration range of 6.8-1760 ng m-3 (mean 246 ng m-3). The total identified sugars had the highest concentration in April, the spring bloom season at Jeju Island, when sucrose contributed up to 80% of the total sugars. The dominance of sucrose was also detected in pollen samples, suggesting that pollen can contribute significantly to sucrose in aerosols during the spring bloom. The seasonal variation of trehalose is consistent with those of non-sea-salt Ca2+ and ?13C of total carbon with elevated levels during the Asian dust storm events. This study indicates that sugar compounds in atmospheric PM over East Asia can be derived from biomass burning, Asian dust, and primary biological aerosols such as fungal spores and pollen. Furthermore, this study supports the idea that sucrose could be used as a tracer for airborne pollen grains, and trehalose as a tracer for Asian dust outflow.

Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kobayashi, Minoru; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

2012-08-01

431

A study of the solubility of mercury in liquid hydrocarbons  

E-print Network

A STUDY OF THE SOLUBILITY OF MERCURY IN LIQUID HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by DAVID LARIhKR MCFARLANE Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering A STUDY OF THE SOLUBILITY OF MERCURY IN LIQUID HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by DAVID LARI1VKR MCFARLANE Approved as to style and content by: W. H. Marlow (Chair of Committee) . W. Bevan (Member) . A...

McFarlane, David Larimer

2012-06-07

432

Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga  

SciTech Connect

The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

2003-02-11

433

Preventing protein oxidation with sugars: scavenging of hypohalous acids by 5-selenopyranose and 4-selenofuranose derivatives.  

PubMed

Heme peroxidases including myeloperoxidase (MPO) are released at sites of inflammation by activated leukocytes. MPO generates hypohalous acids (HOX, X = Cl, Br, SCN) from H(2)O(2); these oxidants are bactericidal and are key components of the inflammatory response. However, excessive, misplaced or mistimed production can result in host tissue damage, with this implicated in multiple inflammatory diseases. We report here methods for the conversion of simple monosaccharide sugars into selenium- and sulfur-containing species that may act as potent water-soluble scavengers of HOX. Competition kinetic studies show that the seleno species react with HOCl with rate constants in the range 0.8-1.0 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), only marginally slower than those for the most susceptible biological targets including the endogenous antioxidant, glutathione. The rate constants for the corresponding sulfur-sugars are considerably slower (1.4-1.9 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). Rate constants for reaction of the seleno-sugars with HOBr are ~8 times lower than those for HOCl (1.0-1.5 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). These values show little variation with differing sugar structures. Reaction with HOSCN is slower (~10(2) M(-1) s(-1)). The seleno-sugars decreased the extent of HOCl-mediated oxidation of Met, His, Trp, Lys, and Tyr residues, and 3-chlorotyrosine formation, on both isolated bovine serum albumin and human plasma proteins, at concentrations as low as 50 ?M. These studies demonstrate that novel selenium (and to a lesser extent, sulfur) derivatives of monosaccharides could be potent modulators of peroxidase-mediated damage at sites of acute and chronic inflammation, and in multiple human pathologies. PMID:23075063

Storkey, Corin; Pattison, David I; White, Jonathan M; Schiesser, Carl H; Davies, Michael J

2012-11-19

434

Diversity and activity of sugar transporters in nematode-induced root syncytia  

PubMed Central

The plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii stimulates plant root cells to form syncytial feeding structures which synthesize all nutrients required for successful nematode development. Cellular re-arrangements and modified metabolism of the syncytia are accompanied by massive intra- and intercellular solute allocations. In this study the expression of all genes annotated as sugar transporters in the Arabidopsis Membrane Protein Library was investigated by Affymetrix gene chip analysis in young and fully developed syncytia compared with non-infected Arabidopsis thaliana roots. The expression of three highly up-regulated (STP12, MEX1, and GTP2) and three highly down-regulated genes (SFP1, STP7, and STP4) was analysed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The most up-regulated gene (STP12) was chosen for further in-depth studies using in situ RT-PCR and a nematode development assay with a T-DNA insertion line revealing a significant reduction of male nematode development. The specific role of STP12 expression in syncytia of male juveniles compared with those of female juveniles was further shown by qRT-PCR. In order to provide evidence for sugar transporter activity across the plasma membrane of syncytia, fluorescence-labelled glucose was used and membrane potential recordings following the application of several sugars were performed. Analyses of soluble sugar pools revealed a highly specific composition in syncytia. The presented work demonstrates that sugar transporters are specifically expressed and active in syncytia, indicating a profound role in inter- and intracelluar transport processes. PMID:19487386

Hofmann, Julia; Hess, Paul H.; Szakasits, Dagmar; Blochl, Andreas; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Daxbock-Horvath, Sabine; Bohlmann, Holger; van Bel, Aart J. E.; Grundler, Florian M. W.

2009-01-01

435

Synthesis of new sugar-based surfactants and evaluation of their hemolytic activities.  

PubMed

The synthesis of four sugar-based surfactants derived from glucose and (R)-12-hydroxystearic acid is described. The surfactants have a hydroxy group in the hydrophobic part, which is either free or acylated using acetyl chloride, hexanoyl chloride, or myristoyl chloride. Three of the synthesized surfactants are water-soluble and are evaluated with respect to their CMCs and hemolytic activities. The fourth surfactant has limited water solubility and is not further included in the study. The investigated surfactants are all hemolytic close to their respective CMC indicating that their use in parenteral formulations may be limited. Nevertheless, surfactants having the proposed structure appear as promising alternatives to existing solubilizing agents for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:16626152

Neimert-Andersson, Kristina; Sauer, Sven; Panknin, Olaf; Borg, Tessie; Söderlind, Erik; Somfai, Peter

2006-04-28

436

Prediction of drug solubility by the general solubility equation (GSE).  

PubMed

The revised general solubility equation (GSE) proposed by Jain and Yalkowsky is used to estimate the aqueous solubility of a set of organic nonelectrolytes studied by Jorgensen and Duffy. The only inputs used in the GSE are the Celsius melting point (MP) and the octanol water partition coefficient (K(ow)). These are generally known, easily measured, or easily calculated. The GSE does not utilize any fitted parameters. The average absolute error for the 150 compounds is 0.43 compared to 0.56 with Jorgensen and Duffy's computational method, which utilitizes five fitted parameters. Thus, the revised GSE is simpler and provides a more accurate estimation of aqueous solubility of the same set of organic compounds. It is also more accurate than the original version of the GSE. PMID:11277722

Ran, Y; Yalkowsky, S H

2001-01-01

437

24. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Centrifugal inner basket, 1879. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Centrifugal inner basket, 1879. Manufacturer, unknown. Supplied by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1879. View: After sugar was granulated and cooled it was dried and drained, completely separating the sugar crystals from the molasses, in the centrifugal. Revolving at 1200 rpm the sugar charge was forced outward with the molasses flying through the holes in the brass lining. Dried sugar was left behind in the inner basket and was dug out by hand. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

438

Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy to the quantification of sugar in honey.  

PubMed

A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic method with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression model for the prediction of sugar content in honey samples was calculated. Standards of trehalose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, melezitose, turanose and maltose were used to identify and quantify the individual sugar components in 63 honey samples by HPAEC-IPAD. Fructose and glucose are the highest sugars in honey with an average value of 36% and 26%, respectively. The 1stDer spectra with MSC or SLS in the wave number range from 1500 to 750cm(-1) provide the best calibration model with a r(2) of 86.60 and 86.01 with RPD of 2.6 and 2.55, respectively for fructose and glucose. For turanose and melezitose good models were also found. The FTIR-ATR showed to be a good methodology to quantify the main sugar content in honey and easily adapted to routine analysis. PMID:25236219

Anjos, Ofélia; Campos, Maria Graça; Ruiz, Pablo Contreras; Antunes, Paulo

2015-02-15

439

Determination of Fat Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

Carpenter, Charles

440

Solubility of metals in windblown dust from mine waste dump sites  

SciTech Connect

Threshold limit values for metal compounds are listed for specific salts, for fumes or dusts, or for soluble or insoluble compounds. The values for soluble compounds are usually lower than for insoluble compounds, reflecting the greater ability of the soluble compounds to enter the body and cause systemic toxicity. Neither the chemical composition nor the solubility of metals in windblown dust from mine waste dump sites is usually known. Four such sites in Butte, Montana, were investigated. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, and lead in windblown dust as a function of particle size and of solubility in simulated fluids of the lungs, stomach, and intestines were measured. Lead compounds showed the poorest solubility except for the samples from the Corra site. Manganese, cadmium, and copper compounds tended to be reasonably soluble in both simulated lung and stomach fluids. Arsenic compounds only had significant solubility in the acidic simulated stomach fluids. Only manganese showed reasonable solubility in simulated intestinal fluid. For the investigation of metals in dust samples of unknown composition, it is recommended that duplicate samples be obtained, one for total metal content and the other for dissolution in acidic simulated stomach fluid. Significant differences in metal content between the two samples should be taken into account to assess the potential hazard for systemic toxicity. 13 refs., 3 tabs.

Mullins, M.J.P.; Norman, J.B. [Montana College of Mineral Science and Technology, Butte, MT (United States)

1994-03-01

441

Enhancement of antioxidant properties and increase of content of vitamin D2 and non-volatile components in fresh button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (higher Basidiomycetes) by ?-irradiation.  

PubMed

Agaricus bisporus is a popular culinary-medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, and ?-irradiation could extend its shelf life. Our objective was to study the content of vitamin D2 and the taste components and antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts from A. bisporus with various doses of ?-irradiation. After irradiation, the vitamin D2 content of 5-10 kGy irradiated mushrooms was in the range of 5.22-7.90 µg/g, higher than that of the unirradiated control (2.24 µg/g). For all treatments, the total content of soluble sugars and polyols ranged from 113 to 142 mg/g, and the monosodium glutamate-like components ranged from 6.57 to 13.50 mg/g, among which the 2.5 kGy irradiated sample has the highest content of flavor 5'-nucleotide. About antioxidant properties, 10 kGy irradiated samples exhibited lower EC50 values than did other samples. EC50 values were less than 5 mg/mL for ethanolic extracts. Total phenols were the major antioxidant components and the total content was 13.24-22.78 mg gallic acid equivalents/g. Based on the results obtained, ?-irradiation could be used to improve the vitamin D2 content and intensity of umami taste in fresh mushrooms. In addition, ?-irradiation not only maintained the antioxidant properties of mushrooms but also enhanced the antioxidant properties to some extent. PMID:24941035

Tsai, Shu-Yao; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Huang, Shih-Jeng

2014-01-01

442

Thermochemistry and Aqueous Solubilities of Hydrotalcite-Like Solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrotalcites are used in technology as catalysts and anion exchangers and are important sinks for environmental contaminants. Their compositional variability makes it important, but difficult, to estimate their aqueous solubility. We report calorimetric measurements of the heats of formation of cobalt-aluminum hydrotalcite phases. The heat and free energy of formation from the elements are equal to those of mechanical mixtures of binary compounds, namely hydroxides and carbonates. The interlayer anion is much more important than the cation in determining the solubility of the hydrotalcite phase and its ability to contain or release heavy metals to the environment. Because hydrotalcites do not have an unreactive polymer as a structural core, their aqueous stability will change dramatically with composition, particularly with anion content. This simple mechanical mixture model allows prediction of aqueous solubilities and trace metal retention in a variety of geochemical settings.

Allada, Rama kumar; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Thompson Berbeco, Hillary; Casey, William H.

2002-04-01

443

Saving energy at U. S. Sugar Corporation  

SciTech Connect

It is reported that the U.S. Sugar Corporation of Florida has saved the purchase of three million gallons of fuel oil by burning sugarcane bagasse to fuel electrical generators. The company has also entered into a joint venture with Savannah Foods and Industry Inc.; whereby each company will commit $1 million for research on conversion of bagasse to alcohol for gasohol.

Not Available

1980-12-01

444

THE SHEARING BEHAVIOUR OF A SUGAR AGGREGATE  

E-print Network

granules. The present study is therefore an investigation of the shearing response of a loose, dry or moistTHE SHEARING BEHAVIOUR OF A SUGAR AGGREGATE Catherine A. Davy1 , M. D. Bolton2 , N. A. Fleck2 machines remain the only viable option. The development of a High Grade Continuous Centrifuge would

Bolton, Malcolm

445

For the topping : 3 Tablespoons sugar  

E-print Network

uses pectin and less sugar than syrup pack and retains the fresh berry flavor, color and texture berries. Sort, wash and drain. Crush, or press berries through a fine sieve or food mill, or puree with a blender or a food processor. To a quart (2 pounds) of crushed berries or puree, add approximately 2/3 cup

446

Green chemistry: biodiesel made with sugar catalyst.  

PubMed

The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for 'biodiesel' production. PMID:16281026

Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

2005-11-10

447

Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for `biodiesel' production.

Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N.; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

2005-11-01

448

World Centrifugal Sugar Situation and Outlook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World centrifugal sugar production for 1983/84 is estimated at 94.7 million metric tons (raw value), down 6% from the near-record production of the previous season but virtually unchanged from the Nov 1983 estimate. The decline reflects adverse growing co...

1984-01-01

449

Moisture and Shelf Life in Sugar Confections  

Microsoft Academic Search

From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is

R. Ergun; R. Lietha; R. W. Hartel

2010-01-01

450

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass  

E-print Network

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 19, 2009) Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels of biomass into monosaccharides. Add- ing water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic

Raines, Ronald T.

451

Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar-  

E-print Network

Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar- beet yields while minimizing disease- cially with furrow irrigation. Root diseases such as rhizomania and rhizoctonia root and crown rots will be reduced. Unnecessary irrigations can be reduced if grow- ers use information on water status at deeper

O'Laughlin, Jay

452

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

453

Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice  

PubMed Central

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

2014-01-01

454

Nonenzymatic sugar production from biomass using biomass-derived ?-valerolactone.  

PubMed

Widespread production of biomass-derived fuels and chemicals will require cost-effective processes for breaking down cellulose and hemicellulose into their constituent sugars. Here, we report laboratory-scale production of soluble carbohydrates from corn stover, hardwood, and softwood at high yields (70 to 90%) in a solvent mixture of biomass-derived ?-valerolactone (GVL), water, and dilute acid (0.05 weight percent H2SO4). GVL promotes thermocatalytic saccharification through complete solubilization of the biomass, including the lignin fraction. The carbohydrates can be recovered and concentrated (up to 127 grams per liter) by extraction from GVL into an aqueous phase by addition of NaCl or liquid CO2. This strategy is well suited for catalytic upgrading to furans or fermentative upgrading to ethanol at high titers and near theoretical yield. We estimate through preliminary techno-economic modeling that the overall process could be cost-competitive for ethanol production, with biomass pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:24436415

Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Rand, Jacqueline M; Alonso, David Martin; Han, Jeehoon; Youngquist, J Tyler; Maravelias, Christos T; Pfleger, Brian F; Dumesic, James A

2014-01-17

455

Sugars as the Source of Energized Carbon for Abiogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction of sugars with nitrite under mild conditions yielded ammonia needed for the synthesis of nitrogenous organics for abiogenesis, thereby eliminating the need for a planet-wide source of unstable ammonia for origins processes based on sugars.

Weber, A. L.

2010-04-01

456

7 CFR 1435.604 - Eligible sugar buyer.  

...Program § 1435.604 Eligible sugar buyer. (a) To be considered an eligible sugar buyer, the bioenergy producer must produce bioenergy products, including fuel grade ethanol or other biofuels. (b)...

2014-01-01

457

Chemical Organizations in the Central Sugar Metabolism of Escherichia Coli  

E-print Network

1 Chemical Organizations in the Central Sugar Metabolism of Escherichia Coli Florian Centler, network analysis, stoichiometry, systems biology, sugar metabolism, Escherichia coli 1.1 Introduction in E. coli including gene expression, signal transduction, and enzymatic activities, some organizations

Dittrich, Peter

458

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

459

NORTH WALL OF ELECTRIC SHOP, SUGAR BIN IS RIGHTOFCENTER, OFFICE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH WALL OF ELECTRIC SHOP, SUGAR BIN IS RIGHT-OF-CENTER, OFFICE AND LABORATORY AT FAR RIGHT. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

460