Science.gov

Sample records for solve environmental problems

  1. Context, Connection and Opportunity in Environmental Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses increasing emphasis on connectivity in the field of environmental problem solving. Touches on several major environmental problems as it discusses multidisciplinarity, marketization, and democratization as aspects of a new paradigm for environmental problem solving. (LZ)

  2. Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardwell, Lisa V.

    1991-09-01

    The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.

  3. Consider a spherical cow: A course in environmental problem solving

    SciTech Connect

    Harte, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book explores a variety of techniques for approaching contemporary environmental issues and provides a diverse course of participatory training in environmental problem solving. Using a case study method, the book describes challenging, real-world situations and provides worked-out solutions to illustrate the heuristics of environmental problem solving and to stimulate thinking - both quantitative and creative - across a broad range of environmental concerns, including energy and water resources, food production, indoor air pollution, and acid rain.

  4. Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

  5. Adolescent suicidal risk: psychological, problem solving, and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Fremouw, W; Callahan, T; Kashden, J

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the life stress and problem-solving interactional model of suicide proposed by Clum, Patsiokas, and Luscomb (1979). Thirty-three hospitalized suicidal adolescents were compared with 21 adolescents hospitalized for other psychiatric problems and with 89 controls. The assessment battery was composed of psychological measures, problem-solving measures, and environmental and family measures. The discriminant analyses revealed that the suicide group could be discriminated from the psychiatric control group but not from the high school control group. Unexpectedly, life stresses did not contribute to the identification of current suicide risk. The results suggest the importance of assessing suicide risk at the time of admission to minimize any subsequent changes in the risk group. PMID:8475532

  6. Problem-Solving Environmental Science on the Chesapeake Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Dean; Adkins, Jeannette C.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a continuing study on the Chesapeake Bay as an example of a problem-based approach to environmental education using real life problems. Argues that the approach gives students responsibility for their own learning. (DDR)

  7. Digital Libraries Creating Environmental Identity through Solving Geographical Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Hedberg, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental identity, or how we orient ourselves to the natural world, leads us to personalise abstract global issues and take action (or not) according to our sense of who we are. For example, are we willing to give up our luxurious cars for more fuel-efficient models even though we know that the earth is warming? In an era where web-based

  8. Digital Libraries Creating Environmental Identity through Solving Geographical Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Hedberg, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental identity, or how we orient ourselves to the natural world, leads us to personalise abstract global issues and take action (or not) according to our sense of who we are. For example, are we willing to give up our luxurious cars for more fuel-efficient models even though we know that the earth is warming? In an era where web-based…

  9. Moving Toward an Integrated Transdisciplinary Approach to Solving Environmental Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) four decades ago, much progress has been made in reducing emissions from the electric utility and mobile source sectors in the United States. These efforts have helped in improving human health and the environme...

  10. Empathy and Critical Thinking: Primary Students Solving Local Environmental Problems through Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampuero, David; Miranda, Christian E.; Delgado, Luisa E.; Goyen, Samantha; Weaver, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores the outcomes of teaching empathy and critical thinking to solve environmental problems. This investigation was done throughout the duration of an environmental education course within a primary school located in central Chile. A community-based research methodology was used to understand the formation of empathy and…

  11. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM-SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Conference on Environmental Problem Solving with Geographic Information Systems was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, September 21-23, 1994. The conference was a forum for over 450 environmental professionals to exchange information and approaches on how to use geographic ...

  12. Empathy and Critical Thinking: Primary Students Solving Local Environmental Problems through Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampuero, David; Miranda, Christian E.; Delgado, Luisa E.; Goyen, Samantha; Weaver, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores the outcomes of teaching empathy and critical thinking to solve environmental problems. This investigation was done throughout the duration of an environmental education course within a primary school located in central Chile. A community-based research methodology was used to understand the formation of empathy and

  13. Can Pollution Problems Be Effectively Solved by Environmental Science and Technology? An Analysis of Critical Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H. )

    2000-12-01

    It is currently believed that science and technology can provide effective solutions to most, if not all, environmental problems facing western industrial societies. The validity of this optimistic assumption is highly questionable for at least three reasons: First, current mechanistic, reductionist science is inherently incapable of providing the complete and accurate information which is required to successfully address environmental problems. Second, both the conservation of mass principle and the second law of thermodynamics dictate that most remediation technologies - while successful in solving specific pollution problems - cause unavoidable negative environmental impacts elsewhere or in the future. Third, it is intrinsically impossible to design industrial processes that have no negative environmental impacts. This follows not only from the entropy law but also from the fact that any generation of energy is impossible without negative environmental consequences. It can therefore be concluded that science and technology have only very limited potential in solving current and future environmental problems. Consequently, it will be necessary to address the root cause of environmental deterioration, namely the prevailing materialistic values that are the main driving force for both overpopulation and overconsumption. The long-term protection of the environment is therefore not primarily a technical problem but rather a social and moral problem that can only be solved by drastically reducing the strong influence of materialistic values.

  14. Environmental problem solving in coastal ecosystems: A paradigm shift to sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, William C.

    2008-04-01

    The human ecological footprint now extends to the entire globe, and human impacts are the dominant feature of many ecosystems, resulting in our current era being coined the 'anthropocene'. This is particularly apparent in coastal ecosystems as human populations are increasing rapidly in coastal cities and the ecosystem services in these areas are rapidly being compromised. Science has historically progressed as a series of paradigm shifts and this paper reviews this history of paradigm shifts and makes the case that the next major paradigm shift will be directed at sustainability, resulting in a shift in scientific focus on solving rather than just studying our current environmental problems. Traditionally, science has been extremely effective at data acquisition and then successively less effective at translating this into information, knowledge and finally environmental problem solving. The currently required paradigm shift is to focus on environmental problem solving, filling gaps in knowledge, information and data only as required to solve a particular problem. A key element in turning this process around is better science communication between scientists, key stakeholders and the community. This will require more 'science communicators' who can use credibility, tenacity, creativity and virtue to effect solutions.

  15. Eco-innovative design approach: Integrating quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.

  16. Problem-Solving Pointers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Robertta H.

    1990-01-01

    Problem solving is defined and characteristics of good problem solvers are highlighted. The cognitive processes used in problem solving are discussed. Suggestions for methods which can be used to teach problem solving are provided. Research implications from mathematics education are listed. (CW)

  17. Effectiveness of microcomputer simulations in stimulating environmental problem solving by community college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faryniarz, Joseph V.; Lockwood, Linda G.

    This study examined the impact of microcomputer simulations on environmental problem solving by community college students. A subordinate question was also addressed: Was the test instrument, which was used to assess the outcome of the treatment, biased by reading ability? The quasiexperimental design used two intact groups of community college students and parallels an earlier study by Rivers and Vockell (1987). The experimental group was assigned three simulation modules that focused on lake pollution analysis, wastewater quality management, and population dynamics. The comparison group was not exposed to any simulations, and served as a quasicontrol to identify possible Hawthorne effects. Effectiveness was assessed by the Test of Integrated Process Skills (TIPS I and II). Statistical analyses were done with t tests, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, and reliability coefficients. The experimental group showed a highly significant improvement in problem-solving skills after treatment, t(33) = 4.42, p < 0.001. Subtest mean gain scores supported the hierarchical relationships among cognitive modes for transitional operational reasoners as reported by Yap and Yeany (1988). An analysis of the correlation between the TIPS I and Nelson-Denny reading test scores indicated that the TIPS did not have a reading-level bias for the subjects in this study. Informal and anecdotal observations described improvements in other problem-solving skills which were not measured by the TIPS.

  18. Techniques of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Steven G.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

  19. Teaching through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

  20. Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    This chapter examines research on the cognitive processes involved in mathematical problem solving. The introduction includes definitions of key terms and a summary of four cognitive processes used in mathematical problem solving: (1) translating; (2) integrating; (3) planning; and (4) executing. Examples are then provided and exemplary research

  1. Teaching through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that

  2. Effective Family Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blechman, Elaine A.; McEnroe, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children with definite- and indefinite-solution tasks. Incentive and task independence were manipulated. It was found that definitions of effective problem solving based on directly observed measures of group interaction were more valid than definitions based on…

  3. Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    This chapter examines research on the cognitive processes involved in mathematical problem solving. The introduction includes definitions of key terms and a summary of four cognitive processes used in mathematical problem solving: (1) translating; (2) integrating; (3) planning; and (4) executing. Examples are then provided and exemplary research…

  4. Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…

  5. Problem Solving by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…

  6. Preparing College Students to Teach an Environmental Problem Solving Curriculum to Middle School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, S. E.

    2001-12-01

    An NSF-funded project-based program was implemented by Clarkson University in 2000 to increase the interest and knowledge of middle school students in science, math and technology through the solution of an environmental problem that is relevant to their local school community. Clarkson students developed curricula for 7th and 8th grade science and technology classes and then worked with the middle school students throughout the year to reduce to transform solid waste into healthy soil for plant growth. The solution to this problem provided a vehicle to teach fundamental science and math content as well as the process of doing science and solving problems. Placing college science and engineering students in the classroom proved to be a great mechanism for engaging students in science topics and providing mentoring experiences that differ greatly from those that a practicing professional can provide. It is clear, however, that the students must be well prepared for this experience to maximize the benefits of university - school district partnership programs. The objective of this presentation will be to describe the training program that has been developed to prepare Clarkson students to work effectively in middle school classrooms. The Clarkson students are trained for their classroom experiences during the summer before they enter the classroom. They receive three credits for the training, curriculum development, and teaching efforts. It is expected that the students have the necessary background in science and technology to teach themselves the content and environmental relevance of the problem they will be teaching. Lectures and workshops focus on how to transform this knowledge into a project-based curriculum that meets the needs of the teachers, while also exciting the students. Lecture/workshops include: team work; components of an effective class and teacher; project planning and management; problem solving process; inquiry based learning, deductive/inductive learning; creating unit/lesson plan; defining learning objectives; incorporating mentoring into program; NYS standards and science exam; and, assessment techniques. Journals are used to encourage the fellows to reflect on their learning and own educational experiences. An evaluation of the program by both Clarkson students and their partner teachers indicated that this training was appropriate for the students to enter the classroom as professional scientists and engineers. Their classroom interaction skills improved throughout the year.

  7. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  8. Inquiry and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…

  9. Problem-Solving Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

  10. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.

  11. Solving Problems in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez

    2005-01-01

    A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change

  12. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.

  13. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  14. Universal Design Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  15. Solving Problems Reductively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith; Tirosh, Dina

    2005-01-01

    Solving problems by reduction is an important issue in mathematics and science education in general (both in high school and in college or university) and particularly in computer science education. Developing reductive thinking patterns is an important goal in any scientific discipline, yet reduction is not an easy subject to cope with. Still,…

  16. [Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

  17. Solving Problems in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez

    2005-01-01

    A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…

  18. Circumference and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Katie; White, David

    The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to the…

  19. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  20. Solving Problems through Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…

  1. Robot, computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.

  2. The Application of Problem Solving Method on Science Teacher Trainees on the Solution of the Environmental Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Helping students to improve their problems solving skills is the primary target of science teacher trainees. In modern science, for training the students, methods should be used for improving their thinking skills, making connections with events and concepts and scientific operations skills rather than information and definition giving. One of…

  3. Problem Solving with Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Solving real problems that are novel requires a thought process that is often far removed from what students are taught to do in high school and college chemistry courses. This paper presents a method that permits the students to work out their own logical pathway to a solution, rather than having to recall a previously learned series of solution steps. The students begin by analyzing the information content of the problem, writing out the objective and given, following which they work out a pathway. The reasoning to find the pathway begins from the objective and works backward step-by-step to the given. The answer is obtained by doing the calculations indicated by the pathway. In a study of the effectiveness of this method, it was found that use of the method correlated with greater success for the more difficult problems, but not for the easier problems. Student use of the method increased as the semester progressed, so that by the end of the semester, they used it for most problems. Previous grades in chemistry did not influence the use of the method. The greater success obtained using the method was thus not an artifact of the students’ prior experience.

  4. Solving the transient water age distribution problem in environmental flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaton, F. J.

    2011-12-01

    The temporal evolution of groundwater age and its frequency distributions can display important changes as flow regimes vary due to the natural change in climate and hydrologic conditions and/or to human induced pressures on the resource to satisfy the water demand. Groundwater age being nowadays frequently used to investigate reservoir properties and recharge conditions, special attention needs to be put on the way this property is characterized, would it be using isotopic methods, multiple tracer techniques, or mathematical modelling. Steady-state age frequency distributions can be modelled using standard numerical techniques, since the general balance equation describing age transport under steady-state flow conditions is exactly equivalent to a standard advection-dispersion equation. The time-dependent problem is however described by an extended transport operator that incorporates an additional coordinate for water age. The consequence is that numerical solutions can hardly be achieved, especially for real 3-D applications over large time periods of interest. The absence of any robust method has thus left us in the quantitative hydrogeology community dodging the issue of transience. Novel algorithms for solving the age distribution problem under time-varying flow regimes are presented and, for some specific configurations, extended to the problem of generalized component exposure time. The solution strategy is based on the combination of the Laplace Transform technique applied to the age (or exposure time) coordinate with standard time-marching schemes. The method is well-suited for groundwater problems with possible density-dependency of fluid flow (e.g. coupled flow and heat/salt concentration problems), but also presents significance to the homogeneous flow (compressible case) problem. The approach is validated using 1-D analytical solutions and exercised on some demonstration problems that are relevant to topical issues in groundwater age, including analysis of transfer times in the vadose zone, aquifer-aquitard interactions and the induction of transient age distributions when a well pump is started.

  5. Environmental problem-solving and land-use management: A proposed structure for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conacher, Arthur

    1980-09-01

    A three-tiered structure of land-use and environmental management is here proposed for Australia. The structure is based on the idea that “environment” means the environment of people, and that “environmental problems” arise when a change in the interaction between people and their environment leads to conflicts about the use of land and resources. The heterogeneity of society means that a range of human aspirations and value systems must be satisfied by environmental managers. Existing methods of environmental management fail to achieve these objectives, due to inadequate perception of environmental problems by decision-makers, and the inability of currently available impact assessment techniques to resolve human conflicts associated with the use of land and resources. The main work of planning and managing land use and the environment would be carried out by regional authorities, supported by federal and state policy. Examples are given of moves towards regional administration in England and Wales, Western Australia, Australia and New Zealand. Community participation in the decision-making process is essential and can be achieved by electoral representation to the authoritative bodies and through procedures that ensure informed public comment on planning proposals.

  6. Computer Problem-Solving Coaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

    2005-09-01

    Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

  7. Problem Solving and Beginning Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Alan

    Based on current models of problem solving within cognitive psychology, this study focused on the spontaneous problem solving strategies used by children as they first learned LOGO computer programming, and on strategy transformations that took place during the problem solving process. The research consisted of a six weeks programming training…

  8. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving

  9. A simulation of fishway design: An example of simulation in environmental problem solving

    SciTech Connect

    Karisch, S.E.; Power, M.

    1994-05-01

    This paper agrees that modelling provides a convenient and cost-effective means of characterizing and predicting the behaviour of environmental systems disturbed by man. A series of modeling criteria are suggested that aim at compelling modelling work with current data, explicitly represent the current understanding of a system, include considerations of variability, and address predictive uncertainty. Models which do so provide a rigorous framework for the comparison of alternative courses of action. As an example of the methodology, the problems associated with the fishway design, highlighting the required statistical analysis and insights, are discussed. Comparison of the modelling results to those gained from operational experience with real fishways were used to validate model results and ensure model credibility. The models were then used to examine the effect of design on interactions between pools in fishways as a means of selecting the designs which minimized migration stress. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Some connections between fluid mechanics and the solving of industrial and environmental fluid-flow problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. C. R.

    1981-05-01

    The ways in which advances in fluid mechanics have led to improvements in engineering design are discussed, with attention to the stimulation of fluid mechanics research by industrial and environmental problems. The development of many practical uses of fluid flow without the benefit of scientific study is also emphasized. Among the topics discussed are vortices and coherent structures in turbulent flows, lubrication, jet and multiphase flows, the control and exploitation of waves, the effect of unsteady forces on structures, and dispersion phenomena. Among the practical achievements covered are the use of bluff shields to control separated flow over truck bodies and reduce aerodynamic drag, ink-jet printing, hovercraft stability, fluidized-bed combustion, the fluid/solid instabilities caused by air flow around a computer memory floppy disc, and various wind turbines.

  11. Training hydrologists to be ecohydrologists and play a leading role in environmental problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, M. E.; Chícharo, L.; Fohrer, N.; Gaviño Novillo, M.; Windhorst, W.; Zalewski, M.

    2012-06-01

    Ecohydrology is a relatively new and rapidly growing subject area in the hydrology curriculum. It is a trans-disciplinary science derived from the larger earth systems science movement and examining mutual interactions of the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. It is also an applied science focused on problem solving and providing sound guidance to catchment-scale integrated land and water resources management. The principle spheres of ecohydrology include (i) climate-soil-vegetation-groundwater interactions at the land surface with special implications for land use, food production and climate change; (ii) riparian runoff, flooding, and flow regime dynamics in river corridors with special implications for water supply, water quality, and inland fisheries; and (iii) fluvial and groundwater inputs to lakes/reservoirs, estuaries, and coastal zones with special implications for water quality and fisheries. We propose an educational vision focused on the development of professional and personal competencies to impart a depth of scientific knowledge in the theory and practice of ecohydrology and a breadth of cross-cutting knowledge and skills to enable ecohydrologists to effectively collaborate with associated scientists and communicate results to resource managers, policy-makers, and other stakeholders. In-depth knowledge in hydrology, ecology, and biogeochemistry is emphasized, as well as technical skills in data collection, modeling, and statistical analysis. Cross-cutting knowledge is framed in the context of integrated water resources management. Personal competencies to be fostered in educational programs include creative thinking, cooperation, communication, and leadership. We consider a life-long learning context but highlight the importance of master's level training in the professional formation of ecohydrologists.

  12. Training hydrologists to be ecohydrologists and play a leading role in environmental problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, M. E.; Chícharo, L.; Fohrer, N.; Gaviño Novillo, M.; Windhorst, W.; Zalewski, M.

    2012-02-01

    Ecohydrology is a relatively new and rapidly growing subject area in the hydrology curriculum. It is a trans-disciplinary science derived from the larger earth systems science movement and examining mutual interactions of the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. It is also an applied science focused on problem solving and providing sound guidance to catchment-scale integrated land and water resources management. The principle spheres of ecohydrology include (i) climate-soil-vegetation-groundwater interactions at the land surface with special implications for land use, food production and climate change; (ii) riparian runoff, flooding, and flow regime dynamics in river corridors with special implications for water supply, water quality, and inland fisheries; and (iii) fluvial and groundwater inputs to lakes/reservoirs, estuaries, and coastal zones with special implications for water quality and fisheries. We propose an educational vision focused on the development of professional and personal competencies to impart a depth of scientific knowledge in the theory and practice of ecohydrology and a breadth of cross-cutting knowledge and skills to enable ecohydrologists to effectively collaborate with associated scientists and communicate results to resource managers, policy-makers, and other stakeholders. In-depth knowledge in hydrology, ecology, and biogeochemistry is emphasized, as well as technical skills in data collection, modeling, and statistical analysis. Cross-cutting knowledge is framed in the context of integrated water resources management. Personal competencies to be fostered in educational programs include creative thinking, cooperation, communication, and leadership. We consider a life-long learning context but highlight the importance of master's level training in the professional formation of ecohydrologists.

  13. Problem Solving Style, Creative Thinking, and Problem Solving Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.

    2009-01-01

    Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment: Melding Classroom Instruction with Problem-Solving Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, James M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course which focuses student activities on the preparation of an environmental impact statement. The course provides undergraduate/graduate students with an intensive field ecology experience which exposes them to scientific principles of biology, environmental analysis, and quantitative sampling methods. Includes course format,…

  15. The Campus Lake Learning Community: Promoting a Multidisciplinary Approach to Environmental Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Maud; Jenkins, Dorothy; Powell, Katrina; Rusch, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    A multidisciplinary learning community provided environmental management students the opportunity to work with students in different classes and majors to create designs for improving the appearance and environmental quality of a lake on a university campus. The experience increased student appreciation for the contribution of other disciplines in…

  16. The Future Problem Solving Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabbe, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…

  17. Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Grace

    The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

  18. Visualization and Arithmetic Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Lucy

    One difficulty that mathematically naive subjects encounter in solving arithmetic word problems involves the limitation on short term memory (STM) capacity. It is hypothesized that naive subjects, not having access to formal problem solving strategies, may find visualization useful in reducing strain on STM. Two experiments are reported. The…

  19. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  20. Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

  1. Learning Impasses in Problem Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. P. E.

    1992-01-01

    Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

  2. Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

  3. Problem Solving on a Monorail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)

  4. Transformation Problem Solving Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmel, Sarah Jane

    The relationship between transformation problem performance and Guilford Structure of Intellect (SI) abilities is explored. During two group sessions 42 females and 35 males, age 18-39, were administered 12 Guilford SI tests exemplifying all five symbolic content (numeric) operations, and three contents in the divergent production area. Logical…

  5. Children Solve Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  6. Modeling Applied to Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-10-01

    Modeling Applied to Problem Solving (MAPS) is a pedagogy that helps students transfer instruction to problem solving in an expert-like manner. Declarative and Procedural syllabus content is organized and learned (not discovered) as a hierarchy of General Models. Students solve problems using an explicit Problem Modeling Rubric that begins with System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.). System and Interactions are emphasized as the key to a strategic description of the system and the identification of the appropriate General Model to apply to the problem. We have employed the pedagogy in a three-week review course for students who received a D in mechanics. The course was assessed by a final exam retest as well as pre and post C-LASS surveys, yielding a one standard deviation improvement in the students' ability to solve final exam problems and a statistically significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the C-LASS.

  7. Solving A Corrosion Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.

  8. A Computer Oriented Problem Solving Unit, Consume. Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents are organized into the following parts or lessons: (1) introduction to power and energy; (2) energy consumption and supply; (3) energy conservation and distribution; (4) energy flow and the question of transportation; and (5) computer models

  9. Irrelevance in Problem Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Alon Y.

    1992-01-01

    The notion of irrelevance underlies many different works in AI, such as detecting redundant facts, creating abstraction hierarchies and reformulation and modeling physical devices. However, in order to design problem solvers that exploit the notion of irrelevance, either by automatically detecting irrelevance or by being given knowledge about irrelevance, a formal treatment of the notion is required. In this paper we present a general framework for analyzing irrelevance. We discuss several properties of irrelevance and show how they vary in a space of definitions outlined by the framework. We show how irrelevance claims can be used to justify the creation of abstractions thereby suggesting a new view on the work on abstraction.

  10. Environmental Sensing of Expert Knowledge in a Computational Evolution System for Complex Problem Solving in Human Genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Casey S.; Hill, Douglas P.; Moore, Jason H.

    The relationship between interindividual variation in our genomes and variation in our susceptibility to common diseases is expected to be complex with multiple interacting genetic factors. A central goal of human genetics is to identify which DNA sequence variations predict disease risk in human populations. Our success in this endeavour will depend critically on the development and implementation of computational intelligence methods that are able to embrace, rather than ignore, the complexity of the genotype to phenotype relationship. To this end, we have developed a computational evolution system (CES) to discover genetic models of disease susceptibility involving complex relationships between DNA sequence variations. The CES approach is hierarchically organized and is capable of evolving operators of any arbitrary complexity. The ability to evolve operators distinguishes this approach from artificial evolution approaches using fixed operators such as mutation and recombination. Our previous studies have shown that a CES that can utilize expert knowledge about the problem in evolved operators significantly outperforms a CES unable to use this knowledge. This environmental sensing of external sources of biological or statistical knowledge is important when the search space is both rugged and large as in the genetic analysis of complex diseases. We show here that the CES is also capable of evolving operators which exploit one of several sources of expert knowledge to solve the problem. This is important for both the discovery of highly fit genetic models and because the particular source of expert knowledge used by evolved operators may provide additional information about the problem itself. This study brings us a step closer to a CES that can solve complex problems in human genetics in addition to discovering genetic models of disease.

  11. Supporting Problem Solving in PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David

    2011-01-01

    Although the characteristics of PBL (problem focused, student centered, self-directed, etc.) are well known, the components of a problem-based learning environment (PBLE) and the cognitive scaffolds necessary to support learning to solve different kinds of problems with different learners is less clear. This paper identifies the different…

  12. Functional Knowledge in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; Berger, Daniel

    An experiment compared solving of operational and diagnostic problems after different instruction about a fictitious device. Solution of both kinds of problems was facilitated by instruction (1) that focused on functional relations among components of the device or (2) that focused on states of the individual components. For operational problems,…

  13. CyberIntegrator: A Highly Interactive Problem Solving Environment to Support Environmental Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, L.; Minsker, B.; Kooper, R.; Myers, J.; Bajcsy, P.

    2006-12-01

    This work presents CyberIntegrator, a component of the Environmental Cyber-Infrastructure Demonstration (ECID) project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), which is exploring cyberinfrastructure for environmental observatories with an emphasis on supporting exploratory analysis and end-to-end productivity. CyberIntegrator is a novel workflow-based system that supports interactive workflow creation, connection to external data and event streams, provenance tracking, and incorporation of workflow fragments and functionality from other systems and applications, all of which enable the types of tasks expected in observatories. This presentation describes CyberIntegrator's use in three environmental use cases that reveal its novel aspects. The three environmental use cases are: modeling fecal coliform concentrations in Copano Bay, TX; discovering vegetation variability from large remotely sensed images at the US continental scale; detecting anomalous data from sensors in Corpus Christi Bay, TX. The use cases show how CyberIntegrator supports scientists through: 1. Integration of heterogeneous tools: CyberIntegrator can execute tools from multiple (currently six) heterogeneous software packages while hiding integration complexity. It passes the outputs of a software tool to the input of another tool transparently to an end user. 2. Provenance information gathering: Meta-data about scientific analyses are gathered and stored in a meta- data repository as Resource Description Framework (RDF) triples. The information enables tracking of provenance from data to workflow to publication and provides recommendations to users based on previous community activities. 3. Interactive human-computer interface: CyberIntegrator editor provides a user-friendly interface for browsing registries of data, tools and computational resources; creating workflows in a step-by-step exploration mode; re-using and re-purposing workflows; executing process flows locally or remotely; aiding research explorations using a provenance-to-recommendation pipeline; and incorporating heterogeneous tools and linking them transparently. 4. Event-driven execution: Multiple CyberIntegrator instances and other software applications can communicate using a message enterprise bus and generate and consume events occurring within or externally to the CyberIntegrator to support event-driven distributed analyses. For example, analyses of streaming data coming from sensors create events that could trigger execution of tools and workflows. By interacting with external events and recording provenance, enabling step-wise guided analysis, and enabling reuse of tools developed by others in other platforms. CyberIntegrator takes a significant step towards making workflow a ubiquitous and interactive part of Cyberenvironments and integrated cyberinfrastructure. CyberIntegrator is written in the Java programming language, building on open source middleware technologies such as Java Message Service (JMS), Tupelo2 data and metadata archiving system and Kowari meta-store. The analytical functionality comes from software packages including MS Excel, Im2Learn, GeoLearn, D2K, ArcGIS. The architecture of the CyberIntegrator was designed with focus on extensibility. The main CyberIntegrator engine connects to different executors depending on what underlying software application is used for a specific tool. New executors can be easily added. All the components can be either local or remote.

  14. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  15. Using Nanomaterials to Solve Environmental Problems: Advancing the Science and Engineering of Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brame, Jonathon Andrew

    Photocatalysis is a process by which materials can transfer light energy into chemical energy in the form of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can then oxidize chemical and biological contaminants in water. Whereas photocatalysis offers the potential to treat many recalcitrant priority pollutants in a cost-effective manner, it has yet to become a viable, wide-spread treatment option due to implementation barriers that include limitations in treatment efficiency and relatively high costs of some photocatalytic material. This thesis seeks to increase the applicability and understanding of nanomaterial-enhanced photocatalytic oxidation processes to help overcome these barriers. Increased photocatalytic efficiency can be accomplished through informed choice of ROS-producing materials. For example, hydroxyl radicals are shown to be much more susceptible to hindrance by natural organic matter (NOM), phosphate and wastewater treatment plant effluent than 1O 2, which is only slightly inhibited by NOM and not by phosphate or wastewater effluent. Additionally, a novel crystallization mechanism for photocatalytic TiO2 nanotubes enabled photo-production of multiple ROS types. This "cocktail" of reactive oxygen species contributed to increased efficiency. Novel applications for nanotechnology-enhanced photocatalysis were demonstrated at the lab scale. These include (1) photocatalytic pre-treatment of weathered oil from the 2010 Gulf oil spill, which increased soluble organic carbon content (indicative of increased bioavailability) by 60% and enhanced subsequent biodegradation by 37%; and (2) a water disinfection case study in rural Swaziland, which produced a prototype fluidized bed photoreactor capable of removing 99.9% of bacteria and viruses in <60 seconds. These projects show both a variety of applications for photocatalysis, and ways to increase its efficiency and effectiveness. To achieve wide-spread implementation, however, the price of photocatalysis must be reduced. Extensive reuse of treatment materials (>60 cycles), and utilization of less-purified starting materials (>90% cost reduction) highlight possible ways to reduce the cost of nanomaterial photocatalysis. By reducing financial implementation barriers, defining niches where photocatalysis can be superiorly effective, engineering reactor systems that enable real-world testing of this technology, and increasing understanding of photocatalytic inhibition mechanisms, photocatalysis can become a tool to help solve global water challenges.

  16. Environmental problem solving; The 1987-88 metro Denver Brown cloud study

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.E. )

    1990-05-01

    In the Denver metropolitan area during the winter of 1987--88 a proposed air pollution control strategy was tested as part of the effort to combat Denver's brown cloud. Electricity in the Denver area, including the cities of Boulder and Golden, is supplied by four generating stations owned and operated by the Public Service Co. of Colorado (PSC). The smallest plant uses natural gas. The three largest,which generate up to 1,100 MW, burn coal. Local air quality advocates recommended to switch the coal-fired plants to natural gas to reduce Denver's visible air pollution problem. During three periods of about two weeks each during the winter of 1987--88, PSC converted all of its coal-fired units to natural gas, which reduced total sulfur emissions in Denver by over 50% and permitted a full-scale analysis of the effectiveness of this control strategy. The results of this analysis are presented.

  17. Sex Differences in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Edward S.

    1984-01-01

    Nine experiments were performed to verify and extend studies on sex differences in problem solving conducted in the 1950s by Sweeney, Carey, Milton, Nakamura, and Berry. A 20-item problem set was administered to over 1,000 college students. Results indicated a male advantage, averaging 35 percent, virtually identical with 1950s results. (Author/BS)

  18. Promote Problem-Solving Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan; Jacobbe, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen fifth-grade students gather at the front of the classroom as their summer school instructor introduces Jonathan Bostic as the mathematics teacher for the week. Before examining any math problems, Bostic sits at eye level with the students and informs them that they will solve problems over the next four days by working individually as…

  19. Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.

  20. Problem Solving through Paper Folding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, Arsalan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a couple of challenging mathematical problems that involve paper folding. These problem-solving tasks can be used to foster geometric and algebraic thinking among students. The context of paper folding makes some of the abstract mathematical ideas involved relatively concrete. When implemented…

  1. Customer-centered problem solving.

    PubMed

    Samelson, Q B

    1999-11-01

    If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again. PMID:10623136

  2. Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

    2007-01-01

    TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,

  3. Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

    2007-01-01

    TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…

  4. Resources in Technology: Problem-Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This instructional module examines a key function of science and technology: problem solving. It studies the meaning of problem solving, looks at techniques for problem solving, examines case studies that exemplify the problem-solving approach, presents problems for the reader to solve, and provides a student self-quiz. (Author/CT)

  5. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    ScienceCinema

    DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center

    2009-09-01

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  6. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.

  7. Customer Service & Team Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sabrina Budasi

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a six-session, site-specific training course in customer service and team problem solving for the Claretian Medical Center. The course outline is followed the six lesson plans. Components of each lesson plan include a list of objectives, an outline of activities and discussion topics for the lesson,…

  8. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

  9. Technology and technique in meeting environmental challenges: Solving environmental problems in the construction and operation of a compressor station

    SciTech Connect

    Fagg, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper will review the installation of the innovative MOPICO (MOtor PIpeline COmpressor) on a main transmission line segment of the Columbia Gas Transmission system in Harford County, Maryland. A review of the environmental and operational requirements for the construction process as well as for the operation of the station will be the foundation from which the various features of the station and the MOPICO technology will be discussed. The station consists of three MOPICO motor compressors operating in series.

  10. Design and Problem Solving in Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L.

    1999-01-01

    Collectively, technological literacy embraces everything from intelligent consumerism to concerns about environmental degradation, ethics, and elitism. Technological problem solving can have social, ecological, or technological goals and may be categorized by four types: invention, design, trouble shooting, and procedures. Every citizen should be…

  11. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  12. Solving reed frequency vibration problems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, F.D.

    1989-01-01

    Reed frequency vibration problems in vertical pump installations can be diagnosed and corrected in the field or avoided in initial design with these guidelines. Some vertical pump installations experience excessive vibration caused by a close match between the operating speed and the reed frequency. In these cases the driver and its support system vibrate as a cantilever beam similar to the reed in a musical instrument, hence the term ''reed frequency''. The driver may be any suitable prime mover, it makes little difference. However, for convenience we are assuming the driver is a large electric motor. Basic spring/mass system properties can be used to define and solve this structure resonance problem commonly called reed frequency vibration. Better yet, the problem can be avoided by properly using information available from motor and pump manufacturers. This article is intended to provide an overall perspective of the problem and suggest means to deal with it.

  13. Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…

  14. Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a

  15. Solving the Dark Matter Problem

    ScienceCinema

    Baltz, Ted

    2009-09-01

    Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.

  16. Teaching Problem Solving to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes steps of teaching problem solving to college students and provides examples in the context of a university course. The steps involve (1) identifying the types of problems and types of problem solving methods to be covered, (2) instructing the students in problem-recognition and problem solving methods, along with ways of…

  17. Solving China's environmental problems: policy options from the Working Group on Environment in U.S.-China Relations.

    PubMed

    Frank, A

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the main themes, funding needs, and policy options of the Working Group on the Environment in US-China Relations that was created in November 1996. Meetings are chaired by members of the Council of Foreign Relations and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The 40+ member Working Group is coordinated by the Environmental Change and Security Project and the Woodrow Wilson Center's Asia Program. It offers a forum for discussion of environmental and foreign policy concerns. The aims are to identify important environmental and sustainable development issues related to US and Chinese interests; to develop creative strategies for government and nongovernment projects between the US and China; and to discuss strategies for using environmental issues for building improved relations between countries. Monthly meetings focus on energy issues, water quantity and quality, funds for environmental protection, and biodiversity issues. The group meetings emphasize the themes of multilateral cooperation, local Chinese environmental issues of significance to the US, and obstacles to cooperation on US-led projects within China. Improved relations may be achieved by articulation of a coherent China policy with explicit goals and guidelines, provision of funding, and linking local environmental problems with global ones. The US should support private business in marketing environmental technology and assist in the development of policy changes in the energy and water sectors in China. China needs improved irrigation techniques and comprehensive watershed management plans. PMID:12321722

  18. Parallel architectures for problem solving

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, L.V.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of exploiting a large amount of hardware in parallel is one of the biggest challenges facing computer science today. The problem of designing parallel architectures and execution methods for solving large combinatorially explosive problems is studied here. Such problems typically do not have a regular structure that can be readily exploited for parallel execution. Prolog is chosen as a language to specify computation because it is seen as a language that is conceptually simple as well as amenable to parallel interpretation. A tree representation of Prolog computation called the REDUCE-OR tree is described as an alternative to the AND-OR tree representation. A process model based on this representation is developed; it captures more parallelism than most other proposed models. A class of bus architectures is proposed to implement the process model. A general model of parallel Prolog systems is developed and the proposed architectures examined in its framework. One of the important features of the proposed architectures is that they limit contracting of work to a close neighborhood. Various interconnection networks are analyzed, and a new one called the lattice-mesh is proposed. The lattice-mesh improves on the square grid of buses, while retaining its linear-area property. An extensive simulation framework was built. Results of some of the experiments conducted on the simulation system are given.

  19. Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we

  20. Problem Solving with the Elementary Youngster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Vicki

    This paper explores research on problem solving and suggests a problem-solving approach to elementary school social studies, using a culture study of the ancient Egyptians and King Tut as a sample unit. The premise is that problem solving is particularly effective in dealing with problems which do not have one simple and correct answer but rather

  1. Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we…

  2. Problem Solving with the Elementary Youngster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Vicki

    This paper explores research on problem solving and suggests a problem-solving approach to elementary school social studies, using a culture study of the ancient Egyptians and King Tut as a sample unit. The premise is that problem solving is particularly effective in dealing with problems which do not have one simple and correct answer but rather…

  3. King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchardt, Donald A.

    An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and applying…

  4. Problem Solving in the General Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Andria Price; Lichtenberg, Betty Plunkett

    1974-01-01

    Five steps common to different problem solving models are listed. Next, seven specific abilities related to solving problems are discussed and examples given. Sample activities, appropriate to help in developing these specific abilities, are suggested. (LS)

  5. Community-powered problem solving.

    PubMed

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections. PMID:23593769

  6. Flexibility in Problem Solving: The Case of Equation Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2008-01-01

    A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on…

  7. Kindergarten Students Solving Mathematical Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nickey Owen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore problem solving with kindergarten students. This line of inquiry is highly significant given that Common Core State Standards emphasize deep, conceptual understanding in mathematics as well as problem solving in kindergarten. However, there is little research on problem solving with kindergarten students.…

  8. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  9. Social Problem Solving in Suicidal Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowski, Christine; Kelley, Mary Lou

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated whether adolescent suicide attempters (n=30) would have deficits in interpersonal problem solving and relation between social problem solving, suicide intent, and medical lethality. Compared with 30 psychiatric and 30 normal controls, adolescents who attempted suicide exhibited poorer social problem-solving abilities. Suicide attempters…

  10. LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

  11. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured

  12. Designing for student engagement in middle school science: Collaborative problem-solving in environmental science, using nanotechnology and electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmer, Andrea J.

    Engaging middle-school students in scientific inquiry is typically recognized as important, but difficult. Designed to foster learner engagement, this method used an online, problem-based, science inquiry that investigated the Lehigh Gap, Palmerton Superfund Site during five weeks of collaborative classroom sessions. The inquiry prototype was authored in WISE, the Web-Based Science Inquiry Environment headquartered at UC, Berkeley. Online materials, readings, and class sessions were augmented with remote access to an electron microscope to analyze Lehigh Gap samples and an introduction to nanoscale science and nanotechnology through the ImagiNations Web site at Lehigh University. Students contributed the artifacts they generated during their research to a university database and presented them to researchers at the university working on the same problem. This approach proved highly engaging and generated design and development guidelines useful to others interested in designing for student engagement and introducing nanoscale science and electron microscopy in middle school science. This study further found that students' engaged in science inquiry both behaviorally and emotionally and on several different levels. The various levels appeared to create two hierarchies of engagement, one based on behavioral criteria and the other based on emotional criteria. For students involved in the collaborative, problem-solving science, which included experts and access to their microscopes, the highest levels of engagement seemed to empower students and create in them a passion towards science. These hierarchies are illustrated with students' direct quotes, which prove that students engaged in this particular design of science inquiry. Students' engagement in the inquiry led to their achievements in understanding nanoscale science, nanotechnology, and electron microscopy and initiated positive attitude changes towards learning science.

  13. Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.

  14. Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,

  15. Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Louis L.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…

  16. Personality Correlates of Cognitive Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insua, Ana Maria; Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.

    College students were presented with a series of four problems, each presented in four different formats: verbally, in abstract symbols, in negative abstract symbols, and in geometric figures. Problem-solving performance was evaluated in terms of the sequence of questions that a subject asks in order to solve a problem. They were also tested by

  17. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem

  18. Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil

    1993-01-01

    The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.

  19. Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

  20. Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills. PMID:19592762

  1. Extending the Conception of "Problem" in Problem-Solving Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jim; Hafner, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the literature concerning problem solving in science education. Authors contend that the adoption of a forward-looking viewpoint of science has increased the attention given to the topics of discovery and problem-solving behavior. Authors conclude that research by philosophers of science on models and problem solving include insights to…

  2. Tangram solved? Prefrontal cortex activation analysis during geometric problem solving.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Izzetoğlu, Meltem; Çakır, Murat P; Onaral, Banu

    2012-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated prefrontal and parietal cortices for mathematical problem solving. Mental arithmetic tasks have been used extensively to study neural correlates of mathematical reasoning. In the present study we used geometric problem sets (tangram tasks) that require executive planning and visuospatial reasoning without any linguistic representation interference. We used portable optical brain imaging (functional near infrared spectroscopy--fNIR) to monitor hemodynamic changes within anterior prefrontal cortex during tangram tasks. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to solve a series of computerized tangram puzzles and control tasks that required same geometric shape manipulation without problem solving. Total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes indicated a significant increase during tangram problem solving in the right hemisphere. Moreover, HbT changes during failed trials (when no solution found) were significantly higher compared to successful trials. These preliminary results suggest that fNIR can be used to assess cortical activation changes induced by geometric problem solving. Since fNIR is safe, wearable and can be used in ecologically valid environments such as classrooms, this neuroimaging tool may help to improve and optimize learning in educational settings. PMID:23366983

  3. Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

  4. Do TEFL Articles Solve Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Julian

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the problem which English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teacher trainees who are nonnative English speakers have in reading articles about EFL teaching methods. As a solution to this problem, the author produced a worksheet for the students to fill in while reading the articles which followed Hoey's…

  5. Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette

    2003-01-01

    Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)

  6. Solving a problem by analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Don

    1999-03-01

    This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.

  7. Teaching Problem-Solving. Informal Series/43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Maynes, Florence J.

    This monograph is designed to provide practical classroom suggestions, including sample lesson plans, to show how teachers can improve the problem-solving competence of students at all educational and ability levels. The examples provided show that problem-solving instruction can be integrated with teaching the content of particular topics. While…

  8. A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…

  9. Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    This paper reported the results of a study designed to determine whether certain instructional strategies are superior to others in teaching problem solving to high school chemistry students. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual…

  10. Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…

  11. Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…

  12. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…

  13. Mathematical Problem Solving. Issues in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Frank K., Jr., Ed.; Garofalo, Joe, Ed.

    This set of papers was originally developed for a conference on Issues and Directions in Mathematics Problem Solving Research held at Indiana University in May 1981. The purpose is to contribute to the clear formulation of the key issues in mathematical problem-solving research by presenting the ideas of actively involved researchers. An…

  14. Student Modeling Based on Problem Solving Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelánek, Radek; Jarušek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems is mostly concerned with modeling correctness of students' answers. As interactive problem solving activities become increasingly common in educational systems, it is useful to focus also on timing information associated with problem solving. We argue that the focus on timing is natural for certain…

  15. Mathematics Teachers Circle around Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Anthony; Koehler, Jacob; Reiter, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Making problem solving a central part of teaching may be challenging to teachers who have limited experiences in learning and teaching mathematics in this way. Math Teachers' Circles were developed with the aim of establishing a "culture of problem solving" among middle school mathematics teachers. This culture could then be carried back into…

  16. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem…

  17. Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

  18. Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer

  19. Alternative Generation in Marital Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmbrod, Mary Taylor

    1982-01-01

    Compared the effects of two types of instruction to investigate how proficiency in generating alternatives in marital problem solving can be improved, using a sample of 44 Canadian couples. Results showed increased generation of alternatives. Communication skills training did not enhance creativity in problem solving. (Author/JAC)

  20. Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…

  1. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

  2. Problem Solving and Technology. ACESIA Monograph 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomon, Earle L.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The two articles dealing with problem solving and technology in this publication should be useful to those developing the kinds of materials, experiences, and thinking that elementary school industrial arts offers children. The first article accepts problem solving as an educational goal and reports a timely and universally acceptable approach.…

  3. Teaching and Learning through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Mike

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates some problem solving work with primary schools to Department for Children, Schools, and Families (DfES) support. In four primary schools in the West Midlands, the focus was teaching mathematics through problem solving, based on materials published on the DfES "standards" website. The author noticed the way

  4. A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,

  5. Student Modeling Based on Problem Solving Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelnek, Radek; Jaruek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems is mostly concerned with modeling correctness of students' answers. As interactive problem solving activities become increasingly common in educational systems, it is useful to focus also on timing information associated with problem solving. We argue that the focus on timing is natural for certain

  6. Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codina, A.; Caadas, M. C.; Castro, E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different

  7. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive

  8. Solving the Tulsa ozone problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, K.K.; Wilson, J.D.; Gibeau, E.

    1998-12-31

    Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.

  9. Robot, computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The TENEX computer system, the ARPA network, and computer language design technology was applied to support the complex system programs. By combining the pragmatic and theoretical aspects of robot development, an approach is created which is grounded in realism, but which also has at its disposal the power that comes from looking at complex problems from an abstract analytical point of view.

  10. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  11. Problem Solving with Generic Algorithms and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jay

    Success in using a computer in education as a problem-solving tool requires a change in the way of thinking or of approaching a problem. An algorithm, i.e., a finite step-by-step solution to a problem, can be designed around the data processing concepts of input, processing, and output to provide a basis for classifying problems. If educators…

  12. Ways of solving environmental problems while transferring the boilers for burning water-bitumen mixture instead of fuel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, V. R.; Sosin, D. V.

    2009-03-01

    Information concerning a new kind (for Russia) of liquid fuel, i.e., water-bitumen mixture (orimulsion), is presented. The application of the new fuel instead of the fuel oil at a boiler of a power unit of 350-MW capacity makes it possible to decrease sufficiently the expenditures for fuel while keeping the main environmental indices.

  13. Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives

    PubMed Central

    Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Background: Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P < 0.05. Results: The RAS mean scores and the PSI mean scores showed statistically significant differences in terms of a midwife's considering herself as a member of the health team, expressing herself within the health care team, being able to say “no” when necessary, cooperating with her colleagues, taking part in problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P < 0.01). Conclusions: There were significant statistical differences between assertiveness levels and problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession. PMID:26793247

  14. Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)

    MedlinePlus

    ... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...

  15. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  16. Lesion mapping of social problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  17. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-05-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.

  18. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop’s Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments. PMID:27168984

  19. Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

    2011-01-01

    This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

  20. Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly

    2013-01-01

    At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…

  1. Problem-Solving Errors of Educational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ann W.; And Others

    Problem solving is one of the most important skills that new and developing professionals must learn. The process is complex, involving information scanning, problem identification, and feedback processes requiring synthesis, interim assessments, problem error recognition and rectification, and timely and appropriate conclusions. This study used…

  2. Collaborative Problem Solving in Shared Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Mills, Leila A.; Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative problem solving in a shared virtual space. The main question asked was: How will the performance and processes differ between collaborative problem solvers and independent problem solvers over time? A total of 104 university students (63 female and 41 male) participated in an experimental…

  3. Problem Solving: Can Anybody Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Stuart W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the definition of a problem and at the process of problem solving. An analysis of a number of first and third year chemistry examination papers from English universities revealed that over ninety per cent of the "problems" fell into the "algorithm" category. Using Bloom's taxonomy and the same examination papers, we found that…

  4. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-12-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  5. An Alternate Path To Stoichiometric Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    1997-01-01

    Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)

  6. Using Proportional Reasoning to Solve Geometric Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandiscio, Eric A

    2004-01-01

    Students solve a geometric problem of measuring polygons with the help of proportional reasoning. Thus the importance of conceptual reasoning is emphasized as a highly efficient technique for teaching and strengthening mathematical content.

  7. Evaluating Expressions: A Problem-Solving Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanfiorenzo, Norberto R.

    1991-01-01

    Activities that illustrate a problem-solving approach to teaching grouping symbols, such as parentheses and brackets, are described. Suggested exercises, answers to those exercises, and variations of this activity are included. (KR)

  8. Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas

    PubMed Central

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

  9. Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E

    2012-10-01

    Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

  10. Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; untangling of specific problem solving assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy Kristine

    The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

  11. Teacher Learning on Problem-Solving Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Problem-solving teams address student difficulties. Teams comprised of teachers, specialists, and administrators identify the student problem, develop individualized interventions, and assess student change. Teacher experiences of teams are understudied. In a prospective, mixed-method study conducted in the United States, 34 teachers were followed…

  12. Teaching Teamwork and Problem Solving Concurrently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goltz, Sonia M.; Hietapelto, Amy B.; Reinsch, Roger W.; Tyrell, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Teamwork and problem-solving skills have frequently been identified by business leaders as being key competencies; thus, teaching methods such as problem-based learning and team-based learning have been developed. However, the focus of these methods has been on teaching one skill or the other. A key argument for teaching the skills concurrently is…

  13. Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, José N.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…

  14. Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A.; Hegarty, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naive students were administered kinematics problems and…

  15. Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…

  16. Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasetti, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…

  17. Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students

  18. Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angseesing, J. P. A.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)

  19. Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgan, James W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…

  20. Values in Principals' Thinking when Solving Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2007-01-01

    The values that school principals use when solving organisational problems were studied. Data were collected by a think aloud procedure, in which the participants verbalised their thoughts while working on a set of five administrative problems. The results show that the principals referred to seven values that had subtle but important sub-texts:…

  1. Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Jos N.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,

  2. Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)

  3. Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasetti, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing

  4. Problem solving and decisionmaking: An integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieterly, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt was made to redress a critical fault of decisionmaking and problem solving research-a lack of a standard method to classify problem or decision states or conditions. A basic model was identified and expanded to indicate a possible taxonomy of conditions which may be used in reviewing previous research or for systematically pursuing new research designs. A generalization of the basic conditions was then made to indicate that the conditions are essentially the same for both concepts, problem solving and decisionmaking.

  5. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students' Achievements of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…

  6. Students' Errors in Solving the Permutation and Combination Problems Based on Problem Solving Steps of Polya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…

  7. Enhancing chemistry problem-solving achievement using problem categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunce, Diane M.; Gabel, Dorothy L.; Samuel, John V.

    The enhancement of chemistry students' skill in problem solving through problem categorization is the focus of this study. Twenty-four students in a freshman chemistry course for health professionals are taught how to solve problems using the explicit method of problem solving (EMPS) (Bunce & Heikkinen, 1986). The EMPS is an organized approach to problem analysis which includes encoding the information given in a problem (Given, Asked For), relating this to what is already in long-term memory (Recall), and planning a solution (Overall Plan) before a mathematical solution is attempted. In addition to the EMPS training, treatment students receive three 40-minute sessions following achievement tests in which they are taught how to categorize problems. Control students use this time to review the EMPS solutions of test questions. Although problem categorization is involved in one section of the EMPS (Recall), treatment students who received specific training in problem categorization demonstrate significantly higher achievement on combination problems (those problems requiring the use of more than one chemical topic for their solution) at (p = 0.01) than their counterparts. Significantly higher achievement for treatment students is also measured on an unannounced test (p = 0.02). Analysis of interview transcripts of both treatment and control students illustrates a Rolodex approach to problem solving employed by all students in this study. The Rolodex approach involves organizing equations used to solve problems on mental index cards and flipping through them, matching units given when a new problem is to be solved. A second phenomenon observed during student interviews is the absence of a link in the conceptual understanding of the chemical concepts involved in a problem and the problem-solving skills employed to correctly solve problems. This study shows that explicit training in categorization skills and the EMPS can lead to higher achievement in complex problem-solving situations (combination problems and unannounced test). However, such achievement may be limited by the lack of linkages between students' conceptual understanding and improved problem-solving skill.

  8. Students' perception of environmental problems and sources of environmental information

    SciTech Connect

    Alaimo, S.J.; Doran, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Selected factors that potentially influence the environmental values of students in seventh through 12th grades were investigated. These factors included students' knowledge about environmental problems, students' perceptions of the chances of solving environmental problems, students' concern about environmental problems, and students' sources of environmental information. Study results indicate that generally, all students appear to have a high concern for environmental problems, especially those in grades eight and 12. Most students are optimistic about the chances for solving environmental problems. Science clases are probably the most effective source of environmental information. (14 references, 5 tables)

  9. Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.

  10. AI tools in computer based problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beane, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

  11. Sleep promotes analogical transfer in problem solving.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Padraic; Sio, Ut Na; Lau, Sum Wai; Woo, Hoi Kei; Linkenauger, Sally A; Ormerod, Thomas C

    2015-10-01

    Analogical problem solving requires using a known solution from one problem to apply to a related problem. Sleep is known to have profound effects on memory and information restructuring, and so we tested whether sleep promoted such analogical transfer, determining whether improvement was due to subjective memory for problems, subjective recognition of similarity across related problems, or by abstract generalisation of structure. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed to a set of source problems. Then, after a 12-h period involving sleep or wake, they attempted target problems structurally related to the source problems but with different surface features. Experiment 2 controlled for time of day effects by testing participants either in the morning or the evening. Sleep improved analogical transfer, but effects were not due to improvements in subjective memory or similarity recognition, but rather effects of structural generalisation across problems. PMID:26113445

  12. Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.

  13. Problem solving in a distributed environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashid, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Distributed problem solving is anayzed as a blend of two disciplines: (1) problem solving and ai; and (2) distributed systems (monitoring). It may be necessary to distribute because the application itself is one of managing distributed resources (e.g., distributed sensor net) and communication delays preclude centralized processing, or it may be desirable to distribute because a single computational engine may not satisfy the needs of a given task. In addition, considerations of reliability may dictate distribution. Examples of multi-process language environment are given.

  14. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    PubMed

    Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food. PMID:21876741

  15. Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Aerts, Diederik; Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano

    2014-08-15

    Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an “easy” problem and a “hard” problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible “ways of selecting” an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible “ways of selecting” an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.

  16. Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Diederik; de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli

    2014-08-01

    Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an "easy" problem and a "hard" problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible "ways of selecting" an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible "ways of selecting" an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.

  17. SVM for Solving Forward Problems of EIT.

    PubMed

    Wu, Youxi; Li, Ying; Guo, Lei; Yan, Weili; Shen, Xueqin; Fu, Kun

    2005-01-01

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) can be seen as a new machine learning way which is based on the idea of VC dimensions and the principle of structural risk minimization rather than empirical risk minimization. SVM can be used for classification and regression. Support Vector Regression (SVR) is a very important branch of Support Vector Machine. Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) have been successfully treated by using SVR in previous works. The forward problems of EIT are the basis of EIT inverse problems. The forward problem's essence is to solve PDEs. The method has been successfully tested on the forward problems of EIT and has yielded accurate results. PMID:17282501

  18. Representations in Problem Solving: A Case Study with Optimization Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Jose L.; Castro, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Representations play an essential role in mathematical thinking. They favor the understanding of mathematical concepts and stimulate the development of flexible and versatile thinking in problem solving. Here our focus is on their use in optimization problems, a type of problem considered important in mathematics teaching and

  19. Representations in Problem Solving: A Case Study with Optimization Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Jose L.; Castro, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Representations play an essential role in mathematical thinking. They favor the understanding of mathematical concepts and stimulate the development of flexible and versatile thinking in problem solving. Here our focus is on their use in optimization problems, a type of problem considered important in mathematics teaching and…

  20. Heuristic Kalman algorithm for solving optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Rosario; Lyonnet, Patrick

    2009-10-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a new optimization approach, which we call heuristic Kalman algorithm (HKA). We propose it as a viable approach for solving continuous nonconvex optimization problems. The principle of the proposed approach is to consider explicitly the optimization problem as a measurement process designed to produce an estimate of the optimum. A specific procedure, based on the Kalman method, was developed to improve the quality of the estimate obtained through the measurement process. The efficiency of HKA is evaluated in detail through several nonconvex test problems, both in the unconstrained and constrained cases. The results are then compared to those obtained via other metaheuristics. These various numerical experiments show that the HKA has very interesting potentialities for solving nonconvex optimization problems, notably concerning the computation time and the success ratio. PMID:19336312

  1. Assessing Affect after Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks: Validating the Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

  2. Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…

  3. Understanding Individual Problem-Solving Style: A Key to Learning and Applying Creative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.

    2008-01-01

    More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…

  4. Problem-Solving Models for Computer Literacy: Getting Smarter at Solving Problems. Student Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moursund, David

    This book is intended for use as a student guide. It is about human problem solving and provides information on how the mind works, placing a major emphasis on the role of computers as an aid in problem solving. The book is written with the underlying philosophy of discovery-based learning based on two premises: first, through the appropriate…

  5. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the

  6. Should Children Learn to Solve Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy the…

  7. Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…

  8. Stoichiometric Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to create and test questions on stoichiometry with number ratios for quick mental calculations and to identify students' problem-solving strategies. The present study was a component of a more comprehensive investigation in which 7,441 German senior high school students were asked to work on 154 test items…

  9. Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated superiority of instructional strategies (factor-label method, proportionality, use of analogies, use of diagrams) in teaching problem-solving related to mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Also investigated effectiveness of strategies for students (N=609) with different verbal-visual preferences, proportional…

  10. Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.

    The major purpose of this study was to determine whether certain types of instructional strategies (factor-label method, use of analogies, use of diagrams, and proportionality) were superior to others in teaching problem solving in four topics (mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity). Also of major interest was whether particular…

  11. Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Liselore

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

  12. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  13. Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and

  14. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind

  15. Computer Assisted Problem Solving in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Donald T.

    Arguments for and against the use of computers in mathematics classes have centered on whether students benefit from or are merely hindered by practicing computational skills. This paper claims that the true essence of mathematics lies not in computation, basically a mechanical operation, but in problem-solving. Since no amount of computational…

  16. Structural and Linguistic Variables in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Max; Mirman, Sanford

    This paper reports on an experiment designed to investigate the effect of structural and linguistic variables on level of difficulty in solving arithmetic word problems. Identification of such variables is intended to assist curriculum writers in preparing exercises at a specified level of difficulty for students at various age levels. The study…

  17. Problem Solving: A Method for All Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Alice

    1996-01-01

    A project is described where the ultimate goal is to teach students methods of problem solving through an industrial engineering environment. Students practice sharing responsibility, understanding group dynamics, using resources efficiently, meeting deadlines, using mathematics in oral and written form, and applying the appropriate mathematics.…

  18. Problem-solving for better health.

    PubMed

    Smith, B; Barnett, S; Collado, D; Connor, M; DePasquale, J; Gross, L; McDermott, V; Sykes, A

    1994-01-01

    An outline is given of an approach to the health-for-all goals which involves optimizing resource use, prioritizing people's well-being, achieving excellence and a measurable impact at all levels of care, and solving health problems in a broad developmental context. PMID:8141991

  19. Informal Evaluation Strategies for Real Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Arthur K.; Alleman-Brooks, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Examples of possible methods for unobtrusively evaluating student progress through real problem solving outcomes without formal testing are illustrated. These methods include the use of interviews, artifacts, observations, I learned statements, checklists, flow of discussion charts, and self-awareness exercises. (MN)

  20. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

  1. Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisehart, Gary; Mandell, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of…

  2. Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James

    1983-01-01

    Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)

  3. Facilitating problem solving in high school chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    The major purpose for conducting this study was to determine whether certain instructional strategies were superior to others in teaching high school chemistry students problem solving. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual preference, and mathematics anxiety were compared in this aptitude by treatment interaction study. The strategies used were the factor-label method, analogies, diagrams, and proportionality. Six hundred and nine high school students in eight schools were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategies within each classroom. Students used programmed booklets to study the mole concept, the gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Problem-solving ability was measured by a series of immediate posttests, delayed posttests and the ACS-NSTA Examination in High School Chemistry. Results showed that mathematics anxiety is negatively correlated with science achievement and that problem solving is dependent on students' proportional reasoning ability. The factor-label method was found to be the most desirable method and proportionality the least desirable method for teaching the mole concept. However, the proportionality method was best for teaching the gas laws. Several second-order interactions were found to be significant when mathematics anxiety was one of the aptitudes involved.

  4. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  5. Models of Strategy for Solving Physics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Jill H.

    A set of computer implemented models are presented which can assist in developing problem solving strategies. The three levels of expertise which are covered are beginners (those who have completed at least one university physics course), intermediates (university level physics majors in their third year of study), and professionals (university…

  6. How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

    2013-01-01

    This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…

  7. Mathematics Knowledge for Understanding and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Ralph T.

    1987-01-01

    Two important aspects of transfer in mathematics learning are the application of mathematical knowledge (MK) to problem solving and the acquisition of more advanced concepts. General assumptions and themes of current cognitive research on mathematics learning in schoolchildren are discussed, focusing on issues facilitating the transfer of MK. (TJH)

  8. Styles of Problem Solving in Suicidal Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbach, Israel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared qualitative aspects of problem solving among suicide attempters (N=13), suicide ideators (N=16), and nonsuicidal psychiatric patients (N=31). Found less versatility, more avoidance, less relevance, more negative affect and less reference to future in solutions of suicidal patients than nonsuicidal patients and more active solutions

  9. ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

  10. Raise the Bar on Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englard, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS

  11. Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…

  12. Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Kit Ee Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitive…

  13. Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be

  14. Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical

  15. Use of native species to improve carbon sequestration and contribute towards solving the environmental problems of the timberlands in Biscay, northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Amezaga, Ibone; Onaindia, Miren

    2013-05-15

    The rapid transformation of natural forest areas into fast-growing exotic species plantations, where the main objective is timber and pulp production, has led to a neglect of other services forests provide in many parts of the world. One example of such a problem is the county of Biscay, where the management of these plantations has negative impacts on the environment, creating the necessity to evaluate alternative tree species for use in forestry. The actual crisis in the forest sector of the region could be an opportunity to change to native species plantations that could help restore ecosystem structure and function. However, forest managers of the region are using the current interest on carbon sequestration by forest to persist with the "pine and eucalyptus culture", arguing that these species provide a big C sequestration service. Moreover, they are promoting the expansion of eucalyptus plantations to obtain biomass for the pulp and paper industry and for bioenergy. The aim of this paper is to answer the following questions: Is this argument used by the foresters well-founded? or, could the use of native species in plantations improve the C sequestration service in Biscay while avoiding the environmental problems the actual plantations cause? To answer these questions we created three alternative future scenarios: a) the Services scenario, where there is a substitution of fast-growing exotic plantations by native broadleaf species plantations; b) the Biomass scenario, where there is a bet on eucalyptus plantations; and c) the Business as usual scenario. The changes in the C stock in living biomass in these scenarios have been simulated by a hybrid approach utilising inventories and models, and the period considered was 150 years. Our results show that the substitution of existing exotic plantations by plantations of native species has the greatest potential for increasing C sequestration. Although short- and mid-term outcomes may differ, when the long-term (more than 50 years) is considered, the C stock in the living biomass in the Services scenario is the greatest, accumulating 38% more C than the Business as usual scenario and 70% more C than the Biomass scenario at the end of the study period. Thus, changing pine and eucalyptus by native species in plantations, while solving some of the environmental problems of the actual plantations, sequesters more C in the long-term. As C sequestration initiatives only make sense if there is a good chance of long-term persistence of the C stocks created, there is no C sequestration argument for the foresters to continue with the actual policy of the use of fast-growing exotic species. PMID:23500105

  16. Problem solving stages in the five square problem.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory. PMID:26300794

  17. Problem solving stages in the five square problem

    PubMed Central

    Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory. PMID:26300794

  18. Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.

  19. Analysis of a Quasi-Experimental Design Based on Environmental Problem Solving for the Initial Training of Future Teachers of Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Pedro; de la Fuente, Emilia I.; Perales, F. Javier; Garcia, Juan

    2002-01-01

    Presents research that incorporates constructivism with learning models in environmental education for the preparation and development of teachers. Involves (n=201) teacher trainees at the University of Granada in Spain. (YDS)

  20. Assessment for Intervention: A Problem-Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Chidsey, Rachel, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This cutting-edge volume offers a complete primer on conducting problem-solving based assessments in school or clinical settings. Presented are an effective framework and up-to-date tools for identifying and remediating the many environmental factors that may contribute to a student's academic, emotional, or behavioral difficulties, and for

  1. Assessment for Intervention: A Problem-Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Chidsey, Rachel, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This cutting-edge volume offers a complete primer on conducting problem-solving based assessments in school or clinical settings. Presented are an effective framework and up-to-date tools for identifying and remediating the many environmental factors that may contribute to a student's academic, emotional, or behavioral difficulties, and for…

  2. Problem Solved: How To Coach Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krynock, Karoline; Robb, Louise

    1999-01-01

    When faced with real-world problems, students devise accurate, logical, and creative solutions using skills connecting to different subject areas. Students are intrigued by assignments involving preservation of species and design of environmentally friendly products and transit systems. Problem-based learning depends on coaching, modeling, and…

  3. Geogebra for Solving Problems of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb; Kllogjeri, Adrian

    Today is highly speed progressing the computer-based education, which allowes educators and students to use educational programming language and e-tutors to teach and learn, to interact with one another and share together the results of their work. In this paper we will be concentrated on the use of GeoGebra programme for solving problems of physics. We have brought an example from physics of how can be used GeoGebra for finding the center of mass(centroid) of a picture(or system of polygons). After the problem is solved graphically, there is an application of finding the center of a real object(a plate)by firstly, scanning the object and secondly, by inserting its scanned picture into the drawing pad of GeoGebra window and lastly, by finding its centroid. GeoGebra serve as effective tool in problem-solving. There are many other applications of GeoGebra in the problems of physics, and many more in different fields of mathematics.

  4. A connectionist model for diagnostic problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Yun; Reggia, James A.

    1989-01-01

    A competition-based connectionist model for solving diagnostic problems is described. The problems considered are computationally difficult in that (1) multiple disorders may occur simultaneously and (2) a global optimum in the space exponential to the total number of possible disorders is sought as a solution. The diagnostic problem is treated as a nonlinear optimization problem, and global optimization criteria are decomposed into local criteria governing node activation updating in the connectionist model. Nodes representing disorders compete with each other to account for each individual manifestation, yet complement each other to account for all manifestations through parallel node interactions. When equilibrium is reached, the network settles into a locally optimal state. Three randomly generated examples of diagnostic problems, each of which has 1024 cases, were tested, and the decomposition plus competition plus resettling approach yielded very high accuracy.

  5. Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…

  6. Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

    2008-10-01

    We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.

  7. A Solution Framework for Environmental Characterization Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes experiences developing a grid-enabled framework for solving environmental inverse problems. The solution approach taken here couples environmental simulation models with global search methods and requires readily available computational resources of the grid ...

  8. Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

    Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

  9. Optimization neural network for solving flow problems.

    PubMed

    Perfetti, R

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a neural network for solving flow problems, which are of interest in many areas of application as in fuel, hydro, and electric power scheduling. The neural network consist of two layers: a hidden layer and an output layer. The hidden units correspond to the nodes of the flow graph. The output units represent the branch variables. The network has a linear order of complexity, it is easily programmable, and it is suited for analog very large scale integration (VLSI) realization. The functionality of the proposed network is illustrated by a simulation example concerning the maximal flow problem. PMID:18263420

  10. Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric D; Tubau, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian inferences relative to normalized formats (e.g., probabilities, percentages), both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on "transparent" Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e., transparent problem structures) at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct vs. incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual differences might influence this time point. PMID:26283976

  11. Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric D.; Tubau, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian inferences relative to normalized formats (e.g., probabilities, percentages), both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on “transparent” Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e., transparent problem structures) at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct vs. incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual differences might influence this time point. PMID:26283976

  12. Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

  13. Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).

  14. A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, David

    The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).

  15. Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…

  16. Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Charles

    The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…

  17. Harmony Theory: Problem Solving, Parallel Cognitive Models, and Thermal Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolensky, Paul; Riley, Mary S.

    This document consists of three papers. The first, "A Parallel Model of (Sequential) Problem Solving," describes a parallel model designed to solve a class of relatively simple problems from elementary physics and discusses implications for models of problem-solving in general. It is shown that one of the most salient features of problem solving,…

  18. Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

  19. Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were

  20. Resources to help solve drug calculation problems.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    This article is the third in a series of articles discussing drug calculations and discusses the resources, in terms of knowledge and skills, that are required to support the use of methods for solving calculation problems (Wright, 2009). The main resources discussed are clinical practice, numeracy knowledge (including number patterns), proportions and factors, and clinical tools such as syringes. These resources can be used as part of formal teaching sessions, or can be developed and practised by individual nurses to improve knowledge and confidence in solving drug calculations. The most important resource for developing drug calculation skills is regular exposure to drug calculations in clinical practice. Any drug calculation teaching and assessing, therefore must have clinical practice as the starting point, with numeracy knowledge not extracted and taught separately, but developed as a resource from within practice, for the purpose of supporting practice. PMID:19633600

  1. Student Ecosystems Problem Solving Using Computer Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howse, Melissa A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the procedural knowledge brought to, and created within, a pond ecology simulation by students. Environmental Decision Making (EDM) is an ecosystems modeling tool that allows users to pose their own problems and seek satisfying solutions. Of specific interest was the performance of biology majors who had…

  2. Multitasking-Pascal extensions solve concurrency problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mackie, P.H.

    1982-09-29

    To avoid deadlock (one process waiting for a resource than another process can't release) and indefinite postponement (one process being continually denied a resource request) in a multitasking-system application, it is possible to use a high-level development language with built-in concurrency handlers. Parallel Pascal is one such language; it extends standard Pascal via special task synchronizers: a new data type called signal, new system procedures called wait and send and a Boolean function termed awaited. To understand the language's use the author examines the problems it helps solve.

  3. A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…

  4. "I'm Not Very Good at Solving Problems": An Exploration of Students' Problem Solving Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categories…

  5. A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any

  6. Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2012-01-01

    Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…

  7. Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2012-01-01

    Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and

  8. Basic corrosion control methods solve varied problems

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, R.C.; Majestic, V.K. ); Wilhelm, S.M. )

    1991-10-07

    This paper reports that every fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) corrosion-control problem is different, but several basic principles should be understood and applied as needed. These principles were used effectively to solve corrosion problems in three U.S. refineries. The corrosion-control method chosen for any system will depend on both the chemical nature of the corrosion and the physical characteristics of the system. A good water wash system is the key to any FCC corrosion-control program. Ideally, an effective water wash will at least move vapor-phase corrosive materials into the liquid phase where they are more easily treated. If the water wash does not provide complete protection, polysalfides and filming inhibitors can be added.

  9. Solving a Deconvolution Problem in Photon Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alice-Phos Collaboration; Aleksandrov, D.; Alme, J.; Basmanov, V.; Batyunya, B.; Blau, D.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Budilov, V.; Budnikov, D.; Buskenes, J. I.; Cai, X.; Chuman, F.; Deloff, A.; Demanov, V.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrowolski, T.; Faltys, M.; Fehlker, D.; Fil'Chagin, S.; Hiei, A.; Hille, P. T.; Horaguchi, T.; Huang, M.; Il'Kaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Iwasaki, T.; Kazantsev, A.; Karadzhev, K.; Kharlov, Y.; Kucheryaev, Y.; Kurashvili, P.; Kuryakin, A.; Larsen, D. T.; Lindal, S.; Liu, L.; Lovhoiden, G.; Ma, K.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Mao, Y.; Mares, J.; Maruyama, Y.; Müller, H.; Mizoguchi, K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nomokonov, P.; Nystrand, J.; Pavlinov, A.; Peresunko, D.; Petrov, V.; Polak, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Potcheptsov, T.; Punin, V.; Qvigstad, H.; Redlich, K.; Roehrich, D.; Sadovsky, S.; Senko, V.; Shigaki, K.; Sibiryak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Skaali, B.; Skjerdal, K.; Shabratova, G.; Soloviev, A.; Stolpovsky, P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhorukov, M.; Torii, H.; Tveter, T.; Ullaland, K.; Wikne, J.; Vikhlyantsev, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vodopyanov, A.; Wan, R.; Wang, Y.; Wilk, G.; Wang, D.; Xu, C.; Yin, Z.; Yanovsky, V.; Yuan, X.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zenin, A.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; ALICE-PHOS Collaboration

    2010-08-01

    We solve numerically a deconvolution problem to extract the undisturbed spectrum from the measured distribution contaminated by the finite resolution of the measuring device. A problem of this kind emerges when one wants to infer the momentum distribution of the neutral pions by detecting the π0 decay photons using the photon spectrometer of the ALICE LHC experiment at CERN [1]. The underlying integral equation connecting the sought for pion spectrum and the measured gamma spectrum has been discretized and subsequently reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. The latter system, however, is known to be ill-posed and must be regularized to obtain a stable solution. This task has been accomplished here by means of the Tikhonov regularization scheme combined with the L-curve method. The resulting pion spectrum is in an excellent quantitative agreement with the pion spectrum obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation.

  10. Solving large sparse eigenvalue problems on supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philippe, Bernard; Saad, Youcef

    1988-01-01

    An important problem in scientific computing consists in finding a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a very large and sparse matrix. The most popular methods to solve these problems are based on projection techniques on appropriate subspaces. The main attraction of these methods is that they only require the use of the matrix in the form of matrix by vector multiplications. The implementations on supercomputers of two such methods for symmetric matrices, namely Lanczos' method and Davidson's method are compared. Since one of the most important operations in these two methods is the multiplication of vectors by the sparse matrix, methods of performing this operation efficiently are discussed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each method are compared and implementation aspects are discussed. Numerical experiments on a one processor CRAY 2 and CRAY X-MP are reported. Possible parallel implementations are also discussed.

  11. Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ganor-Stern, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults’ ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close) from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner. PMID:27171224

  12. Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billionniere, Elodie V.

    Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

  13. Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

  14. Neural correlates of mathematical problem solving.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Ling; Jung, Melody; Wu, Ying Choon; She, Hsiao-Ching; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2015-03-01

    This study explores electroencephalography (EEG) brain dynamics associated with mathematical problem solving. EEG and solution latencies (SLs) were recorded as 11 neurologically healthy volunteers worked on intellectually challenging math puzzles that involved combining four single-digit numbers through basic arithmetic operators (addition, subtraction, division, multiplication) to create an arithmetic expression equaling 24. Estimates of EEG spectral power were computed in three frequency bands - θ (4-7 Hz), α (8-13 Hz) and β (14-30 Hz) - over a widely distributed montage of scalp electrode sites. The magnitude of power estimates was found to change in a linear fashion with SLs - that is, relative to a base of power spectrum, theta power increased with longer SLs, while alpha and beta power tended to decrease. Further, the topographic distribution of spectral fluctuations was characterized by more pronounced asymmetries along the left-right and anterior-posterior axes for solutions that involved a longer search phase. These findings reveal for the first time the topography and dynamics of EEG spectral activities important for sustained solution search during arithmetical problem solving. PMID:25666500

  15. MAUVE: A New Strategy for Solving and Grading Physics Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicole Breanne

    2016-05-01

    MAUVE (magnitude, answer, units, variables, and equations) is a framework and rubric to help students and teachers through the process of clearly solving and assessing solutions to introductory physics problems. Success in introductory physics often derives from an understanding of units, a command over dimensional analysis, and good bookkeeping. I developed MAUVE for an introductory-level environmental physics course as an easy-to-remember checklist to help students construct organized and thoughtful solutions to physics problems. Environmental physics is a core physics course for environmental and sustainability science (ESS) majors that teaches principles of radiation, thermodynamics, and mechanics within the context of the environment and sustainable energy systems. ESS student concentrations include environmental biology, applied ecology, biogeochemistry, and natural resources. The MAUVE rubric, inspired by nature, has encouraged my students to produce legible and tactical work, and has significantly clarified the grading process.

  16. Autonomy and Mathematical Problem-Solving: The Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Problem solving is seen to lie at the "heart" of mathematics (Cockcroft, 1982). Problem solving is also of great importance to industry that claims many young people leave school and take up jobs without the skills needed to sort out difficulties and problems (Smith Report, 2004). So is problem solving at the heart of mathematics teaching in…

  17. Translation among Symbolic Representations in Problem-Solving. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationships among the symbolic representation of problems given to students to solve, the mental representations they use to solve the problems, and the accuracy of their solutions. Twenty eleventh-grade science students were asked to think aloud as they solved problems on the ideal gas laws. The problems were…

  18. Learning nucleic acids solving by bioinformatics problems.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rhewter; Barbosa de Almeida Júnior, Edivaldo; Pessoa Pinto de Menezes, Ivandilson; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the development of a new approach to teach molecular biology to undergraduate biology students. The 34 students who participated in this research belonged to the first period of the Biological Sciences teaching course of the Instituto Federal Goiano at Urutaí Campus, Brazil. They were registered in Cell Biology in the first semester of 2013. They received four 55 min-long expository/dialogued lectures that covered the content of "structure and functions of nucleic acids". Later the students were invited to attend four meetings (in a computer laboratory) in which some concepts of Bioinformatics were presented and some problems of the Rosalind platform were solved. The observations we report here are very useful as a broad groundwork to development new research. An interesting possibility is research into the effects of bioinformatics interventions that improve molecular biology learning. PMID:26251209

  19. The Impact of Student Thinking Journals and Generic Problem Solving Software on Problem Solving Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Gary E.

    This study examined the effects of specially designed thinking journal activities that have been attributed with encouraging reflective thinking, on instruction using generic, or content-free, problem solving software. Sixty-three fourth grade students participated in four instructional sessions using the software package called "Moptown Hotel."…

  20. Real Problem Solving in USMES: Interdisciplinary Education and Much More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomon, Earle L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    States that real problem solving must become an effective and integral part of education at all levels. Describes the relationship of real problem solving to the USMES class, interdisciplinary education, and the total school program. (GS)

  1. Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja

    2014-01-01

    In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.

  2. Solving Connected Subgraph Problems in Wildlife Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilkina, Bistra; Gomes, Carla P.

    We investigate mathematical formulations and solution techniques for a variant of the Connected Subgraph Problem. Given a connected graph with costs and profits associated with the nodes, the goal is to find a connected subgraph that contains a subset of distinguished vertices. In this work we focus on the budget-constrained version, where we maximize the total profit of the nodes in the subgraph subject to a budget constraint on the total cost. We propose several mixed-integer formulations for enforcing the subgraph connectivity requirement, which plays a key role in the combinatorial structure of the problem. We show that a new formulation based on subtour elimination constraints is more effective at capturing the combinatorial structure of the problem, providing significant advantages over the previously considered encoding which was based on a single commodity flow. We test our formulations on synthetic instances as well as on real-world instances of an important problem in environmental conservation concerning the design of wildlife corridors. Our encoding results in a much tighter LP relaxation, and more importantly, it results in finding better integer feasible solutions as well as much better upper bounds on the objective (often proving optimality or within less than 1% of optimality), both when considering the synthetic instances as well as the real-world wildlife corridor instances.

  3. Problem Solving in Social Studies: Two Examples from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Allen D.

    1977-01-01

    Describes two methods to incorporate problem-solving into social studies classes. Project REACH, a five-step method, teaches students the process of problem solving while using a variety of materials and classroom situations. Project USMES incorporates problem solving into a set of specially developed curriculum materials. (Author/AV)

  4. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  5. The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…

  6. Teaching Problem Solving in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Toh Tin; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Hoong, Leong Yew; Choon, Toh Pee; Him, Ho Foo; Jaguthsing, Dindyal

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an innovative approach to teaching problem solving in secondary school mathematics classrooms based on a specifically designed problem-solving module.This approach adopts the science practical paradigm and rides on the works of Polya and Schoenfeld in order to give greater emphasis to the problem solving processes. We report the…

  7. Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-01-01

    Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

  8. Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Woei

    2013-01-01

    Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

  9. Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)

  10. On the Analysis of Two-Person Problem Solving Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    Methodological issues in the use of protocol analysis for research into human problem solving processes are examined through a case study in which two students were videotaped as they worked together to solve mathematical problems "out loud." The students' chosen strategic or executive behavior in examining and solving a problem was studied,…

  11. Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.

    2010-01-01

    Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…

  12. The Authentic Performance-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David; Denton, Rob

    A new authentic performance-based approach to assessing problem solving was developed for use in vocational education and other programs in Australia. The process of developing the problem-solving assessment instrument and process included the following phases: (1) exploration of the theoretical conceptions of problem solving; (2) identification…

  13. Computer Programming: A Medium for Teaching Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patrick J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that including computer programming in the curriculum as a medium for instruction is a feasible alternative for teaching problem solving. Discusses the nature of problem solving; the problem-solving elements of discovery, motivation, practical learning situations and flexibility which are inherent in programming; capabilities of computer…

  14. Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

  15. Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the…

  16. Solving Word Problems Using Schemas: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students…

  17. A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…

  18. Problem Solving in the School Curriculum from a Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Tin Lam; Leong, Yew Hoong; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng

    2010-01-01

    In this symposium, the participants discuss some preliminary data collected from their problem solving project which uses a design experiment approach. Their approach to problem solving in the school curriculum is in tandem with what Schoenfeld (2007) claimed: "Crafting instruction that would make a wide range of problem-solving strategies…

  19. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  20. Conflict Management: A Premarital Training Program in Mutual Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Carl A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a structured educational program to train premarital couples in communication and mutual problem-solving skills. Couples (N=26) participated in a problem-solving training program, while similar couples (N=28) participated in a relationship discussion group. The problem-solving group showed a greater increase in…

  1. The Design Process for "PLATO[R] Math Problem Solving."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert

    2001-01-01

    PLATO Learning, Inc., a developer of computer-based instruction, recently released "Math Problem Solving." This product was designed to teach strategies for solving math problems, and consists of 19 problem-solving activities, ranging from basic math to algebra. Each activity includes tools to help find a solution and rule-based coaching to…

  2. Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

  3. Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task

  4. Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the

  5. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"

  6. Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Woei

    2013-01-01

    Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,

  7. Teaching Problem Solving in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Toh Tin; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Hoong, Leong Yew; Choon, Toh Pee; Him, Ho Foo; Jaguthsing, Dindyal

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an innovative approach to teaching problem solving in secondary school mathematics classrooms based on a specifically designed problem-solving module.This approach adopts the science practical paradigm and rides on the works of Polya and Schoenfeld in order to give greater emphasis to the problem solving processes. We report the

  8. The Effects of Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving on High School Students' Chemistry Problem-Solving Performance and Verbal Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee

    2005-01-01

    A problem solving strategy, Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS), developed by Arthur Whimbey to help students monitor and understand their own thought process is presented. The TAPPS strategy encouraged the students interact verbally with each other to solve chemistry problems and improve the achievements in chemistry.

  9. Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Eric

    2009-02-01

    In How to Solve It, accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to mathematicians but of interest to cognitive psychologists and problem solvers in all fields. I had the good fortune to be introduced to Polya's ideas in my first undergraduate class in physics.

  10. Analyzing the many skills involved in solving complex physics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2015-05-01

    We have empirically identified over 40 distinct sub-skills that affect a person's ability to solve complex problems in many different contexts. The identification of so many sub-skills explains why it has been so difficult to teach or assess problem solving as a single skill. The existence of these sub-skills is supported by several studies comparing a wide range of individuals' strengths and weaknesses in these sub-skills, their "problem solving fingerprint," while solving different types of problems including a classical mechanics problem, quantum mechanics problems, and a complex trip-planning problem with no physics. We see clear differences in the problem solving fingerprint of physics and engineering majors compared to the elementary education majors that we tested. The implications of these findings for guiding the teaching and assessing of problem solving in physics instruction are discussed.

  11. Effects of Training in Problem Solving on the Problem-Solving Abilities of Gifted Fourth Graders: A Comparison of the Future Problem Solving and Instrumental Enrichment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufner, Hillrey A.; Alexander, Patricia A.

    The differential effects of two different types of problem-solving training on the problem-solving abilities of gifted fourth graders were studied. Two successive classes of gifted fourth graders from Weslaco Independent School District (Texas) were pretested with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Thinking Creatively With Pictures…

  12. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

  13. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and

  14. The Relationship between Metacognition and Problem Solving in Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    1992-01-01

    Compared to children with high-average and low-average intelligence quotients, 26 intermediate grade gifted children used fewer moves to solve a combinatorial problem-solving task and exhibited higher metacognitive knowledge on person and strategy variables. Qualitatively different intercorrelational patterns among problem-solving, metacognition,…

  15. Solving the brachistochrone and other variational problems with soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, C.; Alamo, N.

    2010-12-01

    We solve the problem of the brachistochrone and other variational problems with the help of the soap films that are formed between two suitable surfaces. We also discuss the connection between some variational problems of dynamics, statics, optics, and elasticity.

  16. Cognitive restructuring as an early stage in problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodner, George M.; McMillen, Theresa L. B.

    This article examines the hypothesis that there are preliminary stages in problem solving which most chemists neglect when trying to teach their students how to solve problems in introductory chemistry courses. It is during these early stages that relevant information is disembedded from the question and the problem is restructured. Unless students can successfully complete these cognitive restructuring stages, they cannot proceed on to the more analytic stages in problem solving that have received more attention from chemists.Preliminary evidence for this hypothesis consists of linear correlations between student ability to handle disembedding and cognitive restructuring tasks in the spatial domain and their ability to solve chemistry problems.

  17. A descriptive study of cooperative problem solving introductory physics labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Paul Aanond

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those skills are the foundation for the quantitative aspects of problem solving. (Chi, et al., 1981). The literature also indicates that cooperative problem solving should enhance the students' performance. As a practical matter surveys of departments that require introductory physics classes expect their students to have general qualitative problem solving skills. The students in this study were asked to solve problem(s) before coming to a lab session and then cooperatively assess whether or not their answers were correct by conducting a laboratory activity for which they had to plan the procedure and obtain the necessary results. TA's were expected to provide instruction under a cognitive apprenticeship model. The results showed that the cooperative problem solving laboratories had almost no impact on the students' problem solving skills as measured from the start of a two hour lab session to the end of the lab session...The reason for this may have been that students did not have enough experience in the solving of different kinds of problems in the two domains of Newton's second Law and gravitation to overcome their misconceptions and become competent. Another possibility was that the TA's did not follow the cognitive apprenticeship model as consistently as might have been needed.

  18. Environmental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Aimed at a society which is forced to make decisions relative to their total environment, this pamphlet discusses a few of the problems associated with restoring and maintaining an environmental relationship conducive to the health and well-being of man. The topics covered include: air pollution, noise, solid waste, the urban environment, drinking…

  19. The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, Wendi N.

    Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities, post recitation interviews, and a modified version of the CLASS survey taken at the beginning and end of the semester. I assessed the skills and strategies students used to solve problems, characterized how they framed the activity of problem solving, and then evaluated how these frames shifted through a semester of instruction. Findings indicate that the M&I curriculum helped all the students shift towards a deliberate, more productive problem solving frame. Results also show that beliefs and expectations, as well as knowledge of problem solving skills and strategies must be aligned for students to shift to a productive frame.

  20. Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.

  1. Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…

  2. Social Problem-Solving among Adolescents Treated for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677

  3. Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

  4. A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Paul Aanond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…

  5. Glogs as Non-Routine Problem Solving Tools in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…

  6. Technology and Problem Solving in Mathematics: Myths and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurdak, Murad

    The paper will examine the role of technological tools, especially computers, as facilitators and non-facilitators in problem-solving in mathematics education. Examples of problem tasks will be given in each case. The paper will focus on over-generalizations made regarding the power of technology in mathematical problem solving. These over…

  7. Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

  8. Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lynda R.

    2008-01-01

    Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the

  9. A Computer Based Problem Solving Environment in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Karakirik, Erol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce the Mole Solver, a computer based system that facilitates monitors and improves students' problem solving skills on mole concept. The system has three distinct modes that: (1) find step by step solutions to the word problems on the mole concept; (2) enable students to solve word problems on their own by…

  10. A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

  11. Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect

  12. Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,

  13. Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lynda R.

    2008-01-01

    Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…

  14. Schema Induction in Problem Solving: A Multidimensional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhe; Mo, Lei

    2004-01-01

    The present research examined the processes of schema formation in problem solving. In 4 experiments, participants experienced a series of tasks analogous to A. S. Luchins' (1942) water jar problems before attempting to solve isomorphic target problems. Juxtaposing illustrative source instances varying in procedural features along multiple…

  15. Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…

  16. Goals and everyday problem solving: examining the link between age-related goals and problem-solving strategy use.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2008-07-01

    Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving. PMID:17899456

  17. Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberényi, József

    2014-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…

  18. Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szebernyi, Jzsef

    2014-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,

  19. Understanding the Problem. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series. The Math Forum: Problems of the Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of

  20. Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-07-01

    Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

  1. Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David

    2014-11-01

    Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25245306

  2. Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunokawa, Kazuhiko

    1996-01-01

    The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)

  3. How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

  4. A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteria…

  5. FUTURE DECISION-MAKERS: CHILDREN'S PERCEPTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will contribute to understanding the critical thinking, environmental awareness and problem-solving skills necessary to mitigate environmental challenges facing the next generation. In addition research involving children’s development of environmental concern w...

  6. FUTURE DECISION-MAKERS: CHILDREN'S PERCEPTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will contribute to understanding the critical thinking, environmental awareness and problem-solving skills necessary to mitigate environmental challenges facing the next generation. In addition research involving childrens development of environmental concern w...

  7. Solving multiple scattering problems in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Lenoble, J.

    1974-01-01

    Multiple scattering problems, radiative transfer problems in planetary atmospheres within extended visible portion of the spectrum, are examined. The direct and inverse problems and the extinction coefficient are defined, along with other scattering characteristics. Albedos in semi-infinite and finite atmospheres are considered, as well as surface illumination, energy deposition, and polarization. The Eddington approximation figures prominently in the calculations. Precise numerical methods and analytical solutions are included.

  8. Inquiry-based problem solving in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleci, Carolann

    What makes problem solving in physics difficult? How do students solve physics problems, and how does this compare to an expert physicist's strategy? Over the past twenty years, physics education research has revealed several differences between novice and expert problem solving. The work of Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser demonstrates that novices tend to categorize problems based on surface features, while experts categorize according to theory, principles, or concepts1. If there are differences between how problems are categorized, then are there differences between how physics problems are solved? Learning more about the problem solving process, including how students like to learn and what is most effective, requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In an effort to learn how novices and experts solve introductory electricity problems, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to learn if there are any significant problem solving differences between: (a) novices and experts, (b) genders, (c) students who like to answer questions in class and those who don't, (d) students who like to ask questions in class and those who don't, (e) students employing an interrogative approach to problem solving and those who don't, and (f) those who like physics and those who dislike it. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative methods reveal that inquiry-based problem solving is prevalent among novices and experts, and frequently leads to the correct physics. These findings serve as impetus for the third dimension of this work: the development of Choose Your Own Adventure Physics(c) (CYOAP), an innovative teaching tool in physics which encourages inquiry-based problem solving. 1Chi, M., P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, "Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices", Cognitive Science, 5, 121--152 (1981).

  9. Children's Thinking in Arithmetic Word Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakali, Mary

    1985-01-01

    Children's mental performance was studied in the context of arithmetic word problem solution. Response latency and error data indicated subtraction was more difficult than addition. Understanding children's problem solutions in terms of flexible strategy use and the fact that many errors have a systematic basis are important in studying children's…

  10. Systematic comparison of solved problems as a cooperative learning task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taconis, Ruurd; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    1999-09-01

    Problem-solving skills and understanding of domain, knowledge (e.g., fighting misconceptions) are important goals in both secondary and tertiary science education. A prototype of an instructional task is presented which aims at improved problem-solving skills based on understanding of domain knowledge. In this task, comparing carefully selected solved problems by groups of students is utilised as a learning activity for the acquisition of adequate problem schemata. The task is designed as a part of the so-called UBP-program (UBP=Understanding Based Problem solving) currently being developed, for education in science. The result of an evaluative study for the field of mechanics is presented. The UBP-task appears apt to improve problem-solving skills at a less advanced level of physics education (e.g., 10th grade), especially for students normally performing poorly—who are often girls.

  11. Digit Delight: Problem-solving Activities Using 0 through 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balka, Don S.

    1988-01-01

    Several problem-solving activities involving only 0-9 to be used with sets of ceramic tiles are presented. Finding specified sums, differences, or products is the object of most of the problems. (MNS)

  12. Solving workplace problems associated with VDTs.

    PubMed

    Slovak, A J; Trevers, C

    1988-06-01

    The introduction of VDTs into the vast majority of modern working environments represents a substantial change in the disciplines of work for many people. This paper describes how the health and safety issues associated with this change were managed in one organisation by the acquisition of ergonomics skills and their combination with occupational health surveillance techniques. The results show that ergonomics problems far outweighed symptomatic complaints, but symptomatic complaints were strongly associated with high VDT occupancy. The processes used resulted in high response rates from VDT users and an excellent 'clear-up' rate of problems. The solution of these problems was quantified in terms of difficulty and cost. PMID:15676651

  13. Trends in problem-solving research - Twelve recently described tasks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, G. D.; Alluisi, E. A.; Morgan, B. B., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Review of descriptions of the 12 problem-solving tasks developed since the last review (Ray, 1955) of this topic, indicating that the newer tasks are more sophisticated in design and provide for better experimental control than those used prior to 1953. Validity, reliability, sensitivity, trainability, problem structure, and problem difficulty are discussed as criteria for the selection of tasks to be used in studies of skilled problem-solving performance.

  14. Solving Infeasibility Problems in Computerized Test Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timminga, Ellen

    1998-01-01

    Discusses problems of diagnosing and repairing infeasible linear-programming models in computerized test assembly. Demonstrates that it is possible to localize the causes of infeasibility, although this is not always easy. (SLD)

  15. A Conceptual Model for Solving Percent Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Albert B., Jr.; Nelson, L. Ted

    1994-01-01

    Presents an alternative method to teaching percent problems which uses a 10x10 grid to help students visualize percents. Offers a means of representing information and suggests different approaches for finding solutions. Includes reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

  16. Fourth Order Algorithms for Solving Diverse Many-Body Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Forbert, Harald A.; Chen, Chia-Rong; Kidwell, Donald W.; Ciftja, Orion

    2001-03-01

    We show that the method of factorizing an evolution operator of the form e^ɛ(A+B) to fourth order with purely positive coefficient yields new classes of symplectic algorithms for solving classical dynamical problems, unitary algorithms for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, norm preserving algorithms for solving the Langevin equation and large time step convergent Diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms. Results for each class of problems will be presented and disucss

  17. Neural bases for basic processes in heuristic problem solving: Take solving Sudoku puzzles as an example.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yulin; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Rifeng; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Kuncheng; Zhong, Ning

    2012-12-01

    Newell and Simon postulated that the basic steps in human problem-solving involve iteratively applying operators to transform the state of the problem to eventually achieve a goal. To check the neural basis of this framework, the present study focused on the basic processes in human heuristic problem-solving that the participants identified the current problem state and then recalled and applied the corresponding heuristic rules to change the problem state. A new paradigm, solving simplified Sudoku puzzles, was developed for an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in problem solving. Regions of interest (ROIs), including the left prefrontal cortex, the bilateral posterior parietal cortex, the anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral caudate nuclei, the bilateral fusiform, as well as the bilateral frontal eye fields, were found to be involved in the task. To obtain convergent evidence, in addition to traditional statistical analysis, we used the multivariate voxel classification method to check the accuracy of the predictions for the condition of the task from the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the ROIs, using a new classifier developed in this study for fMRI data. To reveal the roles that the ROIs play in problem solving, we developed an ACT-R computational model of the information-processing processes in human problem solving, and tried to predict the BOLD response of the ROIs from the task. Advances in human problem-solving research after Newell and Simon are then briefly discussed. PMID:26272761

  18. Assessing Creative Problem-Solving with Automated Text Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hao-Chuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Tsai-Yen

    2008-01-01

    The work aims to improve the assessment of creative problem-solving in science education by employing language technologies and computational-statistical machine learning methods to grade students' natural language responses automatically. To evaluate constructs like creative problem-solving with validity, open-ended questions that elicit…

  19. Problem-solving Activities for Elementary School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes problem-solving activities in the Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) and Elementary Science Study (ESS) programs. Indicates that these curricula serve as excellent sources of activities to develop and improve their students' problem-solving skills. (Author/JN)

  20. Learning from Examples versus Verbal Directions in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M.; Anderson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This event-related fMRI study investigated the differences between learning from examples and learning from verbal directions in mathematical problem solving and how these instruction types affect the activity of relevant brain regions during instruction and solution periods within problem-solving trials. We identified distinct neural signatures…

  1. Problem Solving and the Development of Expertise in Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Fredrick B.

    This study investigated novice and expert problem solving behavior in management to examine the role of domain specific knowledge on problem solving processes. Forty-one middle level marketing managers in a large petrochemical organization provided think aloud protocols in response to two hypothetical management scenarios. Protocol analysis…

  2. The Effects of Service Learning on Student Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Fangfang; Yao, Meilin; Wang, Cong; Yan, Wenfan; Zong, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicated that service learning (SL) is an effective pedagogy to improve students' problem-solving ability and increase their classroom engagement. However, studies on SL are rare in China. This study examined the effects of SL on the problem solving of Chinese undergraduate students as well as the mechanism through which it…

  3. Relationship between Problem-Solving Style and Mathematical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Wen-Chun; Lin, Su-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Currently, mathematics education is focused on ensuring that students can apply the knowledge and skills they learn to everyday life; students are expected to develop their problem-solving abilities to face challenges by adopting various perspectives. When faced with a problem, students may employ different methods or patterns to solve it. If this…

  4. The Winning Edge: Tips for Creative Problem-Solving Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safris, Richard

    Intended for coaches of school competitive problem-solving teams, this publication details 70 suggestions for building, motivating, and training problem-solving teams in grades 4 to 8. The tips cover a range of topics related to preparing for competition, the competition itself, and post-competition. The pre-competition suggestions include: (1)…

  5. Effects of Problem-Solving Strategies on Different Ability Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Teresa M.

    To determine if differing ability levels will affect the acquisition of problem-solving skills and self-esteem as a result of participation in two approaches to teaching problem-solving skills, a study was conducted with sixth graders in a posttest-only control group experimental design. Subjects were 102 sixth graders randomly assigned to 5…

  6. Fostering Problem-Solving in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Danielle; Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; Saadé, Raafat George

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates students' perceptions of the relationship between Problem-Solving and the activities and resources used in a Web-based course on the fundamentals of Information Technology at a university in Montreal, Canada. We assess for the different learning components of the course, the extent of perceived problem-solving skills…

  7. Conceptual Learning in a Principled Design Problem Solving Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prusak, Naomi; Hershkowitz, Rina; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2013-01-01

    To what extent can instructional design be based on principles for instilling a culture of problem solving and conceptual learning? This is the main focus of the study described in this paper, in which third grade students participated in a one-year course designed to foster problem solving and mathematical reasoning. The design relied on five…

  8. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  9. Prospective Teachers' Problem Solving Skills and Self-Confidence Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursen Otacioglu, Sena

    2008-01-01

    The basic objective of the research is to determine whether the education that prospective teachers in different fields receive is related to their levels of problem solving skills and self-confidence. Within the mentioned framework, the prospective teachers' problem solving and self-confidence levels have been examined under several variables.…

  10. High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy

    2001-01-01

    Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.

  11. Solving Word Problems in the Primary Grades: Addition and Subtraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Miriam M.

    The purpose of this manual is to present a series of lessons on solving word problems, each focusing on a specific concept. The solving of story problems should be incorporated into the daily mathematics lesson so that children can maintain and increase their skills. The lessons are sequenced according to their complexity. Lessons one through…

  12. Computer-Based Inquiry into Scientific Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Melissa S.; Szabo, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Problem solving performance of individuals was compared with that of dyads at three levels of mental ability using a computer-based inquiry into the riddle of the frozen Wooly Mammoth. Results indicated significant interactions between grouping and mental ability for certain problem solving internal measures. (RAO)

  13. Childhood Physical Punishment and Problem Solving in Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cast, Alicia D.; Schweingruber, David; Berns, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from social learning theories and symbolic interactionist understandings of social life, the authors suggest that physical punishment teaches aggressive and controlling strategies for solving the problems of living together and hinders the development of important problem-solving skills, specifically the ability to role take with others.…

  14. Facilitating Flexible Problem Solving: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava; Renkl, Alexander; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The development of flexible, transferable problem-solving skills is an important aim of contemporary educational systems. Since processing limitations of our mind represent a major factor influencing any meaningful learning, the acquisition of flexible problem-solving skills needs to be based on known characteristics of our cognitive architecture…

  15. The Effects of Age on Perceptual Problem-Solving Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jo Ann; Pollack, Robert H.

    Witkin's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) was used to measure the changes with age in field dependence and problem-solving ability. Qualitative data concerning problem-solving strategies and quantitative data were collected. EFT was administered to 12 females in each of the following decades: 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s. All subjects were moderately

  16. Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Is There a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Pickering, Miles

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study into the relationship between a student's ability to solve problems in chemistry and his/her understanding of molecular concepts. Argues that teaching students to solve problems about chemistry is not equivalent to teaching about the nature of matter. (TW)

  17. Exploring Parental Influences on Children's Problem-Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrington, Taletha; And Others

    This study examined the impact of different styles of parental communication and teaching on children's problem solving, focusing on how parental teaching and communication styles affected children's performance on four problem-solving games involving deduction/categorization and planning. Thirty-two children ages 4 and 5 years and their families…

  18. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age

  19. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in Plants vs. Zombies 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.; Moore, Gregory R.; Wang, Lubin

    2015-01-01

    We are using stealth assessment, embedded in "Plants vs. Zombies 2," to measure middle-school students' problem solving skills. This project started by developing a problem solving competency model based on a thorough review of the literature. Next, we identified relevant in-game indicators that would provide evidence about students'…

  20. Reading-Enhanced Word Problem Solving: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Rupley, William H.

    2012-01-01

    There is a reciprocal relationship between mathematics and reading cognition. Metacognitive training within reading-enhanced problem solving should facilitate students developing an awareness of what good readers do when reading for meaning in solving mathematical problems enabling them to apply these strategies. The constructs for each cognitive…

  1. The Method To Acquire the Strategic Knowledge on Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takaoka, Ryo; Okamoto, Toshio

    As a person learns, his problem solving ability improves and one reason for this is the increased acquisition of "macro-rules" which make problem solving more efficient. An intelligent computer assisted learning (ICAI) system is being developed which automatically acquires the useful knowledge from the domain experts; as experts give the learning

  2. Ideational Fluency as a Predictor of Original Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Roberta M.; Arad, Rivka

    1981-01-01

    Empirical validity of nonoverlapping scores of original problem solving on a lenient solution-standard predictor was evidenced in college students by high correlations with corresponding scores on stringent solution-standard criterion tasks. Findings support the construct validity of conceptualizations of original problem solving based on…

  3. Measuring Problem Solving with Technology: A Demonstration Study for NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Randy Elliot; Persky, Hilary; Weiss, Andy; Jenkins, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a study intended to demonstrate how an emerging skill, problem solving with technology, might be measured in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Two computer-delivered assessment scenarios were designed, one on solving science-related problems through electronic information search and the other on solving…

  4. Students' Metaphors for Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the metaphors used by students to describe mathematical problem solving. This study focused on identifying how students interpret and perceive mathematical problem solving via conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). These perceptions and interpretations were coded and analyzed qualitatively and…

  5. Teaching Creative Problem-Solving Skills in Engineering Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, J. G.; Allen, R. M.; Earl, W. B.; Gilmour, I. A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses strategies for teaching problem-solving techniques during an engineering design course in the third year of a four-year degree program. Describes the content of six problem-solving curricular modules, course organization, evaluation and assessment, and results. (Contains 28 references.) (WRM)

  6. Problem Solving, Reasoning, and Analytical Thinking in a Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Joanne K.

    2011-01-01

    Problem solving, reasoning, and analytical thinking are defined and described as teachable repertoires. This paper describes work performed at a school serving special needs children, Morningside Academy, that has resulted in specific procedures developed over the past 15 years. These procedures include modifying "Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving"…

  7. Toward Group Problem Solving Guidelines for 21st Century Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranieri, Kathryn L.

    2004-01-01

    Effective problem-solving skills are critical in dealing with ambiguous and often complex issues in the present-day leaner and globally diverse organizations. Yet respected, well-established problem-solving models may be misaligned within the current work environment, particularly within a team context. Models learned from a more bureaucratic,…

  8. A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Tolga

    2010-01-01

    Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the

  9. Puzzling Science: Using the Rubik's Cube to Teach Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrig, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A major goal of education is to help learners store information in long-term memory and use that information on later occasions to effectively solve problems (Vockell 2010). Therefore, this author began to use the Rubik's cube to help students learn to problem solve. There is something special about this colorful three-dimensional puzzle that…

  10. Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

  11. "Opportunities in Work Clothes": Online Problem-Solving Project Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judi

    1994-01-01

    Provides activity structures for and gives examples of problem-solving projects to be used with educational telecomputing. Highlights include information searches, electronic process writing, sequential creations, parallel problem solving, simulations, social action projects, and instructions for accessing information about these and other…

  12. A Descriptive Model of Information Problem Solving while Using Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth analyses…

  13. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  14. Patterns of Problem-Solving in Children's Literacy and Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Vanuxem-Cotterill, Sophie; Stiller, James

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of problem-solving among 5-to-7 year-olds' were examined on a range of literacy (reading and spelling) and arithmetic-based (addition and subtraction) problem-solving tasks using verbal self-reports to monitor strategy choice. The results showed higher levels of variability in the children's strategy choice across Years 1 and 2 on the…

  15. Transfer of Learning: Connecting Concepts during Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Raymond A.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    A concern of many educators and managers is students' ability to transfer concepts and procedures learned in school to the work environment. When children are taught a skill, such as solving a mathematical problem, they often fail to recognize that their new skill can be used to solve a similar problem outside of school. In other cases, students…

  16. Preschool Children's Skills in Solving Mathematical Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artut, Perihan Dinc

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the mathematical word problem-solving skills of preschool children 5-6 ages. To achieve this objective, the data were collected in four preschools (n = 162). A mathematical word problem test was used as data collection tools. In this study, it was found that the children's skills at solving mathematical word problems…

  17. Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Dae S.

    2011-01-01

    In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…

  18. Fostering Problem-Solving in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Danielle; Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; Saad, Raafat George

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates students' perceptions of the relationship between Problem-Solving and the activities and resources used in a Web-based course on the fundamentals of Information Technology at a university in Montreal, Canada. We assess for the different learning components of the course, the extent of perceived problem-solving skills

  19. High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy

    2001-01-01

    Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…

  20. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  1. Role of Multiple Representations in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maries, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role…

  2. Problem Solving: Getting to the Heart of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Denise, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This publication features articles that illustrate how several Northwest teachers are using problem solving to achieve rigorous and imaginative learning in their classrooms. Articles include: (1) "Open-Ended Problem Solving: Weaving a Web of Ideas" (Denise Jarrett); (2) "Teenager or Tyke, Students Learn Best by Tackling Challenging Math" (Suzie…

  3. Reading-Enhanced Word Problem Solving: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Rupley, William H.

    2012-01-01

    There is a reciprocal relationship between mathematics and reading cognition. Metacognitive training within reading-enhanced problem solving should facilitate students developing an awareness of what good readers do when reading for meaning in solving mathematical problems enabling them to apply these strategies. The constructs for each cognitive

  4. Using Everyday Materials To Promote Problem Solving in Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segatti, Laura; Brown-DuPaul, Judy; Keyes, Tracy L.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines benefits of and skills involved in problem solving. Details how an environment rich in materials that foster cause-and-effect or trial-and-error explorations promote cognitive development among toddlers. Offers examples of problem-solving experiences and lists materials for use in curriculum planning. Describes the teacher' role as one of…

  5. Connectedness Indicators and the Prediction of Problem Solving Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu-Shattuck, Sharon X.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that problem solving success is dependent upon two related but district types of mathematical knowledge, content indicators and connectedness indicators. Results did indeed display that the problem solving success of 188 undergraduate students was related to these two indicators. The correlations of content…

  6. Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, M. Connie

    The relationship between interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) skills and the behavioral adjustment of 30 hyperactive boys (from 5.5 to 12.5 years of age) was examined. Each S was individually administered two problem solving measures to assess alternative thinking and means-end thinking. The childrens' self-concept was also assessed and

  7. Cognitive Restructuring as a First Step in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, George M.; McMillen, Theresa L. B.

    Chemists have bemoaned for years their students' inability to solve problems in introductory chemistry courses. However, at least part of this inability must be attributed to the fact that chemists have historically tried to teach their students to solve problems by doing nothing more than working examples. In recent years, chemists have begun to…

  8. Problem-Solving Correlates of New Assessment Forms in Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Figural response (FR) items in architecture were compared with multiple-choice (MC) counterparts for their ability to predict architectural problem-solving proficiency of 33 practicing architects, 34 architecture interns, and 53 architecture students. Although both FR and MC predicted verbal design problem solving, only FR scores predicted…

  9. Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Susan Preston

    1999-01-01

    Compared the impact of robotics (computer-powered manipulative) to a battery-powered manipulative (novelty control) and traditionally taught science class on science achievement and problem solving of fourth through sixth graders. Found that the robotics group had higher scores on programming logic-problem solving than did the novelty control…

  10. Peer Instruction Enhanced Meaningful Learning: Ability to Solve Novel Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortright, Ronald N.; Collins, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Students must be able to interpret, relate, and incorporate new information with existing knowledge and apply the new information to solve novel problems. Peer instruction is a cooperative learning technique that promotes critical thinking, problem solving, and decision-making skills. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that peer instruction…

  11. Use of External Visual Representations in Probability Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corter, James E.; Zahner, Doris C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the use of external visual representations in probability problem solving. Twenty-six students enrolled in an introductory statistics course for social sciences graduate students (post-baccalaureate) solved eight probability problems in a structured interview format. Results show that students spontaneously use self-generated…

  12. Introduction to LogoWriter and Problem Solving for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Sharon Burrowes; Moursund, Dave

    This book about Logo programming and problem solving is designed to introduce preservice and inservice teachers to problem solving in a Logo programming environment. Such a unit of study can be an important part of an introductory computers in education course for educators. Although Logowriter--a version of Logo--was developed by Logo Computer…

  13. Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…

  14. Problem Solving in Technology Education: A Taoist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Offers a new approach to teaching problem solving in technology education that encourages students to apply problem-solving skills to improving the human condition. Suggests that technology teachers incorporate elements of a Taoist approach in teaching by viewing technology as a tool with a goal of living a harmonious life. (JOW)

  15. Learning from Examples versus Verbal Directions in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M.; Anderson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This event-related fMRI study investigated the differences between learning from examples and learning from verbal directions in mathematical problem solving and how these instruction types affect the activity of relevant brain regions during instruction and solution periods within problem-solving trials. We identified distinct neural signatures

  16. Relationship between Problem-Solving Style and Mathematical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Wen-Chun; Lin, Su-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Currently, mathematics education is focused on ensuring that students can apply the knowledge and skills they learn to everyday life; students are expected to develop their problem-solving abilities to face challenges by adopting various perspectives. When faced with a problem, students may employ different methods or patterns to solve it. If this

  17. Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Dae S.

    2011-01-01

    In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.

  18. A Markov Model Analysis of Problem-Solving Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendlinski, Terry

    This study used a computerized simulation and problem-solving tool along with artificial neural networks (ANN) as pattern recognizers to identify the common types of strategies high school and college undergraduate chemistry students would use to solve qualitative chemistry problems. Participants were 134 high school chemistry students who used…

  19. The Future Problem Solving Experience Ten Years After.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    Four young men who had participated in the national competition of the Future Problem Solving (FPS) Program 10 years earlier offer reflections about their FPS experience. Their coach concludes that the program equips young people with the vision and skills needed to anticipate and solve problems and build better tomorrows. (JDD)

  20. Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…

  1. Problem-solving skills in high school biology: The effectiveness of the IMMEX problem-solving assessment software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacio-Cayetano, Joycelin

    "Problem-solving through reflective thinking should be both the method and valuable outcome of science instruction in America's schools" proclaimed John Dewey (Gabel, 1995). If the development of problem-solving is a primary goal of science education, more problem-solving opportunities must be an integral part of K-16 education. To examine the effective use of technology in developing and assessing problem-solving skills, a problem-solving authoring, learning, and assessment software, the UCLA IMMEX Program-Interactive Multimedia Exercises-was investigated. This study was a twenty-week quasi-experimental study that was implemented as a control-group time series design among 120 tenth grade students. Both the experimental group (n = 60) and the control group (n = 60) participated in a problem-based learning curriculum; however, the experimental group received regular intensive experiences with IMMEX problem-solving and the control group did not. Problem-solving pretest and posttest were administered to all students. The instruments used were a 35-item Processes of Biological Inquiry Test and an IMMEX problem-solving assessment test, True Roots. Students who participated in the IMMEX Program achieved significant (p <.05) gains in problem-solving skills on both problem-solving assessment instruments. This study provided evidence that IMMEX software is highly efficient in evaluating salient elements of problem-solving. Outputs of students' problem-solving strategies revealed that unsuccessful problem solvers primarily used the following four strategies: (1) no data search strategy, students simply guessed; (2) limited data search strategy leading to insufficient data and premature closing; (3) irrelevant data search strategy, students focus in areas bearing no substantive data; and (4) extensive data search strategy with inadequate integration and analysis. On the contrary, successful problem solvers used the following strategies; (1) focused search strategy coupled with the ability to fill in knowledge gaps by accessing the appropriate resources; (2) targeted search strategy coupled with high level of analytical and integration skills; and (3) focused search strategy coupled with superior discrimination, analytical, and integration skills. The strategies of students who were successful and unsuccessful solving IMMEX problems were consistent with those of expert and novice problem solvers identified in the literature on problem-solving.

  2. THE ROLE OF PROBLEM SOLVING IN COMPLEX INTRAVERBAL REPERTOIRES

    PubMed Central

    Sautter, Rachael A; LeBlanc, Linda A; Jay, Allison A; Goldsmith, Tina R; Carr, James E

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until problem solving was modeled and prompted. Following the model and prompts, all participants showed immediate significant increases in intraverbal categorization, and all prompts were quickly eliminated. Use of audible self-prompts was evident initially for all participants, but declined over time for 3 of the 4 children. Within-session response patterns remained consistent with use of the problem-solving strategy even when self-prompts were not audible. These findings suggest that teaching and prompting a problem-solving strategy can be an effective way to produce intraverbal categorization responses. PMID:21709781

  3. NEW TECHNOLOGIES TO SOLVE OLD PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was established in early December of 1970 to protect human health and the environment. The USEPA realized from the beginning that to effectively carry out is's mission it needed to encourage the development of new technologies. Almos...

  4. Social Problem Solving, Conduct Problems, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Walsh, Trudi M.; Andrade, Brendan F.; King, Sara; Carrey, Normand J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7-12 years. Social problem solving was evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce…

  5. Problem Solving in Professional Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of Professors of Adult Education.

    The papers in the collection reflect areas of concern to adult educators, especially at the university level. The first of the collection's three sections deals with graduate program design and contains three papers: Problems of Graduate Program Design, Wilson B. Thiede, and two reaction papers by John Ohliger and Clive C. Veri. Section 2 on…

  6. Problem Solving: Learning from Experts and Novices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufresne, Robert J.

    One approach to the study of cognitive processes highlights the distinctions between expert and novice problem solvers. This approach attempts to discover how experts and novices differ in the way they organize, retain and use domain related knowledge. It appears to some that what is learned from expert-novice research can help teachers to teach…

  7. Professional Development: How Young Children Solve Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shure, Myrna B.

    2006-01-01

    There are lots of ways to handle behavior problems in the classroom. Some teachers send difficult children to time out, others tell them what and what not to do, and many explain why. But these techniques have one thing in common: they all do the thinking for the child. In this article, the author discusses how to help children handle conflicts…

  8. Solving College and University Problems Through Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mebane, Donna Davis, Ed.

    Addressed to individuals in higher education who are concerned about the application of information and data processing technologies to problems in college and university administration, instruction, and research, the 43 papers in the collection are concerned with such topics as the nature of new information technology; the use of information…

  9. Metacognitive Macroevaluations in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of evaluation in mathematics in 749 elementary school children. The macroevaluative skills and calibration scores of high versus low mathematical problem solvers were contrasted as measures of metacognition. No relevant calibration differences were found for gender. In addition, the performances of children with…

  10. Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…

  11. Do prescribed prompts prime sensemaking during group problem solving?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinuk, Mathew "Sandy"; Ives, Joss

    2012-02-01

    Many researchers and textbooks have promoted the use of rigid prescribed strategies for encouraging development of expert-like problem-solving behavior in novice students. The University of British Columbia's introductory algebra-based course for non-physics majors uses Context-Rich problems with a prescribed six-step strategy. We have coded audio recordings of group problem-solving sessions to analyze students' epistemological framing based on the implicit goal of their discussions. By treating the goal of "understanding the physics of the situation" as sensemaking, we argue that prescribed problem-solving prompts are not sufficient to induce subsequent sensemaking discussion.

  12. Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer

    1993-12-01

    Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

  13. Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.

  14. Impacts of Learning Inventive Problem-Solving Principles: Students' Transition from Systematic Searching to Heuristic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of teaching an inventive problem-solving course in junior high schools in an attempt to deal with the current relative neglect of fostering students' creativity and problem-solving capabilities in traditional schooling. The method involves carrying out systematic manipulation with attributes, functions and…

  15. Effects of the Problem Solving and Subject Matter Approaches on the Problem Solving Ability of Secondary School Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olowa, O. W.

    2009-01-01

    The approach used by teachers is very important to the success of the teaching process. This is why this study seeks to determine which teaching approaches--problem solving and subject-matter, would best improve the problem solving ability of selected secondary agricultural education students in Ikorodu Local Government Area. Ten classes and 150…

  16. The Effects of a Problem Solving Intervention on Problem Solving Skills of Students with Autism during Vocational Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakubova, Gulnoza

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The

  17. The Effects of a Problem Solving Intervention on Problem Solving Skills of Students with Autism during Vocational Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakubova, Gulnoza

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…

  18. A Comparison of the Effects of Lego TC Logo and Problem Solving Software on Elementary Students' Problem Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Debra L; Palumbo, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Computer-based problem-solving software exposure was compared to Lego TC LOGO instruction. Thirty fifth graders received either Lego LOGO instruction, which couples Lego building block activities with LOGO computer programming, or instruction with various problem-solving computer programs. Although both groups showed significant progress, the Lego…

  19. Impacts of Learning Inventive Problem-Solving Principles: Students' Transition from Systematic Searching to Heuristic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of teaching an inventive problem-solving course in junior high schools in an attempt to deal with the current relative neglect of fostering students' creativity and problem-solving capabilities in traditional schooling. The method involves carrying out systematic manipulation with attributes, functions and

  20. Problem solving performance and learning strategies of undergraduate students who solved microbiology problems using IMMEX educational software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p < .10) related to ability to solve "Creeping Crud". Peer learning strategy showed a positive significant (p < .10) relationship with scores obtained from solving "Creeping Crud". Students' declared major made a significant (p < .05) difference on the ability to solve "Microquest". A subset (18) volunteered for a think aloud method to determine decision-making process. High achievers used fewer steps, and had more focused approach than low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.

  1. University Physics As a Second Language: Mastering Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Tom

    2005-09-01

    Get a better grade in Physics Solving physics problems can be challenging at times. But with hard work and the right study tools, you can learn the language of physics and get the grade you want. With Tom Barrett's University Physics as a Second Language(TM): Mastering Problem Solving, you'll be able to better understand fundamental physics concepts, solve a variety of problems, and focus on what you need to know to succeed. Here's how you can get a better grade in physics: Understand the basic concepts University Physics as a Second Language(TM) focuses on selected topics in calculus-based physics to give you a solid foundation. Tom Barrett explains these topics in clear, easy-to-understand language. Break problems down into simple steps University Physics as a Second Language(TM) teaches you to approach problems more efficiently and effectively. You'll learn how to recognize common patterns in physics problems, break problems down into manageable steps, and apply appropriate techniques. The book takes you step-by-step through the solutions to numerous examples. Improve your problem-solving skills University Physics as a Second Language(TM) will help you develop the skills you need to solve a variety of problem types. You'll learn timesaving problem-solving strategies that will help you focus your efforts, as well as how to avoid potential pitfalls.

  2. Swinging into thought: directed movement guides insight in problem solving.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Laura E; Lleras, Alejandro

    2009-08-01

    Can directed actions unconsciously influence higher order cognitive processing? We investigated how movement interventions affected participants' ability to solve a classic insight problem. The participants attempted to solve Maier's two-string problem while occasionally taking exercise breaks during which they moved their arms either in a manner related to the problem's solution (swing group) or in a manner inconsistent with the solution (stretch group). Although most of the participants were unaware of the relationship between their arm movement exercises and the problem-solving task, the participants who moved their arms in a manner that suggested the problem's solution were more likely to solve the problem than were those who moved their arms in other ways. Consistent with embodied theories of cognition, these findings show that actions influence thought and, furthermore, that we can implicitly guide people toward insight by directing their actions. PMID:19648458

  3. Modeling crowdsourcing as collective problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Guazzini, Andrea; Vilone, Daniele; Donati, Camillo; Nardi, Annalisa; Levnajić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is a process of accumulating the ideas, thoughts or information from many independent participants, with aim to find the best solution for a given challenge. Modern information technologies allow for massive number of subjects to be involved in a more or less spontaneous way. Still, the full potentials of crowdsourcing are yet to be reached. We introduce a modeling framework through which we study the effectiveness of crowdsourcing in relation to the level of collectivism in facing the problem. Our findings reveal an intricate relationship between the number of participants and the difficulty of the problem, indicating the optimal size of the crowdsourced group. We discuss our results in the context of modern utilization of crowdsourcing. PMID:26552943

  4. Modeling crowdsourcing as collective problem solving.

    PubMed

    Guazzini, Andrea; Vilone, Daniele; Donati, Camillo; Nardi, Annalisa; Levnajić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is a process of accumulating the ideas, thoughts or information from many independent participants, with aim to find the best solution for a given challenge. Modern information technologies allow for massive number of subjects to be involved in a more or less spontaneous way. Still, the full potentials of crowdsourcing are yet to be reached. We introduce a modeling framework through which we study the effectiveness of crowdsourcing in relation to the level of collectivism in facing the problem. Our findings reveal an intricate relationship between the number of participants and the difficulty of the problem, indicating the optimal size of the crowdsourced group. We discuss our results in the context of modern utilization of crowdsourcing. PMID:26552943

  5. Modeling crowdsourcing as collective problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guazzini, Andrea; Vilone, Daniele; Donati, Camillo; Nardi, Annalisa; Levnajić, Zoran

    2015-11-01

    Crowdsourcing is a process of accumulating the ideas, thoughts or information from many independent participants, with aim to find the best solution for a given challenge. Modern information technologies allow for massive number of subjects to be involved in a more or less spontaneous way. Still, the full potentials of crowdsourcing are yet to be reached. We introduce a modeling framework through which we study the effectiveness of crowdsourcing in relation to the level of collectivism in facing the problem. Our findings reveal an intricate relationship between the number of participants and the difficulty of the problem, indicating the optimal size of the crowdsourced group. We discuss our results in the context of modern utilization of crowdsourcing.

  6. Robot problem solving using an incomplete model

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, J.

    1983-01-01

    A system that can know that it does not know the truth or falsity of a WFF, know-no-know, is described. A representation method and some theoretical issues for such a knowledge base are presented. The implications of planning and executing with such uncertain knowledge are explored in the context of a janitor robot domain. The knowledge representation problem raised here, however, extends across many domains. 3 references.

  7. A dependency-based modelling mechanism for problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, P.

    1978-01-01

    The paper develops a technique of dependency net modeling which relies on an explicit representation of justifications for beliefs held by the problem solver. Using these justifications, the modeling mechanism is able to determine the relevant lines of inference to pursue during problem solving. Three particular problem-solving difficulties which may be handled by the dependency-based technique are discussed: (1) subgoal violation detection, (2) description binding, and (3) maintaining a consistent world model.

  8. An amoeboid algorithm for solving linear transportation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cai; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zili; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Transportation Problem (TP) is one of the basic operational research problems, which plays an important role in many practical applications. In this paper, a bio-inspired mathematical model is proposed to handle the Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) in directed networks by modifying the original amoeba model Physarum Solver. Several examples are used to prove that the provided model can effectively solve Balanced Transportation Problem (BTP), Unbalanced Transportation Problem (UTP), especially the Generalized Transportation Problem (GTP), in a nondiscrete way.

  9. Solving the problems we face: the United States Environmental Protection Agency, sustainability, and the challenges of the twenty-first century

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addressing the problems of the twenty-first century will require new initiatives that complement traditional regulatory activities. Existing regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act are important safety nets in the United States for protecting human health and t...

  10. The Factors Influencing the Outcome of Solving Story Problems in a Web-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedaste, M.; Sarapuu, T.; Outcomes of Education

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate those factors influencing performance in solving story problems in a web-based environment. A situational simulation, "Hiking across Estonia," was explored by two samples of voluntary groups of students, comprising 65 and 50 groups, respectively. They solved 25 ecological and environmental story…

  11. Control drilling solves surface hole problems

    SciTech Connect

    Jean, T.W.

    1986-08-01

    Drilling surface hole offshore is one aspect of drilling practice that should command greater planning and design. Surface hole could be crucial if the well is in an area with a chance of shallow gas, or if it is required to run a 30-in. pin corrector and a long string of riser back to surface. The problem grows more critical with deeper water and a longer riser which in turn gives a longer column of drilling fluid. Consequently, the hydrostatic pressure is much higher at the 30-in. casing shoe. Higher pressure increases the chance of exceeding the fracture gradient and may result in the loss of returns around the 30-in. shoe. This article describes a simple practice which can eliminate some surface hole problems. A control-drilling equation sets the maximum drilling rate (MDR) based on maximum permitted pressures at the casing shoe. Eliminating lost circulation will ultimately save rig downtime due to retrieving the conductor pipe and base plate, relocating the rig, and respudding the hole after suffering losses. This technique also has been successful while drilling out below drive pipe on jack ups and platform wells. Control drilling is most effectively used on these types of wells because only a friction seal (instead of cement coverage) exists around the bottom of the drive pipe.

  12. Using accumulators to solve hydraulic circuit problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mordas, J.B. )

    1994-01-01

    Accumulators can be useful to the plant engineer. Hydropneumatic or gas-charged version are used effectively in hydraulic circuits for auxiliary power, energy storage, emergency operation, leakage compensation or makeup fluid, and motor soft starts. Accumulators are also applied for shock absorption in pressure and tank lines, pulsation dampening, elimination of pump cavitation, and noise attenuation. The first reaction to a malfunction in a hydraulic circuit is to check the pump and valves. Many times the problem may be flow related, either too much or too little. Jeffrey B. Mordas of Hydac Corp. explains how an accumulator resolves difficulties with fluid circuits and provides auxiliary power, energy storage, shock absorption, pulsation dampening, and noise attenuation.

  13. Energy Problems and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Russell E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in energy extraction and consumption, involving nuclear power plant construction, environmental consequences of energy systems, and energy conservation ethics. Indicates that the increasing concern over environmental quality is not the true cause of present energy problems. (CC)

  14. Decision Analysis for Environmental Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental management problems are often complex and uncertain. A formal process with proper guidance is needed to understand the issues, identify sources of disagreement, and analyze the major uncertainties in environmental problems. This course will present a process that fo...

  15. Methodologies for examining problem solving success and failure.

    PubMed

    DeCaro, Marci S; Wieth, Mareike; Beilock, Sian L

    2007-05-01

    When designing research to examine the variables underlying creative thinking and problem solving success, one must not only consider (a) the demands of the task being performed, but (b) the characteristics of the individual performing the task and (c) the constraints of the skill execution environment. In the current paper we describe methodologies that allow one to effectively study creative thinking by capturing interactions among the individual, task, and problem solving situation. In doing so, we demonstrate that the relation between executive functioning and problem solving success is not always as straightforward as one might initially believe. PMID:17434416

  16. Cognitive Backgrounds of Problem Solving: A Comparison of Open-Ended vs. Closed Mathematics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Abdulkadir; Maker, C. June

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of elementary…

  17. Cognitive Backgrounds of Problem Solving: A Comparison of Open-Ended vs. Closed Mathematics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Abdulkadir; Maker, C. June

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of elementary

  18. Childhood obesity: a societal problem to solve.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M B; Puhl, R

    2003-02-01

    In contrast to other threats to American children's health, the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity are considered the responsibility of individual children and their parents. This pressure exists in the context of the societal stigmatization of overweight children and the powerful environmental inducements aimed directly at children to eat nutritionally poor foods. Parents of overweight children are left in the difficult position of fearing the social and health consequences of their child's obesity, and fighting a losing battle against the omnipotent presence of the media and constant exposure to unhealthy foods. This paper brings together several literatures to provide a comprehensive examination of the major challenges facing obese children and their families. In particular, this paper documents the extent of stigmatization towards overweight children and reviews evidence of the conflicting advice given to parents about how to help children develop healthful eating in the face of biological and learned food preferences. We conclude with a call for a shift in thinking about the role of our society in the aetiology, treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:12608527

  19. Implementation of a multidisciplinary approach to solve complex nano EHS problems by the UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Malasarn, Davin; Lin, Sijie; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Haiyuan; Miller, Robert J; Keller, Arturo A; Nisbet, Roger M; Harthorn, Barbara H; Godwin, Hilary A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Liu, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge; Cohen, Yoram; Mädler, Lutz; Holden, Patricia A; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, Andre E

    2013-05-27

    UC CEIN was established with funding from the US National Science Foundation and the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2008 with the mission to study the impact of nanotechnology on the environment, including the identification of hazard and exposure scenarios that take into consideration the unique physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Since its inception, the Center has made great progress in assembling a multidisciplinary team to develop the scientific underpinnings, research, knowledge acquisition, education and outreach that is required for assessing the safe implementation of nanotechnology in the environment. In this essay, the development of the infrastructure, protocols, and decision-making tools that are required to effectively integrate complementary scientific disciplines allowing knowledge gathering in a complex study area that goes beyond the traditional safety and risk assessment protocols of the 20th century is outlined. UC CEIN's streamlined approach, premised on predictive hazard and exposure assessment methods, high-throughput discovery platforms and environmental decision-making tools that consider a wide range of nano/bio interfaces in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, demonstrates the implementation of a 21st-century approach to the safe implementation of nanotechnology in the environment. PMID:23027589

  20. Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2009-11-01

    Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties with multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first semester calculus-based physics course. Each student was interviewed four times during the semester, each time after they had completed an exam in class. During these interviews students were first asked to solve a problem they had seen on the exam, followed by problems that differed in context and type of representation from the exam problem. Students were provided verbal scaffolding to solve the new problems. We discuss the common difficulties that students encountered when attempting to transfer their problem solving skills across problems in different representations.

  1. Human problem solving performance in a fault diagnosis task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    It is proposed that humans in automated systems will be asked to assume the role of troubleshooter or problem solver and that the problems which they will be asked to solve in such systems will not be amenable to rote solution. The design of visual displays for problem solving in such situations is considered, and the results of two experimental investigations of human problem solving performance in the diagnosis of faults in graphically displayed network problems are discussed. The effects of problem size, forced-pacing, computer aiding, and training are considered. Results indicate that human performance deviates from optimality as problem size increases. Forced-pacing appears to cause the human to adopt fairly brute force strategies, as compared to those adopted in self-paced situations. Computer aiding substantially lessens the number of mistaken diagnoses by performing the bookkeeping portions of the task.

  2. How chimpanzees solve collective action problems

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Anna-Claire; Melis, Alicia P.; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We presented small groups of chimpanzees with two collective action situations, in which action was necessary for reward but there was a disincentive for individuals to act owing to the possibility of free-riding on the efforts of others. We found that in simpler scenarios (experiment 1) in which group size was small, there was a positive relationship between rank and action with more dominant individuals volunteering to act more often, particularly when the reward was less dispersed. Social tolerance also seemed to mediate action whereby higher tolerance levels within a group resulted in individuals of lower ranks sometimes acting and appropriating more of the reward. In more complex scenarios, when group size was larger and cooperation was necessary (experiment 2), overcoming the problem was more challenging. There was highly significant variability in the action rates of different individuals as well as between dyads, suggesting success was more greatly influenced by the individual personalities and personal relationships present in the group. PMID:23075841

  3. Ball valves solve turbine drain valve problem

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Alabama Power's E.C. Gaston generating plant, a 1904-MW facility located 40 miles south of Birmingham, consists of four 250-MW units, one 884-MW unit, and a 20-MW combustion turbine. Over the years the utility has experienced recurring failure of turbine drain valves on Gaston Unit 5. Unit 5 uses a Combustion Engineering supercritical steam generator rated at 6,351,470 lb/hr main steam flow to deliver steam to a General Electric tandem-compound reheat turbine with a rated capacity of 884 MW at 3500 psig and 1000 F. Main steam enters the turbine through four combined stop and control valves mounted independent of the turbine shell. This paper reports that each stop and control valve is equipped with two before-seat drain valves. One of the drain valves is motor-operated to facilitate remote operation: the other is a manual valve. In an effort to improve drain systems and reduce costs, alternatives to the problem-ridden Y-pattern glove valves were investigated. One such alternative was the Mogas severe-service metal-seated ball valve.

  4. Photography helps solve distribution lightning problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, P.; Burns, C.W.

    1993-06-01

    This article describes the research project, which is being performed for NMPC by Power Technologies, Inc., involving the use of lightning-activated camera systems to photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photographs can allow the precise location of the lightning flash and power system flashovers to be observed, they are extremely valuable to engineers who are trying to make better sense of the lightning damage problem. When electrical measurements, such as fault and surge recordings, are combined with photographic data, an overall understanding of each lightning flash and its impact on the system is attained. This can hopefully lead to improved lightning protection practices and systems. The study is being performed on a 13.2 kV distribution system that is located on an exposed plateau near Little Falls, NY (about 80 miles northwest of Albany, NY). Four automated camera systems and a substation fault recorder are utilized. All camera locations afford excellent views of lines and equipment likely to be struck by lightning. The fault recorder is used to measure the fault currents and voltage sags which occur during line flashovers. Also, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) is used to confirm storm activity and camera triggering efficiency. After each storm, all data is analyzed to determine how lightning affected the power system. Areas being investigated include: What are the relative portions of lightning flashovers caused by induced surges (nearby strikes) and direct lightning hits to the line How often do shielding failures occur What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices are problematic

  5. Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of

  6. Creativity in Problem Solving: Uncovering the Origin of New Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Carol R.

    2005-01-01

    Innovation and enterprise depend for their success on the development of new ideas. But from where do new ideas come? How do they arise? Finding solutions to such questions is at the heart of creativity research and the solving of novel problems. Reflection, not only in cognitive processes but also in the non-cognitive ones used in solving novel…

  7. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Classroom Version. Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    This training manual is for teachers participating in the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) workshops. The workshops last for four and one-half days and are designed to improve the school setting and to increase teamwork skills. The teachers participate in simulation exercises in which they help a fictitious teacher or principal solve a…

  8. Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of…

  9. Socratic Problem-Solving in the Business World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and effective decision-making is one of the most essential skills necessary for organizational success. The problem-solving process provides a systematic means of effectively recognizing, analyzing, and solving a dilemma. The key element in this process is critical analysis of the situation, which can be executed by a taking a Socratic…

  10. How Problem Solving Can Develop an Algebraic Perspective of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Will

    2011-01-01

    SProblem solving has a long and successful history in mathematics education and is valued by many teachers as a way to engage and facilitate learning within their classrooms. The potential benefit for using problem solving in the development of algebraic thinking is that "it may broaden and develop students' mathematical thinking beyond the…

  11. Routines in Non-Routine Problem Solving Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloeglmann, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Nonroutine problem-solving, too, involves elements of routine. Often, elementary routines such as solving for a variable are not carried out without error. In this paper, we use new findings from neuroscientific research to explain why even excellent students make mistakes in elementary routines. [For complete proceedings, see ED489597.

  12. Different Procedures for Solving Mathematical Word Problems in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasco, Javier; Villarroel, Jose Domingo; Zuazagoitia, Dani

    2014-01-01

    The teaching and learning of mathematics cannot be understood without considering the resolution of word problems. These kinds of problems not only connect mathematical concepts with language (and therefore with reality) but also promote the learning related to other scientific areas. In primary school, problems are solved by using basic…

  13. Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,

  14. Need New Problem-Solving Ideas? Take a Trip!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lynda R.; Sturbaum, Mary Barr

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how actual or planned travel experiences can form the basis for constructing realistic, challenging, and interesting problem-solving tasks for classroom use. Provides examples of how teachers and students can create travel problems for use in the classroom. The travel-problem concept is adaptable to any elementary, secondary, or…

  15. Arithmetic Word Problem Solving: A Situation Strategy First Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brissiaud, Remi; Sander, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Before instruction, children solve many arithmetic word problems with informal strategies based on the situation described in the problem. A Situation Strategy First framework is introduced that posits that initial representation of the problem activates a situation-based strategy even after instruction: only when it is not efficient for providing…

  16. Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…

  17. Anger in Middle School: The Solving Problems Together Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri L.; Owens, Rachel B.

    2009-01-01

    Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), with a small group of adolescent African American boys struggling with anger management. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…

  18. Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…

  19. Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.

  20. Solving Complex Problems Requires Good People, Good Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    To avoid bad decisions, principals must be willing to invest time, energy, and resources and prepare the problem-solving team for the frustrations involved in tackling tough problems. Simple probing techniques such as "creating (or intensifying) the problem,""the Five Whys""I wish" statements, the nominal Group Technique, and multivoting can aid…

  1. Developing Metacognitive and Problem-Solving Skills through Problem Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker Siburt, Claire J.; Bissell, Ahrash N.; Macphail, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between the our university's department of chemistry and the academic resource center, we designed a model for general chemistry recitation based on a problem manipulation method in which students actively assess the skills and knowledge used to answer a chemical problem and then manipulate the problem to create a new…

  2. The USMES Approach to Problem Solving: An Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Arthur K.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is an interview concerning development and implementation of the Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) project, which has developed an interdisciplinary problem-solving curriculum for elementary students. (Author)

  3. Solving nonlinear heat transfer constant area fin problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Tables and graphs were compiled for solving nonlinear heat transfer constant area fin problems. The differential equation describing one-dimensional steady-state temperature distribution and heat flow under three modes of heat transfer with heat generation was investigated.

  4. Open-Ended, Problem-Solving Investigations--Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Ways in which linear lesson sequences can be modified to provide increased opportunities for open-ended activities especially with problem solving are considered. Examples drawn from chemistry and plant reproduction, seeds, and germination are given. (KR)

  5. Logical Problem Solving by Educable Retarded Adolescents and Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.; Nadler, Barbara T.

    1974-01-01

    Normal elementary school children and retarded adolescents were given a problem solving task. The performance of retardates was inferior to that of normal children when mental age was controlled. (ST)

  6. Fostering Mathematical Thinking and Problem Solving: The Teacher's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigelman, Nicole R.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the teacher's role in promoting mathematical thinking and problem solving in the classroom--identifying critical teacher actions and decisions; considering how beliefs influence the teacher's actions and decisions; and suggesting implications for teachers and students.

  7. Assessing Mathematics 4. Problem Solving: The APU Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxman, Derek; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presented are examples of problem-solving items from practical and written mathematics tests. These tests are part of an English survey designed to assess the mathematics achievement of students aged 11 and 15. (JN)

  8. The Intermediate Impossible: A Prewriting Activity for Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karloff, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Adapts Edward de Bono's "Intermediate Impossible" strategy--for considering ideas that normally would be discarded as stepping-stones to new ideas--for use as a prewriting activity to enhance creative problem solving. (HTH)

  9. How incentives for bus use solved parking problems.

    PubMed

    Lefert, G W; Barney, S M

    1979-03-01

    St. Marys Hospital Medical Center, Madison, WI, solved its problem of limited parking space by subsidizing city bus passes and establishing a shuttle service between a peripheral parking lot and the hospital. PMID:761899

  10. Assessing Student's Ability to Solve Textbook Style Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Can We Really Measure Problem Solving Ability? The answer to this question may depend on how we define problem solving ability. But, if we care about students' ability to solve novel textbook style problems, the answer to this question seems to be ``yes.'' In this talk I will discuss a pre-/post- instruction assessment that was recently developed to assess students' ability to solve fairly standard textbook style problems within the domains of Newton's second law, conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. The instrument is designed for large-scale use in typical university classrooms, has already been used in a variety of institutions and appears to be both valid and robust. Data collected with this instrument can help guide curricular improvements and provide important insights relevant to most departments for program review.

  11. Problem solving as intelligent retrieval from distributed knowledge sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhengxin

    1987-01-01

    Distributed computing in intelligent systems is investigated from a different perspective. From the viewpoint that problem solving can be viewed as intelligent knowledge retrieval, the use of distributed knowledge sources in intelligent systems is proposed.

  12. Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Andrew J.

    Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was developed to further evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest that introductory students and even graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to physics faculty members. Furthermore, responses to individual survey questions suggest that expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.

  13. Solving MPCC Problem with the Hyperbolic Penalty Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Teófilo; Monteiro, M. Teresa T.; Matias, João

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this work is to solve mathematical program with complementarity constraints (MPCC) using nonlinear programming techniques (NLP). An hyperbolic penalty function is used to solve MPCC problems by including the complementarity constraints in the penalty term. This penalty function [1] is twice continuously differentiable and combines features of both exterior and interior penalty methods. A set of AMPL problems from MacMPEC [2] are tested and a comparative study is performed.

  14. Development and Validation of the Diabetes Adolescent Problem Solving Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Mulvaney, Shelagh A.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Rothman, Russell L.; Russell, William; Pittel, Eric J.; Lybarger, Cindy; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Problem solving is a critical diabetes self-management skill. Because of a lack of clinically feasible measures, our aim was to develop and validate a self-report self-management problem solving questionnaire for adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods A multidisciplinary team of diabetes experts generated questionnaire items that addressed diabetes self-management problem solving. Iterative feedback from parents and adolescents resulted in 27 items. Adolescents from two studies (N=156) aged 13–17 were recruited through a pediatric diabetes clinic and completed measures through an online survey. Glycemic control was measured by HbA1c recorded in the medical record. Results Empirical elimination of items using Principal Components Analyses resulted in a 13-item unidimensional measure, the Diabetes Adolescent Problem Solving Questionnaire (DAPSQ) that explained 57% of the variance. The DAPSQ demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92) and was correlated with diabetes self-management (r=0.53, p<.001), self-efficacy (r=0.54, p<.001), and glycemic control (r= −0.24, p<.01). Conclusion The DAPSQ is a brief instrument for assessment of diabetes self-management problem solving in youth with T1D associated with better self-management behaviors and glycemic control. Practice Implications The DAPSQ is a clinically feasible self-report measure that can provide valuable information regarding level of self-management problem solving and guide patient education. PMID:25063715

  15. Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.

    2013-01-01

    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751

  16. A Linearization Method for Solving Partial Redistribution Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharmer, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    A linearization method for solving partial redistribution (PRD) problems is presented. The basic idea of this method, due to Cannon et al. (1975), is the evaluation of an approximate operator which corresponds to assuming that radiation is completely redistributed over the line profile. Using this approximate operator, corrections to the line-source function are obtained iteratively with very small amounts of computing time. The present method uses a Rybicki-type of elimination scheme which requires small core storage even when the number of frequency-angle points is large. The linearization method for solving PRD problems is combined with the linearization method of Scharmer (1981) and Scharmer and Nordlund (1982), used to solve complete redistribution problems. This decreases the computing time required to solve a given problem. These methods for solving PRD problems are particularly efficient when the number of frequency-angle points is large and can be used even on very small computers. Existing CRD programs for solving complete redistribution problems can easily be modified to incorporate PRD.

  17. Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.

    PubMed

    Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M

    2013-01-01

    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751

  18. Representation use and strategy choice in physics problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cock, Mieke

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics students problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that solutions can be triggered by particular details of the representation. Previous studies are complemented with a fine grained analysis of solution strategies. We find that students use different problem-solving strategies, depending on the representational format in which the problem is stated.

  19. Meshless method for solving fixed boundary problem of plasma equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    This study solves the Grad-Shafranov equation with a fixed plasma boundary by utilizing a meshless method for the first time. Previous studies have utilized a finite element method (FEM) to solve an equilibrium inside the fixed separatrix. In order to avoid difficulties of FEM (such as mesh problem, difficulty of coding, expensive calculation cost), this study focuses on the meshless methods, especially RBF-MFS and KANSA's method to solve the fixed boundary problem. The results showed that CPU time of the meshless methods was ten to one hundred times shorter than that of FEM to obtain the same accuracy.

  20. Assessment and Evaluation of Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Describes a course that uses current environmental quandaries to teach students how to think, analyze, research, question, argue, evaluate, write, and solve problems. Develops skills required for active, project-oriented learning and covers principles of critical thinking and rudimentary risk literacy. (JRH)