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1

NUMERICAL METHOD FOR SOLVING INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical method for solving incompressible viscous flow problems is introduced. This method uses the velocities and the (1b) in a domain D in two or three space dimensions, with pressure as variables and is equally applicable to problems in two some appropriate conditions prescribed on the boundary and three space dimensions. The principle of the method lies in the

Alexandre Joel Chorin

1967-01-01

2

Solving hyperelastic material problems by asymptotic numerical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a numerical algorithm based on a perturbation technique named asymptotic numerical method (ANM) to solve nonlinear problems with hyperelastic constitutive behaviors. The main advantages of this technique compared to Newton-Raphson are: (a) a large reduction of the number of tangent matrix decompositions; (b) in presence of instabilities or limit points no special treatment such as arc-length algorithms is necessary. The ANM uses high order series approximation with auto-adaptive step length and without need of any iteration. Introduction of this expansion into the set of nonlinear equations results into a sequence of linear problems with the same linear operator. The present work aims at providing algorithms for applying the ANM to the special case of compressible and incompressible hyperelastic materials. The efficiency and accuracy of the method are examined by comparing this algorithm with Newton-Raphson method for problems involving hyperelastic structures with large strains and instabilities.

Nezamabadi, Saeid; Zahrouni, Hamid; Yvonnet, Julien

2011-01-01

3

Numerical methods for solving linear least squares problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common problem in a Computer Laboratory is that of finding linear least squares solutions. These problems arise in a variety of areas and in a variety of contexts. Linear least squares problems are particularly difficult to solve because they frequently involve large quantities of data, and they are ill-conditioned by their very nature. In this paper, we shall consider

G. G. Golub

1965-01-01

4

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,

5

Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Problem solving and thinking are inseparably linked together. We propose that a theory of thinking has to consider and incorporate\\u000a the notion of problem solving. In this chapter, we review the most important accounts of problem solving and hope to convince\\u000a the reader that problem solving may provide an ideal framework for developing a theory of thinking.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a We start with

Michael Öllinger; Vinod Goel

6

Abstract Applets: A Method for Integrating Numerical Problem Solving into the Undergraduate Physics Curriculum  

SciTech Connect

In upper-division undergraduate physics courses, it is desirable to give numerical problem-solving exercises integrated naturally into weekly problem sets. I explain a method for doing this that makes use of the built-in class structure of the Java programming language. I also supply a Java class library that can assist instructors in writing programs of this type.

Peskin, Michael E

2003-02-13

7

Abstract Applets: A Method for Integrating Numerical Problem-Solving into the Undergraduate Physics Curriculum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In upper-division undergraduate physics courses, it is desirable to give numerical problem-solving exercises integrated naturally into weekly problem sets. I explain a method for doing this that makes use of the built-in class structure of the Java progra...

M. E. Peskin

2003-01-01

8

An effective numerical method for solving viscous-inviscid interaction problems.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new numerical method to solve the equations of the asymptotic theory of separated flows. A number of measures was taken to ensure fast convergence of the iteration procedure, which is employed to treat the nonlinear terms in the governing equations. Firstly, we selected carefully the set of variables for which the nonlinear finite difference equations were formulated. Secondly, a Newton-Raphson strategy was applied to these equations. Thirdly, the calculations were facilitated by utilizing linear approximation of the boundary-layer equations when calculating the corresponding Jacobi matrix. The performance of the method is illustrated, using as an example, the problem of laminar two-dimensional boundary-layer separation in the flow of an incompressible fluid near a corner point of a rigid body contour. The solution of this problem is non-unique in a certain parameter range where two solution branches are possible. PMID:16105776

Kravtsova, Marina A; Zametaev, Vladimir B; Ruban, Anatoly I

2005-05-15

9

Role of beliefs and emotions in numerical problem solving in university physics education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger studentsâ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with studentsâ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of studentsâ epistemological beliefs is important for studentsâ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.

Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael

2013-05-28

10

Role of beliefs and emotions in numerical problem solving in university physics education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger students’ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with students’ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of students’ epistemological beliefs is important for students’ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.

Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael

2012-06-01

11

Creating Problem Solving Natives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post, the author discusses how valuable the problem-solving tool of drawing (or acting) out the problem is to help learners make sense of the problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of work from students who were successful and who were not successful in solving the problem are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "Schmoos ânâ Goos" (cataloged separately) that is best solved by drawing a picture.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-03-04

12

Numerical method for solving the problem of the unsteady potential flow of a fluid with moving boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper examines the unsteady potential flow of an ideal incompressible fluid with moving solid and free boundaries; the flow is described as a nonlinear boundary value problem for a harmonic function. The numerical algorithm decomposes the problem: at each time step the harmonic function is determined as the solution of a linear mixed problem, and then the deformation of the boundary and variations of the boundary values are calculated. The problem is solved numerically with the use of a rectangular mesh. Theoretical results are presented on the fall of a disk and a plate into water, and calculations are compared with experimental data.

Shifrin, E. G.; Shubnikov, G. V.

1982-02-01

13

A Numerical procedure for solving 2D phase-field model problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general 2D phase-field model, but without anisotropy, applied to freezing into a supercooled melt of pure nickel. The complete numerical procedure and details of assigning the numerical parameters are provided; convergence of the numerical method is demonstrated by conducting grid function convergence tests. The physics of solidification problems such as conditions for nucleation and crystal growth rate are discussed theoretically and shown to display at least qualitative agreement numerically. In particular, comparison of the computed critical radius with the theoretical one and the consistency of the computational dendrite structure for different Stefan numbers, the relationship between the growth rate and the Stefan number, etc., with the theoretical and experimental evidence indicate that phase-field models are able to capture the physics of supercooled solidification.

Xu, Ying; McDonough, J. M.; Tagavi, K. A.

2006-11-01

14

Grading Cooperative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses aspects of cooperative problem solving that include the selection of appropriate problems and the grading of group and individual papers using an analytical scoring scale. Offers six tips for grading cooperative problem solving. An appendix provides solutions to cited problems, potential follow-up questions, and an annotated…

Kroll, Diana Lambdin; And Others

1992-01-01

15

Teaching through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

16

Effective Family Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children with definite- and indefinite-solution tasks. Incentive and task independence were manipulated. It was found that definitions of effective problem solving based on directly observed measures of group interaction were more valid than definitions based on…

Blechman, Elaine A.; McEnroe, Michael J.

1985-01-01

17

Problem Solving and Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, ``knowledge chunks'' are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-07-01

18

Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…

Veal, William

1999-01-01

19

Solving the Pentagon Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes one possible approach to solving the following problem: given a pentagon ABCDE in which triangles ABC, BCD, CDE, DEA, and EAB all have area=1, is the area of the pentagon determined? (AIM)|

Greer, Brian

1996-01-01

20

Problem Solving Seminar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course includes elements from an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. The material will help students develop their mathematical and problem solving skills. A few topics that are covered include probability, generating mathematical functions and polynomials. Course materials include student assignments and solutions. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-; Kedlaya, Kiran Sridhara, 1974-; Stanley, Richard

2010-12-22

21

An efficient numerical algorithm for solving scattering and inverse scattering problems of electromagnetic waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an efficient numerical algorithm of determining the unknown material composition and shape of an arbitrary target from the measured electromagnetic waves in the far field region will enhance the capability of the defense radar system to defeat known evasive schemes. The first step in this research effort is the development of an efficient and versatile numerical algorithm

Yung M. Chen

1987-01-01

22

Inquiry and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…

Thorson, Annette, Ed.

1999-01-01

23

Problem Solving in Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

24

Effective family problem solving.  

PubMed

Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children, with 2 definite-solution tasks--tower building (TWB) and 20 questions (TQ), and 1 indefinite-solution task--plan-something-together (PST). Incentive (for cooperation or competition) and task independence (members worked solo or jointly) were manipulated during TWB and TQ, yielding 4 counterbalanced conditions per task per family. On TQ, solo performance exceeded joint performance; on TWB, competition impaired joint performance. Families effective at problem solving in all conditions of both definite-solution tasks tried more problem-solving strategies during TWB and deliberated longer and reached more satisfactory agreements during PST. Family problem-solving effectiveness was moderately predicted by 2 parents' participation in the study. Parental education, parental occupational prestige, and membership in the family of an academically and socially competent child were weaker predictors. The results indicate that definitions of effective family problem solving that are based on directly observed measures of group interaction are more valid than definitions that rely primarily on family characteristics. PMID:3987417

Blechman, E A; McEnroe, M J

1985-04-01

25

Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Chemical Engineering Modeling" is a first-semester graduate course traditionally taught in a lecture format at Oklahoma State University. The course as taught by the author for the past seven years focuses on numerical and mathematical methods as necessary skills for incoming graduate students. Recent changes to the course have included Visual…

Maase, Eric L.; High, Karen A.

2008-01-01

26

Persistence in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video third grade teacher Jean Saul demonstrates how she uses problem solving tasks to create a classroom climate that fosters persistence, independence, responsibility, and risk-taking. Students are asked to find three different methods for solving each problem and to record them on a Choose Three Ways graphic organizer. Through collaboration and presentation of their work to peers, students develop math language and discourse skills. A side bar provides reflection questions. Supporting materials include a transcript of the video (doc), the graphic organizer (doc), and two samples of student work (pdf).

2012-01-01

27

Problem Solving with Patents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-01-01

28

Solid Gold Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is designed to strengthen critical thinking and problem-solving skills by allowing students to assume the roles of 1992 Winter Olympic Games planners who make preparations for the event. A reproducible data sheet serves as a resource. Hands-on activities and a critical television viewing activity are included. (IAH)

Fagella, Kathy

1992-01-01

29

[Problem Solving Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

30

Problem Solving through Aviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit that focuses on problem solving through real life situations that involveaviation. In spite of a variety of shapes and sizes all airplanes fly in the same way, and the problems of the aviation industry are basically the same. Some of the problems in this unit deal with the tests that have already been in the United States by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Agency, and the Department of Defense in order to ensure safety, convenience, and efficiency in aviation.

Bryant, Joyce

2007-04-10

31

Opportunities in Workclothes: Problems & Problem-Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook suggests six problem-solving steps to help employees in workplace literacy programs learn how to solve problems: identify the problem; clarify goals; examine alternatives; choose; act; and evaluate and react. Fifteen problem scenarios are provided for group efforts in problem solving. A problem-solving questionnaire and questionnaire…

Falagrady, Teresa

32

Computer Problem-Solving Coaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

2005-09-01

33

Computer Problem-Solving Coaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

2009-11-30

34

Problem solving and behavior modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively reviewed problem-solving theory and research for possible applications in behavior modification. Problem solving was defined as a behavioral process which (a) makes available a variety of response alternatives for dealing with a problematic situation, and (b) increases the probability of selecting the most effective response from among these alternatives. 5 stages of problem solving were identified: (a) general orientation

Thomas J. DZurilla; Marvin R. Goldfried

1971-01-01

35

Visualization in Problem Solving Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes two problem solving environments that integrate visualization and computational tools into a high level user interface. The objective of a problem solving environment is to provide scientists with a complete, usable, and integrated set of high level facilities for solving problems in a specific domain. Integrating visualization tools with computation tools encourages scientists to think in terms

Amit Goel

36

The Problem-Solving Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of microcomputers and software as problem-solving tools, including comments on "TK! Solver," automatic problem-solving program (reviewed in detail on pp.84-86 in this same issue). Also discusses problem-solving approaches to bridge the disciplines, such as music/physics, junior high science/mathematics (genetics),…

Bardige, Art

1983-01-01

37

Principles for Teaching Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Kirkley, Rob F.

2003-01-01

38

Mathematical Problem Solving by Analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed

Laura R. Novick; Keith J. Holyoak

1991-01-01

39

Context Effects on Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context effects on problem solving demonstrated so far in the literature are the result of systematic manipulation of some supposedly irrelevant to the solution elements of the problem description. Little attention has been paid to the role of casual entities in the environment which are not part of the problem description, but which might influence the problem solving process. The

Boicho Kokinov; Marina Yoveva

1996-01-01

40

Solving the inverse problem of high numerical aperture focusing using vector Slepian harmonics and vector Slepian multipole fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique using vector Slepian harmonics and vector Slepian multipole fields is presented for a general treatment of the inverse problem of high numerical aperture focusing. A prescribed intensity distribution or electric field distribution in the focal volume is approximated using numerical optimization and the corresponding illuminating field at the entrance pupil is constructed. Three examples from the recent literature are chosen to illustrate the method.

Jahn, Kornél; Bokor, Nándor

2013-02-01

41

Solving Trade Discount Word Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

Nunenkamp, David; Coonce, Carol

2008-01-01

42

Models of group problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the group problem solving process was investigated with college Ss working on Maier's horse trading problem (1952). 3 theoretical models were posited to be utilized to interpret the results: an independent model (group response will not differ from those of Ss working alone), a rational model (when one group member solves the problem, the group will adopt

Edwin J. Thomas; Clinton F. Fink

1961-01-01

43

Problem Solving Style, Creative Thinking, and Problem Solving Confidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…

Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.

2009-01-01

44

Problem Solving about Problem Solving: Framing a Research Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to provide teachers with support for the improvement of computer-based problem solving, this paper considers the following research questions--and provides answers--about how to teach students problem solving and how to design training courses for teachers: (1) What are the teachers' and researchers' assumptions about the relation…

Marshall, Gail

45

Research on Problem Solving: Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a very detailed and comprehensive review of the extensive literature in education and cognitive science on the use of physics problems as a context for examining cognitive processes and approaches to problem solving.

Maloney, David

2006-06-19

46

Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

47

Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in…

Lacy, Grace

48

Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)|

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

49

Combined analytical/numerical approaches to solving fluid flow problems in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Various analytical and numerical approaches are presented for the study of unsaturated flow processes in the vicinity of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed site of an underground radioactive waste repository. Approximate analytical methods are used to study absorption of water from a saturated fracture into the adjacent rock. These solutions are incorporated into a numerical simulator as fracture/matrix interaction terms to treat problems such as flow along a fracture with transverse leakage into the matrix. An automatic fracture/matrix mesh generator is described; it allows for more efficient mesh generation for fractured/porous media, and consequently leads to large savings in computational time and cost. 21 refs., 6 figs.

Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1990-01-01

50

Children Solve Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

De Bono, Edward

51

Solving bearing overheating problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overheating is a major indicator, along with vibration and noise, of an underlying problem affecting a bearing or related components. Because normal operating temperatures vary widely from one application to another, no single temperature is a reliable sign of overheating in every situation. By observing an application when it is running smoothly, a technician can establish a benchmark temperature for

Jendzurski

1995-01-01

52

Solving Playground Network Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use cooperation and logical thinking to find solutions to network problems on the playground. Learners act both as computer routers, figuring out with each other how to effectively get data to the place it's being sent, and as the actual data, because the learners travel various edges of a network to get to their destination or "home" point. Learners use geometry skills to determine the most efficient routes in the network.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

53

Metaheuristics: Intelligent Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Metaheuristics support managers in decision making with robust tools providing high quality solutions to important problems\\u000a in business, engineering, economics and science in reasonable time horizons. While finding exact solutions in these applications\\u000a still poses a real challenge despite the impact of recent advances in computer technology and the great interactions between\\u000a computer science, management science\\/operations research and mathematics, (meta-)

Marco Caserta; Stefan Voß

54

On Solving "Problems"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting and estimating are no doubt ancient survival skills. And yet, present educational methods tend to downplay these very skills. This breeds senseless innumeracy and social disruption. Jumbling inches with centimeters, for example, can cause a Mars mission to fail. With minor distortion, elementary and high schools (and beyond) teach that all fractions are simple, that all square roots are rational, and that trigonometric functions need be evaluated only for 30, 45, and 60 degrees. We thus inflict threefold damage on our children and students. First, they come to believe that numbers beyond 10 (except for current account deficits) are intuitively inaccessible; second, that answers to all mathematical questions are "formulas"; and third, that the art of estimation merely requires punching keys on a calculator—a dismal sort of black magic. These beliefs I wish to expose in the form of eight short numerical tales.

Ghez, Richard

2006-04-01

55

Problem Solving in Teaching Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter from the dissertation "Education About and Through Technology: In Search of More Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches to Technology Education" explores the importance and nature of problem solving in technology.

Esa-Matti Jarvinen (University of Oulu)

2012-01-16

56

Solving satisfiability problems with preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propositional satisfiability (SAT) is a success story in Computer Sci- ence and Artificial Intelligence: SAT solvers are currently used to solve problems in many different application domains, including planning and formal verifica- tion. The main reason for this success is that modern SAT solvers can success- fully deal with problems having millions of variables. All these solvers are based on

Emanuele Di Rosa; Enrico Giunchiglia; Marco Maratea

2010-01-01

57

Assessing Problem Solving with "Diana"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, discusses an experiment in which expert and novice participants completed a task either completing a mechanics problem (novices) or evaluating the answer to the problem (experts). The results indicated that instructors were more likely to make specific criticisms if the students spoke in generalities. Additional evidence indicates that novice problem solving knowledge consists of both conscious and tacit pieces.

Harper, Kathleen A.

2010-08-03

58

Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…

Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

2007-01-01

59

Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems  

ScienceCinema

One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

60

Logo's Problem-Solving Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the uncertainty of the future and the rapidity with which computer technology is changing, a generalist position on the objectives of educational computing is desirable. This position insists that learning how to think and solve problems is the foundation of education and suggests that basic learning needs to be an integral part of the…

Dale, Evelyn J.

61

Genetics problem solving and worldview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

Dale, Esther

62

Problem Solving Skills of Selected Fourth Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A comparison of three approaches to problem solving in fourth grade mathematics is presented. Three classes participated in the study. Class One studied problem solving in a structured classroom setting, Class Two studied problem solving incidentally, and Class Three studied problem solving when it appeared in the text. The structured study of…

Harvin, Virginia R.

63

Toward a New Perspective on Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educating students to become successful problem solvers has been a goal of education at least since Dewey. However, the kinds of problems students do in school to practice their problem-solving competence have little to do with the problems they will need to solve in everyday settings. We briefly critique traditional conceptions of problem solving, propose a different framework for theorizing

Wolff-Michael Roth; Michelle K. McGinn

1997-01-01

64

Problem Solving: Pencil Box Staining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip shows students engaged in the first Common Core Practice StandardâMake sense of problems and persevere in solving them as learners make a decision about how much stain will be needed to cover the surface area of twenty-six completed boxes. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video. A related clip (cataloged separately) shows the same exploration by the same students but Common Core Practice Standard # #5-Use appropriate tools strategically is evident.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

65

Strategies of Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Artificial Intelligence is concerned with problem solving in which groups solve tasks. In this paper we describe stra­ tegies of cooperation that groups require to solve shared tasks effectively. We discuss such strategies in the context of a specific group problem solving application: collision avoidance in air traffic control. Experimental findings with four distinct air-traffic control systems, each implementing

Stephanie J. Cammarata; David Mcarthur; Randall Steeb

1983-01-01

66

Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to…

van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2013-01-01

67

LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

2011-01-01

68

Problem Solving Appraisal of Delinquent Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the following: (1) the relationship of problem solving appraisal to narcissistic vulnerability, locus of control, and depression; (2) the differences in problem solving appraisal, locus of control, and depression in first-time and repeat offenders; and (3) the prediction of problem solving appraisal by narcissistic…

Perez, Ruperto M.; And Others

69

Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)|

Ouellette, Hugh

1979-01-01

70

Gender Differences in Advanced Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategy flexibility in mathematical problem solving was investigated. In Studies 1 and 2, high school juniors and seniors solved Scholastic Assessment Test–Mathematics (SAT-M) problems classified as conventional or unconventional. Algorithmic solution strategies were students' default choice for both types of problems across conditions that manipulated item format and solution time. Use of intuitive strategies on unconventional problems was evident only

Ann M. Gallagher; Richard De Lisi; Patricia C. Holst; Ann V. McGillicuddy-De Lisi; Mary Morely; Cara Cahalan

2000-01-01

71

Stabilization: A Descriptive Framework for Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative description of problem solving was tested against the think-aloud protocols of twelve introductory calculus-based physics students. Think-aloud protocols are transcripts of problem-solving sessions during which participants are asked to verbalize their thoughts as they attempt to solve a problem. The stabilization model tested considers perceptions of problem difficulty to be related to four primary factors: categorization, goal interpretation,

Sherry L. Savrda

2006-01-01

72

How problem-solving really works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years, many researchers have proposed theoretical models of problem-solving. These models work a problem in a sequential and rational manner. Through our professional experience and an action research study, we discovered fundamental differences between what these models describe and what actually happens when problems are solved in a real-world setting. Assisting with a process improvement experience in a

Satya S. Chakravorty; Douglas N. Hales; James I. Herbert

2008-01-01

73

Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem

Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

2013-01-01

74

AHA: A Connectionist Perspective on Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AHA model is proposed as a demonstration of what connectionism might have to offer the study of problem solving. Bridging the Gestalt and Problem Space theories of problem solving, AHA simulates serial search at a macro-level while incorporating (at a...

C. A. Kaplan

1988-01-01

75

Authentic assessment of students' problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Improving curricular materials and practices aimed at complex cognitive processes such as problem solving requires careful planning and useful tools for assessment. To illustrate the challenges of measuring a change in studentsâ problem solving in physics, we present the results of and a reflection on a pilot assessment of the effectiveness of computer problem-solving coaches in a large (200+ student) section of an introductory physics course.

Xu, Qing; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leon; Aryal, Bijaya

2013-08-05

76

Authentic assessment of students' problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving curricular materials and practices aimed at complex cognitive processes such as problem solving requires careful planning and useful tools for assessment. To illustrate the challenges of measuring a change in students' problem solving in physics, we present the results of and a reflection on a pilot assessment of the effectiveness of computer problem-solving coaches [1] in a large (200+ student) section of an introductory physics course.

Xu, Qing; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Aryal, Bijaya

2013-01-01

77

Doing Right: Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We discuss individual and multiagent (group) problem solving and negotiation. We consider connectedness, a dynamic subjective\\u000a relation experience of consciousness involving awareness\\/qualia experience – as cognition, emotion, social, conation, holistic,\\u000a etc. We develop Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation (CPSN) for doing right meaning defining\\/solving a validated\\u000a “right” problem\\/solution, as discussed in the chapter. The validated solution constitutes right action. CPSN

Melvin F. Shakun

78

Numerical methodologies for solving partial differential equations  

SciTech Connect

The numerical methods for solving systems of partial differential equations can be analyzed by decoupling the space and time discretizations and analyzing them independently. First a method is selected to discretize the differential equation in space and incorporate the boundary conditions. The spectrum of this discrete operator is then used as a guide to choose an appropriate method to integrate the equations through time. The dissipative effects of a numerical method are crucial to constructing reliable methods for conservation laws. This is particularly true when the solution is discontinuous as in a shock wave or contact discontinuity. Choosing an accurate method to accomplish each of these tasks, space and time discretization and incorporating artificial dissipation in the numerical solution, determines the success of the calculation. We will describe the methodologies used in each of these choices to construct reliable, accurate and efficient methods. 13 refs., 6 figs.

Hyman, J.M.

1989-01-01

79

Extending the Conception of "Problem" in Problem-Solving Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the literature concerning problem solving in science education. Authors contend that the adoption of a forward-looking viewpoint of science has increased the attention given to the topics of discovery and problem-solving behavior. Authors conclude that research by philosophers of science on models and problem solving include insights to…

Stewart, Jim; Hafner, Robert

1991-01-01

80

Teaching Problem Solving in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Musicians practice to build endurance, flexibility, and dexterity. They practice to maintain good performance, to sight-read better, to memorize, and simply, to enjoy music making. There are other motivations for practice, but one, more than others, is a catalyst for consequential change in musical development--practicing to solve performance…

Byo, James L.

2004-01-01

81

Deconstructing Insight: EEG Correlates of Insightful Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCognitive insight phenomenon lies at the core of numerous discoveries. Behavioral research indicates four salient features of insightful problem solving: (i) mental impasse, followed by (ii) restructuring of the problem representation, which leads to (iii) a deeper understanding of the problem, and finally culminates in (iv) an “Aha!” feeling of suddenness and obviousness of the solution. However, until now no

Simone Sandkühler; Joydeep Bhattacharya; Paul Zak

2008-01-01

82

Suppressed semantic information accelerates analytic problem solving.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the limits of semantic processing without awareness, during continuous flash suppression (CFS). We used compound remote associate word problems, in which three seemingly unrelated words (e.g., pine, crab, sauce) form a common compound with a single solution word (e.g., apple). During the first 3 s of each trial, the three problem words or three irrelevant words (control condition) were suppressed from awareness, using CFS. The words then became visible, and participants attempted to solve the word problem. Once the participants solved the problem, they indicated whether they had solved it by insight or analytically. Overall, the compound remote associate word problems were solved significantly faster after the problem words, as compared with irrelevant words, were presented during the suppression period. However this facilitation occurred only when people solved with analysis, not with insight. These results demonstrate that semantic processing, but not necessarily semantic integration, may occur without awareness. PMID:23250762

Zabelina, Darya L; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru; Beeman, Mark

2013-06-01

83

Who Solved the Secretary Problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Martin Gardner's Mathematical Games column in the February 1960 issue of Scientific American, there appeared a simple problem that has come to be known today as the Secretary Problem, or the Marriage Problem. It has since been taken up and developed by many eminent probabilists and statisticians and has been extended and generalized in many different directions so that

Thomas S. Ferguson

1989-01-01

84

Solving third order boundary value problem with fifth order method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fifth order direct method is developed for the numerical solution of nonlinear boundary value problems (BVPs) directly. Most of the existence research involving BVPs will reduce the problem to a system of first order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). However, the proposed method will solve the third order BVPs directly without reducing to first order ODEs. The direct method will solve the nonlinear third order BVPs by shooting technique using constant step size. Numerical result is presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. The results clearly show that the proposed method is suitable for solving third order nonlinear BVPs.

Abdullah, Ahmad Shah; Abdul Majid, Zanariah; Senu, Norazak

2013-04-01

85

Complexity reduction approach for solving hyperbolic problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complexity reduction approach has been used to solve various science and technology problems. In this paper we will discuss the implementation of the approach to solve some hyperbolic equation such as first order hyperbolic problem and the Maxwell Equations. For solving the Maxwell equations, we implement a weighted average fourth order truncation with the complexity reduction approach. The approach shown to successfully reduce the complexity of original method. Results show to increase the speed up of its original method significantly.

Hasan, M. K.; Sulaiman, J.; Karim, S. A. A.

2013-04-01

86

Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual restructuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth?level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem?solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students experienced a conceptual restructuring that stayed with them over time and

Teresa Ibáńez Orcajo; Mercedes Martínez Aznar

2005-01-01

87

The Ideal Science Student and Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the nature of students' social mental models of the ideal science student, whether or not these models vary with student ethnicity, and the relationship of these models to problem solving strategies used, and problem solving ability in a robotics challenge. Participants were twenty-six, academically advanced, eleven and twelve year olds. Two social mental models were identified, a traits-based

Florence R. Sullivan; Xiaodong Lin

88

Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students…

Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez; Aznar, Mercedes Martinez

2005-01-01

89

A Conceptual Approach to Physics Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students in introductory physics courses treat problem solving as an exercise in manipulating equations, symbols, and quantities with the goal of obtaining the correct answer. Although this approach is efficient for getting answers, it is far from optimal for learning how conceptual knowledge is applied in the problem-solving process. The goal of this study is to refine and evaluate an

Jennifer L. Docktor; Natalie E. Strand; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross

2010-01-01

90

Teaching and Learning through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author relates some problem solving work with primary schools to Department for Children, Schools, and Families (DfES) support. In four primary schools in the West Midlands, the focus was teaching mathematics through problem solving, based on materials published on the DfES "standards" website. The author noticed the way…

Ollerton, Mike

2007-01-01

91

Solving Problems with Charts & Tables. Pipefitter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, this instructional module is designed to help individuals employed as pipefitters learn to solve problems with charts and tables. Outlined in the first section is a five-step procedure for solving problems involving tables and/or charts: identifying the question to…

Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

92

Making Systematic Problem Solving Work with Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated systematic problem solving with 52 elementary school students. The experimental group (N=26) received Galvin Alternative Intervention Network (GAIN) training. Results indicated the GAIN program was effective in facilitating problem solving. Students' responses were unique and constituted creative behavior. (JAC)

Galvin, Maryanne

1983-01-01

93

NARRATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING IN TEACHER EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among system characteristics we can emphasize problem-solving orientation of school work in all school subjects. The comprehensive school reform introduced in the 1970's a unified school form in the whole country with regulated subject matter teaching (the number of lessons is defined in law). During the nine years in comprehensive school each student solves about 15 000 problems and tasks

Pentti Hakkarainen

94

Science problem solving learning through mobile gaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the impact of the application of a specially tailored classroom methodology based on a problem-solving mobile game for 8th grade science class curriculum. The methodology included science classroom activities with teachers as facilitators and learning activities using interactive mobile videogames. The evaluation study focused on the development of problem solving skills. The research team evaluated videos recorded

Jaime Sánchez; Alvaro Salinas

2008-01-01

95

Teaching Problem Solving Through Cooperative Grouping. Part 1: Group Versus Individual Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an experiment that was conducted to investigate the effects of cooperative group learning on the problem solving performance of college students in a large introductory physics course. An explicit problem solving strategy was taught in the course, and students practiced using the strategy to solve problems in mixed-ability cooperative groups. A technique was developed to evaluate students' problem solving performance and determine the difficulty of context-rich problems. It was found that better problem solutions emerged through collaboration than were achieved by individuals working alone. The instructional approach improved the problem solving performance of students at all ability levels.

Heller, Patricia; Keith, Ronald; Anderson, Scott

2006-06-19

96

New Approaches for Solving the Diagnosis Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, the number of Earth orbiters and deep-space probes has grown dramatically and is expected to continue to do so in the future as miniaturization technologies drive spacecraft to become more numerous and more complex. This rate of growth has brought a new focus on autonomous and self-preserving systems that depend on fault diagnosis. Although diagnosis is needed for any autonomous system, current approaches are almost uniformly ad hoc, inefficient, and incomplete. Systematic methods of general diagnosis exist in literature, but they all suffer from two major drawbacks that severely limit their practical applications. First, they tend to be large and complex and hence difficult to apply. Second and more importantly, in order to find the minimal diagnosis set, i.e., the minimal set of faulty components, they rely on algorithms with exponential computational cost and hence are highly impractical for application to many systems of interest. In this article, we propose a two-fold approach to overcoming these two limitations and to developing a new and powerful diagnosis engine. First, we propose a novel and compact reconstruction of the general diagnosis engine (GDE) as one of the most fundamental approaches to model-based diagnosis. We then present a novel algorithmic approach for calculation of the minimal diagnosis set. Using a powerful yet simple representation of the calculation of the minimal diagnosis set, we map the problem onto two well-known problems -- that is, the Boolean satisfiability and 0/1 integer programming problems. The mapping onto the Boolean satisfiability problem enables the use of very efficient algorithms with a superpolynomial rather than an exponential complexity for the problem. The mapping onto the 0/1 integer programming problem enables the use of a variety of algorithms that can efficiently solve the problem for up to several thousand components. These new algorithms are a significant improvement over the existing ones, enabling efficient diagnosis of large, complex systems. In addition, the latter mapping allows one, for the first time, to determine the bound on the solution, i.e., the minimum number of faulty components, before solving the problem. This is a powerful insight that can be exploited to develop yet more efficient algorithms for the problem.

Fijany, A.; Vatan, F.; Barrett, A.; Mackey, R.

2002-01-01

97

Problem-Solving Instruction and Problem-Solving Transfer: The Correspondence Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mayer and Wittrock (1996) have raised the specificity-generality issue as it applies to the teachable aspects of problem-solving transfer. Simply put, do the instructional practices that foster more efficient acquisition-learning of problem-solving strategies automatically foster more efficient problem-solving transfer? On the basis of the present…

Phye, Gary D.

2001-01-01

98

Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

2009-01-01

99

Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

2009-01-01

100

The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has…

Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene

2005-01-01

101

Using Bibliotherapy to Teach Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students with high-incidence disabilities (e.g., specific learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, mild mental retardation) can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning how to become proactive problem solvers. Often students with high-incidence disabilities are characterized as inefficient in recognizing and solving problems. By learning a problem-solving strategy and applying it to children's literature titles, students with disabilities can learn to become independent

James W. Forgan

2002-01-01

102

Solving problems on concurrent processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book explains how many major scientific algorithms can be used on large parallel machines. Based on five years of research on hypercubes, the book concentrates on practically motivated model problems, that serve to illustrate generic algorithmic and decomposition techniques. The authors include results for hypercube-class concurrent computers with up to 128 nodes, and the principles behind the extrapolation to

G Fox

1988-01-01

103

Building Confidence through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-minute video demonstrates how students learn to persevere through challenging number puzzles and games. Headteacher Kate Frood discusses her philosophy and models teaching children to use core multiplication facts as tools for more complex problems. She differentiates tasks to accommodate advanced and struggling learners.

2012-01-01

104

Spatial visualization in physics problem solving.  

PubMed

Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naíve students were administered kinematics problems and spatial visualization ability tests. In Study 2, 17 (8 high- and 9 low-spatial ability) additional students completed think-aloud protocols while they solved the kinematics problems. In Study 3, the eye movements of fifteen (9 high- and 6 low-spatial ability) students were recorded while the students solved kinematics problems. In contrast to high-spatial students, most low-spatial students did not combine two motion vectors, were unable to switch frames of reference, and tended to interpret graphs literally. The results of the study suggest an important relationship between spatial visualization ability and solving kinematics problems with multiple spatial parameters. PMID:21635308

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A; Hegarty, Mary

2007-07-01

105

Solving RDF feed system problems  

SciTech Connect

Energy recovery from solid waste involves processing the waste to concentrate combustibles for use as a refuse-derived fuel (RDF). RDF feed systems at 28 facilities in the United States and Canada are described. An assessment of the performance of these systems indicates problems with storage and retrieval, flow blockages, abrasion, entanglement and winding, and feed rate control. Guidelines for operation are included. (JMT)

Sokol, D.; Campbell, J.A.

1982-04-01

106

Neurophysiologic Collaboration Patterns During Team Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have explored using neurophysiologic collaboration patterns as an approach for developing a deeper understanding of how teams collaborate when solving time-critical, complex real-world problems. Teams of three students solved substance abuse management simulations using IMMEX software while measures of mental workload (WL) and engagement (E) were generated by electroencephalography (EEG). Levels of high and low workload and engagement were

Ron Stevens; Trysha Galloway; Chris Berka; Marcia Sprang

2009-01-01

107

Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

2011-01-01

108

Mass collaboration problem solving: A new approach to wicked problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system that would harness the brainpower of vast numbers of humans and orchestrate their efforts could be used to solve hard problems that are beyond the reach of computational methods. This paper describes such a system. This system will use a recursive problem solving life cycle model based on a continuously evolving distributed supply chain infrastructure. The problems to

Andrew Potter; Melody McClure; Ken Sellers

2010-01-01

109

Frameworks for Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of cooperation in distributed problem solving are considered: task-sharing and result-sharing. In the former, nodes assist each other by sharing the computational load for the execution of subtasks of the overall problem. In the latter, nodes assist each other by sharing partial results which are based on somewhat different perspectives on the overall problem. Different perspectives arise because

REID G. SM; Randall Davis

1981-01-01

110

Teaching Our Children to Solve "Fuzzy" Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how parents can teach children to be creative problem solvers, providing information from the University of Michigan's Future Problem Solving Program (FPSP). The FPSP model involves brainstorming subproblems, identifying important problem areas, brainstorming solutions, brainstorming criteria for evaluating ideas, evaluating solutions,…

Alvino, James

1993-01-01

111

Using Proportional Reasoning to Solve Geometric Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students solve a geometric problem of measuring polygons with the help of proportional reasoning. Thus the importance of conceptual reasoning is emphasized as a highly efficient technique for teaching and strengthening mathematical content.

Pandiscio, Eric A

2004-01-01

112

University Physics As a Second Language: Mastering Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Get a better grade in Physics Solving physics problems can be challenging at times. But with hard work and the right study tools, you can learn the language of physics and get the grade you want. With Tom Barrett's University Physics as a Second Language(TM): Mastering Problem Solving, you'll be able to better understand fundamental physics concepts, solve a variety of problems, and focus on what you need to know to succeed. Here's how you can get a better grade in physics: Understand the basic concepts University Physics as a Second Language(TM) focuses on selected topics in calculus-based physics to give you a solid foundation. Tom Barrett explains these topics in clear, easy-to-understand language. Break problems down into simple steps University Physics as a Second Language(TM) teaches you to approach problems more efficiently and effectively. You'll learn how to recognize common patterns in physics problems, break problems down into manageable steps, and apply appropriate techniques. The book takes you step-by-step through the solutions to numerous examples. Improve your problem-solving skills University Physics as a Second Language(TM) will help you develop the skills you need to solve a variety of problem types. You'll learn timesaving problem-solving strategies that will help you focus your efforts, as well as how to avoid potential pitfalls.

Barrett, Tom

2005-09-01

113

Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely…

Pestel, Beverly C.

1993-01-01

114

Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.  

PubMed

Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E

2012-08-08

115

Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas  

PubMed Central

Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals.

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

2012-01-01

116

Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; untangling of specific problem solving assets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

Adams, Wendy Kristine

117

Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

Sriraman, Bharath

2004-01-01

118

Solving an ``unsolvable'' projectile-motion problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

If there were any rules about teaching physics, ``Don't assign problems to the students that you, yourself, cannot solve'' would probably top the list. And yet this bias is an unfortunate one: a closer examination of some of these problems can lead to new and valuable understandings.

David Montalvo

1999-01-01

119

Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…

Benson, Dave

2011-01-01

120

Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naive students were administered kinematics problems and…

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A.; Hegarty, Mary

2007-01-01

121

Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…

Benson, Dave

2011-01-01

122

Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…

Forgan, James W.

2002-01-01

123

Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…

Forgan, James W.

2002-01-01

124

Teacher Learning on Problem-Solving Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem-solving teams address student difficulties. Teams comprised of teachers, specialists, and administrators identify the student problem, develop individualized interventions, and assess student change. Teacher experiences of teams are understudied. In a prospective, mixed-method study conducted in the United States, 34 teachers were…

Gregory, Anne

2010-01-01

125

Teacher Preparation for a Problem Solving Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the teacher is central to the success of any curriculum innovation. Thus, teachers' professional development has become an increasingly important subject of discussion in recent education literature. In the design and implementation of the project reported here, teachers' preparation for the problem-solving curriculum featured prominently. This paper discusses the challenges of selecting a suitable problem and ways

Khiok Seng; Jaguthsing Dindyal; Eng Guan

2009-01-01

126

GIS Live and Web Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.

2007-01-01

127

Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)

Angseesing, J. P. A.

1978-01-01

128

Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…

Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

129

The Development of Students' Problem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

130

Thinking Tools: A Young Person's Guide to Problem Solving. Thirty-seven Tools for Solving Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Resources that will help secondary students become more effective problem solvers are provided. The book describes techniques or tools and an overall strategy for solving problems. Throughout the book there are exercises that enable the student to practice the techniques. The first chapter provides an overview of the problem solving process.…

Stevens, Lawrence A.

131

Exploring collaborative problem solving in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative problem solving occurs in situations in which two or more individuals cooperate in appraising, representing,\\u000a and solving a variety of cognitive tasks. Collaborative groups are the context for much everyday cognitive activity in adulthood.\\u000a Collaboration has been explored as a means through which older adults may maintain high levels of performance, perhaps compensating\\u000a for individual-level cognitive and neurological decline.

Roger A. Dixon; Diane P. Fox; Lee Trevithick; Rebecca Brundin

1997-01-01

132

Nanomedicine : Problem Solving to Treat Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of ?real? scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.

Payne, Amy C.; Zenner, Greta; Sammel, Lauren M.; Hemling, Melissa A.; Crone, Wendy C.

2006-01-01

133

Knowledge Structure and Problem Solving in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article presents a prescriptive analysis of the kinds of knowledge and procedures leading to effective human problem solving in a quantitative science such as physics. The knowledge about such a science, explicated in the case of mechanics, specifies special descriptive concepts and relations described at various levels of abstractness, is organized hierarchically, and is accompanied by explicit guidelines specifying when and how this knowledge is to be applied. General problem-solving procedures, to be used in conjunction with such domain-specific knowledge, specify how initially to describe and analyze any problem so as to facilitate its subsequent solution; how to search for a solution by methods of constraint satisfaction used together with heuristic methods for decomposing problems and exploring decisions; and how to assess whether the resulting solution is correct and reasonably optimal. The preceding model of effective human problem solving is compared with some relevant observations and with special experiments designed to test such a prescriptive model. It also suggests methods for teaching students improved scientific problem-solving skills.

Reif, Frederick; Heller, Joan I.

2006-06-23

134

Problem-Solving Appraisal in Counseling and with Different Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Heppner, Witty and Dixon have presented the development and theoretical base of the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). They link it to numerous validity and reliability studies, with findings in predicted directions. This article expresses concerns about its use as a target in counseling and its applicability to individuals of the nonmajority…

Lucas, Margaretha S.

2004-01-01

135

Artificial Immune System for Solving Constrained Optimization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an artificial immune system (AIS) based on the CLONALG algorithm for solving constrained (numerical) optimization problems. We develop a new mutation operator which produces large and small step sizes and which aims to provide better exploration capabilities. We validate our proposed approach with 13 test functions taken from the specialized literature and we compare our

Susana C. Esquivel; Carlos Artemio Coello Coello; Victoria S. Aragón

2007-01-01

136

Initial Conditions for Numerical Relativity: Introduction to Numerical Methods for Solving Elliptic PDEs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical relativity became a powerful tool to investigate the dynamics of binary problems with black holes or neutron stars as well as the very structure of General Relativity. Although public numerical relativity codes are available to evolve such systems, a proper understanding of the methods involved is quite important. Here, we focus on the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations. Such equations arise when preparing initial data for numerical relativity, but also for monitoring the evolution of black holes. Because such elliptic equations play an important role in many branches of physics, we give an overview of the topic, and show how to numerically solve them with simple examples and sample codes written in C++ and Fortran90 for beginners in numerical relativity or other fields requiring numerical expertise.

Okawa, Hirotada

2013-09-01

137

The Effects of Problem-Based Learning On Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem-based instruction is designed to provide students with a guided experience in solving an ill-structured problem. All learning in problem-based instruction stems from students initial questions about a problem situation. Currently used in medical school programs, problem-based curriculum has not been tested at the high school level. Science, Society and the Future (SSF) is an experimental problem-based course for gifted

Shelagh A. Gallagher; William J. Stepien; Hilary Rosenthal

1992-01-01

138

Insightful Problem Solving in an Asian Elephant  

PubMed Central

The “aha” moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E.; Reiss, Diana

2011-01-01

139

Using PLATO to Teach Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the results of three studies which investigated the use of PLATO to teach problem solving. Subjects were 244 children from kindergarten through third grade. The first study explored the extent to which kindergartners and second graders used the knowledge about which answers were right and which were wrong to develop the correct strategy to solve a novel picture problem. The next study looked at the procedures used by kindergartners and second graders while they were in the process of trying to get the answer. The third study considered three conditions of teaching first and third graders the necessary problem solving skills: experience only, feedback consisting of a visual record of the student's work on the first five problems, and interactive instructional feedback on how to solve each problem that the child had done wrong. Abstracts, methods, results, and discussions are given for each of the studies. Results of this research led to a post hoc study which is described. Seven figures show sample displays and nine references are also given.

Steinberg, Esther R.

2006-12-07

140

Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.  

PubMed

The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food. PMID:21876741

Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana

2011-08-18

141

Solving linear Neumann boundary value problems using block methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A direct two-point block one-step method for solving linear Neumann boundary value problems (LNBVP) is considered. This method will solve the second order LNBVP directly without reducing it to the system of first order equations. The direct solution of LNBVP will be calculated at two points simultaneously using constant step size. This method will be used together with the linear shooting technique to construct the numerical solution. The implementation is based on the predictor and corrector formulas in the PE(CE)m mode. Numerical results are given to show the performance of this method compared to the existing methods.

Hasni, Mohd Mughti; Abdul Majid, Zanariah; Senu, Norazak

2013-04-01

142

Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.  

PubMed

This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the pioneering LA solutions to this problem, unequivocally demonstrates that LA can play an important role in solving complex combinatorial and integer optimization problems. PMID:19884057

Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John

2010-02-01

143

Assessing Affect after Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks: Validating the Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.

2013-01-01

144

Some new problems in numerical integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we examine the numerical computation of the (multiple) integrals generated by Galerkin methods applied to two nonstandard hypersingular integral equations, which are of interest by their own. These equations are used to solve two classical electromagnetic problems that are briefly described.

Monegato, G.

2007-12-01

145

a Meshless Scheme for Solving Inverse Problems of Laplace Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a meshless numerical method to solve inverse problems for Laplace equation which are the descriptions of a steady-state heat conduction problem. The temperature and heat flux on unspecified boundary can be determined simultaneously. The basic idea of our proposed method is to approximate the solution of problem by a linear combination of fundamental solution of Laplace operator. The numerical results of several examples involving smooth or non-smooth geometries show that the proposed method is efficient and accurate.

Hon, Y. C.; Wei, T.

2003-04-01

146

A MEMORY-BASED PROBLEM SOLVING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectural design activity requires some of the highest cognitive abilities of human beings, including creativity, synthesis and problem solving. Ambiguity, uncertainty and parallel scenarios are central to the early phases of the design process. Large amounts of information are manipulated in a short time at early conceptual design. This dynamic phase involves a dynamic search process for good concept solutions

H. M. G. Bártolo; P. J. S. Bártolo

147

A SURVEY OF PROBLEM-SOLVING COURSES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|TO DETERMINE THE DESIRABILITY OF HAVING ITS OWN CREATIVITY COURSE, THE STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE SURVEYED 43 ORGANIZATIONS ON THEIR PROBLEM SOLVING COURSES. FIFTEEN INDUSTRIAL CORPORATIONS, FOUR CONSULTING FIRMS, A GOVERNMENT AGENCY, A RESEARCH CORPORATION, AND NINE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES RESPONDED WITH SPECIFIC INFORMATION ON COURSE LENGTH…

EDWARDS, M.O.

148

Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef

2010-01-01

149

Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…

McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

150

Supporting Organizational Problem Solving with a Workstation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes an approach to supporting work in the office. Using and extending ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), we describe office work as a problem solving activity. A knowledge-embedding language called Omega is used to embe...

G. Barber

1982-01-01

151

Design and Problem Solving in Technology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Collectively, technological literacy embraces everything from intelligent consumerism to concerns about environmental degradation, ethics, and elitism. Technological problem solving can have social, ecological, or technological goals and may be categorized by four types: invention, design, trouble shooting, and procedures. Every citizen should be…

Custer, Rodney L.

1999-01-01

152

Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef

2010-01-01

153

Helping Students Develop Problem Solving Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies procedure to help classroom teachers infuse problem solving into the typical technology education classroom. The five steps involved are (1) set a goal the student can attain, (2) define a task that incorporates new actions and ideas, (3) provide a structure, (4) force the student to choose between several alternatives, and (5) make…

Baker, G. E.; Dugger, John C., III

1986-01-01

154

Creating Environments for Peaceful Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For may early childhood teachers, angry voices of children are heard all too often. When children focus on protecting themselves and surviving conflicts, they miss out on the joys and opportunities the early childhood program has to offer. Without the ability to solve problems in their interactions with others, children are not able to peacefully…

Lamm, Sandra; Groulx, Judith G.; Hansen, Cindy; Patton, Mary Martin; Slaton, Anna Jimenez

2006-01-01

155

Using Algorithms in Solving Synapse Transmission Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how a simple three-step algorithm can aid college students in solving synapse transmission problems. Reports that all of the students did not completely understand the algorithm. However, many learn a simple working model of synaptic transmission and understand why an impulse will pass across a synapse quantitatively. Students also see…

Stencel, John E.

1992-01-01

156

How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…

Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

2013-01-01

157

Solving optimization problems on computational grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiprocessor computing platforms, which have become more and more widely available since the mid-1980s, are now heavily used by organizations that need to solve very demanding computational problems. Parallel computing is now central to the culture of many research communities. Novel parallel approaches were developed for global optimization, network optimization, and direct-search methods for nonlinear optimization. Activity was particularly widespread

S. J. Wright

2001-01-01

158

Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

2006-01-01

159

Databases, Problem Solving and Laboratory Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a problem-solving activity integrating a laboratory investigation with a database activity using Appleworks. Presents typical displays of the databases. The objective of the laboratory was to determine the identity of a pure substance by measuring physical properties and searching the database. (Author/YP)|

Strickland, A. W.; Hoffer, T.

1989-01-01

160

Will Biotech Crops Solve World Problems?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson examines implications of biotechnology on agriculture. Students can discuss the pro & con arguments and economics of GM food labeling, create a dinner menu of GM food, develop a GM crop testing company, submit ideas for a GM crop that may solve a selected nation's problem, update statistics & data used in the original article... and more!

Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College;)

2003-02-01

161

Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…

Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

2012-01-01

162

Creative Problem Solving Using GroupSystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creativity is an important issue in the world of collaboration and it is widely accepted that techniques of creativity can energize participants and improve effectiveness of meetings. Specifically these techniques have been applied to 'creative problem solving'. This paper analyses why it can be difficult to be creative in conventional meetings and. describes some current techniques for encouraging creativity. The

Alan Weatherall

1998-01-01

163

Instructors' Ideas about Problem Solving--Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has developed an interview tool to investigate physics faculty views about the learning and teaching of problem solving. In the part of the interview dealing with grading, faculty members were asked to evaluate a set of five student solutions and explain their reasons for the…

Henderson, Charles; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia; Kuo, Vince H.; Yerushalmi, Edit

164

Representations in Problem Solving: A Case Study with Optimization Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: Representations play an essential role in mathematical thinking. They favor the understanding of mathematical concepts and stimulate the development of flexible and versatile thinking in problem solving. Here our focus is on their use in optimization problems, a type of problem considered important in mathematics teaching and…

Villegas, Jose L.; Castro, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jose

2009-01-01

165

Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method  

SciTech Connect

We examine the possibility of using the standard Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems arising from electronic structure calculation. We show that the Jacobian matrix associated with this nonlinear system has a special structure that can be exploited to reduce the computational complexity of the Newton's method. Preliminary numerical experiments indicate that the Newton's method can be more efficient for small problems in which a few smallest eigenpairs are needed.

Gao, Weiguo; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.

2009-07-02

166

Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.

Bardwell, Lisa V.

1991-09-01

167

Review on solving the forward problem in EEG source analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of electroencephalogram (EEG) source localization is to find the brain areas responsible for EEG waves of interest. It consists of solving forward and inverse problems. The forward problem is solved by starting from a given electrical source and calculating the potentials at the electrodes. These evaluations are necessary to solve the inverse problem which is defined as finding brain sources which are responsible for the measured potentials at the EEG electrodes. Methods While other reviews give an extensive summary of the both forward and inverse problem, this review article focuses on different aspects of solving the forward problem and it is intended for newcomers in this research field. Results It starts with focusing on the generators of the EEG: the post-synaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. These cells generate an extracellular current which can be modeled by Poisson's differential equation, and Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compartments in which these currents flow can be anisotropic (e.g. skull and white matter). In a three-shell spherical head model an analytical expression exists to solve the forward problem. During the last two decades researchers have tried to solve Poisson's equation in a realistically shaped head model obtained from 3D medical images, which requires numerical methods. The following methods are compared with each other: the boundary element method (BEM), the finite element method (FEM) and the finite difference method (FDM). In the last two methods anisotropic conducting compartments can conveniently be introduced. Then the focus will be set on the use of reciprocity in EEG source localization. It is introduced to speed up the forward calculations which are here performed for each electrode position rather than for each dipole position. Solving Poisson's equation utilizing FEM and FDM corresponds to solving a large sparse linear system. Iterative methods are required to solve these sparse linear systems. The following iterative methods are discussed: successive over-relaxation, conjugate gradients method and algebraic multigrid method. Conclusion Solving the forward problem has been well documented in the past decades. In the past simplified spherical head models are used, whereas nowadays a combination of imaging modalities are used to accurately describe the geometry of the head model. Efforts have been done on realistically describing the shape of the head model, as well as the heterogenity of the tissue types and realistically determining the conductivity. However, the determination and validation of the in vivo conductivity values is still an important topic in this field. In addition, more studies have to be done on the influence of all the parameters of the head model and of the numerical techniques on the solution of the forward problem.

Hallez, Hans; Vanrumste, Bart; Grech, Roberta; Muscat, Joseph; De Clercq, Wim; Vergult, Anneleen; D'Asseler, Yves; Camilleri, Kenneth P; Fabri, Simon G; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lemahieu, Ignace

2007-01-01

168

Models of Competence in Solving Physics Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe a set of two computer-implemented models that solve physics problems in ways characteristic of more and less competent human solvers. The main features accounting for different competences are differences in strategy for selecting physics principles, and differences in the degree of automation in the process of applying a single principle. The models provide a good account of the order in which principles are applied by human solvers working problems in kinematics and dynamics. They also are sufficiently flexible to allow easy extension to several related domains of physics problems.

Larkin, Jill H.; Mcdermott, John; Simon, Dorothea P.; Simon, Herbert A.

2012-05-15

169

Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.

Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

2009-01-24

170

Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…

Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.

2012-01-01

171

Problem solving in science and technology education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both science and technology education have a commitment to teaching process; investigations or scientific method in science,\\u000a design in technology, and problem solving in both areas. The separate debates in science and technology education reveal different\\u000a curricular emphases in processes and content, reflecting different goals, and pedagogic and educational research traditions.\\u000a This paper explores these differences and argues that each

Patricia Murphy; Robert McCormick

1997-01-01

172

Problem solving techniques in cognitive science  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, researchers have tried to discover how humans solve problems. This research has answered many questions, but\\u000a still many of them remain unanswered. However, knowledge gained in this field has greatly enhanced our understanding and has\\u000a enabled us to design human-like intelligent systems. In the 1920s the Gestalt psychologists introduced a new field to cognitive\\u000a science. They discovered

Joan Condell; John Wade; Leo Galway; Michael McBride; Padhraig Gormley; Joseph Brennan; Thiyagesan Somasundram

2010-01-01

173

Analysis of Algorithms: programming to problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Introduction to Analysis of Algorithms, students traditionally apply a combination of computer science theory and mathematics to paper-based problem solving, analysis of pre-developed algorithms and proofs of algorithmic run-times. In this paper, we suggest that a major factor that determines the success in the Analysis is the discrepancy between the programming styles of CS1 and CS2, with immediate

Karina V. Assiter

2005-01-01

174

Selective Problem Solving (sps): A Model for Teaching Creative Problem-Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving is an integral part of human life from mathematics and science to business, marketing, arts, technology and more. It is sometimes a form of creativity with discoveries and aesthetics. In fact, wherever a genuine problem exists novel behavior is needed on the part of the problem solver. The aim of this article was to describe and discuss the

Ugur Sak

2011-01-01

175

Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

176

Problem Solving Challenge for Mathematics. 1985 Junior High School Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to assist teachers in helping students in further development of problem-solving skills. It consists of: a statement of purpose; an introduction (noting the place of problem-solving in junior high school mathematics curricula); a definition of problem-solving; a four-stage general framework for solving problems (which…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

177

A Literature Review of Expert Problem Solving using Analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider software project cost estimation from a problem solving perspective. Taking a cognitive psychological approach, we argue that the algorithmic basis for CBR tools is not representative of human problem solving and this mismatch could account for inconsistent results. We describe the fundamentals of problem solving, focusing on experts solving ill-defined problems. This is supplemented by a systematic literature

Miriam Martincova

178

Studying insight problem solving with neuroscientific methods.  

PubMed

Insights are sporadic, unpredictable, short-lived moments of exceptional thinking where unwarranted assumptions need to be discarded before solutions to problems can be obtained. Insight requires a restructuring of the problem situation that is relatively rare and hard to elicit in the laboratory. One way of dealing with this problem is to catalyze such restructuring processes using solution hints. This allows one to obtain multiple insight events and their accurate onset times, which are required for event-related designs in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and Electroencephalogram (EEG), and to reliably record the activity associated with the restructuring component of insight. In this article, we discuss in detail the methodological challenges that brain research on insight poses and describe how we dealt with these challenges in our recent studies on insight problem solving. PMID:17434418

Luo, Jing; Knoblich, Guenther

2007-05-01

179

Place of science in environmental problem solving  

SciTech Connect

Most important environmental problems are complex. Moreover, solutions to them must be sought in governmental arenas, where science, if it is used at all, typically serves political ends rather than being pursued on its own merits. Policy action often cannot wait for adequate scientific information. Indeed, sufficient information to permit rigorous predictions of the consequences of most policy and management decisions will never be available. For these and other reasons, scientists are often reluctant to enter the policy arena. However, it is abundantly clear that there is considerable scope for expanding the role of science and scientists in environmental problem solving. Substantial improvements in dealing with environmental problems can be obtained by combining better use of existing information with well-focused efforts to treat projects as experiments - to learn about the effects of human-caused perturbations on the functioning of ecological systems. A number of recent publications have treated the kinds of approaches to environmental problem solving that should help to make information available to decision makers and encourage its use.

Orians, G.H.

1986-11-01

180

Problem-Solving Appraisal and Human Adjustment: A Review of 20 Years of Research Using the Problem Solving Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews and synthesizes more than 120 studies from 20 years (1982-2002) of research that has examined problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). The goals of the article are fourfold: (a) introduce the construct of problem-solving appraisal and the PSI within the applied problem-solving literature,…

Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.

2004-01-01

181

Habits of Mind: Mathematics Problem Solving Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These roughly 200 lesson plans are related to mathematical problem solving and are provided by the non-profit Education Development Center. The lesson plans are designed to help students develop both deep conceptual mathematical understandings and technical skills. The plans are provided both as PDF files and in HTML, and teacher comments are also provided. Topics covered include modeling / mathematizing; finding analogies / structural similarities / isomorphisms; working with graphs; working with units/dimensional analysis; proving; formulating conjectures / generalizing / abstracting; finding and using invariants; creating / analyzing an algorithm; dealing with non-unique solutions; visualization; solving by special cases; verifying / interpreting results; analyzing parameters; estimating; inventing and using notation. This is an extensive and thorough resource for first-cycle college mathematics teachers and teachers of advanced high school math.

2007-11-12

182

Physics Problem Solving in Cooperative Learning Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research investigated the process of argument co-construction in 14 cooperative problem-solving groups in an algebra-based, college level, introductory physics course. The results of the research provide a rich description of argument co-construction, which, while predicted in previous literature, has not been systematically described. The research was a qualitative, case-study analysis of each group's discussion of the "physics description" portion of the group's problem solution. In a physics description physics concepts and principles are use to qualitatively analyze the problem. Transcripts were made from videotapes and the analysis focused on sequential groups of statements, called episodes, instead of isolated, individual statements. The groups' episodes were analyzed and described in terms of Stephen Toulmin's argument structure which consists of claims, grounds, warrants, and backings.

Hollabaugh, Mark

2007-01-01

183

Social problem solving among popular and unpopular children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated two issues related to children's social status and problem solving: the content of problem-solving measures and judgments of the quality of responses to social problems. Three types of social problem situations were studied: peer entry\\/initiation, maintaining social interaction, and management of conflict. The quality of children's strategies for solving these problems was rated on two dimensions:

H. Ann Brochin; Barbara H. Wasik

1992-01-01

184

Complex problem solving: another test case?  

PubMed

Attacks on classic complex problem solving focus on both their ecological validity and the difficulty to analyze such a complex interplay of system variables. But we argue that the domain of travel planning is in some sense a much more "natural" domain and at least partially able to deal with this kind of criticism. We first review the main existing scenarios and paradigms like Lohhausen, Tailorshop, and Moro and compare them to what we call the TRAVELPLAN problem. This problem contains a number of computationally well-investigated problems, which are worked out and can be described by so-called constrained satisfaction problems. The formal investigations have led to the development of a computational architecture which is able to deal with these kinds of subproblems simultaneously. More important, however, is that it serves as a basis for developing experiments and particularly to determine aspects of the computational complexity of the main problem. This in turn allows us to specify and to formulate experimental ideas. Finally, the status quo of ongoing experiments is briefly presented. PMID:19902284

Ragni, Marco; Löffler, Christoph M

2009-11-10

185

I can problem solve (ICPS): Interpersonal cognitive problem solving for young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers of low?income preschool and kindergarten children were trained to help youngsters learn to think through and solve typical interpersonal problems with peers and adults. Compared to non? trained controls, youngsters trained to think of alternative solutions to problems and consequences to acts most improved in impulsive and inhibited behaviors as observed in the classroom. Training was equally effective in

Myrna B. Shure

1993-01-01

186

Team based Daily Problem Solving: When groups problem solve, everyone listens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Team based Daily Problem Solving (DPS) is designed to identify root-cause and solutions to problems at the core level in a fast and expedient manner using the subject experts. DPS emphasizes team work over individual effort. This system can be used in any...

1992-01-01

187

Independent Classroom Problem-Solving Model. A Teacher's Manual for Solving Reading Problems in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide presents a classroom problem solving model designed to help teachers conduct their own classroom research. It suggests developing a procedure for identifying the instructional problems influencing reading achievement. The model is presented in steps that can be used independently or in concert with other steps. Practice activities are…

Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Right to Read Program.

188

Multitasking-Pascal extensions solve concurrency problems  

SciTech Connect

To avoid deadlock (one process waiting for a resource than another process can't release) and indefinite postponement (one process being continually denied a resource request) in a multitasking-system application, it is possible to use a high-level development language with built-in concurrency handlers. Parallel Pascal is one such language; it extends standard Pascal via special task synchronizers: a new data type called signal, new system procedures called wait and send and a Boolean function termed awaited. To understand the language's use the author examines the problems it helps solve.

Mackie, P.H.

1982-09-29

189

Problem-solving deficits in depressed children, adolescents, and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has emphasized the importance of interpersonal problems with depression. It has been hypothesized that deficits in interpersonal problem-solving skills may account for many of these problems. Three studies that examined the relationship between problem-solving skills and depression are reported. Problem-solving skills among children, adolescents, and adults were assessed by the Means-Ends Problem Solving Test. Contrary to prediction, there

Leonard A. Doerfler; Larry L. Mullins; Nora J. Griffin; Lawrence J. Siegel; C. Steven Richards

1984-01-01

190

On multistep interval methods for solving the initial value problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we shortly complete our previous considerations on interval versions of Adams multistep methods [M. Jankowska, A. Marciniak, Implicit interval multistep methods for solving the initial value problem, Comput. Meth. Sci. Technol. 8(1) (2002) 17-30; M. Jankowska, A. Marciniak, On explicit interval methods of Adams-Bashforth type, Comput. Meth. Sci. Technol. 8(2) (2002) 46-57; A. Marciniak, Implicit interval methods for solving the initial value problem, Numerical Algorithms 37 (2004) 241-251]. It appears that there exist two families of implicit interval methods of this kind. More considerations are dealt with two new kinds of interval multistep methods based on conventional well-known Nystrom and Milne-Simpson methods. For these new interval methods we prove that the exact solution of the initial value problem belongs to the intervals obtained. Moreover, we present some estimations of the widths of interval solutions. Some conclusions bring this paper to the end.

Marciniak, Andrzej

2007-02-01

191

Solving corrosion problems with surface analysis  

SciTech Connect

Surface analysis methods, in combination with traditional tools for corrosion research, have proven useful for the understanding and solution of a wide variety of corrosion problems. This paper reviews the use of several surface analysis methods in applications ranging from industrial problem solving to fundamental research work. A few specific examples are given from the areas of protective film formation, high temperature gaseous corrosion and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), and Laser Raman Spectroscopy are among the techniques discussed. Several examples of current uses of each method are listed, and advantages and limitations of the various methods for corrosion work are noted.

Baer, D.R.

1984-03-01

192

Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

Billionniere, Elodie V.

193

Computer simulations to stimulate scientific problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulations were employed by high school biology students in an attempt to enhance their problem solving skills. The simulations were administered under two conditions: (a) unguided discovery and (b) guided discovery. In addition, a control group received no simulations. To ascertain the effectiveness of the simulations in enhancing problem solving abilities, performance was compared on (a) subsequent unit pretests, (b) standardized tests measuring scientific thought processes, and (c) a standardized test of critical thinking. The results indicate that (a) the students using the simulations met the unit objectives at least as well as the control students, and (b) the students using the guided version of the simulations surpassed the other students on the subsequent simulation pretests, on the tests of scientific thinking, and on the test of critical thinking. The authors discuss the apparent usefulness of the programs in terms of the opportunities they provide students (a) to be actively involved in the learning process and (b) to repeatedly practice applying principles that would otherwise be practiced much less often.

Rivers, Robert H.; Vockell, Edward

194

Using qualitative problem-solving strategies to highlight the role of conceptual knowledge in solving problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on the use of qualitative problem-solving strategies in teaching an introductory, calculus-based physics course as a means of highlighting the role played by conceptual knowledge in solving problems. We found that presenting strategies during lectures and in homework solutions provides an excellent opportunity to model for students the type of concept-based, qualitative reasoning that is valued in our profession, and that student-generated strategies serve a diagnostic function by providing instructors with insights on students' conceptual understanding and reasoning. Finally, we found strategies to be effective pedagogical tools for helping students both to identify principles that could be applied to solve specific problems, as well as to recall the major principles covered in the course months after it was over.

Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.

2005-10-26

195

Problem-solving strategies in depressed and nondepressed college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency and style of problem solving for rules of varying difficulty was examined in a depressed college group. The depressed group and a control group of nondepressed students did not differ in the time required to solve conceptual problems. There were differences for the more difficult problems in the number of cards required for solution and problem-solving efficiency (defined

Deborah J. G. Dobson; Keith S. Dobson

1981-01-01

196

Viewing scheduling as an opportunistic problem-solving process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a search for more efficient yet effective ways of solving combinatorially complex problems such as jobshop scheduling, we move towards opportunistic approaches that attempt to exploit the structure of a given problem. Rather than adhere to a single problem-solving plan, such approaches are characterized by almost continual surveillance of the current problem-solving state to possibly modify plans so that

Peng Si OW; Stephen F. Smith

1988-01-01

197

Flexible Strategy Learning: Analogical Replay of Problem Solving Episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the integration of analogical reasoni ng into general problem solving as a method of learning at the strategy level to solve problems more effectively. Learnin g occurs by the generation and replay of annotated deriva- tional traces of problem solving episodes. The problem solver is extended with the ability to examine its decision cycle and accumulate knowledge

Manuela M. Veloso

1994-01-01

198

Problem Solving: A Handbook for Teachers. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past decade, problem solving has become a major focus of the mathematics curriculum. Many feel that in this era of increasing technology, it is important for students to learn how to approach a problem situation. This book was designed to help teachers teach problem solving. Chapter 1, "An Introduction to Problem Solving," deals with…

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

199

Spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.  

PubMed

Do gestures merely reflect problem-solving processes, or do they play a functional role in problem solving? We hypothesized that gestures highlight and structure perceptual-motor information, and thereby make such information more likely to be used in problem solving. Participants in two experiments solved problems requiring the prediction of gear movement, either with gesture allowed or with gesture prohibited. Such problems can be correctly solved using either a perceptual-motor strategy (simulation of gear movements) or an abstract strategy (the parity strategy). Participants in the gesture-allowed condition were more likely to use perceptual-motor strategies than were participants in the gesture-prohibited condition. Gesture promoted use of perceptual-motor strategies both for participants who talked aloud while solving the problems (Experiment 1) and for participants who solved the problems silently (Experiment 2). Thus, spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving. PMID:21813800

Alibali, Martha W; Spencer, Robert C; Knox, Lucy; Kita, Sotaro

2011-08-03

200

Preservice Agricultural Educators' Ability to Solve Agriculturally Related Mathematics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem-solving test completed by 49 preservice agricultural educators showed a lack of competence in mathematical problem solving. Those who scored higher were more likely to have completed advanced mathematics courses and had higher ACT math scores. (JOW)

Miller, Greg; Gliem, Joe A.

1996-01-01

201

Theory of Constructions and Set in Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning, knowledge is described. Perdix' planning knowledge enables it to augm...

J. G. Greeno M. E. Magone S. Chaiklin

1979-01-01

202

The Integration Of TRIZ Problem Solving Techniques With Other Problem Solving And Assessment Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRIZ, as a problem-solving process, is seldom used or brought into an organization in a vacuum. There is almost always an existing structure of tools and processes in use into which TRIZ enters. TRIZ can be brought into an organization as a replacement, or in collaboration with the most commonly used innovation and creativity tools in use such as Creative

Jack Hipple

203

Why Solve Problems?--Interviewing College Faculty about the Learning and Teaching of Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the design and initial data analysis of an ongoing study to determine the important elements, as perceived by faculty, of the learning and teaching of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course. To elicit instructors' beliefs that inform their instructional choices, an interview around…

Yerushalmi, E.; Heller, K.; Heller, P.; Henderson, C.; Kuo, V.

204

Students' Use of Imagery in Solving Qualitative Problems in Kinematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes a study that investigated the relationship between mental imagery and problem solving in physics, specifically in kinematics. A distinction is made between visual imagery and spatial imagery used in solving physics problems. The results of this study indicate that while spatial imagery may promote problem solving success, the use of visual imagery presents an obstacle to problem solving in kinematics. (Contains 23 references.)

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Hegarty, Mary; Mayer, Richard

2006-06-16

205

Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

2010-01-01

206

Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable evidence indicates that domain specific knowledge in the form of schemes is the primary factor distinguishing experts from novices in problem- solving skill. Evidence that conventional problem-solving activity is not effective in schema acquisition is also accumulating. It is suggested that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes

John Sweller

1988-01-01

207

Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)|

Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth

1979-01-01

208

Training Preschool Children in Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving training, developed to teach children how (rather than what) to think and therefore how to solve their own interpersonal problems, was used in a study over three years conducted in Newaygo County, Michigan to evaluate its impact on low-income preschool children. Overall, trained children improved in both their ability to solve interpersonal problems, and in their classroom

Carolyn L. Feis; Craig Simons

1985-01-01

209

Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

2012-01-01

210

Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

Hung, Woei

2013-01-01

211

Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

2005-01-01

212

Computer-Assisted Learning for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous computer-assisted problem-solving systems have incorporated all the problem-solving steps within a single stage, making it difficult to diagnose stages at which errors occurred when a student encounters difficulties, and imposing a too-high cognitive load on students in their problem solving. This study proposes a computer-assisted…

Chang, Kuo-En; Sung, Yao-Ting; Lin, Shiu-Feng

2006-01-01

213

Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

2012-01-01

214

Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

2012-01-01

215

USE OF EXTERNAL VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS IN PROBABILITY PROBLEM SOLVING4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the use of external visual representations in probability problem solving. Twenty-six students enrolled in an introductory statistics course for social sciences graduate students (post-baccalaureate) solved eight probability problems in a structured interview format. Results show that students spontaneously use self- generated external visual representations while solving probability problems. The types of visual representations used include: reorganization of the

JAMES E. CORTER; DORIS C. ZAHNER

216

TEACHING TRIZ AS A SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD: BREAKING MINDSETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present education has often a dysfunctional approach in that it gives students knowledge and examples of how to solve problems using that knowledge, and then assumes that the student will somehow by a process similar to osmosis understand how to solve further problems in that domain. In reality there appears to be little focus on 'teaching' how to solve problems

Paul R. Filmore

2007-01-01

217

Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

2012-01-01

218

Teaching to Enhance Problem Solving: It's More than the Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a gap between the algorithmic problem solving abilities of chemistry students and their conceptual understanding of the chemistry. This gap persists because many chemistry instructors allow students to hide their lack of conceptual understanding behind correct numerical answers. If the goal of chemistry instruction is to have students think about and solve conceptual problems as well as algorithmic problems then the approach to chemistry instruction must change. This is a report of a study where an attempt was made to bridge the gap between the concepts and algorithms by altering the instructional method in general chemistry. This approach emphasized conceptual problem solving in the initial phase of a concept. The approach was implemented simultaneously in general chemistry courses designed for science majors and non-science majors. The study provided some interesting data with regard to the response of science majors and non-science majors to this conceptually oriented instructional approach. These responses provide some interesting insight into the ways in which the two groups of students have been socialized with regard to science.

Phelps, Amy J.

1996-04-01

219

Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a companion paper, we discuss studentsâ ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss studentsâ ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two- step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2011-01-01

220

Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a companion paper, we discuss students' ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two-step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2010-10-01

221

Young children's analogical problem solving: Gaining insights from video displays.  

PubMed

This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:24077465

Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S

2013-09-27

222

Hooke and Jeeves based multilevel coordinate search to globally solving nonsmooth problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a derivative-free multilevel coordinate search (MCS) approach, that relies on the Hooke and Jeeves local search, for globally solving bound constrained optimization problems. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm is effective in solving benchmark problems, when compared with the well-known solvers MCS and DIRECT.

Costa, M. Fernanda P.; Rocha, Ana Maria A. C.; Fernandes, Edite M. G. P.

2013-10-01

223

Solving Rank-Constrained LMI Problems With Application to Reduced-Order Output Feedback Stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an iterative penalty function method for solving rank-constrained linear matrix inequality (LMI) problems and illustrates its application to reduced-order output feedback stabilization. We propose a penalized objective function to replace the rank condition, so that a solution to the original nonconvex LMI feasibility problem can be obtained by solving a series of convex LMI optimization subproblems. Numerical

Seog-Joo Kim; Young-Hyun Moon; Soonman Kwon

2007-01-01

224

Developing an Instrument for Identifying a Person's Ability to Solve Problems: Results of a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasing people's ability to solve complex problems is more and more often being seen as an integral part of vocational education. While there have been numerous empirically-based approaches to the didactic structuring of teaching and learning arrangements by which students' ability to solve problems can be increased, knowledge of how to…

Wuttke, Eveline; Wolf, Karsten D.

2007-01-01

225

Online Conference: Problem Solving with Smithsonian Experts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are there other worlds out there? What can science tell us about American history? These are but a few of the important questions asked by the people at the Smithsonian's Online Conference on problem solving. The conference was convened twice during April 2010, and it was sponsored in part by the Microsoft Partners in Learning organization. The experts asking and answering these questions are all from the Smithsonian Institution, and the website offers access to all of the sessions in question. First-time visitors should feel free to dive right into the "Program" area to view the welcome message from Betsy Broun, the director of the Smithsonian American Art Museum. After that, visitors are free to view the programs at their leisure, and they may also wish to check out the "Exhibit Hall" section of the website. Here they will find highlighted resources from across the Smithsonian community relating to the conference topics. All in all, this is a tremendously valuable resource that can be used in the classroom, or just to expand one's horizon for personal edification.

226

Prescribing effective human problem solving processes: Problem description in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A theoretical model specifying the underlying knowledge and procedures whereby human subjects can generate effective initial descriptions of scientific problems was formulated. The model is prescriptive since it does not necessarily try to simulate the behavior of actual experts nor assume that their performance is optimal. The model, elaborated in the domain of mechanics, specifies explicit procedures for redescribing problems in terms of a relevant knowledge base. To test the model, carefully controlled experiments were devised where human subjects were induced to act in accordance with alternative models and where their resulting performance was observed in detail. Such experiments, carried out with undergraduate physics students, showed that the proposed model is sufficient to generate excellent problem descriptions, that these markedly improve subsequent problem solutions, and that most components of the model are indeed necessary for good performance. Detailed data analysis also showed how the model predictably prevents the occurrence of many common errors. Such a validated model of effective problem description provides a useful basis for teaching students improved scientific problem-solving skills.

Heller, Joan I.; Reif, Frederick

2006-06-09

227

Measuring Problem Solving with Technology: A Demonstration Study for NAEP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a study intended to demonstrate how an emerging skill, problem solving with technology, might be measured in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Two computer-delivered assessment scenarios were designed, one on solving science-related problems through electronic information search and the other on solving

Bennett, Randy Elliot; Persky, Hilary; Weiss, Andy; Jenkins, Frank

2010-01-01

228

University Physics As a Second Language: Mastering Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Get a better grade in Physics Solving physics problems can be challenging at times. But with hard work and the right study tools, you can learn the language of physics and get the grade you want. With Tom Barrett's University Physics as a Second Language(TM): Mastering Problem Solving, you'll be able to better understand fundamental physics concepts, solve a variety

Tom Barrett

2005-01-01

229

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

2012-01-01

230

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

2012-01-01

231

A GRASP algorithm to solve the unicost set covering problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The set covering problem (SCP) is a well-known combinatorial optimization problem. This paper presents a GRASP algorithm to solve a special SCP case known in the literature as the unicost set covering problem. The algorithm incorporates a local improvement procedure based on the heuristics to solve binary constraint satisfiability problems (SAT). The quality of the proposed algorithm is tested on

Joaquín Bautista; Jordi Pereira

2007-01-01

232

Solving dynamic economic dispatch problems using cellular differential evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes cellular differential evolution (cDE) algorithm for solving dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problems with valve-point effects. DEDs are high dimensional optimization problems with many equality and inequality con- straints. The problem of premature convergence in solving high dimensional optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms (EAs) could be fought using population structuring. This work investigates the suitability a structured DE

Nasimul Noman; Hitoshi Iba

2011-01-01

233

Transformational and derivational strategies in analogical problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analogical problem solving is mostly described as transfer of a source solution to a target problem based on the structural\\u000a correspondences (mapping) between source and target. Derivational analogy (Carbonell, Machine learning: an artificial intelligence\\u000a approach Los Altos. Morgan Kaufmann, 1986) proposes an alternative view: a target problem is solved by replaying a remembered problem-solving episode. Thus, the experience\\u000a with the

Sven-Eric Schelhorn; Jacqueline Griego; Ute Schmid

2007-01-01

234

Theory of constructions and set in problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation\\u000a of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning knowledge, is described. Perdix’s planning knowledge enables it to\\u000a augment the problem space it is given by constructing auxiliary lines. The planning system also provides a mechanism that\\u000a can result in problem solving set. Results

James G. Greeno; Maria E. Magone; Seth Chaiklin

1979-01-01

235

The Development of Students' Probllem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas

2011-03-03

236

Solving the brachistochrone and other variational problems with soap films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the problem of the brachistochrone and other variational problems with the help of the soap films that are formed between two suitable surfaces. We also discuss the connection between some variational problems of dynamics, statics, optics, and elasticity.

Criado, C.; Alamo, N.

2010-12-01

237

Solving time-dependent quantum transport problems with balance equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the balance equation method for closed electric circuits, we have extended the formalism to model time-dependent transport in mesoscopic structures. The time-dependent quantum mechanical balance equations for momentum and energy are solved by using a time-parametrized boosted statistical operator. The boosted statistical operator has already been successfully applied for describing steady-state quantum transport and is now extended to tackle time-dependent quantum transport problems. As an example we numerically studied the response of a homogeneous quantum wire to a voltage step and a voltage oscillation. For the voltage step we obtain the overshoot effect for sufficiently large voltages, while the voltage oscillation shows the transient response of the quantum wire. The numerical examples clearly show that the balance equation formalism is a powerful tool in modelling quantum transport under various circumstances.

Soree, Bart; Magnus, Wim

2004-03-01

238

How indirect supportive digital help during and after solving physics problems can improve problem-solving abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme, hints are only available as worked out problems after

Henk J. Pol; Egbert G. Harskamp; Cor J. M. Suhre; Martin J. Goedhart

2009-01-01

239

A descriptive study of cooperative problem solving introductory physics labs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those skills are the foundation for the quantitative aspects of problem solving. (Chi, et al., 1981). The literature also indicates that cooperative problem solving should enhance the students' performance. As a practical matter surveys of departments that require introductory physics classes expect their students to have general qualitative problem solving skills. The students in this study were asked to solve problem(s) before coming to a lab session and then cooperatively assess whether or not their answers were correct by conducting a laboratory activity for which they had to plan the procedure and obtain the necessary results. TA's were expected to provide instruction under a cognitive apprenticeship model. The results showed that the cooperative problem solving laboratories had almost no impact on the students' problem solving skills as measured from the start of a two hour lab session to the end of the lab session...The reason for this may have been that students did not have enough experience in the solving of different kinds of problems in the two domains of Newton's second Law and gravitation to overcome their misconceptions and become competent. Another possibility was that the TA's did not follow the cognitive apprenticeship model as consistently as might have been needed.

Knutson, Paul Aanond

240

Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2010-10-01

241

A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

2003-01-01

242

Constraint programming approach to solve facility layout design problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a methodology to solve the facility layout design problem by using constraint logic programming (CLP), which has proved to be a technology that gives good results when applied to a combinatorial problem optimisation. Methods to solve facility layout problems have to deal with a large set of factors, namely sales and production estimations, manufacturing process compatibilities, delivery dates,

J. A. Tavares; C. Ramos; J. Neves

1999-01-01

243

Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

Man, Yiu-Kwong

2010-01-01

244

Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

2011-01-01

245

Developing authentic problem solving skills in introductory computing classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to solve problems is the key to developing software, and it is an ability that can be difficult to learn. Introductory Computer Science students are often taught syntax and semantics, along with simple problems designed to develop logical, structured thinking, but authentic problem-solving skills are rarely developed at these early stages. In this paper we describe an approach

Katrina Falkner; Edward Palmer

2009-01-01

246

Two-phase Method to Solve Fuzzy Quadratic Programming Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quadratic programming problems are of up most importance in a variety of relevant practical fields, as e.g., portfolio selection. This work presents and develops an original and novel fuzzy sets based method that solves a class of quadratic programming problems with vagueness in the set of constraints. The method uses two phases to solve fuzzy quadratic programming problems, which eventually

Ricardo C. Silva; José L. Verdegay; Akebo Yamakami

2007-01-01

247

Theory of Constructions and Set in Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning knowledge, is described. Perdix' planning knowledge enables it to augment the problem space it is given by constructing auxiliary lines. The planning system also…

Greeno, James G.; And Others

248

Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…

Wiest, Lynda R.

2008-01-01

249

Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a

R. Taconis; M. G. M. Ferguson-Hessler; H. Broekkamp

2001-01-01

250

Adaptive Expertise as Knowledge Building in Science Teachers’ Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Research,on expert\\/expert, differences ,has ,lead ,to a differentiation of adaptive ,expertise and ,routine expertise. Adaptive expertise was,investigated as a,knowledge-building orientation to problem ,solving ,in high ,school ,science teachers’ instructional problem solving. An authentic task was administered,to adaptive ,and ,routine experts as well ,as novices. Adaptive experts were ,found ,to show ,a higher orientation to knowledge-building during ,problem ,solving than

Valerie M. Crawford

251

Managerial Problem-Solving Styles: A Cross-Cultural Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature suggests that North American business-people differ from their Latin American counterparts with respect to specific behavioral traits. Our particular interest is in problem solving and in effecting changes in behavior to achieve better problem-solving capability. The purpose of the present study is to assess whether there are differences in problem-solving styles between two culturally different groups of managers

Robert Grosse; J. Eulogio Romero Simpson

2008-01-01

252

Cognitive Science: Problem Solving And Learning For Physics Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cognitive Science has focused on general principles of problem solving and learning that might be relevant for physics education research. This paper examines three selected issues that have relevance for the difficulty of transfer in problem solving domains: specialized systems of memory and reasoning, the importance of content in thinking, and a characterization of memory retrieval in problem solving. In addition, references to these issues are provided to allow the interested researcher entries to the literatures.

Ross, Brian H.

2009-07-13

253

Analysis of Problem-Solving-Based Online Asynchronous Discussion Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the process of asynchronous problem-solving-based discussion activities and aims to understand limitations likely to arise during learners' problem-solving discussions. The research has combined lag-sequential analysis and quantitative content analysis, and expects to use such analyzing methods to further understand the sequential pattern of students' problem-solving discussion behaviors and knowledge-construction levels. In order to avoid influence caused by

Huei-tse Hou; Kuo-en Chang; Yao-ting Sung

2008-01-01

254

Phenomenographic study of studentsâ problem solving approaches in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study is a hierarchical set of categories that describe the studentsâ problem solving approaches in the context of introductory physics.

Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert; Bowe, Brian

2008-09-24

255

Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

2010-07-01

256

Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studentsâ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate studentsâ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate studentsâ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate studentsâ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-01-20

257

A hospital facility layout problem finally solved  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a history of a difficult facility layout problem that falls into the category of the Koopmans–Beckmann variant of the quadratic assignment problem (QAP), wherein 30 facilities are to be assigned to 30 locations. The problem arose in 1972 as part of the design of a German University Hospital, Klinikum Regensburg. This problem, known as the Krarup 30a

Peter M. Hahn; Jakob Krarup

2001-01-01

258

Deconstructing Insight: EEG Correlates of Insightful Problem Solving  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive insight phenomenon lies at the core of numerous discoveries. Behavioral research indicates four salient features of insightful problem solving: (i) mental impasse, followed by (ii) restructuring of the problem representation, which leads to (iii) a deeper understanding of the problem, and finally culminates in (iv) an “Aha!” feeling of suddenness and obviousness of the solution. However, until now no efforts have been made to investigate the neural mechanisms of these constituent features of insight in a unified framework. Methodology/Principal Findings In an electroencephalographic study using verbal remote associate problems, we identified neural correlates of these four features of insightful problem solving. Hints were provided for unsolved problems or after mental impasse. Subjective ratings of the restructuring process and the feeling of suddenness were obtained on trial-by-trial basis. A negative correlation was found between these two ratings indicating that sudden insightful solutions, where restructuring is a key feature, involve automatic, subconscious recombination of information. Electroencephalogram signals were analyzed in the space×time×frequency domain with a nonparametric cluster randomization test. First, we found strong gamma band responses at parieto-occipital regions which we interpreted as (i) an adjustment of selective attention (leading to a mental impasse or to a correct solution depending on the gamma band power level) and (ii) encoding and retrieval processes for the emergence of spontaneous new solutions. Secondly, we observed an increased upper alpha band response in right temporal regions (suggesting active suppression of weakly activated solution relevant information) for initially unsuccessful trials that after hint presentation led to a correct solution. Finally, for trials with high restructuring, decreased alpha power (suggesting greater cortical excitation) was observed in right prefrontal area. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide a first account of cognitive insight by dissociating its constituent components and potential neural correlates.

Sandkuhler, Simone; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

2008-01-01

259

Water research: solving colorado's water problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several projects conducted by the Colorado Water Resources Research Institute are outlined. The report includes descriptive photographs and simplified procedural explanations designed for use by the general public. Sections of the report include: (1) high country irrigation reservoirs; (2) Colorado's economy - the role of water; (3) answering the flood control benefit question; (4) solving high country water and sewer

1977-01-01

260

Generalized and generative thinking in US and Chinese students’ mathematical problem solving and problem posing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined US and Chinese 6th grade students’ generalization skills in solving pattern-based problems, their generative thinking in problem posing, and the relationships between students’ performance on problem solving and problem posing tasks. Across the problem solving tasks, Chinese students had higher success rates than US students. The disparities appear to be related to students’ use of differing strategies.

Jinfa Cai; Stephen Hwang

2002-01-01

261

Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-life problems present several kinds of preferences. In this pa- per we focus on problems with both positive and negative preferences, that we call bipolar problems. Although seemingly specular notions, these two kinds of preferences should be dealt with differently to obtain the desired natural be- haviour. We technically address this by generalizing the soft constraint formalism, which is able

Stefano Bistarelli; Maria Silvia Pini; Francesca Rossi; K. Brent Venable

262

Dancing With Demons: Pathogenic Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the way in which we define and deal with social problems such as crime and proposes a new way of thinking about them. Criminality, poverty, illiteracy, addiction and child abuse are some of society's most acute and intractable problems. Despite countless attempted remedies, these complex social problems have continued to grow around the world. Although we have

Kathleen S. Long

263

Solving City Bus Scheduling Problems in Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of city bus scheduling problems is considered. The aim of this paper is to optimize the number of buses and their scheduling in the city. This leads to high-dimensional integer programming problems. The vehicle scheduling problem (VSP) can also be formulated through a graph-theoretical model, which is then transformed into an integer linear programming (ILP) model. There are

H. G. Bock; G. Reinelt; C. Surapholchai

264

A Framework for Problem Solving in a Distributed Processing Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of distributed problem solving, or the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely-coupled collection of knowledge-sources that operates in a distributed processor architecture is presented. Such architectures offer high-sp...

R. G. Smith

1978-01-01

265

Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

Jennifer Xu; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

266

Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social Contextual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

Jennifer Jie Xu; G. Alan Wang; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

2007-01-01

267

The Nature of Gestures' Beneficial Role in Spatial Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-thought gestures are hand movements produced in silent, noncommunicative, problem-solving situations. In the study, we investigated whether and how such gestures enhance performance in spatial visualization tasks such as a mental rotation task and a paper folding task. We found that participants gestured more often when they had difficulties solving mental rotation problems (Experiment 1). The gesture-encouraged group solved more

Mingyuan Chu; Sotaro Kita

2011-01-01

268

A novel numerical scheme of cubic hermite spline collocation method for solving Burgers' equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper 1D Burgers' equation is solved numerically. The proposed method is based on the Hopf-Cole transformation, which transforms the original nonlinear Burgers' equation into a linear heat equation. The equation is then solved by cubic Hermite spline collocation method, which is unconditionally stable. The performance of the method is validated by two standard problems by taking Gauss-Legendre quadrature points of order 2 as the collocation points. Computed results are compared with exact and other numerical results in literature for different values of Reynolds' number.

Ganaie, Ishfaq Ahmad; Kukreja, V. K.

2013-10-01

269

Numerically complemented analytic method for solving the time-independent one-dimensional Schrödinger equation.  

PubMed

A general method of solving the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation is developed. The first step is to construct an exactly solvable reference potential of several smoothly joined Morse-type components, which should be a good approximation to a given potential. The exact solutions for that reference Hamiltonian are then combined with a nonperturbative approach [R. G. Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 14 (1969)], which enables us to numerically solve the energy eigenvalue problem for the original potential to any desired accuracy. A full description of the analytical procedures is given and examples of both exact and numerical solutions, are presented. PMID:11736135

Selg, M

2001-10-12

270

Teaching and Assessing Problem Solving for International Conflict Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and methodology for teaching a problem-solving approach to international conflict resolution in college courses and for assessing the outcomes of instruction are described in this article. The Conflict Resolution Strategies Checklist was developed to evaluate students’ problem solving in essays about international conflict scenarios. Interrater reliability was adequate. Checklist scores correlated positively with Cornell Critical Thinking Test scores and

Linden L. Nelson; Natasha L. Golding; David R. Drews; Mary K. Blazina

1995-01-01

271

A Review of Problem Solving Capabilities in Lean Process Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human factor plays an important role in ensuring lean process management to be successful and provides good proposition for the success of the organization in the long run. One of the main elements of people is their problem solving capability in identifying and eliminating wastages. The purpose of this paper was to review problem solving capabilities in lean process management;

A. P. Puvanasvaran; S. H. Tang; M. R Muhamad; A. M. S. Hamouda

272

A Problem-Solving CAI--Factor-Q.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Factor-Q is a problem-solving computer assisted instruction system for teaching polynomials in grades 9-12 that addresses the limitations of most problem-solving programs, among others, the user interface. The system is designed to help students master the skills of factorizing polynomials. It demonstrates the ease with which inadequately trained…

Maredi, Mphahlele; Oosthuizen, H. J.

1995-01-01

273

Urban African American PreAdolescent Social Problem Solving Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two studies focusing on the social problem solving skills of African American preadolescent youth are detailed. In the first study data from a sample of 150 African American children, ages 9 to 11 years, was used to examine the association between type of youth social problem solving approaches applied to hypothetical risk situations and time spent in

Dorian E. Traube; Kelly Taber Chasse; Mary M. McKay; Anjali M. Bhorade; Roberta Paikoff; Stacie D. Young

2007-01-01

274

Competitive Problem Solving and the Optimal Prize Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agents compete to solve a problem. Each agent knows own computational capacity as private information and simultaneously chooses either a risky or a safe problem solving method. This paper analyzes the optimal prize schemes from the perspective of the prize designer who wishes to find a solution as quick as possible. It is shown that (i) the winner- take-all scheme

Toru Suzuki

2010-01-01

275

Environmental Education for Empowerment: Action Research and Community Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book addresses the subject of environmental education in the context of educational and social change. It focuses on the synthesis of action research and community problem solving in the context of education. The result, Action Research and Community Problem Solving (ARCPS), can be defined as a process that enables students and teachers to…

Stapp, William B.; And Others

276

Introducing Problem Solving through Literature at the Elementary Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much publicity the past few years, regarding students' lack of basic skills, their inability to think clearly, and their poor use of problem solving strategies. To focus on this need, the following program has been designed to help elementary teachers introduce problem solving in an organized manner adding very little, if any extra material to the curriculum.

Peg Harbert

1989-01-01

277

The Problem-Solving Approach of Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem-solving approach in environmental education (EE), reports on EE programs and activities in selected foreign countries, and a report on the Asian Subregional Workshop on Teacher Training in EE are provided in this newsletter. The nature of the problem-solving approach and brief discussions of such methodologies as group discussion,…

Connect, 1983

1983-01-01

278

Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

2013-01-01

279

Expertise & Spatial Reasoning in Advanced Scientific Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization and other forms of spatial cognition are considered fundamental to learning and problem solving in science. This assumption is especially prevalent in organic chemistry where imagistic reasoning is considered to be a primary cognitive activity. While previous research has shown that students are aware of several analytical heuristics and imagistic strategies for problem solving, there have been no studies

Mike Stieff; Sonali Raje

280

Evaluating the levels of problem solving abilities in mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is a general agreement among mathematics educators that students need to acquire problem solving skill, learn to communicate using mathematical knowledge and skills, develop mathematical thinking and reasoning, to see the interconnectedness between mathematics and other disciplines. Based on this perspective, this research looked into the levels of problem solving ability amongst selected Malaysian secondary school students. A

NOOR AZLAN AHMAD

281

Ideational Fluency as a Predictor of Original Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Empirical validity of nonoverlapping scores of original problem solving on a lenient solution-standard predictor was evidenced in college students by high correlations with corresponding scores on stringent solution-standard criterion tasks. Findings support the construct validity of conceptualizations of original problem solving based on…

Milgram, Roberta M.; Arad, Rivka

1981-01-01

282

Introduction to LogoWriter and Problem Solving for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book about Logo programming and problem solving is designed to introduce preservice and inservice teachers to problem solving in a Logo programming environment. Such a unit of study can be an important part of an introductory computers in education course for educators. Although Logowriter--a version of Logo--was developed by Logo Computer…

Yoder, Sharon Burrowes; Moursund, Dave

283

Childhood Physical Punishment and Problem Solving in Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing from social learning theories and symbolic interactionist understandings of social life, the authors suggest that physical punishment teaches aggressive and controlling strategies for solving the problems of living together and hinders the development of important problem-solving skills, specifically the ability to role take with others.…

Cast, Alicia D.; Schweingruber, David; Berns, Nancy

2006-01-01

284

Using Sentence and Picture Clues to Solve Verbal Insight Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pictures and sentences, designed to be equivalent in information content, were compared as clues for solving verbal insight problems. Solving insight problems may require creative thinking because a novel approach is required for their solution. A 2 (test condition: informed, uninformed) × 3 (clue type: picture, sentence, unrelated) between and within-subjects design was used. Participants (N = 144) completed, in order: an information acquisition

Patricia M. Schwert

2007-01-01

285

A Descriptive Model of Information Problem Solving while Using Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth…

Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber

2009-01-01

286

Expert Algorithmic and Imagistic Problem Solving Strategies in Advanced Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization and imagistic reasoning appear central to expert practice in science; however, expert use of these strategies on authentic tasks has not been examined in detail. This study documents how science experts use both algorithms and imagistic reasoning to solve problems. Using protocol analysis, we report expert chemists' preferential use of algorithms for solving spatial problems and imagistic reasoning for

Mike Stieff; Sonali Raje

2010-01-01

287

Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…

Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby

2011-01-01

288

Problem-Solving Appraisal: Helping Normal People Lead Better Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We are very grateful for the thoughtful, scholarly, and insightful comments of the reactants and appreciate the kind words about our Major Contribution. One of the goals of the Major Contribution was to review the existing literature on problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) (Heppner, 1988) and, subsequently,…

Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.

2004-01-01

289

Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the impact of robotics (computer-powered manipulative) to a battery-powered manipulative (novelty control) and traditionally taught science class on science achievement and problem solving of fourth through sixth graders. Found that the robotics group had higher scores on programming logic-problem solving than did the novelty control…

Wagner, Susan Preston

1999-01-01

290

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A NATIONAL CONFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of information on the use of GIS as a tool in environmental problem solving. Solving environmental problems has become more complex with consideration of cross-media pollutant transport and watershed-based decision-making. T...

291

Toward Group Problem Solving Guidelines for 21st Century Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effective problem-solving skills are critical in dealing with ambiguous and often complex issues in the present-day leaner and globally diverse organizations. Yet respected, well-established problem-solving models may be misaligned within the current work environment, particularly within a team context. Models learned from a more bureaucratic,…

Ranieri, Kathryn L.

2004-01-01

292

Computer-Based Inquiry into Scientific Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem solving performance of individuals was compared with that of dyads at three levels of mental ability using a computer-based inquiry into the riddle of the frozen Wooly Mammoth. Results indicated significant interactions between grouping and mental ability for certain problem solving internal measures. (RAO)|

Berkowitz, Melissa S.; Szabo, Michael

1979-01-01

293

Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

2010-01-01

294

Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

2013-01-01

295

Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Problem-Solving Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive problem solving contributes to individual and family health and development. In this article, the effect of the cooperative family learning approach (CFLA) on group family problem solving and on cooperative parenting communication is described. A pretest or posttest experimental design was used. Participant families were recruited from Head Start programs and exhibited two or more risk factors. Participant preschool

Jane Drummond; Darcy Fleming; Linda Mcdonald; Gerard M. Kysela

2005-01-01

296

On solving facility layout problems using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tam and Chan (1998) present a parallel genetic algorithm approach to solve the facility layout problem. They adopt a slicing tree representation of a floor layout. The coding scheme represents a layout as a string with three parts. This paper demonstrates the difficulties in applying classical crossover and mutation operators for solving facility layout problems. The paper modifies the representation

L. Al-Hakim

2000-01-01

297

Introduction to LogoWriter and Problem Solving for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book about Logo programming and problem solving is designed to introduce preservice and inservice teachers to problem solving in a Logo programming environment. Such a unit of study can be an important part of an introductory computers in education course for educators. Although Logowriter--a version of Logo--was developed by Logo Computer…

Yoder, Sharon Burrowes; Moursund, Dave

298

Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…

Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby

2011-01-01

299

Granular problem solving and its applications in software engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulation is an important component of granular computing (GrC) as a problem solving paradigm. Specification and regulation of granulation are necessary in helping researchers and practitioners apply GrC into different applications. At present, there is insufficient investigation of this topic. This paper defines concepts and mechanisms of problem solving, investigates the fundamental principles and processes of granulation and demonstrates that

Haibin Zhu

2009-01-01

300

Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Is There a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a study into the relationship between a student's ability to solve problems in chemistry and his/her understanding of molecular concepts. Argues that teaching students to solve problems about chemistry is not equivalent to teaching about the nature of matter. (TW)|

Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Pickering, Miles

1987-01-01

301

Computers and Problem Solving for Sixth-Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a curriculum unit designed for average sixth-grade students intended to engage them in problem-solving experiences and to teach them problem-solving strategies. The curriculum consists of 20 sessions in which students engage in various activities using the following software packages: The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, Rescue at Boone's…

Oughton, John M.

1995-01-01

302

Students' Use of Technological Features while Solving a Mathematics Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design of technology tools has the potential to dramatically influence how students interact with tools, and these interactions, in turn, may influence students' mathematical problem solving. To better understand these interactions, we analyzed eighth grade students' problem solving as they used a java applet designed to specifically accompany…

Lee, Hollylynne Stohl; Hollebrands, Karen F.

2006-01-01

303

Designing Grid-based Problem Solving Environments and Portals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building Problem Solving environments in the emerging national-scale Computational Grid infrastructure is a cha l- lenging task. Accessing advanced Grid services, such as authentication, remote access to computers, resource man- agement, and directory services, is usually not a simple matter for problem solving environment developers. The Commodity Grid project is working to overcome this dif- ficulty by creating what we

Gregor Von Laszewski; Ian T. Foster; Jarek Gawor; Nell Rehn; Michael Russell

2001-01-01

304

Instructors' Ideas about Problem Solving--Setting Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents preliminary hypotheses about the relationship between faculty goals for the introductory calculus-based physics course and their beliefs about student learning of problem solving. All faculties have problem solving as a major goal for their courses. There appears to be however, an instructional paradox. When discussing how…

Henderson, Charles; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia; Kuo, Vince H.; Yerushalmi, Edit

305

Instructors' Beliefs and Values about Learning Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents preliminary hypotheses about a common core of faculty beliefs about how their students learn to solve problems in their introductory courses. Using a process of structured interviews and a concept map based analysis, we find that faculty appear to believe that students learn problem solving primarily through a process of…

Henderson, Charles; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia; Kuo, Vince H.; Yerushalmi, Edit

306

Problem-solving skills in high school biology: The effectiveness of the IMMEX problem-solving assessment software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Problem-solving through reflective thinking should be both the method and valuable outcome of science instruction in America's schools" proclaimed John Dewey (Gabel, 1995). If the development of problem-solving is a primary goal of science education, more problem-solving opportunities must be an integral part of K-16 education. To examine the effective use of technology in developing and assessing problem-solving skills, a problem-solving authoring, learning, and assessment software, the UCLA IMMEX Program-Interactive Multimedia Exercises-was investigated. This study was a twenty-week quasi-experimental study that was implemented as a control-group time series design among 120 tenth grade students. Both the experimental group (n = 60) and the control group (n = 60) participated in a problem-based learning curriculum; however, the experimental group received regular intensive experiences with IMMEX problem-solving and the control group did not. Problem-solving pretest and posttest were administered to all students. The instruments used were a 35-item Processes of Biological Inquiry Test and an IMMEX problem-solving assessment test, True Roots. Students who participated in the IMMEX Program achieved significant (p <.05) gains in problem-solving skills on both problem-solving assessment instruments. This study provided evidence that IMMEX software is highly efficient in evaluating salient elements of problem-solving. Outputs of students' problem-solving strategies revealed that unsuccessful problem solvers primarily used the following four strategies: (1) no data search strategy, students simply guessed; (2) limited data search strategy leading to insufficient data and premature closing; (3) irrelevant data search strategy, students focus in areas bearing no substantive data; and (4) extensive data search strategy with inadequate integration and analysis. On the contrary, successful problem solvers used the following strategies; (1) focused search strategy coupled with the ability to fill in knowledge gaps by accessing the appropriate resources; (2) targeted search strategy coupled with high level of analytical and integration skills; and (3) focused search strategy coupled with superior discrimination, analytical, and integration skills. The strategies of students who were successful and unsuccessful solving IMMEX problems were consistent with those of expert and novice problem solvers identified in the literature on problem-solving.

Palacio-Cayetano, Joycelin

307

Solving Pseudo-Boolean Problems with scip?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudo-Boolean problems generalize SAT problems by allow- ing linear constraints and a linear objective function. Dierent solvers, mainly having their roots in the SAT domain, have been proposed and compared, for instance, in Pseudo-Boolean evaluations. One can also for- mulate Pseudo-Boolean models as integer programming models. That is, Pseudo-Boolean problems lie on the border between the SAT domain and the

Timo Berthold; Stefan Heinz; Marc E. Pfetsch

308

Reflection on Problem Solving in Introductory and Advanced Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reflection is essential to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective physics students are about problem solving and how to improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We evaluate strategies that teach reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. We find a large overlap between introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize based upon similarity of solution. Introductory students in calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in algebra-based courses. Other investigations explored if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty applying physical principles and differences between self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study suggests those who reflected with peers on problem solving drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study involved giving common problems in quantum mechanics midterm and final exams and suggested advanced students do not automatically reflect on mistakes. Interviews revealed even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than their knowledge structure. A survey was developed to evaluate studentsâ attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest introductory and graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to faculty. Responses to individual questions suggest expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.

Mason, Andrew J.

2012-05-09

309

Homology and hierarchies: Problems solved and unresolved  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homology as a topic in phylogenetic analysis has to do with what is conserved in evolution. The problem of homology in systematics - to find homologues, and in so doing, to identify taxa - is distinct from the problem of identifying what kinds of features tend to be conserved, how and why. The two sets of issues are fundamentally interdependent

V. Louise Roth

310

Solving Facility Layout Problems Using Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research applies techniques and toolsfrom Genetic Programming (GP) to the facilitylayout problem. The facility layoutproblem (FLP) is an NP-complete combinatorialoptimization problem that hasapplications to efficient facility design formanufacturing and service industries. Afacility layout is represented as a collectionof rectangular blocks using a slicing treestructure (STS). We use a multiple purposegenetic programming kernel to generateslicing trees that are...

Jaime Garces-perez; Dale A. Schoenefeld; Roger L. Wainwright

1996-01-01

311

On retrieving analogues when solving problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

After criticism of the precision of previous experimental procedures for testing analogue retrieval, a new procedure that overcomes the proposed inadequacies is described. This procedure is then employed in two experiments that test aspects of the general hypothesis that base analogues that are semantically remote from a target problem (Duncker's radiation problem) are more difficult to retrieve than those that

Mark Keane

1987-01-01

312

Solve valve noise and cavitation problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clear understanding of aerodynamic noise theory and cavitation will avoid most major valve problems in process plants and allow the valve engineer to design out potential problems. On the other hand, the plant owner has to recognize that such valves may require a cost premium. However, such a premium will be recovered in a small amount of time because

1997-01-01

313

An Investigation on Chinese Teachers' Realistic Problem Posing and Problem Solving Ability and Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study, which is a part of a research project about realistic word problem solving and problem posing in Chinese elementary schools, a problem solving and a problem posing test were administered to 128 pre-service and in-service elementary school teachers from Tianjin City in China, wherein the teachers were asked to solve 3…

Chen, Limin; Van Dooren, Wim; Chen, Qi; Verschaffel, Lieven

2011-01-01

314

Word Problem Structure and Its Effect on the Transfer of Learning to Solve Algebra Word Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem in learning to solve mathematics word problems students have been facing is to transfer the learned problem-solving knowledge from one story context to another story context. Some studies have provided evidence showing that structure facilitates transfer of learning to solve word problems. However, it is still under development for what…

Chang, Kuo-Liang

2010-01-01

315

Solving seismological problems using sgraph program: II-waveform modeling  

SciTech Connect

One of the seismological programs to manipulate seismic data is SGRAPH program. It consists of integrated tools to perform advanced seismological techniques. SGRAPH is considered a new system for maintaining and analyze seismic waveform data in a stand-alone Windows-based application that manipulate a wide range of data formats. SGRAPH was described in detail in the first part of this paper. In this part, I discuss the advanced techniques including in the program and its applications in seismology. Because of the numerous tools included in the program, only SGRAPH is sufficient to perform the basic waveform analysis and to solve advanced seismological problems. In the first part of this paper, the application of the source parameters estimation and hypocentral location was given. Here, I discuss SGRAPH waveform modeling tools. This paper exhibits examples of how to apply the SGRAPH tools to perform waveform modeling for estimating the focal mechanism and crustal structure of local earthquakes.

Abdelwahed, Mohamed F. [Geological Hazards Research Unit, King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia) and National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Helwan (Egypt)

2012-09-26

316

Solving the sum-of-ratios problems by a harmony search algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sum-of-ratios problems have numerous applications in economy and engineering. The sum-of-ratios problems are considered to be difficult, as these functions are highly nonconvex and multimodal. In this study, we propose a harmony search algorithm for solving a sum-of-ratios problem. Numerical examples are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. In all cases, the solutions

Majid Jaberipour; Esmaile Khorram

2010-01-01

317

Solving a Problem With or Without a Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve a problem, an ordinary computer system executes an existing program. When no such program is available, an AGI system may still be able to solve a concrete problem instance. This paper introduces a new approach to do so in a reasoning system that adapts to its environment and works with insuffcient knowledge and resources. The related approaches are compared, and several conceptual issues are analyzed. It is concluded that an AGI system can solve a problem with or without a problem-specific program, and therefore can have human-like creativity and exibility.

Wang, Pei

2013-01-01

318

Do prescribed prompts prime sensemaking during group problem solving?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many researchers and textbooks have promoted the use of rigid prescribed strategies for encouraging development of expert-like problem-solving behavior in novice students. The University of British Columbia's introductory algebra-based course for non-physics majors uses Context-Rich problems with a prescribed six-step strategy. We have coded audio recordings of group problem-solving sessions to analyze students' epistemological framing based on the implicit goal of their discussions. By treating the goal of "understanding the physics of the situation" as sensemaking, we argue that prescribed problem-solving prompts are not sufficient to induce subsequent sensemaking discussion.

Mathew "Sandy" Martinuk; Ives, Joss

2012-05-15

319

Solving global environmental problems through technological innovation  

SciTech Connect

Much of the environment problems arise from the supply and utilization of energy for industrial, transportation and domestic markets. The use of fossil fuels can result in environmental, atmospheric, and terrestrial problems, including organic, acid rain, and global warming hazards. Here I will address the CO{sub 2} global greenhouse problem and touch upon the nuclear industry and its dilemma as well. We recognize the possibility of global natural feedback phenomena which may limit and mitigate anthropomorphic global greenhouse climate change, however, here I am limiting the discussion to anthropomorphic (man made) technological mitigation process as opposed to adaptation which means adapting to change.

Steinberg, M.

1990-03-01

320

Problem solving performance and learning strategies of undergraduate students who solved microbiology problems using IMMEX educational software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p < .10) related to ability to solve "Creeping Crud". Peer learning strategy showed a positive significant (p < .10) relationship with scores obtained from solving "Creeping Crud". Students' declared major made a significant (p < .05) difference on the ability to solve "Microquest". A subset (18) volunteered for a think aloud method to determine decision-making process. High achievers used fewer steps, and had more focused approach than low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.

Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota

321

Nonlinear Projective-Iteration Methods for Solving Transport Problems on Regular and Unstructured Grids  

SciTech Connect

This is a project in the field of fundamental research on numerical methods for solving the particle transport equation. Numerous practical problems require to use unstructured meshes, for example, detailed nuclear reactor assembly-level calculations, large-scale reactor core calculations, radiative hydrodynamics problems, where the mesh is determined by hydrodynamic processes, and well-logging problems in which the media structure has very complicated geometry. Currently this is an area of very active research in numerical transport theory. main issues in developing numerical methods for solving the transport equation are the accuracy of the numerical solution and effectiveness of iteration procedure. The problem in case of unstructured grids is that it is very difficult to derive an iteration algorithm that will be unconditionally stable.

Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Adrian Constantinescu; Loren Roberts; William Wieselquist

2007-04-30

322

Identifying, analysing and solving problems in practice.  

PubMed

When a problem is identified in practice, it is important to clarify exactly what it is and establish the cause before seeking a solution. This solution-seeking process should include input from those directly involved in the problematic situation, to enable individuals to contribute their perspective, appreciate why any change in practice is necessary and what will be achieved by the change. This article describes some approaches to identifying and analysing problems in practice so that effective solutions can be devised. It includes a case study and examples of how the Five Whys analysis, fishbone diagram, problem tree analysis, and Seven-S Model can be used to analyse a problem. PMID:22848969

Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

323

Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)

DeFilippo, Shirley

1975-01-01

324

Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)|

DeFilippo, Shirley

1975-01-01

325

Solving Word Problems using Schemas: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students are taught to recognize problems as falling within word-problem types and to apply a problem solution method that matches that problem type. This review highlights two schema approaches for 2nd- and 3rd-grade students at-risk for or with LD: schema-based instruction and schema-broadening instruction. A total of 12 schema studies were reviewed and synthesized. Both types of schema approaches enhanced the word-problem skill of students at-risk for or with LD. Based on the review, suggestions are provided for incorporating word-problem instruction using schemas.

Powell, Sarah R.

2011-01-01

326

Planning Teaching an Unfamiliar Mathematics Problem: The Role of Teachers' Experience in Solving the Problem and Watching Pupils Solving It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During individual interviews, secondary school mathematics teachers were asked to plan teaching an unfamiliar and challenging mathematics problem. Each teacher watched a special video-clip showing a pair of pupils successfully coping with the task. Teachers' planning was analyzed at three stages: before they solved the problem, after solving it,…

Leikin, Roza; Kawass, Sally

2005-01-01

327

A Study of the Problem Solving Abilities of Seventh Grade Students Who Receive Anchored Problem Solving Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…

Griesser, Sara Anne

328

Collaborative tool for solving human factors problems in the manufacturing environment: the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Technique (TRIZ) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study an analysis is made regarding the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Technique (TRIZ), which emerged in Russia in 1946 and has been commonly used in the USA and Europe in the past few last decades. TRIZ is a method that is used successfully to solve the problems arising during the process of product development. Within this study

D. Akay; A. Dem?ray; M. Kurt

2008-01-01

329

A Study of the Problem Solving Abilities of Seventh Grade Students Who Receive Anchored Problem Solving Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…

Griesser, Sara Anne

330

Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer

1993-12-01

331

A parallel algorithm for solving the 3D inverse scattering problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parallel algorithm for solving the 3D inverse scattering problem is presented. The inverse problem considered is to determine a potential function from received wave data measured on a surface. The above inverse problem is transformed to a 3D nonlinear integral geometry equation. The principal term of the integral geometry operator is linear, weakly ill-posed and preserves symmetry. A parallel numerical iterative algorithm for solving the inverse scattering problem is constructed by using these important properties. The parallel iterative algorithm decomposes a large problem into several smaller problems and employs parallel processors of Cray-2 or IBM-3090. The parallel algorithm can be extended to a much broader range of 2D/3D inverse problems. Some numerical simulation results are performed. Very good numerical results indicate that the parallel algorithm in this paper is effective, fast, stable and has satisfactory accuracy.

Xie, Ganquan; Zou, Qisu

1991-04-01

332

Solving an Inverse Problem of Erosive Burning Rate Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for an experimental study of burning processes in condensed substances is suggested, based on the statement and solution of inverse problems. An inverse problem of reconstructing the erosive burning rate of solid propellants from experimental data is formulated. The choice of an approach to solving the problem by the joint application of well-known methods for inverse problem

V. A. Arkhipov; E. A. Zverev; D. A. Zimin

2002-01-01

333

The Lagrangian Relaxation Method for Solving Integer Programming Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most computationally useful ideas of the 1970s is the observation that many hard integer programming problems can be viewed as easy problems complicated by a relatively small set of side constraints. Dualizing the side constraints produces a Lagrangian problem that is easy to solve and whose optimal value is a lower bound (for minimization problems) on the

Marshall L. Fisher

1981-01-01

334

A new genetic algorithm for solving nonconvex nonlinear programming problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nonlinear programming problems (especially nonconvex problems), attaining the global optimum is crucial. To reach this purpose, the current paper represents a new genetic algorithm for solving nonconvex nonlinear programming problems. The new method is simpler and more intuitive than the existing models and finds the global optimum of the problem in a reasonable time. The proposed technique, to attain

M. B. Aryanezhad; Mohammad Hemati

2008-01-01

335

When the solution is part of the problem: problem solving in elderly suicide attempters  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives Depression, loss, and physical illness are associated with suicide in the elderly. However, the nature of individual vulnerability remains poorly understood. Poor problem solving has been suggested as a risk factor for suicide in younger adults. Unresolved problems may create an accumulation of stressors. Thus, those with perceived deficits in problem-solving ability may be predisposed to suicidal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether elderly suicide attempters perceived their problem solving as deficient. Methods Sixty-four individuals aged 60 and older participated in the study including depressed suicide attempters, depressed non-attempters, and non-depressed controls. The social problem solving inventory-revised: short-version was used to measure participants' perceived social problem solving, assessing both adaptive problem-solving dimensions (positive problem orientation and rational problem solving) and dysfunctional dimensions (negative problem orientation, impulsivity/carelessness, and avoidance). Results Depressed elderly who had attempted suicide perceived their overall problem solving as deficient, compared to non-suicidal depressed and non-depressed elderly. Suicide attempters perceived their problems more negatively and approached them in a more impulsive manner. On rational problem solving and avoidant style sub-scales, suicide attempters did not differ from non-suicidal depressed. However, both depressed groups reported lower rational problem solving and higher avoidance compared to non-depressed controls. Conclusions A perception of life problems as threatening and unsolvable and an impulsive approach to problem solving appear to predispose vulnerable elderly to suicide attempts.

Gibbs, Lawrence M.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Morse, Jennifer; Siegle, Greg J.; Houck, Patricia R.; Szanto, Katalin

2011-01-01

336

A Generic Library of Problem Solving Methods for Scheduling Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a generic library of problem-solving methods for scheduling applications. Although some attempts have been made in the past at developing the libraries of scheduling problem-solvers, these only provide limited coverage. Many lack generality, as they subscribe to a particular scheduling domain. Others simply implement a particular problem-solving technique, which may be applicable only to a

Dnyanesh G. Rajpathak; Enrico Motta; Zdenek Zdráhal; Rajkumar Roy

2006-01-01

337

An Algorithm for Solving the Job-Shop Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a branch and bound method for solving the job-shop problem. It is based on one-machine scheduling problems and is made more efficient by several propositions which limit the search tree by using immediate selections. It solved for the first time the famous 10 \\\\times 10 job-shop problem proposed by Muth and Thompson in 1963.

J. Carlier; E. Pinson

1989-01-01

338

Solving inverse problems for biological models using the collage method for differential equations.  

PubMed

In the first part of this paper we show how inverse problems for differential equations can be solved using the so-called collage method. Inverse problems can be solved by minimizing the collage distance in an appropriate metric space. We then provide several numerical examples in mathematical biology. We consider applications of this approach to the following areas: population dynamics, mRNA and protein concentration, bacteria and amoeba cells interaction, tumor growth. PMID:22362282

Capasso, V; Kunze, H E; La Torre, D; Vrscay, E R

2012-02-24

339

Coalition dynamics in environmental problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper aims at examining the dynamics of coalitions that form under the pressure of environmental problems. Coalitions form as soon as a minimal set of players nd it is either convenient or necessary to join a coalition, last for some more or less long periods of time and then may either widen or shrink so that a coalition

Lorenzo Cioni

340

Solving the multiple competitive facilities location problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose five heuristic procedures for the solution of the multiple competitive facilities location problem. A franchise of several facilities is to be located in a trade area where competing facilities already exist. The objective is to maximize the market share captured by the franchise as a whole. We perform extensive computational tests and conclude that a

Tammy Drezner; Zvi Drezner; Said Salhi

2002-01-01

341

SOLVING A HYDTROTREATER FEED FILTER FOULING PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed filters were installed in Syncrude hydrotreater units to protect the catalyst beds from plugging by fine solids in the feed. Severe filter fouling occurred after a process flow sheet change. The root cause of fouling was revealed through a step-by-step scientific investigation. It was first confirmed that the fouling problem was related to a process flow sheet change that

X. A. Wu; K. H. Chung

2008-01-01

342

Largest biomass burner solves environmental problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the efforts of provincial government, the local utility, the sawmill owners, and the general public to resolve air pollution problems caused by woodwaste burners at five sawmills in the Williams Lake community of British Columbia, Canada. The topics of the article include the challenges to the project, woodwaste handling, boiler and auxiliary systems design, and turbine generator

Ford

1994-01-01

343

Roadmap for complex decisions. [Utility problem solving  

SciTech Connect

Decision makers need a way of capturing the essence of complex problems, and they are increasingly turning to the formal techniques of decision analysis to frame critical decisions, ranging from national policy to building a power plant. 4 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Douglas, J.; Richels, R.

1983-09-01

344

Metacognitive macroevaluations in mathematical problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the role of evaluation in mathematics in 749 elementary school children. The macroevaluative skills and calibration scores of high versus low mathematical problem solvers were contrasted as measures of metacognition. No relevant calibration differences were found for gender. In addition, the performances of children with mathematics learning disabilities could not be explained according to the maturational

Annemie Desoete; Herbert Roeyers

2006-01-01

345

Hydraulic lift can solve many production problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over five decades, hydraulic pumping systems have offered creative solutions for operators faced with a wide array of producing problems. Today, the well-developed and proven capabilities of this lift method continue to provide innovative approaches in dealing with oil well production, testing and evaluation requirements. The performance characteristics of the system give it unique adaptability to a wide range

1990-01-01

346

Combined methods for solving inductive coupling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of induced AC voltages on pipelines has always been with us, and the interference caused by power transmission lines to buried gas pipelines is under investigation for many years. Situations where a pipeline is influenced by power lines in a right-of-way are more frequent nowadays. Even under normal operating conditions, voltages and currents are induced on the pipeline

Denisa Stet; Dan Doru Micu; Camelia Avram; Laura Darabant

2011-01-01

347

Are We Solving the Big Problems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2000, as part of an invited symposium celebrating the start of the new millennium, the author was asked to write an article for "School Psychology Review" in which he tried to look ahead to where the field of school psychology needed to focus its energy in addressing the academic skills problems of children in schools. The article noted that…

Shapiro, Edward S.

2006-01-01

348

The Policy Sciences and Problem-Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concern with the complexity of social problems and of public policy designed to cope with them has led to the identification of an interdisciplinary focus called the policy sciences. The concept includes both governmental and non-governmental decisions. The social sciences have provided structure with new methods such as operations research,…

Benson, Oliver

1971-01-01

349

Solving Regression Problems Using Competitive Ensemble Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ensemble models in many problem domains has increased significantly in the last few years. The ensemble modeling, in particularly boosting, has shown a great promise in improving predictive performance of a model. Com- bining the ensemble members is normally done in a co-operative fashion where each of the ensemble members performs the same task and their predictions

Yakov Frayman; Bernard F. Rolfe; Geoffrey I. Webb

2002-01-01

350

Evolutionary strategies for solving optimization problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will give a survey of applications of thermodynamically and biologically oriented evolutionary strategies for optimization problems. Primarily, we investigate the solution of discrete optimization problems, most of combinatorial type, using a certain class of coupled differential equations. The problem is to find the minimum on a large set of real numbers (the potential) Ui, defined on the integer set i = 1 ...s, where s is an extremely large nu mber. The stationary states of the system correspond to relative optima on the discrete set. First, several elementary evolutionary strategies are described by simple deterministic equations, leading to a high-dimensional system of coupled differential equations. The known equations for thermodynamic search processes and for simple models of biological evolution are unified by defining a two-parameter family of equations which embed both cases. The unified equations model mixed Boltzmann/Darwin- strategies including basic elements of thermodynamical and biological evolution as well. In a next step a master equation model in the occupation number space is defined. We investigate the transition probabilities and the convergence properties using tools from the theory of stochastic processes. Several examples are analyzed. In particular we study the optimization of theoretical model sequences with simple valuation rules. In order to demonstrate that the strategies developed here may also be used to investigate realistic problems we present an example application to RNA folding (search for a minimum free energy configuration).

Ebeling, Werner; Reimann, Axel; Molgedey, Lutz

351

Recent numerical developments for solving continuity equations in ACT models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In numerical modeling of atmospheric dynamical and chemical processes a considerable number of desired properties have been formulated in the literature over the last 3 to 4 decades. These include conservation of mass, monotonicity, positive definiteness, elimination of the wind-mass inconsistency problem, computational efficiency etc. Simple examples of these properties are reviewed and demonstrated. Recently, however, there has been focus on the property of numerical mixing, which is particularly relevant for both chemical off- and on-line modeling since - if not eliminated - numerical mixing will introduce artificial chemical reactions. To some degree this problem exists in all present models except for purely Lagrangian models. A new numerical methodology termed the Hybrid Eulerian Lagrangian (HEL) scheme has been designed to fulfill most if not all classically defined numerical desired properties. Furthermore HEL eliminates artificial numerical mixing. A physically based mixing is introduced in HEL to represent the cascade of information to smaller and unresolved scales. It is demonstrated in both on- and off-line simulations how such mixing can be parameterized on the basis of the deformation rate of the actual flow.

Kaas, E.; Sřrensen, B.; Hansen, A. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Brandt, J.; Lauritzen, P. H.; Tarning-Andersen, P.

2012-04-01

352

Social Problem Solving, Conduct Problems, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits\\u000a in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7–12 years. Social problem solving was\\u000a evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce solutions to eight hypothetical\\u000a social problems, including five problems involving acquiring a desired

Daniel A. Waschbusch; Trudi M. Walsh; Brendan F. Andrade; Sara King; Normand J. Carrey

2007-01-01

353

Webotherapy: reading web resources for problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to indicate that when webotherapy is applied, it can be of benefit to clients in giving them insight into their problems, resulting in a change of behavior. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Webotherapy, which can be conducted with individuals or groups, refers to the use of web resources or other online reading material (e.g. e-books,

Alireza Noruzi

2007-01-01

354

Solving Connected Subgraph Problems in Wildlife Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We investigate mathematical formulations and solution techniques for a variant of the Connected Subgraph Problem. Given a\\u000a connected graph with costs and profits associated with the nodes, the goal is to find a connected subgraph that contains a\\u000a subset of distinguished vertices. In this work we focus on the budget-constrained version, where we maximize the total profit\\u000a of the nodes

Bistra N. Dilkina; Carla P. Gomes

2010-01-01

355

Time to completion reveals problem-solving transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two equally skilled groups of students taking introductory mechanics solve related physics problem pairs in reverse order with respect to each other, using the web-based Socratic tutor, MasteringPhysics. In tutorial problems containing help in the form of requestable hints, descriptive text, and feedback, twice as many students were able to complete problems correctly in real-time compared to problems that did not provide any help (end-of-chapter problems). The prepared group in a given related pair was able to solve it in ~15% less time on average compared to the unprepared group. Furthermore, the prepared group requests ~7% fewer hints on average than the unprepared group. We conclude that shorter completion times and problem-solving transfer are facilitated through tutorial problems.

Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

2009-11-30

356

Time to completion reveals problem-solving transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two equally skilled groups of students taking introductory mechanics solve related physics problem pairs in reverse order with respect to each other, using the web-based Socratic tutor, MasteringPhysics. In tutorial problems containing help in the form of requestable hints, descriptive text, and feedback, twice as many students were able to complete problems correctly in real-time compared to problems that did not provide any help (end-of-chapter problems). The prepared group in a given related pair was able to solve it in ~15% less time on average compared to the unprepared group. Furthermore, the prepared group requests ~7% fewer hints on average than the unprepared group. We conclude that shorter completion times and problem-solving transfer are facilitated through tutorial problems.

Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

2005-09-01

357

Studentsâ Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate studentsâ difficulties with multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first semester calculus-based physics course. Each student was interviewed four times during the semester, each time after they had completed an exam in class. During these interviews students were first asked to solve a problem they had seen on the exam, followed by problems that differed in context and type of representation from the exam problem. Students were provided verbal scaffolding to solve the new problems. We discuss the common difficulties that students encountered when attempting to transfer their problem solving skills across problems in different representations.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. S.

2010-01-19

358

Multiple Representation Skills and Creativity Effects on Mathematical Problem Solving Using a Multimedia Whiteboard System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study is to explore student multiple representation skills and creativity in solving mathematical problems when supported by a multimedia whiteboard system. The subjects were 6th grade primary school students that were tested and selected as excellent students in mathematics. Twenty-one numerical and geometry problems were given…

Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Nian-Shing; Dung, Jian-Jie; Yang, Yi-Lun

2007-01-01

359

Quantum Algorithm for Solving an NP-Complete Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a probe qubit is coupled to a quantum register that represents a physical system, the probe qubit will exhibit a dynamical response only when it is resonant with a transition in the system. Using this principle, we propose a quantum algorithm for solving a specific NP-complete problem, the 3-bit Exact Cover problem, EC3. We show that on a quantum computer, the number of qubits increases linearly with the size of the EC3 problem, while the efficiency of the algorithm is independent of the size of the problem. Our results indicate that quantum computers may be able to outperform classical computers in solving NP-complete problems.

Wang, Hefeng; Li, Fuli

2013-03-01

360

Self-Regulated Problem-Solving Awareness among Korean Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Korean children's knowledge of appropriate self-regulated behaviors related to the solving of school-based or nonschool-based programs was studied. An attempt was made to determine the grade level (kindergarten, first, third, and fifth) differences in perceptions of appropriate problem-solving behaviors from the perspective of self-regulation…

Gorrell, Jeffrey; And Others

361

Creativity in Problem Solving: Uncovering the Origin of New Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovation and enterprise depend for their success on the development of new ideas. But from where do new ideas come? How do they arise? Finding solutions to such questions is at the heart of creativity research and the solving of novel problems. Reflection, not only in cognitive processes but also in the non-cognitive ones used in solving novel…

Aldous, Carol R.

2005-01-01

362

Control drilling solves surface hole problems  

SciTech Connect

Drilling surface hole offshore is one aspect of drilling practice that should command greater planning and design. Surface hole could be crucial if the well is in an area with a chance of shallow gas, or if it is required to run a 30-in. pin corrector and a long string of riser back to surface. The problem grows more critical with deeper water and a longer riser which in turn gives a longer column of drilling fluid. Consequently, the hydrostatic pressure is much higher at the 30-in. casing shoe. Higher pressure increases the chance of exceeding the fracture gradient and may result in the loss of returns around the 30-in. shoe. This article describes a simple practice which can eliminate some surface hole problems. A control-drilling equation sets the maximum drilling rate (MDR) based on maximum permitted pressures at the casing shoe. Eliminating lost circulation will ultimately save rig downtime due to retrieving the conductor pipe and base plate, relocating the rig, and respudding the hole after suffering losses. This technique also has been successful while drilling out below drive pipe on jack ups and platform wells. Control drilling is most effectively used on these types of wells because only a friction seal (instead of cement coverage) exists around the bottom of the drive pipe.

Jean, T.W.

1986-08-01

363

Solving Simple Planning Problems with More Inference and No Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many benchmark domains in AI planning including Blocks, Logistics, Gripper, Satellite, and others lack the interactions that char- acterize puzzles and can be solved non-optimally in low polynomial time. They are indeed easy problems for people, although as with many other problems in AI, not always easy for machines. In this paper, we address the question of whether simple problems

Vincent Vidal; Hector Geffner

2005-01-01

364

Assigned Responsibility to Clients for Causing and Solving Their Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on two studies in which college students rated the degree to which clients were responsible for causing and solving their problems. Study 1 revealed that men held male clients responsible for problems. Study 2 demonstrated that clients with schizophrenia were evaluated differently than those with problems of anxiety and personal…

Kleinke, Chris L.; Kane, Joseph C.

1997-01-01

365

Solving satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer  

SciTech Connect

A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the satisfiability (SAT) problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit exact cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed.

Mao Wenjin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA and 20 Hearthstone Drive, Edison, New Jersey 08820 (United States)

2005-11-15

366

Experiments using interval analysis for solving a circuit design problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

An already classical attempt at solving a circuit design problem leads to a system of 9 nonlinear equations in 9 variables. The sensitivity of the problem to small perturbations is extraordinarily high. Since 1974 several investigations have been made into this problem and they hint at one solution in the restricted domain of the nonnegative reals. The investigations did not

H. Ratschek; J. Rokne

1993-01-01

367

Representation of models for solving real-world physics problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program called a physics expert (APEX) has been developed to investigate the nature and contents of real-world physics problem models. As the representational primitives of the domain, two types of models are defined: canonical physical objects and physical models. During problem solving, the problem is represented in the form of a data connection network which is progressively augmented

H. J. Kook

1990-01-01

368

A problem-solving approach to usability test planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to usability testing is described that can help ensure user-based designs: it places usability testing in a problem-solving context. Attention is given to areas in the test development process where problems may occur, problems that pull the focus of the test away from the user. Finally, the author suggests some research needed in usability testing if one is

M. Dieli

1988-01-01

369

Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…

Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.

2005-01-01

370

Getting beyond Conflict: The Art of Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sets forth the nine major steps of problem solving in a proactive, future-focused, and vision-oriented way: defining the problem, identifying the contributing factors, stating why this is a problem, stating the preferred scenario, brainstorming possible alternatives, evaluating pros and cons of the alternatives, choosing an alternative, developing…

Hughes, SC, Patrice

1999-01-01

371

Hydraulic lift can solve many production problems  

SciTech Connect

For over five decades, hydraulic pumping systems have offered creative solutions for operators faced with a wide array of producing problems. Today, the well-developed and proven capabilities of this lift method continue to provide innovative approaches in dealing with oil well production, testing and evaluation requirements. The performance characteristics of the system give it unique adaptability to a wide range of changing well conditions, to effective use in shallow to extreme lifting depths, along with the convenient ability to install and retrieve the downhole pump through fluid circulation versus the use of a pulling unit. Hydraulic piston pumps are used in producing from low volumes up to 8,000 bpd. Jet pumps are used to produce up to 80,000 bpd.

Jackson, P.G. (Trico Industries, Inc., Huntington Park, CA (US))

1990-05-01

372

Open-Ended, Problem-Solving Investigations--Getting Started.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ways in which linear lesson sequences can be modified to provide increased opportunities for open-ended activities especially with problem solving are considered. Examples drawn from chemistry and plant reproduction, seeds, and germination are given. (KR)|

Lock, Roger

1991-01-01

373

Solving Decomposition Problems: Alternative Techniques and Description of Supporting Tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interactive software system specially designed to solve the kind of set decomposition problems that arise in the investigation of a systematic approach for the early phases of the system development process is presented. Traditional cluster analytic al...

R. C. Andreu

1977-01-01

374

Teaching Clinical Problem Solving in a Preclinical Operative Dentistry Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A method developed at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine for teaching modification of cavity design to large numbers of preclinical students in operative dentistry is reported. It standardizes the learning process for this complex problem-solving skill. (MLW)|

Silvestri, Anthony R., Jr.; Cohen, Steven N.

1981-01-01

375

Distributed Problem Solving in Seismic Event Analysis: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The accuracy of analyses for seismic events visible to more than one monitoring station can be improved by combining data from several stations and ''triangulating'' analyses. This sort of analysis is a natural candidate for distributed problem-solving ap...

L. Gasser

1987-01-01

376

Epidemiological Approach to Health Planning and Problem Solving in Indonesia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1982 a USAID-funded project (CHIPPS) has supported an experiment in Aceh, Indonesia involving decentralized health planning and problem solving. The fundamental approaches of the project were to provide training in applied epidemiology for health of...

S. L. Solter A. A. Hasibuan B. Yusuf

1986-01-01

377

A Clinical-Experimental Analysis of Design Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two studies of design problem solving are reported. Experiment 1 presents an observational study of an actual client-designer work session. Analysis of the session transcript reveals a systematically structured interaction. The client and the designer dec...

A. Malhotra J. C. Thomas J. M. Carroll

1978-01-01

378

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson plan, students learn how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, then apply what they’ve learned in activities that are based on real-world scenarios.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-10-25

379

A Rationale for and the Development of a Problem Solving Model of Instruction in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses problem solving and how science educators can integrate problem solving into their instruction. The Search, Solve, Create, and Share (SSCS) model was developed based on the findings of problem solving research. (YP)

Pizzini, Edward L.; And Others

1989-01-01

380

Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Global Optimization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential Evolution (DE) is a novel evolutionary approach capable of handling non-differentiable, non-linear and multi-modal objective functions. DE has been consistently ranked as one of the best search algorithm for solving global optimization problems in several case studies. This paper presents a simple and modified hybridized Differential Evolution algorithm for solving global optimization problems. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid

Radha Thangaraj; Millie Pant; Ajith Abraham; Youakim Badr

2009-01-01

381

Cybernetics of solvability applied to problem-solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims at defining solvability at the cross-roads of cybernetics and problem-solving. The cases of solvability being focussed on are generated by intervention, and as a result, their approach encounters circular and undisciplinary solving problems. This is why definitions of the third-order circularity and the undisciplinary framework are analytical and restrictive. The second part of the study is particularly

Marilena Lunca

1999-01-01

382

A Workflow-Based Grid Portal for Problem Solving Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we present a Workflow-based grId portal for problem Solving Environment(WISE) which has been developed by integrating\\u000a workflow, Grid and web technology to provide an enhanced powerful approach for problem solving environment. Workflow technology\\u000a supports coordinated execution of multiple application tasks on Grid resources by enabling users to describe a workflow by\\u000a composing many existing applications and new

Yong-won Kwon; So-hyun Ryu; Jin-sung Park; Chang-sung Jeong

2004-01-01

383

The Deming and Goldratt Approaches To Problem Solving: A Contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality movement's original problem-solving model was the Plan-Do-Check-Act model of Shewhart and popularized by Deming. Whether called the problem-solving process (Xerox), the Quality Improvement Cycle (AT&T), or the quality-Improvement story (Florida Power & Light), these more recent models are basically variations of the scientific method and the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle. They offer a systematic approach, a standardization to the

Joseph G. Van Matre; Rexford H. Draman

384

Lawyering and Learning in Problem-Solving Courts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Article, Paul Holland presents a deft and provocative analysis of the role of problem-solving courts in providing an alternative, team-based approach to dispute resolution that both provides therapeutic justice and deeply refocuses legal advocacy. Largely an innovation of the twentieth century, problem-solving courts are not without their critics, especially in the academy and among clinicians, but Holland provides

Paul Holland

2010-01-01

385

The Nominal Group Technique for planning and problem solving.  

PubMed

The Nominal Group Technique is a useful planning and problem-solving process that should be part of every biocommunications manager's repertoire of group managerial skills. The NGT process is designed for those situations where individual judgments must be tapped and combined to arrive at decisions which cannot be calculated by one person. It is a problem-solving or idea-generating strategy that involves silent generation of ideas which are then recorded and ranked by the group. PMID:6885751

Hall, R S

1983-06-01

386

Primer on clinical acid-base problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid-base problem solving has been an integral part of medical practice in recent generations. Diseases discovered in the last 30-plus years, for example, Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome, D-lactic acidosis, and bulimia nervosa, can be diagnosed according to characteristic acid-base findings. Accuracy in acid-base problem solving is a direct result of a reproducible, systematic approach to arterial pH, partial pressure

William L. Whittier; Gregory W. Rutecki

2004-01-01

387

Solving Nonlinear Single-Unit Commitment Problems with Ramping Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a dynamic programming algorithm for solving the single-unit commitment (1UC) problem with ramping constraints and arbitrary convex cost functions. The algorithm is based on a new approach for efficiently solving the single-unit economic dispatch (ED) problem with ramping constraints and arbitrary convex cost functions, improving on previously known ones that were limited to piecewise-linear functions. For simple convex

Antonio Frangioni; Claudio Gentile

2006-01-01

388

Towards Biomedical Problem Solving in a Game Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomedical systems involve complex interactions between diverse components. Problem solving in such systems requires insight, i.e. the capabil- ity to make non-obvious connections. In this paper, we present a game-based problem solving environment, where users can explore biological interactions with navigation on atomic to macroscopic scales, role-play, and networked col- laboration. The study investigates the system architecture of the biological

Yang Cai; Ingo Snel; B. Suman Bharathi; Clementine Klein; Judith Klein-seetharaman

2003-01-01

389

Design of Problem-Solving Environment for Contingent Claim Valuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and initial implementation of a problem-solving environment that values industrial investment projects.\\u000a We use the contingent claim, or real option, valuation method, which views a project as a claim to future cash flows which\\u000a are dependent on underlying stochastic factors, such as the market price of a produced commodity. The problem-solving environment\\u000a enables the user to

F. Oliver Bunnin; Yike Guo; John Darlington

2001-01-01

390

Successive over relaxation method in solving two-point fuzzy boundary value problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, numerical methods are considered in solving the fuzzy boundary value problem (FBVP). This boundary value problem will then be discretized to derive second order finite difference equation and hence generated fuzzy linear system. The approximation solver towards system of linear equations is described through the implementation of the Gauss-Seidel (GS) and Successive Over Relaxation (SOR) iterative methods. Then several numerical experiments were shown to illustrate the effectiveness of SOR iterative method compared with the GS method.

Dahalan, A. A.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Sulaiman, J.

2013-04-01

391

Ball valves solve turbine drain valve problem  

SciTech Connect

Alabama Power's E.C. Gaston generating plant, a 1904-MW facility located 40 miles south of Birmingham, consists of four 250-MW units, one 884-MW unit, and a 20-MW combustion turbine. Over the years the utility has experienced recurring failure of turbine drain valves on Gaston Unit 5. Unit 5 uses a Combustion Engineering supercritical steam generator rated at 6,351,470 lb/hr main steam flow to deliver steam to a General Electric tandem-compound reheat turbine with a rated capacity of 884 MW at 3500 psig and 1000 F. Main steam enters the turbine through four combined stop and control valves mounted independent of the turbine shell. This paper reports that each stop and control valve is equipped with two before-seat drain valves. One of the drain valves is motor-operated to facilitate remote operation: the other is a manual valve. In an effort to improve drain systems and reduce costs, alternatives to the problem-ridden Y-pattern glove valves were investigated. One such alternative was the Mogas severe-service metal-seated ball valve.

McDaniel, P. (Alabama Power Co., Birmingham, AL (United States))

1992-01-01

392

A numerical method for solving the transient multidimensional population balance equation using an Euler–Lagrange formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical method was developed to solve the population balance equation for transient multidimensional problems including particle–particle interactions. The population balance equation was written in a mixed Euler–Lagrange formulation which was solved using the discretization method that represents the number density function by impulse functions, an operator splitting method and a remeshing procedure for the internal variable that conserves the

F. B. Campos; P. L. C. Lage

2003-01-01

393

Interpersonal problem solving: Problem conceptualization and communication use  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, researchers have not studied the relationship between the mental representation of interpersonal problem situations and interpersonal communication used to manage problem situations. This report examined the relationship between four types of communication (i.e., integrative, distributive, indirect, and avoidance) and fourteen perceptions of problem situations (i.e., problem uniqueness and frequency; goal importance, complexity, and mutuality; uncertainty about the other,

Hal Witteman

1988-01-01

394

A Linearization Method for Solving Partial Redistribution Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linearization method for solving partial redistribution (PRD) problems is presented. The basic idea of this method, due to Cannon et al. (1975), is the evaluation of an approximate operator which corresponds to assuming that radiation is completely redistributed over the line profile. Using this approximate operator, corrections to the line-source function are obtained iteratively with very small amounts of computing time. The present method uses a Rybicki-type of elimination scheme which requires small core storage even when the number of frequency-angle points is large. The linearization method for solving PRD problems is combined with the linearization method of Scharmer (1981) and Scharmer and Nordlund (1982), used to solve complete redistribution problems. This decreases the computing time required to solve a given problem. These methods for solving PRD problems are particularly efficient when the number of frequency-angle points is large and can be used even on very small computers. Existing CRD programs for solving complete redistribution problems can easily be modified to incorporate PRD.

Scharmer, G. B.

1983-01-01

395

Using Clickers to Facilitate Development of Problem-Solving Skills  

PubMed Central

Classroom response systems, or clickers, have become pedagogical staples of the undergraduate science curriculum at many universities. In this study, the effectiveness of clickers in promoting problem-solving skills in a genetics class was investigated. Students were presented with problems requiring application of concepts covered in lecture and were polled for the correct answer. A histogram of class responses was displayed, and students were encouraged to discuss the problem, which enabled them to better understand the correct answer. Students were then presented with a similar problem and were again polled. My results indicate that those students who were initially unable to solve the problem were then able to figure out how to solve similar types of problems through a combination of trial and error and class discussion. This was reflected in student performance on exams, where there was a statistically significant positive correlation between grades and the percentage of clicker questions answered. Interestingly, there was no clear correlation between exam grades and the percentage of clicker questions answered correctly. These results suggest that students who attempt to solve problems in class are better equipped to solve problems on exams.

Levesque, Aime A.

2011-01-01

396

Asymptotic numerical method for problems coupling several nonlinearities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to assess the efficiency of the asymptotic numerical method to solve problems coupling various nonlinearities. The 3D hemispherical stretching of a circular sheet, that involves geometrical, material and red unilateral contact nonlinearities is chosen as an example. An elastoplastic model based on the plasticity deformation theory is adopted. The structural discretization is performed by

H. Abichou; H. Zahrouni; M. Potier-Ferry

2002-01-01

397

Numerical problems in the solution of oxidation and combustion models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faced with large and detailed kinetic schemes of pyrolysis, partial oxidation and combustion of hydrocarbon mixtures, the complex process models usually constitute stiff systems of both differential and coupled differential-algebraic equations. This paper discusses different typical applications of a new robust and efficient numerical integration method to solve these problems. The examples refer to gas solid catalytic reactors, partial oxidation

D. Manca; G. Buzzi-Ferraris; T. Faravelli; E. Ranzi

2001-01-01

398

Optimal quantization methods and applications to numerical problems in flnance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review optimal quantization methods for numerically solving nonlinear problems in higher dimension associated with Markov processes. Quantization of a Markov pro- cess consists in a spatial discretization on flnite grids optimally fltted to the dynamics of the process. Two quantization methods are proposed: the flrst one, called marginal quantization, relies on an optimal approximation of the marginal distributions of

Gilles PAG; Jacques PRINTEMS

2003-01-01

399

Representation use and strategy choice in physics problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics students’ problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that solutions can be triggered by particular details of the representation. Previous studies are complemented with a fine grained analysis of solution strategies. We find that students use different problem-solving strategies, depending on the representational format in which the problem is stated.

De Cock, Mieke

2012-12-01

400

Social problem solving training for African Americans: Effects on dietary problem solving skill and DASH diet-related behavior change  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveHypertension continues to take its toll on millions of African Americans. Adhering to an eating plan called Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) can significantly lower blood pressure. This study examined whether problem solving training in addition to education on DASH is more effective than education alone to help African Americans in an urban community college setting solve their own

Marsha L. Lesley

2007-01-01

401

Incentives improve performance on both incremental and insight problem solving.  

PubMed

An increasing number of studies are showing a connection between emotion and motivation and cognitive processes. Most of these studies, however, have been correlational in nature, limiting the conclusions that can be drawn. We directly manipulated motivation through the use of an incentive and investigated its effects on insight and incremental problem solving. In four experiments we found that an incentive (the opportunity to leave the experiment early) increased problem-solving performance for all problems presented, regardless of problem type. Additionally, we found evidence that the incentive increased recall memory, indicating more thorough processing for participants in the incentive condition. This study provides evidence that incentives influence problem solving and implies that motivation should not be ignored when investigating cognitive processes. PMID:16846967

Wieth, Mareike; Burns, Bruce D

2006-08-01

402

Effect of Misconception on Transfer in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We examine the effect of misconceptions about friction on students' ability to solve problems and transfer from one context to another. We analyze written responses to paired isomorphic problems given to introductory physics students and discussions with a subset of students. Misconceptions associated with friction in problems were sometimes so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students fully discern their underlying similarities.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-06-24

403

AN INVESTIGATION ON CHINESE TEACHERS’ REALISTIC PROBLEM POSING AND PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY AND BELIEFS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, which is a part of a research project about realistic word problem solving and problem posing in Chinese\\u000a elementary schools, a problem solving and a problem posing test were administered to 128 pre-service and in-service elementary\\u000a school teachers from Tianjin City in China, wherein the teachers were asked to solve 3 contextually challenging division-with-remainder\\u000a (DWR) word

Limin Chen; Wim Van Dooren; Qi Chen; Lieven Verschaffel

2011-01-01

404

Representational Format, Student Choice, and Problem Solving in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student problem-solving ability appears to be tied to the representational format of the problem (math, pictorial, graphical, verbal). In a study of a 367-student algebra-based physics class, we examine student problem solving ability on homework problems given in four different representational formats, with problems as close to isomorphic as possible. In addition, we examine students' capacity for assessing their own representational competence by giving follow-up quizzes in which the students can choose between various problem formats. We report student performance and consider factors that may influence their ability or choices. As a control, part of the class was assigned a random-format follow-up quiz where students received quiz formats at random. We find that there are statistically significant performance differences between isomorphic problems. We also find that allowing students to choose which representational format they use improves student performance under some circumstances and degrades it in others.

Kohl, Patrick B.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2010-01-18

405

Metacognitive Factors in Scientific Problem-Solving Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study on 42 seventh graders (ages 12-13) was to determine whether and to what extent students' metacognitive level is inked to their conceptualization and performance in problem solving at school, especially science problems. This hypothesis is supported by a number of studies showing that metacognition is a factor in learning.…

Rozencwajg, Paulette

2003-01-01

406

Adolescent Stealers' and Nonstealers' Social Problem-Solving Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared 11 adolescents with a history of stealing to 11 nonstealers. Results reveal that stealers showed a tendency not to consider the passage of time necessary for solving social problems. Furthermore, adolescents with delinquency tendencies showed a cognitive bias for generating ineffective solutions to hypothetical social problems. Treatment…

Greening, Leilani

1997-01-01

407

The Role of an Incubation Period in Creative Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental study tested the spreading-activation hypothesis that an incubation period helps to sensitize problem solvers to relevant concepts. The study also tested the selective forgetting hypothesis that an incubation period helps to desensitize problem solvers to irrelevant concepts. Chinese Chess GO players, 28 experts and 29 novices, solved 18 remote association tasks (RAT) and lexical decision tasks (LDTs) under

Ut Na Sio; Elisabeth Rudowicz

2007-01-01

408

Solving the Problem of Excessive Time Delay in Attractor Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently showed that the seemingly separate problems of finding a proper time delay and then finding a proper embedding dimension for attractor reconstruction are really the same problem which can be solved with a mathematical statistic faithful to the Takens reconstruction theorem. This approach also deals well with disparate time scales in data, and optimally choosing time series to

Louis Pecora; Jon Nichols; Thomas Carroll; Linda Moniz

2006-01-01

409

Solving Vehicle Routing Problems using Constraint Programming and Metaheuristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraint Programming typically uses the technique of depth-first branch and bound as the method of solving optimisation problems. Although this method can give the optimal solution, for large problems, the time needed to find the optimal can be prohibitive. This paper introduces a method for using iterative improvement techniques within a Constraint Programming framework, and applies this technique to vehicle

410

Hemisphericity Research: An Overview with Some Implications for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on cerebral hemisphericity and lateral dominance is reviewed, and relationships between right and left hemispheric modes of information processing as well as problem solving techniques are discussed. Conclusions focus mainly on need for educators to know information processing differences of the two hemispheres to teach children problem

Myers, John T.

1982-01-01

411

A Problem-Solving Oral Examination for Family Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College of Family Physicians of Canada has used in its certification examination a new type of structured problem-solving examination called the Formal Oral. A series of preselected problem areas such as the complaint, relevant data base, investigation, and treatment are scored by two examiners. (Editor/PG)

Van Wart, Arthur D.

1974-01-01

412

Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study…

Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen

2008-01-01

413

Exploring the Role of Conceptual Scaffolding in Solving Synthesis Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC) problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring…

Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

2011-01-01

414

Using educational technologies to understand how learners solve problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine how a highly interactive educational technology program Child Growth & Development in the first 12 months of life was used to investigate the problem solving behaviour of learners. This preliminary study was also used to evaluate the study instruments ahead of a more substantial investigation. The design of the program was informed by Problem Based

Kristine A. Elliott; Gregor E. Kennedy

415

Using Multiset Discrimination to Solve Language Processing Problems Without Hashing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that hashing is essential to solve many language process- ing problems efficiently; e.g., symbol table formation and maintenance, gram- mar manipulation, basic block optimization, and global optimization. This paper questions this assumption, and initiates development of an efficient alter- native compiler methodology without hashing or sorting. The methodology rests on efficient solutions to the basic problem

Jiazhen Cai; Robert Paige

1995-01-01

416

Using Problem Solving to Assess Young Children's Mathematics Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primary…

Charlesworth, Rosalind; Leali, Shirley A.

2012-01-01

417

Instructional Qualities of a Successful Mathematical Problem-Solving Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes activities that have been successfully implemented by an expert during a mathematical problem-solving course. Focuses on the identification of the qualities of these problems used to promote the development of student strategies and values that reflect mathematical practice in the classroom. Contains 17 references. (ASK)|

Santos-Trigo, Manuel

1998-01-01

418

Strategic transfer: A tool for academic problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of classroom learning, strategic transfer can be viewed as a tool for academic problem solving. Strategic transfer is defined as the spontaneous access and retrieval (remembering) of previously learned formal procedures for the successful solution of a problem. The transfer-appropriate processing encoding model (Morris, Bransford, and Franks, 1977), and the transfer-appropriate procedures retrieval model (Roediger, Weldon, and

Gary D. Phye

1992-01-01

419

Strategic differences in algebraic problem solving: Neuroanatomical correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we built on previous neuroimaging studies of mathematical cognition and examined whether the same cognitive processes are engaged by two strategies used in algebraic problem solving. We focused on symbolic algebra, which uses alphanumeric equations to represent problems, and the model method, which uses pictorial representation. Eighteen adults, matched on academic proficiency and competency in the two

Kerry Lee; Zee Ying Lim; Stephanie H. M. Yeong; Swee Fong Ng; Vinod Venkatraman; Michael W. L. Chee

2007-01-01

420

An efficient heuristic approach to solve the unate covering problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new approach to solve the unate covering problem based on exploitation of information provided by Lagrangean relaxation. In particular, main advantages of the proposed heuristic algorithm are the effective choice of elements to be included in the solution, cost-related reductions of the problem, and a good lower bound on the optimum. The results support the effectiveness

Roberto Cordone; Fabrizio Ferrandi; Donatella Sciuto; Roberto Wolfler Calvo

2001-01-01

421

A General Ant Colony Model to solve Combinatorial Optimization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Ants System is an artificial system based on the behavior of real ant colonies, which is used to solve combinatorial problems. This is a distributed algorithm composed by a set of cooperating agents called ants which cooperate among them to find good solutions to combinatorial optimization problems. The cooperation follows the behavior of real ants using an indirect form

Jose Aguilar

2001-01-01

422

Another Approach to Solving Problems in Rotational Statics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a technique which aids students in solving static problems involving three or more torques about a given axis. The method is longer and equivalent to the standard method, but students experience success with this new way to treat the more complicated equilibrium problems. (DH)

Fineman, Morton A.; Burnett, Carl, Jr.

1985-01-01

423

Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…

Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen

2008-01-01

424

Pointer analysis: haven't we solved this problem yet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past twenty-one years, over seventy-five papers and nine Ph.D. theses have been published on pointer analysis. Given the tomes of work on this topic one may wonder, “Haven'trdquo; we solved this problem yet?'' With input from many researchers in the field, this paper describes issues related to pointer analysis and remaining open problems.

Michael Hind

2001-01-01

425

Solving vehicle routing problems by maximum neuron model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new clustering method for the first phase of a two-phase method of the vehicle routing problems (VRPs) and the traveling salesman problems (TSPs). In the first phase, the customers are grouped as several delivery areas for vehicle by using maximum neuron model. In the second phase, the TSPs for each areas are solved by

Noriko Yoshiike; Yoshiyasu Takefuji

2002-01-01

426

Solving Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem Using DNA-based Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vehicle routing problem is one of the most challenging optimization tasks involved in searching optimal route sets in operational research. The objective of solving capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) is to identify a set of shortest paths for a fleet of individual vehicles with fixed capacity from a central depot that serve all customer demand. This study describes a

Chung-Wei Yeh

2009-01-01

427

Solving the Small Sample Size Problem of LDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small sample size problem is often encountered in pattern recognition. It results in the singularity of the within-class scatter matrix Sw in Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Different methods have been proposed to solve this problem in face recognition literature. Some methods reduce the dimension of the original sample space and hence unavoidably remove the null space of Sw, which

Rui Huang; Qingshan Liu; Hanqing Lu; Songde Ma

2002-01-01

428

Cool Turkey: Solving the Image Problem to Secure EU Membership  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the autumn 2005 Eurobarometer 55 per cent of the EU population perceive Turkey to be culturally too different to fit into the EU. Given that Turkey's accession to the EU will require ratification by the member states, this perception poses a problem for Turkey. This article discusses whether and how Turkey can solve its image problem. It argues

Rainer Hülsse

2006-01-01

429

Brain activity in using heuristic prototype to solve insightful problems.  

PubMed

When confronted with a real-world problem, heuristic knowledge and experience can guide the solution of a specific technical problem as the key step toward innovation. In particular, a heuristic prototype must be used correctly to cue the technical problem that exists in a particular situation. The present study selected an innovative paradigm and scientific innovation materials to investigate the neural basis of insight induced by heuristic prototypes using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The day prior to undergoing fMRI scanning, participants were asked to solve 42 difficult technical problems that scientists might have already encountered but were unknown to the participants. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, the same participants were randomly presented with 84 prototypes classified into two types: related prototypes (RPs), which were useful for solving previously encountered problems, and unrelated prototypes (UPs), which sometimes did not contribute to problem solving. While being scanned, participants were asked to assess whether a prototype is relevant to any of the technical problems. This study comprised two conditions: solving technical problems when presented with a related heuristic prototype and failing to solve technical problems using unrelated heuristic prototypes. The authors assumed that the regions significantly activated by the RP condition, compared with the UP condition, reflected brain activity related to the role of heuristic prototypes in scientific insight. fMRI data showed that the left dorsolateral prefrontal gyrus (left DLFPC, BA9) and the left angular gyrus (left AG, BA39) were more significantly activated when presented with RPs than with UPs. The results suggest that the DLPFC may be involved in the automatic retrieval of technical problems and breaking of mental sets. Moreover, the left AG may be involved in forming novel associations between technical problems and related prototypes. PMID:23860118

Dandan, Tong; Haixue, Zhu; Wenfu, Li; Wenjing, Yang; Jiang, Qiu; Qinglin, Zhang

2013-07-13

430

A Model for Adaptive Problem Solving Applied to Natural Language Acquisition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adaptive problem solving is the application of artificial intelligence learning techniques to practical problems. The approach taken in studying adaptive problem solving is three-fold. First, to develop a model for adaptive problem solving in order to spe...

L. R. Harris

1972-01-01

431

The nature of gestures' beneficial role in spatial problem solving.  

PubMed

Co-thought gestures are hand movements produced in silent, noncommunicative, problem-solving situations. In the study, we investigated whether and how such gestures enhance performance in spatial visualization tasks such as a mental rotation task and a paper folding task. We found that participants gestured more often when they had difficulties solving mental rotation problems (Experiment 1). The gesture-encouraged group solved more mental rotation problems correctly than did the gesture-allowed and gesture-prohibited groups (Experiment 2). Gestures produced by the gesture-encouraged group enhanced performance in the very trials in which they were produced (Experiments 2 & 3). Furthermore, gesture frequency decreased as the participants in the gesture-encouraged group solved more problems (Experiments 2 & 3). In addition, the advantage of the gesture-encouraged group persisted into subsequent spatial visualization problems in which gesturing was prohibited: another mental rotation block (Experiment 2) and a newly introduced paper folding task (Experiment 3). The results indicate that when people have difficulty in solving spatial visualization problems, they spontaneously produce gestures to help them, and gestures can indeed improve performance. As they solve more problems, the spatial computation supported by gestures becomes internalized, and the gesture frequency decreases. The benefit of gestures persists even in subsequent spatial visualization problems in which gesture is prohibited. Moreover, the beneficial effect of gesturing can be generalized to a different spatial visualization task when two tasks require similar spatial transformation processes. We concluded that gestures enhance performance on spatial visualization tasks by improving the internal computation of spatial transformations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:21299319

Chu, Mingyuan; Kita, Sotaro

2011-02-01

432

Solving the Unit Commitment Problem Using AN Adaptive Immune Genetic Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an Adaptive Immune Genetic Algorithm (AIGA) solution to solve the Unit Commitment (UC) problem. The unit commitment problem formulation takes into consideration the minimum up and down time constraints, start up cost and spinning reserve, which is defined as the minimization of the total objective function while satisfying all the associated constraints. Mathematical formulation, illustration and production results for a 10 generator-scheduling problem are presented. Finally, numerical results of systems are established the effectiveness of purpose technique.

Oonsivilai, Anant; Marungsri, Boonruang

2008-10-01

433

The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.  

PubMed Central

This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

2002-01-01

434

Science Teachers and Problem Solving in Elementary Schools in Singapore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which science teachers taught problem solving in elementary science. The survey involved 348 teachers in 36 Singapore elementary schools. The study investigated the science teachers' views about their use of science instructional techniques in general and the problem-solving teaching approach in particular. It also focused on the difficulties faced by science teachers in implementing the problem-solving teaching approach in the science classroom. It was found that the most emphasised activities were completion of science workbooks, teachers' explanation of concepts, and hands-on activities. The least emphasised activities were computer-based learning, activities beyond the textbook and workbook, and visits to the ecology garden and other parts of the school. Only about one-third of the teachers often conducted activities pertaining to problem solving. Most of them were more concerned about covering the science syllabus for examinations, the physical constraints of the learning environment, and pupils' abilities and motivation. On the other hand, teacher-related factors ranked low: these included teachers' preference for teaching and learning outcomes, their ability to maintain control over pupils' learning, feelings of inadequacy of science knowledge, and insufficient understanding of the pedagogical method of teaching problem solving.

Lee, Kam-Wah L.; Tan, Li-Li; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Lee, Kam-Wah L.; Chia, Lian-Sai; Chin, Christine

2000-01-01

435

Improved Predictor Corrector Method for solving fuzzy initial value problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an Improved Predictor Corrector (IPC) method to solve the ``fuzzy initial value problem'' is proposed. The IPC method is obtained by combining an explicit three-step method and an implicit two-step method. These methods are compared with existed the methods, where the proposed methods proved to have more accuracy. The convergence and stability of the proposed methods are also presented in detail. In addition, these methods are illustrated by solving some examples.

Allahviranloo, T.; Ahmady, N.; Ahmady, E.

2009-05-01

436

The CAOS problem-solving environment: recent developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent developments of the CAOS problem-solving environment (PSE), an IDL-based software tool whose original aim was to define and simulate as realistically as possible the behavior of a generic adaptive optics (AO) system -from the atmospheric propagation of light, to the sensing of the wave-front aberrations and the correction through a deformable mirror- but which results in a widely more general tool now. In fact, the different developments made through the last years result in a very versatile numerical tool complete of a global graphical interface (the CAOS Application Builder), a general utilities library (the CAOS Library), and different packages dedicated to a wide range of astronomical-optics-related scientific topics: the original package designed for end-to-end AO system simulations (the Software Package CAOS), an image simulation/ reconstruction package with interferometric capabilities (the Software Package AIRY), an extension of the latter specialized for the LBT instrument LINC-NIRVANA (the Software Package AIRY-LN), an ad hoc package dedicated to the VLT instrument SPHERE (the Software Package SPHERE), and an embedment of the analytical AO simulation code PAOLA (the Software Package PAOLAC).We present the status of the whole CAOS PSE, together with the most recent developments, and plans for the future of the overall tool.

Carbillet, Marcel; Desiderŕ, Gabriele; Augier, Evelyne; La Camera, Andrea; Riccardi, Armando; Boccaletti, Anthony; Jolissaint, Laurent; Ab Kabir, Diyana

2010-07-01

437

Solving Optimal Control Problems by Exploiting Inherent Dynamical Systems Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computing globally efficient solutions is a major challenge in optimal control of nonlinear dynamical systems. This work proposes a method combining local optimization and motion planning techniques based on exploiting inherent dynamical systems structures, such as symmetries and invariant manifolds. Prior to the optimal control, the dynamical system is analyzed for structural properties that can be used to compute pieces of trajectories that are stored in a motion planning library. In the context of mechanical systems, these motion planning candidates, termed primitives, are given by relative equilibria induced by symmetries and motions on stable or unstable manifolds of e.g. fixed points in the natural dynamics. The existence of controlled relative equilibria is studied through Lagrangian mechanics and symmetry reduction techniques. The proposed framework can be used to solve boundary value problems by performing a search in the space of sequences of motion primitives connected using optimized maneuvers. The optimal sequence can be used as an admissible initial guess for a post-optimization. The approach is illustrated by two numerical examples, the single and the double spherical pendula, which demonstrates its benefit compared to standard local optimization techniques.

Flaßkamp, Kathrin; Ober-Blöbaum, Sina; Kobilarov, Marin

2012-08-01

438

Design of recurrent neural networks for solving constrained least absolute deviation problems.  

PubMed

Recurrent neural networks for solving constrained least absolute deviation (LAD) problems or L(1)-norm optimization problems have attracted much interest in recent years. But so far most neural networks can only deal with some special linear constraints efficiently. In this paper, two neural networks are proposed for solving LAD problems with various linear constraints including equality, two-sided inequality and bound constraints. When tailored to solve some special cases of LAD problems in which not all types of constraints are present, the two networks can yield simpler architectures than most existing ones in the literature. In particular, for solving problems with both equality and one-sided inequality constraints, another network is invented. All of the networks proposed in this paper are rigorously shown to be capable of solving the corresponding problems. The different networks designed for solving the same types of problems possess the same structural complexity, which is due to the fact these architectures share the same computing blocks and only differ in connections between some blocks. By this means, some flexibility for circuits realization is provided. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the theoretical results and compare the convergence rates of the networks. PMID:20562048

Hu, Xiaolin; Sun, Changyin; Zhang, Bo

2010-06-17

439

An eye movement study of insight problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The representational change theory of insight claims that insight problems cause impasses because they mislead problem solvers\\u000a into constructing inappropriate initial representations. Insight is attained when the initial representation is changed. In\\u000a the present study (N = 24), we tested three specific implications of these hypotheses against eye movements recorded while\\u000a participants solved matchstick arithmetic problems. The results were consistent

Günther Knoblich; Stellan Ohlsson; Gary E. Raney

2001-01-01

440

DNA computation model to solve 0–1 programming problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

0–1 programming problem is an important problem in opsearch with very widespread applications. In this paper, a new DNA computation model utilizing solution-based and surface-based methods is presented to solve the 0–1 programming problem. This model contains the major benefits of both solution-based and surface-based methods; including vast parallelism, extraordinary information density and ease of operation. The result, verified by

Fengyue Zhang; Zhixiang Yin; Bo Liu; Jin Xu

2004-01-01

441

Numerical solution of an equilibrium problem of based on the generalized level method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An equilibrium problem is studied whose special case is finding a Nash point in a noncooperative multiperson game. A numerical algorithm for solving this problem is described. Conditions on the problem are stated under which an estimate is obtained for the convergence rate of the algorithm to a unique solution of the problem. The results are used for a numerical analysis of noncooperative games.

Gol'Shtein, E. G.

2011-09-01

442

A Problem-Solving Conceptual Framework and Its Implications in Designing Problem-Posing Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The links between the mathematical and cognitive models that interact during problem solving are explored with the purpose of developing a reference framework for designing problem-posing tasks. When the process of solving is a successful one, a solver successively changes his/her cognitive stances related to the problem via transformations that…

Singer, Florence Mihaela; Voica, Cristian

2013-01-01

443

Characterization and Developmental History of Problem Solving Methods in Medicine  

PubMed Central

The central thesis of this paper is the importance of the framework in which information is structured. It is technically important in the design of systems; it is also important in guaranteeing that systems are usable by clinicians. Progress in medical computing depends on our ability to develop a more quantitative understanding of the role of context in our choice of problem solving techniques. This in turn will help us to design more flexible and responsive computer systems. The paper contains an overview of some models of knowledge and problem solving methods, a characterization of modern diagnostic techniques, and a discussion of skill development in medical practice. Diagnostic techniques are examined in terms of how they are taught, what problem solving methods they use, and how they fit together into an overall theory of interpretation of the medical status of a patient.

Harbort, Robert A.

1980-01-01

444

Problem solving to prevent work injuries in supported employment.  

PubMed Central

A problem-solving strategy was used to teach three groups of 3 individuals in supported employment how to prevent work-related injuries. The problem-solving strategy was taught in two training phases. The first training phase involved the use of cue cards, and the second involved the withdrawal of the cue cards. Interviews and staged generalization assessments in the participants' natural work environments were conducted before, during, and up to 12 weeks after training. In these assessments, situations were presented that were either similar or dissimilar to situations presented in training. Results of both the interviews and staged assessments indicated that the participants' newly acquired problem-solving skills generalized to similar and dissimilar situations.

Martella, R C; Agran, M; Marchand-Martella, N E

1992-01-01

445

Mentalising and social problem-solving after brain injury.  

PubMed

This study examined the performance of adults with an acquired brain injury (ABI) on social cognition tasks assessing mentalistic interpretation and social problem-solving. These tasks were based on an earlier version described by Channon and Crawford (1999). Twenty participants with an ABI (10 resulting from a traumatic brain injury, 10 from a cerebrovascular accident), were found to be impaired relative to 20 matched control participants in interpreting scenarios involving either actions or sarcastic remarks on the Mentalistic Interpretation Task. When problem-solving ability was examined, the participants with an ABI were poorer at solving social problems on the Social Problem Resolution Task, and generated fewer responses on the Social Problem Fluency Task. They also had greater difficulty in detecting the awkward elements of the social situations, and in selecting appropriate solutions from a range of alternatives. These tasks provide a potential clinical tool for pinpointing an individual's strengths and weaknesses in everyday social communication and problem-solving, which can serve as the basis for designing individualised rehabilitation programmes. PMID:20526955

Channon, Shelley; Crawford, Sarah

2010-06-01

446

Does incubation enhance problem solving? A meta-analytic review.  

PubMed

A meta-analytic review of empirical studies that have investigated incubation effects on problem solving is reported. Although some researchers have reported increased solution rates after an incubation period (i.e., a period of time in which a problem is set aside prior to further attempts to solve), others have failed to find effects. The analysis examined the contributions of moderators such as problem type, presence of solution-relevant or misleading cues, and lengths of preparation and incubation periods to incubation effect sizes. The authors identified a positive incubation effect, with divergent thinking tasks benefiting more than linguistic and visual insight tasks from incubation. Longer preparation periods gave a greater incubation effect, whereas filling an incubation period with high cognitive demand tasks gave a smaller incubation effect. Surprisingly, low cognitive demand tasks yielded a stronger incubation effect than did rest during an incubation period when solving linguistic insight problems. The existence of multiple types of incubation effect provides evidence for differential invocation of knowledge-based vs. strategic solution processes across different classes of problem, and it suggests that the conditions under which incubation can be used as a practical technique for enhancing problem solving must be designed with care. PMID:19210055

Sio, Ut Na; Ormerod, Thomas C

2009-01-01

447

Place-Value: Problem-Solving and Written Assessment Using Digit-Correspondence Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of researcher-developed lessons on students' understanding of two- and three-digit numeration. Digit-correspondence tasks, often used for individual interview assessment of place value understanding, were adapted to be used as problem-solving tasks. The tasks were presented to three classes,…

Ross, Sharon; Sunflower, Elisa

448

Thai Grade 10 and 11 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Ability to Solve Stoichiometry Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument…

Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.

2007-01-01

449

Place-Value: Problem-Solving and Written Assessment Using Digit-Correspondence Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of researcher-developed lessons on students' understanding of two- and three-digit numeration. Digit-correspondence tasks, often used for individual interview assessment of place value understanding, were adapted to be used as problem-solving tasks. The tasks were presented to three classes,…

Ross, Sharon; Sunflower, Elisa

450

Finite volume multiscale finite element method for solving the groundwater flow problems in heterogeneous porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a numerical method, the finite volume multiscale finite element method (FVMSFEM), for solving the groundwater flow problems in heterogeneous porous media spanning over many scales. This method is based on an efficient coupling between the finite volume discretization and the multiscale finite element base functions. It can efficiently capture the large-scale structure of the solution

Xinguang He; Li Ren

2005-01-01

451

A numerical projection technique for large-scale eigenvalue problems  

PubMed Central

We present a new numerical technique to solve large-scale eigenvalue problems. It is based on the projection technique, used in strongly correlated quantum many-body systems, where first an effective approximate model of smaller complexity is constructed by projecting out high energy degrees of freedom and in turn solving the resulting model by some standard eigenvalue solver. Here we introduce a generalization of this idea, where both steps are performed numerically and which in contrast to the standard projection technique converges in principle to the exact eigenvalues. This approach is not just applicable to eigenvalue problems encountered in many-body systems but also in other areas of research that result in large-scale eigenvalue problems for matrices which have, roughly speaking, mostly a pronounced dominant diagonal part. We will present detailed studies of the approach guided by two many-body models.

Gamillscheg, Ralf; Haase, Gundolf; von der Linden, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

452

Nonlinear Coupled Problems Solved by hp-FEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A necessity to solve coupled problems arises in various fields of physics and engineering. The main aim of this work is to develop a general framework and software for simple solving of complex coupled problems and to investigate and compare various different approaches towards the solution. Namely we want to quantify benefits of monolithic discretization of the coupled problem (where all fields are discretized together into one matrix for each time level of the transient problem) with respect to the standard approach, where each field is resolved separately using values of the other fields from the previous time level for the non-linear constants, when necessary. As an example of a real device we selected actuator, where magnetic field causes heating of certain parts and it results to its prolongation. It is used for precise positioning of various objects. Implementation is done using hp-FEM method, which is extremely efficient for problems with complex behavior exhibiting singularities or boundary layers.

Ku?S, Pavel; Kotlan, Václav; Karban, Pavel; Doležel, Ivo

2011-09-01

453

Using Conceptual Scaffolding to Foster Effective Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traditional end-of-chapter problems often are localized, requiring formulas only within a single chapter. Students frequently can solve these problems by performing âplug-and-chugâ without recognizing underlying concepts. We designed open-ended problems that require a synthesis of concepts that are broadly separated in the teaching time line, militating against studentsâ blindly invoking locally introduced formulas. Each problem was encapsulated into a sequence with two preceding conceptually-based multiple-choice questions. These conceptual questions address the same underlying concepts as the subsequent problem, providing students with guided conceptual scaffolding. When solving the problem, students were explicitly advised to search for underlying connections based on the conceptual questions. Both small-scale interviews and a large-scale written test were conducted to investigate the effects of guided conceptual scaffolding on student problem solving. Specifically, student performance on the open-ended problems was compared between those who received scaffolding and those who did not. A further analysis of whether the conceptual scaffolding was equivalent to mere cueing also was conducted.

Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

2010-01-19

454

Efficient assessment of social problem-solving abilities in medical and rehabilitation settings: a Rasch analysis of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised.  

PubMed

The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Scale (SPSI-R) has been shown to be a reliable and valid self-report measure of social problem-solving abilities. In busy medical and rehabilitation settings, a brief and efficient screening version with psychometric properties similar to the SPSI-R would have numerous benefits including decreased patient and caregiver assessment burden and administration/scoring time. Thus, the aim of the current study was to identify items from the SPSI-R that would provide for a more efficient assessment of global social problem-solving abilities. This study consisted of three independent samples: 121 persons in low-vision rehabilitation (M age=71 years old, SD=15.53), 301 persons living with diabetes mellitus (M age=58, and SD=14.85), and 131 family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities (M age=56 years old, SD=12.15). All persons completed a version of the SPSI-R, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Using Rasch scaling of the SPSI-R short-form, we identified a subset of 10 items that reflected the five-component model of social problem solving. The 10 items were separately validated on the sample of persons living with diabetes mellitus and the sample of family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities. Results indicate that the efficient 10-item version, analyzed separately for all three samples, demonstrated good reliability and validity characteristics similar to the established SPSI-R short form. The 10-item version of the SPSI-R represents a brief, effective way in which clinicians and researchers in busy health care settings can quickly assess global problem-solving abilities and identify those persons at-risk for complicated adjustment. Implications for the assessment of social problem-solving abilities are discussed. PMID:19267395

Dreer, Laura E; Berry, Jack; Rivera, Patricia; Snow, Marsha; Elliott, Timothy R; Miller, Doreen; Little, Todd D

2009-07-01

455

Efficient Assessment of Social Problem-Solving Abilities in Medical and Rehabilitation Settings: A Rasch Analysis of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised  

PubMed Central

The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Scale (SPSI-R) has been shown to be a reliable and valid self-report measure of social problem-solving abilities. In busy medical and rehabilitation settings, a brief and efficient screening version with psychometric properties similar to the SPSI-R would have numerous benefits including decreased patient and caregiver assessment burden and administration/scoring time. Thus, the aim of the current study was to identify items from the SPSI-R that would provide for a more efficient assessment of global social problem-solving abilities. This study consisted of three independent samples: 121 persons in low-vision rehabilitation (M age = 71 years old, SD = 15.53), 301 persons living with diabetes mellitus (M age = 58, and SD = 14.85), and 131 family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities (M age = 56 years old, SD = 12.15). All persons completed a version of the SPSI-R, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Using Rasch scaling of the SPSI-R short-form, we identified a subset of 10 items that reflected the five-component model of social problem solving. The 10 items were separately validated on the sample of persons living with diabetes mellitus and the sample of family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities. Results indicate that the efficient 10-item version, analyzed separately for all three samples, demonstrated good reliability and validity characteristics similar to the established SPSI-R short form. The 10-item version of the SPSI-R represents a brief, effective way in which clinicians and researchers in busy health care settings can quickly assess global problem-solving abilities and identify those persons at-risk for complicated adjustment. Implications for the assessment of social problem-solving abilities are discussed.

Dreer, Laura E.; Berry, Jack; Rivera, Patricia; Snow, Marsha; Elliott, Timothy R.; Miller, Doreen; Little, Todd D.

2009-01-01

456

Sustained Effects of Solving Conceptually Scaffolded Synthesis Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students commonly have difficulty with ``synthesis problems'', which require a combination of typically two concepts that are taught separately in different chapters and/or at significantly different times during a course. One reason for this is that students frequently rely on a formula-based approach, beginning by searching for mathematical equations or worked examples which often do not exist. We employed a guided scaffolding method to induce students to employ a more effective problem-solving approach by first searching for fundamental concepts. This method includes a sequence of two conceptually-based multiple-choice questions that have similar deep structure as the synthesis problem, and an explicit instruction to remind students to make connections between the synthesis problem and these conceptual questions. We report our findings on the sustained effects of repeated training using conceptually-scaffolded synthesis problems. In the last 2 weeks of the 2009 fall quarter, we repeatedly provided 3 groups of students with different training using scaffolded synthesis problems, un-scaffolded synthesis problems, or traditional textbook problems. Four days after the training, all students took a common final examination containing a synthesis problem without scaffolding. Results show that repeated training with scaffolded synthesis problems rendered the highest success in students' correctly identifying and applying fundamental concepts for solving this problem.

Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Heckler, Andrew; Bao, Lei

2010-10-01

457

A meshless method for solving an inverse spacewise-dependent heat source problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an effective meshless and integration-free numerical scheme for solving an inverse spacewise-dependent heat source problem is proposed. Due to the use of the fundamental solution as basis functions, the method leads to a global approximation scheme in both spatial and time domains. The standard Tikhonov regularization technique with the generalized cross-validation criterion for choosing the regularization parameter is adopted for solving the resulting ill-conditioned system of linear algebraic equations. The effectiveness of the algorithm is illustrated by several numerical examples.

Yan, Liang; Yang, Feng-Lian; Fu, Chu-Li

2009-01-01

458

Neural Activity When People Solve Verbal Problems with Insight  

PubMed Central

People sometimes solve problems with a unique process called insight, accompanied by an “Aha!” experience. It has long been unclear whether different cognitive and neural processes lead to insight versus noninsight solutions, or if solutions differ only in subsequent subjective feeling. Recent behavioral studies indicate distinct patterns of performance and suggest differential hemispheric involvement for insight and noninsight solutions. Subjects solved verbal problems, and after each correct solution indicated whether they solved with or without insight. We observed two objective neural correlates of insight. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (Experiment 1) revealed increased activity in the right hemisphere anterior superior temporal gyrus for insight relative to noninsight solutions. The same region was active during initial solving efforts. Scalp electroencephalogram recordings (Experiment 2) revealed a sudden burst of high-frequency (gamma-band) neural activity in the same area beginning 0.3 s prior to insight solutions. This right anterior temporal area is associated with making connections across distantly related information during comprehension. Although all problem solving relies on a largely shared cortical network, the sudden flash of insight occurs when solvers engage distinct neural and cognitive processes that allow them to see connections that previously eluded them.

2004-01-01

459

Building problem solving environments with the arches framework  

SciTech Connect

The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.

Debardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sass, Ron [U NORTH CAROLINA; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel [ASU; Ligon, Ill, Walter [CLEMSON UNIV

2009-01-01

460

Abnormal gaze strategies during problem solving in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

We have taken a novel approach to the study of problem solving involving the detailed analysis of natural scanning eye movements during the 'one touch' Tower of London task. Control subjects and patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PDs) viewed a series of pictures depicting two arrangements of coloured balls in pockets within the upper and lower halves of a computer display. The task was to plan (but not execute) the shortest movement sequence required to rearrange the balls in one half of the display (the Workspace) to match the arrangement in the opposite half (the Goalspace) and indicate the number of moves required for problem solution. As problem complexity increased, control subjects spent proportionally more time fixating the Workspace region. This pattern was found regardless of whether subjects were instructed to solve problems by rearranging balls in the lower or upper visual fields. The distribution of gaze within the Workspace was also found to be problem dependent, with gaze being selectively directed towards the problem critical balls. In contrast, PDs were found to make more errors in the task and failed to show any dissociation in the amount of time fixating the two halves of the display. This pattern suggests that the patients had difficulty in encoding and/or maintaining current goals during problem solving, consistent with a role for fronto-striatal circuits in mechanisms of working memory and attention. PMID:11684174

Hodgson, T L; Tiesman, B; Owen, A M; Kennard, C

2002-01-01

461

An eye movement study of insight problem solving.  

PubMed

The representational change theory of insight claims that insight problems cause impasses because they mislead problem solvers into constructing inappropriate initial representations. Insight is attained when the initial representation is changed. In the present study (N = 24), we tested three specific implications of these hypotheses against eye movements recorded while participants solved matchstick arithmetic problems. The results were consistent with the predictions, providing converging evidence with prior findings using solution rates and solution times. Alternative theories of insight can explain individual findings, but only the representational change theory accounts for both the performance data and the eye movement data. The present study also suggests that eye movement recordings provide an important new window into processes of insight problem solving. PMID:11820744

Knoblich, G; Ohlsson, S; Raney, G E

2001-10-01

462

Investigating the effect of mental set on insight problem solving.  

PubMed

Mental set is the tendency to solve certain problems in a fixed way based on previous solutions to similar problems. The moment of insight occurs when a problem cannot be solved using solution methods suggested by prior experience and the problem solver suddenly realizes that the solution requires different solution methods. Mental set and insight have often been linked together and yet no attempt thus far has systematically examined the interplay between the two. Three experiments are presented that examine the extent to which sets of noninsight and insight problems affect the subsequent solutions of insight test problems. The results indicate a subtle interplay between mental set and insight: when the set involves noninsight problems, no mental set effects are shown for the insight test problems, yet when the set involves insight problems, both facilitation and inhibition can be seen depending on the type of insight problem presented in the set. A two process model is detailed to explain these findings that combines the representational change mechanism with that of proceduralization. PMID:18683624

Ollinger, Michael; Jones, Gary; Knoblich, Günther

2008-01-01

463

Ant colony optimization for solving university facility layout problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAP) is classified as the NP hard problem. It has been used to model a lot of problem in several areas such as operational research, combinatorial data analysis and also parallel and distributed computing, optimization problem such as graph portioning and Travel Salesman Problem (TSP). In the literature, researcher use exact algorithm, heuristics algorithm and metaheuristic approaches to solve QAP problem. QAP is largely applied in facility layout problem (FLP). In this paper we used QAP to model university facility layout problem. There are 8 facilities that need to be assigned to 8 locations. Hence we have modeled a QAP problem with n <= 10 and developed an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the university facility layout problem. The objective is to assign n facilities to n locations such that the minimum product of flows and distances is obtained. Flow is the movement from one to another facility, whereas distance is the distance between one locations of a facility to other facilities locations. The objective of the QAP is to obtain minimum total walking (flow) of lecturers from one destination to another (distance).

Mohd Jani, Nurul Hafiza; Mohd Radzi, Nor Haizan; Ngadiman, Mohd Salihin

2013-04-01

464

Solving Nonlinear Aeronautical Problems Using the Carleman Linearization Method  

SciTech Connect

Many problems in aeronautics can be described in terms of nonlinear systems of equations. Carleman developed a technique to linearize such equations that could lead to analytical solutions of nonlinear problems. Nonlinear problems are difficult to solve in closed form and therefore the construction of such solutions is usually nontrivial. This research will apply the Carleman linearization technique to three model problems: a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) ballistic trajectory, Blasius' boundary layer, and Van der Pol's equation and evaluate how well the technique can adequately approximate the solutions of these ordinary differential equations.

GAUDE, BRIAN W.

2001-09-01

465

Teaching Problem Solving Through Cooperative Grouping. Part 2: Designing Problems and Structuring Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A supportive environment based on cooperative grouping was developed to foster students' learning of an effective problem-solving strategy. Experiments to adapt the technique of cooperative grouping to physics problem solving were carried out in two diverse settings: a large introductory course at a state university, and a small modern physics class at a community college. Groups were more likely to use an effective problem-solving strategy when given context-rich problems to solve than when given standard textbook problems. Well-functioning cooperative groups were found to result from specific structural and management procedures governing group members' interactions. Group size, the gender and ability composition of groups, seating arrangement, role assignment, textbook use, and group as well as individual testing were all found to contribute to the problem-solving performance of cooperative groups.

Heller, Patricia; Hollabaugh, Mark

2006-06-19

466

Teaching problem solving through cooperative grouping. Part 2: Designing problems and structuring groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A supportive environment based on cooperative grouping was developed to foster students' learning of an effective problem-solving strategy. Experiments to adapt the technique of cooperative grouping to physics problem solving were carried out in two diverse settings: a large introductory course at state university, and a small modern physics class at a community college. Groups were more likely to use an effective problem-solving strategy when given context-rich problems to solve than when given standard textbook problems. Well-functioning cooperative groups were found to result from specific structural and management procedures governing group members' interactions. Group size, the gender and ability composition of groups, seating arrangement, role assignment, textbook use, and group as well as individual testing were all found to contribute to the problem-solving performance of cooperative groups.

Heller, Patricia; Hollabaugh, Mark

1992-07-01

467

Engineering problem solving and knowledge creation: An epistemological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study—to our knowledge the first to model the dynamics of knowledge creation in an engineering problem solving context—addresses a gap in the literature by illustrating “engineering epistemology,” nurtured by “ba,” as a critical knowledge asset that facilitates superior problem resolution. Rich narratives generated by phenomenological interviews with US product engineers were interpreted using Nonaka and Takeuchi’s knowledge-creation model and

Rachel Itabashi-Campbell; Sheri Perelli; Julia Gluesing

2011-01-01

468

Understanding Creativity-Technique Based Problem Solving Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-supported creativity techniques can help people finding creative solutions for their problems. However, real-life\\u000a creative processes demand a high level of flexibility of the support systems, which are normally tailored for one specific\\u000a creativity technique only. We present a model for creativity-technique based problem solving processes that incorporates a\\u000a variety of creativity techniques and can be a promising starting point

Florian Forster; Michele Brocco

2008-01-01

469

Using a Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Generalized Orienteering Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we use genetic algorithms (GAs) to solve the generalized orienteering problem (GOP). In the orienteering\\u000a problem (OP), we are given a transportation network in which a start point and an end point are specified, and other points\\u000a have associated scores. Given a fixed amount of time, the goal is to determine a path from start to end

Xia Wang; Bruce L. Golden; Edward A. Wasil

470

Solving the Multiple Instance Problem with Axis-Parallel Rectangles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple instance problem arises in tasks where the training examples are ambiguous: asingle example object may have many alternative feature vectors (instances) that describe it,and yet only one of those feature vectors may be responsible for the observed classification ofthe object. This paper describes and compares three kinds of algorithms that learn axis-parallelrectangles to solve the multiple-instance problem. Algorithms

Thomas G. Dietterich; Richard H. Lathrop; Tomás Lozano-pérez

1997-01-01

471

Teaching Math K-2 Session 3 Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development session is from an Annenberg Learner course that explores the NCTM process standard of problem solving as a key means to introducing new material and building conceptual understanding in students grades K-2. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, student responses and reflection opportunities. This session is eligible for graduate credit for a fee when taken in conjunction with the other Teaching Math sessions from this course.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

472

Teaching Math 3-5 Session 3 Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development session is from an Annenberg Learner course that explores the NCTM process standard of problem solving as a key means to introducing new material and building conceptual understanding in students grades 3-5. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, student responses and reflection opportunities. This session is eligible for graduate credit for a fee when taken in conjunction with the other Teaching Math sessions from this course.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

473

A columnar competitive model for solving combinatorial optimization problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major drawbacks of the Hopfield network when it is applied to some combinatorial problems, e.g., the traveling salesman problem (TSP), are invalidity of the obtained solutions, trial-and-error setting value process of the network parameters and low-computation efficiency. This letter presents a columnar competitive model (CCM) which incorporates winner-takes-all (WTA) learning rule for solving the TSP. Theoretical analysis for the

Huajin Tang; K. C. Tan; Zhang Yi

2004-01-01

474

Solving Large Quadratic Assignment Problems on Computational Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is among the hardest combinatorial optimization prob- lems. Some instances of size 30 have remained unsolved for decades. The solution of these problems requires both improvements in mathematical programming algorithms and the utilization of powerful com- putational platforms. In this article we describe a novel ap proach to solve QAPs using a state-of-the-art branch-and-bound algorithm

Kurt Anstreicher; Nathan Brixius; Jean-Pierre Goux; Jeff Linderoth

2000-01-01

475

Solving Subtraction Problems by Means of Indirect Addition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Subtraction problems of the type a - b = ? can be "flexibly" solved by various strategies, including the indirect addition strategy ("how much do I have to add to b to get at a?"). Little research has been done on the use of the indirect addition strategy with multi-digit numbers. The present literature review entails a summary of three recent…

Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Stassens, Nick; Ghesquiere, Pol; Verschaffel, Lieven

2009-01-01

476

A Heuristic Approach to Solving Travelling Salesman Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A code for solving travelling salesman problem employing heuristic ideas is described. Acyclic permutations of the cities are constructed by first choosing two cities at random for a permutation of length two, putting the remaining cities in a random list and then inserting cities from the list in the partially constructed permutations so that they add least to the length

Robert L. Karg; Gerald L. Thompson

1964-01-01

477

Sharpening the problem-solving skills of aerospace engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes how Ladish Co. Inc., North America’s second largest forging company, has changed the approach its engineers use to solve problems. Aerospace constitutes approximately 85 per cent of Ladish’s sales and the cyclical nature of the industry forced the company to recognize the competitive shortcomings of focusing narrowly on technical issues. Today Ladish thoroughly scrutinizes the business impact of every

Gary J. Vroman

1999-01-01

478

Relationship of Children's Conceptual Tempo to Problem Solving and Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines the role of conceptual tempo on creativity and problem solving. It was hypothesized that reflective children would do well on tasks involving an evaluation component, while impulsive children would do well on typical creativity tasks. Measures of creativity, assessing fluency, flexibility, and originality, as well as…

Rosenfield, Sylvia

479

Relationship of Children's Conceptual Tempo to Problem Solving and Creativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the role of conceptual tempo in creativity and problem solving. It was hypothesized that reflective children would do well on tasks involving evaluation components, while impulsive children would do well on typical creativity tasks. Results indicated no significant differences among the conceptual tempo groups. (Author)

Rosenfield, Sylvia; And Others

1977-01-01

480

Hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis: Algorithms for combined clinical problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews an approach to patients with hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis using the information obtained from\\u000a spot urine chloride values, blood pressure determinations, and renin and aldosterone measurements in order to simplify clinical\\u000a problem solving.

Cynthia Bartholow; Frederick C. Whittier; Gregory W. Rutecki

2000-01-01

481

Administrative problem solving in the information age : Creating technological capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information age is upon us. In schools across the country, administrators are making important decisions about how best to employ computer technology. This case study of an expert educational administrator looks at computer use from a problem-solving perspective, focusing on the relationship between how this school leader thinks about and acts on technological capacity. It examines the personal attributes

Lynne G. Perez; Cynthia L. Uline

2003-01-01

482

Sustaining Online Collaborative Problem Solving with Math Proposals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning takes place over long periods of time that are hard to study directly. Even the learning experience involved in solving a challenging math problem in a collaborative online setting can be spread across hundreds of utterances during an hour or more. Such long-term interactions are constructed out of utterance-level interactions, such as the strategic proposing of a next step.

Gerry Stahl

2005-01-01

483

Multiagent Optimization System for Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiagent optimization system (MAOS) is a nature-inspired method, which supports cooperative search by the self-organization of a group of compact agents situated in an environment with certain sharing public knowledge. Moreover, each agent in MAOS is an autonomous entity with personal declarative memory and behavioral components. In this paper, MAOS is refined for solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP),

Xiao-Feng Xie; Jiming Liu

2009-01-01

484

Human and machine diagnosis of scientific problem-solving abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosis of the problem-solving state of a novice student in science, by an accomplished teacher, is studied in order to build a computer system that will simulate the process. Although such expert systems have been successfully developed in medicine (MYCIN, INTERNIST\\/CADUCEUS), very little has been accomplished in science education, even though there is a reasonably close parallel between expert medical

Ron Good; Robert Kromhout; Wyllis Bandler

1986-01-01

485

Young Children's Use of a Shortcut to Solve Addition Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of the study was to determine if computer-based training programs promoted fluent and flexible use of reasoning strategies to solve addition problems using different tasks. Specifically, does participation in strategy training result in the fluent application of the target strategy on a traditional mental arithmetic task? Does…

Paliwal, Veena; Baroody, Arthur J.; Reid, Erin E.; Purpura, David J.

2012-01-01

486

Development and Evaluation of Problem-Solving Skills in Microbiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem solving, laboratory experience was devised in which first-year medical students were given a case description and then required to make judgments about what microbiology specimens should be collected and to analyze the results of laboratory tests in terms of implications for patient care. Over a four-year period revisions were made in…

Schuytema, Eunice C.; And Others

487

Prospective Elementary Teachers' Misunderstandings in Solving Ratio and Proportion Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores difficulties that prospective elementary mathematics teachers have with the concepts of ratio and proportion, mainly when they are engaged in solving problems using algorithm procedures. These difficulties can be traced back to earlier experiences when they were students of junior and high school. The reflection on these…

Monteiro, Cecilia

2003-01-01

488

Homicide in MinneapolisResearch for Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academics have long studied the basic dimensions of homicide, with Marvin E. Wolfgang's pioneering 1958 classic, Patterns in Criminal Homicide, defining the shape of criminological research on homicide. However, this research has generally contributed relatively little to practical homicide prevention strategies. Recently, problem-solving initiatives have undertaken homicide studies in particular cities with the goal of understanding homicide patterns and dynamics

DAVID M. KENNEDY; ANTHONY A. BRAGA

1998-01-01

489

Developmental Trends in Children's Aggression and Social Problem-Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to clarify how social problem-solving processes develop and to identify developmentally-sensitive intervention components for children's aggression. Elementary and junior-high school Japanese students (N = 1100) from urban public schools participated in the present investigation. Their alternative thinking skills,…

Takahashi, Fumito; Koseki, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hironori

2009-01-01

490

Assessment for Intervention: A Problem-Solving Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This cutting-edge volume offers a complete primer on conducting problem-solving based assessments in school or clinical settings. Presented are an effective framework and up-to-date tools for identifying and remediating the many environmental factors that may contribute to a student's academic, emotional, or behavioral difficulties, and for…

Brown-Chidsey, Rachel, Ed.

2005-01-01

491

Aha! Voila! Eureka! Bilingualism and insightful problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

What makes a person able to solve problems creatively? One interesting factor that may contribute is experience with multiple languages from an early age. Bilingual individuals who acquire two languages by the age of 6 have been shown to demonstrate superior performance on a number of thinking tasks that require flexibility. However, bilingual advantages have yet to be identified particularly

Patrick J. Cushen; Jennifer Wiley

2011-01-01

492

Creating Alien Life Forms: Problem Solving in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a project that helps students integrate biological concepts using both creativity and higher-order problem-solving skills. Involves students playing the roles of junior scientists aboard a starship in orbit around a class M planet and using a description of habitats, seasonal details, and a surface map of prominent geographic features…

Grimnes, Karin A.

1996-01-01

493

Improving Problem Solving of Elementary Students with Mild Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-one 4th- and 5th-grade students with learning disabilities and emotional disabilities were assigned at random to a control condition or to an experimental condition in which they were taught, over a 9-week period, a five-step self-determination strategy for solving school- or home-related problems. Maintenance was assessed 3 weeks after the…

Glago, Karen; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.

2009-01-01

494

Problem-Solving Abilities Produced in Project Based Technology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 544 junior high technology education programs in Japan indicated that the structure of project-based learning activities coincided with the DeLuca model. Student projects were supported by self-evaluation competencies and motivation. Learning activities promoted development of technological problem-solving skills. (SK)

Moriyama, Jun; Satou, Masashi; King, Cyril T.

2002-01-01

495

An improved harmony search algorithm for solving optimization problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops an Improved harmony search (IHS) algorithm for solving optimization problems. IHS employs a novel method for generating new solution vectors that enhances accuracy and convergence rate of harmony search (HS) algorithm. In this paper the impacts of constant parameters on harmony search algorithm are discussed and a strategy for tuning these parameters is presented. The IHS algorithm

M. Mahdavi; M. Fesanghary; E. Damangir

2007-01-01

496

Aha! Voila! Eureka! Bilingualism and Insightful Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What makes a person able to solve problems creatively? One interesting factor that may contribute is experience with multiple languages from an early age. Bilingual individuals who acquire two languages by the age of 6 have been shown to demonstrate superior performance on a number of thinking tasks that require flexibility. However, bilingual…

Cushen, Patrick J.; Wiley, Jennifer

2011-01-01

497

Combining Feature Selection and Neural Networks for Solving Classification Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to solving classifica- tion problems by combining feature selection and neural networks. The main idea is to use techniques from the field of information theory to select a set of important attributes that can be used to classify tuples. A neural network is trained using these attributes; the neural network is then used to classify

Paul O' Dea; Josephine Griffith; Colm O' Riordan

498

Robotic Toys as a Catalyst for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Robotic toys present unique opportunities for teachers of young children to integrate mathematics learning with engaging problem-solving tasks. This article describes a series of tasks using Bee-bots and Pro-bots, developed as part a larger project examining young children's use of robotic toys as tools in developing mathematical and…

Highfield, Kate

2010-01-01

499

Problem solving in out-of-school settings: Children \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation describes the way in which a case study participant (aged 7) used maps (including large- and small-scale maps, dynamic and static maps) to solve problems in a technology game-based context. The participant demonstrated the capacity to decipher graphical information when simultaneously moving between maps with different representations, orientations, perspectives and scales as he played a Pokemon Game Boy.

Tom Lowrie

500

Problem Solving and Emotional Education in Initial Primary Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our work is based on two premises. The first is that affective factors (beliefs, attitudes, and emotions) influence teaching and learning mathematics, and problem solving in particular. The second is that initial teacher education is an important element in the process of improving overall educational practice. On this basis, our research group…

Caballero, Ana; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Guerrero, Eloisa

2011-01-01