Solving Problems Related to Environmental Crime Investigations
Bojan Dobovšek; Robert Pra?ek
\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to offer an analysis of Slovenian state institutions actual responses to the environmental\\u000a crime at crime scenes and to propose solutions for more efficient and effective future work of police and prosecutors. In-depth\\u000a target interviews were conducted with police officers, prosecutors and judges in order to define appropriate crime scene investigation\\u000a procedures for recovering
A Collaborative Problem-Solving Process through Environmental Field Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Mijung; Tan, Hoe Teck
2013-01-01
This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students ("n" =?16; age 14) and high-school students…
Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving
Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.
1988-01-01
Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).
Environmental Problem-Solving Ability: Profiles in Application Documents of Research Assistants
Roland W. Scholz; Barbara Flückiger; Ruedi C. Schwarzenbach; Michael Stauffacher; Harald Mieg; M. Neuenschwander
1997-01-01
The concept of environmental problem-solving ability is introduced. The development of this ability is the educational goal of the Department of Environmental Sciences at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ). A content analysis of documents submitted by 139 applicants was undertaken to determine their qualifications for the position of research assistant. Emphasis was placed on the development of
The National Conference on Environmental Problem Solving with Geographic Information Systems was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, September 21-23, 1994. The conference was a forum for over 450 environmental professionals to exchange information and approaches on how to use geographic ...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Dorothy Jenkins
2005-03-01
A multidisciplinary learning community provided environmental management students the opportunity to work with students in different classes and majors to create designs for improving the appearance and environmental quality of a lake on a university campus. The experience increased student appreciation for the contribution of other disciplines in solving real-world problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gauthier, Benoit; And Others
1997-01-01
Identifies the more representative problem-solving models in environmental education. Suggests the addition of a strategy for defining a problem situation using Soft Systems Methodology to environmental education activities explicitly designed for the development of critical thinking. Contains 45 references. (JRH)
Digital Libraries Creating Environmental Identity through Solving Geographical Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chang, Chew-Hung; Hedberg, John G.
2007-01-01
Environmental identity, or how we orient ourselves to the natural world, leads us to personalise abstract global issues and take action (or not) according to our sense of who we are. For example, are we willing to give up our luxurious cars for more fuel-efficient models even though we know that the earth is warming? In an era where web-based…
These two national conferences, held in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1994 and 1999, addressed the area of environmental problem solving with Geographic Information Systems. This CD-ROM is a compilation of the proceedings in PDF format. The emphasis of the conference presentations were on ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François
2014-09-01
This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spotts, Erica L.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Hetherington, E. Mavis; Reiss, David
2001-01-01
Examined the association between social problem-solving deficits and adolescent antisocial behavior within the family context, and estimated genetic and environmental effects as part of the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development project. Found genetic influence for antisocial behavior but not for problem solving. (Author/KB)
Applied mathematical problem solving
Richard Lesh
1981-01-01
A case is presented for the importance of focusing on (1) average ability students, (2) substantive mathematical content, (3) real problems, and (4) realistic settings and solution procedures for research in problem solving. It is suggested that effective instructional techniques for teaching applied mathematical problem solving resembles “mathematical laboratory” activities, done in small group problem solving settings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faryniarz, Joseph V.; Lockwood, Linda G.
This study examined the impact of microcomputer simulations on environmental problem solving by community college students. A subordinate question was also addressed: Was the test instrument, which was used to assess the outcome of the treatment, biased by reading ability? The quasiexperimental design used two intact groups of community college students and parallels an earlier study by Rivers and Vockell (1987). The experimental group was assigned three simulation modules that focused on lake pollution analysis, wastewater quality management, and population dynamics. The comparison group was not exposed to any simulations, and served as a quasicontrol to identify possible Hawthorne effects. Effectiveness was assessed by the Test of Integrated Process Skills (TIPS I and II). Statistical analyses were done with t tests, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, and reliability coefficients. The experimental group showed a highly significant improvement in problem-solving skills after treatment, t(33) = 4.42, p < 0.001. Subtest mean gain scores supported the hierarchical relationships among cognitive modes for transitional operational reasoners as reported by Yap and Yeany (1988). An analysis of the correlation between the TIPS I and Nelson-Denny reading test scores indicated that the TIPS did not have a reading-level bias for the subjects in this study. Informal and anecdotal observations described improvements in other problem-solving skills which were not measured by the TIPS.
Problem Solving. Research Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muir, Mike
2004-01-01
No longer solely the domain of Mathematics, problem solving permeates every area of today's curricula. Ideally students are applying heuristics strategies in varied contexts and novel situations in every subject taught. The ability to solve problems is a basic life skill and is essential to understanding technical subjects. Problem-solving is a…
Applied Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lesh, Richard
1981-01-01
A case is presented for the importance of focusing on: (1) average ability students; (2) substantive mathematical content; (3) real problems; and (4) realistic settings and solution procedures for research in problem solving. Suggestions for ways to modify existing applied problem solving materials are given. (MP)
Techniques of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krantz, Steven G.
The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Powers, S. E.
2001-12-01
An NSF-funded project-based program was implemented by Clarkson University in 2000 to increase the interest and knowledge of middle school students in science, math and technology through the solution of an environmental problem that is relevant to their local school community. Clarkson students developed curricula for 7th and 8th grade science and technology classes and then worked with the middle school students throughout the year to reduce to transform solid waste into healthy soil for plant growth. The solution to this problem provided a vehicle to teach fundamental science and math content as well as the process of doing science and solving problems. Placing college science and engineering students in the classroom proved to be a great mechanism for engaging students in science topics and providing mentoring experiences that differ greatly from those that a practicing professional can provide. It is clear, however, that the students must be well prepared for this experience to maximize the benefits of university - school district partnership programs. The objective of this presentation will be to describe the training program that has been developed to prepare Clarkson students to work effectively in middle school classrooms. The Clarkson students are trained for their classroom experiences during the summer before they enter the classroom. They receive three credits for the training, curriculum development, and teaching efforts. It is expected that the students have the necessary background in science and technology to teach themselves the content and environmental relevance of the problem they will be teaching. Lectures and workshops focus on how to transform this knowledge into a project-based curriculum that meets the needs of the teachers, while also exciting the students. Lecture/workshops include: team work; components of an effective class and teacher; project planning and management; problem solving process; inquiry based learning, deductive/inductive learning; creating unit/lesson plan; defining learning objectives; incorporating mentoring into program; NYS standards and science exam; and, assessment techniques. Journals are used to encourage the fellows to reflect on their learning and own educational experiences. An evaluation of the program by both Clarkson students and their partner teachers indicated that this training was appropriate for the students to enter the classroom as professional scientists and engineers. Their classroom interaction skills improved throughout the year.
Applied Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lesh, Richard, Ed.; And Others
This collection of nine papers, prepared for a conference held at Northwestern University in 1978, presents varied perspectives on applied problem solving. Assessing applied problem solving, planning for interest and motivation, developing a theory, reviewing research findings, considering learning disabilities, analyzing through information…
Huesemann; Michael H
2000-01-01
It is currently believed that science and technology can provide effective solutions to most, if not all, environmental problems facing western industrial societies. The validity of this optimistic assumption is highly questionable for at least three reasons: First, current mechanistic, reductionist science is inherently incapable of providing the complete and accurate information which is required to successfully address environmental problems.
Michael H. Huesemann
2001-01-01
It is currently believed that science and technology can provide effective solutions to most, if not all, environmental problems facing western industrial societies. The validity of this optimistic assumption is highly questionable for at least three reasons: First, current mechanistic, reductionist science is inherently incapable of providing the complete and accurate information which is required to successfully address environmental problems.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Brenda M. Capobianco
2009-10-01
In a unique school--university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem
Interactive insight problem solving
Anna Weller; Gaëlle Villejoubert; Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau
2011-01-01
Insight problem solving was investigated with the matchstick algebra problems developed by Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider, and Rhenius (1999). These problems are false equations expressed with Roman numerals that can be made true bymoving one matchstick. In a first group participants examined a static two-dimensional representation of the false algebraic expression and told the experimenter which matchstick should be moved. In
Elaine AbuSharbain
A sustainable future depends on citizens who are empowered to work together to take action. The goal of this research was to assess the Action Research and Community Problem Solving Model by Stapp, Wals and Stankorb (1996) for its effects on students' sense of community empowerment. The model was used in a college level environmental education course in the spring
NSDL National Science Digital Library
kajigga
2009-09-23
Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorson, Annette, Ed.
1999-01-01
This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…
Problem Solving in Electricity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias
Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…
Solving Algebra Word Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berger, Dale E.; Wilde, Jeffrey M.
Algebra word problems were analyzed in terms of the information integration tasks that are required to solve the problems. These tasks were classified into three levels: value assignment, value derivation, and equation construction. Novices (35 first year algebra students) and experts (13 analytic geometry students) were compared on the proportion…
Robot, computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.
1972-01-01
The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.
Solving Problems through Circles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Solving Common Mathematical Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luz, Paul L.
2005-01-01
Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez
2005-01-01
A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Office of Educational Partnerships,
The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.
PROBLEM SOLVING FOR ENGINEERING
? Self Assessment Exercise: Each of the nine items presents two opposing statements: - If you feel of formulas involve learning how to apply basic concepts and principles. 2. When I am learning a new concept in When I am learning a new concept, a problem solving course, I do not I focus on learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dogru, Mustafa
2008-01-01
Helping students to improve their problems solving skills is the primary target of science teacher trainees. In modern science, for training the students, methods should be used for improving their thinking skills, making connections with events and concepts and scientific operations skills rather than information and definition giving. One of…
Mart'ianov, V V; Korenkov, I P
2012-01-01
The paper presents general approaches to solving the problems associated with the radioecological safety of radioactive waste (RAW) storages. It considers the influence of climatic factors on the possible release of radionuclides into the environment. The authors have made as follows: analysis of the significance of main scenarios for radionuclide release into the environment and the natural and climatic conditions of the existing areas of near-surface RAW storages in the Russian Federation; conditional zoning of the Russian Federation according to the balance of atmospheric precipitation. The zoning of RAW storage locations is of importance for choosing the likely scenarios of radionuclide migrations. PMID:22712311
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Jerilou Moore
2008-03-01
Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.
Modeling applied to problem solving
Pawl, Andrew
We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and ...
Problem Solving and Beginning Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McAllister, Alan
Based on current models of problem solving within cognitive psychology, this study focused on the spontaneous problem solving strategies used by children as they first learned LOGO computer programming, and on strategy transformations that took place during the problem solving process. The research consisted of a six weeks programming training…
The Problem-Solving Revolution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bardige, Art
1983-01-01
Discusses the use of microcomputers and software as problem-solving tools, including comments on "TK! Solver," automatic problem-solving program (reviewed in detail on pp.84-86 in this same issue). Also discusses problem-solving approaches to bridge the disciplines, such as music/physics, junior high science/mathematics (genetics),…
Principles for Teaching Problem Solving
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Rob Foshay and Jamie Kirkley
2003-01-01
This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.
Training hydrologists to be ecohydrologists and play a leading role in environmental problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClain, M. E.; Chícharo, L.; Fohrer, N.; Gaviño Novillo, M.; Windhorst, W.; Zalewski, M.
2012-02-01
Ecohydrology is a relatively new and rapidly growing subject area in the hydrology curriculum. It is a trans-disciplinary science derived from the larger earth systems science movement and examining mutual interactions of the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. It is also an applied science focused on problem solving and providing sound guidance to catchment-scale integrated land and water resources management. The principle spheres of ecohydrology include (i) climate-soil-vegetation-groundwater interactions at the land surface with special implications for land use, food production and climate change; (ii) riparian runoff, flooding, and flow regime dynamics in river corridors with special implications for water supply, water quality, and inland fisheries; and (iii) fluvial and groundwater inputs to lakes/reservoirs, estuaries, and coastal zones with special implications for water quality and fisheries. We propose an educational vision focused on the development of professional and personal competencies to impart a depth of scientific knowledge in the theory and practice of ecohydrology and a breadth of cross-cutting knowledge and skills to enable ecohydrologists to effectively collaborate with associated scientists and communicate results to resource managers, policy-makers, and other stakeholders. In-depth knowledge in hydrology, ecology, and biogeochemistry is emphasized, as well as technical skills in data collection, modeling, and statistical analysis. Cross-cutting knowledge is framed in the context of integrated water resources management. Personal competencies to be fostered in educational programs include creative thinking, cooperation, communication, and leadership. We consider a life-long learning context but highlight the importance of master's level training in the professional formation of ecohydrologists.
Training hydrologists to be ecohydrologists and play a leading role in environmental problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClain, M. E.; Chícharo, L.; Fohrer, N.; Gaviño Novillo, M.; Windhorst, W.; Zalewski, M.
2012-06-01
Ecohydrology is a relatively new and rapidly growing subject area in the hydrology curriculum. It is a trans-disciplinary science derived from the larger earth systems science movement and examining mutual interactions of the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. It is also an applied science focused on problem solving and providing sound guidance to catchment-scale integrated land and water resources management. The principle spheres of ecohydrology include (i) climate-soil-vegetation-groundwater interactions at the land surface with special implications for land use, food production and climate change; (ii) riparian runoff, flooding, and flow regime dynamics in river corridors with special implications for water supply, water quality, and inland fisheries; and (iii) fluvial and groundwater inputs to lakes/reservoirs, estuaries, and coastal zones with special implications for water quality and fisheries. We propose an educational vision focused on the development of professional and personal competencies to impart a depth of scientific knowledge in the theory and practice of ecohydrology and a breadth of cross-cutting knowledge and skills to enable ecohydrologists to effectively collaborate with associated scientists and communicate results to resource managers, policy-makers, and other stakeholders. In-depth knowledge in hydrology, ecology, and biogeochemistry is emphasized, as well as technical skills in data collection, modeling, and statistical analysis. Cross-cutting knowledge is framed in the context of integrated water resources management. Personal competencies to be fostered in educational programs include creative thinking, cooperation, communication, and leadership. We consider a life-long learning context but highlight the importance of master's level training in the professional formation of ecohydrologists.
Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Shih-Yin
2012-01-01
Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…
Environmental Impact Assessment: Melding Classroom Instruction with Problem-Solving Experience.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haynes, James M.; And Others
1983-01-01
Describes a course which focuses student activities on the preparation of an environmental impact statement. The course provides undergraduate/graduate students with an intensive field ecology experience which exposes them to scientific principles of biology, environmental analysis, and quantitative sampling methods. Includes course format,…
Possible discussion: Critical paper evaluation: Sources for mercury contamination. 13 26 Earth science: How drilling for oil in the Great Lakes or Is fracking an environmental risk? 16 3 Biological sciences. 35 16 Environmental issues: Chromium and the contaminated wetland case study. 36 19 Possible
Solving Trade Discount Word Problems
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Coonce, Carol
2008-01-01
This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.
Creating Expert Problem Solving Systems
David W. Eccles; Paul T. Groth
2005-01-01
This paper describes how human-technology interaction in modern ambient technology environments can be best informed by conceptualizing of such environments as problem solving systems. Typically, such systems comprise multiple human and technological agents that meet the demands imposed by problem constraints through dynamic collaboration. A key assertion is that the design of expert problem solving systems can benefit from an
Algorithms and Problem Solving Introduction
Razak, Saquib
Unit 16 1 Algorithms and Problem Solving · Introduction · What is an Algorithm? · Algorithm Properties · Example · Exercises #12;Unit 16 2 What is an Algorithm? What is an Algorithm? · An algorithm. · The algorithm must be general, that is, it should solve the problem for all possible input sets to the problem
Minnesota, University of
solving framework and answer sheet you design during TA Orientation. The second tool is the Warm. How do I form cooperative groups? 27 III. What criteria do I use to assign students to groups? 31 IV of the group role sheets are available on the bookshelf in room 146, or you can make copies of the following
Adolescent problem-solving thinking
Jerome J Platt
1974-01-01
Tested the hypothesis that adolescent psychiatric patients would be deficient with respect to normal controls in their interpersonal problem-solving skills by comparing 33 patients and 53 high school student controls on 7 tasks reflecting different aspects of problem solving. With IQ covaried out, controls obtained significantly higher scores on the tasks evaluating optional thinking, social means-ends thinking, and role taking,
Learning Impasses in Problem Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodgson, J. P. E.
1992-01-01
Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.
A Personal Problem Solving Inventory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heppner, P. Paul; Petersen, Chris H.
Few studies have explicitly attended to the personal problem-solving process within the counseling literature, perhaps due in part to the dearth of relevant assessment instruments. To examine the dimensions underlying the applied problem-solving process, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from four samples of college…
Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lacy, Grace
The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…
The Future Problem Solving Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crabbe, Anne B.
1989-01-01
Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marini, L.; Minsker, B.; Kooper, R.; Myers, J.; Bajcsy, P.
2006-12-01
This work presents CyberIntegrator, a component of the Environmental Cyber-Infrastructure Demonstration (ECID) project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), which is exploring cyberinfrastructure for environmental observatories with an emphasis on supporting exploratory analysis and end-to-end productivity. CyberIntegrator is a novel workflow-based system that supports interactive workflow creation, connection to external data and event streams, provenance tracking, and incorporation of workflow fragments and functionality from other systems and applications, all of which enable the types of tasks expected in observatories. This presentation describes CyberIntegrator's use in three environmental use cases that reveal its novel aspects. The three environmental use cases are: modeling fecal coliform concentrations in Copano Bay, TX; discovering vegetation variability from large remotely sensed images at the US continental scale; detecting anomalous data from sensors in Corpus Christi Bay, TX. The use cases show how CyberIntegrator supports scientists through: 1. Integration of heterogeneous tools: CyberIntegrator can execute tools from multiple (currently six) heterogeneous software packages while hiding integration complexity. It passes the outputs of a software tool to the input of another tool transparently to an end user. 2. Provenance information gathering: Meta-data about scientific analyses are gathered and stored in a meta- data repository as Resource Description Framework (RDF) triples. The information enables tracking of provenance from data to workflow to publication and provides recommendations to users based on previous community activities. 3. Interactive human-computer interface: CyberIntegrator editor provides a user-friendly interface for browsing registries of data, tools and computational resources; creating workflows in a step-by-step exploration mode; re-using and re-purposing workflows; executing process flows locally or remotely; aiding research explorations using a provenance-to-recommendation pipeline; and incorporating heterogeneous tools and linking them transparently. 4. Event-driven execution: Multiple CyberIntegrator instances and other software applications can communicate using a message enterprise bus and generate and consume events occurring within or externally to the CyberIntegrator to support event-driven distributed analyses. For example, analyses of streaming data coming from sensors create events that could trigger execution of tools and workflows. By interacting with external events and recording provenance, enabling step-wise guided analysis, and enabling reuse of tools developed by others in other platforms. CyberIntegrator takes a significant step towards making workflow a ubiquitous and interactive part of Cyberenvironments and integrated cyberinfrastructure. CyberIntegrator is written in the Java programming language, building on open source middleware technologies such as Java Message Service (JMS), Tupelo2 data and metadata archiving system and Kowari meta-store. The analytical functionality comes from software packages including MS Excel, Im2Learn, GeoLearn, D2K, ArcGIS. The architecture of the CyberIntegrator was designed with focus on extensibility. The main CyberIntegrator engine connects to different executors depending on what underlying software application is used for a specific tool. New executors can be easily added. All the components can be either local or remote.
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merriam, E. W.; Becker, J. D.
1973-01-01
A robot computer problem solving system which represents a robot exploration vehicle in a simulated Mars environment is described. The model exhibits changes and improvements made on a previously designed robot in a city environment. The Martian environment is modeled in Cartesian coordinates; objects are scattered about a plane; arbitrary restrictions on the robot's vision have been removed; and the robot's path contains arbitrary curves. New environmental features, particularly the visual occlusion of objects by other objects, were added to the model. Two different algorithms were developed for computing occlusion. Movement and vision capabilities of the robot were established in the Mars environment, using LISP/FORTRAN interface for computational efficiency. The graphical display program was redesigned to reflect the change to the Mars-like environment.
Solving the Promotion Problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Musella, Donald
1985-01-01
Concludes most organizations have administrator promotion and selection problems. Suggests good selection procedures produce valid, reliable, job-related information; exhibit fairness/are perceived as "fair"; and fit "political" realities. Examines Hamilton and Dufferin-Peel selection procedure models, which also incorporate use of assessment…
Solving Playground Network Problems
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Exploratorium
2010-01-01
In this activity, learners use cooperation and logical thinking to find solutions to network problems on the playground. Learners act both as computer routers, figuring out with each other how to effectively get data to the place it's being sent, and as the actual data, because the learners travel various edges of a network to get to their destination or "home" point. Learners use geometry skills to determine the most efficient routes in the network.
Functional Knowledge in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greeno, James G.; Berger, Daniel
An experiment compared solving of operational and diagnostic problems after different instruction about a fictitious device. Solution of both kinds of problems was facilitated by instruction (1) that focused on functional relations among components of the device or (2) that focused on states of the individual components. For operational problems,…
Explosives solve downhole problems
Defrank, P.
1981-11-01
Shaped charges were first used more than 30 years ago to perforate casing, cement sheath and reservoir to provide selective communication between the reservoir and well bore. Since then, advances have been made in design of shaped charge sand ancillary equipment. Penetration has increased considerably. Miniaturization of equipment allows passing through relatively small restrictions and effectively communicating with reservoirs. Gun debris has been drastically reduced and in some designs eliminated. Deep reservoirs can be effectively penetrated under down-hole environments exceeding 500 F and 20,000 psi. This work covers the problems encountered and reviews successful devices employing shaped charge and explosive technology.
Promote Problem-Solving Discourse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bostic, Jonathan; Jacobbe, Tim
2010-01-01
Fourteen fifth-grade students gather at the front of the classroom as their summer school instructor introduces Jonathan Bostic as the mathematics teacher for the week. Before examining any math problems, Bostic sits at eye level with the students and informs them that they will solve problems over the next four days by working individually as…
Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor
2007-01-01
TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…
ACCESSING KNOWLEDGE FOR PROBLEM SOLVING
Joanna MAMONA-DOWNS
This paper studies the modes of thought that occur during the act of solving problems in mathematics. It examines the two main instantiations of mathematical knowledge, the conceptual and the structural, and their role in the afore said act. It claims that awareness of mathematical structure is the lever that educes mathematical knowledge existing in the mind in response to
Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)
Nizkorodov, Sergey
PSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN COMPUTER MODELS An air pollution model is a computer program that computes how the different chemical emissions or decreasing car use. An air pollution model is never exact in its attempt to simulate
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1974-01-01
The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2013-01-01
This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.
Looking Back in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cai, Jinfa; Brook, Michael
2006-01-01
Often after students solve a problem they believe they have accomplished their mission and stop further exploration. The purpose of this article is to discuss ways to encourage students to "look back" so as to maximise their learning opportunities. According to Polya, by "looking back" at a completed solution, by reconsidering and re-examining the…
Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains
Rus, Teodor
Outline Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains Natural Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains Natural Language of the Domain Domain Dedicated Virtual Machine Optimizing DDVM Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational
Teaching Problem Solving to College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malouff, John M.
2011-01-01
This article describes steps of teaching problem solving to college students and provides examples in the context of a university course. The steps involve (1) identifying the types of problems and types of problem solving methods to be covered, (2) instructing the students in problem-recognition and problem solving methods, along with ways of…
Feasibility of a Web-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schacter, John; And Others
This feasibility study explored the automated data collection, scoring, and reporting of children's complex problem-solving processes and performance in Web-based information-rich environments. Problem solving was studied using realistic problems in realistic contexts demanding multiple cognitive processes in the domain of environmental science.…
Problem Solving: Pencil Box Staining
NSDL National Science Digital Library
WGHB Boston
2013-01-01
This professional development video clip shows students engaged in the first Common Core Practice Standard—Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them as learners make a decision about how much stain will be needed to cover the surface area of twenty-six completed boxes. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video. A related clip (cataloged separately) shows the same exploration by the same students but Common Core Practice Standard # #5-Use appropriate tools strategically is evident.
Problem Solving in the General Mathematics Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troutman, Andria Price; Lichtenberg, Betty Plunkett
1974-01-01
Five steps common to different problem solving models are listed. Next, seven specific abilities related to solving problems are discussed and examples given. Sample activities, appropriate to help in developing these specific abilities, are suggested. (LS)
Statistical Education Through Problem Solving
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Statistical Education Through Problem Solving (STEPS) was a collaborative project between seven universities throughout the United Kingdom "to develop problem-based teaching and learning materials for statistics." The materials draw on specific problems arising in Biology, Business, Geography and Psychology to help students learn that statistical issues are "important natural parts of the process of reaching conclusions." The software developed as a result of this project, which utilizes the computer and graphical illustration to support learning, is available to educational institutions free of charge and can be downloaded from this website. (Note that other organizations are expected to purchase the software.) A glossary of statistical terms is provided in the software program as well as on this website. Although the funding for the project ended in 1995 and the website was last updated in January 2004, the material is still current and useful for teaching statistics. The authors note that the STEPS modules are intended to be used to support existing coursework, and "not intended to replace lecturing staff or to provide a self-study course in statistics."
Instructors' Ideas about Problem Solving
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has developed an interview tool to investigate physics faculty views about the learning and teaching of problem solving. In the part of the interview dealing with grading, faculty members were asked to evaluate a set of five student solutions and explain their reasons for the grades that they assigned. Preliminary analysis on two of the five student solutions was done on six physics faculty members from a large research university. The results indicate that faculty members hold conflicting beliefs when grading between valuing reasoning in student solutions and wanting to give students the benefit of the doubt. This paper illustrates the hypothesis that physics faculty hold conflicting values when grading, and describes how the research university faculty resolved their conflicts.
Problem Solving, Creative Librarianship, and Search Behavior.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nahl-Jakobovits, Diane; Jakobovits, Leon A.
1988-01-01
Discusses the need for library science to examine users' search behaviors in the context of social cognition and creative problem solving. Topics covered include the psychology of search behavior, problem solving approaches to library instruction in online searching, and problem solving protocols. (29 references) (CLB)
Inservice Teacher Development in Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chapman, Olive
1999-01-01
Describes a problem-solving-oriented teacher-inservice program designed to provide opportunities that allow elementary teachers to focus on personal experience as a way of achieving self-understanding and a way of reconstructing their personal meanings about problem solving and problem-solving instruction. Concludes that the program had positive…
Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ouellette, Hugh
1979-01-01
A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)
Lp-based combinatorial problem solving
K. Hoffman; M. Padberg
1985-01-01
A tutorial outline of the polyhedral theory that underlies linear programming (LP)-based combinatorial problem solving is given. Design aspects of a combinatorial problem solver are discussed in general terms. Three computational studies in combinatorial problem solving using the polyhedral theory developed in the past fifteen years are surveyed: one addresses the symmetric traveling salesman problem, another the optimal triangulation of
Improving mathematical problem solving: A computerized approach
Egbert G. Harskamp; Cor J. M. Suhre
2006-01-01
Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction on domain-specific knowledge required in different episodes of problem solving. The first program is based on a direct instructional approach to learning,
Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.
1993-01-01
Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.
How To Solve Typical School Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ohle, Nancy; Morley, Cindy Lakin
This book presents interactive problem-solving situations based on the principles of Total Quality Management. Following the introductory chapter, the second chapter describes the two stages of the problem-solving process: (1) analysis of the problem and its causes, and (2) identification of a solution. Each stage is comprised of three…
Learning to Solve Problems in Primary Grades
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David J.
2008-01-01
Problem solving lies at the heart of mathematical learning. Children need opportunities to write, discuss, and solve problems on a regular basis. The problems must incorporate grade-appropriate content and be "accessible and engaging to the students, building on what they know and can do." Teachers also play a key role in establishing a classroom…
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-01-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem…
In 1987, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics completed 15 years of cooperation in the field of environmental protection. Overviews are provided of joint activities in water planning and management. Among the papers are discussions of water qua...
Solving multiple criteria problems by interactive decomposition
Rafael Lazimy
1986-01-01
An interactive decomposition method is developed for solving the multiple criteria (MC) problem. Based on nonlinear programming duality theory, the MC problem is decomposed into a series of subproblems and relaxed master problems. Each subproblem is a bicriterion problem, and each relaxed master problem is a standard linear program. The prime objective of the decomposition is to simplify and facilitate
Climate-Change Problem Solving: Structured Approaches
Wright, Dawn Jeannine
problem solving · Key to development of successful strategies: iterative process or co- development of the necessary information to address the problem. · Analysis is the consideration of the nature of the information: deconstruction - breaking down the information, identifying relationships, determination
Some Helpful Problem-Solving Heuristics
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2014-01-01
This page from the site "Stella's Stunners" presents twenty-five thinking strategies that are useful in solving problems. They help students monitor their thought processes and thus help learners become better problem solvers.
Teaching Problem Solving in Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Byo, James L.
2004-01-01
Musicians practice to build endurance, flexibility, and dexterity. They practice to maintain good performance, to sight-read better, to memorize, and simply, to enjoy music making. There are other motivations for practice, but one, more than others, is a catalyst for consequential change in musical development--practicing to solve performance…
Neural Network Solves "Traveling-Salesman" Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thakoor, Anilkumar P.; Moopenn, Alexander W.
1990-01-01
Experimental electronic neural network solves "traveling-salesman" problem. Plans round trip of minimum distance among N cities, visiting every city once and only once (without backtracking). This problem is paradigm of many problems of global optimization (e.g., routing or allocation of resources) occuring in industry, business, and government. Applied to large number of cities (or resources), circuits of this kind expected to solve problem faster and more cheaply.
Detecting and Solving Hyperbolic Quadratic Eigenvalue Problems
Higham, Nicholas J.
, overdamped, weakly overdamped, quadratic matrix polynomial, quadratic matrix equation, solvent, cyclicDetecting and Solving Hyperbolic Quadratic Eigenvalue Problems Chun-Hua Guo, Nicholas J. Higham1613 DETECTING AND SOLVING HYPERBOLIC QUADRATIC EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS CHUN-HUA GUO, NICHOLAS J. HIGHAM, AND FRANC
RIDGES: A Problem-Solving Math Strategy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snyder, Kathleen
1988-01-01
RIDGES is a mnemonic device designed to give upper elementary and high school students a structure to follow when solving word problems. RIDGES stands for Read the problem; I know statement; Draw a picture; Goal statement; Equation development; and Solve the equation. (VW)
Problem Solving and Technology. ACESIA Monograph 2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lomon, Earle L.; And Others
1977-01-01
The two articles dealing with problem solving and technology in this publication should be useful to those developing the kinds of materials, experiences, and thinking that elementary school industrial arts offers children. The first article accepts problem solving as an educational goal and reports a timely and universally acceptable approach.…
Dialectical and devil's advocate problem-solving
Michael N. Chanin; Harris J. Shapiro
1984-01-01
In recent years an increasing amount of interest has been generated in the application of dialectical methodology to strategic and operational problem-solving. This paper first examines the existing research evidence and then introduces the Dialectical Problem-Solving Technology (DPST) based on the Dialectical Materialism Inquiry System. The results of an empirical investigation into the effectiveness and impact of High Structure (DPST),
Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.
2015-01-01
Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…
Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…
Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Wayne
2007-01-01
Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…
Mathematical Problem Solving. Issues in Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lester, Frank K., Jr., Ed.; Garofalo, Joe, Ed.
This set of papers was originally developed for a conference on Issues and Directions in Mathematics Problem Solving Research held at Indiana University in May 1981. The purpose is to contribute to the clear formulation of the key issues in mathematical problem-solving research by presenting the ideas of actively involved researchers. An…
Solving Problems with Charts & Tables. Pipefitter.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.
Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, this instructional module is designed to help individuals employed as pipefitters learn to solve problems with charts and tables. Outlined in the first section is a five-step procedure for solving problems involving tables and/or charts: identifying the question to…
About solving hybrid optimal control problems
P. Riedinger; J. Daafouz; C. Iung
The main objective of this paper is to discuss nu- merical difculties in solving hybrid optimal control problems and to propose a multiple phase-multiple shooting formula- tion for hybrid optimal control design. Such a formulation allows to solve directly the problem using nonlinear program- ming techniques. In the case of switched systems, it is shown that the switching rule can
Presenting a Model of Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
Two questions are dealt with: (1) Can those strategies or behaviors which enable experts to solve problems well be characterized, and (2) Can students be trained to use such strategies? A problem-solving course for college students is described and the model on which the course is based is outlined in an attempt to answer these questions. The…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Barbara Cooper
2002-01-01
This article discusses the use of a scenario-based assessment tool in two environmental geoscience in-service programs for middle school and high school teachers. This tool served both to guide instructional techniques and as a method to evaluate the success of the instructional approach. In each case, participants were assessed before the workshops to reveal misconceptions that could be addressed in program activities and afterwards to reveal shifts in their understanding of concepts and approaches. The researchers noted that this scenario-based assessment was effective in providing guidance in refining instructional techniques and as a method to evaluate the effectiveness of an instructional program. In addition, participating teachers reported significant changes in their teaching as a result of the program.
Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda
2008-01-01
This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)
The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene
2005-01-01
This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has four…
Solving problems in robotics with semantic networks.
Agarwal, K K
1983-02-01
Robot problems are examined in the context of semantic networks which are used to represent the state of a problem and the operators useful for solving it. Graph transformation algorithms are discussed as an aid to problem solving. Although these form only a small subset of the first-order predicate calculus based systems, considerations such as subgoal circularity, partially specified states and multiple manipulators sharing the same environment may warrant this simplification. PMID:21869103
Declarative Problem Solving through Abduction
Moraitis, Pavlos
's features: · Declarative modelling · Rich expressive power (close to human one) · Computational and Formal the poison), i.e. that he is mortal. Can we conclude anything? #12;12 Reasoning for Declarative Problem
Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)
... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-05-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.
Sour landfill gas problem solved
Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)
1996-05-01
In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.
Solving inversion problems with neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.
1990-01-01
A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.
SOLVING NP SEARCH PROBLEMS MODEL EXPANSION
Mitchell, David G.
SOLVING NP SEARCH PROBLEMS WITH MODEL EXPANSION by Faraz Hach B.Sc., Sharif University of Science in the School of Computing Science c Faraz Hach 2007 SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY Fall 2007 All rights the permission of the author. #12;APPROVAL Name: Faraz Hach Degree: Master of Science Title of thesis: SOLVING NP
Frameworks for Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving
REID G. SM; Randall Davis
1981-01-01
Two forms of cooperation in distributed problem solving are considered: task-sharing and result-sharing. In the former, nodes assist each other by sharing the computational load for the execution of subtasks of the overall problem. In the latter, nodes assist each other by sharing partial results which are based on somewhat different perspectives on the overall problem. Different perspectives arise because
Error Analysis in Solving Algebra Word Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Travis, Betty P.
This document deals with the observation of students in a direct translation scheme in the solution of word problems in a university freshman-level Intermediate Algebra class. It is felt that since successful problem solvers of algebraic equations often have as much difficulty in solving word problems as do other students in the classes, the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Wendy Kristine
The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.
Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Contreras, José N.
2014-01-01
The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…
Model Formulation for Physics Problem Solving. Draft.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novak, Gordon S., Jr.
The major task in solving a physics problem is to construct an appropriate model of the problem in terms of physical principles. The functions performed by such a model, the information which needs to be represented, and the knowledge used in selecting and instantiating an appropriate model are discussed. An example of a model for a mechanics…
Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sriraman, Bharath
2004-01-01
An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.
Problem-Solving Competitions: Just the Solution!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riley, Tracy L.; Karnes, Frances A.
2005-01-01
This article describes competitions across a range of curricular areas that develop students' problem solving skills by setting authentic, real-world tasks. As individuals or members of a team, students in these competitions are challenged with finding solutions to problems faced not only in today's scientific and technological world, but also in…
Preservice Teachers' Problem-Solving Processes
Margaret Taplin
1998-01-01
The purpose of the study reported in this paper is to explore some of the common difficulties with mathematical word problems experienced by preservice primary teachers. It examines weaknesses in students' content and procedural knowledge, with a particular focus on how they apply these aspects of knowledge to solving closed word problems\\
Solving Word Problems Using Story Structure
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-10-16
In this lesson, students will learn how to use their knowledge of beginning, middle, and end to solve word problems that include result unknown, change unknown, and start unknown. They will learn how to use a modified story map to write an equation to represent the problem.
Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blasetti, Sean M.
2010-01-01
This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…
GIS Live and Web Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.
2007-01-01
GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…
Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho
2014-09-01
This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Amy C. Payne
2006-11-01
Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of "real" scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.
Assessment for Intervention: A Problem-Solving Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown-Chidsey, Rachel, Ed.
2005-01-01
This cutting-edge volume offers a complete primer on conducting problem-solving based assessments in school or clinical settings. Presented are an effective framework and up-to-date tools for identifying and remediating the many environmental factors that may contribute to a student's academic, emotional, or behavioral difficulties, and for…
Solve wastewater problems with liquid\\/liquid extraction
Cusack
1996-01-01
Liquid\\/liquid extraction (LLE) is a powerful separation technique that is finding wider application in the CPI to solve difficult environmental problems, particularly in the removal of trace organic compounds from wastewater streams. LLE is usually only applied when more conventional techniques such as steam stripping or distillation are not suitable. This is because LLE usually involves the introduction of a
Measures of Problem-Solving Performance and of Problem-Solving Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
1982-01-01
Some easily graded measures of problem-solving processes are introduced, and the impact of a month-long intensive problem-solving course on a selected group of college freshmen and sophomores is demonstrated. The measures are thought to have shown themselves to be both reliable and informative. (MP)
Solving the Hard Problem of Bertrand's Paradox
Diederik Aerts; Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi
2014-06-27
Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an "easy" problem and a "hard" problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible "ways of selecting" an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible "ways of selecting" an interaction, which we call a 'universal average'. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.
Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox
Aerts, Diederik, E-mail: diraerts@vub.ac.be [Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies and Department of Mathematics, Brussels Free University, Brussels (Belgium); Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano, E-mail: autoricerca@gmail.com [Laboratorio di Autoricerca di Base, Lugano (Switzerland)
2014-08-15
Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an “easy” problem and a “hard” problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible “ways of selecting” an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible “ways of selecting” an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.
TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 Problem Solving: Cowboy Bob Problem
Minnesota, University of
TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 Problem Solving: Cowboy Bob Problem Page 61 Below is a problem from the outlaws. #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 (continued) Page 62 Notes: #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 7. #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 7 (continued) Page 64 Answer Sheet for Activity 7 1. Examine your
Retrieval and Learning in Analogical Problem Solving
Randolph M. Jones; Pat Langley
1995-01-01
EUREK A is a problem-solving system that operates through a form of analogical reasoning. The system was designed to study how relatively low-level memory, reasoning, and learn- ing mechanisms can account for high-level learning in human problem solvers. Thus, EUREK A's design has focused on is- sues of memory representation and retrieval of analogies, a t the expense of complex
Problem Solving 1 NCTM National Mathematics Standards
Lee, Carl
a foundation for school mathematics programs by considering the broad issues of equity, curriculum, teachingProblem Solving 1 NCTM National Mathematics Standards The following comes from the website standards.nctm.org/document/chapter1/index.htm Introduction We live in a mathematical world. Whenever we
Problem Solving by Spatial Conformation Chatavut Viriyasuthee
Dudek, Gregory
-term pleasure. ii #12;ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There were many individuals whose contribution had solidified this thesis with solving the problem directly that can be costly or even infeasible. The concept of reduction is not only`ere efficace, comparemment `a essayer de le r´esoudre directement, ce qui pour- rait ^etre co^uteux ou m
Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems
Libre de Bruxelles, Université
Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems Marco Dorigo IRIDIA Universit´e Libre de Bruxelles 50 Avenue F. Roosevelt B-1050 Brussels, Belgium mdorigo@ulb.ac.be Abstract. The ant algorithms research field builds on the idea that the study of the behavior of ant colonies or other social insects
Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Gary Wisehart
2008-03-01
A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of biology, and apply them to new sets of facts.
Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisehart, Gary; Mandell, Mark
2008-01-01
A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of…
Creative Problem Solving in the Classroom.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ayers, Samuel J.
Second and third grade students used the creative problem solving strategy developed by Sidney Parnes and Alex Osborn in their social studies classes. The second graders, finding few biographies written for students reading on a first or second grade level, interviewed community members, collected photographs of them, and wrote their biographies,…
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Raise the Bar on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Englard, Lisa
2010-01-01
In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS…
Dynamical systems that solve linear programming problems
L. Faybusovich
1992-01-01
The author introduces and studies a class of vector fields which are defined on a given polyhedron and solve linear programming problems. A Dikin-type algorithm is constructed. Relationships with double-bracket equations and entropy-type barrier functions are established
THE ROLE OF EMOTION IN PROBLEM SOLVING
Roman V Belavkin
2001-01-01
Performance and data from some cognitive models suggested that emotions, experienced during problem solving, should be taken into account. Moreover, it is proposed that the cognitive science approach using both theoretical and experi- mental data may lead to a better understanding of the phenomena. A closer investigation of ACT-R cognitive architecture (Anderson 1993) revealed some properties analogous to phenomena known
Computer Assisted Problem Solving in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piele, Donald T.
Arguments for and against the use of computers in mathematics classes have centered on whether students benefit from or are merely hindered by practicing computational skills. This paper claims that the true essence of mathematics lies not in computation, basically a mechanical operation, but in problem-solving. Since no amount of computational…
Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…
Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, Kit Ee Dawn
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitive…
How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.
2013-01-01
This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…
Models of Strategy for Solving Physics Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Larkin, Jill H.
A set of computer implemented models are presented which can assist in developing problem solving strategies. The three levels of expertise which are covered are beginners (those who have completed at least one university physics course), intermediates (university level physics majors in their third year of study), and professionals (university…
Appendix M. Research Utilization and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jung, Charles
The Research Utilization and Problem Solving (RUPS) Model--an instructional system designed to provide the needed competencies for an entire staff to engage in systems analysis and systems synthesis procedures prior to assessing educational needs and developing curriculum to meet the needs identified--is intended to facilitate the development of…
Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
2011-01-01
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg
2008-01-01
CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.
Geogebra for Solving Problems of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kllogjeri, Pellumb; Kllogjeri, Adrian
Today is highly speed progressing the computer-based education, which allowes educators and students to use educational programming language and e-tutors to teach and learn, to interact with one another and share together the results of their work. In this paper we will be concentrated on the use of GeoGebra programme for solving problems of physics. We have brought an example from physics of how can be used GeoGebra for finding the center of mass(centroid) of a picture(or system of polygons). After the problem is solved graphically, there is an application of finding the center of a real object(a plate)by firstly, scanning the object and secondly, by inserting its scanned picture into the drawing pad of GeoGebra window and lastly, by finding its centroid. GeoGebra serve as effective tool in problem-solving. There are many other applications of GeoGebra in the problems of physics, and many more in different fields of mathematics.
Problem Solving and Problem Orientation in Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Robert Ladouceur; France Blais; Mark H. Freeston; Michel J. Dugas
1998-01-01
The present study’s main objective is to examine whether problem orientation and problem-solving skills differ according to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptom level or clinical status (seeking help for GAD). Its secondary goal is to examine whether two cognitive variables (intolerance of uncertainty and beliefs about worry) vary according to GAD symptom level or clinical status. Three groups of subjects
Technological and Personal Problem Solving Styles: Is There a Difference?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Tain-Fung; And Others
1996-01-01
Three groups of 50 freshman and 50 seniors each, majoring in technology, engineering, and humanities, completed the Personal Problem-Solving Inventory and the Technological Problem-Solving Inventory. There were few differences in personal problem solving but significant differences by major in technological problem solving. Few differences between…
Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Funkhouser, Charles
The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…
Episodes and Executive Decisions in Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
The research described here seeks to characterize the "managerial" aspects of expert and novice problem-solving behavior, and to describe the impact of managerial or "executive" actions on success or failure in problem solving. A framework for analyzing protocols of problem-solving sessions based on "episodes" of problem-solving behavior and…
Harmony Theory: Problem Solving, Parallel Cognitive Models, and Thermal Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smolensky, Paul; Riley, Mary S.
This document consists of three papers. The first, "A Parallel Model of (Sequential) Problem Solving," describes a parallel model designed to solve a class of relatively simple problems from elementary physics and discusses implications for models of problem-solving in general. It is shown that one of the most salient features of problem solving,…
Problem solving in science and technology education
Patricia Murphy; Robert McCormick
1997-01-01
Both science and technology education have a commitment to teaching process; investigations or scientific method in science,\\u000a design in technology, and problem solving in both areas. The separate debates in science and technology education reveal different\\u000a curricular emphases in processes and content, reflecting different goals, and pedagogic and educational research traditions.\\u000a This paper explores these differences and argues that each
Solving Some Discrepancy Problems in NC
Sanjeev Mahajan; Edgar A. Ramos; K. V. Subrahmanyam
2001-01-01
. We show that several discrepancy-like problems can be solved in NC nearly achieving the discrepancies guaranteed by a probabilistic analysis and achievable sequentially. For example, we describe an NC algorithm that given\\u000a a set system (X, S) , where X is a ground set and S?2\\u000a \\u000a X\\u000a , computes a set R?X so that for each S?\\u000a S
Josephine Itota Ebomoyi
2004-01-01
The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX)
Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin
2006-01-01
Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).
Problem-solving analysis: A piagetian study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hale, James P.
Fifty-nine second-year medical students were asked to solve 12 Piagetian formal operational tasks. The purpose was to describe the formal logical characteristics of this medical student sample (59 of a total 65 possible) in terms of their abilities to solve problems in four formal logical schemata-combinatorial logic, probabilistic reasoning, propositional logic, and proportional reasoning. These tasks were presented as videotape demonstrations or in written form, depending on whether or not equipment manipulation was required, and were scored using conventional, prespecified scoring criteria. The results of this study show approximately 96% of the sample function at the transitional (Piaget's 3A level) stage of formal operations on all tasks and approximately 4% function at the full formal (Piaget's 3B level) stage of formal operations on all tasks. This sample demonstrates formal level thinking to a much greater degree than other samples reported in the literature to date and suggests these students are adequately prepared and developed to meet the challenge of their training (i.e., medical problem solving).
Negotiation as a Metaphor for Distributed Problem Solving
Randall Davis; Reid G. Smith
1983-01-01
We describe the concept of distributed problem solving and define it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. We present a framework called the contract net that specifies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Right to Read Program.
This guide presents a classroom problem solving model designed to help teachers conduct their own classroom research. It suggests developing a procedure for identifying the instructional problems influencing reading achievement. The model is presented in steps that can be used independently or in concert with other steps. Practice activities are…
The place of problem solving in contemporary mathematics curriculum documents
Kaye Stacey
2005-01-01
This paper reviews the presentation of problem solving and process aspects of mathematics in curriculum documents from Australia, UK, USA and Singapore. The place of problem solving in the documents is reviewed and contrasted, and illustrative problems from teachers’ support materials are used to demonstrate how problem solving is now more often treated as a teaching method, rather than a
Problem solving and chemical equilibrium: Successful versus unsuccessful performance
Moises Camacho; Ron Good
1989-01-01
The purpose of this study was to describe the problem-solving behaviors of experts and novices engaged in solving seven chemical equilibrium problems. Thirteen novices (five high-school students, five undergraduate majors, and three nonmajors) and ten experts (six doctoral students and four faculty members) were videotaped as they individually solved standard chemical equilibrium problems. The nature of the problems was such
Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus).
Seed, Amanda M; Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J
2008-06-22
Recent work has shown that captive rooks, like chimpanzees and other primates, develop cooperative alliances with their conspecifics. Furthermore, the pressures hypothesized to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. We tested cooperative problem-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly solved a problem in which two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously in order to pull in a food platform. Similar to chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, performance was better when within-dyad tolerance levels were higher. In contrast to chimpanzees, rooks did not delay acting on the apparatus while their partner gained access to the test room. Furthermore, given a choice between an apparatus that could be operated individually over one that required the action of two individuals, four out of six individuals showed no preference. These results may indicate that cooperation in chimpanzees is underpinned by more complex cognitive processes than that in rooks. Such a difference may arise from the fact that while both chimpanzees and rooks form cooperative alliances, chimpanzees, but not rooks, live in a variable social network made up of competitive and cooperative relationships. PMID:18364318
Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.
1988-01-01
This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.
Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billionniere, Elodie V.
Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.
Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lederman, Eric
2009-01-01
In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…
Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems
Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.
2013-01-01
EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941
The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bahar, Abdulkadir
2013-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…
Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth
1979-01-01
Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)
Development of a Content Coding System for Marital Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winemiller, David R.; Mitchell, M. Ellen
While much research has focused on the processes of marital problem solving, the content of marital problem solving has received considerably less attention. This study examined the initial efforts to develop a method for assessing marital problem solving content. Married individuals (N=36) completed a demographic information sheet, the Dyadic…
Personal Problem-Solving Activities of Black University Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reeder, Bonita Lynne; Heppner, P. Paul
1985-01-01
Examined personal problem solving activities of Black undergraduates (N=84) using three measures: Problem Solving Inventory; Level of Problem Solving Skills Estimate Form; and Ways of Coping Scale. Results indicated no racial (Black versus White) or geographic (urban versus rural) differences in responses. (BL)
Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning
John Sweller
1988-01-01
Considerable evidence indicates that domain specific knowledge in the form of schemes is the primary factor distinguishing experts from novices in problem- solving skill. Evidence that conventional problem-solving activity is not effective in schema acquisition is also accumulating. It is suggested that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes
Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne
2012-01-01
The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…
PROBLEM-SOLVING REQUEST FORM CLASSIFIED BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY
Barrash, Warren
PROBLEM-SOLVING REQUEST FORM CLASSIFIED BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY Reference BSU Policy 5550-C.F.2;DEAN / DEPARTMENT DIRECTOR'S RESPONSE Problem Solving Request Classified Reference BSU Policy 5550-C/Director, Provost/VP, Employee #12;PROVOST / VICE-PRESIDENT'S FINAL DECISION Problem Solving Request Classified
Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.
2005-01-01
Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…
Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William
2005-01-01
Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…
On the Analysis of Two-Person Problem Solving Protocols.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
Methodological issues in the use of protocol analysis for research into human problem solving processes are examined through a case study in which two students were videotaped as they worked together to solve mathematical problems "out loud." The students' chosen strategic or executive behavior in examining and solving a problem was studied,…
The Integration Of TRIZ Problem Solving Techniques With Other Problem Solving And Assessment Tools
Jack Hipple
TRIZ, as a problem-solving process, is seldom used or brought into an organization in a vacuum. There is almost always an existing structure of tools and processes in use into which TRIZ enters. TRIZ can be brought into an organization as a replacement, or in collaboration with the most commonly used innovation and creativity tools in use such as Creative
Young children's analogical problem solving: gaining insights from video displays.
Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S
2013-12-01
This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:24077465
Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja
2014-01-01
In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.
A Distributed Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for Scientific Computing
Shigeo Kawata; Hideaki Fuju; Hideaki Sugiura; Yuichi Saitoh; Yoshikazu Hayase; Takayuki Teramoto; Takashi Kikuchi
2005-01-01
A distributed Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is proposed to help users solve partial differential equation (PDE) based problems in scientific computing. The system inputs a problem description and outputs a program flow, a C-language source code for the problem and also a document for the program. Each module is distributed on distributed computers. The PSE contains all the information of
Cognitive Variables in Problem Solving in Chemistry: A Revisited Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Kam-Wah Lucille; And Others
1996-01-01
Presents results from Singaporean and Australian studies on the relationships between the cognitive variables and problem solving performance in three electrochemistry problems of different degrees of familiarity for comparisons. Concludes that idea association, problem translating skill, prior problem solving experience, specific knowledge, and…
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-01-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…
Comparison of Recent Engineering Problem-Solving Models
E. E. Anderson; R. Taraban
Models of the cognitions used by engineering students to solve problems have always been a part of engineering education. Many, such as the engineering mechanics model (select free-body, draw vector diagram, write equilibrium equations, and solve equilibrium equations), have been part of the introduction of students to engineering topics for a long time. More recently, student problem-solving processes are being
A New Method for Solving Hard Satisfiability Problems
Bart Selman; Hector J. Levesque; David G. Mitchell
1992-01-01
We introduce a greedy local search procedure called GSAT for solving propositional satisfiability problems.Our experiments show that this procedure can be used to solve hard, randomly generated problems that are an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by more traditional approaches such as the Davis-Putnam procedure or resolution. We also show that GSAT can solve structured
Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.
Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John
2014-09-01
Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PMID:25000309
Decision Analysis for Environmental Problems
Environmental management problems are often complex and uncertain. A formal process with proper guidance is needed to understand the issues, identify sources of disagreement, and analyze the major uncertainties in environmental problems. This course will present a process that fo...
An Assessment of Problem Solving Processes in Undergraduate Statics
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Four well-articulated models that offer structured approaches to problem solving were identified in the engineering research literature. These models provided a conceptual base for the study reported here. Four undergraduates enrolled in statics and two engineering faculty members provided think-aloud data as they solved two statics problems. The data were used to develop a coding system for characterizing engineering students behavioral and cognitive processes. These codes were used to analyze students problem solving procedures in a detailed manner, particularly differences between good and not-so-good problem solvers. The analyses provide a picture of how students and faculty solve problems at a cognitive level, and indicate that published problem-solving models are incomplete in describing actual problem-solving processes.
High school students' problem-solving performance on realistic genetics problems
Susie Johnston Slack; Jim Stewart
1990-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as a valuable educational experience in science. Thus genetics, essentially a problem-solving science included in almost all high school biology courses, offers a fruitful area for studying student problem-solving performance. The research reported in this article describes the performance of 30 high school students solving 119 problems generated by the computer program GENETICS CONSTRUCTION KIT (Jungck
The interparental relationship and family problem solving with preadolescent males.
Vuchinich, S; Vuchinich, R; Wood, B
1993-10-01
This study examines associations between the quality of the interparental relationship and how well 68 family triads (mother, father, preadolescent son) solved salient problems which arose at home. Four aspects of the interparental relationship (marital satisfaction, parental agreement, conflict during family problem solving, and parental coalitions) were included in a regression analysis which controlled for family structure and child externalizing. A longitudinal design assessed families when mean child age was 9.7 years and 2 years later. Parental agreement consistently facilitated family problem solving. However, strong parental coalitions inhibited family problem solving, which may be attributed to frustrated autonomy needs of preadolescent males in response to the parental coalition. Stepfamilies had less effective problem solving at Time 1. The results confirm the benefits of parental agreement to child outcomes via enhanced family problem solving but show a reverse effect when agreement occurs in the context of coalitions against a preadolescent son. PMID:8222879
Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay
2010-10-01
Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.
Solving quadratic programming problems with linear Hopfield networks
Evgeny Dudnikov
2001-01-01
We consider a linear Hopfield network for solving quadratic programming problems with equation constraints. The problem is reduced to the solution of ordinary linear differential equations with arbitrary square matrix. Because of some properties of this matrix special methods are required for good convergence of the system. After some comparative studies of neural network models for solving this problem we
Theory of Constructions and Set in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greeno, James G.; And Others
Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning knowledge, is described. Perdix' planning knowledge enables it to augment the problem space it is given by constructing auxiliary lines. The planning system also…
Creative problem-solving: an approach to generating ideas.
Tomas, S
1999-05-01
An excellent starting point for exercising creativity is the area of problem solving. With a bag of creative problem solving tools and techniques, problems will no longer represent setbacks but instead, opportunities to introduce innovations that will support the company's initiative of continuous improvement. PMID:10387779
Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pescetti, D.
2008-01-01
The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…
Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2010-01-01
In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…
A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.
2003-01-01
Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)
Beyond the Problem-Solving Approach to Sustainable Rural Development
Ann Braun
The tacit mental models of many research and development institutions dedicated to sustainable rural development is that they exist to solve development problems. This has led to a diagnostic and often reactive problem-solving mode of action, and to a culture of trouble-shooting experts who develop solutions. When practiced exclusively, the problem-solving mode is self-limiting because the energy that could create
SOLVING CURVED DETONATION RIEMANN PROBLEMS Bruce Bukiet
Bukiet, Bruce
the one parameter family of behind states comprising the burned Hugoniot and wave curves. For curved and show how the curved detonation jump conditions can be solved to compute the curved detonation Hugoniot
Environmental Problems and Legislative Responses
Jack C. Oppenheimer; Leonard A. Miller
1970-01-01
No one national legislative policy on environ mental problems emerged from the Congress at the end of 1969. Congress has reacted to environmental problems in much the same manner in which it has reacted to urban- industrial problems: it has reacted to crises. Legislative assessment of environmental problems from the late 1940's to the present arose out of, but differs
A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga
2011-01-01
In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteria…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zuckerman, June T.
Various researchers have associated meaningful problem solving with methods guided directly by a conceptual knowledge base. By contast, a meaningless solving course, or sequence of operations, is essentially independent of the solver's conceptual understanding of the problem under consideration. This paper is the first to document a meaningless,…
Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social Contextual Information
Jennifer Jie Xu; G. Alan Wang; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau
2007-01-01
Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime
Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social
Jennifer Xu; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau
Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime
A Singular Function: A Problem-Solving Parable.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vanden Bosch, Peter
1997-01-01
Presents a scenario in which two people solve a programming problem by discussing various number sequences and functions. The problem is redefined as one related to number theory and operations research. (DDR)
POLYA PROBLEM-SOLVING SEMINAR WEEK 7: MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS, AND PROBLEM-SOLVING
Vakil, Ravi
't be afraid of a little algebra. Sleep on it if need be. Ask. The Problems. 1. Let f(n) be the number N be the set of positive integers. Define f on n by f(1) = 1, f(2n) = f(n) and f(2n + 1) = f(n) + 1
Solving Multiobjective Optimization Problems using Evolutionary Algorithm
Coello, Carlos A. Coello
. Abbass, and Charles Newton School of Computer Science, University of New South Wales, ADFA Campus to be useful for solving MOPs (Zitzler and Thiele 1999). EAs have some advantages over traditional results when compared with the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA) (Zitzler and Thiele 1999
Tucson Teachers' Circle Mathematical Problem Solving
Zakharov, Vladimir
in the standard school curriculum. These sessions stimulated interest in mathematics and helped students compete the ideas. The American Institute of Mathematics continues to support the training of new teams to create solving related to the night's theme. Rich mathematical discussions ensue as teachers explore new ideas
Trends in problem-solving research - Twelve recently described tasks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coates, G. D.; Alluisi, E. A.; Morgan, B. B., Jr.
1971-01-01
Review of descriptions of the 12 problem-solving tasks developed since the last review (Ray, 1955) of this topic, indicating that the newer tasks are more sophisticated in design and provide for better experimental control than those used prior to 1953. Validity, reliability, sensitivity, trainability, problem structure, and problem difficulty are discussed as criteria for the selection of tasks to be used in studies of skilled problem-solving performance.
Dancing With Demons: Pathogenic Problem Solving
Kathleen S. Long
This paper explores the way in which we define and deal with social problems such as crime and proposes a new way of thinking about them. Criminality, poverty, illiteracy, addiction and child abuse are some of society's most acute and intractable problems. Despite countless attempted remedies, these complex social problems have continued to grow around the world. Although we have
Solving Employee Timetabling Problems Using Boolean Satisfiability
Fadi Aloul; Bashar Al-Rawi; Anas Al-Farra; Basel Al-Roh
2006-01-01
The employee timetabling problem (ETP) is concerned with assigning a number of employees into a given set of shifts over a fixed period of time, e.g. a week, while meeting the employee's preferences and organizational work regulations. The problem also attempts to optimize the performance criteria and distribute the shifts equally among the employees. The problem is considered a classical
Problem solving in Chinese mathematics education: research and practice
Jinfa Cai; Bikai Nie
2007-01-01
This paper is an attempt to paint a picture of problem solving in Chinese mathematics education, where problem solving has been viewed both as an instructional goal and as an instructional approach. In discussing prob- lem-solving research from four perspectives, it is found that the research in China has been much more content and experience-based than cognitive and empirical-based. We
Exploiting grid computation for solving the Vehicle Routing Problem
Fabian Lecron; Pierre Manneback; Daniel Tuyttens
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to solve the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW) on Grid'5000 using the ParadisEO framework. In this respect, four packages developed in ParadisEO are exploited. First, EO package (Evolving Objects) is used to create an evolutionary algorithm to solve the mono-objective CVRPTW. Then, a related multi-objective problem is solved with MOEO package
Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Problem-Solving Intervention
Jane Drummond; Darcy Fleming; Linda Mcdonald; Gerard M. Kysela
2005-01-01
Adaptive problem solving contributes to individual and family health and development. In this article, the effect of the cooperative family learning approach (CFLA) on group family problem solving and on cooperative parenting communication is described. A pretest or posttest experimental design was used. Participant families were recruited from Head Start programs and exhibited two or more risk factors. Participant preschool
Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagner, Susan Preston
1998-01-01
Examined whether use of robotics had a greater effect on elementary school children's achievement in science concepts and problem-solving abilities than use of battery-powered motorized manipulatives or no manipulatives. Found no significant difference in achievement from use of robotics except in programming language problem solving. Both…
Solving quadratic programming problems with linear Hopfield networks
Evgeny Dudnikov
2003-01-01
We consider a linear Hopfield network for solving quadratic programming problems with equation constraints. The problem is reduced to the solution of the ordinary linear differential equations with arbitrary square matrix. Because of some properties of this matrix the special methods are required for good convergence of the system. After some comparative study of neural network models for solving this
Understanding students' poor performance on mathematical problem solving in physics
Understanding students' poor performance on mathematical problem solving in physics Jonathan introductory, algebra-based physics students perform poorly on mathematical problem solving tasks in physics. There are at least two possible, distinct reasons for this poor performance: (1) Students lack the mathematical
An ESD Computer Culture for Intercultural Problem Solving and Negotiation
Melvin F. Shakun
1999-01-01
Intercultural problem solving and negotiation involves interaction of two or more cultures. These processes may be formally modeled using the Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD) framework implemented by appropriate computer group support systems (GSS). The ESD\\/GSS combination provides an ESD computer culture for intercultural problem solving and negotiation in a same place\\/same time or telework mode. With this, players in a
Crafting Rules: Context-Reflective Data Quality Problem Solving
Yang W. Lee
2004-01-01
Motivated by the growing importance of data quality in data-intensive, global business environments and by burgeoning data quality activities, this study builds a conceptual model of data quality problem solving. The study analyzes data quality activities at five organizations via a five-year longitudinal study. The study finds that experienced practitioners solve data quality problems by re- flecting on and explicating
A Descriptive Model of Information Problem Solving while Using Internet
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber
2009-01-01
This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth analyses…
The Effects of Iliad on Medical Student Problem Solving
Turner, Charles W.; Williamson, John; Lincoln, Michael J.; Haug, Peter J.; Buchanan, James; Anderson, Curtis; Grant, Morgan; Cundick, Robert; Warner, Homer R.
1990-01-01
The present study examined the effects of the Iliad expert system on diagnostic problem solving of third-year (n = 97) medical students. Students used Iliad to work-up simulated cases to supplement the education they received in their medicine clerkship. The results of the research provided evidence that the Iliad expert system did improve student diagnostic problem solving and decision making.
Assessing Creative Problem-Solving with Automated Text Grading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Hao-Chuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Tsai-Yen
2008-01-01
The work aims to improve the assessment of creative problem-solving in science education by employing language technologies and computational-statistical machine learning methods to grade students' natural language responses automatically. To evaluate constructs like creative problem-solving with validity, open-ended questions that elicit…
Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others
1997-01-01
Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…
Problem Solving: Getting to the Heart of Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jarrett, Denise, Ed.
2000-01-01
This publication features articles that illustrate how several Northwest teachers are using problem solving to achieve rigorous and imaginative learning in their classrooms. Articles include: (1) "Open-Ended Problem Solving: Weaving a Web of Ideas" (Denise Jarrett); (2) "Teenager or Tyke, Students Learn Best by Tackling Challenging Math" (Suzie…
Connectedness Indicators and the Prediction of Problem Solving Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yu-Shattuck, Sharon X.
2009-01-01
In this study, it was hypothesized that problem solving success is dependent upon two related but district types of mathematical knowledge, content indicators and connectedness indicators. Results did indeed display that the problem solving success of 188 undergraduate students was related to these two indicators. The correlations of content…
Introducing Problem Solving through Literature at the Elementary Level
Peg Harbert
1989-01-01
There has been much publicity the past few years, regarding students' lack of basic skills, their inability to think clearly, and their poor use of problem solving strategies. To focus on this need, the following program has been designed to help elementary teachers introduce problem solving in an organized manner adding very little, if any extra material to the curriculum.
High school students' understanding and problem solving in population genetics
Patti D. Soderberg
2005-01-01
This study is an investigation of student understanding of population genetics and how students developed, used and revised conceptual models to solve problems. The students in this study participated in three rounds of problem solving. The first round involved the use of a population genetics model to predict the number of carriers in a population. The second round required them
Solving the Course Timetabling Problem with a Hybrid Heuristic Algorithm
Hao, Jin-Kao
known results on two problem formulations. Keywords: Timetabling, hybrid heuristic, tabu searchSolving the Course Timetabling Problem with a Hybrid Heuristic Algorithm Zhipeng L¨u1,2 and Jin, iterated local search, constraint solving. 1 Introduction In recent decades, timetabling has become an area
A Longitudinal Study of Database-Assisted Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wildemuth, Barbara M.; Friedman, Charles P.; Keyes, John; Downs, Stephen M.
2000-01-01
Examines the effects of database assistance on clinical problem solving across three cohorts of medical students and two database interfaces. Discusses the relationship between personal domain knowledge and problem solving, personal domain knowledge and database searching, and comparisons of different interface styles in information retrieval…
Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna
2007-01-01
Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…
Formalizing the Cooperative Problem Solving Process Michael J. Wooldridge
Woolridge, Mike
Formalizing the Cooperative Problem Solving Process Michael J. Wooldridge Dept. of Computing research is to build systems that are capable of cooperative problem solving. To this end, a number process: no mathematical model of the entire process has yet been de scribed. In this paper, we rectify
Problem solving within professional services: evidence from the medical field
Elina Jaakkola; Aino Halinen
2006-01-01
Purpose – To test the validity of the presumed characteristics of professional services by studying their manifestation in the problem solving that occurs in service production. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses medical research as secondary data to study the existence of associations between the presumed characteristics of professional services and problem solving in the medical context. A systematic review of
A Semantic-Linguistic Method of Solving Verbal Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoggard, Franklin R.
1987-01-01
Suggests a method for solving verbal problems in chemistry using a linguistic algorithm that is partly adapted from two artificial intelligence languages. Provides examples of problems solved using the mental concepts of translation, rotation, mirror image symmetry, superpositioning, disjoininng, and conjoining. (TW)
A Markov Model Analysis of Problem-Solving Progress.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vendlinski, Terry
This study used a computerized simulation and problem-solving tool along with artificial neural networks (ANN) as pattern recognizers to identify the common types of strategies high school and college undergraduate chemistry students would use to solve qualitative chemistry problems. Participants were 134 high school chemistry students who used…
A Review of Problem Solving Capabilities in Lean Process Management
A. P. Puvanasvaran; S. H. Tang; M. R Muhamad; A. M. S. Hamouda
Human factor plays an important role in ensuring lean process management to be successful and provides good proposition for the success of the organization in the long run. One of the main elements of people is their problem solving capability in identifying and eliminating wastages. The purpose of this paper was to review problem solving capabilities in lean process management;
Engineering students' experiences and perceptions of workplace problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Rui
In this study, I interviewed 22 engineering Co-Op students about their workplace problem solving experiences and reflections and explored: 1) Of Co-Op students who experienced workplace problem solving, what are the different ways in which students experience workplace problem solving? 2) How do students perceive a) the differences between workplace problem solving and classroom problem solving and b) in what areas are they prepared by their college education to solve workplace problems? To answer my first research question, I analyzed data through the lens of phenomenography and I conducted thematic analysis to answer my second research question. The results of this study have implications for engineering education and engineering practice. Specifically, the results reveal the different ways students experience workplace problem solving, which provide engineering educators and practicing engineers a better understanding of the nature of workplace engineering. In addition, the results indicate that there is still a gap between classroom engineering and workplace engineering. For engineering educators who aspire to prepare students to be future engineers, it is imperative to design problem solving experiences that can better prepare students with workplace competency.
New Testing Methods to Assess Technical Problem-Solving Ability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hambleton, Ronald K.; And Others
Tests to assess problem-solving ability being provided for the Air Force are described, and some details on the development and validation of these computer-administered diagnostic achievement tests are discussed. Three measurement approaches were employed: (1) sequential problem solving; (2) context-free assessment of fundamental skills and…
Investigating students' confidence in programming and problem solving
Johan Eliasson; Lena Kallin Westin; Marie Nordström
2006-01-01
Many students feel insecure making their first attempts to solve programming problems. Despite finishing the introductory programming course successfully, these students refrain from pursuing their CS studies. Hence, this aversion towards problem solving and programming is not fully explained by lack of subject understanding and performance. In order to better understand the components of students' comfort, a first attempt to
Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie
2010-01-01
We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…
Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.
2012-01-01
Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…
An Approach to Simulate Understanding Student Problem-Solving Behavior.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Z. W.; Willoughby, T. L.
1991-01-01
This paper describes a method of understanding student problem-solving behavior during computer-assisted instruction using trigonometry as the example domain. Instead of attempting to model the student's process for solving problems, techniques which infer the equivalence between two adjacent steps in the student's process are used to determine…
Problem Solving in Technology Education: A Taoist Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flowers, Jim
1998-01-01
Offers a new approach to teaching problem solving in technology education that encourages students to apply problem-solving skills to improving the human condition. Suggests that technology teachers incorporate elements of a Taoist approach in teaching by viewing technology as a tool with a goal of living a harmonious life. (JOW)
Using Sentence and Picture Clues to Solve Verbal Insight Problems
Patricia M. Schwert
2007-01-01
Pictures and sentences, designed to be equivalent in information content, were compared as clues for solving verbal insight problems. Solving insight problems may require creative thinking because a novel approach is required for their solution. A 2 (test condition: informed, uninformed) × 3 (clue type: picture, sentence, unrelated) between and within-subjects design was used. Participants (N = 144) completed, in order: an information acquisition
Problem Solving Variations in an Online Programming Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebrahimi, Alireza
2007-01-01
An observation on teaching introductory programming courses on SLN for a period of two terms led me to believe that online students try various ways to solve a problem. In the beginning, I got the impression that some of their approaches for a solution were wrong; but after a little investigation, I found that some of the problem-solving…
Treatment of problem solving in Alzheimer's disease: A short report
Robert C. Marshall; Gilson J. Capilouto; Jennifer M. McBride
2007-01-01
Background: Treatments to help persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) improve and\\/or compensate for deteriorating functional abilities have largely focused on cognitive rather than executive functions. Problem solving is an executive function integral to most activities of daily living that is compromised by AD. Successful treatment of problem?solving deficits in persons with AD could potentially increase the amount of time a
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Leader's Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jung, Charles; And Others
This manual is to be used by leaders of RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops for school or district administrators. The workshop's goal is for administrators to develop problem solving skills by using the RUPS simulation situations in a teamwork setting. Although workshop leaders should be familiar with the RUPS materials and…
Puzzling Science: Using the Rubik's Cube to Teach Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rohrig, Brian
2010-01-01
A major goal of education is to help learners store information in long-term memory and use that information on later occasions to effectively solve problems (Vockell 2010). Therefore, this author began to use the Rubik's cube to help students learn to problem solve. There is something special about this colorful three-dimensional puzzle that…
Does Incubation Enhance Problem Solving? A Meta-Analytic Review
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sio, Ut Na; Ormerod, Thomas C.
2009-01-01
A meta-analytic review of empirical studies that have investigated incubation effects on problem solving is reported. Although some researchers have reported increased solution rates after an incubation period (i.e., a period of time in which a problem is set aside prior to further attempts to solve), others have failed to find effects. The…
Word Problem Structure and Its Effect on the Transfer of Learning to Solve Algebra Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chang, Kuo-Liang
2010-01-01
A problem in learning to solve mathematics word problems students have been facing is to transfer the learned problem-solving knowledge from one story context to another story context. Some studies have provided evidence showing that structure facilitates transfer of learning to solve word problems. However, it is still under development for what…
Teaching Problem-Solving as a Habit of Mind
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-01-01
Pat Wagener of Los Medanos College describes an inquiry project with his Developmental Math students: "Through my classroom inquiry into teaching problem-solving, I have shown that students can learn to solve problems in ways that help them develop "habits of mind" with problem solving processes with the following features in the instructional plan: Students get lots of problem solving practice, with an emphasis on long term learning of habits of mind Students are introduced to the idea of multiple representations early, and this approach is reinforced through the curriculum materials in meaningful ways and in all aspects of the course Students have many opportunities to share their problem solving publicly through board work "
Effects of subliminal hints on insight problem solving.
Hattori, Masasi; Sloman, Steven A; Orita, Ryo
2013-08-01
Two experiments tested a total of 509 participants on insight problems (the radiation problem and the nine-dot problem). Half of the participants were first exposed to a 1-min movie that included a subliminal hint. The hint raised the solution rate of people who did not recognize it. In addition, the way they solved the problem was affected by the hint. In Experiment 3, a novel technique was introduced to address some methodological concerns raised by Experiments 1 and 2. A total of 80 participants solved the 10-coin problem, and half of them were exposed to a subliminal hint. The hint facilitated solving the problem, and it shortened the solution time. Some implications of subliminal priming for research on and theorizing about insight problem solving are discussed. PMID:23392651
Solving Random Satisfiability Problems with Quantum Computers
Tad Hogg
2001-04-09
Quantum computer algorithms can exploit the structure of random satisfiability problems. This paper extends a previous empirical evaluation of such an algorithm and gives an approximate asymptotic analysis accounting for both the average and variation of amplitudes among search states with the same costs. The analysis predicts good performance, on average, for a variety of problems including those near a phase transition associated with a high concentration of hard cases. Based on empirical evaluation for small problems, modifying the algorithm in light of this analysis improves its performance. The algorithm improves on both GSAT, a commonly used conventional heuristic, and quantum algorithms ignoring problem structure.
Solving a Problem With or Without a Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Pei
2013-01-01
To solve a problem, an ordinary computer system executes an existing program. When no such program is available, an AGI system may still be able to solve a concrete problem instance. This paper introduces a new approach to do so in a reasoning system that adapts to its environment and works with insuffcient knowledge and resources. The related approaches are compared, and several conceptual issues are analyzed. It is concluded that an AGI system can solve a problem with or without a problem-specific program, and therefore can have human-like creativity and exibility.
The factors influencing the outcome of solving story problems in a web-based learning environment
M. Pedaste; T. Sarapuu
2006-01-01
The aim of the present study was to investigate those factors influencing performance in solving story problems in a web-based environment. A situational simulation, “Hiking across Estonia,” was explored by two samples of voluntary groups of students, comprising 65 and 50 groups, respectively. They solved 25 ecological and environmental story problems and filled in a pre-test and post-test that evaluated
Algorithm for Solving the School Timetabling Problem
D. Abramson; J. Abela
Genetic algorithms (GA) have been applied to a number of optimisation problems with some success (1). The algorithms mimic the process of natural selection, with the effect of creating a number of potentially optimal solutions to some complex search problem. One of the major disadvantages of genetic algorithms is that they are very slow. In this paper we discuss the
Modelling and Solving Employee Timetabling Problems
Amnon Meisels; Andrea Schaerf
2003-01-01
Employee timetabling is the operation of assigning employees to tasks in a set of shifts during a fixed period of time, typically a week. We present a general definition of employee timetabling problems (ETPs) that captures many real-world problem formulations and includes complex constraints. The proposed model of ETPs can be represented in a tabular form that is both intuitive
Solving Domination Problems with Mathematical Programming
van der Torre, Leon
of optimization problems 4 Why these problems? Dominating Sets (DS) and its variants Connected Dominating Sets, they are often used to create virtual backbones Why this approach? #12;Definition: Dominating Set 5 A Dominating one member of D by some edge. Dominators Dominatees #12;Definition: Dominating Set 5 A Dominating Set
Personal Problem Solving: A Descriptive Study of Individual Differences.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heppner, P. Paul; And Others
1982-01-01
Examined differences between students who perceived themselves as "successful" and "unsuccessful" problem solvers. Results revealed "successful" and "unsuccessful" problem solvers differed in number of problems acknowledged, on self-report ratings about the personal problem solving process, and on ratings made by interviewers on several cognitive…
Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems Stefano Bistarelli1
Rossi, Francesca
Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems Stefano Bistarelli1 , Maria Silvia Pini2 with both positive and negative preferences, that we call bipolar problems. Although seemingly specular with bipolar problems. 1 Introduction Many real-life problems contain statements which can be expressed
D. Akay; A. Dem?ray; M. Kurt
2008-01-01
In this study an analysis is made regarding the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Technique (TRIZ), which emerged in Russia in 1946 and has been commonly used in the USA and Europe in the past few last decades. TRIZ is a method that is used successfully to solve the problems arising during the process of product development. Within this study
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Ernest Valveny1 Miquel Ferrer1 Centre de Visió per Computador, Dep (Barcelona), Spain {ernest,mferrer@cvc.uab.cat} Résumé : Graphs have very interesting properties for ob- ject
Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu Ryan, Qing
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.
When the solution is part of the problem: problem solving in elderly suicide attempters
Gibbs, Lawrence M.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Morse, Jennifer; Siegle, Greg J.; Houck, Patricia R.; Szanto, Katalin
2011-01-01
SUMMARY Objectives Depression, loss, and physical illness are associated with suicide in the elderly. However, the nature of individual vulnerability remains poorly understood. Poor problem solving has been suggested as a risk factor for suicide in younger adults. Unresolved problems may create an accumulation of stressors. Thus, those with perceived deficits in problem-solving ability may be predisposed to suicidal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether elderly suicide attempters perceived their problem solving as deficient. Methods Sixty-four individuals aged 60 and older participated in the study including depressed suicide attempters, depressed non-attempters, and non-depressed controls. The social problem solving inventory-revised: short-version was used to measure participants' perceived social problem solving, assessing both adaptive problem-solving dimensions (positive problem orientation and rational problem solving) and dysfunctional dimensions (negative problem orientation, impulsivity/carelessness, and avoidance). Results Depressed elderly who had attempted suicide perceived their overall problem solving as deficient, compared to non-suicidal depressed and non-depressed elderly. Suicide attempters perceived their problems more negatively and approached them in a more impulsive manner. On rational problem solving and avoidant style sub-scales, suicide attempters did not differ from non-suicidal depressed. However, both depressed groups reported lower rational problem solving and higher avoidance compared to non-depressed controls. Conclusions A perception of life problems as threatening and unsolvable and an impulsive approach to problem solving appear to predispose vulnerable elderly to suicide attempts. PMID:19405045
NEW TECHNOLOGIES TO SOLVE OLD PROBLEMS
The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was established in early December of 1970 to protect human health and the environment. The USEPA realized from the beginning that to effectively carry out is's mission it needed to encourage the development of new technologies. Almos...
Real-Life-Type Problem-Solving in Asperger's Syndrome
Shelley Channon; Tony Charman; Jane Heap; Sarah Crawford; Patricia Rios
2001-01-01
This study compared adolescents with Asperger's syndrome with typically developing adolescents on a novel problem-solving task that presented videotaped scenarios in real-life-type social contexts. The Asperger's group was impaired in several aspects of problem-solving, including recounting the pertinent facts, generating possible high-quality problem solutions, and selecting optimal and preferred solutions. This group's solutions differed most from those of the typically
An Algorithm for Solving the Job-Shop Problem
J. Carlier; E. Pinson
1989-01-01
In this paper, we propose a branch and bound method for solving the job-shop problem. It is based on one-machine scheduling problems and is made more efficient by several propositions which limit the search tree by using immediate selections. It solved for the first time the famous 10 \\\\times 10 job-shop problem proposed by Muth and Thompson in 1963.
Identifying, analysing and solving problems in practice.
Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui
When a problem is identified in practice, it is important to clarify exactly what it is and establish the cause before seeking a solution. This solution-seeking process should include input from those directly involved in the problematic situation, to enable individuals to contribute their perspective, appreciate why any change in practice is necessary and what will be achieved by the change. This article describes some approaches to identifying and analysing problems in practice so that effective solutions can be devised. It includes a case study and examples of how the Five Whys analysis, fishbone diagram, problem tree analysis, and Seven-S Model can be used to analyse a problem. PMID:22848969
Problem Solving in the Chemistry Laboratory
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Adam Wolfer
2002-02-01
In a pilot project implemented at the University of Kansas, a team of instructors from the education and chemistry departments modified the introductory chemistry laboratory curriculum to center on problem-based inquiry learning units. The new laboratory
An amoeboid algorithm for solving linear transportation problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Cai; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zili; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong
2014-03-01
Transportation Problem (TP) is one of the basic operational research problems, which plays an important role in many practical applications. In this paper, a bio-inspired mathematical model is proposed to handle the Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) in directed networks by modifying the original amoeba model Physarum Solver. Several examples are used to prove that the provided model can effectively solve Balanced Transportation Problem (BTP), Unbalanced Transportation Problem (UTP), especially the Generalized Transportation Problem (GTP), in a nondiscrete way.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bray, Lynne M.
In this project, a plan for solving word problems based on the students' level of development was developed. A 10-week implementation of a plan for solving word problems at the concrete level of development included the use of a flow chart or plan to map out and solve word problems. Students then used the flow chart and manipulatives to develop…
Visual Attention Modulates Insight Versus Analytic Solving of Verbal Problems
Wegbreit, Ezra; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark
2013-01-01
Behavioral and neuroimaging findings indicate that distinct cognitive and neural processes underlie solving problems with sudden insight. Moreover, people with less focused attention sometimes perform better on tests of insight and creative problem solving. However, it remains unclear whether different states of attention, within individuals, influence the likelihood of solving problems with insight or with analysis. In this experiment, participants (N = 40) performed a baseline block of verbal problems, then performed one of two visual tasks, each emphasizing a distinct aspect of visual attention, followed by a second block of verbal problems to assess change in performance. After participants engaged in a center-focused flanker task requiring relatively focused visual attention, they reported solving more verbal problems with analytic processing. In contrast, after participants engaged in a rapid object identification task requiring attention to broad space and weak associations, they reported solving more verbal problems with insight. These results suggest that general attention mechanisms influence both visual attention task performance and verbal problem solving. PMID:24459538
Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay
2009-11-01
Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties with multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first semester calculus-based physics course. Each student was interviewed four times during the semester, each time after they had completed an exam in class. During these interviews students were first asked to solve a problem they had seen on the exam, followed by problems that differed in context and type of representation from the exam problem. Students were provided verbal scaffolding to solve the new problems. We discuss the common difficulties that students encountered when attempting to transfer their problem solving skills across problems in different representations.
SOLVING MIXED INTEGER BILINEAR PROBLEMS USING MILP ...
2013-01-29
†School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. ...... credence to our primary motivation for this study: that on certain class of problems, ... [7] P. Belotti, Couenne: a user's manual, June 2012. .... disjunctions and bilinear covering sets, Mathematical Programming, 124 (2010), pp.
Phenolic problems solved with hydrogen peroxide oxidation
E. J. Keating; R. A. Brown; E. S. Greenberg
1978-01-01
Major industrial sources of phenolic waste discharges are: insulation fiberglass manufacturing, petroleum refineries, smelting and slag operations, organic products manufacture, synthetic resin manufacture, textile mills, steel-making, paint stripping, plywood, hardboard, and wood preserving. Phenolic discharges create problems in three areas: toxicity to marine life, taste and odor disturbances, and oxygen depletion of the receiving water. Methods for analyzing phenols are
SOLVING A HYDTROTREATER FEED FILTER FOULING PROBLEM
X. A. Wu; K. H. Chung
2008-01-01
Feed filters were installed in Syncrude hydrotreater units to protect the catalyst beds from plugging by fine solids in the feed. Severe filter fouling occurred after a process flow sheet change. The root cause of fouling was revealed through a step-by-step scientific investigation. It was first confirmed that the fouling problem was related to a process flow sheet change that
Solving Various Weighted Matching Problems with Constraints
Yves Caseau; Francois Laburthe
2000-01-01
This paper studies the resolution of (augmented) weighted matching problems within a constraint programming (CP) framework. The first contribution of the paper is a set of techniques that improves substantially the performance of branch-and-bound algorithms based on constraint propagation and the second contribution is the introduction of weighted matching as a global constraint ( WeightedMatching), that can be propagated using
Solving Various Weighted Matching Problems with Constraints
Yves Caseau; François Laburthe
1997-01-01
A b s t r ac t This paper studies the resolution of (augmented) weighted matching problems within a constraint programming framework. The first contribution of the paper is a set of branch-and-bound techniques that improves substantially the performance of algorithms based on constraint propagation and the second contribution is the introduction of weighted matching as a global constraint (
Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hilton, Michael
1998-01-01
Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…
Bodily movement as related to problem solving
A. D. Grinsted
1941-01-01
All bodily movements made by 51 undergraduate and 2 graduate students were recorded during the solution of mental problems of the type included in the average adult level of the latest revision of the Stanford-Binet scale in which the task is to specify how a given number of pints of water can be measured by means of 2 containers of
Solving the Minimum Weighted Integer Coloring Problem
Jue Xue
1998-01-01
In this paper, we present, as we are aware of, the first combinatorialalgorithm specifically designed for the minimum weighted integercoloring problem (MWIP). We test the algorithm on randomly generated graphs with integer weights uniformly drawn from intervals [1, 1], [1, 2], [1, 5], [1, 10], [1, 15], and [1, 20]. We also use theproposed algorithm to test the quality of
Solving Inverse Problems with Spectral Data
Joyce R. McLaughlin
2001-01-01
We consider a two dimensional membrane. The goal is to flnd properties of the membrane or properties of a force on the membrane. The data is natural fre- quencies or mode shape measurements. As a result, the functional relationship between the data and the solution of our inverse problem is both indirect and nonlinear. In this paper we describe three
Can AI planners solve practical problems?
David E. Wilkins
1990-01-01
While there has been recent interest in research on planning and reasoning about actions,nearly all research results have been theoretical. We know of no previous examples of aplanning system that has made a significant impact on a problem of practical importance.One of the primary goals during the development of the SIPE-2 planning system has beenthe balancing of efficiency with expressiveness
Using Ant Colony Optimization algorithm for solving project management problems
Hazem Abdallah; Hassan M. Emara; Hassan T. Dorrah; Ahmed Bahgat
2009-01-01
Network analysis provides an effective practical system for planning and controlling large projects in construction and many other fields. Ant Colony System is a recent approach used for solving path minimization problems. This paper presents the use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) system for solving and calculating both deterministic and probabilistic CPM\\/PERT networks. The proposed method is investigated for a
Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.
2015-01-01
This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of…
Use of Ontology for Solving Interoperability Problems between Enterprises
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Use of Ontology for Solving Interoperability Problems between Enterprises Hui Liu1,2 , Anne enterprises, the semantic issues are important. To date, they are more and more focused on ontology. This paper presents how to use ontology in the PBMEI method, aimed at solving enterprise interoperability
How Problem Solving Can Develop an Algebraic Perspective of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Windsor, Will
2011-01-01
SProblem solving has a long and successful history in mathematics education and is valued by many teachers as a way to engage and facilitate learning within their classrooms. The potential benefit for using problem solving in the development of algebraic thinking is that "it may broaden and develop students' mathematical thinking beyond the…
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Classroom Version. Leader's Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jung, Charles; And Others
This training manual is for teachers participating in the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) workshops. The workshops last for four and one-half days and are designed to improve the school setting and to increase teamwork skills. The teachers participate in simulation exercises in which they help a fictitious teacher or principal solve a…
Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M. G. M.; Broekkamp, H.
2001-04-01
The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a number of articles published between 1985 and 1995 in high-standard international journals, describing experimental research into the effectiveness of a wide variety of teaching strategies for science problem solving. To characterize the teaching strategies found, we used a model of the capacities needed for effective science problem solving, composed of a knowledge base and a skills base. The relations between the cognitive capacities required by the experimental or control treatments and those of the model were specified and used as independent variables. Other independent variables were learning conditions such as feedback and group work. As a dependent variable we used standardized learning effects. We identified 22 articles describing 40 experiments that met the standards we deemed necessary for a meta-analysis. These experiments were analyzed both with quantitative (correlational) methods and with a systematic qualitative method. A few of the independent variables were found to characterize effective strategies for teaching science problem solving. Effective treatments all gave attention to the structure and function (the schemata) of the knowledge base, whereas attention to knowledge of strategy and the practice of problem solving turned out to have little effect. As for learning conditions, both providing the learners with guidelines and criteria they can use in judging their own problem-solving process and products, and providing immediate feedback to them were found to be important prerequisites for the acquisition of problem-solving skills. Group work did not lead to positive effects unless combined with other variables, such as guidelines and feedback.
Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.
2014-01-01
Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…
Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines
Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines Yuval Emek, Tobias Langner, Jara + D) #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, Sereni [PODC 2012] = #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced
An Information-Processing Approach to Personal Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heppner, P. Paul; Krauskopf, Charles J.
1987-01-01
Presents an information processing view of personal problem solving which involves how people take in information, process information into plans for solutions to personal problems, and carry out plans. Presents a definition of "problem." Offers suggestions for research and for counseling. (Author/NB)
Working memory demands in insight versus analytic problem solving
Jessica I. Fleck
2008-01-01
Working memory is one of the cognitive processes thought to differentiate insight and analytic forms of problem solving. The present research examined memory involvement in the solution of insight versus analytic problems. Participants completed verbal and spatial working memory and short-term memory measures and a series of analytic and insight problems. Results demonstrated a relationship between working-memory capacity and the
A new method for solving a linear programming problem
Yoshihiro Yamamoto
2010-01-01
This paper presents a new method for solving a linear programming problem, which is an extended version of the one previously presented by the author. The optimal solution of a linear programming problem is composed of some inequality constraints in their equality form. Then, it is possible to recognize the problem of finding the equality constraints which constitute the optimal
Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…
On optimization techniques for solving nonlinear inverse problems
Eldad Haber; Uri M. Ascher; Doug Oldenburg
2000-01-01
This paper considers optimization techniques for the solution of nonlinear inverse problems where the forward problems, like those encountered in electromagnetics, are modelled by differential equations. Such problems are often solved by utilizing a Gauss-Newton method in which the forward model constraints are implicitly incorporated. Variants of Newton's method which use second-derivative information are rarely employed because their perceived disadvantage
A global optimization approach for solving the maximum clique problem
P. M. Pardalos; A. T. Phillips
1990-01-01
The problem of finding a maximum clique of an undirected graph is formulated and solved as a linearly constrained indefinite quadratic global optimization problem. Theoretical upper and lower bounds on the size k of the maximum clique are derived from the global optimization formulation, and a relationship between the set of distinct global maxima of the optimization problem and the
Bipolar preference problems: framework, properties and solving techniques
Rossi, Francesca
Bipolar preference problems: framework, properties and solving techniques Stefano Bistarelli1 preferences, that we call bipolar prefer- ence problems. Although seemingly specular notions, these two kinds the notion of arc consis- tency to bipolar problems, and we show how branch and bound (with or without
Integrating Computers into the Problem-Solving Process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lowther, Deborah L.; Morrison, Gary R.
2003-01-01
Asserts that within the context of problem-based learning environments, professors can encourage students to use computers as problem-solving tools. The ten-step Integrating Technology for InQuiry (NteQ) model guides professors through the process of integrating computers into problem-based learning activities. (SWM)
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-05-02
In this media-rich lesson plan, students learn how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, then apply what they’ve learned in activities that are based on real-world scenarios.
Solving the Material Interface Reconstruction Problem using Genetic Programming
Fernandez, Thomas
Solving the Material Interface Reconstruction Problem using Genetic Programming Jeremy Meredith-422-1197 Abstract: This paper develops enhanced material interface reconstruction techniques using genetic programming. Material interface reconstruction is the attempt to recreate high resolution material placement
Developing a Pedagogical Domain Theory of Early Algebra Problem Solving
Kenneth R. Koedinger; Benjamin A. MacLaren
We describe a theory of quantitative representations and processes that makes novel predictions about student problem-solving and learning during the transition from arithmetic to algebraic competence or \\
Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes,
Waikato, University of
Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes, and making products to improve the quality of human life and shape the economy. Mechanical engineers apply, from power stations to cars, robots and computers. The professional training mechanical engineers
Unified Particle Swarm Optimization for Solving Constrained Engineering Optimization Problems
Parsopoulos, Konstantinos
Unified Particle Swarm Optimization for Solving Constrained Engineering Optimization Problems K investigate the performance of the recently proposed Uni- fied Particle Swarm Optimization method and global variant of Particle Swarm Optimization are re- ported and discussed. 1 Introduction Many
Solving search problems by strongly simulating quantum circuits.
Johnson, T H; Biamonte, J D; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D
2013-01-01
Simulating quantum circuits using classical computers lets us analyse the inner workings of quantum algorithms. The most complete type of simulation, strong simulation, is believed to be generally inefficient. Nevertheless, several efficient strong simulation techniques are known for restricted families of quantum circuits and we develop an additional technique in this article. Further, we show that strong simulation algorithms perform another fundamental task: solving search problems. Efficient strong simulation techniques allow solutions to a class of search problems to be counted and found efficiently. This enhances the utility of strong simulation methods, known or yet to be discovered, and extends the class of search problems known to be efficiently simulable. Relating strong simulation to search problems also bounds the computational power of efficiently strongly simulable circuits; if they could solve all problems in P this would imply that all problems in NP and #P could be solved in polynomial time. PMID:23390585
Solving search problems by strongly simulating quantum circuits
Johnson, T. H.; Biamonte, J. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.
2013-01-01
Simulating quantum circuits using classical computers lets us analyse the inner workings of quantum algorithms. The most complete type of simulation, strong simulation, is believed to be generally inefficient. Nevertheless, several efficient strong simulation techniques are known for restricted families of quantum circuits and we develop an additional technique in this article. Further, we show that strong simulation algorithms perform another fundamental task: solving search problems. Efficient strong simulation techniques allow solutions to a class of search problems to be counted and found efficiently. This enhances the utility of strong simulation methods, known or yet to be discovered, and extends the class of search problems known to be efficiently simulable. Relating strong simulation to search problems also bounds the computational power of efficiently strongly simulable circuits; if they could solve all problems in P this would imply that all problems in NP and #P could be solved in polynomial time. PMID:23390585
Solving Maximal Clique Problem through Genetic Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajawat, Shalini; Hemrajani, Naveen; Menghani, Ekta
2010-11-01
Genetic algorithm is one of the most interesting heuristic search techniques. It depends basically on three operations; selection, crossover and mutation. The outcome of the three operations is a new population for the next generation. Repeating these operations until the termination condition is reached. All the operations in the algorithm are accessible with today's molecular biotechnology. The simulations show that with this new computing algorithm, it is possible to get a solution from a very small initial data pool, avoiding enumerating all candidate solutions. For randomly generated problems, genetic algorithm can give correct solution within a few cycles at high probability.
Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Andrew J.
Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was developed to further evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest that introductory students and even graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to physics faculty members. Furthermore, responses to individual survey questions suggest that expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.
The Deming and Goldratt Approaches To Problem Solving: A Contrast
Joseph G. Van Matre; Rexford H. Draman
The quality movement's original problem-solving model was the Plan-Do-Check-Act model of Shewhart and popularized by Deming. Whether called the problem-solving process (Xerox), the Quality Improvement Cycle (AT&T), or the quality-Improvement story (Florida Power & Light), these more recent models are basically variations of the scientific method and the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle. They offer a systematic approach, a standardization to the
Problem-solving types among high-risk IDUs
Jerome J. Platt; Stephen D. Husband; Robert A. Steer; Martin Y. Iguchi
1995-01-01
This research investigated whether high-risk injection drug users (IDUs) manifest distinct types, or profiles, of interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) abilities. Four measures of ICPS, the Means-Ends Problem-Solving procedure (MEPS), Optional Thinking Test (OTT), Awareness of Consequences Test (ACT), and Causal Thinking Test (CTT), were administered to 140 IDUs who volunteered for NIDA Demonstration Projects in Newark and Jersey City, NJ,
Measure Your Sew - How: Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems.
Rhoades, Beverly
1981-01-01
DOC TA24S.7 873 0.1264 --","--- Measure Your Sew-How Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System . Daniel C . Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas "'164 [Blank Page... in Original Bulletin] ~. 'I \\ ! fri SOLVING COMMON SEWING MACHINE PROBLEMS Beverly Rhoades* Machine Parts ? Former Extension clothing specialist, The Texas A&M University System. Sewing can be a relaxing, creative and money-saving talent when...
On solving linear complementarity problems as linear programs
Richard W. Cottle; Jong-Shi Pang
Recently, Mangasarian [18, 19] has discussed the idea of solving certain classes of linear complementarity problems as linear\\u000a programs. The present paper (1) demonstrates how these complementarity problems are related to the theory of polyhedral sets\\u000a having least elements and (2) discusses the question of whether the linear programming approach can be recommended for solving\\u000a them.
Solving the state assignment problem for signal transition graphs
Luciano Lavagno; Cho W. Moon; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
1992-01-01
Wepropose a novel framework to solve the state assignment problem arising from the signal transition graph (STG) representation of an asynchronous circw”t. Wefirst establish a relation between STGS ad finite state machines (R3ds). Then we solve the STG state assignment problem by minittdzing the number of states in the corresponding F3vl and by using a critical racefree state assignment technique.
Measure Your Sew - How: Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems.
Rhoades, Beverly
1981-01-01
DOC TA24S.7 873 0.1264 --","--- Measure Your Sew-How Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System . Daniel C . Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas "'164 [Blank Page... in Original Bulletin] ~. 'I \\ ! fri SOLVING COMMON SEWING MACHINE PROBLEMS Beverly Rhoades* Machine Parts ? Former Extension clothing specialist, The Texas A&M University System. Sewing can be a relaxing, creative and money-saving talent when...
Patterns of problem-solving in children's literacy and arithmetic.
Farrington-Flint, Lee; Vanuxem-Cotterill, Sophie; Stiller, James
2009-11-01
Patterns of problem-solving among 5-to-7 year-olds' were examined on a range of literacy (reading and spelling) and arithmetic-based (addition and subtraction) problem-solving tasks using verbal self-reports to monitor strategy choice. The results showed higher levels of variability in the children's strategy choice across Years I and 2 on the arithmetic (addition and subtraction) than literacy-based tasks (reading and spelling). However, across all four tasks, the children showed a tendency to move from less sophisticated procedural-based strategies, which included phonological strategies for reading and spelling and counting-all and finger modellingfor addition and subtraction, to more efficient retrieval methods from Years I to 2. Distinct patterns in children's problem-solving skill were identified on the literacy and arithmetic tasks using two separate cluster analyses. There was a strong association between these two profiles showing that those children with more advanced problem-solving skills on the arithmetic tasks also showed more advanced profiles on the literacy tasks. The results highlight how different-aged children show flexibility in their use of problem-solving strategies across literacy and arithmetical contexts and reinforce the importance of studying variations in children's problem-solving skill across different educational contexts. PMID:19994481
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751
Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress
Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751
Stressed Stream Analysis--Addressing Environmental Problems in Local Communities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haynes, James M.
1998-01-01
Uses environmental impact analysis as a unifying theme to provide students with real problem-solving experiences without neglecting the principles and theories of the basic scientific disciplines undergirding environmental science. Provides information about stressed stream analysis, which connects environmental impact analysis and Great Lakes…
Why decoherence solves the measurement problem
Art Hobson
2013-08-19
Although the solution, within standard quantum physics, of the problem of outcomes has been published several times, many authors continue to treat measurement as an unsolved fundamental dilemma. The solution lies in the formation of entangled subsystems, the non-local nature of the measurement state, and the resulting distinction between mixed-state local outcomes and the pure-state global outcome. Upon "measurement" (i.e. entanglement), the quantum system and its measurement apparatus both decohere and collapse into local mixed states while the unitarily-evolving global state remains coherent and un-collapsed. The states we observe are the local, collapsed states. Considerable experimental evidence supports this conclusion. Theoretical objections to this conclusion are rebutted, and a new perspective on measurement and entanglement is noted.
Towards Solving the Inverse Protein Folding Problem
Hong, Yoojin; Bhardwaj, Gaurav; Zhang, Zhenhai; van Rossum, Damian B; Patterson, Randen L
2010-01-01
Accurately assigning folds for divergent protein sequences is a major obstacle to structural studies and underlies the inverse protein folding problem. Herein, we outline our theories for fold-recognition in the "twilight-zone" of sequence similarity (<25% identity). Our analyses demonstrate that structural sequence profiles built using Position-Specific Scoring Matrices (PSSMs) significantly outperform multiple popular homology-modeling algorithms for relating and predicting structures given only their amino acid sequences. Importantly, structural sequence profiles reconstitute SCOP fold classifications in control and test datasets. Results from our experiments suggest that structural sequence profiles can be used to rapidly annotate protein folds at proteomic scales. We propose that encoding the entire Protein DataBank (~1070 folds) into structural sequence profiles would extract interoperable information capable of improving most if not all methods of structural modeling.
Meshless method for solving fixed boundary problem of plasma equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi
2015-07-01
This study solves the Grad-Shafranov equation with a fixed plasma boundary by utilizing a meshless method for the first time. Previous studies have utilized a finite element method (FEM) to solve an equilibrium inside the fixed separatrix. In order to avoid difficulties of FEM (such as mesh problem, difficulty of coding, expensive calculation cost), this study focuses on the meshless methods, especially RBF-MFS and KANSA's method to solve the fixed boundary problem. The results showed that CPU time of the meshless methods was ten to one hundred times shorter than that of FEM to obtain the same accuracy.
Photography helps solve distribution lightning problems
Barker, P.; Burns, C.W.
1993-06-01
This article describes the research project, which is being performed for NMPC by Power Technologies, Inc., involving the use of lightning-activated camera systems to photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photographs can allow the precise location of the lightning flash and power system flashovers to be observed, they are extremely valuable to engineers who are trying to make better sense of the lightning damage problem. When electrical measurements, such as fault and surge recordings, are combined with photographic data, an overall understanding of each lightning flash and its impact on the system is attained. This can hopefully lead to improved lightning protection practices and systems. The study is being performed on a 13.2 kV distribution system that is located on an exposed plateau near Little Falls, NY (about 80 miles northwest of Albany, NY). Four automated camera systems and a substation fault recorder are utilized. All camera locations afford excellent views of lines and equipment likely to be struck by lightning. The fault recorder is used to measure the fault currents and voltage sags which occur during line flashovers. Also, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) is used to confirm storm activity and camera triggering efficiency. After each storm, all data is analyzed to determine how lightning affected the power system. Areas being investigated include: What are the relative portions of lightning flashovers caused by induced surges (nearby strikes) and direct lightning hits to the line How often do shielding failures occur What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices are problematic
The Role of an Incubation Period in Creative Problem Solving
Ut Na Sio; Elisabeth Rudowicz
2007-01-01
This experimental study tested the spreading-activation hypothesis that an incubation period helps to sensitize problem solvers to relevant concepts. The study also tested the selective forgetting hypothesis that an incubation period helps to desensitize problem solvers to irrelevant concepts. Chinese Chess GO players, 28 experts and 29 novices, solved 18 remote association tasks (RAT) and lexical decision tasks (LDTs) under
COMPLEX WAVELET REGULARIZATION FOR SOLVING INVERSE PROBLEMS IN REMOTE SENSING
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
) [1], zooming [2] or denoising [3]. Usually, finding the origi- nal image u from the observation g a comparison between two common priors in image processing for wavelet regularized problems. inria-00417708COMPLEX WAVELET REGULARIZATION FOR SOLVING INVERSE PROBLEMS IN REMOTE SENSING Mika¨el Carlavan
Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations
Zollman, Dean
Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations Dong-Hai Nguyen and N-2601 Abstract. Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties with multiple
A Problem-Solving Oral Examination for Family Medicine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Wart, Arthur D.
1974-01-01
The College of Family Physicians of Canada has used in its certification examination a new type of structured problem-solving examination called the Formal Oral. A series of preselected problem areas such as the complaint, relevant data base, investigation, and treatment are scored by two examiners. (Editor/PG)
Creative Problem-Solving Exercises and Training in FCS
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marcketti, Sara B.; Karpova, Elena; Barker, Jessica
2009-01-01
Creative problem-solving has been linked to successful adjustment to the demands of daily life. The ability to recognize problems as opportunities can be an essential skill when dealing with uncertainty and adapting to continuous changes, both in personal and professional lives. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals should strive to…
Diffusion: Diffusive initial value problems and how to solve them
Spiegelman, Marc W.
84 #12;Chapter 6 Diffusion: Diffusive initial value problems and how to solve them Selected Reading of the simplest partial dif- ferential equations for diffusive initial value problems in the absence of advection be written T t = · T (6.0.1) where T is the temperature and = k/(cP ) is the thermal diffusivity (which has
a Problem Solving Diagnostic Instrument for Physics Thermodynamics Concepts
Steven Iona
1994-01-01
Changes in conceptual representations of physics thermodynamics concepts by high school physics students was examined throughout an instructional sequence. The knowledge structures identified were characterized and also compared to problem-solving strategies used by the students on physics problems. Over sixty students from four intact classes completed seven measures including three computer-administered concept relatedness tasks, a test of logical thinking, identification
A Functional Analysis of Real-Life, Personal Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heppner, P. Paul; And Others
The personal problem-solving process can be functionally analyzed from a cognitive-behavioral perspective into at least four major performance classes: (1) decision making; (2) problem exploration, differentiation, and definition; (3) identification of response alternatives; and (4) performance of an intended solution response. The personal…
Can AI Planners Solve Practical Problems? David E. Wilkins
Wilkins, David E.
Can AI Planners Solve Practical Problems? by David E. Wilkins Arti cial Intelligence Center SRI of a planning system that has made a signi cant impact on a problem of practical importance. One of the primary Institute, and SRI International. Research performed at the Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford
Successful and Unsuccessful Problem Solving in Classical Genetic Pedigrees.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Mike U.
1988-01-01
Examines successful/unsuccessful distinctions between novices and experts in problem solving in terms of genetic knowledge, use of production rules, strategy selection, use of critical cues, use of logic, understanding of probability, and the thinking process itself. Suggests five implications for genetics instruction and provides three problems…
Solving the GPS problem in almost linear Shamgar Gurevich
Weinberger, Hans
Solving the GPS problem in almost linear complexity Shamgar Gurevich University of Wisconsin. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was built to fulfill this task. It works as follows: Satellites send white noise. The GPS Problem is: Design S, and an effective method of extracting (b, 0) from S and R
Using GRASP to Solve the Unit Commitment Problem
Ana Viana; Jorge Pinho De Sousa; Manuel Matos
2003-01-01
In this paper, the Unit Commitment (UC) problem is presented and solved, following an innovative approach based on a metaheuristic procedure. The problem consists on deciding which electric generators must be committed, over a given planning horizon, and on defining the production levels that are required for each generator, so that load and spinning reserve requirements are verified, at minimum
Finding and solving problems in software new product development
Willow A. Sheremata
2002-01-01
New product development is notoriously difficult, and software new product development particularly so. Although a great deal of research has investigated new product development, projects developing new software products continue to have problems meeting their goals. In fact, one line of research proposes new product development is difficult because it must solve an ongoing stream of complex problems. I integrate
Solving the Permutation Problem in Convolutive Blind Source Separation
LÃ¼beck, UniversitÃ¤t zu
Solving the Permutation Problem in Convolutive Blind Source Separation Radoslaw Mazur and Alfred between neighboring bins for the detection of correct permutations. 1 Introduction Blind Source Separation source separation. When trans- formed to the frequency domain, the source separation problem reduces
Solving the Small Sample Size Problem of LDA
Rui Huang; Qingshan Liu; Hanqing Lu; Songde Ma
2002-01-01
The small sample size problem is often encountered in pattern recognition. It results in the singularity of the within-class scatter matrix Sw in Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Different methods have been proposed to solve this problem in face recognition literature. Some methods reduce the dimension of the original sample space and hence unavoidably remove the null space of Sw, which
SOLVING THE PERMUTATION PROBLEM USING PHASE LINEARITY AND FREQUENCY CORRELATION
Plumbley, Mark
analysis (ICA), permutation problem, spatial aliasing, linearity, phase response. 1 INTRODUCTION Blind (1) where f represents frequency, t is the frame index, Hlk(f) is the frequency response from sourceSOLVING THE PERMUTATION PROBLEM USING PHASE LINEARITY AND FREQUENCY CORRELATION Keisuke Toyama1
Solving Posynomial Geometric Programming Problems via Generalized Linear Programming
Jayant Rajgopal; Dennis L. Bricker
2002-01-01
This paper revisits an efficient procedure for solving posynomial geometric programming (GP) problems, which was initially developed by Avriel et al. The procedure, which used the concept of condensation, was embedded within an algorithm for the more general (signomial) GP problem. It is shown here that a computationally equivalent dual-based algorithm may be independently derived based on some more recent
Sequential methods in solving economic power flow problems
W. D. Rosehart; C. A. Canizares; A. Vannelli
1997-01-01
This paper compares two linear interior point programming algorithms and an interior point quadratic programming algorithm that are used to solve the optimal power flow problem. The paper focuses on the numerical oscillations that occur because of the sequential linearization of the problem. Two methods to reduce the oscillations are discussed and implemented on a six bus test system
Help your child to health: problem-solving without recourse
Qiu, Weigang
Help your child to health: problem-solving without recourse to drugs or treatment $99 Does your child have problems learning? Is your child able to follow through tasks? Could your child be suffering, health, and learning and shows you how to help your child to achieve balanced activity in each without
Exploring the Role of Conceptual Scaffolding in Solving Synthesis Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei
2011-01-01
It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC) problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring…
Paradigms and Problem-Solving: A Literature Review.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berner, Eta S.
1984-01-01
Thomas Kuhn's conceptions of the influence of paradigms on the progress of science form the framework for analyzing how medical educators have approached research on medical problem solving. A new paradigm emphasizing multiple types of problems with varied solution strategies is proposed. (Author/MLW)
A Problem-Solving Simulation for Classical Genetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, Jim
1996-01-01
Presents a genetics simulation that uses a noncomputer version of BioQUEST's Genetics Construction Kit. Provides students with opportunities for solving realistic genetics problems and allows them to experience how classical geneticists think. Discusses the problem's search space, thinking qualitatively, hypothesis generation and testing, thinking…
Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS
Utrecht, Universiteit
Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS Steven van Dijk Dirk Thierens Mark de in Geographical Information Systems (GIS's). The framework is especially suited for geographical problems since as well. 1 Introduction Geographic Information Systems (GIS's for short) combine a geographical database
Solving quadratic programming problems by delayed projection neural network.
Yang, Yongqing; Cao, Jinde
2006-11-01
In this letter, the delayed projection neural network for solving convex quadratic programming problems is proposed. The neural network is proved to be globally exponentially stable and can converge to an optimal solution of the optimization problem. Three examples show the effectiveness of the proposed network. PMID:17131675
Representation Use and Strategy Choice in Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Cock, Mieke
2012-01-01
In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics students' problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that…
Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen
2008-01-01
A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…
A Simple Level Set Method for Solving Stefan Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S.; Merriman, B.; Osher, S.; Smereka, P.
1997-07-01
A simple level set method for solving Stefan problems is presented. This method can be applied to problems involving dendritic solidification. Our method consists of an implicit finite difference scheme for solving the heat equation and a level set approach for capturing the front between solid and liquid phases of a pure substance. Our method is accurate with respect to some exact solutions of the Stefan problem. Results indicate that this method can handle topology changes and complicated interfacial shapes and that it can numerically simulate many of the physical features of dendritic solidification.
A New Approach for Solving the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pop, P. C.; Matei, O.; Sabo, C.
The generalized traveling problem (GTSP) is an extension of the classical traveling salesman problem. The GTSP is known to be an NP-hard problem and has many interesting applications. In this paper we present a local-global approach for the generalized traveling salesman problem. Based on this approach we describe a novel hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for solving the problem using genetic algorithms. Computational results are reported for Euclidean TSPlib instances and compared with the existing ones. The obtained results point out that our hybrid algorithm is an appropriate method to explore the search space of this complex problem and leads to good solutions in a reasonable amount of time.
Review on solving the forward problem in EEG source analysis
Hallez, Hans; Vanrumste, Bart; Grech, Roberta; Muscat, Joseph; De Clercq, Wim; Vergult, Anneleen; D'Asseler, Yves; Camilleri, Kenneth P; Fabri, Simon G; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lemahieu, Ignace
2007-01-01
Background The aim of electroencephalogram (EEG) source localization is to find the brain areas responsible for EEG waves of interest. It consists of solving forward and inverse problems. The forward problem is solved by starting from a given electrical source and calculating the potentials at the electrodes. These evaluations are necessary to solve the inverse problem which is defined as finding brain sources which are responsible for the measured potentials at the EEG electrodes. Methods While other reviews give an extensive summary of the both forward and inverse problem, this review article focuses on different aspects of solving the forward problem and it is intended for newcomers in this research field. Results It starts with focusing on the generators of the EEG: the post-synaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. These cells generate an extracellular current which can be modeled by Poisson's differential equation, and Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compartments in which these currents flow can be anisotropic (e.g. skull and white matter). In a three-shell spherical head model an analytical expression exists to solve the forward problem. During the last two decades researchers have tried to solve Poisson's equation in a realistically shaped head model obtained from 3D medical images, which requires numerical methods. The following methods are compared with each other: the boundary element method (BEM), the finite element method (FEM) and the finite difference method (FDM). In the last two methods anisotropic conducting compartments can conveniently be introduced. Then the focus will be set on the use of reciprocity in EEG source localization. It is introduced to speed up the forward calculations which are here performed for each electrode position rather than for each dipole position. Solving Poisson's equation utilizing FEM and FDM corresponds to solving a large sparse linear system. Iterative methods are required to solve these sparse linear systems. The following iterative methods are discussed: successive over-relaxation, conjugate gradients method and algebraic multigrid method. Conclusion Solving the forward problem has been well documented in the past decades. In the past simplified spherical head models are used, whereas nowadays a combination of imaging modalities are used to accurately describe the geometry of the head model. Efforts have been done on realistically describing the shape of the head model, as well as the heterogenity of the tissue types and realistically determining the conductivity. However, the determination and validation of the in vivo conductivity values is still an important topic in this field. In addition, more studies have to be done on the influence of all the parameters of the head model and of the numerical techniques on the solution of the forward problem. PMID:18053144
Gibson, Janet M; Dhuse, Sara; Hrachovec, Leah; Grimm, Lisa R
2011-01-01
We extend research on the priming of insight by studying group problem solving. Groups of 2-4 participants tried to solve an ambiguously worded problem in the presence of a prime that reinforced the dominant but incorrect interpretation of the problem, a prime that reinforced the uncommon but correct interpretation, or no prime. The paradigm involved participants asking questions of the experimenter that could only be answered "yes" or "no." In Experiment 1, the prime was present throughout the solving period; in Experiment 2, it was removed prior to the solving period. In both experiments, the primes had their predicted effects. Patterns in the time taken to solve the problem supported the idea that groups stuck at the impasse were more or less able to restructure the problem, depending on the environmental context. Data from the questions asked and questionnaires converged with time taken to solve the problem, consistent with the view that restructuring a problem is an automatic process that produces insight. A comparison of the group data in Experiment 1 with individually tested participants' data revealed that the insight of the groups benefited from their being able to recognize lines of questions to follow, to listen to answers to questions asked, and to evaluate and reject errors or assumptions. PMID:21264627
The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.
Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N
2002-01-01
This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving. PMID:12102132
Construction and Validation of Family Problem Solving Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Raiisi, Fateme
The aim of the present research was to indices and characteristics of scale validation for family problem solving scale. The sample size of 55 couples (110 people) were selected among married men and women in Tehran and assigned to adjusted/compatible and maladjusted/incompatible groups. ENRICH marital satisfaction scale and the new FPS scale was used as research tools. Analysis of the aspects revealed 2 aspects out of 30: communication and problem solving. Studying internal correlation of total scores of the scales and subscales showed the association rate between total score and the aspects of communication and problem solving was 0.95. Reliability index of total score re-test was 0.91 and that of communication and problem solving was 0.78 and 2.89, respectively. Internal correlation of total score, communication and problem solving was 0.91, 0.78 and 0.83, respectively. As this scale is significantly associated with ENRICH marital satisfaction scale, is permanent and can distinguish adjusted/compatible and maladjusted/incompatible couples, it can be applied for clinical and research purposes.
A Heuristic Framework to Solve a General Delivery Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lian, Lian; Castelain, Emmanuel
2010-06-01
This paper presents a new distribution and route planning problem, General Delivery Problem (GDP) which is more general than the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem. To solve a GDP, a three-phase framework heuristic approach based on decomposition techniques is introduced. The decomposition techniques are employed to divide an original problem into a set of sub-problems, which can reduce the problem size. A kind of decomposition technique, Capacity Clustering Algorithm (CCA), is embedded into the framework with Simulated Annealing (SA) to solve a special GDP. The proposed three-phase framework with the above two algorithms is compared with five other decomposition methods in a distribution instance of the Regional Fire and Emergency Center in the north of France.
Evolutionary algorithms for solving multi-objective travelling salesman problem
Vui Ann Shim; Kay Chen Tan; Jun Yong Chia; Jin Kiat Chong
2011-01-01
This paper studies the application of evolutionary algorithms for bi-objective travelling salesman problem. Two evolutionary\\u000a algorithms, including estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) and genetic algorithm (GA), are considered. The solution\\u000a to this problem is a set of trade-off alternatives. The problem is solved by optimizing the order of the cities so as to simultaneously\\u000a minimize the two objectives of travelling
Preference-Based Problem Solving for Constraint Programming
Ulrich Junker
2007-01-01
Combinatorial problems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and configuration may involve many attributes that can be\\u000a subject of user preferences. Traditional optimization approaches compile those preferences into a single utility function\\u000a and use it as the optimization objective when solving the problem, but neither explain why the resulting solution satisfies\\u000a the original preferences, nor indicate the trade-offs made during problem
Problem Solving Styles Among Children Working in Small Groups on Mathematical Word Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilbert, Kathleen; Leitz, Steven
This document focuses on four children in a small group, solving word problems aloud. Different aspects of how children in small groups approach problems were revealed; certain characteristics of their attempts to solve problems suggest a variety of questions for further research. These pupils were part of a project that involved six groups of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeMul, Frits F. M.; Batlle, Cristina Martin i.; DeBruijn, Imme; Rinzema, Kees
2004-01-01
Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential expressions and multi-dimensional integrations, and the Gauss and Ampère laws learnt in electromagnetism courses. To enhance those skills in a quick and efficient way we have developed 'Integrating Mathematics in University Physics', in which students are provided with a selection of problems (exercises) that explicitly deal with the relation between physics and mathematics. The project is based on computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and available via the Internet (http://tnweb.tn.utwente.nl/onderwijs/; or http://www.utwente.nl/; search or click to: CONECT). Normally, in CAI a predefined student-guiding sequence for problem solving is used (systematic problem solving). For self-learning this approach was found to be far too rigid. Therefore, we developed the 'adventurous problem solving' (APS) method. In this new approach, the student has to find the solution by developing his own problem-solving strategy in an interactive way. The assessment of mathematical answers to physical questions is performed using a background link with an algebraic symbolic language interpreter. This manuscript concentrates on the subject of APS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sriraman, Bharath
2003-01-01
Nine freshmen in a ninth-grade accelerated algebra class were asked to solve five nonroutine combinatorial problems. The four mathematically gifted students were successful in discovering and verbalizing the generality that characterized the solutions to the five problems, whereas the five nongifted students were unable to discover the hidden…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beaver, John F.
This book is designed to provide elementary and middle school teachers with motivating problem-solving activities to use with their students. The text contains interesting and challenging problems from mathematics, language arts, social studies, and natural science which are divided into sections of activities of short, middle, and longer duration…
New Hybrid Matheuristics for Solving the Multidimensional Knapsack Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanafi, Saïd; Lazi?, Jasmina; Mladenovi?, Nenad; Wilbaut, Christophe; Crévits, Igor
In this paper we propose new hybrid methods for solving the multidimensional knapsack problem. They can be viewed as matheuristics that combine mathematical programming with the variable neighbourhood decomposition search heuristic. In each iteration a relaxation of the problem is solved to guide the generation of the neighbourhoods. Then the problem is enriched with a pseudo-cut to produce a sequence of not only lower, but also upper bounds of the problem, so that integrality gap is reduced. The results obtained on two sets of the large scale multidimensional knapsack problem instances are comparable with the current state-of-the-art heuristics. Moreover, a few best known results are reported for some large, long-studied instances.
Dynamic application of problem solving strategies : dependency-based flow control
Jacobi, Ian Campbell
2013-01-01
While humans may solve problems by applying any one of a number of different problem solving strategies, computerized problem solving is typically brittle, limited in the number of available strategies and ways of combining ...
On the Union of Problem Solving and Information Processing: Will They Live Happily Ever After?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horan, John J.
1987-01-01
Responds to Heppner and Krauskopf's article on an information processing approach to personal problem solving. Presents a four-point summary model of problem solving and examines what information processing adds to the area of problem solving. (NB)
Internet-Based Recording Service Solves Maintenance Reporting Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noah, Marilyn
2001-01-01
Details the response to a health threat caused by illegal wastewater disposal in Wisconsin. Traces the identification of the problem, ordinances and policies adopted to guide the remedy, and subsequent monitoring of environmental quality. (DDR)
Problem decomposition How to solve a complex problem
Cockshott, W. Paul
't worry this is a common enough first reaction. But to be come competent at programming you have to get to the problems you see. These smaller tasks can be handled either by Â separate programs you write Â methods you tokens by frequency of occurrence 3)Print out in order most frequent first #12;Split the input
Progressive Questioning: Improving Students' Critical-Thinking, Logic, and Problem-Solving Skills
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Gian Gupta
2005-01-01
The senior-level course Water Pollution and Purification for environmental science majors at the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore requires students to use interdisciplinary knowledge, critical-thinking, logic, and problem-solving skills. Starting with a unit on surfacewater versus groundwater pollution, students acquire these skills through continuously answering progressive questions; they use audiovisual aids, do library assignments, and perform case studies. The process improved students' test performance and overall interest in addressing real-life problems.
Ant colony optimization for solving university facility layout problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohd Jani, Nurul Hafiza; Mohd Radzi, Nor Haizan; Ngadiman, Mohd Salihin
2013-04-01
Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAP) is classified as the NP hard problem. It has been used to model a lot of problem in several areas such as operational research, combinatorial data analysis and also parallel and distributed computing, optimization problem such as graph portioning and Travel Salesman Problem (TSP). In the literature, researcher use exact algorithm, heuristics algorithm and metaheuristic approaches to solve QAP problem. QAP is largely applied in facility layout problem (FLP). In this paper we used QAP to model university facility layout problem. There are 8 facilities that need to be assigned to 8 locations. Hence we have modeled a QAP problem with n ? 10 and developed an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the university facility layout problem. The objective is to assign n facilities to n locations such that the minimum product of flows and distances is obtained. Flow is the movement from one to another facility, whereas distance is the distance between one locations of a facility to other facilities locations. The objective of the QAP is to obtain minimum total walking (flow) of lecturers from one destination to another (distance).
Creative problem solving with root cause failure analysis
Gano, D.L. [Apollo Associated Services, Richland, WA (United States)
1996-11-01
This paper will discuss the conventional wisdom that limits one`s problem solving effectiveness and then explore new and unique knowledge and skills that help one break out of the old paradigms. One will discover how there is no such thing as a single right answer; how there is an infinite set of solutions to any problem; and how to find the most creative and innovative solutions such that the problem does not recur. One will see how these new methods can be used by almost anyone on any event-based problem. Several recent examples will be presented to support understanding of this new approach.
Solving complex band structure problems with the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laux, S. E.
2012-08-01
With straightforward extension, the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm [Polizzi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115112 (2009)] is capable of solving the generalized eigenvalue problems representing traveling-wave problems—as exemplified by the complex band-structure problem—even though the matrices involved are complex, non-Hermitian, and singular, and hence outside the originally stated range of applicability of the algorithm. The obtained eigenvalues/eigenvectors, however, contain spurious solutions which must be detected and removed. The efficiency and parallel structure of the original algorithm are unaltered. The complex band structures of Si layers of varying thicknesses and InAs nanowires of varying radii are computed as test problems.
The Yo-Yo Problem: Solving Linear Equations
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2007-12-12
In this lesson, students explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and the graphing calculator. The lesson starts with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Students then complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies that allows them to explore a linear pattern and express that pattern in symbolic form. Algebra tiles are introduced as the students practice solving linear equations. Working from the concrete to the abstract is especially important for students who have difficulty with mathematics, and algebra tiles help students make this transition. In addition to using algebra tiles, students also use symbolic manipulation and the graphing calculator. Finally, the students return to solve the yo-yo problem. A feature of this lesson is the effective use of peer tutors in this inclusion classroom. Student worksheets are included to print.
Metacognitive factors in scientific problem-solving strategies
Paulette Rozencwajg
2003-01-01
The aim of this study on 42 seventh graders (ages 12–13) was to determine whether and to what extent students’ metacognitive\\u000a level is linked to their conceptualization and performance in problem solving at school, especially science problems. This\\u000a hypothesis is supported by a number of studies showing that metacognition is a factor in learning. Two indexes were devised\\u000a for the
A Problem Solving Approach to the Introduction of Chemistry
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Stepan, Thelma
A 4-6 week unit for use with college-bound high school students, combining the introduction of chemistry with a methodical method of problem solving and a review of the mathematics needed for high school chemistry. It includes the vocabulary used in describing the physical properties of matter, the metric system and decimals, a progression of problems dealing with the derived quantities of density and heat, and the calculation of percentage of error.
Solving a multistage partial inspection problem using genetic algorithms
Heredia-Langner, Alejandro (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Montgomery, D C.(Arizona State University) [Arizona State University; Carlyle, W M.(Naval Postgraduate School) [Naval Postgraduate School
2002-01-01
Traditionally, the multistage inspection problem has been formulated as consisting of a decision schedule where some manufacturing stages receive full inspection and the rest none. Dynamic programming and heuristic methods (like local search) are the most commonly used solution techniques. A highly constrained multistage inspection problem is presented where all stages must receive partial rectifying inspection and it is solved using a real-valued genetic algorithm. This solution technique can handle multiple objectives and quality constraints effectively.
Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method
Gao, Weiguo; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.
2009-07-02
We examine the possibility of using the standard Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems arising from electronic structure calculation. We show that the Jacobian matrix associated with this nonlinear system has a special structure that can be exploited to reduce the computational complexity of the Newton's method. Preliminary numerical experiments indicate that the Newton's method can be more efficient for small problems in which a few smallest eigenpairs are needed.
Solving the Multiple Instance Problem with Axis-Parallel Rectangles
Thomas G. Dietterich; Richard H. Lathrop; Tomás Lozano-pérez
1997-01-01
The multiple instance problem arises in tasks where the training examples are ambiguous: asingle example object may have many alternative feature vectors (instances) that describe it,and yet only one of those feature vectors may be responsible for the observed classification ofthe object. This paper describes and compares three kinds of algorithms that learn axis-parallelrectangles to solve the multiple-instance problem. Algorithms
Algorithm for Solving Tridiagonal Matrix Problems in Parallel
Nathan Mattor; Timothy J. Williams; Dennis W. Hewett
1995-01-01
A new algorithm is presented, designed to solve tridiagonal matrix problems efficiently withparallel computers (multiple instruction stream, multiple data stream (MIMD) machines withdistributed memory). The algorithm is designed to be extendable to higher order bandeddiagonal systems.I. IntroductionCurrently, there are several popular methods for parallelization of the tridiagonal problem.The "most important" of these have recently been described with a unified approach,through
The use of interactive graphics to solve numerical problems
Lyle B. Smith
1970-01-01
With the advent of on-line (time-sharing) computer systems and graphic terminals, we have available a new dimension in numerical problem solving capabilities. Rather than simply use the new power to achieve fast turnaround, we can develop interactive routines which are easy to use and also take advantage of the insight and visual capabilities of the human problem solver. Several on-line
An improved ant colony algorithm to solve knapsack problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuang; Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Qiuming
2006-10-01
Ant colony optimization algorithm is a novel simulated evolutionary algorithm, which provides a new method for complicated combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper the algorithm is used for solving the knapsack problem. It is improved in selection strategy and information modification, so that it can not easily run into the local optimum and can converge at the global optimum. The experiments show the robustness and the potential power of this kind of meta-heuristic algorithm.
Engineering problem solving and knowledge creation: An epistemological perspective
Rachel Itabashi-Campbell; Sheri Perelli; Julia Gluesing
2011-01-01
This study—to our knowledge the first to model the dynamics of knowledge creation in an engineering problem solving context—addresses a gap in the literature by illustrating “engineering epistemology,” nurtured by “ba,” as a critical knowledge asset that facilitates superior problem resolution. Rich narratives generated by phenomenological interviews with US product engineers were interpreted using Nonaka and Takeuchi’s knowledge-creation model and
ALPS: BRINGING ACTIVE INQUIRY INTO ACTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING
Interview. KEYWORDS Cognitive Tutor Virtual Agent Active Learning 1. INTRODUCTION K12 mathematics The ALPS project (Active Learning in Problem Solving) is building and evaluating an educational technology goal is to develop an ``active learning'' environment that rivals the effectiveness of human tutors
ALPS: BRINGING ACTIVE INQUIRY INTO ACTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING
Interview. KEYWORDS Cognitive Tutor Virtual Agent Active Learning 1. INTRODUCTION K-12 mathematics The ALPS project (Active Learning in Problem Solving) is building and evaluating an educational technology goal is to develop an "active learning" environment that rivals the effectiveness of human tutors
Integrating perception and problem solving to predict complex object behaviours
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyons, Damian M.; Chaudhry, Sirhan; Agica, Marius; Monaco, John Vincent
2010-04-01
One of the objectives of Cognitive Robotics is to construct robot systems that can be directed to achieve realworld goals by high-level directions rather than complex, low-level robot programming. Such a system must have the ability to represent, problem-solve and learn about its environment as well as communicate with other agents. In previous work, we have proposed ADAPT, a Cognitive Architecture that views perception as top-down and goaloriented and part of the problem solving process. Our approach is linked to a SOAR-based problem-solving and learning framework. In this paper, we present an architecture for the perceptive and world modelling components of ADAPT and report on experimental results using this architecture to predict complex object behaviour. A novel aspect of our approach is a 'mirror system' that ensures that the modelled background and foreground objects are synchronized with observations and task-based expectations. This is based on our prior work on comparing real and synthetic images. We show results for a moving object that collides and rebounds from its environment, hence showing that this perception-based problem solving approach has the potential to be used to predict complex object motions.
Problem solving is a process similar to working your way
Minnesota, University of
obtained Recall memorized pattern of actions and specific formulas for solving problem type #12;7 Height Axes If Acceleration If Equilibrium Knowledge Organization of Expert #12;6 Novice Pattern Matching with your knowledge of similar behavior, within limits that you understand. 4. Look Back4. Look Back Polya
Solving the Robots Gathering Problem Mark Cieliebak1
Flocchini, Paola
Solving the Robots Gathering Problem Mark Cieliebak1 , Paola Flocchini2 , Giuseppe Prencipe3 a set of n > 2 simple autonomous mobile robots (decentralized, asyn- chronous, no common coordinate, deterministic) moving freely in the plane and able to sense the positions of the other robots. We study
Dialogical Perspectives on Narratives in Collaborative Mathematics Problem-Solving
Johann SARMIENTO; Stefan TRAUSAN-MATU; Gerry STAHL
Our approach to the study of learning of mathematical problem-solving extends the notion of narrative learning environments to include the dynamics of collaborative dialogs and related emergent narratives. This perspective favours the conception of the dialogical aspects of interaction as shared achievements of co- participants and as central meaning-making procedures, based on our qualitative analysis of transcripts from online collaborative
Cognitive Transfer of Computer Programming Skills and Analogous Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jang, Younghee
This study investigated the cognitive benefits of learning how to program by determining the degree of cognitive transfer of programming skills at a construct level to solving analogous problems in other domains. Subjects, who were students enrolled in four sections of the beginning Pascal programming course and two sections of a calculus course,…
Problem Solving: Physics Modeling-Based Interactive Engagement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ornek, Funda
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate how modeling-based instruction combined with an interactive-engagement teaching approach promotes students' problem solving abilities. I focused on students in a calculus-based introductory physics course, based on the matter and interactions curriculum of Chabay & Sherwood (2002) at a large state…
Wastewater odor problem solving. process modification versus air treatment
R. E. Kenson; V. G. Boscak; G. T. Brookman
1978-01-01
A three-phase plan was developed to solve any waste water odor problem, e.g., those encountered in the chemical manufacturing industry. Phase 1 consists of an evaluation of the odor emissions from both stack and open (fugitive) sources and their impact on ambient odors. The critical odor sources and their required degree of control are thereby defined. Phase 2 consists of
Problem Solving Teams in a Total Quality Management Environment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Towler, Constance F.
1993-01-01
Outlines the problem-solving team training process used at Harvard University (Massachusetts), including the size and formation of teams, roles, and time commitment. Components of the process are explained, including introduction to Total Quality Management (TQM), customer satisfaction, meeting management, Parker Team Player Survey, interactive…
Some Finance Problems Solved with Nonsmooth Optimization Techniques
Vinter, Richard
Some Finance Problems Solved with Nonsmooth Optimization Techniques R. B. VINTER 1 AND H. ZHENG 2 analysis and mathematical finance communities to the scope for applications of nonsmooth optimization to finance, by studying in detail two illustrative examples. The first concerns the maximization of a ter
Solving Bin Packing Related Problems Using an Arc Flow Formulation
Filipe BrandÃ£o
2012-04-13
Apr 13, 2012 ... Solving Bin Packing Related Problems Using an Arc Flow Formulation ... cutting stock, cardinality constrained bin packing, and 2D-vector bin packing. ... a large advantage of this formulation with respect to the traditional ones. ... Category 2: Applications -- OR and Management Sciences (Transportation ).
Learning Styles and Problem Solving Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gencel, Ilke Evin
2015-01-01
Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…
1998 Proceedings: Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Proceedings of the 1998 Puerto Rico conference on Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research (sponsored in part by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations) are available at this Website. The proceedings include the program, abstracts from presentations and posters, and contact information for presenters.
Learning to Learn: Algorithmic Inspirations from Human Problem Solving
Horvitz, Eric
learning. Our work comes in the context of growing interest in interactive, human-in-the-loop learning that people formulate to refine the behavior of a system. We focus on analyzing and learning within Ensemble describe a study we ran to observe human problem solving behavior with the system, review insights we
Solving Permutation Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Artificial Ants
Solnon, Christine
Solving Permutation Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Artificial Ants Christine Solnon 1 Abstract. We describe in this paper AntÂPÂsolver, a generic conÂ straint solver based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) metaÂ heuristic. The ACO metaheuristic takes inspiration on the observaÂ tion of real ants
A Technique for Assessing Mathematical Problem-Solving Ability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collis, Kevin F.; And Others
1986-01-01
Described are procedures followed in developing, administering, and scoring a set of mathematical problem-solving superitems and examining their construct validity through a recently developed evaluation technique associated with a taxonomy of the structure of learned outcomes. Data strongly support the validity of the underlying theoretical…
Extending Fibonacci Numbers to Negative Subscripts through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abramovich, Sergei
2010-01-01
This classroom note shows how Fibonacci numbers with negative subscripts emerge from a problem-solving context enhanced by the use of an electronic spreadsheet. It reflects the author's work with prospective K-12 teachers in a number of mathematics content courses. (Contains 4 figures.)
New paradigms in problem solving environments for scientific computing
George Chin Jr.; L. Ruby Leung; Karen L. Schuchardt; Deborah K. Gracio
2002-01-01
Computer and computational scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are studying and designing collaborative problem solving environments (CPSEs) for scientific computing in various domains. Where most scientific computing efforts focus at the level of the scientific codes, file systems, data archives, and networked computers, our analysis and design efforts are aimed at developing enabling technologies that are directly meaningful
Reasoning Processes Used by Paramedics to Solve Clinical Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alexander, Melissa
2009-01-01
The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to determine the reasoning processes used by paramedics to solve clinical problems. Existing research documents concern over the accuracy of paramedics' clinical decision-making, but no research was found that examines the cognitive processes by which paramedics make either faulty or accurate…
Evaluation Design for Social Conflict and Negotiative Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.
Social Conflict and Negotiative Problem Solving is an instructional system currently under development by the Improving Teaching Competencies Program (ITCP) of Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL). In accordance with the Resource Allocation Management Plan (RAMP, 1975) of ITCP, this report presents a plan of evaluation activities for…
Creating Alien Life Forms: Problem Solving in Biology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grimnes, Karin A.
1996-01-01
Describes a project that helps students integrate biological concepts using both creativity and higher-order problem-solving skills. Involves students playing the roles of junior scientists aboard a starship in orbit around a class M planet and using a description of habitats, seasonal details, and a surface map of prominent geographic features to…
Assisting students with argumentation plans when solving problems in CSCL
Ariel Monteserin; Silvia N. Schiaffino; Analía Amandi
2010-01-01
In CSCL systems, students who are solving problems in group have to negotiate with each other by exchanging proposals and arguments in order to resolve the conflicts and generate a shared solution. In this context, argument construction assistance is necessary to facilitate reaching to a consensus. This assistance is usually provided with isolated arguments by demand, but this does not
Secondary School Genetics Instruction: Making Problem Solving Explicit and Meaningful.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomson, Norman; Stewart, James
1985-01-01
Explains an algorithm which details procedures for solving a broad class of genetics problems common to pre-college biology. Several flow charts (developed from the algorithm) are given with sample questions and suggestions for student use. Conclusions are based on the authors' research (which includes student interviews and textbook analyses).…
Hemispheric Contributions to Nonverbal Abstract Reasoning and Problem Solving
Daniel N. Allen; Gregory P. Strauss; Karen A. Kemtes; Gerald Goldstein
2007-01-01
Hemispheric involvement in reasoning abilities has been debated for some time, and it remains unclear whether the right hemisphere's involvement in problem solving is modality specific or dependent on the type of spatial reasoning required. In the current study, 2 types of nonverbal reasoning abilities were examined, spatial reasoning and proportional reasoning, in 109 patients with cerebrovascular disease that was
Automating Computational Molecular Genetics: Solving the Microsatellite Genotyping Problem
of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh This research was sponsored in part by the NIH National, molecular genetics, microsatellite genotyping, pattern matching, FASTMAP. #12; #12; ABSTRACT The HumanAutomating Computational Molecular Genetics: Solving the Microsatellite Genotyping Problem See
Automating Computational Molecular Genetics: Solving the Microsatellite Genotyping Problem
of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh This research was sponsored in part by the NIH National, molecular genetics, microsatellite genotyping, pattern matching, FAST-MAP. #12;#12;ABSTRACT The Human GenomeAutomating Computational Molecular Genetics: Solving the Microsatellite Genotyping Problem See
Learning and Problem Solving Strategies of ESL Students
Anna Uhl Chamot; Marsha Dale; J. Michael OMalley; George A. Spanos
1992-01-01
The mathematics problem solving approaches of a group of elementary and secondary ESL students were investigated through a performance assessment accompanied by think-aloud procedures. Students were enrolled in ESL mathematics classes in a Title VII project implementing the Cognitive Academic Learning Approach (CALLA). In this approach, curriculum content is used to develop academic language and learning strategies are taught explicitly
Creativity and Inspiration for Problem Solving in Engineering Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nordstrom, Katrina; Korpelainen, Paivi
2011-01-01
Problem solving is a critical skill for engineering students and essential to development of creativity and innovativeness. Essential to such learning is an ease of communication and allowing students to address the issues at hand via the terminology, attitudes, humor and empathy, which is inherent to their frame of mind as novices, without the…
Technologies for Literacy: Using Technologies in a Problem Solving Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Chwee Beng
2014-01-01
As technologies have become an integral part of our lives, the way we read and understand text has changed drastically. In this paper, we discuss how various technologies support learners' reading and writing skills within the context of meaningful learning. Next, using elaborated cases, we argue that situating learners in problem solving…
Solving the Water Jugs Problem by an Integer Sequence Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2012-01-01
In this article, we present an integer sequence approach to solve the classic water jugs problem. The solution steps can be obtained easily by additions and subtractions only, which is suitable for manual calculation or programming by computer. This approach can be introduced to secondary and undergraduate students, and also to teachers and…
Solving the Inverse-Square Problem with Complex Variables
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gauthier, N.
2005-01-01
The equation of motion for a mass that moves under the influence of a central, inverse-square force is formulated and solved as a problem in complex variables. To find the solution, the constancy of angular momentum is first established using complex variables. Next, the complex position coordinate and complex velocity of the particle are assumed…
A Study of Student Interactions during Asynchronous Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cooper, Thomas E.
2009-01-01
This study was conducted to investigate the quality and nature of the students' interactions during asynchronous online problem solving in two sections of College Algebra taught by the author. In a shared-work section, students worked independently for an initial phase and had access to classmates' work during a follow-up phase. Students in the…
Primal-Dual Approach to Solve Linear Fractional Programming Problem
VISHWAS DEEP JOSHI; EKTA SINGH; NILAMA GUPTA
2008-01-01
In this paper a new method is suggested for solving the problem in which the objective function is a linear fractional function, and where the constraint functions are in the form of linear inequalities. The proposed method is based mainly upon revised primal dual simplex algorithm (RPDSA).The algorithm can be combined with interior-point methods to move from an interior point
Solving Quantitative Problems: Guidelines for Teaching Derived from Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kramers-Pals, H.; Pilot, A.
1988-01-01
Presents four guidelines for teaching quantitative problem-solving based on research results: analyze difficulties of students, develop a system of heuristics, select and map key relations, and design instruction with proper orientation, exercise, and feedback. Discusses the four guidelines and uses flow charts and diagrams to show how the…
Solving Math Problems. Windows on Literacy: Language, Literacy & Vocabulary
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberts, Jason
2006-01-01
This book is part of the "Windows on Literacy: Language, Literacy & Vocabulary" program and shows students ways to solve problems, including drawing a picture and using a calculator. The suggested grade range is K-3; the guided reading level is N-P; the basal results level is Grade 2-Grade 3; and the Windows on Literacy Stage is Fluent Plus…
Solving the GPS Problem in Almost Linear Complexity
California at Berkeley, University of
Solving the GPS Problem in Almost Linear Complexity Speaker: Shamgar Gurevich, UW Madison. Abstract (GPS) was built to ful...ll this task. It works as follows: Satellites send to earth their location. For simplicity, the Figure 1: Satellites communicate location in GPS. location of a satellite is a bit b 2 f 1g
Locus of Control and Perceived Confidence in Problem Solving Abilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Barry L.; Kilmann, Peter R.
1975-01-01
Butterfield found that internal Ss tended to make more constructive responses to frustration-type situations than did extrenal Ss. Therefore, this study predicted that internal Ss would rate themselves as more confident with regard to problem-solving abilities than would external Ss. (Author)
Towards Multi-Swarm Problem Solving in Networks
Tony White; Bernard Pagurek
1998-01-01
This paper describes how multiple interacting swarms of adaptive mobile agents can be used to solve problems in networks. The paper introduces a new architectural description for an agent that is chemically inspired and proposes chemical interaction as the principal mechanism for inter-swarm communication. Agents within a given swarm have behavior that is inspired by the foraging activities of ants,
Prospective Elementary Teachers' Misunderstandings in Solving Ratio and Proportion Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monteiro, Cecilia
2003-01-01
This study explores difficulties that prospective elementary mathematics teachers have with the concepts of ratio and proportion, mainly when they are engaged in solving problems using algorithm procedures. These difficulties can be traced back to earlier experiences when they were students of junior and high school. The reflection on these…
Does PLS solve moral hazard problems? Ouidad YOUSFI1
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
equity (PE) financing modes rarely provides detailed analytical insights into their properties) financing methods can solve asymmetric information problems. I focus on Mudarabah and Musharakah financing show that Mudarabah financing provide powerful incentive schemes to the entrepreneur. As the Islamic PE
Using Depth Intuition in Creative Problem Solving and Strategic Innovation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Markley, O. W.
1988-01-01
The article describes four step-by-step methods to sharpen intuitive capacities for problem-solving and innovation. Visionary and transpersonal knowledge processes are tapped to gain access to relatively deep levels of intuition. The methods are considered useful for overcoming internal blockages or resistance, developing organizational mission…
Encouraging Problem-Solving Disposition in a Singapore Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leong, Yew Hoong; Yap, Sook Fwe; Quek, Khiok Seng; Tay, Eng Guan; Tong, Cherng Luen; Ong, Yao Teck; Chia, Alexander Stanley Foh Soon; Zaini, Irni Karen Mohd; Khong, Wee Choo; Lock, Oi Leng; Zhang, Qiao Tian Beatrice; Tham, Yi Hui; Noorhazman, Nur-Illya Nafiza Mohamed
2013-01-01
In this article, we share our learning experience as a Lesson Study team. The Research Lesson was on Figural Patterns taught in Year 7. In addition to helping students learn the skills of the topic, we wanted them to develop a problem-solving disposition. The management of these two objectives was a challenge to us. From the lesson observation and…
Solving microscopic flow problems using Stokes equations in SPH
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
such as the motion of a red blood cell in plasma. Keywords: SPH, Stokes flow, microfluidics, red blood cell 1). If the dynamics is dominated by friction and inertial effects can be neglected, the flow through narrow channelsSolving microscopic flow problems using Stokes equations in SPH P. Van Liedekerkea, , B. Smeetsb
Training Team Problem Solving Skills: An Event-Based Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oser, R. L.; Gualtieri, J. W.; Cannon-Bowers, J. A.; Salas, E.
1999-01-01
Discusses how to train teams in problem-solving skills. Topics include team training, the use of technology, instructional strategies, simulations and training, theoretical framework, and an event-based approach for training teams to perform in naturalistic environments. Contains 68 references. (Author/LRW)
Surface Features, Representations and Tutorial Interventions in Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Julo, Jean
1990-01-01
Examines didactic interventions and claims their impact on pupil behavior aids the study of cognitive processes. Studies problem solving in teaching mathematics. Examines the functions of tutorial interventions in surface features and instability of representation. Finds tutorial interventions demonstrate a substantial increase in performance…
Problem solving in out-of-school settings: Children \\
Tom Lowrie
This investigation describes the way in which a case study participant (aged 7) used maps (including large- and small-scale maps, dynamic and static maps) to solve problems in a technology game-based context. The participant demonstrated the capacity to decipher graphical information when simultaneously moving between maps with different representations, orientations, perspectives and scales as he played a Pokemon Game Boy.
Designing WebQuests to Support Creative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rubin, Jim
2013-01-01
WebQuests have been a popular alternative for collaborative group work that utilizes internet resources, but studies have questioned how effective they are in challenging students to use higher order thinking processes that involve creative problem solving. This article explains how different levels of inquiry relate to categories of learning…
Problem Solving and Critical Thinking for Computer Science Educators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norris, Cathleen A., Ed.; Poirot, James L., Ed.
The eight papers presented in this monograph are a result of the Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Research Workshop that was held in conjunction with the 1990 National Educational Computing Conference (NECC). The intent of the workshop was to provide a unique forum for researchers to share ideas in a special area of educational computing. The…
Problem Solving in Social Studies: A Model Lesson.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oklahoma City Public School System, OK.
These model lessons from the primary grades are on the techniques of advertising drawn from a unit on, "Creating and Producing Tools and Techniques". They include behaviorial objectives, teaching and motivational strategies, evaluation techniques. The model lessons follow the problem solving inquiry approach in social studies using multimedia…
PROBLEM SOLVING AND WEB RESOURCES AT TERTIARY LEVEL
Claire Cazes; Ghislaine Gueudet; Magali Hersant; Fabrice Vandebrouck
We organised two experimental teaching designs involving web resources in two different French universities. In this paper, we describe these experiments and analyse the students' behaviours. Our aim is to observe whether the use of specific online resources favours the development of problem-solving activities.
Multiagent Optimization System for Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)
Xiao-Feng Xie; Jiming Liu
2009-01-01
The multiagent optimization system (MAOS) is a nature-inspired method, which supports cooperative search by the self-organization of a group of compact agents situated in an environment with certain sharing public knowledge. Moreover, each agent in MAOS is an autonomous entity with personal declarative memory and behavioral components. In this paper, MAOS is refined for solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP),
Batik Making as Creative Problem Solving: A Naturalistic Inquiry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bollen, Sharon Kesterson
This paper introduces an artistic model of planning and problem solving. The model is based on a case study of processes engaged in by a college art student during the course of producing a senior thesis in batik (a wax-resist fabric dyeing process). Based on the premise that knowledge of the creative process is essential to understanding the…
Generation of Spontaneous Analogies by Students Solving Science Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clement, John
In this study 34 spontaneous analogies produced by 16 college freshmen while solving qualitative physics problems are analyzed. A number of the analogies were invalid in the sense that they led to an incorrect answer from the physicist's point of view. However, many were valid, and a few were powerful in the sense that they seemed not only to help…
Student Technological Creativity Using Online Problem-Solving Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chang, Yu-Shan
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of online (web-based) creative problem-solving (CPS) activities on student technological creativity and to examine the characteristics of student creativity in the context of online CPS. A pretest-posttest quasi-experiment was conducted with 107 fourth-grade students in Taiwan. The…
Collaborative Problem Solving in Young Typical Development and HFASD
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kimhi, Yael; Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit
2012-01-01
Collaborative problem solving (CPS) requires sharing goals/attention and coordinating actions--all deficient in HFASD. Group differences were examined in CPS (HFASD/typical), with a friend versus with a non-friend. Participants included 28 HFASD and 30 typical children aged 3-6 years and their 58 friends and 58 non-friends. Groups were matched on…
John Dewey--Problem Solving and History Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martorella, Peter H.
1978-01-01
Presents a model for introducing inquiry and problem-solving into middle grade history classes. It is based on an educational approach suggested by John Dewey. The author uses the model to explore two seemingly contradictory statements by Abraham Lincoln about slavery. (AV)
How Do You Solve a Problem Like a Freshman?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boyd, Amanda C.
2011-01-01
The author discusses the need for defining what education is and how it can help change the world. The article specifically looks at sincere but vague answers freshmen often give in social issues courses, such as "To solve this problem, we should educate them," and why statements such as these do not make the case for education sufficiently.
--Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Evan Glazer
Spagnolo, Filippo
72 InterMath 1 --Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Technology). The development of mathematical understanding occurs when technology is used as a cognitive tool that supports to deliver the curriculum through web-based materials and to explore the mathematics using cognitive tools
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Participant Materials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jung, Charles; And Others
These materials are the handouts for school administrators participating in RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops. The purposes of the workshops are to develop skills for improving schools and to increase teamwork skills. The handouts correspond to the 16 subsets that make up the five-day workshop: (1) orientation; (2) identifying…
Solving constrained optimization problems with hybrid particle swarm optimization
Erwie Zahara; Chia-Hsin Hu
2008-01-01
Constrained optimization problems (COPs) are very important in that they frequently appear in the real world. A COP, in which both the function and constraints may be nonlinear, consists of the optimization of a function subject to constraints. Constraint handling is one of the major concerns when solving COPs with particle swarm optimization (PSO) combined with the Nelder-Mead simplex search
RAPTOR: a visual programming environment for teaching algorithmic problem solving
Martin C. Carlisle; Terry A. Wilson; Jeffrey W. Humphries; Steven M. Hadfield
2005-01-01
When students are learning to develop algorithms, they very often spend more time dealing with issues of syntax rather than solving the problem. Additionally, the textual nature of most programming environments works against the learning style of the majority of students. RAPTOR is a visual programming environment, designed specifically to help students envision their algorithms and avoid syntactic baggage. RAPTOR
Problem solving in a computational society Dept. of Computer Science,
Kuzmanov, Georgi
frameworks that might be used in a computational agent society, like relativized or oracle computing Abstract We propose a new framework to study problem solving in a computational society. Such a society experiences of other agents. Our history-based comput- ing framework generalizes existing computational
Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curcio, Frances R., Ed.
This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify Polya's art of…
Strategies for Solving High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Problems
Papalambros, Panos
Strategies for Solving High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Problems Zhoujie Lyu Aerodynamic shape optimization based on high-fidelity models is a computational intensive endeavor. The techniques are tested using the Common Research Model wing benchmark defined by the Aerodynamic Design
Solving ShapeAnalysis Problems in Languages with Destructive Updating
Reps, Thomas W.
Solving ShapeAnalysis Problems in Languages with Destructive Updating MOOLY SAGIV Tel This article concerns the static analysis of programs that perform destructive updating on heap allocated destructive updating of the input list and (2) a program that searches a list and splices a new element
Solving ShapeAnalysis Problems in Languages with Destructive Updating
Reps, Thomas W.
Solving ShapeAnalysis Problems in Languages with Destructive Updating Mooly Sagiv 1;2 and Thomas concerns the static analysis of programs that perform destructive updating on heapallocated storage. We programs --- including ones in which a significant amount of destructive updating takes place --- our
Graph pyramids as models of human problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pizlo, Zygmunt; Li, Zheng
2004-05-01
Prior theories have assumed that human problem solving involves estimating distances among states and performing search through the problem space. The role of mental representation in those theories was minimal. Results of our recent experiments suggest that humans are able to solve some difficult problems quickly and accurately. Specifically, in solving these problems humans do not seem to rely on distances or on search. It is quite clear that producing good solutions without performing search requires a very effective mental representation. In this paper we concentrate on studying the nature of this representation. Our theory takes the form of a graph pyramid. To verify the psychological plausibility of this theory we tested subjects in a Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem in the presence of obstacles. The role of the number and size of obstacles was tested for problems with 6-50 cities. We analyzed the effect of experimental conditions on solution time per city and on solution error. The main result is that time per city is systematically affected only by the size of obstacles, but not by their number, or by the number of cities.
Development of an Introductory Physics Problem-Solving Assessment Tool
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Cummings, Karen
This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, discusses the physics education research group at Rensselaer which is working to develop an assessment tool that will measure the problem-solving ability of introductory physics students. In its final form, the tool will consist of approximately 30-40 multiple-choice questions related to a limited number of classical mechanics topics. There are currently four types of questions included in the exam: attitudinal questions, quantitative problems that require students to identify the underlying principles used in solving the problem but not an explicit solution, questions that ask students to compare posed problems in terms of solution method, and quantitative problems requiring a solution. Although the assessment is still under development, preliminary validation studies have been performed on questions requiring students to identify underlying principles. Specifically, both an ANOVA and a Fisher LSD test have been performed. These evaluations showed that wrong answers on assessment questions correlate to below average performance on the problem solving portion of the final course exam.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xin, Yan Ping; Jitendra, Asha K.; Deatline-Buchman, Andria
2005-01-01
This study investigated the differential effects of two problem-solving instructional approaches--schema-based instruction (SBI) and general strategy instruction (GSI)--on the mathematical word problem-solving performance of 22 middle school students who had learning disabilities or were at risk for mathematics failure. Results indicated that the…
Crooks, Noelle M.; Alibali, Martha W.
2013-01-01
This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __). Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil and Alibali, 2000). One possible reason is that children's experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that are potentially problematic (McNeil and Alibali, 2005a): the perceptual pattern that all equations follow an “operations = answer” format, the conceptual pattern that the equal sign means “calculate the total”, and the procedural pattern that the correct way to solve an equation is to perform all of the given operations on all of the given numbers. Upon viewing an equivalence problem, knowledge of these patterns may be reactivated, leading to incorrect problem solving. We hypothesized that these patterns may negatively affect problem solving by influencing what people encode about a problem. To test this hypothesis in children would require strengthening their misconceptions, and this could be detrimental to their mathematical development. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in undergraduate participants. Participants completed either control tasks or tasks that activated their knowledge of the three patterns, and were then asked to reconstruct and solve a set of equivalence problems. Participants in the knowledge activation condition encoded the problems less well than control participants. They also made more errors in solving the problems, and their errors resembled the errors children make when solving equivalence problems. Moreover, encoding performance mediated the effect of knowledge activation on equivalence problem solving. Thus, one way in which experience may affect equivalence problem solving is by influencing what students encode about the equations. PMID:24324454
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xenofontos, Constantinos; Andrews, Paul
2014-06-01
This paper presents a comparative analysis of prospective elementary teachers' mathematical problem solving-related beliefs in Cyprus and England. Twenty-four participants, twelve from a well-regarded university in each country, were interviewed qualitatively at the exit point of their undergraduate teacher education studies. Analyses revealed both similarities and differences in the ways in which prospective teachers in each country construe both mathematical problems and mathematical problem solving, indicating not only that their beliefs are culturally situated but also that the concepts of "mathematical problem" and "problem solving" have different meanings cross-culturally. Such findings challenge the received view in mathematics education research of definitional convergence with respect to both mathematical problems and problem solving. Some implications for policy making are discussed.
Problem Solving in Physical Chemistry with the TI-89 Calculator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menezes, Warren J. C.
2002-12-01
The Texas Instruments TI-89 calculator is an advanced scientific calculator that has both graphing and programming capabilities, and advanced-mathematics software. In this article the TI-89 has been used for solving a variety of problems in physical chemistry. The applications in this paper include calculations with units, solving higher-order equations that are set up in chemical equilibrium problems, differential- and integral-calculus-based calculations in thermodynamics and quantum mechanics, numerical and analytic solutions of first-order differential equations in chemical kinetics, and regression analysis of data collected in a kinetics experiment. The appropriate calculator keystrokes are included for all the examples in this paper. Many complex and interesting problems can be studied with relative ease, thus allowing teachers to introduce modern scientific techniques in the classroom.
Solving Fractional Programming Problems based on Swarm Intelligence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raouf, Osama Abdel; Hezam, Ibrahim M.
2014-04-01
This paper presents a new approach to solve Fractional Programming Problems (FPPs) based on two different Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. The two algorithms are: Particle Swarm Optimization, and Firefly Algorithm. The two algorithms are tested using several FPP benchmark examples and two selected industrial applications. The test aims to prove the capability of the SI algorithms to solve any type of FPPs. The solution results employing the SI algorithms are compared with a number of exact and metaheuristic solution methods used for handling FPPs. Swarm Intelligence can be denoted as an effective technique for solving linear or nonlinear, non-differentiable fractional objective functions. Problems with an optimal solution at a finite point and an unbounded constraint set, can be solved using the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given to show the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The results obtained using the two SI algorithms revealed the superiority of the proposed technique among others in computational time. A better accuracy was remarkably observed in the solution results of the industrial application problems.
Solving Open Job-Shop Scheduling Problems by SAT Encoding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koshimura, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Hidetomo; Fujita, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Ryuzo
This paper tries to solve open Job-Shop Scheduling Problems (JSSP) by translating them into Boolean Satisfiability Testing Problems (SAT). The encoding method is essentially the same as the one proposed by Crawford and Baker. The open problems are ABZ8, ABZ9, YN1, YN2, YN3, and YN4. We proved that the best known upper bounds 678 of ABZ9 and 884 of YN1 are indeed optimal. We also improved the upper bound of YN2 and lower bounds of ABZ8, YN2, YN3 and YN4.
a Problem Solving Diagnostic Instrument for Physics Thermodynamics Concepts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iona, Steven
Changes in conceptual representations of physics thermodynamics concepts by high school physics students was examined throughout an instructional sequence. The knowledge structures identified were characterized and also compared to problem-solving strategies used by the students on physics problems. Over sixty students from four intact classes completed seven measures including three computer-administered concept relatedness tasks, a test of logical thinking, identification of demographic information, and two problem-solving sessions. Ten teacher/experts also completed the relatedness rating task and problem -solving sessions. For each rating by the students and teacher/experts, the data were transformed into a network using the Pathfinder algorithm, where each node in the network represented one of the physics concepts. Two statistical comparisons were made between the students' and teacher/experts' data: Pearson-r comparison of relatedness data and a Pearson -r comparison of the Pathfinder graphs. The results indicated that there was: (1) A structure to the thermodynamics concepts held by both the students and the teacher/experts. (2) A significant statistical difference in the Pathfinder networks among the teacher/experts. The differences were primarily localized to concepts dealing with gas laws. (3) No increase in the statistical similarity (comparing teacher/experts and students) in the networks during the instructional period. (4) A change in the students' conceptual networks indicating: (a) an acceptance by the students of certain "deep structures," (b) a time-delayed acceptance of some organizing ideas, and/or (c) gaps in the students' understanding of key ideas. (5) A "weak" rather than "strong" restructuring of the concepts by students. (6) Statistically significant similarities in local networks involving pairs of physics concepts and the problem-solving strategies used by the students. Overall this study corroborated much of the research dealing with experts and novices including studies that indicated that there are differences among novices regarding conceptual understanding and the problem-solving strategies they used. Finally, this technique using concept relatedness data and the associated Pathfinder graphs to diagnose conceptual understanding and problem-solving strategies holds potential for classroom teachers interested in better matching the learner and the learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy; Orosco, Michael
2013-01-01
This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and cognitive abilities on word problem solving accuracy in children with math difficulties (MD). Elementary school children (N = 120) with and without MD were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: general-heuristic (e.g., underline question sentence), visual-schematic presentation…
An Examination of Police Officers' Insights into Problem Identification and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bichler, Gisela; Gaines, Larry
2005-01-01
Problem solving begins with problem identification. Conventional knowledge suggests that because patrol officers work specific geographical areas (beats) on a fairly constant basis, they come to see where the problems exist; thus, police experience alone can be relied on to identify crime problems. However, few have examined whether officers are…
Problem Analysis: Examining the Selection and Evaluation of Data during Problem-Solving Consultation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newell, Markeda L.; Newell, Terrance S.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze how school psychologists engaged in problem analysis during problem-solving consultation. Five aspects of the problem analysis process were examined: 1) the types of questions participants asked during problem identification, 2) the types of data participants requested, 3) the frequency of requests for each…
Learning and interactivity in solving a transformation problem.
Guthrie, Lisa G; Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Vallée-Tourangeau, Gaëlle; Howard, Chelsea
2015-07-01
Outside the psychologist's laboratory, thinking proceeds on the basis of a great deal of interaction with artefacts that are recruited to augment problem-solving skills. The role of interactivity in problem solving was investigated using a river-crossing problem. In Experiment 1A, participants completed the same problem twice, once in a low interactivity condition, and once in a high interactivity condition (with order counterbalanced across participants). Learning, as gauged in terms of latency to completion, was much more pronounced when the high interactivity condition was experienced second. When participants first completed the task in the high interactivity condition, transfer to the low interactivity condition during the second attempt was limited; Experiment 1B replicated this pattern of results. Participants thus showed greater facility to transfer their experience of completing the problem from a low to a high interactivity condition. Experiment 2 was designed to determine the amount of learning in a low and high interactivity condition; in this experiment participants completed the problem twice, but level of interactivity was manipulated between subjects. Learning was evident in both the low and high interactivity groups, but latency per move was significantly faster in the high interactivity group, in both presentations. So-called problem isomorphs instantiated in different task ecologies draw upon different skills and abilities; a distributed cognition analysis may provide a fruitful perspective on learning and transfer. PMID:25616778
Cross, Fiona R; Jackson, Robert R
2015-03-01
Intricate predatory strategies are widespread in the salticid subfamily Spartaeinae. The hypothesis we consider here is that the spartaeine species that are proficient at solving prey-capture problems are also proficient at solving novel problems. We used nine species from this subfamily in our experiments. Eight of these species (two Brettus, one Cocalus, three Cyrba, two Portia) are known for specialized invasion of other spiders' webs and for actively choosing other spiders as preferred prey ('araneophagy'). Except for Cocalus, these species also use trial and error to derive web-based signals with which they gain dynamic fine control of the resident spider's behaviour ('aggressive mimicry').The ninth species, Paracyrba wanlessi, is not araneophagic and instead specializes at preying on mosquitoes. We presented these nine species with a novel confinement problem that could be solved by trial and error. The test spider began each trial on an island in a tray of water, with an atoll surrounding the island. From the island, the spider could choose between two potential escape tactics (leap or swim), but we decided at random before the trial which tactic would fail and which tactic would achieve partial success. Our findings show that the seven aggressive-mimic species are proficient at solving the confinement problem by repeating 'correct' choices and by switching to the alternative tactic after making an 'incorrect' choice. However, as predicted, there was no evidence of C. gibbosus or P. wanlessi, the two non-aggressive-mimic species, solving the confinement problem. We discuss these findings in the context of an often-made distinction between domain-specific and domain-general cognition. PMID:25392261
Integral calculus problem solving: an fMRI investigation.
Krueger, Frank; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Pardini, Matteo; Pajevic, Sinisa; Wood, Jacqueline N; Weiss, George H; Landgraf, Steffen; Grafman, Jordan
2008-07-16
Only a subset of adults acquires specific advanced mathematical skills, such as integral calculus. The representation of more sophisticated mathematical concepts probably evolved from basic number systems; however its neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of integral calculus while healthy participants were engaged in an integration verification task. Solving integrals activated a left-lateralized cortical network including the horizontal intraparietal sulcus, posterior superior parietal lobe, posterior cingulate gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results indicate that solving of more abstract and sophisticated mathematical facts, such as calculus integrals, elicits a pattern of brain activation similar to the cortical network engaged in basic numeric comparison, quantity manipulation, and arithmetic problem solving. PMID:18596607
Problem-Solving Without Awareness: An ERP Investigation
Paynter, Christopher A.; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Reder, Lynne M.
2010-01-01
When subjects are given the balls-and-boxes problem-solving task (Kotovsky & Simon, 1990), they move rapidly toward the goal after an extended exploratory phase, despite having no awareness of how to solve the task. We investigated possible non-conscious learning mechanisms by giving subjects three runs of the task while recording ERPs. Subjects showed significant differences in their ERP components during the exploratory phase between correct and incorrect moves. Exploratory incorrect moves were associated with a shallower response-locked N1 component and a larger response-locked P3 component compared with exploratory correct moves. Subjects who solved the task more quickly exhibited a trend towards larger N1 and P3 components. These results suggest that the brain processes information about the correctness of a move well before subjects are aware of move correctness. They further suggest that relatively simple attentional and error-monitoring processes play an important role in complex problem-solving. PMID:20600180
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dershem, Herbert L.
These modules view aspects of computer use in the problem-solving process, and introduce techniques and ideas that are applicable to other modes of problem solving. The first unit looks at algorithms, flowchart language, and problem-solving steps that apply this knowledge. The second unit describes ways in which computer iteration may be used…
Young Children Selectively Seek Help When Solving Problems
Cluver, Annette; Heyman, Gail; Carver, Leslie J.
2013-01-01
There is strong evidence that children show selectivity in their reliance on others as sources of information, but the findings to date have largely been limited to contexts that involve factual information. The present studies were designed to determine whether children might also show selectivity in their choice of sources within a problem-solving context. Children in two age groups (20 to 24 months and 30 to 36 months; total N = 60) were presented with a series of conceptually difficult problem solving tasks, and were given an opportunity to interact with adult experimenters who were depicted as either good helpers or bad helpers. Participants in both age groups preferred to seek help from the good helpers. The findings suggest that even young children evaluate others with reference to their potential to provide help and use this information to guide their behavioral choices. PMID:23484915
Solving the Attribute Reduction Problem with Ant Colony Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Hong; Wang, Guoyin; Lan, Fakuan
Attribute reduction is an important process in rough set theory. More minimal attribute reductions are expected to help clients make decisions in some cases, though the minimal attribute reduction problem (MARP) is proved to be an NP-hard problem. In this paper, we propose a new heuristic approach for solving the MARP based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. We first model the MARP as finding an assignment which minimizes the cost in a graph. Afterward, we introduce a preprocessing step that removes the redundant data in a discernibility matrix through the absorption operator and the cutting operator, the goal of which is to favor a smaller exploration of the search space at a lower cost. We then develop a new algorithm R-ACO for solving the MARP. Finally, the simulation results show that our approach can find more minimal attribute reductions more efficiently in most cases.
Collaboration and meaning analysis process in intense problem solving teams
Joan R. Rentsch; Abby L. Mello; Lisa A. Delise
2010-01-01
A set of testable propositions based on the collaboration and meaning analysis process (C-MAP) are presented. The C-MAP involves the conscious externalisation of knowledge to support knowledge transfer, the development of innovated knowledge and the development of cognitive similarity in intense problem solving teams (Rentsch, J.R., Delise, L.A., and Hutchison, S., 2008a. Transferring meaning and developing cognitive similarity in decision
Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence
Kevin F. Collis; Jane M. Watson; K. Jennifer Campbell
1993-01-01
Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of\\u000a thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place\\u000a of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and\\u000a intuitive processes in the
Organizational Patterns in Problem Solving Among Mayan Fathers and Children
Pablo Chavajay
2008-01-01
This study examined the social organization of Guatemalan Mayan fathers' engagement with school-age children in a group problem-solving task. Twenty-nine groups of Mayan fathers varying in extent of Western schooling and 3 related school-age children (ages 6–12 years) constructed a puzzle together. Groups with fathers with 0 to 3 grades more often constructed the puzzle through shared multiparty collaboration involving
A working memory model applied to mathematical word problem solving
Hassan Alamolhodaei
2009-01-01
The main objective of this study is (a) to explore the relationship among cognitive style (field dependence\\/independence),\\u000a working memory, and mathematics anxiety and (b) to examine their effects on students’ mathematics problem solving. A sample\\u000a of 161 school girls (13–14 years old) were tested on (1) the Witkin’s cognitive style (Group Embedded Figure Test) and (2)\\u000a Digit Span Backwards Test, with
Simulation driven design helps solve C5 cargo door problem
Alan Pinnick
1999-01-01
Simulation driven design helped Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems solve a fatigue-related problem on the cargo door of the C5 transport plane. Cracks in the area of the door’s upper hinge had led the Air Force to impose a special visual inspection of the door prior to each ADS mission. Use of dynamics analysis software enabled Lockheed Martin to quickly find
Improving Mathematical Problem Solving in Grades 4 Through 8
NSDL National Science Digital Library
John Woodward (Chair), et al.
This 86-page practice guide (pdf) provides educators with five specific, evidence-based recommendations for improving students' mathematical problem solving in grades 4 through 8 by incorporating such activities into regular instruction. The guide contains detailed suggestions and strategies for carrying out each recommendation, including potential roadblocks with possible approaches for overcoming them. It concludes by suggesting a four-step process for incorporating the recommendations into a lesson. The guide includes an extensive list of references.
The amplified quantum Fourier transform: solving the local period problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornwell, David J.
2013-02-01
This paper creates and analyzes a new quantum algorithm called the Amplified Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) for solving the following problem: The Local Period Problem: Let L = {0,1 . . . N-1} be a set of N labels and let A be a subset of M labels of period P, i.e. a subset of the form A=\\{j:j=s+rP,r=0,1ldots M-1\\} where {P? sqrt{N}} and {M ? N}, and where M is assumed known. Given an oracle f : L? {0,1} which is 1 on A and 0 elsewhere, find the local period P and the offset s.
Solving the initial value problem of two black holes.
Marronetti, P; Matzner, R A
2000-12-25
We solve the elliptic equations associated with the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints, corresponding to a system composed of two black holes with arbitrary linear and angular momentum. These new solutions are based on a Kerr-Schild spacetime slicing which provides more physically realistic solutions than the initial data based on conformally flat metric/maximal slicing methods. The singularity/inner boundary problems are circumvented by a new technique that allows the use of an elliptic solver on a Cartesian grid where no points are excised, simplifying enormously the numerical problem. PMID:11136031
Engineering calculations for solving the orbital allotment problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reilly, C.; Walton, E. K.; Mount-Campbell, C.; Caldecott, R.; Aebker, E.; Mata, F.
1988-01-01
Four approaches for calculating downlink interferences for shaped-beam antennas are described. An investigation of alternative mixed-integer programming models for satellite synthesis is summarized. Plans for coordinating the various programs developed under this grant are outlined. Two procedures for ordering satellites to initialize the k-permutation algorithm are proposed. Results are presented for the k-permutation algorithms. Feasible solutions are found for 5 of the 6 problems considered. Finally, it is demonstrated that the k-permutation algorithm can be used to solve arc allotment problems.
McFarlane, Judith; Koci, Anne
2014-01-01
The environmental stress of intimate partner violence is common and often results in mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and PTSD for women and behavioral dysfunctions for their children. Problem-solving skills can serve to mitigate or accentuate the environmental stress of violence and associated impact on mental health. To better understand the relationship between problem-solving skills and mental health of abused women with children, a cross-sectional predictive analysis of 285 abused women who used justice or shelter services was completed. The women were asked about social problem-solving, and mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD as well as behavioral functioning of their children. Higher negative problem-solving scores were associated with significantly (P < 0.001) greater odds of having clinically significant levels of PTSD, anxiety, depression, and somatization for the woman and significantly (P < 0.001) greater odds of her child having borderline or clinically significant levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. A predominately negative problem-solving approach was strongly associated with poorer outcomes for both mothers and children in the aftermath of the environmental stress of abuse. Interventions addressing problem-solving ability may be beneficial in increasing abused women's abilities to navigate the daily stressors of life following abuse. PMID:25435885
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Castro-Villarreal, Felicia; Guerra, Norma S.
2012-01-01
In this study, we examine 122 preservice teachers' reported problems and assessed engagement styles using the LIBRE model stick figure. Qualitative and descriptive data were gathered using (1) a qualitative problem-solving activity to identify preservice teachers' problems and engagement preferences and (2) descriptive analyses to depict and…
Constructing a Coherent Problem Model to Facilitate Algebra Problem Solving in a Chemistry Context
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ngu, Bing Hiong; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Phan, Huy P.
2015-01-01
An experiment using a sample of 11th graders compared text editing and worked examples approaches in learning to solve dilution and molarity algebra word problems in a chemistry context. Text editing requires students to assess the structure of a word problem by specifying whether the problem text contains sufficient, missing, or irrelevant…
How Students "Unpack" the Structure of a Word Problem: Graphic Representations and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edens, Kellah; Potter, Ellen
2008-01-01
This research investigated how fourth and fifth grade students spontaneously "unpacked" a word problem when generating a graphic representation to aid in problem solution. Relationships among the type of graphic representation produced, spatial visualization, drawing ability, gender, and problem solving also were examined and described.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mossuto, Mark
2009-01-01
The adoption of problem-based learning as a teaching method in the advertising and public relations programs offered by the Business TAFE (Technical and Further Education) School at RMIT University is explored in this paper. The effect of problem-based learning on student engagement, student learning and contextualised problem-solving was…
Arithmetic word-problem-solving in Huntington's disease.
Allain, Philippe; Verny, Christophe; Aubin, Ghislaine; Pinon, Karine; Bonneau, Dominique; Dubas, Frédéric; Le Gall, Didier
2005-02-01
The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested. Patients with Huntington's disease performed the solvable problems significantly worse than the normal control subjects, but there was no difference in performance between the two groups in inhibiting aberrant problems. These results suggest that early Huntington's disease patients exhibit a precocious impairment in their ability to plan the resolution of complex arithmetic word problems without deficit in their ability to eliminate aberrant problems. This dissociation of performance fits with what we have found in such patients using script-sequencing tasks (Allain et al., 2004) and with neuropsychological data obtained by Watkins et al. (2000). These results are consistent with what is known about the neuropathological progression of Huntington's disease in which neuronal loss progresses in a dorso-to-ventral direction and with what was shown in patients with circumscribed frontal lobe damage. In these patients, impairments in planning solvable word problems were more frequent when lesions were in the lateral prefrontal regions. PMID:15629205
The conflict-problem-solving CAD software integrating TRIZ into eco-innovation
Hsiang-Tang Chang; Jahau Lewis Chen
2004-01-01
Technology often conflicts with environment. Design engineers always make efforts to obtain the balance between technical innovation and environmental protection despite full of hard tasks. This paper presents the conflict-problem-solving CAD software, Eco-Design Tool, which integrates TRIZ into the eco-innovation idea. Design engineers can acquire the most feasible solution and inspiration through the proposed software. Eco-Design Tool possesses five major
Rütsche, Bruno; Hauser, Tobias U; Jäncke, Lutz; Grabner, Roland H
2015-01-01
The problem size effect is a well-established finding in arithmetic problem solving and is characterized by worse performance in problems with larger compared to smaller operand size. Solving small and large arithmetic problems has also been shown to involve different cognitive processes and distinct electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations over the left posterior parietal cortex (LPPC). In this study, we aimed to provide further evidence for these dissociations by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants underwent anodal (30min, 1.5 mA, LPPC) and sham tDCS. After the stimulation, we recorded their neural activity using EEG while the participants solved small and large arithmetic problems. We found that the tDCS effects on performance and oscillatory activity critically depended on the problem size. While anodal tDCS improved response latencies in large arithmetic problems, it decreased solution rates in small arithmetic problems. Likewise, the lower-alpha desynchronization in large problems increased, whereas the theta synchronization in small problems decreased. These findings reveal that the LPPC is differentially involved in solving small and large arithmetic problems and demonstrate that the effects of brain stimulation strikingly differ depending on the involved neuro-cognitive processes. PMID:25789486
Rütsche, Bruno; Hauser, Tobias U.; Jäncke, Lutz; Grabner, Roland H.
2015-01-01
The problem size effect is a well-established finding in arithmetic problem solving and is characterized by worse performance in problems with larger compared to smaller operand size. Solving small and large arithmetic problems has also been shown to involve different cognitive processes and distinct electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations over the left posterior parietal cortex (LPPC). In this study, we aimed to provide further evidence for these dissociations by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants underwent anodal (30min, 1.5 mA, LPPC) and sham tDCS. After the stimulation, we recorded their neural activity using EEG while the participants solved small and large arithmetic problems. We found that the tDCS effects on performance and oscillatory activity critically depended on the problem size. While anodal tDCS improved response latencies in large arithmetic problems, it decreased solution rates in small arithmetic problems. Likewise, the lower-alpha desynchronization in large problems increased, whereas the theta synchronization in small problems decreased. These findings reveal that the LPPC is differentially involved in solving small and large arithmetic problems and demonstrate that the effects of brain stimulation strikingly differ depending on the involved neuro-cognitive processes. PMID:25789486
A domain decomposition algorithm for solving large elliptic problems
Nolan, M.P.
1991-01-01
AN algorithm which efficiently solves large systems of equations arising from the discretization of a single second-order elliptic partial differential equation is discussed. The global domain is partitioned into not necessarily disjoint subdomains which are traversed using the Schwarz Alternating Procedure. On each subdomain the multigrid method is used to advance the solution. The algorithm has the potential to decrease solution time when data is stored across multiple levels of a memory hierarchy. Results are presented for a virtual memory, vector multiprocessor architecture. A study of choice of inner iteration procedure and subdomain overlap is presented for a model problem, solved with two and four subdomains, sequentially and in parallel. Microtasking multiprocessing results are reported for multigrid on the Alliant FX-8 vector-multiprocessor. A convergence proof for a class of matrix splittings for the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation is given. 70 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.
Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.
2015-01-01
This study’s hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of the 2nd grade, children (n = 206; on average, 7 years, 6 months) were assessed on general language comprehension, working memory, nonlinguistic reasoning, processing speed (a control variable), and foundational skill (arithmetic for WPs; word reading for text comprehension). In spring, they were assessed on WP-specific language comprehension, WPs, and text comprehension. Path analytic mediation analysis indicated that effects of general language comprehension on text comprehension were entirely direct, whereas effects of general language comprehension on WPs were partially mediated by WP-specific language. By contrast, effects of working memory and reasoning operated in parallel ways for both outcomes. PMID:25866461
Strategic differences in algebraic problem solving: neuroanatomical correlates.
Lee, Kerry; Lim, Zee Ying; Yeong, Stephanie H M; Ng, Swee Fong; Venkatraman, Vinod; Chee, Michael W L
2007-06-25
In this study, we built on previous neuroimaging studies of mathematical cognition and examined whether the same cognitive processes are engaged by two strategies used in algebraic problem solving. We focused on symbolic algebra, which uses alphanumeric equations to represent problems, and the model method, which uses pictorial representation. Eighteen adults, matched on academic proficiency and competency in the two methods, transformed algebraic word problems into equations or models, and validated presented solutions. Both strategies were associated with activation of areas linked to working memory and quantitative processing. These included the left frontal gyri, and bilateral activation of the intraparietal sulci. Contrasting the two strategies, the symbolic method activated the posterior superior parietal lobules and the precuneus. These findings suggest that the two strategies are effected using similar processes but impose different attentional demands. PMID:17509541
COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS
Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson
2001-04-01
The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.
The strength of the strongest ties in collaborative problem solving.
de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune
2014-01-01
Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798
The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune
2014-06-01
Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.
The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving
de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune
2014-01-01
Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sleegers, Peter; Wassink, Hartger; van Veen, Klaas; Imants, Jeroen
2009-01-01
In addition to cognitive research on school leaders' problem solving, this study focuses on the situated and personal nature of problem framing by combining insights from cognitive research on problem solving and sense-making theory. The study reports the results of a case study of two school leaders solving problems in their daily context by…
Modifying PASVART to solve singular nonlinear 2-point boundary problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fulton, James P.
1988-01-01
To study the buckling and post-buckling behavior of shells and various other structures, one must solve a nonlinear 2-point boundary problem. Since closed-form analytic solutions for such problems are virtually nonexistent, numerical approximations are inevitable. This makes the availability of accurate and reliable software indispensable. In a series of papers Lentini and Pereyra, expanding on the work of Keller, developed PASVART: an adaptive finite difference solver for nonlinear 2-point boundary problems. While the program does produce extremely accurate solutions with great efficiency, it is hindered by a major limitation. PASVART will only locate isolated solutions of the problem. In buckling problems, the solution set is not unique. It will contain singular or bifurcation points, where different branches of the solution set may intersect. Thus, PASVART is useless precisely when the problem becomes interesting. To resolve this deficiency we propose a modification of PASVART that will enable the user to perform a more complete bifurcation analysis. PASVART would be combined with the Thurston bifurcation solution: as adaptation of Newton's method that was motivated by the work of Koiter 3 are reinterpreted in terms of an iterative computational method by Thurston.
SUSY at the ILC and Solving the LHC Inverse Problem
Gainer, James S.; /SLAC
2008-05-28
Recently a large scale study of points in the MSSM parameter space which are problematic at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been performed. This work was carried out in part to determine whether the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) could be used to solve the LHC inverse problem. The results suggest that while the ILC will be a valuable tool, an energy upgrade may be crucial to its success, and that, in general, precision studies of the MSSM are more difficult at the ILC than has generally been believed.
Modified Projection Algorithms for Solving the Split Equality Problems
Dong, Qiao-Li; He, Songnian
2014-01-01
The split equality problem (SEP) has extraordinary utility and broad applicability in many areas of applied mathematics. Recently, Byrne and Moudafi (2013) proposed a CQ algorithm for solving it. In this paper, we propose a modification for the CQ algorithm, which computes the stepsize adaptively and performs an additional projection step onto two half-spaces in each iteration. We further propose a relaxation scheme for the self-adaptive projection algorithm by using projections onto half-spaces instead of those onto the original convex sets, which is much more practical. Weak convergence results for both algorithms are analyzed. PMID:24574882
High-Performance Algorithm for Solving the Diagnosis Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fijany, Amir; Vatan, Farrokh
2009-01-01
An improved method of model-based diagnosis of a complex engineering system is embodied in an algorithm that involves considerably less computation than do prior such algorithms. This method and algorithm are based largely on developments reported in several NASA Tech Briefs articles: The Complexity of the Diagnosis Problem (NPO-30315), Vol. 26, No. 4 (April 2002), page 20; Fast Algorithms for Model-Based Diagnosis (NPO-30582), Vol. 29, No. 3 (March 2005), page 69; Two Methods of Efficient Solution of the Hitting-Set Problem (NPO-30584), Vol. 29, No. 3 (March 2005), page 73; and Efficient Model-Based Diagnosis Engine (NPO-40544), on the following page. Some background information from the cited articles is prerequisite to a meaningful summary of the innovative aspects of the present method and algorithm. In model-based diagnosis, the function of each component and the relationships among all the components of the engineering system to be diagnosed are represented as a logical system denoted the system description (SD). Hence, the expected normal behavior of the engineering system is the set of logical consequences of the SD. Faulty components lead to inconsistencies between the observed behaviors of the system and the SD. Diagnosis the task of finding faulty components is reduced to finding those components, the abnormalities of which could explain all the inconsistencies. The solution of the diagnosis problem should be a minimal diagnosis, which is a minimal set of faulty components. The calculation of a minimal diagnosis is inherently a hard problem, the solution of which requires amounts of computation time and memory that increase exponentially with the number of components of the engineering system. Among the developments to reduce the computational burden, as reported in the cited articles, is the mapping of the diagnosis problem onto the integer-programming (IP) problem. This mapping makes it possible to utilize a variety of algorithms developed previously for IP to solve the diagnosis problem. In the IP approach, the diagnosis problem can be formulated as a linear integer optimization problem, which can be solved by use of well-developed integer-programming algorithms. This concludes the background information.
Assessment of vertical transfer in problem solving: Mapping the problem design space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Von Korff, Joshua; Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay
2012-02-01
In schema-based theories of cognition, vertical transfer occurs when a learner constructs a new schema to solve a transfer task or chooses between several possible schemas. Vertical transfer is interesting to study, but difficult to measure. Did the student solve the problem using the desired schema or by an alternative method? Perhaps the problem cued the student to use certain resources without knowing why? In this paper, we consider some of the threats to validity in problem design. We provide a theoretical framework to explain the challenges faced in designing vertical transfer problems, and we contrast these challenges with horizontal transfer problem design. We have developed this framework from a set of problems that we tested on introductory mechanics students, and we illustrate the framework using one of the problems.
How Do I Do A Math Problem? Strategies for mathematical problem solving
Maxwell, Bruce D.
!" --Alice Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland #12;1. Nora lives 15 miles from work. On Wednesday, Nora drove NOT to approach mathematical problem solving - Alice doesn't know her basic math facts, starts her solution you're attacking simple problems in arithmetic, like Alice, or more difficult analytical questions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newell, Markeda
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze how school psychologists engage racial/cultural diversity when conceptualizing problems during consultation in a multiracial context. Four school psychologists were recruited to engage in computer-simulated problem-solving consultation. Each school psychologist was presented with three fictional…