Sample records for solve numerical problems

  1. The use of interactive graphics to solve numerical problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyle B. Smith

    1970-01-01

    With the advent of on-line (time-sharing) computer systems and graphic terminals, we have available a new dimension in numerical problem solving capabilities. Rather than simply use the new power to achieve fast turnaround, we can develop interactive routines which are easy to use and also take advantage of the insight and visual capabilities of the human problem solver. Several on-line

  2. A NUMERICAL SHAPE OPTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK FOR GENERIC PROBLEMS SOLVED ON UNSTRUCTURED

    E-print Network

    Ollivier-Gooch, Carl

    such as aerodynamics or heat transfer. Numerical shape optimization tools are becoming an important link in the design equations describing the physics of the optimization problems are solved on unstructured triangular meshes

  3. Abstract Applets: A Method for Integrating Numerical Problem Solving into the Undergraduate Physics Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, Michael E

    2003-02-13

    In upper-division undergraduate physics courses, it is desirable to give numerical problem-solving exercises integrated naturally into weekly problem sets. I explain a method for doing this that makes use of the built-in class structure of the Java programming language. I also supply a Java class library that can assist instructors in writing programs of this type.

  4. A Numerical Method to solve Optimal Transport Problems with Coulomb Cost

    E-print Network

    Jean-David Benamou; Guillaume Carlier; Luca Nenna

    2015-05-07

    In this paper, we present a numerical method, based on iterative Bregman projections, to solve the optimal transport problem with Coulomb cost. This is related to the strong interaction limit of Density Functional Theory. The first idea is to introduce an entropic regularization of the Kantorovich formulation of the Optimal Transport problem. The regularized problem then corresponds to the projection of a vector on the intersection of the constraints with respect to the Kullback-Leibler distance. Iterative Bregman projections on each marginal constraint are explicit which enables us to approximate the optimal transport plan. We validate the numerical method against analytical test cases.

  5. Arithmetic and algebraic problem solving and resource allocation: the distinct impact of fluid and numerical intelligence.

    PubMed

    Dix, Annika; van der Meer, Elke

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates cognitive resource allocation dependent on fluid and numerical intelligence in arithmetic/algebraic tasks varying in difficulty. Sixty-six 11th grade students participated in a mathematical verification paradigm, while pupil dilation as a measure of resource allocation was collected. Students with high fluid intelligence solved the tasks faster and more accurately than those with average fluid intelligence, as did students with high compared to average numerical intelligence. However, fluid intelligence sped up response times only in students with average but not high numerical intelligence. Further, high fluid but not numerical intelligence led to greater task-related pupil dilation. We assume that fluid intelligence serves as a domain-general resource that helps to tackle problems for which domain-specific knowledge (numerical intelligence) is missing. The allocation of this resource can be measured by pupil dilation. PMID:25327870

  6. Interactive insight problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Weller; Gaëlle Villejoubert; Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

    2011-01-01

    Insight problem solving was investigated with the matchstick algebra problems developed by Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider, and Rhenius (1999). These problems are false equations expressed with Roman numerals that can be made true bymoving one matchstick. In a first group participants examined a static two-dimensional representation of the false algebraic expression and told the experimenter which matchstick should be moved. In

  7. Enhancing Grade 10 Thai Students' Stoichiometry Understanding and Ability to Solve Numerical Problems via a Conceptual Change Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.; Sung-ong, Sunan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Sanguanruang, Sudjit

    2008-01-01

    The international literature suggests students frequently resort to the use of formulae when solving stoichiometry problems without understanding the concepts. In prior work we identified Thai student alternative conceptions and ability to solve numerical problem for stoichiometry. The results indicate that many Thai students also hold alternative…

  8. Role of beliefs and emotions in numerical problem solving in university physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael

    2012-06-01

    Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger students’ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with students’ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of students’ epistemological beliefs is important for students’ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.

  9. Manipulation of data structures in a numerical analysis problem solving system: NAPSS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence R. Symes

    1970-01-01

    During the past several years considerable effort has been expended designing and implementing systems which are intended to provide extended capabilities for persons with mathematical problems to solve. Some of them in addition to NAPSS are CULLER FRIED, KLERER MAY, MAP, RECKONER, AMTRAN, and POSE. These systems can be classified as problem solving systems for applied mathematics.

  10. Children with mathematical learning disability fail in recruiting verbal and numerical brain regions when solving simple multiplication problems.

    PubMed

    Berteletti, Ilaria; Prado, Jérôme; Booth, James R

    2014-08-01

    Greater skill in solving single-digit multiplication problems requires a progressive shift from a reliance on numerical to verbal mechanisms over development. Children with mathematical learning disability (MD), however, are thought to suffer from a specific impairment in numerical mechanisms. Here we tested the hypothesis that this impairment might prevent MD children from transitioning toward verbal mechanisms when solving single-digit multiplication problems. Brain activations during multiplication problems were compared in MD and typically developing (TD) children (3rd to 7th graders) in numerical and verbal regions which were individuated by independent localizer tasks. We used small (e.g., 2 × 3) and large (e.g., 7 × 9) problems as these problems likely differ in their reliance on verbal versus numerical mechanisms. Results indicate that MD children have reduced activations in both the verbal (i.e., left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal to superior temporal gyri) and the numerical (i.e., right superior parietal lobule including intra-parietal sulcus) regions suggesting that both mechanisms are impaired. Moreover, the only reliable activation observed for MD children was in the numerical region when solving small problems. This suggests that MD children could effectively engage numerical mechanisms only for the easier problems. Conversely, TD children showed a modulation of activation with problem size in the verbal regions. This suggests that TD children were effectively engaging verbal mechanisms for the easier problems. Moreover, TD children with better language skills were more effective at engaging verbal mechanisms. In conclusion, results suggest that the numerical- and language-related processes involved in solving multiplication problems are impaired in MD children. PMID:24858066

  11. Applied mathematical problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Lesh

    1981-01-01

    A case is presented for the importance of focusing on (1) average ability students, (2) substantive mathematical content, (3) real problems, and (4) realistic settings and solution procedures for research in problem solving. It is suggested that effective instructional techniques for teaching applied mathematical problem solving resembles “mathematical laboratory” activities, done in small group problem solving settings.

  12. Problem Solving. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    No longer solely the domain of Mathematics, problem solving permeates every area of today's curricula. Ideally students are applying heuristics strategies in varied contexts and novel situations in every subject taught. The ability to solve problems is a basic life skill and is essential to understanding technical subjects. Problem-solving is a…

  13. Applied Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesh, Richard

    1981-01-01

    A case is presented for the importance of focusing on: (1) average ability students; (2) substantive mathematical content; (3) real problems; and (4) realistic settings and solution procedures for research in problem solving. Suggestions for ways to modify existing applied problem solving materials are given. (MP)

  14. Techniques of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Steven G.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

  15. Applied Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesh, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of nine papers, prepared for a conference held at Northwestern University in 1978, presents varied perspectives on applied problem solving. Assessing applied problem solving, planning for interest and motivation, developing a theory, reviewing research findings, considering learning disabilities, analyzing through information…

  16. Problem Solving by Design

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brenda M. Capobianco

    2009-10-01

    In a unique school--university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem

  17. Problem Solving - Programming

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    kajigga

    2009-09-23

    Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...

  18. Solving the dynamic rupture problem with different numerical approaches and constitutive laws

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bizzarri, A.; Cocco, M.; Andrews, D.J.; Boschi, Enzo

    2001-01-01

    We study the dynamic initiation, propagation and arrest of a 2-D in-plane shear rupture by solving the elastodynamic equation by using both a boundary integral equation method and a finite difference approach. For both methods we adopt different constitutive laws: a slip-weakening (SW) law, with constant weakening rate, and rate- and state-dependent friction laws (Dieterich-Ruina). Our numerical procedures allow the use of heterogeneous distributions of constitutive parameters along the fault for both formulations. We first compare the two solution methods with an SW law, emphasizing the required stability conditions to achieve a good resolution of the cohesive zone and to avoid artificial complexity in the solutions. Our modelling results show that the two methods provide very similar time histories of dynamic source parameters. We point out that, if a careful control of resolution and stability is performed, the two methods yield identical solutions. We have also compared the rupture evolution resulting from an SW and a rate- and state-dependent friction law. This comparison shows that despite the different constitutive formulations, a similar behaviour is simulated during the rupture propagation and arrest. We also observe a crack tip bifurcation and a jump in rupture velocity (approaching the P-wave speed) with the Dieterich-Ruina (DR) law. The rupture arrest at a barrier (high strength zone) and the barrier-healing mechanism are also reproduced by this law. However, this constitutive formulation allows the simulation of a more general and complex variety of rupture behaviours. By assuming different heterogeneous distributions of the initial constitutive parameters, we are able to model a barrier-healing as well as a self-healing process. This result suggests that if the heterogeneity of the constitutive parameters is taken into account, the different healing mechanisms can be simulated. We also study the nucleation phase duration Tn, defined as the time necessary for the crack to reach the half-length Ic. We compare the Tn values resulting from distinct simulations calculated using different constitutive laws and different sets of constitutive parameters. Our results confirm that the DR law provides a different description of the nucleation process than the SW law adopted in this study. We emphasize that the DR law yields a complete description of the rupture process, which includes the most prominent features of SW.

  19. Inquiry and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…

  20. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  1. Solving Algebra Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Dale E.; Wilde, Jeffrey M.

    Algebra word problems were analyzed in terms of the information integration tasks that are required to solve the problems. These tasks were classified into three levels: value assignment, value derivation, and equation construction. Novices (35 first year algebra students) and experts (13 analytic geometry students) were compared on the proportion…

  2. Numerical methods for solving some fluid mechanics problems met in a strongly rotating gas centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Hargue, Jp.; Baramayer, Soub

    The communication is presented in the form of a computer-animation movie, made from the output data of three numerical models. These models have been built to investigate in a gas centrifuge respectively the flow, the species separation and the optimization of the flow field. The figures heredown have been extracted from the movie.

  3. Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maase, Eric L.; High, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    "Chemical Engineering Modeling" is a first-semester graduate course traditionally taught in a lecture format at Oklahoma State University. The course as taught by the author for the past seven years focuses on numerical and mathematical methods as necessary skills for incoming graduate students. Recent changes to the course have included Visual…

  4. Numerical comparison of two asymptotic methods for solving wave diffraction problems in smooth inhomogeneous media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Kryukovskii; D. S. Lukin; E. A. Palkin

    1986-01-01

    UDC 534.1;621.371 The methods of Maslov's canonical operator (MCO) and Gaussian beam summation (GBS), which are used to describe the diffraction structures of wave fields in complex inhomogeneous media, are numerically compared. The analysis is performed on a sample calculation of the amplitude of an acoustic wave field propagating in an inhomogeneous sound channel. It is shown that, on the

  5. Solving Problems through Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…

  6. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  7. Solving Problems in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez

    2005-01-01

    A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…

  8. Solving Energy Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Office of Educational Partnerships,

    The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.

  9. PROBLEM SOLVING FOR ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    ? Self ­ Assessment Exercise: Each of the nine items presents two opposing statements: - If you feel of formulas involve learning how to apply basic concepts and principles. 2. When I am learning a new concept in When I am learning a new concept, a problem solving course, I do not I focus on learning

  10. Problem Solving with Patents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jerilou Moore

    2008-03-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.

  11. Modeling applied to problem solving

    E-print Network

    Pawl, Andrew

    We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and ...

  12. Problem Solving and Beginning Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Alan

    Based on current models of problem solving within cognitive psychology, this study focused on the spontaneous problem solving strategies used by children as they first learned LOGO computer programming, and on strategy transformations that took place during the problem solving process. The research consisted of a six weeks programming training…

  13. The Problem-Solving Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardige, Art

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputers and software as problem-solving tools, including comments on "TK! Solver," automatic problem-solving program (reviewed in detail on pp.84-86 in this same issue). Also discusses problem-solving approaches to bridge the disciplines, such as music/physics, junior high science/mathematics (genetics),…

  14. Principles for Teaching Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rob Foshay and Jamie Kirkley

    2003-01-01

    This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

  15. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving

  16. Solving Trade Discount Word Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Coonce, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

  17. Creating Expert Problem Solving Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Eccles; Paul T. Groth

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how human-technology interaction in modern ambient technology environments can be best informed by conceptualizing of such environments as problem solving systems. Typically, such systems comprise multiple human and technological agents that meet the demands imposed by problem constraints through dynamic collaboration. A key assertion is that the design of expert problem solving systems can benefit from an

  18. Algorithms and Problem Solving Introduction

    E-print Network

    Razak, Saquib

    Unit 16 1 Algorithms and Problem Solving · Introduction · What is an Algorithm? · Algorithm Properties · Example · Exercises #12;Unit 16 2 What is an Algorithm? What is an Algorithm? · An algorithm. · The algorithm must be general, that is, it should solve the problem for all possible input sets to the problem

  19. Cooperative Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    solving framework and answer sheet you design during TA Orientation. The second tool is the Warm. How do I form cooperative groups? 27 III. What criteria do I use to assign students to groups? 31 IV of the group role sheets are available on the bookshelf in room 146, or you can make copies of the following

  20. Adolescent problem-solving thinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome J Platt

    1974-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that adolescent psychiatric patients would be deficient with respect to normal controls in their interpersonal problem-solving skills by comparing 33 patients and 53 high school student controls on 7 tasks reflecting different aspects of problem solving. With IQ covaried out, controls obtained significantly higher scores on the tasks evaluating optional thinking, social means-ends thinking, and role taking,

  1. Learning Impasses in Problem Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. P. E.

    1992-01-01

    Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

  2. A Personal Problem Solving Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Petersen, Chris H.

    Few studies have explicitly attended to the personal problem-solving process within the counseling literature, perhaps due in part to the dearth of relevant assessment instruments. To examine the dimensions underlying the applied problem-solving process, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from four samples of college…

  3. Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Grace

    The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

  4. The Future Problem Solving Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabbe, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…

  5. Solving the Promotion Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musella, Donald

    1985-01-01

    Concludes most organizations have administrator promotion and selection problems. Suggests good selection procedures produce valid, reliable, job-related information; exhibit fairness/are perceived as "fair"; and fit "political" realities. Examines Hamilton and Dufferin-Peel selection procedure models, which also incorporate use of assessment…

  6. Solving Playground Network Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploratorium

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners use cooperation and logical thinking to find solutions to network problems on the playground. Learners act both as computer routers, figuring out with each other how to effectively get data to the place it's being sent, and as the actual data, because the learners travel various edges of a network to get to their destination or "home" point. Learners use geometry skills to determine the most efficient routes in the network.

  7. Functional Knowledge in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; Berger, Daniel

    An experiment compared solving of operational and diagnostic problems after different instruction about a fictitious device. Solution of both kinds of problems was facilitated by instruction (1) that focused on functional relations among components of the device or (2) that focused on states of the individual components. For operational problems,…

  8. Explosives solve downhole problems

    SciTech Connect

    Defrank, P.

    1981-11-01

    Shaped charges were first used more than 30 years ago to perforate casing, cement sheath and reservoir to provide selective communication between the reservoir and well bore. Since then, advances have been made in design of shaped charge sand ancillary equipment. Penetration has increased considerably. Miniaturization of equipment allows passing through relatively small restrictions and effectively communicating with reservoirs. Gun debris has been drastically reduced and in some designs eliminated. Deep reservoirs can be effectively penetrated under down-hole environments exceeding 500 F and 20,000 psi. This work covers the problems encountered and reviews successful devices employing shaped charge and explosive technology.

  9. Promote Problem-Solving Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan; Jacobbe, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen fifth-grade students gather at the front of the classroom as their summer school instructor introduces Jonathan Bostic as the mathematics teacher for the week. Before examining any math problems, Bostic sits at eye level with the students and informs them that they will solve problems over the next four days by working individually as…

  10. Robot, computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.

  11. Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

    2007-01-01

    TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…

  12. ACCESSING KNOWLEDGE FOR PROBLEM SOLVING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna MAMONA-DOWNS

    This paper studies the modes of thought that occur during the act of solving problems in mathematics. It examines the two main instantiations of mathematical knowledge, the conceptual and the structural, and their role in the afore said act. It claims that awareness of mathematical structure is the lever that educes mathematical knowledge existing in the mind in response to

  13. Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)

    E-print Network

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    PSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN COMPUTER MODELS An air pollution model is a computer program that computes how the different chemical emissions or decreasing car use. An air pollution model is never exact in its attempt to simulate

  14. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

  15. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-­making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.

  16. Looking Back in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Jinfa; Brook, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Often after students solve a problem they believe they have accomplished their mission and stop further exploration. The purpose of this article is to discuss ways to encourage students to "look back" so as to maximise their learning opportunities. According to Polya, by "looking back" at a completed solution, by reconsidering and re-examining the…

  17. Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains

    E-print Network

    Rus, Teodor

    Outline Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains Natural Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains Natural Language of the Domain Domain Dedicated Virtual Machine Optimizing DDVM Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational

  18. Teaching Problem Solving to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes steps of teaching problem solving to college students and provides examples in the context of a university course. The steps involve (1) identifying the types of problems and types of problem solving methods to be covered, (2) instructing the students in problem-recognition and problem solving methods, along with ways of…

  19. Problem Solving: Pencil Box Staining

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGHB Boston

    2013-01-01

    This professional development video clip shows students engaged in the first Common Core Practice Standard—Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them as learners make a decision about how much stain will be needed to cover the surface area of twenty-six completed boxes. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video. A related clip (cataloged separately) shows the same exploration by the same students but Common Core Practice Standard # #5-Use appropriate tools strategically is evident.

  20. Problem Solving in the General Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Andria Price; Lichtenberg, Betty Plunkett

    1974-01-01

    Five steps common to different problem solving models are listed. Next, seven specific abilities related to solving problems are discussed and examples given. Sample activities, appropriate to help in developing these specific abilities, are suggested. (LS)

  1. Statistical Education Through Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Statistical Education Through Problem Solving (STEPS) was a collaborative project between seven universities throughout the United Kingdom "to develop problem-based teaching and learning materials for statistics." The materials draw on specific problems arising in Biology, Business, Geography and Psychology to help students learn that statistical issues are "important natural parts of the process of reaching conclusions." The software developed as a result of this project, which utilizes the computer and graphical illustration to support learning, is available to educational institutions free of charge and can be downloaded from this website. (Note that other organizations are expected to purchase the software.) A glossary of statistical terms is provided in the software program as well as on this website. Although the funding for the project ended in 1995 and the website was last updated in January 2004, the material is still current and useful for teaching statistics. The authors note that the STEPS modules are intended to be used to support existing coursework, and "not intended to replace lecturing staff or to provide a self-study course in statistics."

  2. Instructors' Ideas about Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has developed an interview tool to investigate physics faculty views about the learning and teaching of problem solving. In the part of the interview dealing with grading, faculty members were asked to evaluate a set of five student solutions and explain their reasons for the grades that they assigned. Preliminary analysis on two of the five student solutions was done on six physics faculty members from a large research university. The results indicate that faculty members hold conflicting beliefs when grading between valuing reasoning in student solutions and wanting to give students the benefit of the doubt. This paper illustrates the hypothesis that physics faculty hold conflicting values when grading, and describes how the research university faculty resolved their conflicts.

  3. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, E. W.; Becker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A robot computer problem solving system which represents a robot exploration vehicle in a simulated Mars environment is described. The model exhibits changes and improvements made on a previously designed robot in a city environment. The Martian environment is modeled in Cartesian coordinates; objects are scattered about a plane; arbitrary restrictions on the robot's vision have been removed; and the robot's path contains arbitrary curves. New environmental features, particularly the visual occlusion of objects by other objects, were added to the model. Two different algorithms were developed for computing occlusion. Movement and vision capabilities of the robot were established in the Mars environment, using LISP/FORTRAN interface for computational efficiency. The graphical display program was redesigned to reflect the change to the Mars-like environment.

  4. Problem Solving, Creative Librarianship, and Search Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahl-Jakobovits, Diane; Jakobovits, Leon A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need for library science to examine users' search behaviors in the context of social cognition and creative problem solving. Topics covered include the psychology of search behavior, problem solving approaches to library instruction in online searching, and problem solving protocols. (29 references) (CLB)

  5. Inservice Teacher Development in Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Olive

    1999-01-01

    Describes a problem-solving-oriented teacher-inservice program designed to provide opportunities that allow elementary teachers to focus on personal experience as a way of achieving self-understanding and a way of reconstructing their personal meanings about problem solving and problem-solving instruction. Concludes that the program had positive…

  6. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Hugh

    1979-01-01

    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  7. Lp-based combinatorial problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hoffman; M. Padberg

    1985-01-01

    A tutorial outline of the polyhedral theory that underlies linear programming (LP)-based combinatorial problem solving is given. Design aspects of a combinatorial problem solver are discussed in general terms. Three computational studies in combinatorial problem solving using the polyhedral theory developed in the past fifteen years are surveyed: one addresses the symmetric traveling salesman problem, another the optimal triangulation of

  8. Improving mathematical problem solving: A computerized approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Egbert G. Harskamp; Cor J. M. Suhre

    2006-01-01

    Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction on domain-specific knowledge required in different episodes of problem solving. The first program is based on a direct instructional approach to learning,

  9. Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.

  10. How To Solve Typical School Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohle, Nancy; Morley, Cindy Lakin

    This book presents interactive problem-solving situations based on the principles of Total Quality Management. Following the introductory chapter, the second chapter describes the two stages of the problem-solving process: (1) analysis of the problem and its causes, and (2) identification of a solution. Each stage is comprised of three…

  11. Learning to Solve Problems in Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Problem solving lies at the heart of mathematical learning. Children need opportunities to write, discuss, and solve problems on a regular basis. The problems must incorporate grade-appropriate content and be "accessible and engaging to the students, building on what they know and can do." Teachers also play a key role in establishing a classroom…

  12. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem

  13. Cognitive Skills Used to Solve Mathematical Word Problems and Numerical Operations: A Study of 6- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Isabel Maria; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between skills that underpin mathematical word problems and those that underpin numerical operations, such as addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Sixty children aged 6-7 years were tested on measures of mathematical ability, reading accuracy, reading comprehension, verbal intelligence and…

  14. Solving multiple criteria problems by interactive decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Lazimy

    1986-01-01

    An interactive decomposition method is developed for solving the multiple criteria (MC) problem. Based on nonlinear programming duality theory, the MC problem is decomposed into a series of subproblems and relaxed master problems. Each subproblem is a bicriterion problem, and each relaxed master problem is a standard linear program. The prime objective of the decomposition is to simplify and facilitate

  15. Climate-Change Problem Solving: Structured Approaches

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    problem solving · Key to development of successful strategies: iterative process or co- development of the necessary information to address the problem. · Analysis is the consideration of the nature of the information: deconstruction - breaking down the information, identifying relationships, determination

  16. Some Helpful Problem-Solving Heuristics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-01

    This page from the site "Stella's Stunners" presents twenty-five thinking strategies that are useful in solving problems. They help students monitor their thought processes and thus help learners become better problem solvers.

  17. Teaching Problem Solving in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byo, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Musicians practice to build endurance, flexibility, and dexterity. They practice to maintain good performance, to sight-read better, to memorize, and simply, to enjoy music making. There are other motivations for practice, but one, more than others, is a catalyst for consequential change in musical development--practicing to solve performance…

  18. Neural Network Solves "Traveling-Salesman" Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Anilkumar P.; Moopenn, Alexander W.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental electronic neural network solves "traveling-salesman" problem. Plans round trip of minimum distance among N cities, visiting every city once and only once (without backtracking). This problem is paradigm of many problems of global optimization (e.g., routing or allocation of resources) occuring in industry, business, and government. Applied to large number of cities (or resources), circuits of this kind expected to solve problem faster and more cheaply.

  19. Detecting and Solving Hyperbolic Quadratic Eigenvalue Problems

    E-print Network

    Higham, Nicholas J.

    , overdamped, weakly overdamped, quadratic matrix polynomial, quadratic matrix equation, solvent, cyclicDetecting and Solving Hyperbolic Quadratic Eigenvalue Problems Chun-Hua Guo, Nicholas J. Higham­1613 DETECTING AND SOLVING HYPERBOLIC QUADRATIC EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS CHUN-HUA GUO, NICHOLAS J. HIGHAM, AND FRANC

  20. RIDGES: A Problem-Solving Math Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    RIDGES is a mnemonic device designed to give upper elementary and high school students a structure to follow when solving word problems. RIDGES stands for Read the problem; I know statement; Draw a picture; Goal statement; Equation development; and Solve the equation. (VW)

  1. Problem Solving and Technology. ACESIA Monograph 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomon, Earle L.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The two articles dealing with problem solving and technology in this publication should be useful to those developing the kinds of materials, experiences, and thinking that elementary school industrial arts offers children. The first article accepts problem solving as an educational goal and reports a timely and universally acceptable approach.…

  2. Dialectical and devil's advocate problem-solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael N. Chanin; Harris J. Shapiro

    1984-01-01

    In recent years an increasing amount of interest has been generated in the application of dialectical methodology to strategic and operational problem-solving. This paper first examines the existing research evidence and then introduces the Dialectical Problem-Solving Technology (DPST) based on the Dialectical Materialism Inquiry System. The results of an empirical investigation into the effectiveness and impact of High Structure (DPST),

  3. Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…

  4. Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…

  5. Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

  6. Mathematical Problem Solving. Issues in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Frank K., Jr., Ed.; Garofalo, Joe, Ed.

    This set of papers was originally developed for a conference on Issues and Directions in Mathematics Problem Solving Research held at Indiana University in May 1981. The purpose is to contribute to the clear formulation of the key issues in mathematical problem-solving research by presenting the ideas of actively involved researchers. An…

  7. Solving Problems with Charts & Tables. Pipefitter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

    Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, this instructional module is designed to help individuals employed as pipefitters learn to solve problems with charts and tables. Outlined in the first section is a five-step procedure for solving problems involving tables and/or charts: identifying the question to…

  8. About solving hybrid optimal control problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Riedinger; J. Daafouz; C. Iung

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss nu- merical difculties in solving hybrid optimal control problems and to propose a multiple phase-multiple shooting formula- tion for hybrid optimal control design. Such a formulation allows to solve directly the problem using nonlinear program- ming techniques. In the case of switched systems, it is shown that the switching rule can

  9. Presenting a Model of Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    Two questions are dealt with: (1) Can those strategies or behaviors which enable experts to solve problems well be characterized, and (2) Can students be trained to use such strategies? A problem-solving course for college students is described and the model on which the course is based is outlined in an attempt to answer these questions. The…

  10. Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

  11. The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has four…

  12. Sequential methods in solving economic power flow problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Rosehart; C. A. Canizares; A. Vannelli

    1997-01-01

    This paper compares two linear interior point programming algorithms and an interior point quadratic programming algorithm that are used to solve the optimal power flow problem. The paper focuses on the numerical oscillations that occur because of the sequential linearization of the problem. Two methods to reduce the oscillations are discussed and implemented on a six bus test system

  13. Solving problems in robotics with semantic networks.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, K K

    1983-02-01

    Robot problems are examined in the context of semantic networks which are used to represent the state of a problem and the operators useful for solving it. Graph transformation algorithms are discussed as an aid to problem solving. Although these form only a small subset of the first-order predicate calculus based systems, considerations such as subgoal circularity, partially specified states and multiple manipulators sharing the same environment may warrant this simplification. PMID:21869103

  14. Declarative Problem Solving through Abduction

    E-print Network

    Moraitis, Pavlos

    's features: · Declarative modelling · Rich expressive power (close to human one) · Computational and Formal the poison), i.e. that he is mortal. Can we conclude anything? #12;12 Reasoning for Declarative Problem

  15. Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...

  16. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-05-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.

  17. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  18. Solving inversion problems with neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.

  19. SOLVING NP SEARCH PROBLEMS MODEL EXPANSION

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, David G.

    SOLVING NP SEARCH PROBLEMS WITH MODEL EXPANSION by Faraz Hach B.Sc., Sharif University of Science in the School of Computing Science c Faraz Hach 2007 SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY Fall 2007 All rights the permission of the author. #12;APPROVAL Name: Faraz Hach Degree: Master of Science Title of thesis: SOLVING NP

  20. Frameworks for Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    REID G. SM; Randall Davis

    1981-01-01

    Two forms of cooperation in distributed problem solving are considered: task-sharing and result-sharing. In the former, nodes assist each other by sharing the computational load for the execution of subtasks of the overall problem. In the latter, nodes assist each other by sharing partial results which are based on somewhat different perspectives on the overall problem. Different perspectives arise because

  1. Error Analysis in Solving Algebra Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Betty P.

    This document deals with the observation of students in a direct translation scheme in the solution of word problems in a university freshman-level Intermediate Algebra class. It is felt that since successful problem solvers of algebraic equations often have as much difficulty in solving word problems as do other students in the classes, the…

  2. Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; untangling of specific problem solving assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy Kristine

    The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

  3. A Simple Level Set Method for Solving Stefan Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Merriman, B.; Osher, S.; Smereka, P.

    1997-07-01

    A simple level set method for solving Stefan problems is presented. This method can be applied to problems involving dendritic solidification. Our method consists of an implicit finite difference scheme for solving the heat equation and a level set approach for capturing the front between solid and liquid phases of a pure substance. Our method is accurate with respect to some exact solutions of the Stefan problem. Results indicate that this method can handle topology changes and complicated interfacial shapes and that it can numerically simulate many of the physical features of dendritic solidification.

  4. Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, José N.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…

  5. Model Formulation for Physics Problem Solving. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    The major task in solving a physics problem is to construct an appropriate model of the problem in terms of physical principles. The functions performed by such a model, the information which needs to be represented, and the knowledge used in selecting and instantiating an appropriate model are discussed. An example of a model for a mechanics…

  6. Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath

    2004-01-01

    An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

  7. Problem-Solving Competitions: Just the Solution!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy L.; Karnes, Frances A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes competitions across a range of curricular areas that develop students' problem solving skills by setting authentic, real-world tasks. As individuals or members of a team, students in these competitions are challenged with finding solutions to problems faced not only in today's scientific and technological world, but also in…

  8. Preservice Teachers' Problem-Solving Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Taplin

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this paper is to explore some of the common difficulties with mathematical word problems experienced by preservice primary teachers. It examines weaknesses in students' content and procedural knowledge, with a particular focus on how they apply these aspects of knowledge to solving closed word problems\\

  9. Solving Word Problems Using Story Structure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-16

    In this lesson, students will learn how to use their knowledge of beginning, middle, and end to solve word problems that include result unknown, change unknown, and start unknown. They will learn how to use a modified story map to write an equation to represent the problem.

  10. Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasetti, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…

  11. GIS Live and Web Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.

    2007-01-01

    GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

  12. Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.

  13. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy C. Payne

    2006-11-01

    Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of "real" scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.

  14. FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR PROBLEM SOLVING RESEARCH AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyn English; Richard Lesh; Thomas Fennewald

    Since the 1960s, numerous studies on problem solving have revealed the complexity of the domain and the difficulty in translating research findings into practice. The literature suggests that the impact of problem solving research on the mathematics curriculum has been limited. Furthermore, our accumulation of knowledge on the teaching of problem solving is lagging. In this first discussion paper we

  15. The Social Problem-Solving Questionnaire: Evaluation of Psychometric Properties among Turkish Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Children, like adults, face numerous problems and conflicts in their everyday lives, including issues with peers, siblings, older children, parents, teachers, and other adults. The methods children use to solve such problems are more important than actually facing the problems. The lack of effective social problem-solving skills…

  16. Measures of Problem-Solving Performance and of Problem-Solving Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    Some easily graded measures of problem-solving processes are introduced, and the impact of a month-long intensive problem-solving course on a selected group of college freshmen and sophomores is demonstrated. The measures are thought to have shown themselves to be both reliable and informative. (MP)

  17. Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Weiguo; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.

    2009-07-02

    We examine the possibility of using the standard Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems arising from electronic structure calculation. We show that the Jacobian matrix associated with this nonlinear system has a special structure that can be exploited to reduce the computational complexity of the Newton's method. Preliminary numerical experiments indicate that the Newton's method can be more efficient for small problems in which a few smallest eigenpairs are needed.

  18. Solving the Hard Problem of Bertrand's Paradox

    E-print Network

    Diederik Aerts; Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi

    2014-06-27

    Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an "easy" problem and a "hard" problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible "ways of selecting" an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible "ways of selecting" an interaction, which we call a 'universal average'. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.

  19. Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Aerts, Diederik, E-mail: diraerts@vub.ac.be [Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies and Department of Mathematics, Brussels Free University, Brussels (Belgium); Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano, E-mail: autoricerca@gmail.com [Laboratorio di Autoricerca di Base, Lugano (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an “easy” problem and a “hard” problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible “ways of selecting” an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible “ways of selecting” an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.

  20. TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 Problem Solving: Cowboy Bob Problem

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 Problem Solving: Cowboy Bob Problem Page 61 Below is a problem from the outlaws. #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 (continued) Page 62 Notes: #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 7. #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 7 (continued) Page 64 Answer Sheet for Activity 7 1. Examine your

  1. Retrieval and Learning in Analogical Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randolph M. Jones; Pat Langley

    1995-01-01

    EUREK A is a problem-solving system that operates through a form of analogical reasoning. The system was designed to study how relatively low-level memory, reasoning, and learn- ing mechanisms can account for high-level learning in human problem solvers. Thus, EUREK A's design has focused on is- sues of memory representation and retrieval of analogies, a t the expense of complex

  2. Problem Solving 1 NCTM National Mathematics Standards

    E-print Network

    Lee, Carl

    a foundation for school mathematics programs by considering the broad issues of equity, curriculum, teachingProblem Solving 1 NCTM National Mathematics Standards The following comes from the website standards.nctm.org/document/chapter1/index.htm Introduction We live in a mathematical world. Whenever we

  3. Problem Solving by Spatial Conformation Chatavut Viriyasuthee

    E-print Network

    Dudek, Gregory

    -term pleasure. ii #12;ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There were many individuals whose contribution had solidified this thesis with solving the problem directly that can be costly or even infeasible. The concept of reduction is not only`ere efficace, comparemment `a essayer de le r´esoudre directement, ce qui pour- rait ^etre co^uteux ou m

  4. Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems

    E-print Network

    Libre de Bruxelles, Université

    Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems Marco Dorigo IRIDIA Universit´e Libre de Bruxelles 50 Avenue F. Roosevelt B-1050 Brussels, Belgium mdorigo@ulb.ac.be Abstract. The ant algorithms research field builds on the idea that the study of the behavior of ant colonies or other social insects

  5. Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gary Wisehart

    2008-03-01

    A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of biology, and apply them to new sets of facts.

  6. Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisehart, Gary; Mandell, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of…

  7. Creative Problem Solving in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Samuel J.

    Second and third grade students used the creative problem solving strategy developed by Sidney Parnes and Alex Osborn in their social studies classes. The second graders, finding few biographies written for students reading on a first or second grade level, interviewed community members, collected photographs of them, and wrote their biographies,…

  8. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

  9. Raise the Bar on Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englard, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS…

  10. Dynamical systems that solve linear programming problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Faybusovich

    1992-01-01

    The author introduces and studies a class of vector fields which are defined on a given polyhedron and solve linear programming problems. A Dikin-type algorithm is constructed. Relationships with double-bracket equations and entropy-type barrier functions are established

  11. THE ROLE OF EMOTION IN PROBLEM SOLVING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman V Belavkin

    2001-01-01

    Performance and data from some cognitive models suggested that emotions, experienced during problem solving, should be taken into account. Moreover, it is proposed that the cognitive science approach using both theoretical and experi- mental data may lead to a better understanding of the phenomena. A closer investigation of ACT-R cognitive architecture (Anderson 1993) revealed some properties analogous to phenomena known

  12. Computer Assisted Problem Solving in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Donald T.

    Arguments for and against the use of computers in mathematics classes have centered on whether students benefit from or are merely hindered by practicing computational skills. This paper claims that the true essence of mathematics lies not in computation, basically a mechanical operation, but in problem-solving. Since no amount of computational…

  13. Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…

  14. Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Kit Ee Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitive…

  15. How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

    2013-01-01

    This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…

  16. Models of Strategy for Solving Physics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Jill H.

    A set of computer implemented models are presented which can assist in developing problem solving strategies. The three levels of expertise which are covered are beginners (those who have completed at least one university physics course), intermediates (university level physics majors in their third year of study), and professionals (university…

  17. Appendix M. Research Utilization and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Charles

    The Research Utilization and Problem Solving (RUPS) Model--an instructional system designed to provide the needed competencies for an entire staff to engage in systems analysis and systems synthesis procedures prior to assessing educational needs and developing curriculum to meet the needs identified--is intended to facilitate the development of…

  18. Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil

    2011-01-01

    This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…

  19. Review on solving the forward problem in EEG source analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hallez, Hans; Vanrumste, Bart; Grech, Roberta; Muscat, Joseph; De Clercq, Wim; Vergult, Anneleen; D'Asseler, Yves; Camilleri, Kenneth P; Fabri, Simon G; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of electroencephalogram (EEG) source localization is to find the brain areas responsible for EEG waves of interest. It consists of solving forward and inverse problems. The forward problem is solved by starting from a given electrical source and calculating the potentials at the electrodes. These evaluations are necessary to solve the inverse problem which is defined as finding brain sources which are responsible for the measured potentials at the EEG electrodes. Methods While other reviews give an extensive summary of the both forward and inverse problem, this review article focuses on different aspects of solving the forward problem and it is intended for newcomers in this research field. Results It starts with focusing on the generators of the EEG: the post-synaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. These cells generate an extracellular current which can be modeled by Poisson's differential equation, and Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compartments in which these currents flow can be anisotropic (e.g. skull and white matter). In a three-shell spherical head model an analytical expression exists to solve the forward problem. During the last two decades researchers have tried to solve Poisson's equation in a realistically shaped head model obtained from 3D medical images, which requires numerical methods. The following methods are compared with each other: the boundary element method (BEM), the finite element method (FEM) and the finite difference method (FDM). In the last two methods anisotropic conducting compartments can conveniently be introduced. Then the focus will be set on the use of reciprocity in EEG source localization. It is introduced to speed up the forward calculations which are here performed for each electrode position rather than for each dipole position. Solving Poisson's equation utilizing FEM and FDM corresponds to solving a large sparse linear system. Iterative methods are required to solve these sparse linear systems. The following iterative methods are discussed: successive over-relaxation, conjugate gradients method and algebraic multigrid method. Conclusion Solving the forward problem has been well documented in the past decades. In the past simplified spherical head models are used, whereas nowadays a combination of imaging modalities are used to accurately describe the geometry of the head model. Efforts have been done on realistically describing the shape of the head model, as well as the heterogenity of the tissue types and realistically determining the conductivity. However, the determination and validation of the in vivo conductivity values is still an important topic in this field. In addition, more studies have to be done on the influence of all the parameters of the head model and of the numerical techniques on the solution of the forward problem. PMID:18053144

  20. Numerical experience with solving MPECs as NLPs

    E-print Network

    2002-08-20

    Aug 20, 2002 ... suited to solving MPECs and at present outperform Interior Point .... This has important implications for the design of SQP methods for ... mentarity constraint and this idea is adopted here together with a restoration phase.

  1. Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.

  2. From Numerical Problem Solving to Model-Based Experimentation Incorporating Computer-Based Tools of Various Scales into the ChE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shacham, Mordechai; Cutlip, Michael B.; Brauner, Neima

    2009-01-01

    A continuing challenge to the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum is the time-effective incorporation and use of computer-based tools throughout the educational program. Computing skills in academia and industry require some proficiency in programming and effective use of software packages for solving 1) single-model, single-algorithm…

  3. Geogebra for Solving Problems of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb; Kllogjeri, Adrian

    Today is highly speed progressing the computer-based education, which allowes educators and students to use educational programming language and e-tutors to teach and learn, to interact with one another and share together the results of their work. In this paper we will be concentrated on the use of GeoGebra programme for solving problems of physics. We have brought an example from physics of how can be used GeoGebra for finding the center of mass(centroid) of a picture(or system of polygons). After the problem is solved graphically, there is an application of finding the center of a real object(a plate)by firstly, scanning the object and secondly, by inserting its scanned picture into the drawing pad of GeoGebra window and lastly, by finding its centroid. GeoGebra serve as effective tool in problem-solving. There are many other applications of GeoGebra in the problems of physics, and many more in different fields of mathematics.

  4. Problem Solving and Problem Orientation in Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Ladouceur; France Blais; Mark H. Freeston; Michel J. Dugas

    1998-01-01

    The present study’s main objective is to examine whether problem orientation and problem-solving skills differ according to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptom level or clinical status (seeking help for GAD). Its secondary goal is to examine whether two cognitive variables (intolerance of uncertainty and beliefs about worry) vary according to GAD symptom level or clinical status. Three groups of subjects

  5. Technological and Personal Problem Solving Styles: Is There a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Tain-Fung; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Three groups of 50 freshman and 50 seniors each, majoring in technology, engineering, and humanities, completed the Personal Problem-Solving Inventory and the Technological Problem-Solving Inventory. There were few differences in personal problem solving but significant differences by major in technological problem solving. Few differences between…

  6. Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Charles

    The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…

  7. Episodes and Executive Decisions in Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    The research described here seeks to characterize the "managerial" aspects of expert and novice problem-solving behavior, and to describe the impact of managerial or "executive" actions on success or failure in problem solving. A framework for analyzing protocols of problem-solving sessions based on "episodes" of problem-solving behavior and…

  8. Harmony Theory: Problem Solving, Parallel Cognitive Models, and Thermal Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolensky, Paul; Riley, Mary S.

    This document consists of three papers. The first, "A Parallel Model of (Sequential) Problem Solving," describes a parallel model designed to solve a class of relatively simple problems from elementary physics and discusses implications for models of problem-solving in general. It is shown that one of the most salient features of problem solving,…

  9. Problem solving in science and technology education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Murphy; Robert McCormick

    1997-01-01

    Both science and technology education have a commitment to teaching process; investigations or scientific method in science,\\u000a design in technology, and problem solving in both areas. The separate debates in science and technology education reveal different\\u000a curricular emphases in processes and content, reflecting different goals, and pedagogic and educational research traditions.\\u000a This paper explores these differences and argues that each

  10. Solving Some Discrepancy Problems in NC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeev Mahajan; Edgar A. Ramos; K. V. Subrahmanyam

    2001-01-01

    .    We show that several discrepancy-like problems can be solved in NC nearly achieving the discrepancies guaranteed by a probabilistic analysis and achievable sequentially. For example, we describe an NC algorithm that given\\u000a a set system (X, S) , where X is a ground set and S?2\\u000a \\u000a X\\u000a , computes a set R?X so that for each S?\\u000a S

  11. Problem solving performance and learning strategies of undergraduate students who solved microbiology problems using IMMEX educational software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine Itota Ebomoyi

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX)

  12. Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).

  13. Problem-solving analysis: A piagetian study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, James P.

    Fifty-nine second-year medical students were asked to solve 12 Piagetian formal operational tasks. The purpose was to describe the formal logical characteristics of this medical student sample (59 of a total 65 possible) in terms of their abilities to solve problems in four formal logical schemata-combinatorial logic, probabilistic reasoning, propositional logic, and proportional reasoning. These tasks were presented as videotape demonstrations or in written form, depending on whether or not equipment manipulation was required, and were scored using conventional, prespecified scoring criteria. The results of this study show approximately 96% of the sample function at the transitional (Piaget's 3A level) stage of formal operations on all tasks and approximately 4% function at the full formal (Piaget's 3B level) stage of formal operations on all tasks. This sample demonstrates formal level thinking to a much greater degree than other samples reported in the literature to date and suggests these students are adequately prepared and developed to meet the challenge of their training (i.e., medical problem solving).

  14. Negotiation as a Metaphor for Distributed Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall Davis; Reid G. Smith

    1983-01-01

    We describe the concept of distributed problem solving and define it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. We present a framework called the contract net that specifies

  15. On the Modied Interior Point Algorithm for Solving Multi-Objective Linear Programming Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Tsai Lin; Chie-Bein Chen; Po-Ting Chen

    2006-01-01

    This study presents a modied interior point algorithm for solving multiple objective linear programming (MOLP) problems. The modied algorithm identies the local optional solution obtained using existing interior point algorithms. This study also conducts a numer- ical experiment to solve MOLP problems and to examine optimal objective-value accuracy and computing eciency (or CPU running time) in dieren t problems using

  16. Problem Solving in Physical Chemistry with the TI-89 Calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Warren J. C.

    2002-12-01

    The Texas Instruments TI-89 calculator is an advanced scientific calculator that has both graphing and programming capabilities, and advanced-mathematics software. In this article the TI-89 has been used for solving a variety of problems in physical chemistry. The applications in this paper include calculations with units, solving higher-order equations that are set up in chemical equilibrium problems, differential- and integral-calculus-based calculations in thermodynamics and quantum mechanics, numerical and analytic solutions of first-order differential equations in chemical kinetics, and regression analysis of data collected in a kinetics experiment. The appropriate calculator keystrokes are included for all the examples in this paper. Many complex and interesting problems can be studied with relative ease, thus allowing teachers to introduce modern scientific techniques in the classroom.

  17. Independent Classroom Problem-Solving Model. A Teacher's Manual for Solving Reading Problems in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Right to Read Program.

    This guide presents a classroom problem solving model designed to help teachers conduct their own classroom research. It suggests developing a procedure for identifying the instructional problems influencing reading achievement. The model is presented in steps that can be used independently or in concert with other steps. Practice activities are…

  18. Solving the initial value problem of two black holes.

    PubMed

    Marronetti, P; Matzner, R A

    2000-12-25

    We solve the elliptic equations associated with the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints, corresponding to a system composed of two black holes with arbitrary linear and angular momentum. These new solutions are based on a Kerr-Schild spacetime slicing which provides more physically realistic solutions than the initial data based on conformally flat metric/maximal slicing methods. The singularity/inner boundary problems are circumvented by a new technique that allows the use of an elliptic solver on a Cartesian grid where no points are excised, simplifying enormously the numerical problem. PMID:11136031

  19. Integral calculus problem solving: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Frank; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Pardini, Matteo; Pajevic, Sinisa; Wood, Jacqueline N; Weiss, George H; Landgraf, Steffen; Grafman, Jordan

    2008-07-16

    Only a subset of adults acquires specific advanced mathematical skills, such as integral calculus. The representation of more sophisticated mathematical concepts probably evolved from basic number systems; however its neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of integral calculus while healthy participants were engaged in an integration verification task. Solving integrals activated a left-lateralized cortical network including the horizontal intraparietal sulcus, posterior superior parietal lobe, posterior cingulate gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results indicate that solving of more abstract and sophisticated mathematical facts, such as calculus integrals, elicits a pattern of brain activation similar to the cortical network engaged in basic numeric comparison, quantity manipulation, and arithmetic problem solving. PMID:18596607

  20. The place of problem solving in contemporary mathematics curriculum documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaye Stacey

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the presentation of problem solving and process aspects of mathematics in curriculum documents from Australia, UK, USA and Singapore. The place of problem solving in the documents is reviewed and contrasted, and illustrative problems from teachers’ support materials are used to demonstrate how problem solving is now more often treated as a teaching method, rather than a

  1. Problem solving and chemical equilibrium: Successful versus unsuccessful performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moises Camacho; Ron Good

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the problem-solving behaviors of experts and novices engaged in solving seven chemical equilibrium problems. Thirteen novices (five high-school students, five undergraduate majors, and three nonmajors) and ten experts (six doctoral students and four faculty members) were videotaped as they individually solved standard chemical equilibrium problems. The nature of the problems was such

  2. An Integral Equation Technique for Solving Rotationally Symmetric Electrostatic Problems in Conducting and Dielectric Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Daffe; R. G. Olsen

    1979-01-01

    In this paper a short survey of the available numerical techniques for solving electrostatic problems is given. It is determined that techniques based on integral equations have several advantages over other available techniques which are used to solve Laplace's equation. A pair of integral equations is derived which can be used to solve Laplace's equation in regions containing conductor-dielectric and

  3. Numerical stability in problems of linear algebra.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babuska, I.

    1972-01-01

    Mathematical problems are introduced as mappings from the space of input data to that of the desired output information. Then a numerical process is defined as a prescribed recurrence of elementary operations creating the mapping of the underlying mathematical problem. The ratio of the error committed by executing the operations of the numerical process (the roundoff errors) to the error introduced by perturbations of the input data (initial error) gives rise to the concept of lambda-stability. As examples, several processes are analyzed from this point of view, including, especially, old and new processes for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with tridiagonal matrices. In particular, it is shown how such a priori information can be utilized as, for instance, a knowledge of the row sums of the matrix. Information of this type is frequently available where the system arises in connection with the numerical solution of differential equations.

  4. Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus).

    PubMed

    Seed, Amanda M; Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2008-06-22

    Recent work has shown that captive rooks, like chimpanzees and other primates, develop cooperative alliances with their conspecifics. Furthermore, the pressures hypothesized to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. We tested cooperative problem-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly solved a problem in which two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously in order to pull in a food platform. Similar to chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, performance was better when within-dyad tolerance levels were higher. In contrast to chimpanzees, rooks did not delay acting on the apparatus while their partner gained access to the test room. Furthermore, given a choice between an apparatus that could be operated individually over one that required the action of two individuals, four out of six individuals showed no preference. These results may indicate that cooperation in chimpanzees is underpinned by more complex cognitive processes than that in rooks. Such a difference may arise from the fact that while both chimpanzees and rooks form cooperative alliances, chimpanzees, but not rooks, live in a variable social network made up of competitive and cooperative relationships. PMID:18364318

  5. Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

  6. Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billionniere, Elodie V.

    Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

  7. An approach to numerically solving the Poisson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhichen; Sheng, Zheng-Mao

    2015-06-01

    We introduce an approach for numerically solving the Poisson equation by using a physical model, which is a way to solve a partial differential equation without the finite difference method. This method is especially useful for obtaining the solutions in very many free-charge neutral systems with open boundary conditions. It can be used for arbitrary geometry and mesh style and is more efficient comparing with the widely-used iterative algorithm with multigrid methods. It is especially suitable for parallel computing. This method can also be applied to numerically solving other partial differential equations whose Green functions exist in analytic expression.

  8. Solving Fractional Programming Problems based on Swarm Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raouf, Osama Abdel; Hezam, Ibrahim M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach to solve Fractional Programming Problems (FPPs) based on two different Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. The two algorithms are: Particle Swarm Optimization, and Firefly Algorithm. The two algorithms are tested using several FPP benchmark examples and two selected industrial applications. The test aims to prove the capability of the SI algorithms to solve any type of FPPs. The solution results employing the SI algorithms are compared with a number of exact and metaheuristic solution methods used for handling FPPs. Swarm Intelligence can be denoted as an effective technique for solving linear or nonlinear, non-differentiable fractional objective functions. Problems with an optimal solution at a finite point and an unbounded constraint set, can be solved using the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given to show the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The results obtained using the two SI algorithms revealed the superiority of the proposed technique among others in computational time. A better accuracy was remarkably observed in the solution results of the industrial application problems.

  9. Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…

  10. Developing an Instrument for Identifying a Person's Ability to Solve Problems: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuttke, Eveline; Wolf, Karsten D.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing people's ability to solve complex problems is more and more often being seen as an integral part of vocational education. While there have been numerous empirically-based approaches to the didactic structuring of teaching and learning arrangements by which students' ability to solve problems can be increased, knowledge of how to…

  11. Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941

  12. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  13. Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)

  14. Development of a Content Coding System for Marital Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winemiller, David R.; Mitchell, M. Ellen

    While much research has focused on the processes of marital problem solving, the content of marital problem solving has received considerably less attention. This study examined the initial efforts to develop a method for assessing marital problem solving content. Married individuals (N=36) completed a demographic information sheet, the Dyadic…

  15. Personal Problem-Solving Activities of Black University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Bonita Lynne; Heppner, P. Paul

    1985-01-01

    Examined personal problem solving activities of Black undergraduates (N=84) using three measures: Problem Solving Inventory; Level of Problem Solving Skills Estimate Form; and Ways of Coping Scale. Results indicated no racial (Black versus White) or geographic (urban versus rural) differences in responses. (BL)

  16. Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Sweller

    1988-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that domain specific knowledge in the form of schemes is the primary factor distinguishing experts from novices in problem- solving skill. Evidence that conventional problem-solving activity is not effective in schema acquisition is also accumulating. It is suggested that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes

  17. Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

  18. PROBLEM-SOLVING REQUEST FORM CLASSIFIED BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    PROBLEM-SOLVING REQUEST FORM ­ CLASSIFIED BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY Reference BSU Policy 5550-C.F.2;DEAN / DEPARTMENT DIRECTOR'S RESPONSE Problem Solving Request ­ Classified Reference BSU Policy 5550-C/Director, Provost/VP, Employee #12;PROVOST / VICE-PRESIDENT'S FINAL DECISION Problem Solving Request ­ Classified

  19. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  20. A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…

  1. Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

  2. On the Analysis of Two-Person Problem Solving Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    Methodological issues in the use of protocol analysis for research into human problem solving processes are examined through a case study in which two students were videotaped as they worked together to solve mathematical problems "out loud." The students' chosen strategic or executive behavior in examining and solving a problem was studied,…

  3. The Integration Of TRIZ Problem Solving Techniques With Other Problem Solving And Assessment Tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Hipple

    TRIZ, as a problem-solving process, is seldom used or brought into an organization in a vacuum. There is almost always an existing structure of tools and processes in use into which TRIZ enters. TRIZ can be brought into an organization as a replacement, or in collaboration with the most commonly used innovation and creativity tools in use such as Creative

  4. Young children's analogical problem solving: gaining insights from video displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:24077465

  5. Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja

    2014-01-01

    In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.

  6. Finite difference preconditioning for solving orthogonal collocation equations of boundary value problems

    E-print Network

    Sun, Weiwei; Huang, Weizhang; Russell, Robert D.

    1996-12-01

    A technique to construct a low-order finite difference preconditioner for solving orthogonal collocation equations for boundary value problems is presented. It is shown numerically and theoretically that the spectral condition numbers...

  7. Large Scale Computational Problems in Numerical Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    coleman, thomas f. [cornell university] [cornell university

    2000-07-01

    Our work under this support broadly falls into five categories: automatic differentiation, sparsity, constraints, parallel computation, and applications. Automatic Differentiation (AD): We developed strong practical methods for computing sparse Jacobian and Hessian matrices which arise frequently in large scale optimization problems [10,35]. In addition, we developed a novel view of "structure" in applied problems along with AD techniques that allowed for the efficient application of sparse AD techniques to dense, but structured, problems. Our AD work included development of freely available MATLAB AD software. Sparsity: We developed new effective and practical techniques for exploiting sparsity when solving a variety of optimization problems. These problems include: bound constrained problems, robust regression problems, the null space problem, and sparse orthogonal factorization. Our sparsity work included development of freely available and published software [38,39]. Constraints: Effectively handling constraints in large scale optimization remains a challenge. We developed a number of new approaches to constrained problems with emphasis on trust region methodologies. Parallel Computation: Our work included the development of specifically parallel techniques for the linear algebra tasks underpinning optimization algorithms. Our work contributed to the nonlinear least-squares problem, nonlinear equations, triangular systems, orthogonalization, and linear programming. Applications: Our optimization work is broadly applicable across numerous application domains. Nevertheless we have specifically worked in several application areas including molecular conformation, molecular energy minimization, computational finance, and bone remodeling.

  8. On planetary motion—a way to solve the problem and a spreadsheet simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benacka, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The article presents a way of solving the problem of planetary motion, or, the Kepler problem, without using the r\\to 1/r transition. The governing equation is solved for the components of the velocity vector in Cartesian coordinates. Substitution for speed in the law of energy conservation yields the equation of the trajectory. A time implicit closed formula for the azimuth is derived. An Excel application is presented that simulates the motion by solving the azimuth equation numerically without using programming.

  9. hp calculators HP 50g Using the Numeric Solver to solve a formula

    E-print Network

    Vetter, Frederick J.

    hp calculators HP 50g Using the Numeric Solver to solve a formula The Numeric Solver Practice solving formulas for unknowns #12;hp calculators HP 50g Using the Numeric Solver to solve a formula hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Using the Numeric Solver to solve a formula The Numeric Solver The HP 50g has

  10. A Distributed Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for Scientific Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeo Kawata; Hideaki Fuju; Hideaki Sugiura; Yuichi Saitoh; Yoshikazu Hayase; Takayuki Teramoto; Takashi Kikuchi

    2005-01-01

    A distributed Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is proposed to help users solve partial differential equation (PDE) based problems in scientific computing. The system inputs a problem description and outputs a program flow, a C-language source code for the problem and also a document for the program. Each module is distributed on distributed computers. The PSE contains all the information of

  11. Cognitive Variables in Problem Solving in Chemistry: A Revisited Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kam-Wah Lucille; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents results from Singaporean and Australian studies on the relationships between the cognitive variables and problem solving performance in three electrochemistry problems of different degrees of familiarity for comparisons. Concludes that idea association, problem translating skill, prior problem solving experience, specific knowledge, and…

  12. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

  13. Comparison of Recent Engineering Problem-Solving Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Anderson; R. Taraban

    Models of the cognitions used by engineering students to solve problems have always been a part of engineering education. Many, such as the engineering mechanics model (select free-body, draw vector diagram, write equilibrium equations, and solve equilibrium equations), have been part of the introduction of students to engineering topics for a long time. More recently, student problem-solving processes are being

  14. A New Method for Solving Hard Satisfiability Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Selman; Hector J. Levesque; David G. Mitchell

    1992-01-01

    We introduce a greedy local search procedure called GSAT for solving propositional satisfiability problems.Our experiments show that this procedure can be used to solve hard, randomly generated problems that are an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by more traditional approaches such as the Davis-Putnam procedure or resolution. We also show that GSAT can solve structured

  15. Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.

    PubMed

    Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PMID:25000309

  16. An Assessment of Problem Solving Processes in Undergraduate Statics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Four well-articulated models that offer structured approaches to problem solving were identified in the engineering research literature. These models provided a conceptual base for the study reported here. Four undergraduates enrolled in statics and two engineering faculty members provided think-aloud data as they solved two statics problems. The data were used to develop a coding system for characterizing engineering students behavioral and cognitive processes. These codes were used to analyze students problem solving procedures in a detailed manner, particularly differences between good and not-so-good problem solvers. The analyses provide a picture of how students and faculty solve problems at a cognitive level, and indicate that published problem-solving models are incomplete in describing actual problem-solving processes.

  17. High school students' problem-solving performance on realistic genetics problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susie Johnston Slack; Jim Stewart

    1990-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a valuable educational experience in science. Thus genetics, essentially a problem-solving science included in almost all high school biology courses, offers a fruitful area for studying student problem-solving performance. The research reported in this article describes the performance of 30 high school students solving 119 problems generated by the computer program GENETICS CONSTRUCTION KIT (Jungck

  18. THE NUMERICAL APPROXIMATION FOR THE INTEGRABILITY PROBLEM AND THE MEASURE OF WELFARE CHANGES, AND ITS APPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Lim, Sung Jin

    2012-01-01

    differential equation since this transform possibility provides a way to solve the integrability problem using the numerical method. Second, several numerical methods were investigated as a possible solution of both problem including the Vartia, the RK-4th...

  19. A numerical method for phase-change problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Charn-Jung; Kaviany, Massoud

    1990-01-01

    A highly accurate and efficient finite-difference method for phase-change problems with multiple moving boundaries of irregular shape is developed by employing a coordinate transformation that immobilizes moving boundaries and preserves the conservative forms of the original governing equations. The numerical method is first presented for one-dimensional phase-change problems (involving large density variation between phases, heat generation, and multiple moving boundaries) and then extended to solve two-dimensional problems (without change of densities between phases). Numerical solutions are obtained non-iteratively using an explicit treatment of the interfacial mass and energy balances and an implicit treatment of the temperature field equations. The accuracy and flexibility of the present numerical method are verified by solving some phase-change problems and comparing the results with existing analytical, semi-analytical and numerical solutions. Results indicate that one- and two-dimensional phase-change problems can be handled easily with excellent accuracies.

  20. The interparental relationship and family problem solving with preadolescent males.

    PubMed

    Vuchinich, S; Vuchinich, R; Wood, B

    1993-10-01

    This study examines associations between the quality of the interparental relationship and how well 68 family triads (mother, father, preadolescent son) solved salient problems which arose at home. Four aspects of the interparental relationship (marital satisfaction, parental agreement, conflict during family problem solving, and parental coalitions) were included in a regression analysis which controlled for family structure and child externalizing. A longitudinal design assessed families when mean child age was 9.7 years and 2 years later. Parental agreement consistently facilitated family problem solving. However, strong parental coalitions inhibited family problem solving, which may be attributed to frustrated autonomy needs of preadolescent males in response to the parental coalition. Stepfamilies had less effective problem solving at Time 1. The results confirm the benefits of parental agreement to child outcomes via enhanced family problem solving but show a reverse effect when agreement occurs in the context of coalitions against a preadolescent son. PMID:8222879

  1. Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.

  2. Solving quadratic programming problems with linear Hopfield networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgeny Dudnikov

    2001-01-01

    We consider a linear Hopfield network for solving quadratic programming problems with equation constraints. The problem is reduced to the solution of ordinary linear differential equations with arbitrary square matrix. Because of some properties of this matrix special methods are required for good convergence of the system. After some comparative studies of neural network models for solving this problem we

  3. Theory of Constructions and Set in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; And Others

    Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning knowledge, is described. Perdix' planning knowledge enables it to augment the problem space it is given by constructing auxiliary lines. The planning system also…

  4. Creative problem-solving: an approach to generating ideas.

    PubMed

    Tomas, S

    1999-05-01

    An excellent starting point for exercising creativity is the area of problem solving. With a bag of creative problem solving tools and techniques, problems will no longer represent setbacks but instead, opportunities to introduce innovations that will support the company's initiative of continuous improvement. PMID:10387779

  5. Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pescetti, D.

    2008-01-01

    The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…

  6. Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

  7. A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

  8. Feasibility of a Web-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacter, John; And Others

    This feasibility study explored the automated data collection, scoring, and reporting of children's complex problem-solving processes and performance in Web-based information-rich environments. Problem solving was studied using realistic problems in realistic contexts demanding multiple cognitive processes in the domain of environmental science.…

  9. Beyond the Problem-Solving Approach to Sustainable Rural Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Braun

    The tacit mental models of many research and development institutions dedicated to sustainable rural development is that they exist to solve development problems. This has led to a diagnostic and often reactive problem-solving mode of action, and to a culture of trouble-shooting experts who develop solutions. When practiced exclusively, the problem-solving mode is self-limiting because the energy that could create

  10. Graphical User Interface to Solve the Burmester Problem Julien S. Bourrelle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Graphical User Interface to Solve the Burmester Problem Julien S. Bourrelle Chao Chen St introduce a Matlab-based graphical user interface to support the solution of the classic Burmester problem environment. Keywords:graphical user interface, Burmester problem, four-bar linkage, numerical conditioning

  11. LSNNO, a FORTRAN subroutine for solving large-scale nonlinear network optimization problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe L. Toint; Daniel Tuyttens

    1992-01-01

    The implementation and testing of LSNNO, a new FORTRAN subroutine for solving large-scale nonlinear network optimization problems is described. The implemented algorithm applies the concepts of partial separability and partitioned quasi-Newton updating to high-dimensional nonlinear network optimization problems. Some numerical results on both academic and practical problems are reported.

  12. SOLVING CURVED DETONATION RIEMANN PROBLEMS Bruce Bukiet

    E-print Network

    Bukiet, Bruce

    the one parameter family of behind states comprising the burned Hugoniot and wave curves. For curved and show how the curved detonation jump conditions can be solved to compute the curved detonation Hugoniot

  13. Modifying PASVART to solve singular nonlinear 2-point boundary problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, James P.

    1988-01-01

    To study the buckling and post-buckling behavior of shells and various other structures, one must solve a nonlinear 2-point boundary problem. Since closed-form analytic solutions for such problems are virtually nonexistent, numerical approximations are inevitable. This makes the availability of accurate and reliable software indispensable. In a series of papers Lentini and Pereyra, expanding on the work of Keller, developed PASVART: an adaptive finite difference solver for nonlinear 2-point boundary problems. While the program does produce extremely accurate solutions with great efficiency, it is hindered by a major limitation. PASVART will only locate isolated solutions of the problem. In buckling problems, the solution set is not unique. It will contain singular or bifurcation points, where different branches of the solution set may intersect. Thus, PASVART is useless precisely when the problem becomes interesting. To resolve this deficiency we propose a modification of PASVART that will enable the user to perform a more complete bifurcation analysis. PASVART would be combined with the Thurston bifurcation solution: as adaptation of Newton's method that was motivated by the work of Koiter 3 are reinterpreted in terms of an iterative computational method by Thurston.

  14. Analysis of Numerical Errors in Solving Particle Langevin Equations

    E-print Network

    to lead to signi cant bias. The following section describes the model problem. The models are then solved usually has the form 6] 7], dx = ;(x ;hxi) T dt + bdW (1) where hxi is the mean or expectation of x

  15. A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteria…

  16. A Meaningless but Nonalgorithmic Solving Course: Solving a Graphing Problem about Osmosis by Analogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, June T.

    Various researchers have associated meaningful problem solving with methods guided directly by a conceptual knowledge base. By contast, a meaningless solving course, or sequence of operations, is essentially independent of the solver's conceptual understanding of the problem under consideration. This paper is the first to document a meaningless,…

  17. Comparing Numerical Methods for Solving Nonlinear Fractional Order Differential Equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farhad Farokhi; Mohammad Haeri; Mohammad Saleh Tavazoei

    \\u000a This paper is a result of comparison of some available numerical methods for solving nonlinear fractional order ordinary differential\\u000a equations. These methods are compared according to their computational complexity, convergence rate, and approximation error.\\u000a The present study shows that when these methods are applied to nonlinear differential equations of fractional order, they\\u000a have different convergence rate and approximation error.

  18. Iterative Methods for Solving Nonlinear Parabolic Problem in Pension Saving Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, M. N.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we consider a nonlinear parabolic equation, obtained from Riccati like transformation of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, arising in pension saving management. We discuss two numerical iterative methods for solving the model problem—fully implicit Picard method and mixed Picard-Newton method, which preserves the parabolic characteristics of the differential problem. Numerical experiments for comparison the accuracy and effectiveness of the algorithms are discussed. Finally, observations are given.

  19. Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social Contextual Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Jie Xu; G. Alan Wang; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

    2007-01-01

    Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

  20. Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Xu; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

    Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

  1. A Singular Function: A Problem-Solving Parable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanden Bosch, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Presents a scenario in which two people solve a programming problem by discussing various number sequences and functions. The problem is redefined as one related to number theory and operations research. (DDR)

  2. POLYA PROBLEM-SOLVING SEMINAR WEEK 7: MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS, AND PROBLEM-SOLVING

    E-print Network

    Vakil, Ravi

    't be afraid of a little algebra. Sleep on it if need be. Ask. The Problems. 1. Let f(n) be the number N be the set of positive integers. Define f on n by f(1) = 1, f(2n) = f(n) and f(2n + 1) = f(n) + 1

  3. Solving Multiobjective Optimization Problems using Evolutionary Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    . Abbass, and Charles Newton School of Computer Science, University of New South Wales, ADFA Campus to be useful for solving MOPs (Zitzler and Thiele 1999). EAs have some advantages over traditional results when compared with the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA) (Zitzler and Thiele 1999

  4. Tucson Teachers' Circle Mathematical Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    Zakharov, Vladimir

    in the standard school curriculum. These sessions stimulated interest in mathematics and helped students compete the ideas. The American Institute of Mathematics continues to support the training of new teams to create solving related to the night's theme. Rich mathematical discussions ensue as teachers explore new ideas

  5. Trends in problem-solving research - Twelve recently described tasks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, G. D.; Alluisi, E. A.; Morgan, B. B., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Review of descriptions of the 12 problem-solving tasks developed since the last review (Ray, 1955) of this topic, indicating that the newer tasks are more sophisticated in design and provide for better experimental control than those used prior to 1953. Validity, reliability, sensitivity, trainability, problem structure, and problem difficulty are discussed as criteria for the selection of tasks to be used in studies of skilled problem-solving performance.

  6. Dancing With Demons: Pathogenic Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen S. Long

    This paper explores the way in which we define and deal with social problems such as crime and proposes a new way of thinking about them. Criminality, poverty, illiteracy, addiction and child abuse are some of society's most acute and intractable problems. Despite countless attempted remedies, these complex social problems have continued to grow around the world. Although we have

  7. Solving Employee Timetabling Problems Using Boolean Satisfiability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fadi Aloul; Bashar Al-Rawi; Anas Al-Farra; Basel Al-Roh

    2006-01-01

    The employee timetabling problem (ETP) is concerned with assigning a number of employees into a given set of shifts over a fixed period of time, e.g. a week, while meeting the employee's preferences and organizational work regulations. The problem also attempts to optimize the performance criteria and distribute the shifts equally among the employees. The problem is considered a classical

  8. Problem solving in Chinese mathematics education: research and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinfa Cai; Bikai Nie

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to paint a picture of problem solving in Chinese mathematics education, where problem solving has been viewed both as an instructional goal and as an instructional approach. In discussing prob- lem-solving research from four perspectives, it is found that the research in China has been much more content and experience-based than cognitive and empirical-based. We

  9. Exploiting grid computation for solving the Vehicle Routing Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabian Lecron; Pierre Manneback; Daniel Tuyttens

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to solve the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW) on Grid'5000 using the ParadisEO framework. In this respect, four packages developed in ParadisEO are exploited. First, EO package (Evolving Objects) is used to create an evolutionary algorithm to solve the mono-objective CVRPTW. Then, a related multi-objective problem is solved with MOEO package

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Problem-Solving Intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Drummond; Darcy Fleming; Linda Mcdonald; Gerard M. Kysela

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive problem solving contributes to individual and family health and development. In this article, the effect of the cooperative family learning approach (CFLA) on group family problem solving and on cooperative parenting communication is described. A pretest or posttest experimental design was used. Participant families were recruited from Head Start programs and exhibited two or more risk factors. Participant preschool

  11. Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Susan Preston

    1998-01-01

    Examined whether use of robotics had a greater effect on elementary school children's achievement in science concepts and problem-solving abilities than use of battery-powered motorized manipulatives or no manipulatives. Found no significant difference in achievement from use of robotics except in programming language problem solving. Both…

  12. Solving quadratic programming problems with linear Hopfield networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgeny Dudnikov

    2003-01-01

    We consider a linear Hopfield network for solving quadratic programming problems with equation constraints. The problem is reduced to the solution of the ordinary linear differential equations with arbitrary square matrix. Because of some properties of this matrix the special methods are required for good convergence of the system. After some comparative study of neural network models for solving this

  13. Understanding students' poor performance on mathematical problem solving in physics

    E-print Network

    Understanding students' poor performance on mathematical problem solving in physics Jonathan introductory, algebra-based physics students perform poorly on mathematical problem solving tasks in physics. There are at least two possible, distinct reasons for this poor performance: (1) Students lack the mathematical

  14. An ESD Computer Culture for Intercultural Problem Solving and Negotiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin F. Shakun

    1999-01-01

    Intercultural problem solving and negotiation involves interaction of two or more cultures. These processes may be formally modeled using the Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD) framework implemented by appropriate computer group support systems (GSS). The ESD\\/GSS combination provides an ESD computer culture for intercultural problem solving and negotiation in a same place\\/same time or telework mode. With this, players in a

  15. Crafting Rules: Context-Reflective Data Quality Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang W. Lee

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by the growing importance of data quality in data-intensive, global business environments and by burgeoning data quality activities, this study builds a conceptual model of data quality problem solving. The study analyzes data quality activities at five organizations via a five-year longitudinal study. The study finds that experienced practitioners solve data quality problems by re- flecting on and explicating

  16. A Descriptive Model of Information Problem Solving while Using Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth analyses…

  17. The Effects of Iliad on Medical Student Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Charles W.; Williamson, John; Lincoln, Michael J.; Haug, Peter J.; Buchanan, James; Anderson, Curtis; Grant, Morgan; Cundick, Robert; Warner, Homer R.

    1990-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of the Iliad expert system on diagnostic problem solving of third-year (n = 97) medical students. Students used Iliad to work-up simulated cases to supplement the education they received in their medicine clerkship. The results of the research provided evidence that the Iliad expert system did improve student diagnostic problem solving and decision making.

  18. Assessing Creative Problem-Solving with Automated Text Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hao-Chuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Tsai-Yen

    2008-01-01

    The work aims to improve the assessment of creative problem-solving in science education by employing language technologies and computational-statistical machine learning methods to grade students' natural language responses automatically. To evaluate constructs like creative problem-solving with validity, open-ended questions that elicit…

  19. Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

  20. Problem Solving: Getting to the Heart of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Denise, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This publication features articles that illustrate how several Northwest teachers are using problem solving to achieve rigorous and imaginative learning in their classrooms. Articles include: (1) "Open-Ended Problem Solving: Weaving a Web of Ideas" (Denise Jarrett); (2) "Teenager or Tyke, Students Learn Best by Tackling Challenging Math" (Suzie…

  1. Connectedness Indicators and the Prediction of Problem Solving Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu-Shattuck, Sharon X.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that problem solving success is dependent upon two related but district types of mathematical knowledge, content indicators and connectedness indicators. Results did indeed display that the problem solving success of 188 undergraduate students was related to these two indicators. The correlations of content…

  2. Introducing Problem Solving through Literature at the Elementary Level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peg Harbert

    1989-01-01

    There has been much publicity the past few years, regarding students' lack of basic skills, their inability to think clearly, and their poor use of problem solving strategies. To focus on this need, the following program has been designed to help elementary teachers introduce problem solving in an organized manner adding very little, if any extra material to the curriculum.

  3. High school students' understanding and problem solving in population genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patti D. Soderberg

    2005-01-01

    This study is an investigation of student understanding of population genetics and how students developed, used and revised conceptual models to solve problems. The students in this study participated in three rounds of problem solving. The first round involved the use of a population genetics model to predict the number of carriers in a population. The second round required them

  4. Solving the Course Timetabling Problem with a Hybrid Heuristic Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Hao, Jin-Kao

    known results on two problem formulations. Keywords: Timetabling, hybrid heuristic, tabu searchSolving the Course Timetabling Problem with a Hybrid Heuristic Algorithm Zhipeng L¨u1,2 and Jin, iterated local search, constraint solving. 1 Introduction In recent decades, timetabling has become an area

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Database-Assisted Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.; Friedman, Charles P.; Keyes, John; Downs, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of database assistance on clinical problem solving across three cohorts of medical students and two database interfaces. Discusses the relationship between personal domain knowledge and problem solving, personal domain knowledge and database searching, and comparisons of different interface styles in information retrieval…

  6. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  7. Formalizing the Cooperative Problem Solving Process Michael J. Wooldridge

    E-print Network

    Woolridge, Mike

    Formalizing the Cooperative Problem Solving Process Michael J. Wooldridge Dept. of Computing research is to build systems that are capable of cooperative problem solving. To this end, a number process: no mathematical model of the entire process has yet been de­ scribed. In this paper, we rectify

  8. Problem solving within professional services: evidence from the medical field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elina Jaakkola; Aino Halinen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To test the validity of the presumed characteristics of professional services by studying their manifestation in the problem solving that occurs in service production. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses medical research as secondary data to study the existence of associations between the presumed characteristics of professional services and problem solving in the medical context. A systematic review of

  9. A Semantic-Linguistic Method of Solving Verbal Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoggard, Franklin R.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests a method for solving verbal problems in chemistry using a linguistic algorithm that is partly adapted from two artificial intelligence languages. Provides examples of problems solved using the mental concepts of translation, rotation, mirror image symmetry, superpositioning, disjoininng, and conjoining. (TW)

  10. A Markov Model Analysis of Problem-Solving Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendlinski, Terry

    This study used a computerized simulation and problem-solving tool along with artificial neural networks (ANN) as pattern recognizers to identify the common types of strategies high school and college undergraduate chemistry students would use to solve qualitative chemistry problems. Participants were 134 high school chemistry students who used…

  11. A Review of Problem Solving Capabilities in Lean Process Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Puvanasvaran; S. H. Tang; M. R Muhamad; A. M. S. Hamouda

    Human factor plays an important role in ensuring lean process management to be successful and provides good proposition for the success of the organization in the long run. One of the main elements of people is their problem solving capability in identifying and eliminating wastages. The purpose of this paper was to review problem solving capabilities in lean process management;

  12. Engineering students' experiences and perceptions of workplace problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Rui

    In this study, I interviewed 22 engineering Co-Op students about their workplace problem solving experiences and reflections and explored: 1) Of Co-Op students who experienced workplace problem solving, what are the different ways in which students experience workplace problem solving? 2) How do students perceive a) the differences between workplace problem solving and classroom problem solving and b) in what areas are they prepared by their college education to solve workplace problems? To answer my first research question, I analyzed data through the lens of phenomenography and I conducted thematic analysis to answer my second research question. The results of this study have implications for engineering education and engineering practice. Specifically, the results reveal the different ways students experience workplace problem solving, which provide engineering educators and practicing engineers a better understanding of the nature of workplace engineering. In addition, the results indicate that there is still a gap between classroom engineering and workplace engineering. For engineering educators who aspire to prepare students to be future engineers, it is imperative to design problem solving experiences that can better prepare students with workplace competency.

  13. New Testing Methods to Assess Technical Problem-Solving Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; And Others

    Tests to assess problem-solving ability being provided for the Air Force are described, and some details on the development and validation of these computer-administered diagnostic achievement tests are discussed. Three measurement approaches were employed: (1) sequential problem solving; (2) context-free assessment of fundamental skills and…

  14. Investigating students' confidence in programming and problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Eliasson; Lena Kallin Westin; Marie Nordström

    2006-01-01

    Many students feel insecure making their first attempts to solve programming problems. Despite finishing the introductory programming course successfully, these students refrain from pursuing their CS studies. Hence, this aversion towards problem solving and programming is not fully explained by lack of subject understanding and performance. In order to better understand the components of students' comfort, a first attempt to

  15. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  16. Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…

  17. An Approach to Simulate Understanding Student Problem-Solving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Z. W.; Willoughby, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method of understanding student problem-solving behavior during computer-assisted instruction using trigonometry as the example domain. Instead of attempting to model the student's process for solving problems, techniques which infer the equivalence between two adjacent steps in the student's process are used to determine…

  18. Problem Solving in Technology Education: A Taoist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Offers a new approach to teaching problem solving in technology education that encourages students to apply problem-solving skills to improving the human condition. Suggests that technology teachers incorporate elements of a Taoist approach in teaching by viewing technology as a tool with a goal of living a harmonious life. (JOW)

  19. Using Sentence and Picture Clues to Solve Verbal Insight Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Schwert

    2007-01-01

    Pictures and sentences, designed to be equivalent in information content, were compared as clues for solving verbal insight problems. Solving insight problems may require creative thinking because a novel approach is required for their solution. A 2 (test condition: informed, uninformed) × 3 (clue type: picture, sentence, unrelated) between and within-subjects design was used. Participants (N = 144) completed, in order: an information acquisition

  20. Problem Solving Variations in an Online Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahimi, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    An observation on teaching introductory programming courses on SLN for a period of two terms led me to believe that online students try various ways to solve a problem. In the beginning, I got the impression that some of their approaches for a solution were wrong; but after a little investigation, I found that some of the problem-solving

  1. Treatment of problem solving in Alzheimer's disease: A short report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Marshall; Gilson J. Capilouto; Jennifer M. McBride

    2007-01-01

    Background: Treatments to help persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) improve and\\/or compensate for deteriorating functional abilities have largely focused on cognitive rather than executive functions. Problem solving is an executive function integral to most activities of daily living that is compromised by AD. Successful treatment of problem?solving deficits in persons with AD could potentially increase the amount of time a

  2. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    This manual is to be used by leaders of RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops for school or district administrators. The workshop's goal is for administrators to develop problem solving skills by using the RUPS simulation situations in a teamwork setting. Although workshop leaders should be familiar with the RUPS materials and…

  3. Puzzling Science: Using the Rubik's Cube to Teach Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrig, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A major goal of education is to help learners store information in long-term memory and use that information on later occasions to effectively solve problems (Vockell 2010). Therefore, this author began to use the Rubik's cube to help students learn to problem solve. There is something special about this colorful three-dimensional puzzle that…

  4. Does Incubation Enhance Problem Solving? A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sio, Ut Na; Ormerod, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of empirical studies that have investigated incubation effects on problem solving is reported. Although some researchers have reported increased solution rates after an incubation period (i.e., a period of time in which a problem is set aside prior to further attempts to solve), others have failed to find effects. The…

  5. Word Problem Structure and Its Effect on the Transfer of Learning to Solve Algebra Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kuo-Liang

    2010-01-01

    A problem in learning to solve mathematics word problems students have been facing is to transfer the learned problem-solving knowledge from one story context to another story context. Some studies have provided evidence showing that structure facilitates transfer of learning to solve word problems. However, it is still under development for what…

  6. Teaching Problem-Solving as a Habit of Mind

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    Pat Wagener of Los Medanos College describes an inquiry project with his Developmental Math students: "Through my classroom inquiry into teaching problem-solving, I have shown that students can learn to solve problems in ways that help them develop "habits of mind" with problem solving processes with the following features in the instructional plan: Students get lots of problem solving practice, with an emphasis on long term learning of habits of mind Students are introduced to the idea of multiple representations early, and this approach is reinforced through the curriculum materials in meaningful ways and in all aspects of the course Students have many opportunities to share their problem solving publicly through board work "

  7. Effects of subliminal hints on insight problem solving.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Masasi; Sloman, Steven A; Orita, Ryo

    2013-08-01

    Two experiments tested a total of 509 participants on insight problems (the radiation problem and the nine-dot problem). Half of the participants were first exposed to a 1-min movie that included a subliminal hint. The hint raised the solution rate of people who did not recognize it. In addition, the way they solved the problem was affected by the hint. In Experiment 3, a novel technique was introduced to address some methodological concerns raised by Experiments 1 and 2. A total of 80 participants solved the 10-coin problem, and half of them were exposed to a subliminal hint. The hint facilitated solving the problem, and it shortened the solution time. Some implications of subliminal priming for research on and theorizing about insight problem solving are discussed. PMID:23392651

  8. Solving seismological problems using sgraph program: II-waveform modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelwahed, Mohamed F. [Geological Hazards Research Unit, King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia) and National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Helwan (Egypt)

    2012-09-26

    One of the seismological programs to manipulate seismic data is SGRAPH program. It consists of integrated tools to perform advanced seismological techniques. SGRAPH is considered a new system for maintaining and analyze seismic waveform data in a stand-alone Windows-based application that manipulate a wide range of data formats. SGRAPH was described in detail in the first part of this paper. In this part, I discuss the advanced techniques including in the program and its applications in seismology. Because of the numerous tools included in the program, only SGRAPH is sufficient to perform the basic waveform analysis and to solve advanced seismological problems. In the first part of this paper, the application of the source parameters estimation and hypocentral location was given. Here, I discuss SGRAPH waveform modeling tools. This paper exhibits examples of how to apply the SGRAPH tools to perform waveform modeling for estimating the focal mechanism and crustal structure of local earthquakes.

  9. Solving Random Satisfiability Problems with Quantum Computers

    E-print Network

    Tad Hogg

    2001-04-09

    Quantum computer algorithms can exploit the structure of random satisfiability problems. This paper extends a previous empirical evaluation of such an algorithm and gives an approximate asymptotic analysis accounting for both the average and variation of amplitudes among search states with the same costs. The analysis predicts good performance, on average, for a variety of problems including those near a phase transition associated with a high concentration of hard cases. Based on empirical evaluation for small problems, modifying the algorithm in light of this analysis improves its performance. The algorithm improves on both GSAT, a commonly used conventional heuristic, and quantum algorithms ignoring problem structure.

  10. Solving a Problem With or Without a Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei

    2013-01-01

    To solve a problem, an ordinary computer system executes an existing program. When no such program is available, an AGI system may still be able to solve a concrete problem instance. This paper introduces a new approach to do so in a reasoning system that adapts to its environment and works with insuffcient knowledge and resources. The related approaches are compared, and several conceptual issues are analyzed. It is concluded that an AGI system can solve a problem with or without a problem-specific program, and therefore can have human-like creativity and exibility.

  11. Algorithm for Solving the School Timetabling Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Abramson; J. Abela

    Genetic algorithms (GA) have been applied to a number of optimisation problems with some success (1). The algorithms mimic the process of natural selection, with the effect of creating a number of potentially optimal solutions to some complex search problem. One of the major disadvantages of genetic algorithms is that they are very slow. In this paper we discuss the

  12. Modelling and Solving Employee Timetabling Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amnon Meisels; Andrea Schaerf

    2003-01-01

    Employee timetabling is the operation of assigning employees to tasks in a set of shifts during a fixed period of time, typically a week. We present a general definition of employee timetabling problems (ETPs) that captures many real-world problem formulations and includes complex constraints. The proposed model of ETPs can be represented in a tabular form that is both intuitive

  13. Solving Domination Problems with Mathematical Programming

    E-print Network

    van der Torre, Leon

    of optimization problems 4 Why these problems? Dominating Sets (DS) and its variants Connected Dominating Sets, they are often used to create virtual backbones Why this approach? #12;Definition: Dominating Set 5 A Dominating one member of D by some edge. Dominators Dominatees #12;Definition: Dominating Set 5 A Dominating Set

  14. Personal Problem Solving: A Descriptive Study of Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined differences between students who perceived themselves as "successful" and "unsuccessful" problem solvers. Results revealed "successful" and "unsuccessful" problem solvers differed in number of problems acknowledged, on self-report ratings about the personal problem solving process, and on ratings made by interviewers on several cognitive…

  15. Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems Stefano Bistarelli1

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Francesca

    Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems Stefano Bistarelli1 , Maria Silvia Pini2 with both positive and negative preferences, that we call bipolar problems. Although seemingly specular with bipolar problems. 1 Introduction Many real-life problems contain statements which can be expressed

  16. Collaborative tool for solving human factors problems in the manufacturing environment: the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Technique (TRIZ) method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Akay; A. Dem?ray; M. Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In this study an analysis is made regarding the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Technique (TRIZ), which emerged in Russia in 1946 and has been commonly used in the USA and Europe in the past few last decades. TRIZ is a method that is used successfully to solve the problems arising during the process of product development. Within this study

  17. Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Ernest Valveny1 ­ Miquel Ferrer1 Centre de Visió per Computador, Dep (Barcelona), Spain {ernest,mferrer@cvc.uab.cat} Résumé : Graphs have very interesting properties for ob- ject

  18. Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.

  19. When the solution is part of the problem: problem solving in elderly suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Lawrence M.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Morse, Jennifer; Siegle, Greg J.; Houck, Patricia R.; Szanto, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives Depression, loss, and physical illness are associated with suicide in the elderly. However, the nature of individual vulnerability remains poorly understood. Poor problem solving has been suggested as a risk factor for suicide in younger adults. Unresolved problems may create an accumulation of stressors. Thus, those with perceived deficits in problem-solving ability may be predisposed to suicidal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether elderly suicide attempters perceived their problem solving as deficient. Methods Sixty-four individuals aged 60 and older participated in the study including depressed suicide attempters, depressed non-attempters, and non-depressed controls. The social problem solving inventory-revised: short-version was used to measure participants' perceived social problem solving, assessing both adaptive problem-solving dimensions (positive problem orientation and rational problem solving) and dysfunctional dimensions (negative problem orientation, impulsivity/carelessness, and avoidance). Results Depressed elderly who had attempted suicide perceived their overall problem solving as deficient, compared to non-suicidal depressed and non-depressed elderly. Suicide attempters perceived their problems more negatively and approached them in a more impulsive manner. On rational problem solving and avoidant style sub-scales, suicide attempters did not differ from non-suicidal depressed. However, both depressed groups reported lower rational problem solving and higher avoidance compared to non-depressed controls. Conclusions A perception of life problems as threatening and unsolvable and an impulsive approach to problem solving appear to predispose vulnerable elderly to suicide attempts. PMID:19405045

  20. Degenerate scale problem when solving Laplace's equation by BEM and its treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Chen; S. R. Lin; K. H. Chen

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY In this paper, Laplace problems are solved by using the dual boundary element method (BEM). It is found that a degenerate scale problem occurs if the conventional BEM is used. In this case, the influence matrix is rank deficient and numerical results become unstable. Both the circular and elliptical bars are studied analytically in the continuous system. In the

  1. AN APPLICATION OF THE DIFFERENCE POTENTIALS METHOD TO SOLVING EXTERNAL PROBLEMS IN CFD

    E-print Network

    Tsynkov, Semyon V.

    AN APPLICATION OF THE DIFFERENCE POTENTIALS METHOD TO SOLVING EXTERNAL PROBLEMS IN CFD Victor S by the numerous computational experiments and espe- cially concerns the area of CFD, in which external problems present a wide class of practically impor- tant formulations. In this paper, we review some work that has

  2. Solving Continuous-Time Optimal-Control Problems with a Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naevdal, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Explains how optimal control problems can be solved with a spreadsheet, such as Microsoft Excel. Suggests the method can be used by students, teachers, and researchers as a tool to find numerical solutions for optimal control problems. Provides several examples that range from simple to advanced. (JEH)

  3. Real-Life-Type Problem-Solving in Asperger's Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelley Channon; Tony Charman; Jane Heap; Sarah Crawford; Patricia Rios

    2001-01-01

    This study compared adolescents with Asperger's syndrome with typically developing adolescents on a novel problem-solving task that presented videotaped scenarios in real-life-type social contexts. The Asperger's group was impaired in several aspects of problem-solving, including recounting the pertinent facts, generating possible high-quality problem solutions, and selecting optimal and preferred solutions. This group's solutions differed most from those of the typically

  4. An Algorithm for Solving the Job-Shop Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Carlier; E. Pinson

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a branch and bound method for solving the job-shop problem. It is based on one-machine scheduling problems and is made more efficient by several propositions which limit the search tree by using immediate selections. It solved for the first time the famous 10 \\\\times 10 job-shop problem proposed by Muth and Thompson in 1963.

  5. Identifying, analysing and solving problems in practice.

    PubMed

    Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

    When a problem is identified in practice, it is important to clarify exactly what it is and establish the cause before seeking a solution. This solution-seeking process should include input from those directly involved in the problematic situation, to enable individuals to contribute their perspective, appreciate why any change in practice is necessary and what will be achieved by the change. This article describes some approaches to identifying and analysing problems in practice so that effective solutions can be devised. It includes a case study and examples of how the Five Whys analysis, fishbone diagram, problem tree analysis, and Seven-S Model can be used to analyse a problem. PMID:22848969

  6. Problem Solving in the Chemistry Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adam Wolfer

    2002-02-01

    In a pilot project implemented at the University of Kansas, a team of instructors from the education and chemistry departments modified the introductory chemistry laboratory curriculum to center on problem-based inquiry learning units. The new laboratory

  7. An amoeboid algorithm for solving linear transportation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cai; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zili; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Transportation Problem (TP) is one of the basic operational research problems, which plays an important role in many practical applications. In this paper, a bio-inspired mathematical model is proposed to handle the Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) in directed networks by modifying the original amoeba model Physarum Solver. Several examples are used to prove that the provided model can effectively solve Balanced Transportation Problem (BTP), Unbalanced Transportation Problem (UTP), especially the Generalized Transportation Problem (GTP), in a nondiscrete way.

  8. Increasing Students' Abilities To Solve Word Problems through Concrete and Problem Writing Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Lynne M.

    In this project, a plan for solving word problems based on the students' level of development was developed. A 10-week implementation of a plan for solving word problems at the concrete level of development included the use of a flow chart or plan to map out and solve word problems. Students then used the flow chart and manipulatives to develop…

  9. Visual Attention Modulates Insight Versus Analytic Solving of Verbal Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wegbreit, Ezra; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroimaging findings indicate that distinct cognitive and neural processes underlie solving problems with sudden insight. Moreover, people with less focused attention sometimes perform better on tests of insight and creative problem solving. However, it remains unclear whether different states of attention, within individuals, influence the likelihood of solving problems with insight or with analysis. In this experiment, participants (N = 40) performed a baseline block of verbal problems, then performed one of two visual tasks, each emphasizing a distinct aspect of visual attention, followed by a second block of verbal problems to assess change in performance. After participants engaged in a center-focused flanker task requiring relatively focused visual attention, they reported solving more verbal problems with analytic processing. In contrast, after participants engaged in a rapid object identification task requiring attention to broad space and weak associations, they reported solving more verbal problems with insight. These results suggest that general attention mechanisms influence both visual attention task performance and verbal problem solving. PMID:24459538

  10. Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2009-11-01

    Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties with multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first semester calculus-based physics course. Each student was interviewed four times during the semester, each time after they had completed an exam in class. During these interviews students were first asked to solve a problem they had seen on the exam, followed by problems that differed in context and type of representation from the exam problem. Students were provided verbal scaffolding to solve the new problems. We discuss the common difficulties that students encountered when attempting to transfer their problem solving skills across problems in different representations.

  11. SOLVING MIXED INTEGER BILINEAR PROBLEMS USING MILP ...

    E-print Network

    2013-01-29

    †School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. ...... credence to our primary motivation for this study: that on certain class of problems, ... [7] P. Belotti, Couenne: a user's manual, June 2012. .... disjunctions and bilinear covering sets, Mathematical Programming, 124 (2010), pp.

  12. Phenolic problems solved with hydrogen peroxide oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Keating; R. A. Brown; E. S. Greenberg

    1978-01-01

    Major industrial sources of phenolic waste discharges are: insulation fiberglass manufacturing, petroleum refineries, smelting and slag operations, organic products manufacture, synthetic resin manufacture, textile mills, steel-making, paint stripping, plywood, hardboard, and wood preserving. Phenolic discharges create problems in three areas: toxicity to marine life, taste and odor disturbances, and oxygen depletion of the receiving water. Methods for analyzing phenols are

  13. SOLVING A HYDTROTREATER FEED FILTER FOULING PROBLEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. A. Wu; K. H. Chung

    2008-01-01

    Feed filters were installed in Syncrude hydrotreater units to protect the catalyst beds from plugging by fine solids in the feed. Severe filter fouling occurred after a process flow sheet change. The root cause of fouling was revealed through a step-by-step scientific investigation. It was first confirmed that the fouling problem was related to a process flow sheet change that

  14. Solving Various Weighted Matching Problems with Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Caseau; Francois Laburthe

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the resolution of (augmented) weighted matching problems within a constraint programming (CP) framework. The first contribution of the paper is a set of techniques that improves substantially the performance of branch-and-bound algorithms based on constraint propagation and the second contribution is the introduction of weighted matching as a global constraint ( WeightedMatching), that can be propagated using

  15. Solving Various Weighted Matching Problems with Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Caseau; François Laburthe

    1997-01-01

    A b s t r ac t This paper studies the resolution of (augmented) weighted matching problems within a constraint programming framework. The first contribution of the paper is a set of branch-and-bound techniques that improves substantially the performance of algorithms based on constraint propagation and the second contribution is the introduction of weighted matching as a global constraint (

  16. Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…

  17. Bodily movement as related to problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Grinsted

    1941-01-01

    All bodily movements made by 51 undergraduate and 2 graduate students were recorded during the solution of mental problems of the type included in the average adult level of the latest revision of the Stanford-Binet scale in which the task is to specify how a given number of pints of water can be measured by means of 2 containers of

  18. Solving the Minimum Weighted Integer Coloring Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jue Xue

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present, as we are aware of, the first combinatorialalgorithm specifically designed for the minimum weighted integercoloring problem (MWIP). We test the algorithm on randomly generated graphs with integer weights uniformly drawn from intervals [1, 1], [1, 2], [1, 5], [1, 10], [1, 15], and [1, 20]. We also use theproposed algorithm to test the quality of

  19. Solving Inverse Problems with Spectral Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce R. McLaughlin

    2001-01-01

    We consider a two dimensional membrane. The goal is to flnd properties of the membrane or properties of a force on the membrane. The data is natural fre- quencies or mode shape measurements. As a result, the functional relationship between the data and the solution of our inverse problem is both indirect and nonlinear. In this paper we describe three

  20. Can AI planners solve practical problems?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Wilkins

    1990-01-01

    While there has been recent interest in research on planning and reasoning about actions,nearly all research results have been theoretical. We know of no previous examples of aplanning system that has made a significant impact on a problem of practical importance.One of the primary goals during the development of the SIPE-2 planning system has beenthe balancing of efficiency with expressiveness

  1. Using Ant Colony Optimization algorithm for solving project management problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hazem Abdallah; Hassan M. Emara; Hassan T. Dorrah; Ahmed Bahgat

    2009-01-01

    Network analysis provides an effective practical system for planning and controlling large projects in construction and many other fields. Ant Colony System is a recent approach used for solving path minimization problems. This paper presents the use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) system for solving and calculating both deterministic and probabilistic CPM\\/PERT networks. The proposed method is investigated for a

  2. Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of…

  3. Use of Ontology for Solving Interoperability Problems between Enterprises

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Use of Ontology for Solving Interoperability Problems between Enterprises Hui Liu1,2 , Anne enterprises, the semantic issues are important. To date, they are more and more focused on ontology. This paper presents how to use ontology in the PBMEI method, aimed at solving enterprise interoperability

  4. How Problem Solving Can Develop an Algebraic Perspective of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Will

    2011-01-01

    SProblem solving has a long and successful history in mathematics education and is valued by many teachers as a way to engage and facilitate learning within their classrooms. The potential benefit for using problem solving in the development of algebraic thinking is that "it may broaden and develop students' mathematical thinking beyond the…

  5. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Classroom Version. Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    This training manual is for teachers participating in the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) workshops. The workshops last for four and one-half days and are designed to improve the school setting and to increase teamwork skills. The teachers participate in simulation exercises in which they help a fictitious teacher or principal solve a…

  6. Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M. G. M.; Broekkamp, H.

    2001-04-01

    The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a number of articles published between 1985 and 1995 in high-standard international journals, describing experimental research into the effectiveness of a wide variety of teaching strategies for science problem solving. To characterize the teaching strategies found, we used a model of the capacities needed for effective science problem solving, composed of a knowledge base and a skills base. The relations between the cognitive capacities required by the experimental or control treatments and those of the model were specified and used as independent variables. Other independent variables were learning conditions such as feedback and group work. As a dependent variable we used standardized learning effects. We identified 22 articles describing 40 experiments that met the standards we deemed necessary for a meta-analysis. These experiments were analyzed both with quantitative (correlational) methods and with a systematic qualitative method. A few of the independent variables were found to characterize effective strategies for teaching science problem solving. Effective treatments all gave attention to the structure and function (the schemata) of the knowledge base, whereas attention to knowledge of strategy and the practice of problem solving turned out to have little effect. As for learning conditions, both providing the learners with guidelines and criteria they can use in judging their own problem-solving process and products, and providing immediate feedback to them were found to be important prerequisites for the acquisition of problem-solving skills. Group work did not lead to positive effects unless combined with other variables, such as guidelines and feedback.

  7. Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…

  8. Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines

    E-print Network

    Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines Yuval Emek, Tobias Langner, Jara + D) #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, Sereni [PODC 2012] = #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced

  9. An Information-Processing Approach to Personal Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Krauskopf, Charles J.

    1987-01-01

    Presents an information processing view of personal problem solving which involves how people take in information, process information into plans for solutions to personal problems, and carry out plans. Presents a definition of "problem." Offers suggestions for research and for counseling. (Author/NB)

  10. Working memory demands in insight versus analytic problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica I. Fleck

    2008-01-01

    Working memory is one of the cognitive processes thought to differentiate insight and analytic forms of problem solving. The present research examined memory involvement in the solution of insight versus analytic problems. Participants completed verbal and spatial working memory and short-term memory measures and a series of analytic and insight problems. Results demonstrated a relationship between working-memory capacity and the

  11. A new method for solving a linear programming problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for solving a linear programming problem, which is an extended version of the one previously presented by the author. The optimal solution of a linear programming problem is composed of some inequality constraints in their equality form. Then, it is possible to recognize the problem of finding the equality constraints which constitute the optimal

  12. Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…

  13. On optimization techniques for solving nonlinear inverse problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eldad Haber; Uri M. Ascher; Doug Oldenburg

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers optimization techniques for the solution of nonlinear inverse problems where the forward problems, like those encountered in electromagnetics, are modelled by differential equations. Such problems are often solved by utilizing a Gauss-Newton method in which the forward model constraints are implicitly incorporated. Variants of Newton's method which use second-derivative information are rarely employed because their perceived disadvantage

  14. A global optimization approach for solving the maximum clique problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Pardalos; A. T. Phillips

    1990-01-01

    The problem of finding a maximum clique of an undirected graph is formulated and solved as a linearly constrained indefinite quadratic global optimization problem. Theoretical upper and lower bounds on the size k of the maximum clique are derived from the global optimization formulation, and a relationship between the set of distinct global maxima of the optimization problem and the

  15. Bipolar preference problems: framework, properties and solving techniques

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Francesca

    Bipolar preference problems: framework, properties and solving techniques Stefano Bistarelli1 preferences, that we call bipolar prefer- ence problems. Although seemingly specular notions, these two kinds the notion of arc consis- tency to bipolar problems, and we show how branch and bound (with or without

  16. Integrating Computers into the Problem-Solving Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowther, Deborah L.; Morrison, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that within the context of problem-based learning environments, professors can encourage students to use computers as problem-solving tools. The ten-step Integrating Technology for InQuiry (NteQ) model guides professors through the process of integrating computers into problem-based learning activities. (SWM)

  17. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-02

    In this media-rich lesson plan, students learn how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, then apply what they’ve learned in activities that are based on real-world scenarios.

  18. Solving the Material Interface Reconstruction Problem using Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Solving the Material Interface Reconstruction Problem using Genetic Programming Jeremy Meredith-422-1197 Abstract: This paper develops enhanced material interface reconstruction techniques using genetic programming. Material interface reconstruction is the attempt to recreate high resolution material placement

  19. Developing a Pedagogical Domain Theory of Early Algebra Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth R. Koedinger; Benjamin A. MacLaren

    We describe a theory of quantitative representations and processes that makes novel predictions about student problem-solving and learning during the transition from arithmetic to algebraic competence or \\

  20. Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes,

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes, and making products to improve the quality of human life and shape the economy. Mechanical engineers apply, from power stations to cars, robots and computers. The professional training mechanical engineers

  1. Unified Particle Swarm Optimization for Solving Constrained Engineering Optimization Problems

    E-print Network

    Parsopoulos, Konstantinos

    Unified Particle Swarm Optimization for Solving Constrained Engineering Optimization Problems K investigate the performance of the recently proposed Uni- fied Particle Swarm Optimization method and global variant of Particle Swarm Optimization are re- ported and discussed. 1 Introduction Many

  2. Solving search problems by strongly simulating quantum circuits.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T H; Biamonte, J D; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D

    2013-01-01

    Simulating quantum circuits using classical computers lets us analyse the inner workings of quantum algorithms. The most complete type of simulation, strong simulation, is believed to be generally inefficient. Nevertheless, several efficient strong simulation techniques are known for restricted families of quantum circuits and we develop an additional technique in this article. Further, we show that strong simulation algorithms perform another fundamental task: solving search problems. Efficient strong simulation techniques allow solutions to a class of search problems to be counted and found efficiently. This enhances the utility of strong simulation methods, known or yet to be discovered, and extends the class of search problems known to be efficiently simulable. Relating strong simulation to search problems also bounds the computational power of efficiently strongly simulable circuits; if they could solve all problems in P this would imply that all problems in NP and #P could be solved in polynomial time. PMID:23390585

  3. Solving search problems by strongly simulating quantum circuits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, T. H.; Biamonte, J. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.

    2013-01-01

    Simulating quantum circuits using classical computers lets us analyse the inner workings of quantum algorithms. The most complete type of simulation, strong simulation, is believed to be generally inefficient. Nevertheless, several efficient strong simulation techniques are known for restricted families of quantum circuits and we develop an additional technique in this article. Further, we show that strong simulation algorithms perform another fundamental task: solving search problems. Efficient strong simulation techniques allow solutions to a class of search problems to be counted and found efficiently. This enhances the utility of strong simulation methods, known or yet to be discovered, and extends the class of search problems known to be efficiently simulable. Relating strong simulation to search problems also bounds the computational power of efficiently strongly simulable circuits; if they could solve all problems in P this would imply that all problems in NP and #P could be solved in polynomial time. PMID:23390585

  4. Solving Maximal Clique Problem through Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajawat, Shalini; Hemrajani, Naveen; Menghani, Ekta

    2010-11-01

    Genetic algorithm is one of the most interesting heuristic search techniques. It depends basically on three operations; selection, crossover and mutation. The outcome of the three operations is a new population for the next generation. Repeating these operations until the termination condition is reached. All the operations in the algorithm are accessible with today's molecular biotechnology. The simulations show that with this new computing algorithm, it is possible to get a solution from a very small initial data pool, avoiding enumerating all candidate solutions. For randomly generated problems, genetic algorithm can give correct solution within a few cycles at high probability.

  5. Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Andrew J.

    Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was developed to further evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest that introductory students and even graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to physics faculty members. Furthermore, responses to individual survey questions suggest that expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.

  6. The Deming and Goldratt Approaches To Problem Solving: A Contrast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Van Matre; Rexford H. Draman

    The quality movement's original problem-solving model was the Plan-Do-Check-Act model of Shewhart and popularized by Deming. Whether called the problem-solving process (Xerox), the Quality Improvement Cycle (AT&T), or the quality-Improvement story (Florida Power & Light), these more recent models are basically variations of the scientific method and the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle. They offer a systematic approach, a standardization to the

  7. Problem-solving types among high-risk IDUs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome J. Platt; Stephen D. Husband; Robert A. Steer; Martin Y. Iguchi

    1995-01-01

    This research investigated whether high-risk injection drug users (IDUs) manifest distinct types, or profiles, of interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) abilities. Four measures of ICPS, the Means-Ends Problem-Solving procedure (MEPS), Optional Thinking Test (OTT), Awareness of Consequences Test (ACT), and Causal Thinking Test (CTT), were administered to 140 IDUs who volunteered for NIDA Demonstration Projects in Newark and Jersey City, NJ,

  8. Measure Your Sew - How: Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems

    E-print Network

    Rhoades, Beverly

    1981-01-01

    DOC TA24S.7 873 0.1264 --","--- Measure Your Sew-How Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System . Daniel C . Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas "'164 [Blank Page... in Original Bulletin] ~. 'I \\ ! fri SOLVING COMMON SEWING MACHINE PROBLEMS Beverly Rhoades* Machine Parts ? Former Extension clothing specialist, The Texas A&M University System. Sewing can be a relaxing, creative and money-saving talent when...

  9. On solving linear complementarity problems as linear programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Cottle; Jong-Shi Pang

    Recently, Mangasarian [18, 19] has discussed the idea of solving certain classes of linear complementarity problems as linear\\u000a programs. The present paper (1) demonstrates how these complementarity problems are related to the theory of polyhedral sets\\u000a having least elements and (2) discusses the question of whether the linear programming approach can be recommended for solving\\u000a them.

  10. Solving the state assignment problem for signal transition graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano Lavagno; Cho W. Moon; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

    1992-01-01

    Wepropose a novel framework to solve the state assignment problem arising from the signal transition graph (STG) representation of an asynchronous circw”t. Wefirst establish a relation between STGS ad finite state machines (R3ds). Then we solve the STG state assignment problem by minittdzing the number of states in the corresponding F3vl and by using a critical racefree state assignment technique.

  11. Measure Your Sew - How: Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems.

    E-print Network

    Rhoades, Beverly

    1981-01-01

    DOC TA24S.7 873 0.1264 --","--- Measure Your Sew-How Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System . Daniel C . Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas "'164 [Blank Page... in Original Bulletin] ~. 'I \\ ! fri SOLVING COMMON SEWING MACHINE PROBLEMS Beverly Rhoades* Machine Parts ? Former Extension clothing specialist, The Texas A&M University System. Sewing can be a relaxing, creative and money-saving talent when...

  12. Patterns of problem-solving in children's literacy and arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Vanuxem-Cotterill, Sophie; Stiller, James

    2009-11-01

    Patterns of problem-solving among 5-to-7 year-olds' were examined on a range of literacy (reading and spelling) and arithmetic-based (addition and subtraction) problem-solving tasks using verbal self-reports to monitor strategy choice. The results showed higher levels of variability in the children's strategy choice across Years I and 2 on the arithmetic (addition and subtraction) than literacy-based tasks (reading and spelling). However, across all four tasks, the children showed a tendency to move from less sophisticated procedural-based strategies, which included phonological strategies for reading and spelling and counting-all and finger modellingfor addition and subtraction, to more efficient retrieval methods from Years I to 2. Distinct patterns in children's problem-solving skill were identified on the literacy and arithmetic tasks using two separate cluster analyses. There was a strong association between these two profiles showing that those children with more advanced problem-solving skills on the arithmetic tasks also showed more advanced profiles on the literacy tasks. The results highlight how different-aged children show flexibility in their use of problem-solving strategies across literacy and arithmetical contexts and reinforce the importance of studying variations in children's problem-solving skill across different educational contexts. PMID:19994481

  13. Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.

    PubMed

    Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M

    2013-01-01

    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751

  14. Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.

    2013-01-01

    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751

  15. Circumspect descent prevails in solving random constraint satisfaction problems

    PubMed Central

    Alava, Mikko; Ardelius, John; Aurell, Erik; Kaski, Petteri; Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Orponen, Pekka; Seitz, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    We study the performance of stochastic local search algorithms for random instances of the K-satisfiability (K-SAT) problem. We present a stochastic local search algorithm, ChainSAT, which moves in the energy landscape of a problem instance by never going upwards in energy. ChainSAT is a focused algorithm in the sense that it focuses on variables occurring in unsatisfied clauses. We show by extensive numerical investigations that ChainSAT and other focused algorithms solve large K-SAT instances almost surely in linear time, up to high clause-to-variable ratios ?; for example, for K = 4 we observe linear-time performance well beyond the recently postulated clustering and condensation transitions in the solution space. The performance of ChainSAT is a surprise given that by design the algorithm gets trapped into the first local energy minimum it encounters, yet no such minima are encountered. We also study the geometry of the solution space as accessed by stochastic local search algorithms. PMID:18832149

  16. Why decoherence solves the measurement problem

    E-print Network

    Art Hobson

    2013-08-19

    Although the solution, within standard quantum physics, of the problem of outcomes has been published several times, many authors continue to treat measurement as an unsolved fundamental dilemma. The solution lies in the formation of entangled subsystems, the non-local nature of the measurement state, and the resulting distinction between mixed-state local outcomes and the pure-state global outcome. Upon "measurement" (i.e. entanglement), the quantum system and its measurement apparatus both decohere and collapse into local mixed states while the unitarily-evolving global state remains coherent and un-collapsed. The states we observe are the local, collapsed states. Considerable experimental evidence supports this conclusion. Theoretical objections to this conclusion are rebutted, and a new perspective on measurement and entanglement is noted.

  17. Towards Solving the Inverse Protein Folding Problem

    E-print Network

    Hong, Yoojin; Bhardwaj, Gaurav; Zhang, Zhenhai; van Rossum, Damian B; Patterson, Randen L

    2010-01-01

    Accurately assigning folds for divergent protein sequences is a major obstacle to structural studies and underlies the inverse protein folding problem. Herein, we outline our theories for fold-recognition in the "twilight-zone" of sequence similarity (<25% identity). Our analyses demonstrate that structural sequence profiles built using Position-Specific Scoring Matrices (PSSMs) significantly outperform multiple popular homology-modeling algorithms for relating and predicting structures given only their amino acid sequences. Importantly, structural sequence profiles reconstitute SCOP fold classifications in control and test datasets. Results from our experiments suggest that structural sequence profiles can be used to rapidly annotate protein folds at proteomic scales. We propose that encoding the entire Protein DataBank (~1070 folds) into structural sequence profiles would extract interoperable information capable of improving most if not all methods of structural modeling.

  18. Meshless method for solving fixed boundary problem of plasma equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    This study solves the Grad-Shafranov equation with a fixed plasma boundary by utilizing a meshless method for the first time. Previous studies have utilized a finite element method (FEM) to solve an equilibrium inside the fixed separatrix. In order to avoid difficulties of FEM (such as mesh problem, difficulty of coding, expensive calculation cost), this study focuses on the meshless methods, especially RBF-MFS and KANSA's method to solve the fixed boundary problem. The results showed that CPU time of the meshless methods was ten to one hundred times shorter than that of FEM to obtain the same accuracy.

  19. Photography helps solve distribution lightning problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, P.; Burns, C.W.

    1993-06-01

    This article describes the research project, which is being performed for NMPC by Power Technologies, Inc., involving the use of lightning-activated camera systems to photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photographs can allow the precise location of the lightning flash and power system flashovers to be observed, they are extremely valuable to engineers who are trying to make better sense of the lightning damage problem. When electrical measurements, such as fault and surge recordings, are combined with photographic data, an overall understanding of each lightning flash and its impact on the system is attained. This can hopefully lead to improved lightning protection practices and systems. The study is being performed on a 13.2 kV distribution system that is located on an exposed plateau near Little Falls, NY (about 80 miles northwest of Albany, NY). Four automated camera systems and a substation fault recorder are utilized. All camera locations afford excellent views of lines and equipment likely to be struck by lightning. The fault recorder is used to measure the fault currents and voltage sags which occur during line flashovers. Also, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) is used to confirm storm activity and camera triggering efficiency. After each storm, all data is analyzed to determine how lightning affected the power system. Areas being investigated include: What are the relative portions of lightning flashovers caused by induced surges (nearby strikes) and direct lightning hits to the line How often do shielding failures occur What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices are problematic

  20. A new algorithm appropriate for solving singular and singularly perturbed autonomous initial-value problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Higinio Ramos; Jesús Vigo-Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    A nonlinear explicit scheme is proposed for numerically solving first-order singular or singularly perturbed autonomous initial-value problems (IVP) of the form y =f(y). The algorithm is based on the local approximation of the function f(y) by a second-order Taylor expansion. The resulting approximated differential equation is then solved without local truncation error. For the true solution the method has a

  1. Solving the Unit Commitment Problem Using AN Adaptive Immune Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oonsivilai, Anant; Marungsri, Boonruang

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents an Adaptive Immune Genetic Algorithm (AIGA) solution to solve the Unit Commitment (UC) problem. The unit commitment problem formulation takes into consideration the minimum up and down time constraints, start up cost and spinning reserve, which is defined as the minimization of the total objective function while satisfying all the associated constraints. Mathematical formulation, illustration and production results for a 10 generator-scheduling problem are presented. Finally, numerical results of systems are established the effectiveness of purpose technique.

  2. A high-performance neural network for solving linear and quadratic programming problems.

    PubMed

    Wu, X Y; Xia, Y S; Li, J; Chen, W K

    1996-01-01

    Two classes of high-performance neural networks for solving linear and quadratic programming problems are given. We prove that the new system converges globally to the solutions of the linear and quadratic programming problems. In a neural network, network parameters are usually not specified. The proposed models can overcome numerical difficulty caused by neural networks with network parameters and obtain desired approximate solutions of the linear and quadratic programming problems. PMID:18263461

  3. The Role of an Incubation Period in Creative Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ut Na Sio; Elisabeth Rudowicz

    2007-01-01

    This experimental study tested the spreading-activation hypothesis that an incubation period helps to sensitize problem solvers to relevant concepts. The study also tested the selective forgetting hypothesis that an incubation period helps to desensitize problem solvers to irrelevant concepts. Chinese Chess GO players, 28 experts and 29 novices, solved 18 remote association tasks (RAT) and lexical decision tasks (LDTs) under

  4. COMPLEX WAVELET REGULARIZATION FOR SOLVING INVERSE PROBLEMS IN REMOTE SENSING

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) [1], zooming [2] or denoising [3]. Usually, finding the origi- nal image u from the observation g a comparison between two common priors in image processing for wavelet regularized problems. inria-00417708COMPLEX WAVELET REGULARIZATION FOR SOLVING INVERSE PROBLEMS IN REMOTE SENSING Mika¨el Carlavan

  5. Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations

    E-print Network

    Zollman, Dean

    Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations Dong-Hai Nguyen and N-2601 Abstract. Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties with multiple

  6. A Problem-Solving Oral Examination for Family Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wart, Arthur D.

    1974-01-01

    The College of Family Physicians of Canada has used in its certification examination a new type of structured problem-solving examination called the Formal Oral. A series of preselected problem areas such as the complaint, relevant data base, investigation, and treatment are scored by two examiners. (Editor/PG)

  7. Creative Problem-Solving Exercises and Training in FCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcketti, Sara B.; Karpova, Elena; Barker, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Creative problem-solving has been linked to successful adjustment to the demands of daily life. The ability to recognize problems as opportunities can be an essential skill when dealing with uncertainty and adapting to continuous changes, both in personal and professional lives. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals should strive to…

  8. Diffusion: Diffusive initial value problems and how to solve them

    E-print Network

    Spiegelman, Marc W.

    84 #12;Chapter 6 Diffusion: Diffusive initial value problems and how to solve them Selected Reading of the simplest partial dif- ferential equations for diffusive initial value problems in the absence of advection be written T t = · T (6.0.1) where T is the temperature and = k/(cP ) is the thermal diffusivity (which has

  9. a Problem Solving Diagnostic Instrument for Physics Thermodynamics Concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Iona

    1994-01-01

    Changes in conceptual representations of physics thermodynamics concepts by high school physics students was examined throughout an instructional sequence. The knowledge structures identified were characterized and also compared to problem-solving strategies used by the students on physics problems. Over sixty students from four intact classes completed seven measures including three computer-administered concept relatedness tasks, a test of logical thinking, identification

  10. A Functional Analysis of Real-Life, Personal Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; And Others

    The personal problem-solving process can be functionally analyzed from a cognitive-behavioral perspective into at least four major performance classes: (1) decision making; (2) problem exploration, differentiation, and definition; (3) identification of response alternatives; and (4) performance of an intended solution response. The personal…

  11. Can AI Planners Solve Practical Problems? David E. Wilkins

    E-print Network

    Wilkins, David E.

    Can AI Planners Solve Practical Problems? by David E. Wilkins Arti cial Intelligence Center SRI of a planning system that has made a signi cant impact on a problem of practical importance. One of the primary Institute, and SRI International. Research performed at the Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford

  12. Successful and Unsuccessful Problem Solving in Classical Genetic Pedigrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.

    1988-01-01

    Examines successful/unsuccessful distinctions between novices and experts in problem solving in terms of genetic knowledge, use of production rules, strategy selection, use of critical cues, use of logic, understanding of probability, and the thinking process itself. Suggests five implications for genetics instruction and provides three problems

  13. Solving the GPS problem in almost linear Shamgar Gurevich

    E-print Network

    Weinberger, Hans

    Solving the GPS problem in almost linear complexity Shamgar Gurevich University of Wisconsin. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was built to fulfill this task. It works as follows: Satellites send white noise. The GPS Problem is: Design S, and an effective method of extracting (b, 0) from S and R

  14. Using GRASP to Solve the Unit Commitment Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Viana; Jorge Pinho De Sousa; Manuel Matos

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the Unit Commitment (UC) problem is presented and solved, following an innovative approach based on a metaheuristic procedure. The problem consists on deciding which electric generators must be committed, over a given planning horizon, and on defining the production levels that are required for each generator, so that load and spinning reserve requirements are verified, at minimum

  15. Finding and solving problems in software new product development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willow A. Sheremata

    2002-01-01

    New product development is notoriously difficult, and software new product development particularly so. Although a great deal of research has investigated new product development, projects developing new software products continue to have problems meeting their goals. In fact, one line of research proposes new product development is difficult because it must solve an ongoing stream of complex problems. I integrate

  16. Solving the Permutation Problem in Convolutive Blind Source Separation

    E-print Network

    Lübeck, Universität zu

    Solving the Permutation Problem in Convolutive Blind Source Separation Radoslaw Mazur and Alfred between neighboring bins for the detection of correct permutations. 1 Introduction Blind Source Separation source separation. When trans- formed to the frequency domain, the source separation problem reduces

  17. Solving the Small Sample Size Problem of LDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Huang; Qingshan Liu; Hanqing Lu; Songde Ma

    2002-01-01

    The small sample size problem is often encountered in pattern recognition. It results in the singularity of the within-class scatter matrix Sw in Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Different methods have been proposed to solve this problem in face recognition literature. Some methods reduce the dimension of the original sample space and hence unavoidably remove the null space of Sw, which

  18. SOLVING THE PERMUTATION PROBLEM USING PHASE LINEARITY AND FREQUENCY CORRELATION

    E-print Network

    Plumbley, Mark

    analysis (ICA), permutation problem, spatial aliasing, linearity, phase response. 1 INTRODUCTION Blind (1) where f represents frequency, t is the frame index, Hlk(f) is the frequency response from sourceSOLVING THE PERMUTATION PROBLEM USING PHASE LINEARITY AND FREQUENCY CORRELATION Keisuke Toyama1

  19. Solving Posynomial Geometric Programming Problems via Generalized Linear Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayant Rajgopal; Dennis L. Bricker

    2002-01-01

    This paper revisits an efficient procedure for solving posynomial geometric programming (GP) problems, which was initially developed by Avriel et al. The procedure, which used the concept of condensation, was embedded within an algorithm for the more general (signomial) GP problem. It is shown here that a computationally equivalent dual-based algorithm may be independently derived based on some more recent

  20. Help your child to health: problem-solving without recourse

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    Help your child to health: problem-solving without recourse to drugs or treatment $99 Does your child have problems learning? Is your child able to follow through tasks? Could your child be suffering, health, and learning ­ and shows you how to help your child to achieve balanced activity in each without

  1. Exploring the Role of Conceptual Scaffolding in Solving Synthesis Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

    2011-01-01

    It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC) problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring…

  2. Paradigms and Problem-Solving: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berner, Eta S.

    1984-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's conceptions of the influence of paradigms on the progress of science form the framework for analyzing how medical educators have approached research on medical problem solving. A new paradigm emphasizing multiple types of problems with varied solution strategies is proposed. (Author/MLW)

  3. A Problem-Solving Simulation for Classical Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jim

    1996-01-01

    Presents a genetics simulation that uses a noncomputer version of BioQUEST's Genetics Construction Kit. Provides students with opportunities for solving realistic genetics problems and allows them to experience how classical geneticists think. Discusses the problem's search space, thinking qualitatively, hypothesis generation and testing, thinking…

  4. Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS Steven van Dijk Dirk Thierens Mark de in Geographical Information Systems (GIS's). The framework is especially suited for geographical problems since as well. 1 Introduction Geographic Information Systems (GIS's for short) combine a geographical database

  5. Solving quadratic programming problems by delayed projection neural network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongqing; Cao, Jinde

    2006-11-01

    In this letter, the delayed projection neural network for solving convex quadratic programming problems is proposed. The neural network is proved to be globally exponentially stable and can converge to an optimal solution of the optimization problem. Three examples show the effectiveness of the proposed network. PMID:17131675

  6. Representation Use and Strategy Choice in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cock, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics students' problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that…

  7. Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen

    2008-01-01

    A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…

  8. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR PALINDROMIC EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS

    E-print Network

    Mehl, Christian

    NUMERICAL METHODS FOR PALINDROMIC EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS: COMPUTING THE ANTI-TRIANGULAR SCHUR FORM D structure-preserving numerical methods for complex palindromic poly- nomial eigenvalue problems via corresponding palindromic linearizations. A key ingredient is the development of an appropriate condensed form

  9. A New Approach for Solving the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, P. C.; Matei, O.; Sabo, C.

    The generalized traveling problem (GTSP) is an extension of the classical traveling salesman problem. The GTSP is known to be an NP-hard problem and has many interesting applications. In this paper we present a local-global approach for the generalized traveling salesman problem. Based on this approach we describe a novel hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for solving the problem using genetic algorithms. Computational results are reported for Euclidean TSPlib instances and compared with the existing ones. The obtained results point out that our hybrid algorithm is an appropriate method to explore the search space of this complex problem and leads to good solutions in a reasonable amount of time.

  10. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving. PMID:12102132

  11. Construction and Validation of Family Problem Solving Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Raiisi, Fateme

    The aim of the present research was to indices and characteristics of scale validation for family problem solving scale. The sample size of 55 couples (110 people) were selected among married men and women in Tehran and assigned to adjusted/compatible and maladjusted/incompatible groups. ENRICH marital satisfaction scale and the new FPS scale was used as research tools. Analysis of the aspects revealed 2 aspects out of 30: communication and problem solving. Studying internal correlation of total scores of the scales and subscales showed the association rate between total score and the aspects of communication and problem solving was 0.95. Reliability index of total score re-test was 0.91 and that of communication and problem solving was 0.78 and 2.89, respectively. Internal correlation of total score, communication and problem solving was 0.91, 0.78 and 0.83, respectively. As this scale is significantly associated with ENRICH marital satisfaction scale, is permanent and can distinguish adjusted/compatible and maladjusted/incompatible couples, it can be applied for clinical and research purposes.

  12. A Heuristic Framework to Solve a General Delivery Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Lian; Castelain, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a new distribution and route planning problem, General Delivery Problem (GDP) which is more general than the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem. To solve a GDP, a three-phase framework heuristic approach based on decomposition techniques is introduced. The decomposition techniques are employed to divide an original problem into a set of sub-problems, which can reduce the problem size. A kind of decomposition technique, Capacity Clustering Algorithm (CCA), is embedded into the framework with Simulated Annealing (SA) to solve a special GDP. The proposed three-phase framework with the above two algorithms is compared with five other decomposition methods in a distribution instance of the Regional Fire and Emergency Center in the north of France.

  13. Perfecting scientists’ collaboration and problem-solving skills in the virtual team environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfecting Scientists’ Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-lo...

  14. From Number Lines to Graphs in the Coordinate Plane: Investigating Problem Solving across Mathematical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnest, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on students' problem-solving approaches across three representations--number lines, coordinate planes, and function graphs--the axes of which conventional mathematics treats in terms of consistent geometric and numeric coordinations. I consider these representations to be a part of a "hierarchical representational…

  15. Application of a hybrid finite difference\\/finite volume method to solve an automotive EMC problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Ferrieres; Jean-Philippe Parmantier; Solange Bertuol; Alastair R. Ruddle

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid finite difference\\/finite volume method and we apply it to solve an automotive electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problem. The principles of the hybrid method and the numerical schemes are described. Simple examples are used to compare this method with the finite difference and finite volume methods alone in terms of accuracy and computing speed. The

  16. Observational Investigation of Student Problem Solving: The Role and Importance of Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Bowman, Charles R.; Feakes, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    The problem-solving strategies of students enrolled in general chemistry courses have been the subject of numerous research investigations. In most cases, the investigators were interested in the specific areas or concepts that posed the greatest difficulty to a student's success in achieving the correct answer. However, the investigation…

  17. Evolutionary algorithms for solving multi-objective travelling salesman problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vui Ann Shim; Kay Chen Tan; Jun Yong Chia; Jin Kiat Chong

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the application of evolutionary algorithms for bi-objective travelling salesman problem. Two evolutionary\\u000a algorithms, including estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) and genetic algorithm (GA), are considered. The solution\\u000a to this problem is a set of trade-off alternatives. The problem is solved by optimizing the order of the cities so as to simultaneously\\u000a minimize the two objectives of travelling

  18. Preference-Based Problem Solving for Constraint Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Junker

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial problems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and configuration may involve many attributes that can be\\u000a subject of user preferences. Traditional optimization approaches compile those preferences into a single utility function\\u000a and use it as the optimization objective when solving the problem, but neither explain why the resulting solution satisfies\\u000a the original preferences, nor indicate the trade-offs made during problem

  19. Problem Solving Styles Among Children Working in Small Groups on Mathematical Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Kathleen; Leitz, Steven

    This document focuses on four children in a small group, solving word problems aloud. Different aspects of how children in small groups approach problems were revealed; certain characteristics of their attempts to solve problems suggest a variety of questions for further research. These pupils were part of a project that involved six groups of…

  20. How to encourage university students to solve physics problems requiring mathematical skills: the 'adventurous problem solving' approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMul, Frits F. M.; Batlle, Cristina Martin i.; DeBruijn, Imme; Rinzema, Kees

    2004-01-01

    Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential expressions and multi-dimensional integrations, and the Gauss and Ampère laws learnt in electromagnetism courses. To enhance those skills in a quick and efficient way we have developed 'Integrating Mathematics in University Physics', in which students are provided with a selection of problems (exercises) that explicitly deal with the relation between physics and mathematics. The project is based on computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and available via the Internet (http://tnweb.tn.utwente.nl/onderwijs/; or http://www.utwente.nl/; search or click to: CONECT). Normally, in CAI a predefined student-guiding sequence for problem solving is used (systematic problem solving). For self-learning this approach was found to be far too rigid. Therefore, we developed the 'adventurous problem solving' (APS) method. In this new approach, the student has to find the solution by developing his own problem-solving strategy in an interactive way. The assessment of mathematical answers to physical questions is performed using a background link with an algebraic symbolic language interpreter. This manuscript concentrates on the subject of APS.

  1. Mathematical Giftedness, Problem Solving, and the Ability To Formulate Generalizations: The Problem-Solving Experiences of Four Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath

    2003-01-01

    Nine freshmen in a ninth-grade accelerated algebra class were asked to solve five nonroutine combinatorial problems. The four mathematically gifted students were successful in discovering and verbalizing the generality that characterized the solutions to the five problems, whereas the five nongifted students were unable to discover the hidden…

  2. Problem Solving across the Curriculum: Improving Students' Problem-Solving Skills Using Off-Computer & On-Computer Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, John F.

    This book is designed to provide elementary and middle school teachers with motivating problem-solving activities to use with their students. The text contains interesting and challenging problems from mathematics, language arts, social studies, and natural science which are divided into sections of activities of short, middle, and longer duration…

  3. Wikispaces (Wikis) and Group Problem Solving (GPS) sessions in Physics classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohottala, Hashini

    2013-03-01

    We report the combine use of Wikispaces (Wikis) and Group Problem Solving (GPS) sessions conducted in the introductory level and upper level physics classes. This method gradually evolved from the combine use of Wikis and Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) practiced over the past years. As a part of this new teaching method, some essay type problems, parallel to the chapter in discussion, were posted on the Wikis at the beginning of each week and students were encouraged to visit the pages and do the work without providing numerical final answers but the steps. At the end of each week students were evaluated on the problem solving skills opening up more opportunity for peer interaction by putting them into small groups and letting them solve one selected problem. A class of 30 students is divided into 6 groups and as a whole four lengthy essay problems are discussed - each group is given to solve one problem. The problem numbers are drawn in a raffle and the groups are excited to find out what they get each week. The required skills to solve a problem are gained from the weekly given Wiki exercises. Wiki provides a user-friendly platform to make this effort a success. GPS sessions help the professor identify the failing students earlier and help them before it's too late.

  4. Numerical modeling tools for transient electromagnetic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.; Bacon, L.D.; Kotulski, J.D.

    1990-04-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) codes can, in principle, be used to determine the electromagnetic response of complex scatterers. However, the extent to which structural details can be accommodated is limited by computer resources and one's ability to specify necessary parameters. By embedding into the FDTD code alternative numerical methods that solve the aspects of the problem which are not practical, or possible, for the FDTD code to handle, power and flexibility can be added. This report investigates three such hybrid schemes. Topics include: (1) embedding a transient multiconductor/circuit-analysis code so that coupling down to the component level can be directly computed; (2) the effectiveness of using a multiconductor transmission-line code to analyze shielded multiwire cables in FDTD calculations; and (3) the effectiveness of using two-- and three-- dimensional aperture transfer functions to model narrow apertures in FDTD formulations. These topics were selected because of their immediate need in system assessments. Experimental measurements and/or alternative solution methods are used to verify the hybrid approaches. 56 figs.

  5. New Hybrid Matheuristics for Solving the Multidimensional Knapsack Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafi, Saïd; Lazi?, Jasmina; Mladenovi?, Nenad; Wilbaut, Christophe; Crévits, Igor

    In this paper we propose new hybrid methods for solving the multidimensional knapsack problem. They can be viewed as matheuristics that combine mathematical programming with the variable neighbourhood decomposition search heuristic. In each iteration a relaxation of the problem is solved to guide the generation of the neighbourhoods. Then the problem is enriched with a pseudo-cut to produce a sequence of not only lower, but also upper bounds of the problem, so that integrality gap is reduced. The results obtained on two sets of the large scale multidimensional knapsack problem instances are comparable with the current state-of-the-art heuristics. Moreover, a few best known results are reported for some large, long-studied instances.

  6. Dynamic application of problem solving strategies : dependency-based flow control

    E-print Network

    Jacobi, Ian Campbell

    2013-01-01

    While humans may solve problems by applying any one of a number of different problem solving strategies, computerized problem solving is typically brittle, limited in the number of available strategies and ways of combining ...

  7. On the Union of Problem Solving and Information Processing: Will They Live Happily Ever After?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.

    1987-01-01

    Responds to Heppner and Krauskopf's article on an information processing approach to personal problem solving. Presents a four-point summary model of problem solving and examines what information processing adds to the area of problem solving. (NB)

  8. Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

  9. Solving a special class of large-scale fuzzy multiobjective integer linear programming problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed S. Osman; Omar M. Saad; Azza G. Hasan

    1999-01-01

    We present a method useful in solving a special class of large-scale multiobjective integer problems depending on the decomposition algorithm. These problems involve fuzzy parameters on the right-hand side of the independent constraints. The presented solution method is based upon a combination of the decomposition algorithm coupled with the weighting method together with the branch-and-bound method. An illustrative numerical example

  10. A Nonorthogonal ADI-FDTD Algorithm for Solving Two Dimensional Scattering Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Xing Zheng; Kwok Wa Leung

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an alternating-direction implicit (ADI) scheme is applied to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for solving electromagnetic scattering problems in a generalized coordinate system. A formulation for two dimensional problems is presented and its numerical dispersion and stability property are discussed. In our generalized approach, the nonorthogonal grid is used to model the complex region of a scatterer

  11. The expanded invasive weed optimization metaheuristic for solving continuous and discrete optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Josi?ski, Henryk; Kostrzewa, Daniel; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Swito?ski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an expanded version of the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO) distinguished by the hybrid strategy of the search space exploration proposed by the authors. The algorithm is evaluated by solving three well-known optimization problems: minimization of numerical functions, feature selection, and the Mona Lisa TSP Challenge as one of the instances of the traveling salesman problem. The achieved results are compared with analogous outcomes produced by other optimization methods reported in the literature. PMID:24955420

  12. Problem decomposition How to solve a complex problem

    E-print Network

    Cockshott, W. Paul

    't worry this is a common enough first reaction. But to be come competent at programming you have to get to the problems you see. These smaller tasks can be handled either by ­ separate programs you write ­ methods you tokens by frequency of occurrence 3)Print out in order most frequent first #12;Split the input

  13. Ant colony optimization for solving university facility layout problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Jani, Nurul Hafiza; Mohd Radzi, Nor Haizan; Ngadiman, Mohd Salihin

    2013-04-01

    Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAP) is classified as the NP hard problem. It has been used to model a lot of problem in several areas such as operational research, combinatorial data analysis and also parallel and distributed computing, optimization problem such as graph portioning and Travel Salesman Problem (TSP). In the literature, researcher use exact algorithm, heuristics algorithm and metaheuristic approaches to solve QAP problem. QAP is largely applied in facility layout problem (FLP). In this paper we used QAP to model university facility layout problem. There are 8 facilities that need to be assigned to 8 locations. Hence we have modeled a QAP problem with n ? 10 and developed an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the university facility layout problem. The objective is to assign n facilities to n locations such that the minimum product of flows and distances is obtained. Flow is the movement from one to another facility, whereas distance is the distance between one locations of a facility to other facilities locations. The objective of the QAP is to obtain minimum total walking (flow) of lecturers from one destination to another (distance).

  14. Creative problem solving with root cause failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gano, D.L. [Apollo Associated Services, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    This paper will discuss the conventional wisdom that limits one`s problem solving effectiveness and then explore new and unique knowledge and skills that help one break out of the old paradigms. One will discover how there is no such thing as a single right answer; how there is an infinite set of solutions to any problem; and how to find the most creative and innovative solutions such that the problem does not recur. One will see how these new methods can be used by almost anyone on any event-based problem. Several recent examples will be presented to support understanding of this new approach.

  15. Solving complex band structure problems with the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laux, S. E.

    2012-08-01

    With straightforward extension, the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm [Polizzi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115112 (2009)] is capable of solving the generalized eigenvalue problems representing traveling-wave problems—as exemplified by the complex band-structure problem—even though the matrices involved are complex, non-Hermitian, and singular, and hence outside the originally stated range of applicability of the algorithm. The obtained eigenvalues/eigenvectors, however, contain spurious solutions which must be detected and removed. The efficiency and parallel structure of the original algorithm are unaltered. The complex band structures of Si layers of varying thicknesses and InAs nanowires of varying radii are computed as test problems.

  16. The Yo-Yo Problem: Solving Linear Equations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    In this lesson, students explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and the graphing calculator. The lesson starts with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Students then complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies that allows them to explore a linear pattern and express that pattern in symbolic form. Algebra tiles are introduced as the students practice solving linear equations. Working from the concrete to the abstract is especially important for students who have difficulty with mathematics, and algebra tiles help students make this transition. In addition to using algebra tiles, students also use symbolic manipulation and the graphing calculator. Finally, the students return to solve the yo-yo problem. A feature of this lesson is the effective use of peer tutors in this inclusion classroom. Student worksheets are included to print.

  17. Metacognitive factors in scientific problem-solving strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulette Rozencwajg

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study on 42 seventh graders (ages 12–13) was to determine whether and to what extent students’ metacognitive\\u000a level is linked to their conceptualization and performance in problem solving at school, especially science problems. This\\u000a hypothesis is supported by a number of studies showing that metacognition is a factor in learning. Two indexes were devised\\u000a for the

  18. A Problem Solving Approach to the Introduction of Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stepan, Thelma

    A 4-6 week unit for use with college-bound high school students, combining the introduction of chemistry with a methodical method of problem solving and a review of the mathematics needed for high school chemistry. It includes the vocabulary used in describing the physical properties of matter, the metric system and decimals, a progression of problems dealing with the derived quantities of density and heat, and the calculation of percentage of error.

  19. Solving a multistage partial inspection problem using genetic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Montgomery, D C.(Arizona State University) [Arizona State University; Carlyle, W M.(Naval Postgraduate School) [Naval Postgraduate School

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, the multistage inspection problem has been formulated as consisting of a decision schedule where some manufacturing stages receive full inspection and the rest none. Dynamic programming and heuristic methods (like local search) are the most commonly used solution techniques. A highly constrained multistage inspection problem is presented where all stages must receive partial rectifying inspection and it is solved using a real-valued genetic algorithm. This solution technique can handle multiple objectives and quality constraints effectively.

  20. Solving the Multiple Instance Problem with Axis-Parallel Rectangles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G. Dietterich; Richard H. Lathrop; Tomás Lozano-pérez

    1997-01-01

    The multiple instance problem arises in tasks where the training examples are ambiguous: asingle example object may have many alternative feature vectors (instances) that describe it,and yet only one of those feature vectors may be responsible for the observed classification ofthe object. This paper describes and compares three kinds of algorithms that learn axis-parallelrectangles to solve the multiple-instance problem. Algorithms

  1. Algorithm for Solving Tridiagonal Matrix Problems in Parallel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Mattor; Timothy J. Williams; Dennis W. Hewett

    1995-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented, designed to solve tridiagonal matrix problems efficiently withparallel computers (multiple instruction stream, multiple data stream (MIMD) machines withdistributed memory). The algorithm is designed to be extendable to higher order bandeddiagonal systems.I. IntroductionCurrently, there are several popular methods for parallelization of the tridiagonal problem.The "most important" of these have recently been described with a unified approach,through

  2. An improved ant colony algorithm to solve knapsack problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Qiuming

    2006-10-01

    Ant colony optimization algorithm is a novel simulated evolutionary algorithm, which provides a new method for complicated combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper the algorithm is used for solving the knapsack problem. It is improved in selection strategy and information modification, so that it can not easily run into the local optimum and can converge at the global optimum. The experiments show the robustness and the potential power of this kind of meta-heuristic algorithm.

  3. Engineering problem solving and knowledge creation: An epistemological perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Itabashi-Campbell; Sheri Perelli; Julia Gluesing

    2011-01-01

    This study—to our knowledge the first to model the dynamics of knowledge creation in an engineering problem solving context—addresses a gap in the literature by illustrating “engineering epistemology,” nurtured by “ba,” as a critical knowledge asset that facilitates superior problem resolution. Rich narratives generated by phenomenological interviews with US product engineers were interpreted using Nonaka and Takeuchi’s knowledge-creation model and

  4. ALPS: BRINGING ACTIVE INQUIRY INTO ACTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING

    E-print Network

    Interview. KEYWORDS Cognitive Tutor Virtual Agent Active Learning 1. INTRODUCTION K­12 mathematics The ALPS project (Active Learning in Problem Solving) is building and evaluating an educational technology goal is to develop an ``active learning'' environment that rivals the effectiveness of human tutors

  5. ALPS: BRINGING ACTIVE INQUIRY INTO ACTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING

    E-print Network

    Interview. KEYWORDS Cognitive Tutor Virtual Agent Active Learning 1. INTRODUCTION K-12 mathematics The ALPS project (Active Learning in Problem Solving) is building and evaluating an educational technology goal is to develop an "active learning" environment that rivals the effectiveness of human tutors

  6. Integrating perception and problem solving to predict complex object behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Damian M.; Chaudhry, Sirhan; Agica, Marius; Monaco, John Vincent

    2010-04-01

    One of the objectives of Cognitive Robotics is to construct robot systems that can be directed to achieve realworld goals by high-level directions rather than complex, low-level robot programming. Such a system must have the ability to represent, problem-solve and learn about its environment as well as communicate with other agents. In previous work, we have proposed ADAPT, a Cognitive Architecture that views perception as top-down and goaloriented and part of the problem solving process. Our approach is linked to a SOAR-based problem-solving and learning framework. In this paper, we present an architecture for the perceptive and world modelling components of ADAPT and report on experimental results using this architecture to predict complex object behaviour. A novel aspect of our approach is a 'mirror system' that ensures that the modelled background and foreground objects are synchronized with observations and task-based expectations. This is based on our prior work on comparing real and synthetic images. We show results for a moving object that collides and rebounds from its environment, hence showing that this perception-based problem solving approach has the potential to be used to predict complex object motions.

  7. Problem solving is a process similar to working your way

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    obtained Recall memorized pattern of actions and specific formulas for solving problem type #12;7 Height Axes If Acceleration If Equilibrium Knowledge Organization of Expert #12;6 Novice Pattern Matching with your knowledge of similar behavior, within limits that you understand. 4. Look Back4. Look Back Polya

  8. Solving the Robots Gathering Problem Mark Cieliebak1

    E-print Network

    Flocchini, Paola

    Solving the Robots Gathering Problem Mark Cieliebak1 , Paola Flocchini2 , Giuseppe Prencipe3 a set of n > 2 simple autonomous mobile robots (decentralized, asyn- chronous, no common coordinate, deterministic) moving freely in the plane and able to sense the positions of the other robots. We study

  9. Dialogical Perspectives on Narratives in Collaborative Mathematics Problem-Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johann SARMIENTO; Stefan TRAUSAN-MATU; Gerry STAHL

    Our approach to the study of learning of mathematical problem-solving extends the notion of narrative learning environments to include the dynamics of collaborative dialogs and related emergent narratives. This perspective favours the conception of the dialogical aspects of interaction as shared achievements of co- participants and as central meaning-making procedures, based on our qualitative analysis of transcripts from online collaborative

  10. Cognitive Transfer of Computer Programming Skills and Analogous Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Younghee

    This study investigated the cognitive benefits of learning how to program by determining the degree of cognitive transfer of programming skills at a construct level to solving analogous problems in other domains. Subjects, who were students enrolled in four sections of the beginning Pascal programming course and two sections of a calculus course,…

  11. Problem Solving: Physics Modeling-Based Interactive Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how modeling-based instruction combined with an interactive-engagement teaching approach promotes students' problem solving abilities. I focused on students in a calculus-based introductory physics course, based on the matter and interactions curriculum of Chabay & Sherwood (2002) at a large state…

  12. Wastewater odor problem solving. process modification versus air treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Kenson; V. G. Boscak; G. T. Brookman

    1978-01-01

    A three-phase plan was developed to solve any waste water odor problem, e.g., those encountered in the chemical manufacturing industry. Phase 1 consists of an evaluation of the odor emissions from both stack and open (fugitive) sources and their impact on ambient odors. The critical odor sources and their required degree of control are thereby defined. Phase 2 consists of

  13. Problem Solving Teams in a Total Quality Management Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, Constance F.

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the problem-solving team training process used at Harvard University (Massachusetts), including the size and formation of teams, roles, and time commitment. Components of the process are explained, including introduction to Total Quality Management (TQM), customer satisfaction, meeting management, Parker Team Player Survey, interactive…

  14. Some Finance Problems Solved with Nonsmooth Optimization Techniques

    E-print Network

    Vinter, Richard

    Some Finance Problems Solved with Nonsmooth Optimization Techniques R. B. VINTER 1 AND H. ZHENG 2 analysis and mathematical finance communities to the scope for applications of nonsmooth optimization to finance, by studying in detail two illustrative examples. The first concerns the maximization of a ter

  15. Solving Bin Packing Related Problems Using an Arc Flow Formulation

    E-print Network

    Filipe Brandão

    2012-04-13

    Apr 13, 2012 ... Solving Bin Packing Related Problems Using an Arc Flow Formulation ... cutting stock, cardinality constrained bin packing, and 2D-vector bin packing. ... a large advantage of this formulation with respect to the traditional ones. ... Category 2: Applications -- OR and Management Sciences (Transportation ).

  16. Assessment for Intervention: A Problem-Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Chidsey, Rachel, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This cutting-edge volume offers a complete primer on conducting problem-solving based assessments in school or clinical settings. Presented are an effective framework and up-to-date tools for identifying and remediating the many environmental factors that may contribute to a student's academic, emotional, or behavioral difficulties, and for…

  17. Learning Styles and Problem Solving Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencel, Ilke Evin

    2015-01-01

    Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…

  18. 1998 Proceedings: Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Proceedings of the 1998 Puerto Rico conference on Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research (sponsored in part by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations) are available at this Website. The proceedings include the program, abstracts from presentations and posters, and contact information for presenters.

  19. Learning to Learn: Algorithmic Inspirations from Human Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, Eric

    learning. Our work comes in the context of growing interest in interactive, human-in-the-loop learning that people formulate to refine the behavior of a system. We focus on analyzing and learning within Ensemble describe a study we ran to observe human problem solving behavior with the system, review insights we

  20. Solving Permutation Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Artificial Ants

    E-print Network

    Solnon, Christine

    Solving Permutation Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Artificial Ants Christine Solnon 1 Abstract. We describe in this paper Ant­P­solver, a generic con­ straint solver based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) meta­ heuristic. The ACO metaheuristic takes inspiration on the observa­ tion of real ants

  1. A Technique for Assessing Mathematical Problem-Solving Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Kevin F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Described are procedures followed in developing, administering, and scoring a set of mathematical problem-solving superitems and examining their construct validity through a recently developed evaluation technique associated with a taxonomy of the structure of learned outcomes. Data strongly support the validity of the underlying theoretical…

  2. Extending Fibonacci Numbers to Negative Subscripts through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    This classroom note shows how Fibonacci numbers with negative subscripts emerge from a problem-solving context enhanced by the use of an electronic spreadsheet. It reflects the author's work with prospective K-12 teachers in a number of mathematics content courses. (Contains 4 figures.)

  3. New paradigms in problem solving environments for scientific computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Chin Jr.; L. Ruby Leung; Karen L. Schuchardt; Deborah K. Gracio

    2002-01-01

    Computer and computational scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are studying and designing collaborative problem solving environments (CPSEs) for scientific computing in various domains. Where most scientific computing efforts focus at the level of the scientific codes, file systems, data archives, and networked computers, our analysis and design efforts are aimed at developing enabling technologies that are directly meaningful

  4. Reasoning Processes Used by Paramedics to Solve Clinical Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to determine the reasoning processes used by paramedics to solve clinical problems. Existing research documents concern over the accuracy of paramedics' clinical decision-making, but no research was found that examines the cognitive processes by which paramedics make either faulty or accurate…

  5. Evaluation Design for Social Conflict and Negotiative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    Social Conflict and Negotiative Problem Solving is an instructional system currently under development by the Improving Teaching Competencies Program (ITCP) of Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL). In accordance with the Resource Allocation Management Plan (RAMP, 1975) of ITCP, this report presents a plan of evaluation activities for…

  6. Creating Alien Life Forms: Problem Solving in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimnes, Karin A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that helps students integrate biological concepts using both creativity and higher-order problem-solving skills. Involves students playing the roles of junior scientists aboard a starship in orbit around a class M planet and using a description of habitats, seasonal details, and a surface map of prominent geographic features to…

  7. Assisting students with argumentation plans when solving problems in CSCL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Monteserin; Silvia N. Schiaffino; Analía Amandi

    2010-01-01

    In CSCL systems, students who are solving problems in group have to negotiate with each other by exchanging proposals and arguments in order to resolve the conflicts and generate a shared solution. In this context, argument construction assistance is necessary to facilitate reaching to a consensus. This assistance is usually provided with isolated arguments by demand, but this does not

  8. Secondary School Genetics Instruction: Making Problem Solving Explicit and Meaningful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman; Stewart, James

    1985-01-01

    Explains an algorithm which details procedures for solving a broad class of genetics problems common to pre-college biology. Several flow charts (developed from the algorithm) are given with sample questions and suggestions for student use. Conclusions are based on the authors' research (which includes student interviews and textbook analyses).…

  9. Hemispheric Contributions to Nonverbal Abstract Reasoning and Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel N. Allen; Gregory P. Strauss; Karen A. Kemtes; Gerald Goldstein

    2007-01-01

    Hemispheric involvement in reasoning abilities has been debated for some time, and it remains unclear whether the right hemisphere's involvement in problem solving is modality specific or dependent on the type of spatial reasoning required. In the current study, 2 types of nonverbal reasoning abilities were examined, spatial reasoning and proportional reasoning, in 109 patients with cerebrovascular disease that was

  10. Automating Computational Molecular Genetics: Solving the Microsatellite Genotyping Problem

    E-print Network

    of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh This research was sponsored in part by the NIH National, molecular genetics, microsatellite genotyping, pattern matching, FAST­MAP. #12; #12; ABSTRACT The HumanAutomating Computational Molecular Genetics: Solving the Microsatellite Genotyping Problem See

  11. Automating Computational Molecular Genetics: Solving the Microsatellite Genotyping Problem

    E-print Network

    of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh This research was sponsored in part by the NIH National, molecular genetics, microsatellite genotyping, pattern matching, FAST-MAP. #12;#12;ABSTRACT The Human GenomeAutomating Computational Molecular Genetics: Solving the Microsatellite Genotyping Problem See

  12. Learning and Problem Solving Strategies of ESL Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Uhl Chamot; Marsha Dale; J. Michael OMalley; George A. Spanos

    1992-01-01

    The mathematics problem solving approaches of a group of elementary and secondary ESL students were investigated through a performance assessment accompanied by think-aloud procedures. Students were enrolled in ESL mathematics classes in a Title VII project implementing the Cognitive Academic Learning Approach (CALLA). In this approach, curriculum content is used to develop academic language and learning strategies are taught explicitly

  13. Creativity and Inspiration for Problem Solving in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Katrina; Korpelainen, Paivi

    2011-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical skill for engineering students and essential to development of creativity and innovativeness. Essential to such learning is an ease of communication and allowing students to address the issues at hand via the terminology, attitudes, humor and empathy, which is inherent to their frame of mind as novices, without the…

  14. Technologies for Literacy: Using Technologies in a Problem Solving Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chwee Beng

    2014-01-01

    As technologies have become an integral part of our lives, the way we read and understand text has changed drastically. In this paper, we discuss how various technologies support learners' reading and writing skills within the context of meaningful learning. Next, using elaborated cases, we argue that situating learners in problem solving

  15. A Collaborative Problem-Solving Process through Environmental Field Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mijung; Tan, Hoe Teck

    2013-01-01

    This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students ("n" =?16; age 14) and high-school students…

  16. Solving the Water Jugs Problem by an Integer Sequence Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present an integer sequence approach to solve the classic water jugs problem. The solution steps can be obtained easily by additions and subtractions only, which is suitable for manual calculation or programming by computer. This approach can be introduced to secondary and undergraduate students, and also to teachers and…

  17. Solving the Inverse-Square Problem with Complex Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, N.

    2005-01-01

    The equation of motion for a mass that moves under the influence of a central, inverse-square force is formulated and solved as a problem in complex variables. To find the solution, the constancy of angular momentum is first established using complex variables. Next, the complex position coordinate and complex velocity of the particle are assumed…

  18. A Study of Student Interactions during Asynchronous Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the quality and nature of the students' interactions during asynchronous online problem solving in two sections of College Algebra taught by the author. In a shared-work section, students worked independently for an initial phase and had access to classmates' work during a follow-up phase. Students in the…

  19. Primal-Dual Approach to Solve Linear Fractional Programming Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VISHWAS DEEP JOSHI; EKTA SINGH; NILAMA GUPTA

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a new method is suggested for solving the problem in which the objective function is a linear fractional function, and where the constraint functions are in the form of linear inequalities. The proposed method is based mainly upon revised primal dual simplex algorithm (RPDSA).The algorithm can be combined with interior-point methods to move from an interior point

  20. Solving Quantitative Problems: Guidelines for Teaching Derived from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramers-Pals, H.; Pilot, A.

    1988-01-01

    Presents four guidelines for teaching quantitative problem-solving based on research results: analyze difficulties of students, develop a system of heuristics, select and map key relations, and design instruction with proper orientation, exercise, and feedback. Discusses the four guidelines and uses flow charts and diagrams to show how the…

  1. Solving Math Problems. Windows on Literacy: Language, Literacy & Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This book is part of the "Windows on Literacy: Language, Literacy & Vocabulary" program and shows students ways to solve problems, including drawing a picture and using a calculator. The suggested grade range is K-3; the guided reading level is N-P; the basal results level is Grade 2-Grade 3; and the Windows on Literacy Stage is Fluent Plus…

  2. Solving the GPS Problem in Almost Linear Complexity

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solving the GPS Problem in Almost Linear Complexity Speaker: Shamgar Gurevich, UW Madison. Abstract (GPS) was built to ful...ll this task. It works as follows: Satellites send to earth their location. For simplicity, the Figure 1: Satellites communicate location in GPS. location of a satellite is a bit b 2 f 1g

  3. Locus of Control and Perceived Confidence in Problem Solving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Barry L.; Kilmann, Peter R.

    1975-01-01

    Butterfield found that internal Ss tended to make more constructive responses to frustration-type situations than did extrenal Ss. Therefore, this study predicted that internal Ss would rate themselves as more confident with regard to problem-solving abilities than would external Ss. (Author)

  4. Towards Multi-Swarm Problem Solving in Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony White; Bernard Pagurek

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes how multiple interacting swarms of adaptive mobile agents can be used to solve problems in networks. The paper introduces a new architectural description for an agent that is chemically inspired and proposes chemical interaction as the principal mechanism for inter-swarm communication. Agents within a given swarm have behavior that is inspired by the foraging activities of ants,

  5. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Misunderstandings in Solving Ratio and Proportion Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    This study explores difficulties that prospective elementary mathematics teachers have with the concepts of ratio and proportion, mainly when they are engaged in solving problems using algorithm procedures. These difficulties can be traced back to earlier experiences when they were students of junior and high school. The reflection on these…

  6. Does PLS solve moral hazard problems? Ouidad YOUSFI1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    equity (PE) financing modes rarely provides detailed analytical insights into their properties) financing methods can solve asymmetric information problems. I focus on Mudarabah and Musharakah financing show that Mudarabah financing provide powerful incentive schemes to the entrepreneur. As the Islamic PE

  7. Using Depth Intuition in Creative Problem Solving and Strategic Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markley, O. W.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes four step-by-step methods to sharpen intuitive capacities for problem-solving and innovation. Visionary and transpersonal knowledge processes are tapped to gain access to relatively deep levels of intuition. The methods are considered useful for overcoming internal blockages or resistance, developing organizational mission…

  8. Encouraging Problem-Solving Disposition in a Singapore Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Yew Hoong; Yap, Sook Fwe; Quek, Khiok Seng; Tay, Eng Guan; Tong, Cherng Luen; Ong, Yao Teck; Chia, Alexander Stanley Foh Soon; Zaini, Irni Karen Mohd; Khong, Wee Choo; Lock, Oi Leng; Zhang, Qiao Tian Beatrice; Tham, Yi Hui; Noorhazman, Nur-Illya Nafiza Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we share our learning experience as a Lesson Study team. The Research Lesson was on Figural Patterns taught in Year 7. In addition to helping students learn the skills of the topic, we wanted them to develop a problem-solving disposition. The management of these two objectives was a challenge to us. From the lesson observation and…

  9. Solving microscopic flow problems using Stokes equations in SPH

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as the motion of a red blood cell in plasma. Keywords: SPH, Stokes flow, microfluidics, red blood cell 1). If the dynamics is dominated by friction and inertial effects can be neglected, the flow through narrow channelsSolving microscopic flow problems using Stokes equations in SPH P. Van Liedekerkea, , B. Smeetsb

  10. Training Team Problem Solving Skills: An Event-Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oser, R. L.; Gualtieri, J. W.; Cannon-Bowers, J. A.; Salas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how to train teams in problem-solving skills. Topics include team training, the use of technology, instructional strategies, simulations and training, theoretical framework, and an event-based approach for training teams to perform in naturalistic environments. Contains 68 references. (Author/LRW)

  11. Surface Features, Representations and Tutorial Interventions in Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julo, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Examines didactic interventions and claims their impact on pupil behavior aids the study of cognitive processes. Studies problem solving in teaching mathematics. Examines the functions of tutorial interventions in surface features and instability of representation. Finds tutorial interventions demonstrate a substantial increase in performance…

  12. Solve wastewater problems with liquid\\/liquid extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cusack

    1996-01-01

    Liquid\\/liquid extraction (LLE) is a powerful separation technique that is finding wider application in the CPI to solve difficult environmental problems, particularly in the removal of trace organic compounds from wastewater streams. LLE is usually only applied when more conventional techniques such as steam stripping or distillation are not suitable. This is because LLE usually involves the introduction of a

  13. Problem solving in out-of-school settings: Children \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Lowrie

    This investigation describes the way in which a case study participant (aged 7) used maps (including large- and small-scale maps, dynamic and static maps) to solve problems in a technology game-based context. The participant demonstrated the capacity to decipher graphical information when simultaneously moving between maps with different representations, orientations, perspectives and scales as he played a Pokemon Game Boy.

  14. Designing WebQuests to Support Creative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    WebQuests have been a popular alternative for collaborative group work that utilizes internet resources, but studies have questioned how effective they are in challenging students to use higher order thinking processes that involve creative problem solving. This article explains how different levels of inquiry relate to categories of learning…

  15. Problem Solving and Critical Thinking for Computer Science Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cathleen A., Ed.; Poirot, James L., Ed.

    The eight papers presented in this monograph are a result of the Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Research Workshop that was held in conjunction with the 1990 National Educational Computing Conference (NECC). The intent of the workshop was to provide a unique forum for researchers to share ideas in a special area of educational computing. The…

  16. Problem Solving in Social Studies: A Model Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma City Public School System, OK.

    These model lessons from the primary grades are on the techniques of advertising drawn from a unit on, "Creating and Producing Tools and Techniques". They include behaviorial objectives, teaching and motivational strategies, evaluation techniques. The model lessons follow the problem solving inquiry approach in social studies using multimedia…

  17. PROBLEM SOLVING AND WEB RESOURCES AT TERTIARY LEVEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Cazes; Ghislaine Gueudet; Magali Hersant; Fabrice Vandebrouck

    We organised two experimental teaching designs involving web resources in two different French universities. In this paper, we describe these experiments and analyse the students' behaviours. Our aim is to observe whether the use of specific online resources favours the development of problem-solving activities.

  18. Multiagent Optimization System for Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Feng Xie; Jiming Liu

    2009-01-01

    The multiagent optimization system (MAOS) is a nature-inspired method, which supports cooperative search by the self-organization of a group of compact agents situated in an environment with certain sharing public knowledge. Moreover, each agent in MAOS is an autonomous entity with personal declarative memory and behavioral components. In this paper, MAOS is refined for solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP),

  19. Batik Making as Creative Problem Solving: A Naturalistic Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Sharon Kesterson

    This paper introduces an artistic model of planning and problem solving. The model is based on a case study of processes engaged in by a college art student during the course of producing a senior thesis in batik (a wax-resist fabric dyeing process). Based on the premise that knowledge of the creative process is essential to understanding the…

  20. Generation of Spontaneous Analogies by Students Solving Science Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, John

    In this study 34 spontaneous analogies produced by 16 college freshmen while solving qualitative physics problems are analyzed. A number of the analogies were invalid in the sense that they led to an incorrect answer from the physicist's point of view. However, many were valid, and a few were powerful in the sense that they seemed not only to help…

  1. Student Technological Creativity Using Online Problem-Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of online (web-based) creative problem-solving (CPS) activities on student technological creativity and to examine the characteristics of student creativity in the context of online CPS. A pretest-posttest quasi-experiment was conducted with 107 fourth-grade students in Taiwan. The…

  2. Collaborative Problem Solving in Young Typical Development and HFASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimhi, Yael; Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative problem solving (CPS) requires sharing goals/attention and coordinating actions--all deficient in HFASD. Group differences were examined in CPS (HFASD/typical), with a friend versus with a non-friend. Participants included 28 HFASD and 30 typical children aged 3-6 years and their 58 friends and 58 non-friends. Groups were matched on…

  3. John Dewey--Problem Solving and History Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorella, Peter H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a model for introducing inquiry and problem-solving into middle grade history classes. It is based on an educational approach suggested by John Dewey. The author uses the model to explore two seemingly contradictory statements by Abraham Lincoln about slavery. (AV)

  4. How Do You Solve a Problem Like a Freshman?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the need for defining what education is and how it can help change the world. The article specifically looks at sincere but vague answers freshmen often give in social issues courses, such as "To solve this problem, we should educate them," and why statements such as these do not make the case for education sufficiently.

  5. --Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Evan Glazer

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    72 InterMath 1 --Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Technology). The development of mathematical understanding occurs when technology is used as a cognitive tool that supports to deliver the curriculum through web-based materials and to explore the mathematics using cognitive tools

  6. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Participant Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    These materials are the handouts for school administrators participating in RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops. The purposes of the workshops are to develop skills for improving schools and to increase teamwork skills. The handouts correspond to the 16 subsets that make up the five-day workshop: (1) orientation; (2) identifying…

  7. Solving constrained optimization problems with hybrid particle swarm optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwie Zahara; Chia-Hsin Hu

    2008-01-01

    Constrained optimization problems (COPs) are very important in that they frequently appear in the real world. A COP, in which both the function and constraints may be nonlinear, consists of the optimization of a function subject to constraints. Constraint handling is one of the major concerns when solving COPs with particle swarm optimization (PSO) combined with the Nelder-Mead simplex search

  8. RAPTOR: a visual programming environment for teaching algorithmic problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C. Carlisle; Terry A. Wilson; Jeffrey W. Humphries; Steven M. Hadfield

    2005-01-01

    When students are learning to develop algorithms, they very often spend more time dealing with issues of syntax rather than solving the problem. Additionally, the textual nature of most programming environments works against the learning style of the majority of students. RAPTOR is a visual programming environment, designed specifically to help students envision their algorithms and avoid syntactic baggage. RAPTOR

  9. Problem solving in a computational society Dept. of Computer Science,

    E-print Network

    Kuzmanov, Georgi

    frameworks that might be used in a computational agent society, like relativized or oracle computing Abstract We propose a new framework to study problem solving in a computational society. Such a society experiences of other agents. Our history-based comput- ing framework generalizes existing computational

  10. Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcio, Frances R., Ed.

    This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify Polya's art of…

  11. Strategies for Solving High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Problems

    E-print Network

    Papalambros, Panos

    Strategies for Solving High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Problems Zhoujie Lyu Aerodynamic shape optimization based on high-fidelity models is a computational intensive endeavor. The techniques are tested using the Common Research Model wing benchmark defined by the Aerodynamic Design

  12. Solving ShapeAnalysis Problems in Languages with Destructive Updating

    E-print Network

    Reps, Thomas W.

    Solving Shape­Analysis Problems in Languages with Destructive Updating MOOLY SAGIV Tel This article concerns the static analysis of programs that perform destructive updating on heap­ allocated destructive updating of the input list and (2) a program that searches a list and splices a new element

  13. Solving ShapeAnalysis Problems in Languages with Destructive Updating

    E-print Network

    Reps, Thomas W.

    Solving Shape­Analysis Problems in Languages with Destructive Updating Mooly Sagiv 1;2 and Thomas concerns the static analysis of programs that perform destructive updating on heap­allocated storage. We programs --- including ones in which a significant amount of destructive updating takes place --- our

  14. Graph pyramids as models of human problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizlo, Zygmunt; Li, Zheng

    2004-05-01

    Prior theories have assumed that human problem solving involves estimating distances among states and performing search through the problem space. The role of mental representation in those theories was minimal. Results of our recent experiments suggest that humans are able to solve some difficult problems quickly and accurately. Specifically, in solving these problems humans do not seem to rely on distances or on search. It is quite clear that producing good solutions without performing search requires a very effective mental representation. In this paper we concentrate on studying the nature of this representation. Our theory takes the form of a graph pyramid. To verify the psychological plausibility of this theory we tested subjects in a Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem in the presence of obstacles. The role of the number and size of obstacles was tested for problems with 6-50 cities. We analyzed the effect of experimental conditions on solution time per city and on solution error. The main result is that time per city is systematically affected only by the size of obstacles, but not by their number, or by the number of cities.

  15. Development of an Introductory Physics Problem-Solving Assessment Tool

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cummings, Karen

    This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, discusses the physics education research group at Rensselaer which is working to develop an assessment tool that will measure the problem-solving ability of introductory physics students. In its final form, the tool will consist of approximately 30-40 multiple-choice questions related to a limited number of classical mechanics topics. There are currently four types of questions included in the exam: attitudinal questions, quantitative problems that require students to identify the underlying principles used in solving the problem but not an explicit solution, questions that ask students to compare posed problems in terms of solution method, and quantitative problems requiring a solution. Although the assessment is still under development, preliminary validation studies have been performed on questions requiring students to identify underlying principles. Specifically, both an ANOVA and a Fisher LSD test have been performed. These evaluations showed that wrong answers on assessment questions correlate to below average performance on the problem solving portion of the final course exam.

  16. Effects of Mathematical Word Problem-Solving Instruction on Middle School Students with Learning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Yan Ping; Jitendra, Asha K.; Deatline-Buchman, Andria

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the differential effects of two problem-solving instructional approaches--schema-based instruction (SBI) and general strategy instruction (GSI)--on the mathematical word problem-solving performance of 22 middle school students who had learning disabilities or were at risk for mathematics failure. Results indicated that the…

  17. Noticing relevant problem features: activating prior knowledge affects problem solving by guiding encoding

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Noelle M.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __). Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil and Alibali, 2000). One possible reason is that children's experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that are potentially problematic (McNeil and Alibali, 2005a): the perceptual pattern that all equations follow an “operations = answer” format, the conceptual pattern that the equal sign means “calculate the total”, and the procedural pattern that the correct way to solve an equation is to perform all of the given operations on all of the given numbers. Upon viewing an equivalence problem, knowledge of these patterns may be reactivated, leading to incorrect problem solving. We hypothesized that these patterns may negatively affect problem solving by influencing what people encode about a problem. To test this hypothesis in children would require strengthening their misconceptions, and this could be detrimental to their mathematical development. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in undergraduate participants. Participants completed either control tasks or tasks that activated their knowledge of the three patterns, and were then asked to reconstruct and solve a set of equivalence problems. Participants in the knowledge activation condition encoded the problems less well than control participants. They also made more errors in solving the problems, and their errors resembled the errors children make when solving equivalence problems. Moreover, encoding performance mediated the effect of knowledge activation on equivalence problem solving. Thus, one way in which experience may affect equivalence problem solving is by influencing what students encode about the equations. PMID:24324454

  18. Defining mathematical problems and problem solving: prospective primary teachers' beliefs in Cyprus and England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xenofontos, Constantinos; Andrews, Paul

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of prospective elementary teachers' mathematical problem solving-related beliefs in Cyprus and England. Twenty-four participants, twelve from a well-regarded university in each country, were interviewed qualitatively at the exit point of their undergraduate teacher education studies. Analyses revealed both similarities and differences in the ways in which prospective teachers in each country construe both mathematical problems and mathematical problem solving, indicating not only that their beliefs are culturally situated but also that the concepts of "mathematical problem" and "problem solving" have different meanings cross-culturally. Such findings challenge the received view in mathematics education research of definitional convergence with respect to both mathematical problems and problem solving. Some implications for policy making are discussed.

  19. Structure preserving integrators for solving linear quadratic optimal control problems with applications to describe the flight of a quadrotor

    E-print Network

    Blanes, Sergio

    Structure preserving integrators for solving linear quadratic optimal control problems Valencia, Spain. Abstract We present structure preserving integrators for solving linear quadratic optimal of the equation for the state. This property is not preserved, in general, by the numerical methods. We propose

  20. Solving Open Job-Shop Scheduling Problems by SAT Encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimura, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Hidetomo; Fujita, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Ryuzo

    This paper tries to solve open Job-Shop Scheduling Problems (JSSP) by translating them into Boolean Satisfiability Testing Problems (SAT). The encoding method is essentially the same as the one proposed by Crawford and Baker. The open problems are ABZ8, ABZ9, YN1, YN2, YN3, and YN4. We proved that the best known upper bounds 678 of ABZ9 and 884 of YN1 are indeed optimal. We also improved the upper bound of YN2 and lower bounds of ABZ8, YN2, YN3 and YN4.

  1. a Problem Solving Diagnostic Instrument for Physics Thermodynamics Concepts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iona, Steven

    Changes in conceptual representations of physics thermodynamics concepts by high school physics students was examined throughout an instructional sequence. The knowledge structures identified were characterized and also compared to problem-solving strategies used by the students on physics problems. Over sixty students from four intact classes completed seven measures including three computer-administered concept relatedness tasks, a test of logical thinking, identification of demographic information, and two problem-solving sessions. Ten teacher/experts also completed the relatedness rating task and problem -solving sessions. For each rating by the students and teacher/experts, the data were transformed into a network using the Pathfinder algorithm, where each node in the network represented one of the physics concepts. Two statistical comparisons were made between the students' and teacher/experts' data: Pearson-r comparison of relatedness data and a Pearson -r comparison of the Pathfinder graphs. The results indicated that there was: (1) A structure to the thermodynamics concepts held by both the students and the teacher/experts. (2) A significant statistical difference in the Pathfinder networks among the teacher/experts. The differences were primarily localized to concepts dealing with gas laws. (3) No increase in the statistical similarity (comparing teacher/experts and students) in the networks during the instructional period. (4) A change in the students' conceptual networks indicating: (a) an acceptance by the students of certain "deep structures," (b) a time-delayed acceptance of some organizing ideas, and/or (c) gaps in the students' understanding of key ideas. (5) A "weak" rather than "strong" restructuring of the concepts by students. (6) Statistically significant similarities in local networks involving pairs of physics concepts and the problem-solving strategies used by the students. Overall this study corroborated much of the research dealing with experts and novices including studies that indicated that there are differences among novices regarding conceptual understanding and the problem-solving strategies they used. Finally, this technique using concept relatedness data and the associated Pathfinder graphs to diagnose conceptual understanding and problem-solving strategies holds potential for classroom teachers interested in better matching the learner and the learning.

  2. Effects of Cognitive Strategy Interventions and Cognitive Moderators on Word Problem Solving in Children at Risk for Problem Solving Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy; Orosco, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and cognitive abilities on word problem solving accuracy in children with math difficulties (MD). Elementary school children (N = 120) with and without MD were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: general-heuristic (e.g., underline question sentence), visual-schematic presentation…

  3. On the method of pseudo compressibility for numerically solving incompressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J. L. C.; Kwak, D.

    1984-01-01

    Pseudo compressibility is used for numerically solving incompressible flows to achieve computational efficiency. The use of pseudo compressibility results in a system of hyperbolic-type equations of motion that introduce waves of finite speed. The interactions of the wave propagation and the vorticity spreading are analyzed. A criterion governing the dependence of the pseudo compressiblity on the Reynolds number and the characteristic length of the flow geometry is obtained that allows for a proper convergence. It is demonstrated that the solution does tend to the incompressible limit. External and internal viscous flow test problems are presented to verify the theory.

  4. An Examination of Police Officers' Insights into Problem Identification and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichler, Gisela; Gaines, Larry

    2005-01-01

    Problem solving begins with problem identification. Conventional knowledge suggests that because patrol officers work specific geographical areas (beats) on a fairly constant basis, they come to see where the problems exist; thus, police experience alone can be relied on to identify crime problems. However, few have examined whether officers are…

  5. Problem Analysis: Examining the Selection and Evaluation of Data during Problem-Solving Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Markeda L.; Newell, Terrance S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how school psychologists engaged in problem analysis during problem-solving consultation. Five aspects of the problem analysis process were examined: 1) the types of questions participants asked during problem identification, 2) the types of data participants requested, 3) the frequency of requests for each…

  6. Learning and interactivity in solving a transformation problem.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Lisa G; Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Vallée-Tourangeau, Gaëlle; Howard, Chelsea

    2015-07-01

    Outside the psychologist's laboratory, thinking proceeds on the basis of a great deal of interaction with artefacts that are recruited to augment problem-solving skills. The role of interactivity in problem solving was investigated using a river-crossing problem. In Experiment 1A, participants completed the same problem twice, once in a low interactivity condition, and once in a high interactivity condition (with order counterbalanced across participants). Learning, as gauged in terms of latency to completion, was much more pronounced when the high interactivity condition was experienced second. When participants first completed the task in the high interactivity condition, transfer to the low interactivity condition during the second attempt was limited; Experiment 1B replicated this pattern of results. Participants thus showed greater facility to transfer their experience of completing the problem from a low to a high interactivity condition. Experiment 2 was designed to determine the amount of learning in a low and high interactivity condition; in this experiment participants completed the problem twice, but level of interactivity was manipulated between subjects. Learning was evident in both the low and high interactivity groups, but latency per move was significantly faster in the high interactivity group, in both presentations. So-called problem isomorphs instantiated in different task ecologies draw upon different skills and abilities; a distributed cognition analysis may provide a fruitful perspective on learning and transfer. PMID:25616778

  7. Solving a novel confinement problem by spartaeine salticids that are predisposed to solve problems in the context of predation.

    PubMed

    Cross, Fiona R; Jackson, Robert R

    2015-03-01

    Intricate predatory strategies are widespread in the salticid subfamily Spartaeinae. The hypothesis we consider here is that the spartaeine species that are proficient at solving prey-capture problems are also proficient at solving novel problems. We used nine species from this subfamily in our experiments. Eight of these species (two Brettus, one Cocalus, three Cyrba, two Portia) are known for specialized invasion of other spiders' webs and for actively choosing other spiders as preferred prey ('araneophagy'). Except for Cocalus, these species also use trial and error to derive web-based signals with which they gain dynamic fine control of the resident spider's behaviour ('aggressive mimicry').The ninth species, Paracyrba wanlessi, is not araneophagic and instead specializes at preying on mosquitoes. We presented these nine species with a novel confinement problem that could be solved by trial and error. The test spider began each trial on an island in a tray of water, with an atoll surrounding the island. From the island, the spider could choose between two potential escape tactics (leap or swim), but we decided at random before the trial which tactic would fail and which tactic would achieve partial success. Our findings show that the seven aggressive-mimic species are proficient at solving the confinement problem by repeating 'correct' choices and by switching to the alternative tactic after making an 'incorrect' choice. However, as predicted, there was no evidence of C. gibbosus or P. wanlessi, the two non-aggressive-mimic species, solving the confinement problem. We discuss these findings in the context of an often-made distinction between domain-specific and domain-general cognition. PMID:25392261

  8. Problem-Solving Without Awareness: An ERP Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Paynter, Christopher A.; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Reder, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    When subjects are given the balls-and-boxes problem-solving task (Kotovsky & Simon, 1990), they move rapidly toward the goal after an extended exploratory phase, despite having no awareness of how to solve the task. We investigated possible non-conscious learning mechanisms by giving subjects three runs of the task while recording ERPs. Subjects showed significant differences in their ERP components during the exploratory phase between correct and incorrect moves. Exploratory incorrect moves were associated with a shallower response-locked N1 component and a larger response-locked P3 component compared with exploratory correct moves. Subjects who solved the task more quickly exhibited a trend towards larger N1 and P3 components. These results suggest that the brain processes information about the correctness of a move well before subjects are aware of move correctness. They further suggest that relatively simple attentional and error-monitoring processes play an important role in complex problem-solving. PMID:20600180

  9. Computer Problem Solving. [and] Iteration and Computer Problem Solving. Computer Science/Algorithms. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 477 and 478.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dershem, Herbert L.

    These modules view aspects of computer use in the problem-solving process, and introduce techniques and ideas that are applicable to other modes of problem solving. The first unit looks at algorithms, flowchart language, and problem-solving steps that apply this knowledge. The second unit describes ways in which computer iteration may be used…

  10. Numerical Problems and Agent-Based Models for a Mass Transfer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Manohar; Shea, Lonnie D.; Snurr, Randall Q.

    2009-01-01

    Problems requiring numerical solutions of differential equations or the use of agent-based modeling are presented for use in a course on mass transfer. These problems were solved using the popular technical computing language MATLABTM. Students were introduced to MATLAB via a problem with an analytical solution. A more complex problem to which no…

  11. Young Children Selectively Seek Help When Solving Problems

    PubMed Central

    Cluver, Annette; Heyman, Gail; Carver, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence that children show selectivity in their reliance on others as sources of information, but the findings to date have largely been limited to contexts that involve factual information. The present studies were designed to determine whether children might also show selectivity in their choice of sources within a problem-solving context. Children in two age groups (20 to 24 months and 30 to 36 months; total N = 60) were presented with a series of conceptually difficult problem solving tasks, and were given an opportunity to interact with adult experimenters who were depicted as either good helpers or bad helpers. Participants in both age groups preferred to seek help from the good helpers. The findings suggest that even young children evaluate others with reference to their potential to provide help and use this information to guide their behavioral choices. PMID:23484915

  12. Solving the Attribute Reduction Problem with Ant Colony Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong; Wang, Guoyin; Lan, Fakuan

    Attribute reduction is an important process in rough set theory. More minimal attribute reductions are expected to help clients make decisions in some cases, though the minimal attribute reduction problem (MARP) is proved to be an NP-hard problem. In this paper, we propose a new heuristic approach for solving the MARP based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. We first model the MARP as finding an assignment which minimizes the cost in a graph. Afterward, we introduce a preprocessing step that removes the redundant data in a discernibility matrix through the absorption operator and the cutting operator, the goal of which is to favor a smaller exploration of the search space at a lower cost. We then develop a new algorithm R-ACO for solving the MARP. Finally, the simulation results show that our approach can find more minimal attribute reductions more efficiently in most cases.

  13. Collaboration and meaning analysis process in intense problem solving teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan R. Rentsch; Abby L. Mello; Lisa A. Delise

    2010-01-01

    A set of testable propositions based on the collaboration and meaning analysis process (C-MAP) are presented. The C-MAP involves the conscious externalisation of knowledge to support knowledge transfer, the development of innovated knowledge and the development of cognitive similarity in intense problem solving teams (Rentsch, J.R., Delise, L.A., and Hutchison, S., 2008a. Transferring meaning and developing cognitive similarity in decision

  14. Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin F. Collis; Jane M. Watson; K. Jennifer Campbell

    1993-01-01

    Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of\\u000a thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place\\u000a of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and\\u000a intuitive processes in the

  15. Organizational Patterns in Problem Solving Among Mayan Fathers and Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Chavajay

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the social organization of Guatemalan Mayan fathers' engagement with school-age children in a group problem-solving task. Twenty-nine groups of Mayan fathers varying in extent of Western schooling and 3 related school-age children (ages 6–12 years) constructed a puzzle together. Groups with fathers with 0 to 3 grades more often constructed the puzzle through shared multiparty collaboration involving

  16. A working memory model applied to mathematical word problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Alamolhodaei

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study is (a) to explore the relationship among cognitive style (field dependence\\/independence),\\u000a working memory, and mathematics anxiety and (b) to examine their effects on students’ mathematics problem solving. A sample\\u000a of 161 school girls (13–14 years old) were tested on (1) the Witkin’s cognitive style (Group Embedded Figure Test) and (2)\\u000a Digit Span Backwards Test, with

  17. Simulation driven design helps solve C5 cargo door problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Pinnick

    1999-01-01

    Simulation driven design helped Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems solve a fatigue-related problem on the cargo door of the C5 transport plane. Cracks in the area of the door’s upper hinge had led the Air Force to impose a special visual inspection of the door prior to each ADS mission. Use of dynamics analysis software enabled Lockheed Martin to quickly find

  18. Improving Mathematical Problem Solving in Grades 4 Through 8

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Woodward (Chair), et al.

    This 86-page practice guide (pdf) provides educators with five specific, evidence-based recommendations for improving students' mathematical problem solving in grades 4 through 8 by incorporating such activities into regular instruction. The guide contains detailed suggestions and strategies for carrying out each recommendation, including potential roadblocks with possible approaches for overcoming them. It concludes by suggesting a four-step process for incorporating the recommendations into a lesson. The guide includes an extensive list of references.

  19. The amplified quantum Fourier transform: solving the local period problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, David J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper creates and analyzes a new quantum algorithm called the Amplified Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) for solving the following problem: The Local Period Problem: Let L = {0,1 . . . N-1} be a set of N labels and let A be a subset of M labels of period P, i.e. a subset of the form A=\\{j:j=s+rP,r=0,1ldots M-1\\} where {P? sqrt{N}} and {M ? N}, and where M is assumed known. Given an oracle f : L? {0,1} which is 1 on A and 0 elsewhere, find the local period P and the offset s.

  20. Engineering calculations for solving the orbital allotment problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, C.; Walton, E. K.; Mount-Campbell, C.; Caldecott, R.; Aebker, E.; Mata, F.

    1988-01-01

    Four approaches for calculating downlink interferences for shaped-beam antennas are described. An investigation of alternative mixed-integer programming models for satellite synthesis is summarized. Plans for coordinating the various programs developed under this grant are outlined. Two procedures for ordering satellites to initialize the k-permutation algorithm are proposed. Results are presented for the k-permutation algorithms. Feasible solutions are found for 5 of the 6 problems considered. Finally, it is demonstrated that the k-permutation algorithm can be used to solve arc allotment problems.