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1

General Workplace Algebra. A Numerical Approach to Workplace Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module reviews basic algebraic principles, the use of algebra for solving mathematical problems in the workplace as related to electronics, mechanics, computer operations, printing, and the general concepts of algebraic formulas. The course provides students with a practical knowledge of algebra in areas such as variable algebraic…

Wilson, Nancy

2

A numerical method for solving equilibrium problems of masonry-like solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a numerical method for the solution of equilibrium problems of solids which do not support tension. Some boundary-value problems are solved numerically and the solution obtained is compared to the exact one.

Massimiliano Lucchesi; Cristina Padovani; Andrea Pagni

1994-01-01

3

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,

4

Improved Numerical Technique to Solve the Linear Resistive MHD Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to study the resistive MHD modes is described, based on the usual assumption that the plasma resistivity and mass are essential only in thin layers around resonance surfaces whereas the outer plasma is ideal and inertia free. The toroidal resistive energy principle is based on a matching of corresponding asymptotic solutions coefficients from the outer and inner plasma layers. A crucial problem here is to treat the outer region infinite non-integrable solutions near resonance surfaces accurately. Some difficulties can arise here such as the unstable behavior of the numerical solutions against input noise with exact total solution, or the need for many coefficients of the Frobenius expansion with approximate total solution. We utilize a technique to extract the infinite solutions more accurately numerically for a wide range of parameters. The technique described here was incorporated in the new version of the TWIST-R code. We show effects of inner layer resistivity, plasma rotation, magnetic well and the role of ideal parity solutions.

Galkin, S.; Chu, M. S.; Greene, J. M.; Miller, R. L.; Turnbull, A. D.; Pletzer, A.

1998-11-01

5

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of videos is designed to showcase classrooms in which the NCTM Process Standards are evident. Scroll to video #48, Problem Solving, and select the "VoD" box to view this half-hour video. It includes 13 classroom excerpts from lessons that illustrate students investigating and learning mathematics through problem solving. Teachers share their approaches and observations.

Boston, Wgbh

1997-01-01

6

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to a systematic procedure for solving problems through a demonstration and then the application of the method to an everyday activity. The unit project is introduced to provide relevance to subsequent lessons.

Office of Educational Partnerships,

7

Abstract Applets: A Method for Integrating Numerical Problem Solving into the Undergraduate Physics Curriculum  

SciTech Connect

In upper-division undergraduate physics courses, it is desirable to give numerical problem-solving exercises integrated naturally into weekly problem sets. I explain a method for doing this that makes use of the built-in class structure of the Java programming language. I also supply a Java class library that can assist instructors in writing programs of this type.

Peskin, Michael E

2003-02-13

8

Efficient numerical method for solving Cauchy problem for the Gamma equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we consider Cauchy problem for the so called Gamma equation, derived by transforming the fully nonlinear Black-Scholes equation for option price into a quasilinear parabolic equation for the second derivative (Greek) ? = VSS of the option price V. We develop an efficient numerical method for solving the model problem concerning different volatility terms. Using suitable change of variables the problem is transformed on finite interval, keeping original behavior of the solution at the infinity. Then we construct Picard-Newton algorithm with adaptive mesh step in time, which can be applied also in the case of non-differentiable functions. Results of numerical simulations are given.

Koleva, Miglena N.

2011-12-01

9

Numerical strategies for solving continuum damage problems with softening: Application to the homogenization of Masonry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homogenization theory for periodic media is used for deriving the in-plane macroscopic non-linear behaviour of masonry. Two different assumptions are envisaged: plane stress and generalized plane strain. Assuming a continuum damage modelling for the brick and the mortar, the two-dimensional boundary value problem associated with the homogenization method is presented, together with the numerical strategies able to solve it.

P. Pegon; A. Anthoine

1997-01-01

10

Arithmetic and algebraic problem solving and resource allocation: The distinct impact of fluid and numerical intelligence.  

PubMed

This study investigates cognitive resource allocation dependent on fluid and numerical intelligence in arithmetic/algebraic tasks varying in difficulty. Sixty-six 11th grade students participated in a mathematical verification paradigm, while pupil dilation as a measure of resource allocation was collected. Students with high fluid intelligence solved the tasks faster and more accurately than those with average fluid intelligence, as did students with high compared to average numerical intelligence. However, fluid intelligence sped up response times only in students with average but not high numerical intelligence. Further, high fluid but not numerical intelligence led to greater task-related pupil dilation. We assume that fluid intelligence serves as a domain-general resource that helps to tackle problems for which domain-specific knowledge (numerical intelligence) is missing. The allocation of this resource can be measured by pupil dilation. PMID:25327870

Dix, Annika; van der Meer, Elke

2014-10-17

11

Numerical convergence analysis of Cauchy problem with noisy data solved by minimizing an energy-like functional  

E-print Network

Numerical convergence analysis of Cauchy problem with noisy data solved by minimizing an energy fundamental results, Cauchy problem is presented as an optimal control problem. Numerical convergence analysis]). In this paper, we propose to perform mathematical and numerical convergence analysis of a method based

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de

12

Interactive insight problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insight problem solving was investigated with the matchstick algebra problems developed by Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider, and Rhenius (1999). These problems are false equations expressed with Roman numerals that can be made true bymoving one matchstick. In a first group participants examined a static two-dimensional representation of the false algebraic expression and told the experimenter which matchstick should be moved. In

Anna Weller; Gaëlle Villejoubert; Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

2011-01-01

13

Problem Solving Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a summary of five topics on problems solving: What is a Problem?, What is Problem Solving?, Problem Solving Strategies, Why Teach Problem Solving?, Organizing the Teaching of Problem Solving and a reference section. Users can read more detailed information by accessing the 'More Information' link under each heading.

2014-01-01

14

An effective numerical method for solving viscous-inviscid interaction problems.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new numerical method to solve the equations of the asymptotic theory of separated flows. A number of measures was taken to ensure fast convergence of the iteration procedure, which is employed to treat the nonlinear terms in the governing equations. Firstly, we selected carefully the set of variables for which the nonlinear finite difference equations were formulated. Secondly, a Newton-Raphson strategy was applied to these equations. Thirdly, the calculations were facilitated by utilizing linear approximation of the boundary-layer equations when calculating the corresponding Jacobi matrix. The performance of the method is illustrated, using as an example, the problem of laminar two-dimensional boundary-layer separation in the flow of an incompressible fluid near a corner point of a rigid body contour. The solution of this problem is non-unique in a certain parameter range where two solution branches are possible. PMID:16105776

Kravtsova, Marina A; Zametaev, Vladimir B; Ruban, Anatoly I

2005-05-15

15

Role of beliefs and emotions in numerical problem solving in university physics education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger studentsâ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with studentsâ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of studentsâ epistemological beliefs is important for studentsâ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.

Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael

2013-05-28

16

Role of beliefs and emotions in numerical problem solving in university physics education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger students’ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with students’ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of students’ epistemological beliefs is important for students’ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.

Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael

2012-06-01

17

Creating Problem Solving Natives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post, the author discusses how valuable the problem-solving tool of drawing (or acting) out the problem is to help learners make sense of the problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of work from students who were successful and who were not successful in solving the problem are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "Schmoos ânâ Goos" (cataloged separately) that is best solved by drawing a picture.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-03-04

18

A numerical study of solving the altimetry-gravimetry boundary value problem in coastal regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents numerical results for the solution of the altimetry-gravimetry boundary value problem with compatibility conditions along the coastline. The solution is based on the application of spherical Shannon wavelets based on the Abel-Poisson kernel and pseudo-diffferential operators. The orthogonality of Shannon wavelets can be used for the numerical solution overcoming some technical problems with generally non-orthogonal spherical wavelets.

R. S. Grebenitcharsky; M. G. Sideris

19

Mathematics Through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a studentâs mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.

Taplin, Margaret

2011-01-01

20

Techniques of Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

Krantz, Steven G.

21

A High-Performance Numerical Library for Solving Eigenvalue Problems: FEAST Solver v2.0 User's Guide  

E-print Network

The FEAST solver package is a free high-performance numerical library for solving the standard or generalized eigenvalue problem, and obtaining all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors within a given search interval. It is based on an innovative fast and stable numerical algorithm presented in Phys. Rev B Vol.79, p115112 (2009) - named the FEAST algorithm - which deviates fundamentally from the traditional Krylov subspace iteration based techniques (Arnoldi and Lanczos algorithms) or other Davidson-Jacobi techniques. The FEAST algorithm takes its inspiration from the density-matrix representation and contour integration technique in quantum mechanics. It is free from orthogonalization procedures, and its main computational tasks consist of solving very few inner independent linear systems with multiple right-hand sides and one reduced eigenvalue problem orders of magnitude smaller than the original one. The FEAST algorithm combines simplicity and efficiency and offers many important capabilities for achieving hig...

Polizzi, Eric

2012-01-01

22

A numerical method for solving a stochastic inverse problem for parameters  

PubMed Central

We review recent work (Briedt et al., 2011., 2012) on a new approach to the formulation and solution of the stochastic inverse parameter determination problem, i.e. determine the random variation of input parameters to a map that matches specified random variation in the output of the map, and then apply the various aspects of this method to the interesting Brusselator model. In this approach, the problem is formulated as an inverse problem for an integral equation using the Law of Total Probability. The solution method employs two steps: (1) we construct a systematic method for approximating set-valued inverse solutions and (2) we construct a computational approach to compute a measure-theoretic approximation of the probability measure on the input space imparted by the approximate set-valued inverse that solves the inverse problem. In addition to convergence analysis, we carry out an a posteriori error analysis on the computed probability distribution that takes into account all sources of stochastic and deterministic error. PMID:24347806

Butler, T.; Estep, D.

2013-01-01

23

Teaching through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

24

Numerical Analysis of Relativistic Boltzmann-kinetic Equations to Solve Relativistic Shock Layer Problems  

E-print Network

The relativistic shock layer problem was numerically analyzed by using two relativistic Boltzmann-kinetic equations. One is Marle model, and the other is Anderson-Witting model. As with Marle model, the temperature of the gain term was determined from its relation with the dynamic pressure in the framework of 14-moments theory. From numerical results of the relativistic shock layer problem, behaviors of projected moments in the nonequilibrium region were clarified. Profiles of the heat flux given by Marle model and Anderson-Witting model were quite adverse to the profile of the heat flux approximated by Navier-Stokes-Fourier law. On the other hand, profiles of the heat flux given by Marle model and Anderson-Witting model were similar to the profile approximated by Navier-Stokes-Fourier law. Additionally we discuss the differences between Anderson-Witting model and Marle model by focusing on the fact that the relaxational rate of the distribution function depends on both flow velocity and molecular velocity for Anderson-Witting model, while it depends only on the molecular velocity for Marle model.

Ryosuke Yano; Kojiro Suzuki; Hisayasu Kuroda

2008-10-03

25

Problem Solving by Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…

Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy

2009-01-01

26

Leadership Problem Solving  

E-print Network

Contract Administrator Credit Manager Customer Service Manager Distribution Manager Entrepreneur Facilities Leadership Problem Solving Organizational Behavior Project Management Teambuilding Multi POSSIBLE EMPLOYERS Advertising Account Executive Benefits Administrator Manager/Loan Officer Consultant

Jiang, Huiqiang

27

Problem Solving - Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...

Kajigga

2009-09-23

28

Problem Solving Seminar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course includes elements from an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. The material will help students develop their mathematical and problem solving skills. A few topics that are covered include probability, generating mathematical functions and polynomials. Course materials include student assignments and solutions. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Kedlaya, Kiran Sridhara, 1974-; Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-; Stanley, Richard

2010-12-22

29

Solving a problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to a three-stage process for problem solving. The three stages are identify the problem, test the solutions, and evaluate the results. A student tip sheet explains each stage and enables students to work through the processes in a step-by-step manner while seeing how the information is tied together. A graphic organizer provides students with an opportunity to evaluate the problem-solving solutions they have developed. A brief outline of the problem-solving process gives students a handy summary to use while investigating problems. The downloadable activity sheets are in pdf files. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

30

Solving the dynamic rupture problem with different numerical approaches and constitutive laws  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We study the dynamic initiation, propagation and arrest of a 2-D in-plane shear rupture by solving the elastodynamic equation by using both a boundary integral equation method and a finite difference approach. For both methods we adopt different constitutive laws: a slip-weakening (SW) law, with constant weakening rate, and rate- and state-dependent friction laws (Dieterich-Ruina). Our numerical procedures allow the use of heterogeneous distributions of constitutive parameters along the fault for both formulations. We first compare the two solution methods with an SW law, emphasizing the required stability conditions to achieve a good resolution of the cohesive zone and to avoid artificial complexity in the solutions. Our modelling results show that the two methods provide very similar time histories of dynamic source parameters. We point out that, if a careful control of resolution and stability is performed, the two methods yield identical solutions. We have also compared the rupture evolution resulting from an SW and a rate- and state-dependent friction law. This comparison shows that despite the different constitutive formulations, a similar behaviour is simulated during the rupture propagation and arrest. We also observe a crack tip bifurcation and a jump in rupture velocity (approaching the P-wave speed) with the Dieterich-Ruina (DR) law. The rupture arrest at a barrier (high strength zone) and the barrier-healing mechanism are also reproduced by this law. However, this constitutive formulation allows the simulation of a more general and complex variety of rupture behaviours. By assuming different heterogeneous distributions of the initial constitutive parameters, we are able to model a barrier-healing as well as a self-healing process. This result suggests that if the heterogeneity of the constitutive parameters is taken into account, the different healing mechanisms can be simulated. We also study the nucleation phase duration Tn, defined as the time necessary for the crack to reach the half-length Ic. We compare the Tn values resulting from distinct simulations calculated using different constitutive laws and different sets of constitutive parameters. Our results confirm that the DR law provides a different description of the nucleation process than the SW law adopted in this study. We emphasize that the DR law yields a complete description of the rupture process, which includes the most prominent features of SW.

Bizzarri, A.; Cocco, M.; Andrews, D.J.; Boschi, E.

2001-01-01

31

Problem Solving in Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

32

Problem-Solving Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

1992-01-01

33

Strategies for Problem Solving. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides a comprehensive approach to problem solving; it is written in narrative style with numerous examples. The guide is organized in eight sections that cover the following topics: (1) problem-solving overview (with suggested readings and recommendations for schools); (2) a five-step model for solving problems; (3) strategies for…

Karmos, Joseph S.; Karmos, Ann H.

34

Effective Numerical Methods for Solving Elliptical Problems in Strengthened Sobolev Spaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourth-order elliptic boundary value problems in the plane can be reduced to operator equations in Hilbert spaces G that are certain subspaces of the Sobolev space W(sub 2)(exp 2)(Omega) is identical with G(sup (2)). Appearance of asymptotically optimal algorithms for Stokes type problems made it natural to focus on an approach that considers rot w is identical with (D(sub 2)w - D(sub 1)w) is identical with vector of u as a new unknown vector-function, which automatically satisfies the condition div vector of u = 0. In this work, we show that this approach can also be developed for an important class of problems from the theory of plates and shells with stiffeners. The main mathematical problem was to show that the well-known inf-sup condition (normal solvability of the divergence operator) holds for special Hilbert spaces. This result is also essential for certain hydrodynamics problems.

D'yakonov, Eugene G.

1996-01-01

35

Circumference and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to the…

Blackburn, Katie; White, David

36

Problem Solving with Patents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-01-01

37

Solving Common Mathematical Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.

2005-01-01

38

Solving Energy Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

39

[Problem Solving Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

40

Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Chemical Engineering Modeling" is a first-semester graduate course traditionally taught in a lecture format at Oklahoma State University. The course as taught by the author for the past seven years focuses on numerical and mathematical methods as necessary skills for incoming graduate students. Recent changes to the course have included Visual…

Maase, Eric L.; High, Karen A.

2008-01-01

41

Problem Solving through Aviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit that focuses on problem solving through real life situations that involveaviation. In spite of a variety of shapes and sizes all airplanes fly in the same way, and the problems of the aviation industry are basically the same. Some of the problems in this unit deal with the tests that have already been in the United States by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Agency, and the Department of Defense in order to ensure safety, convenience, and efficiency in aviation.

Bryant, Joyce

42

Problem Solving with Patents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-03-01

43

Clinical Problem Solving  

PubMed Central

This review demonstrates the unique advantages of sonography in the oncologic setting. Although computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography are primary imaging modalities for evaluation of the oncologic patient, sonography is useful for evaluation of various conditions and clinical scenarios associated with cancer. The following article will illustrate the utility of sonography at a tertiary cancer center for diagnosis and problem solving. PMID:24371094

Cooley, Christine; Nishino, Mizuki; Jagannathan, Jyothi; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Di Salvo, Donald; Krajewski, Katherine M.

2014-01-01

44

Classroom Activities for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts directed to emphasizing problem solving and using the immediate environment to create problem situations are described. Teachers are urged to incorporate problem-solving activities in their instruction. (MP)

Schmalz, Rosemary

1981-01-01

45

Computer Problem-Solving Coaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

Hsu, Leonardo; Heller, Kenneth

2009-11-30

46

Principles for Teaching Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Kirkley, Rob F.

2003-01-01

47

Problem solving and behavior modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively reviewed problem-solving theory and research for possible applications in behavior modification. Problem solving was defined as a behavioral process which (a) makes available a variety of response alternatives for dealing with a problematic situation, and (b) increases the probability of selecting the most effective response from among these alternatives. 5 stages of problem solving were identified: (a) general orientation

Thomas J. DZurilla; Marvin R. Goldfried

1971-01-01

48

Petrographic Problem Solving Assignments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Petrographic problem-solving (PPS) assignments consist of a series of two-week mini-projects used within the context of an undergraduate petrology course. The central idea behind PPS assignments is for students to use thin sections as a geologic data source for conducting authentic scientific investigations. For each assignment, students are provided a thin section and corresponding hand sample. Drawing from their initial observations and foundation knowledge, students identify a scientific question, propose a working hypothesis to explain it, test the hypothesis using observations and data collected from the sample, and defend their results in oral presentations and written reports. They use digital cameras interfaced with microscopes to acquire photomicrographs and various software applications to collect and analyze data. For each assignment, students prepare a two-page paper and give a brief presentation to the class (5-10 minutes in duration with 3-5 minutes for discussion). During the presentation sessions, which each require a two-hour class period, class members are encouraged to question their student colleagues. Students are introduced to PPS assignments as part of the take-home final in the prerequisite Microscopy course. Three PPS assignments are in turn engaged in the subsequent Petrology course during the 10-week term. A summative take-home PPS exercise is completed as part of the final exam. In Petrology, PPS assignments augment more traditional laboratory exercises and are specifically aligned with course content, as follows (refer to student handout sheets in supplemental materials section). Using a set of rocks representing distinct lithologies, students are guided to think about what geologic conditions and/or environment the sample formed in. Using a set of plutonic and volcanic rocks from a description and classification exercise, students define their own geologic problem. Using a set of metamorphic rocks, students are instructed to interpret the genetic conditions based on textures and/or mineralogy. Using several different andesite samples, students are directed to consider the origin of the sample in context of a case-study activity conducted during the term. This PPS assignment is completed as part of the final exam and requires a summative two-page paper. In the context of a broad-based undergraduate Earth Science degree program, PPS assignments engage students in the study of Earth materials, actively involve them in the scientific process, and emphasize creative problem solving rather than factual recall.

Templeton, Jeffrey

49

Pollution, pH, and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides real life assignments that can be used to help students apply chemistry laboratory techniques to solve environmental hazardous waste problems. Numerous diagrams are provided to aid in describing the experiments performed. (ZWH)

Tugel, Joyce B.

1994-01-01

50

A Method for Solving Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving and decision making are considered to be keys to successful management. A normative method for problem solving is presented, suggesting that the analysis of the problem be structured along a five-step procedure: problem identification, analysis, decision alternatives, decision making, and decision implementation. Follow-up…

Knoop, Robert

1987-01-01

51

Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

Lin, Shih-Yin

2012-01-01

52

Solving Trade Discount Word Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

Coonce, Carol; Nunenkamp, David

2008-01-01

53

Problem Solving Framework Read the problem carefully.  

E-print Network

Problem Solving Framework Read the problem carefully. Draw a useful picture (sketch) that shows how identified in Step 1. 1. Understand the Problem 2. Analyze the Problem 3. Construct a Solution Apply constraint equations) to eliminate the unwanted unknowns? Use math (algebra/calculus) to solve for target

Minnesota, University of

54

Cooperative problem solving in a social carnivore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous field researchers have described cooperative hunting in social carnivores, but experimental evidence of cooperative problem solving typically derives from laboratory studies of nonhuman primates. We present the first experimental evidence of cooperation in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta. Eight captive hyaenas, paired in 13 combinations, coordinated their behaviour temporally and spatially to solve cooperation tasks that

Christine M. Drea; Allisa N. Carter

2009-01-01

55

Research on Problem Solving: Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a very detailed and comprehensive review of the extensive literature in education and cognitive science on the use of physics problems as a context for examining cognitive processes and approaches to problem solving.

Maloney, David

2006-06-19

56

Problem solving, scaffolding and learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Helping students to construct understanding of physics concepts and develop good problem solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examines studentsâ problem solving abilities and explores strategies to scaffold studentsâ learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving between isomorphic problems, we evaluate introductory physics studentsâ abilities to learn from provided solved problems and to transfer their learning to quiz problems involving the same physics principles but different surface features. Findings suggest that providing solved problems after students have attempted to solve quiz problems without help is a good way to scaffold studentsâ analogical problem solving. Categorization of problems based upon similarity of solution provides another angle to evaluate and scaffold studentsâ ability to reflect on problems' deep features. A study on categorization of quantum mechanics problems reveals that faculty overall perform better than students. However, unlike categorization of introductory mechanics problems, in which categories created by faculty are uniform and based on fundamental principles, quantum mechanics categorization is more diverse and based on concepts and procedures. In addition, we also explore possible strategies to help instructors improve their teaching of problem solving and to assess student difficulties more efficiently. Investigating how teaching assistants (TAs) design problem solutions, we find much room for improvement as TAs donât necessarily notice all solution components recommended in the research literature. Another study involving comparison between different assessment tools reveals that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance on the free-response problems while maintaining the benefit of ease of grading, especially if the multiple-choice question choices are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin

2012-04-21

57

Learning Impasses in Problem Solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

Hodgson, J. P. E.

1992-01-01

58

The Future Problem Solving Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…

Crabbe, Anne B.

1989-01-01

59

Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

60

Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

61

First characterization of a new method for numerically solving the Dirichlet problem of the two-dimensional Electrical Impedance Equation  

E-print Network

Based upon elements of the modern Pseudoanalytic Function Theory, we analyse a new method for numerically approaching the solution of the Dirichlet boundary value problem, corresponding to the two-dimensional Electrical Impedance Equation. The analysis is performed by interpolating piecewise separable-variables conductivity functions, that are eventually used in the numerical calculations in order to obtain finite sets of orthonormal functions, whose linear combinations succeed to approach the imposed boundary conditions. To warrant the effectiveness of the numerical method, we study six different examples of conductivity. The boundary condition for every case is selected considering one exact solution of the Electrical Impedance Equation. The work intends to discuss the contributions of these results into the field of the Electrical Impedance Tomography.

T., M P Ramirez; Hernandez-Becerril, R A

2012-01-01

62

First characterization of a new method for numerically solving the Dirichlet problem of the two-dimensional Electrical Impedance Equation  

E-print Network

Based upon elements of the modern Pseudoanalytic Function Theory, we analyse a new method for numerically approaching the solution of the Dirichlet boundary value problem, corresponding to the two-dimensional Electrical Impedance Equation. The analysis is performed by interpolating piecewise separable-variables conductivity functions, that are eventually used in the numerical calculations in order to obtain finite sets of orthonormal functions, whose linear combinations succeed to approach the imposed boundary conditions. To warrant the effectiveness of the numerical method, we study six different examples of conductivity. The boundary condition for every case is selected considering one exact solution of the Electrical Impedance Equation. The work intends to discuss the contributions of these results into the field of the Electrical Impedance Tomography.

M. P. Ramirez T.; C. M. A. Robles G.; R. A. Hernandez-Becerril

2012-02-21

63

Math problem solving model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers will find the information and tools in this module a useful introduction to teaching with open-ended problems. Information about related professional development opportunities is also available at the site.

Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL)

2002-01-01

64

Algebra Through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A non-traditional Algebra text (high school and early college levels) placed on the Web by the Science Education Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Browse it on the Web or download a PDF version. Chapter headings include: The Pascal Triangle; The Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers; Factorials; Arithmetic and Geometric Progressions; Mathematical Induction; The Binomial Theorem; Combinations and Permutations; Polynomial Equations; Determinants; and Inequalities. Problems (and answers to the odd-numbered problems) are provided for each section.

Hillman, Alexanderson

65

Problem Solve Your School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students apply what they have learned about the engineering design process to a real-life problem that affects them and/or their school. They chose a problem as a group, and then follow the engineering design process to come up with and test their design solution. This activity teaches students how to use the engineering design process while improving something in the school environment that matters to them. By performing each step of the design process, students can experience what it is like to be an engineer.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

66

Solving simultaneous stabilization BMI problems with PENNON  

E-print Network

Solving simultaneous stabilization BMI problems with PENNON Didier Henrion Michal Kocvara Michael with respect to bilinear matrix inequalities (BMI). We will present numerical results of the method for a class be formulated as a BMI problem in the parameters of the controller, whose order can be fixed from the outset

Henrion, Didier

67

Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews several student-tested computer software programs for math instruction: Gameco's "Word Problem Square-Off"; "MathKeys" by MECC and Houghton-Mifflin; Davidson and Associates'"The Cruncher"; and Sunburst Communications'"Exploring Mathematics with Technology: Number and Operation Sense." (HTH)

Allen, Denise

1995-01-01

68

Real Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of problem-oriented mathematics materials for a wide variety of students. Materials include teaching guides, student materials, case studies in mathematical modeling, and project activities. Examples of these materials (including a sports-related activity for students who have not had success in mathematics) are provided.…

Mathematics in School, 1984

1984-01-01

69

Solving Playground Network Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use cooperation and logical thinking to find solutions to network problems on the playground. Learners act both as computer routers, figuring out with each other how to effectively get data to the place it's being sent, and as the actual data, because the learners travel various edges of a network to get to their destination or "home" point. Learners use geometry skills to determine the most efficient routes in the network.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

70

Irrelevance in Problem Solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The notion of irrelevance underlies many different works in AI, such as detecting redundant facts, creating abstraction hierarchies and reformulation and modeling physical devices. However, in order to design problem solvers that exploit the notion of irrelevance, either by automatically detecting irrelevance or by being given knowledge about irrelevance, a formal treatment of the notion is required. In this paper we present a general framework for analyzing irrelevance. We discuss several properties of irrelevance and show how they vary in a space of definitions outlined by the framework. We show how irrelevance claims can be used to justify the creation of abstractions thereby suggesting a new view on the work on abstraction.

Levy, Alon Y.

1992-01-01

71

Gender and Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between gender and mathematical problem-solving among high ability students depends on the attributes of the problem solving questions. This was evident in the present study of 12-year-olds. The children were from predominately White families. Eighty-three males and 76 females were tested in both the fall and the spring on the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales and on the Canadian

Jim Duffy; Georg Gunther; Lloyd Walters

1997-01-01

72

Promote Problem-Solving Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen fifth-grade students gather at the front of the classroom as their summer school instructor introduces Jonathan Bostic as the mathematics teacher for the week. Before examining any math problems, Bostic sits at eye level with the students and informs them that they will solve problems over the next four days by working individually as…

Bostic, Jonathan; Jacobbe, Tim

2010-01-01

73

Sex Differences in Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine experiments were performed to verify and extend studies on sex differences in problem solving conducted in the 1950s by Sweeney, Carey, Milton, Nakamura, and Berry. A 20-item problem set was administered to over 1,000 college students. Results indicated a male advantage, averaging 35 percent, virtually identical with 1950s results. (Author/BS)

Johnson, Edward S.

1984-01-01

74

Robot, computer problem solving system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.

Becker, J. D.

1972-01-01

75

Assessing Problem Solving with "Diana"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, discusses an experiment in which expert and novice participants completed a task either completing a mechanics problem (novices) or evaluating the answer to the problem (experts). The results indicated that instructors were more likely to make specific criticisms if the students spoke in generalities. Additional evidence indicates that novice problem solving knowledge consists of both conscious and tacit pieces.

Harper, Kathleen A.

2010-08-03

76

Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem

Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

2007-01-01

77

Numerical implementation of an iterative method with boundary condition splitting for solving the nonstationary stokes problem on the basis of an asymptotically stable two-stage difference scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new numerical implementation of a fast-converging iterative method with splitting of boundary conditions is constructed for solving the Dirichlet initial-boundary value problem for the nonstationary Stokes system. The method was earlier proposed and substantiated at the differential level by B.V. Pal'tsev. The problem is considered in a strip and is assumed to be periodic along the strip. According to the numerical implementation proposed, a special vector parabolic problem for velocity approximations (which arises at iterations of the method) is discretized using an asymptotically stable two-stage difference scheme that is second-order accurate in time. The spatial discretization is based on bilinear finite elements on uniform rectangular grids. A numerical study shows that the convergence rate of the constructed iterative method is as high as that of the original method at the differential level (the error is reduced by approximately 7 times per iteration step). For velocities, the method is second-order accurate in the max norm. For pressures, the method is second-order accurate in space and first-order accurate in time.

Solov'ev, M. B.

2014-12-01

78

Robot computer problem solving system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.

Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

1974-01-01

79

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-­making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.

2013-01-01

80

Customer Service & Team Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a six-session, site-specific training course in customer service and team problem solving for the Claretian Medical Center. The course outline is followed the six lesson plans. Components of each lesson plan include a list of objectives, an outline of activities and discussion topics for the lesson,…

Martin, Sabrina Budasi

81

Looking Back in Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Often after students solve a problem they believe they have accomplished their mission and stop further exploration. The purpose of this article is to discuss ways to encourage students to "look back" so as to maximise their learning opportunities. According to Polya, by "looking back" at a completed solution, by reconsidering and re-examining the…

Cai, Jinfa; Brook, Michael

2006-01-01

82

Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)  

E-print Network

the summer. The chemical mechanisms associated with ozone production are so complex that emission reductions of ozone precursors may not necessarily decrease the ozone production rate, depending on the area wherePSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN

Nizkorodov, Sergey

83

Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains  

E-print Network

Outline Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains Natural Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains Natural Language of the Domain Domain Dedicated Virtual Machine Optimizing DDVM Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational

Rus, Teodor

84

Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…

Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.

2010-01-01

85

Calculator solves pipe flow problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For facilitating pipe-flow calculations that involve the horizontal flow of constant-density fluids, a simple program tailored to the TI-59 hand-held calculator uses the Darcy pressure-drop formula (modified for expressing the friction factor) to compute the unknown parameter needed to solve the fluid problem. Instead of several friction-factor equations applicable only in the individual flow regimes, the program uses a single,

1980-01-01

86

Problem Solving and Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, presents a framework for thinking about knowledge and its organization that can account for known expert-novice differences in knowledge storage and problem solving behavior. The author argues that interpreting any relationship between the ability to answer qualitative and quantitative questions requires a model of cognition, and that PER should seek to develop assessments that monitor component aspects of developing expertise.

Gerace, William J.

2006-12-06

87

Problem Solving and Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, presents a framework for thinking about knowledge and its organization that can account for known expert-novice differences in knowledge storage and problem solving behavior. The author argues that interpreting any relationship between the ability to answer qualitative and quantitative questions requires a model of cognition, and that PER should seek to develop assessments that monitor component aspects of developing expertise.

Gerace, William J.

2010-04-30

88

Problem Solving: Bubble Gum Contest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip presents students engaged in The Common Core Practice Standard #1âMake sense of problems and persevere in solving them. The learners gather data for a bubble gum contest, as part of a larger activity involving recording data and writing up results. Students understand the problem and persevere with the task as they independently go to other classrooms to conduct their survey. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

89

Calculator solves pipe flow problems  

SciTech Connect

For facilitating pipe-flow calculations that involve the horizontal flow of constant-density fluids, a simple program tailored to the TI-59 hand-held calculator uses the Darcy pressure-drop formula (modified for expressing the friction factor) to compute the unknown parameter needed to solve the fluid problem. Instead of several friction-factor equations applicable only in the individual flow regimes, the program uses a single, full-range friction-factor equation with three sets of coefficients to suit the conditions of the problem.

Verma, C.P.

1980-07-28

90

Teaching Problem Solving to College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes steps of teaching problem solving to college students and provides examples in the context of a university course. The steps involve (1) identifying the types of problems and types of problem solving methods to be covered, (2) instructing the students in problem-recognition and problem solving methods, along with ways of…

Malouff, John M.

2011-01-01

91

On Spurious Numerics in Solving Reactive Equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the behavior of high order shock-capturing schemes for problems with stiff source terms and discontinuities and on corresponding numerical prediction strategies. The studies by Yee et al. (2012) and Wang et al. (2012) focus only on solving the reactive system by the fractional step method using the Strang splitting (Strang 1968). It is a common practice by developers in computational physics and engineering simulations to include a cut off safeguard if densities are outside the permissible range. Here we compare the spurious behavior of the same schemes by solving the fully coupled reactive system without the Strang splitting vs. using the Strang splitting. Comparison between the two procedures and the effects of a cut off safeguard is the focus the present study. The comparison of the performance of these schemes is largely based on the degree to which each method captures the correct location of the reaction front for coarse grids. Here "coarse grids" means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows of similar problem setup. It is remarked that, in order to resolve the sharp reaction front, local refinement beyond standard mesh density is still needed.

Kotov, D. V; Yee, H. C.; Wang, W.; Shu, C.-W.

2013-01-01

92

Developing Problem Solving Skills for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post the author explores another tool for the problem-solving toolbox: Wish for an easier problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of ways students could use this strategy are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "One Step at a Time" that is best solved utilizing this strategy.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-04-02

93

King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and applying…

Borchardt, Donald A.

94

Numerical methods for solving approximating kinetic equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the numerical solution of the kinetic equation of the incomplete third successive approximation for a pseudo-Maxwellian gas. The solution to the equation must incorporate the following features: (1) a method for computing the collision term, (2) a rule for computing velocity space integrals, (3) an iterative procedure, and (4) a numerical scheme for solving the kinetic equation

E. M. Shakhov

1975-01-01

95

Strategies of Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Artificial Intelligence is concerned with problem solving in which groups solve tasks. In this paper we describe stra­ tegies of cooperation that groups require to solve shared tasks effectively. We discuss such strategies in the context of a specific group problem solving application: collision avoidance in air traffic control. Experimental findings with four distinct air-traffic control systems, each implementing

Stephanie J. Cammarata; David Mcarthur; Randall Steeb

1983-01-01

96

Big vs little problems :What is Problem Solving?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In this wiki page, the focus is on those problems--big and small--that encourage students to think, ask questions, try a variety of problem-solving approaches, and discuss their strategies and solutions. It points out the vast difference between numerical problems dressed up as episodes of everyday life and real mathematics used every day to facilitate understanding and decision making. Built on the ideas found in the NCTM Standards, the Background section offers pedagogical examples and resources to expand teachers' understanding of mathematics and problem solving. The Activities sections feature selected online resources that are useful in expanding student thinking as they learn to become problem solvers in math class and beyond.

Spicer, Judy

2005-03-01

97

Statistical Education Through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistical Education Through Problem Solving (STEPS) was a collaborative project between seven universities throughout the United Kingdom "to develop problem-based teaching and learning materials for statistics." The materials draw on specific problems arising in Biology, Business, Geography and Psychology to help students learn that statistical issues are "important natural parts of the process of reaching conclusions." The software developed as a result of this project, which utilizes the computer and graphical illustration to support learning, is available to educational institutions free of charge and can be downloaded from this website. (Note that other organizations are expected to purchase the software.) A glossary of statistical terms is provided in the software program as well as on this website. Although the funding for the project ended in 1995 and the website was last updated in January 2004, the material is still current and useful for teaching statistics. The authors note that the STEPS modules are intended to be used to support existing coursework, and "not intended to replace lecturing staff or to provide a self-study course in statistics."

2005-11-07

98

Flexibility in Problem Solving: The Case of Equation Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on…

Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

2008-01-01

99

Instructors' Ideas about Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has developed an interview tool to investigate physics faculty views about the learning and teaching of problem solving. In the part of the interview dealing with grading, faculty members were asked to evaluate a set of five student solutions and explain their reasons for the grades that they assigned. Preliminary analysis on two of the five student solutions was done on six physics faculty members from a large research university. The results indicate that faculty members hold conflicting beliefs when grading between valuing reasoning in student solutions and wanting to give students the benefit of the doubt. This paper illustrates the hypothesis that physics faculty hold conflicting values when grading, and describes how the research university faculty resolved their conflicts.

2010-04-09

100

Mathematics As Problem Solving Math250....  

E-print Network

Mathematics As Problem Solving Math250.... Instructor: Dr. M. Shiyyab, mathematics Dept. (637, or 1999. Course Objective: 1. To improve your mathematical problem solving ability, including reasoning. 2: Will include individual and group problem solving; reading from the text and other sources ( to be handed out

101

LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

2011-01-01

102

Collis-Romberg Mathematical Problem Solving Profiles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving has become a focus of mathematics programs in Australia in recent years, necessitating the assessment of students' problem-solving abilities. This manual provides a problem-solving assessment and teaching resource package containing four elements: (1) profiles assessment items; (2) profiles diagnostic forms for recording individual…

Collis, K. F.; Romberg, T. A.

103

Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2013-01-01

104

Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

Ouellette, Hugh

1979-01-01

105

Community-powered problem solving.  

PubMed

Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections. PMID:23593769

Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

2013-04-01

106

Gender Differences in Advanced Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategy flexibility in mathematical problem solving was investigated. In Studies 1 and 2, high school juniors and seniors solved Scholastic Assessment Test–Mathematics (SAT-M) problems classified as conventional or unconventional. Algorithmic solution strategies were students' default choice for both types of problems across conditions that manipulated item format and solution time. Use of intuitive strategies on unconventional problems was evident only

Ann M. Gallagher; Richard De Lisi; Patricia C. Holst; Ann V. McGillicuddy-De Lisi; Mary Morely; Cara Cahalan

2000-01-01

107

Session Four: Communication II, Problem-Solving,  

E-print Network

COMMUNICATION II, PROBLEM-SOLVING, & GIVING DIRECTIONS MATERIALS NEEDED: Parent Handbooks Learner Outcomes/Skills members to use communication skills to say what they want and determine what the problem is. Problem83 Session Four: Communication II, Problem-Solving, and Giving Directions #12;84 SESSION FOUR

108

Super 7: Daily Exercises in Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a year-long program of daily exercises in problem solving for 2nd and 3rd grade students that presents 144 lessons, each with seven problems. The problems cover number sense, computation, measurements, geometry, problem solving, and patterns. The material is presented in a sequential fashion with concepts repeated and expanded, and…

Hamilton, Octavia

109

Assessment of Student Problem Solving Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is a complex process important both in itself and as a tool for learning physics. Currently there is no standard way to measure problem solving that is independent of physics topic, pedagogy, and problem characteristics. At Minnesota we have been developing a rubric to evaluate studentsâ written solutions to physics problems that is easy to use and reasonably valid and reliable. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: useful description, physics approach, specific application of physics, math procedures, and logical progression. An important test of the instrument is to check whether these categories as represented in studentsâ written solutions correspond to processes students engage in during problem solving. Eight problem-solving interviews were conducted with students enrolled in an introductory university physics course to compare what students write down during problem solving with what they say they were thinking about as determined by their interview statements.

Docktor, Jennifer; Heller, Kenneth

2010-01-19

110

Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.

Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.

1993-01-01

111

Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.

Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil

1993-01-01

112

Task Variables in Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework for research in problem solving is provided by categorizing and defining variables describing problem tasks. A model is presented in an article by Kulm for the classification of task variables into broad categories. The model attempts to draw realtionships between these categories of task variables and the stages of problem solving…

Goldin, Gerald A., Ed.; McClintock, C. Edwin, Ed.

113

Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef

2013-01-01

114

Solving large sparse eigenvalue problems on supercomputers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important problem in scientific computing consists in finding a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a very large and sparse matrix. The most popular methods to solve these problems are based on projection techniques on appropriate subspaces. The main attraction of these methods is that they only require the use of the matrix in the form of matrix by vector multiplications. The implementations on supercomputers of two such methods for symmetric matrices, namely Lanczos' method and Davidson's method are compared. Since one of the most important operations in these two methods is the multiplication of vectors by the sparse matrix, methods of performing this operation efficiently are discussed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each method are compared and implementation aspects are discussed. Numerical experiments on a one processor CRAY 2 and CRAY X-MP are reported. Possible parallel implementations are also discussed.

Philippe, Bernard; Saad, Youcef

1988-01-01

115

Authentic assessment of students' problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving curricular materials and practices aimed at complex cognitive processes such as problem solving requires careful planning and useful tools for assessment. To illustrate the challenges of measuring a change in students' problem solving in physics, we present the results of and a reflection on a pilot assessment of the effectiveness of computer problem-solving coaches [1] in a large (200+ student) section of an introductory physics course.

Xu, Qing; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Aryal, Bijaya

2013-01-01

116

Authentic assessment of students' problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Improving curricular materials and practices aimed at complex cognitive processes such as problem solving requires careful planning and useful tools for assessment. To illustrate the challenges of measuring a change in studentsâ problem solving in physics, we present the results of and a reflection on a pilot assessment of the effectiveness of computer problem-solving coaches in a large (200+ student) section of an introductory physics course.

Xu, Qing; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Aryal, Bijaya

2013-08-05

117

Cultivating Problem Solving Skills via a New Problem Categorization Scheme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When one looks at STEM disciplines as a whole, the need for effective problem solving skills is a commonality. However, studies indicate that the bulk of students who graduate from problem-solving intensive programs display little increase in their problem solving abilities. Also, there is little evidence for transfer of general skills from one subject area to another. Furthermore, the types of problems typically encountered in introductory STEM courses do not often cultivate the skills students will need when solving âreal-worldâ problems. Initial efforts to develop and implement an interdisciplinary problem categorization matrix as a tool for instructional design are described. The matrix, which is independent of content, shows promise as a means for promoting useful problem-solving discussion among faculty, designing problem-solving intensive courses, and instructing students in developing real-world problem solving skills.

Harper, Kathleen A.; Freuler, Richard; Demel, John

2007-11-25

118

Numerically solving an equation for fractional powers of elliptic operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An equation for a fractional power of the second-order elliptic operator is considered. It is solved numerically using a time-dependent problem for a pseudo-parabolic equation. For the auxiliary Cauchy problem, the standard two-level schemes are applied. Stability conditions are obtained for the fully discrete schemes under the consideration. The numerical results are presented for a model of two-dimensional problem with a fractional power of an elliptic operator. The dependence of accuracy on grids in time and in space is studied.

Vabishchevich, Petr N.

2015-02-01

119

Common Core: Solve Math Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

Strom, Erich

2012-01-01

120

Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)

Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette

2003-01-01

121

Characteristics of problem solving success in physics   

E-print Network

Skills in problem solving, including finding and applying the appropriate knowledge to a problem, are important learning outcomes from the completion of a Physics degree at University. This thesis investigates the ...

Wallace, Marsali Beth

2014-06-28

122

Children Solving Problems. The Developing Child Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The developmental increase in the ability to solve problems is a puzzle. Does it come from basic changes in mental skills, or is it a matter of practice? This book from the Developing Child series synthesizes recent research examining children's problem-solving skills development. Chapter 1 presents the major themes: (1) there is increasing…

Thornton, Stephanie

123

Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…

Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim

2012-01-01

124

Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

2014-01-01

125

Problem Solving Under Time-Constraints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of how automated and controlled processing can be mixed in computer simulations of problem solving is proposed. It is based on previous work by Hunt and Lansman (1983), who developed a model of problem solving that could reproduce the data obtained with several attention and performance paradigms, extending production-system notation to…

Richardson, Michael; Hunt, Earl

126

Dialectical and devil's advocate problem-solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years an increasing amount of interest has been generated in the application of dialectical methodology to strategic and operational problem-solving. This paper first examines the existing research evidence and then introduces the Dialectical Problem-Solving Technology (DPST) based on the Dialectical Materialism Inquiry System. The results of an empirical investigation into the effectiveness and impact of High Structure (DPST),

Michael N. Chanin; Harris J. Shapiro

1984-01-01

127

Presenting a Model of Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two questions are dealt with: (1) Can those strategies or behaviors which enable experts to solve problems well be characterized, and (2) Can students be trained to use such strategies? A problem-solving course for college students is described and the model on which the course is based is outlined in an attempt to answer these questions. The…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

128

Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

Brown, Wayne

2007-01-01

129

Teaching Problem Solving Through Cooperative Grouping. Part 1: Group Versus Individual Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an experiment that was conducted to investigate the effects of cooperative group learning on the problem solving performance of college students in a large introductory physics course. An explicit problem solving strategy was taught in the course, and students practiced using the strategy to solve problems in mixed-ability cooperative groups. A technique was developed to evaluate students' problem solving performance and determine the difficulty of context-rich problems. It was found that better problem solutions emerged through collaboration than were achieved by individuals working alone. The instructional approach improved the problem solving performance of students at all ability levels.

Heller, Patricia; Keith, Ronald; Anderson, Scott

2006-06-19

130

Cognitive Skills Used to Solve Mathematical Word Problems and Numerical Operations: A Study of 6- to 7-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between skills that underpin mathematical word problems and those that underpin numerical operations, such as addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Sixty children aged 6-7 years were tested on measures of mathematical ability, reading accuracy, reading comprehension, verbal intelligence and…

Bjork, Isabel Maria; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine

2013-01-01

131

Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 33-question research-based multiple-choice survey is designed to evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards physics problem solving. The survey is based on investigations of responses from introductory physics students, graduate students, and faculty members. It expands upon the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey (Marx and Cummings, 2007) to also consider approaches to problem solving and different levels of problem solving expertise. Statistical results have shown the survey to be reliable and valid. A summary of the construction and analysis of the survey is available in A. J. Mason and C. Singh, "Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving", PRST-PER, 6 (2), 020124 (2010). This survey is free for use by instructors in their classroom. The expert-like responses to the survey are enclosed.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-05-10

132

Physics Problem Solving Research Using Protocols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more effective teaching methods for physics courses because such programs can be the basis for computer-assisted instruction, or CAI. This type of instruction combined with the program could answer questions about solving various physics problems and could also have the ability to analyze where the student went wrong in his or her solution(s). It is for reasons such as these that it is important to enhance the amount of research going into physics problem solving strategies. (Contains 12 references.)

Brekke, Stewart

2006-12-06

133

New Approaches for Solving the Diagnosis Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, the number of Earth orbiters and deep-space probes has grown dramatically and is expected to continue to do so in the future as miniaturization technologies drive spacecraft to become more numerous and more complex. This rate of growth has brought a new focus on autonomous and self-preserving systems that depend on fault diagnosis. Although diagnosis is needed for any autonomous system, current approaches are almost uniformly ad hoc, inefficient, and incomplete. Systematic methods of general diagnosis exist in literature, but they all suffer from two major drawbacks that severely limit their practical applications. First, they tend to be large and complex and hence difficult to apply. Second and more importantly, in order to find the minimal diagnosis set, i.e., the minimal set of faulty components, they rely on algorithms with exponential computational cost and hence are highly impractical for application to many systems of interest. In this article, we propose a two-fold approach to overcoming these two limitations and to developing a new and powerful diagnosis engine. First, we propose a novel and compact reconstruction of the general diagnosis engine (GDE) as one of the most fundamental approaches to model-based diagnosis. We then present a novel algorithmic approach for calculation of the minimal diagnosis set. Using a powerful yet simple representation of the calculation of the minimal diagnosis set, we map the problem onto two well-known problems -- that is, the Boolean satisfiability and 0/1 integer programming problems. The mapping onto the Boolean satisfiability problem enables the use of very efficient algorithms with a superpolynomial rather than an exponential complexity for the problem. The mapping onto the 0/1 integer programming problem enables the use of a variety of algorithms that can efficiently solve the problem for up to several thousand components. These new algorithms are a significant improvement over the existing ones, enabling efficient diagnosis of large, complex systems. In addition, the latter mapping allows one, for the first time, to determine the bound on the solution, i.e., the minimum number of faulty components, before solving the problem. This is a powerful insight that can be exploited to develop yet more efficient algorithms for the problem.

Fijany, A.; Vatan, F.; Barrett, A.; Mackey, R.

2002-01-01

134

Application of Theorem Proving to Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how an extension of the resolution proof procedure can be used to con­ struct problem solutions. The extended proof procedure can solve problems involving state transformations. The paper explores several alternate problem representations and provides a discussion of solutions to sample problems including the \\

C. Cordell Green

1969-01-01

135

Computer Simulation & Problem Solving in Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving is an essential skill in the study of genetics. Genetics problems have traditionally come from laboratory activities and textbook situations. Recently computer-based problems have been available to complement these standard sources. This report focusses on the use of computer-based problems in the study of genetics. Discriptions…

Kinnear, Judith F.

136

Solving the Byzantine Postman Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last several decades, there have been numerous sys- tems proposed which aim to preserve the anonymity of the recipient of some data. Some have involved trusted third-parties or trusted hardware; others have been constructed on top of link-layer anonymity systems or mix networks. In this paper, we examine the Pynchon Gate (34), a pseudonymous mes- sage system which

Len Sassaman; Bart Preneel

137

Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

2009-01-01

138

The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has four…

Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene

2005-01-01

139

Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)  

MedlinePLUS

... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...

140

Solving the Tulsa ozone problem  

SciTech Connect

Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.

Wagner, K.K. [Atmospheric Information Systems, Norman, OK (United States); Wilson, J.D. [Wilson Consulting Group, Tulsa, OK (United States); Gibeau, E. [Aeromet Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1998-12-31

141

New computer program solves wide variety of heat flow problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boeing Engineering Thermal Analyzer /BETA/ computer program uses numerical methods to provide accurate heat transfer solutions to a wide variety of heat flow problems. The program solves steady-state and transient problems in almost any situation that can be represented by a resistance-capacitance network.

Almond, J. C.

1966-01-01

142

Solving a Spacecraft Design Problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have probably all been amazed at the ingenuity of spacecraft engineers when we see some of the solutions they invent for such problems as landing a roving vehicle on Mars-as engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory did for NASA's Mars Pathfinder project-without using retro-rockets or even putting a spacecraft in orbit first.

Fisher, D. K.

1998-01-01

143

Resource Activation Patterns In Expert Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the analysis of video recordings of physics experts solving novel problems involving solar cells, which involved such advanced physics topics as complex circuits and semiconductors. By performing a fine grained analysis using a resource based model of cognition, we determined what resources experts use while reasoning in the current context and how they used them. By analyzing critical events in the problem solving process, we searched for meaningful patterns of resource activation to help gain insight into expert problem solving processes.

Jones, Darrick C.; Malysheva, Marina; Richards, Aj; PlaninĺĄic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

2014-01-31

144

Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.

Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

2013-05-01

145

A Dialectic Approach to Problem-Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the dynamics of problem-solving in a framework which captures two key features of that activity. The first feature is that problem-solving is a social game where a number of problem-solvers interact, rely on other agents to tackle parts of a problem, and regularly communicate the outcomes of their investigations. The second feature is that problem-solving requires a careful control over the set of hypotheses that might be needed at various stages of the investigation for the problem to be solved; more particularly, that any incorrect hypothesis be eventually refuted in the face of some evidence: all agents can expect such evidence to be brought to their knowledge whenever it holds. Our presentation uses a very general form of logic programs, viewed as sets of rules that can be activated and fire, depending on what a problem-solver is willing to explore, what a problem-solver is willing to hypothesize, and what a problem-solver knows about the problem to be solved in the form of data or background knowledge.

Martin, Eric; Sallantin, Jean

146

Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

2011-01-01

147

A CHILDHOOD ATTITUDE INVENTORY FOR PROBLEM SOLVING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A 60-ITEM GROUP ADMINISTERED PAPER-PENCIL ATTITUDE INVENTORY COMPRISED OF TWO SCALES, ONE ASSESSING THE CHILD'S BELIEFS ABOUT THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS (SCALE I) AND THE OTHER ASSESSING THE CHILD'S SELF-CONFIDENCE IN UNDERTAKING PROBELM-SOLVING ACTIVITIES (SCALE II). DATA FROM 325 FIFTH-GRADE AND SIXTH-GRADE…

COVINGTON, MARTIN V.

148

Frameworks for Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of cooperation in distributed problem solving are considered: task-sharing and result-sharing. In the former, nodes assist each other by sharing the computational load for the execution of subtasks of the overall problem. In the latter, nodes assist each other by sharing partial results which are based on somewhat different perspectives on the overall problem. Different perspectives arise because

REID G. SM; Randall Davis

1981-01-01

149

Solving Probability Problems Using Monte Carlo Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a strategy that allows students to experiment with probability without applying formulas to solve problems. Students are able to intuitively develop concepts of probability before formal definitions and properties. Sample problems are included along with BASIC programs for some of the problems. (KR)

Rudolph, William B.; Tvrdik, Debra

1991-01-01

150

SITUATED REPRESENTATION: SOLVING THE HANDCODING PROBLEM  

E-print Network

SITUATED REPRESENTATION: SOLVING THE HANDCODING PROBLEM WITH EMERGENT STRUCTURED REPRESENTATION representation. This is a result of limiting assumptions about the nature of representation: what makes a representation about something else. These limiting assumptions are reflected in methodological approaches

151

Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.  

PubMed

Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E

2012-10-01

152

Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas  

PubMed Central

Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

2012-01-01

153

PULSATION DAMPER SOLVES ANALYZER PROBLEM (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the use of a pulsation damper to solve a severe output signal interference problem with a Beckman Model 402 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer. The analyzer was used in a computerized data-gathering system. The problem was traced to compressions/decompressions of flow...

154

Solving Word Problems Using Story Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn how to use their knowledge of beginning, middle, and end to solve word problems that include result unknown, change unknown, and start unknown. They will learn how to use a modified story map to write an equation to represent the problem.

2012-10-16

155

Gender Differences in Advanced Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined strategy flexibility in mathematical problem solving among high school students on Scholastic Assessment Test-Mathematics problems and among college students on Graduate Record Examination-Quantitative items. Results suggested that strategy flexibility was a source of gender differences in mathematics ability as assessed by…

Gallagher, Ann M.; DeLisi, Richard; Holst, Patricia C; McGillicuddy-DeLisi, Ann V.; Morely, Mary; Cahala, Cara

2000-01-01

156

Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The activities in this series may be used as stand-alone exercises but are designed to support Math Forum's Problems of the Week and to help students develop, formalize, and reflect on their problem-solving strategies. Membership subscription is required.

157

Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)

Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.

1985-01-01

158

Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search Readings: Chapter 3 of Russell & Norvig. Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/89 #12;Example: Romania Problem: On holiday in Romania; currently in Arad, Fagaras, Bucharest Artificial Intelligence ­ p.2/89 #12;Example: Romania Giurgiu Urziceni Hirsova Eforie

Srinivasan, Padmini

159

Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search Readings: Chapter 3 of Russell & Norvig. Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/89 Example: Romania Problem: On holiday in Romania; currently in Arad. Flight, Bucharest Artificial Intelligence ­ p.2/89 Example: Romania Giurgiu Urziceni Hirsova Eforie Neamt Oradea

Srinivasan, Padmini

160

How Effective Principals Think while Solving Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem-solving processes and strategies of ten school principals with reputations for high effectiveness were studied. Verbal protocols were gathered through unstructured interviews while principals were working on a set of five cases. Analysis of the data was guided, but not constrained, by a set of processes and strategies for problem…

Lazaridou, Angeliki

2006-01-01

161

Connecting Concepts to Problem-solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, offers a new way to approach homework problems in electrostatics through the use of âÂÂbridging exercisesâ as part of studentsâ homework. These exercises encourage students to solve problems by starting with developed physics concepts and models.

Kanim, Stephen

2010-06-18

162

Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…

Contreras, José N.

2014-01-01

163

Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)

Angseesing, J. P. A.

1978-01-01

164

Problem solving and decisionmaking: An integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt was made to redress a critical fault of decisionmaking and problem solving research-a lack of a standard method to classify problem or decision states or conditions. A basic model was identified and expanded to indicate a possible taxonomy of conditions which may be used in reviewing previous research or for systematically pursuing new research designs. A generalization of the basic conditions was then made to indicate that the conditions are essentially the same for both concepts, problem solving and decisionmaking.

Dieterly, D. L.

1980-01-01

165

The Development of Students' Problem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

166

Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

2007-01-01

167

Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.

Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho

2014-09-01

168

Enhancing chemistry problem-solving achievement using problem categorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enhancement of chemistry students' skill in problem solving through problem categorization is the focus of this study. Twenty-four students in a freshman chemistry course for health professionals are taught how to solve problems using the explicit method of problem solving (EMPS) (Bunce & Heikkinen, 1986). The EMPS is an organized approach to problem analysis which includes encoding the information given in a problem (Given, Asked For), relating this to what is already in long-term memory (Recall), and planning a solution (Overall Plan) before a mathematical solution is attempted. In addition to the EMPS training, treatment students receive three 40-minute sessions following achievement tests in which they are taught how to categorize problems. Control students use this time to review the EMPS solutions of test questions. Although problem categorization is involved in one section of the EMPS (Recall), treatment students who received specific training in problem categorization demonstrate significantly higher achievement on combination problems (those problems requiring the use of more than one chemical topic for their solution) at (p = 0.01) than their counterparts. Significantly higher achievement for treatment students is also measured on an unannounced test (p = 0.02). Analysis of interview transcripts of both treatment and control students illustrates a Rolodex approach to problem solving employed by all students in this study. The Rolodex approach involves organizing equations used to solve problems on mental index cards and flipping through them, matching units given when a new problem is to be solved. A second phenomenon observed during student interviews is the absence of a link in the conceptual understanding of the chemical concepts involved in a problem and the problem-solving skills employed to correctly solve problems. This study shows that explicit training in categorization skills and the EMPS can lead to higher achievement in complex problem-solving situations (combination problems and unannounced test). However, such achievement may be limited by the lack of linkages between students' conceptual understanding and improved problem-solving skill.

Bunce, Diane M.; Gabel, Dorothy L.; Samuel, John V.

169

Problem-Solving Appraisal in Counseling and with Different Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heppner, Witty and Dixon have presented the development and theoretical base of the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). They link it to numerous validity and reliability studies, with findings in predicted directions. This article expresses concerns about its use as a target in counseling and its applicability to individuals of the nonmajority…

Lucas, Margaretha S.

2004-01-01

170

Using Dynamic Programming for Solving Variational Problems in Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic programming is discussed as an approach to solving variational problems in vision. Dynamic programming ensures global optimality of the solution, is numerically stable, and allows for hard constraints to be enforced on the behavior of the solution within a natural and straightforward structure. As a specific example of the approach's efficacy, applying dynamic programming to the energy-minimizing active contours

Amir A. Amini; Terry E. Weymouth; Ramesh Jain

1990-01-01

171

AI tools in computer based problem solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

Beane, Arthur J.

1988-01-01

172

Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.

Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui

1991-01-01

173

Using PLATO to Teach Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the results of three studies which investigated the use of PLATO to teach problem solving. Subjects were 244 children from kindergarten through third grade. The first study explored the extent to which kindergartners and second graders used the knowledge about which answers were right and which were wrong to develop the correct strategy to solve a novel picture problem. The next study looked at the procedures used by kindergartners and second graders while they were in the process of trying to get the answer. The third study considered three conditions of teaching first and third graders the necessary problem solving skills: experience only, feedback consisting of a visual record of the student's work on the first five problems, and interactive instructional feedback on how to solve each problem that the child had done wrong. Abstracts, methods, results, and discussions are given for each of the studies. Results of this research led to a post hoc study which is described. Seven figures show sample displays and nine references are also given.

Steinberg, Esther R.

2006-12-07

174

Measures of Problem-Solving Performance and of Problem-Solving Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some easily graded measures of problem-solving processes are introduced, and the impact of a month-long intensive problem-solving course on a selected group of college freshmen and sophomores is demonstrated. The measures are thought to have shown themselves to be both reliable and informative. (MP)

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

1982-01-01

175

Assessing Affect after Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks: Validating the Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.

2013-01-01

176

Solving the Hard Problem of Bertrand's Paradox  

E-print Network

Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an "easy" problem and a "hard" problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible "ways of selecting" an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible "ways of selecting" an interaction, which we call a 'universal average'. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.

Diederik Aerts; Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi

2014-06-27

177

Representations in Problem Solving: A Case Study with Optimization Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Representations play an essential role in mathematical thinking. They favor the understanding of mathematical concepts and stimulate the development of flexible and versatile thinking in problem solving. Here our focus is on their use in optimization problems, a type of problem considered important in mathematics teaching and…

Villegas, Jose L.; Castro, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jose

2009-01-01

178

Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method  

SciTech Connect

We examine the possibility of using the standard Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems arising from electronic structure calculation. We show that the Jacobian matrix associated with this nonlinear system has a special structure that can be exploited to reduce the computational complexity of the Newton's method. Preliminary numerical experiments indicate that the Newton's method can be more efficient for small problems in which a few smallest eigenpairs are needed.

Gao, Weiguo; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.

2009-07-02

179

Can quantum computing solve classically unsolvable problems?  

E-print Network

T. D. Kieu has claimed that a quantum computing procedure can solve a classically unsolvable problem. Recent work of W. D. Smith has shown that Kieu's central mathematical claim cannot be sustained. Here, a more general critique is given of Kieu's proposal and some suggestions are made regarding the Church-Turing thesis.

Andrew Hodges

2005-12-29

180

Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems  

E-print Network

Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems Marco Dorigo IRIDIA Universit´e Libre de Bruxelles 50 Avenue F. Roosevelt B-1050 Brussels, Belgium mdorigo@ulb.ac.be Abstract. The ant algorithms research field builds on the idea that the study of the behavior of ant colonies or other social insects

Libre de Bruxelles, UniversitĂŠ

181

Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…

Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz

2009-01-01

182

Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of…

Wisehart, Gary; Mandell, Mark

2008-01-01

183

Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of biology, and apply them to new sets of facts.

Gary Wisehart

2008-03-01

184

Will Biotech Crops Solve World Problems?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson examines implications of biotechnology on agriculture. Students can discuss the pro & con arguments and economics of GM food labeling, create a dinner menu of GM food, develop a GM crop testing company, submit ideas for a GM crop that may solve a selected nation's problem, update statistics & data used in the original article... and more!

Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College;)

2003-02-01

185

Problem-Solving Research with Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether analogy or means-ends strategies (heuristics) would be used to solve geometric puzzle-like problems, which were generated by a microcomputer. The subjects in the two-group experiment were undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at Potsdam College (New York). One group of subjects learned…

Licht, Norman

186

Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

Li, Daoquan

2012-01-01

187

Tucson Teachers' Circle Mathematical Problem Solving  

E-print Network

The Tucson Teachers' Circle Mathematical Problem Solving In Community with Middle School and High School Math Teachers Sponsored by: Teachers' Circle Facilitators are: Virginia Bohme vbohme@math.arizona.edu Ji Li jili@math.arizona.edu Visit our website: http://ime.math

Zakharov, Vladimir

188

Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…

McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

189

Developing students' physics problem-solving skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes a protocol designed to help students taking their first undergraduate physics course in acquiring the basic skills of physics problem-solving. The educational effectiveness of this protocol for mature students in distance education has been extensively evaluated, and it is now being used as the basis for an interactive multimedia learning package.

Bolton, John; Ross, Shelagh

2005-11-03

190

How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…

Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

2013-01-01

191

A MEMORY-BASED PROBLEM SOLVING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectural design activity requires some of the highest cognitive abilities of human beings, including creativity, synthesis and problem solving. Ambiguity, uncertainty and parallel scenarios are central to the early phases of the design process. Large amounts of information are manipulated in a short time at early conceptual design. This dynamic phase involves a dynamic search process for good concept solutions

H. M. G. Bártolo; P. J. S. Bártolo

192

Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitive…

Ng, Kit Ee Dawn

2010-01-01

193

Introduction to Ocean Acoustics: Guided Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about sound propagation in the ocean through instructor-guided problem solving. The activity promotes a conceptual understanding of the physical and chemical factors that influence ocean acoustics, with applications to how whales communicate over long distances. The activity serves as a way to introduce the topic of ocean sound.

Boucher, Joceline

194

Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)

Stewart, James

1983-01-01

195

Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

Crul, Liselore

2014-01-01

196

Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

2006-01-01

197

Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

Polland, Mark J.

198

Creative Problem Solving: A Comparison of Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored the relationship between creative problem solving and group decision making techniques as measured by the outcome variables identified in earlier studies. Subjects, 46 undergraduate students enrolled in communication courses at 2 midwestern universities, were divided into 3 groups, a Nominal Group Technique (NGT), Unstructured…

Danielson, Mary Ann; Mitchell, Nancy

199

Some new problems in numerical integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we examine the numerical computation of the (multiple) integrals generated by Galerkin methods applied to two nonstandard hypersingular integral equations, which are of interest by their own. These equations are used to solve two classical electromagnetic problems that are briefly described.

Monegato, G.

2007-12-01

200

Colorado Assessment of Problem Solving (CAPS) -- Identifying student's problem solving skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem solving is central to any physics curriculum and physics educators have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving; however, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because CAPS removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. CAPS has been developed and validated at Colorado and measures a person's competence in 44 separate skills that are used when solving a wide range of in-depth problems including classical mechanics and quantum mechanics problems. Understanding the specific processes that impact how a person solves a problem identifies which components are specific to physics and those that transfer across discipline, and provides insight for improved methods for teaching. 1. Supported in part by funding from National Science Foundation

Adams, Wendy; Wieman, Carl

2009-05-01

201

Review on solving the forward problem in EEG source analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of electroencephalogram (EEG) source localization is to find the brain areas responsible for EEG waves of interest. It consists of solving forward and inverse problems. The forward problem is solved by starting from a given electrical source and calculating the potentials at the electrodes. These evaluations are necessary to solve the inverse problem which is defined as finding brain sources which are responsible for the measured potentials at the EEG electrodes. Methods While other reviews give an extensive summary of the both forward and inverse problem, this review article focuses on different aspects of solving the forward problem and it is intended for newcomers in this research field. Results It starts with focusing on the generators of the EEG: the post-synaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. These cells generate an extracellular current which can be modeled by Poisson's differential equation, and Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compartments in which these currents flow can be anisotropic (e.g. skull and white matter). In a three-shell spherical head model an analytical expression exists to solve the forward problem. During the last two decades researchers have tried to solve Poisson's equation in a realistically shaped head model obtained from 3D medical images, which requires numerical methods. The following methods are compared with each other: the boundary element method (BEM), the finite element method (FEM) and the finite difference method (FDM). In the last two methods anisotropic conducting compartments can conveniently be introduced. Then the focus will be set on the use of reciprocity in EEG source localization. It is introduced to speed up the forward calculations which are here performed for each electrode position rather than for each dipole position. Solving Poisson's equation utilizing FEM and FDM corresponds to solving a large sparse linear system. Iterative methods are required to solve these sparse linear systems. The following iterative methods are discussed: successive over-relaxation, conjugate gradients method and algebraic multigrid method. Conclusion Solving the forward problem has been well documented in the past decades. In the past simplified spherical head models are used, whereas nowadays a combination of imaging modalities are used to accurately describe the geometry of the head model. Efforts have been done on realistically describing the shape of the head model, as well as the heterogenity of the tissue types and realistically determining the conductivity. However, the determination and validation of the in vivo conductivity values is still an important topic in this field. In addition, more studies have to be done on the influence of all the parameters of the head model and of the numerical techniques on the solution of the forward problem. PMID:18053144

Hallez, Hans; Vanrumste, Bart; Grech, Roberta; Muscat, Joseph; De Clercq, Wim; Vergult, Anneleen; D'Asseler, Yves; Camilleri, Kenneth P; Fabri, Simon G; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lemahieu, Ignace

2007-01-01

202

Discovering the structure of mathematical problem solving.  

PubMed

The goal of this research is to discover the stages of mathematical problem solving, the factors that influence the duration of these stages, and how these stages are related to the learning of a new mathematical competence. Using a combination of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and hidden Markov models (HMM), we found that participants went through 5 major phases in solving a class of problems: A Define Phase where they identified the problem to be solved, an Encode Phase where they encoded the needed information, a Compute Phase where they performed the necessary arithmetic calculations, a Transform Phase where they performed any mathematical transformations, and a Respond Phase where they entered an answer. The Define Phase is characterized by activity in visual attention and default network regions, the Encode Phase by activity in visual regions, the Compute Phase by activity in regions active in mathematical tasks, the Transform Phase by activity in mathematical and response regions, and the Respond phase by activity in motor regions. The duration of the Compute and Transform Phases were the only ones that varied with condition. Two features distinguished the mastery trials on which participants came to understand a new problem type. First, the duration of late phases of the problem solution increased. Second, there was increased activation in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and angular gyrus (AG), regions associated with metacognition. This indicates the importance of reflection to successful learning. PMID:24746954

Anderson, John R; Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M

2014-08-15

203

Identifying viable "need-solution pairs": Problem solving without problem formulation  

E-print Network

Problem-solving research, and formal problem-solving practice as well, begins with the assumption that a problem has been identified or formulated for solving. The problem-solving process then involves a search for a ...

von Hippel, Eric A.

2013-11-27

204

Models of Competence in Solving Physics Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe a set of two computer-implemented models that solve physics problems in ways characteristic of more and less competent human solvers. The main features accounting for different competences are differences in strategy for selecting physics principles, and differences in the degree of automation in the process of applying a single principle. The models provide a good account of the order in which principles are applied by human solvers working problems in kinematics and dynamics. They also are sufficiently flexible to allow easy extension to several related domains of physics problems.

Larkin, Jill H.; Mcdermott, John; Simon, Dorothea P.; Simon, Herbert A.

2012-05-15

205

A connectionist model for diagnostic problem solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A competition-based connectionist model for solving diagnostic problems is described. The problems considered are computationally difficult in that (1) multiple disorders may occur simultaneously and (2) a global optimum in the space exponential to the total number of possible disorders is sought as a solution. The diagnostic problem is treated as a nonlinear optimization problem, and global optimization criteria are decomposed into local criteria governing node activation updating in the connectionist model. Nodes representing disorders compete with each other to account for each individual manifestation, yet complement each other to account for all manifestations through parallel node interactions. When equilibrium is reached, the network settles into a locally optimal state. Three randomly generated examples of diagnostic problems, each of which has 1024 cases, were tested, and the decomposition plus competition plus resettling approach yielded very high accuracy.

Peng, Yun; Reggia, James A.

1989-01-01

206

Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…

Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.

2012-01-01

207

Spreadsheet modelling for solving combinatorial problems: The vendor selection problem  

E-print Network

Spreadsheets have grown up and became very powerful and easy to use tools in applying analytical techniques for solving business problems. Operations managers, production managers, planners and schedulers can work with them in developing solid and practical Do-It-Yourself Decision Support Systems. Small and Medium size organizations, can apply OR methodologies without the presence of specialized software and trained personnel, which in many cases cannot afford anyway. This paper examines an efficient approach in solving combinatorial programming problems with the use of spreadsheets. A practical application, which demonstrates the approach, concerns the development of a spreadsheet-based DSS for the Multi Item Procurement Problem with Fixed Vendor Cost. The DSS has been build using exclusively standard spreadsheet feature and can solve real problems of substantial size. The benefits and limitations of the approach are also discussed.

Ipsilandis, Pandelis G

2008-01-01

208

Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.

Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

2009-01-24

209

Episodes and Executive Decisions in Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research described here seeks to characterize the "managerial" aspects of expert and novice problem-solving behavior, and to describe the impact of managerial or "executive" actions on success or failure in problem solving. A framework for analyzing protocols of problem-solving sessions based on "episodes" of problem-solving behavior and…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

210

Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

2014-01-01

211

An Open Framework for Cooperative Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid, knowledge-based systems comprise a number of heterogeneous agents, which make use of different knowledge representation languages. The VITAL-KR is a software architecture providing the basic sub-structure for integrating a number of software and human agents which cooperate during problem solving. In this paper we give an overview of the architecture of the VITAL-KR and show how it supports the

Mauro Gaspari; Enrico Motta; Arthur Stutt

1995-01-01

212

Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

2006-01-01

213

Resource Letter RPS-1: Research in problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research in problem solving, especially in physics. The references were compiled with two audiences in mind: physicists who are (or might become) engaged in research on problem solving, and physics instructors who are interested in using research results to improve their students' learning of problem solving. In addition to general references, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: cognitive aspects of problem solving, expert-novice problem-solver characteristics, problem solving in mathematics, alternative problem types, curricular interventions, and the use of computers in problem solving.

Hsu, Leonardo; Brewe, Eric; Foster, Thomas M.; Harper, Kathleen A.

2010-03-11

214

Solving numerical difficulties for element-free Galerkin analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study solves the numerical problems associated with the element-free Galerkin method (EFGM) to perform analyses efficiently in shared-memory computers. The truncation error is generally large for the moving least-squares approximation, and this can be overcome by using orthogonal basis functions, 16-byte floats, or the local origin. Then, the analysis accuracy is similar to that obtained with the reproducing kernel particle approximation. Determining the index array of the global stiffness matrix requires a large amount of computer memory. We thus propose a scheme to overcome this problem using slightly more computer time but much less computer memory. A binary search is also proposed to find the support domain nodes for Gaussian points, and this method is much more efficient than the linear search one. A Fortran module is developed to establish parallel solutions in the EFGM, and the programmer does not need to handle the global stiffness directly.

Ju, S. H.; Hsu, H. H.

2014-02-01

215

Negotiation as a Metaphor for Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the concept of distributed problem solving and define it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. We present a framework called the contract net that specifies

Randall Davis; Reid G. Smith

1983-01-01

216

Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…

Diamond, Lindsay Lile

2012-01-01

217

Solving optimization problems on computational grids.  

SciTech Connect

Multiprocessor computing platforms, which have become more and more widely available since the mid-1980s, are now heavily used by organizations that need to solve very demanding computational problems. Parallel computing is now central to the culture of many research communities. Novel parallel approaches were developed for global optimization, network optimization, and direct-search methods for nonlinear optimization. Activity was particularly widespread in parallel branch-and-bound approaches for various problems in combinatorial and network optimization. As the cost of personal computers and low-end workstations has continued to fall, while the speed and capacity of processors and networks have increased dramatically, 'cluster' platforms have become popular in many settings. A somewhat different type of parallel computing platform know as a computational grid (alternatively, metacomputer) has arisen in comparatively recent times. Broadly speaking, this term refers not to a multiprocessor with identical processing nodes but rather to a heterogeneous collection of devices that are widely distributed, possibly around the globe. The advantage of such platforms is obvious: they have the potential to deliver enormous computing power. Just as obviously, however, the complexity of grids makes them very difficult to use. The Condor team, headed by Miron Livny at the University of Wisconsin, were among the pioneers in providing infrastructure for grid computations. More recently, the Globus project has developed technologies to support computations on geographically distributed platforms consisting of high-end computers, storage and visualization devices, and other scientific instruments. In 1997, we started the metaneos project as a collaborative effort between optimization specialists and the Condor and Globus groups. Our aim was to address complex, difficult optimization problems in several areas, designing and implementing the algorithms and the software infrastructure need to solve these problems on computational grids. This article describes some of the results we have obtained during the first three years of the metaneos project. Our efforts have led to development of the runtime support library MW for implementing algorithms with master-worker control structure on Condor platforms. This work is discussed here, along with work on algorithms and codes for integer linear programming, the quadratic assignment problem, and stochastic linear programmming. Our experiences in the metaneos project have shown that cheap, powerful computational grids can be used to tackle large optimization problems of various types. In an industrial or commercial setting, the results demonstrate that one may not have to buy powerful computational servers to solve many of the large problems arising in areas such as scheduling, portfolio optimization, or logistics; the idle time on employee workstations (or, at worst, an investment in a modest cluster of PCs) may do the job. For the optimization research community, our results motivate further work on parallel, grid-enabled algorithms for solving very large problems of other types. The fact that very large problems can be solved cheaply allows researchers to better understand issues of 'practical' complexity and of the role of heuristics.

Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

2001-05-01

218

Behavioral Correlates of Self-Appraised Problem-Solving Ability: Problem-Solving Skills and Health-Compromising Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the revised social problem-solving model, problem solving skills should be associated with cognitive and behavioral attempts to solve or prevent personal problems. We reasoned that the Approach-Avoidance scale on the Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI; Heppner, 1988) measures problem-solving skills as defined in the model, and predicted that scores on this factor would be predictive of health-compromising behaviors among 96

Frankling J. Godshall; Timothy R. Elliott

1997-01-01

219

The Interference of Stereotype Threat with Women's Generation of Mathematical Problem-Solving Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated whether stereotype threat would depress college women's math performance. In one test, men outperformed women when solving word problems, though women performed equally when problems were converted into numerical equivalents. In another test, participants solved difficult problems in high or reduced stereotype threat conditions. Women…

Quinn, Diane M.; Spencer, Steven J.

2001-01-01

220

Individual differences in solving arithmetic word problems  

PubMed Central

Background With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 3 T, we investigated the neural correlates of visualization and verbalization during arithmetic word problem solving. In the domain of arithmetic, visualization might mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate) results while calculating, and verbalization might mean that numbers and (intermediate) results are verbally repeated during calculation. If the brain areas involved in number processing are domain-specific as assumed, that is, that the left angular gyrus (AG) shows an affinity to the verbal domain, and that the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) shows an affinity to the visual domain, the activation of these areas should show a dependency on an individual’s cognitive style. Methods 36 healthy young adults participated in the fMRI study. The participants habitual use of visualization and verbalization during solving arithmetic word problems was assessed with a short self-report assessment. During the fMRI measurement, arithmetic word problems that had to be solved by the participants were presented in an event-related design. Results We found that visualizers showed greater brain activation in brain areas involved in visual processing, and that verbalizers showed greater brain activation within the left angular gyrus. Conclusions Our results indicate that cognitive styles or preferences play an important role in understanding brain activation. Our results confirm, that strong visualizers use mental imagery more strongly than weak visualizers during calculation. Moreover, our results suggest that the left AG shows a specific affinity to the verbal domain and subserves number processing in a modality-specific way. PMID:23883107

2013-01-01

221

Density-matrix-based algorithm for solving eigenvalue problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast and stable numerical algorithm for solving the symmetric eigenvalue problem is presented. The technique deviates fundamentally from the traditional Krylov subspace iteration based techniques (Arnoldi and Lanczos algorithms) or other Davidson-Jacobi techniques and takes its inspiration from the contour integration and density-matrix representation in quantum mechanics. It will be shown that this algorithm—named FEAST—exhibits high efficiency, robustness, accuracy, and scalability on parallel architectures. Examples from electronic structure calculations of carbon nanotubes are presented, and numerical performances and capabilities are discussed.

Polizzi, Eric

2009-03-01

222

Numerical experience with solving MPECs as NLPs  

E-print Network

Aug 20, 2002 ... Numerical Analysis Report NA/210, Department of Mathematics, University of Dundee. ... This failure of MFCQ implies that the multiplier set is unbounded. and this .... Note that this situation can always be modeled with two ...... Technical Report NA-02/11, Oxford University Computing Laboratory, July 2002.

2002-08-20

223

Curriculum Units in Mathematics and Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute (YNHTI) is an educational partnership between Yale University and the New Haven Public Schools designed to strengthen teaching and learning in local schools. Produced by teachers participating in Institute seminars since 1978, the 100+ volumes containing the teaching units offer many ideas and procedures for teaching English, history, social studies, the languages, the arts, mathematics, and science in elementary, middle, and high schools. From the YNHTI home page, search for units or guides; a full list appears in the Directory of Volumes page. Mathematics curriculum units range from Integrating Mathematical Concepts in the Study of the Atmosphere to A Chronological History of Pi with Developmental Activities in Problem Solving to Practicing Precision: Lessons from Mathematical Language and Writing. Statistics curriculum units range from Paper Airplanes to Scaling the Natural World Using Dimensional Analysis. Each unit includes a guide (synopsis and recommendations), introduction, some lesson plans or sample problems, and bibliographies.

2007-03-10

224

Physics Graduate Studentsâ Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly inluence their motivation to learn and their development of expertise. We administered an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to physics graduate students and analyzed their responses about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in introductory physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory students and physics faculty. Survey responses suggest that graduate students' attitudes about graduate level problem solving sometimes has similar patterns to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Singh, Chandralekha; Mason, Andrew J.

2010-01-18

225

Teaching Problem Solving and Mathematics By Computer: An Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interim report from the National Science Foundation describes the FUNCTIONS program--an ongoing effort to teach problem solving and mathematics by computer. Two problems are discussed: How can math content be taught in a manner which also develops problem solving skills? Also, how does a curriculum organized to develop problem solving skills…

Roman, Richard Allan

226

Problem Solving Activities Made to N-Joy. Monograph #1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses the need to provide problem-solving materials for teachers of mathematics in the upper elementary grades. The activities are designed to: help teachers emphasize problem-solving techniques, develop positive attitudes toward mathematics and problem solving, provide problems that could be used whenever free time exists,…

Association of Mathematics Teachers of New Jersey, Vineland.

227

Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

1988-01-01

228

Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

Billionniere, Elodie V.

229

Using qualitative problem-solving strategies to highlight the role of conceptual knowledge in solving problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on the use of qualitative problem-solving strategies in teaching an introductory, calculus-based physics course as a means of highlighting the role played by conceptual knowledge in solving problems. We found that presenting strategies during lectures and in homework solutions provides an excellent opportunity to model for students the type of concept-based, qualitative reasoning that is valued in our profession, and that student-generated strategies serve a diagnostic function by providing instructors with insights on students' conceptual understanding and reasoning. Finally, we found strategies to be effective pedagogical tools for helping students both to identify principles that could be applied to solve specific problems, as well as to recall the major principles covered in the course months after it was over.

Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.

2005-10-26

230

Solving Fractional Programming Problems based on Swarm Intelligence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach to solve Fractional Programming Problems (FPPs) based on two different Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. The two algorithms are: Particle Swarm Optimization, and Firefly Algorithm. The two algorithms are tested using several FPP benchmark examples and two selected industrial applications. The test aims to prove the capability of the SI algorithms to solve any type of FPPs. The solution results employing the SI algorithms are compared with a number of exact and metaheuristic solution methods used for handling FPPs. Swarm Intelligence can be denoted as an effective technique for solving linear or nonlinear, non-differentiable fractional objective functions. Problems with an optimal solution at a finite point and an unbounded constraint set, can be solved using the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given to show the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The results obtained using the two SI algorithms revealed the superiority of the proposed technique among others in computational time. A better accuracy was remarkably observed in the solution results of the industrial application problems.

Raouf, Osama Abdel; Hezam, Ibrahim M.

2014-04-01

231

Structured Collaboration versus Individual Learning in Solving Physics Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld’s problem-solving episodes. Students took a pre-test and a post-test and had the opportunity to solve six physics problems. Ninety-nine students from a secondary school in Shanghai participated in the study. Students who learnt to solve problems in collaboration and students who learnt to solve problems individually with hints improved their problem-solving skills compared with those who learnt to solve the problems individually without hints. However, it was hard to discern an extra effect for students working collaboratively with hints—although we observed these students working in a more structured way than those in the other groups. We discuss ways to further investigate effective collaborative processes for solving physics problems.

Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning

2006-11-01

232

Numerical stability in problems of linear algebra.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical problems are introduced as mappings from the space of input data to that of the desired output information. Then a numerical process is defined as a prescribed recurrence of elementary operations creating the mapping of the underlying mathematical problem. The ratio of the error committed by executing the operations of the numerical process (the roundoff errors) to the error introduced by perturbations of the input data (initial error) gives rise to the concept of lambda-stability. As examples, several processes are analyzed from this point of view, including, especially, old and new processes for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with tridiagonal matrices. In particular, it is shown how such a priori information can be utilized as, for instance, a knowledge of the row sums of the matrix. Information of this type is frequently available where the system arises in connection with the numerical solution of differential equations.

Babuska, I.

1972-01-01

233

"Quantum machine" to solve quantum "measurement problem"?  

E-print Network

Recently a study of the first superposed mechanical quantum object ("machine") visible to the naked eye was published. However, as we show, it turns out that if the object would actually be observed, i.e. would interact with an optical photon, the quantum behavior should vanish. This, the actual observation, has long been suspected in many interpretations of quantum mechanics to be what makes the transition quantum $\\rightarrow$ classical, but so far it has not been available for direct experimental study in a mechanical system. We show how any interaction, even a purely quantum one, of sufficient strength can constitute a physical "measurement" - essentially the emergence of an effectively classical object - active observation thus being a sufficient but not necessary criterion. So it seems we have in this case of the "quantum machine" a unique possibility to study, and possibly solve, the long-standing "measurement problem" of quantum mechanics.

Johan Hansson

2014-01-23

234

Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems  

PubMed Central

EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941

Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.

2013-01-01

235

Development of a Content Coding System for Marital Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While much research has focused on the processes of marital problem solving, the content of marital problem solving has received considerably less attention. This study examined the initial efforts to develop a method for assessing marital problem solving content. Married individuals (N=36) completed a demographic information sheet, the Dyadic…

Winemiller, David R.; Mitchell, M. Ellen

236

Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

2005-01-01

237

Personal Problem-Solving Activities of Black University Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined personal problem solving activities of Black undergraduates (N=84) using three measures: Problem Solving Inventory; Level of Problem Solving Skills Estimate Form; and Ways of Coping Scale. Results indicated no racial (Black versus White) or geographic (urban versus rural) differences in responses. (BL)

Reeder, Bonita Lynne; Heppner, P. Paul

1985-01-01

238

The Design Process for "PLATO[R] Math Problem Solving."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PLATO Learning, Inc., a developer of computer-based instruction, recently released "Math Problem Solving." This product was designed to teach strategies for solving math problems, and consists of 19 problem-solving activities, ranging from basic math to algebra. Each activity includes tools to help find a solution and rule-based coaching to…

Mulcahy, Robert

2001-01-01

239

Conflict Management: A Premarital Training Program in Mutual Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the effectiveness of a structured educational program to train premarital couples in communication and mutual problem-solving skills. Couples (N=26) participated in a problem-solving training program, while similar couples (N=28) participated in a relationship discussion group. The problem-solving group showed a greater increase in…

Ridley, Carl A.; And Others

1981-01-01

240

Problem Solving in the School Curriculum from a Design Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this symposium, the participants discuss some preliminary data collected from their problem solving project which uses a design experiment approach. Their approach to problem solving in the school curriculum is in tandem with what Schoenfeld (2007) claimed: "Crafting instruction that would make a wide range of problem-solving strategies…

Toh, Tin Lam; Leong, Yew Hoong; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng

2010-01-01

241

On the Analysis of Two-Person Problem Solving Protocols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methodological issues in the use of protocol analysis for research into human problem solving processes are examined through a case study in which two students were videotaped as they worked together to solve mathematical problems "out loud." The students' chosen strategic or executive behavior in examining and solving a problem was studied,…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

242

Structure and Problem Solving in ISL R. Baker Kearfott  

E-print Network

Structure and Problem Solving in ISL R. Baker Kearfott Department of Mathematics University.pdf #12;(Structure and Problem Solving in ISL) R. B. Kearfott, Dagstuhl, 10 Jan., 2006 Context ­ Harwell ­ LAPACK (for linear systems only) ­ IMSL, etc. 1 #12;(Structure and Problem Solving in ISL) R. B

Kearfott, R. Baker

243

Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

2012-01-01

244

Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

2010-01-01

245

The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…

Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel

2012-01-01

246

Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…

Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.

2010-01-01

247

Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

2012-01-01

248

Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

Hung, Woei

2013-01-01

249

Thinking Creatively at Work: Organization Influences on Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how peoples' creative problem-solving efforts are influenced by organizational characteristics. Examines the situations which call for creative problem solving at work and describes the kinds of processes people must apply to solve these problems. Reviews organizational variables that help or hinder these processes. (Author/CR)

Mumford, Michael D.; And Others

1997-01-01

250

Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

2012-01-01

251

The Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Problem Solving Heuristic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem-solving is one of the main goals in science teaching and is something many students find difficult. This research reports on the development, implementation and evaluation of a problem-solving heuristic. This heuristic intends to help students to understand the steps involved in problem solving (metacognitive tool), and to provide them…

Lorenzo, Mercedes

2005-01-01

252

Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)

Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth

1979-01-01

253

Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a companion paper, we discuss studentsâ ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss studentsâ ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two- step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2011-01-01

254

Interdisciplinary Problem Solving in Species and Ecosystem Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species and ecosystems are threatened worldwide. Improved problem solving and leadership are needed to address this growing problem. Interdisciplinary problem solving is an innovation that permits leaders to address complex problems more rationally, practically, and morally than use of traditional disciplinary methods. This proven interdisciplinary approach can guide problem solvers in their search for improved conservation policy and programs

Tim W. Clark

255

Children use salience to solve coordination problems.  

PubMed

Humans are routinely required to coordinate with others. When communication is not possible, adults often achieve this by using salient cues in the environment (e.g. going to the Eiffel Tower, as an obvious meeting point). To explore the development of this capacity, we presented dyads of 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds (N = 144) with a coordination problem: Two balls had to be inserted into the same of four boxes to obtain a reward. Identical pictures were attached to three boxes whereas a unique - and thus salient - picture was attached to the fourth. Children either received one ball each, and so had to choose the same box (experimental condition), or they received both balls and could get the reward independently (control condition). In all cases, children could neither communicate nor see each other's choices. Children were significantly more likely to choose the salient option in the experimental condition than in the control condition. However, only the two older age groups chose the salient box above chance levels. This study is the first to show that children from at least age 5 can solve coordination problems by converging on a salient solution. PMID:25066201

Grueneisen, Sebastian; Wyman, Emily; Tomasello, Michael

2014-07-25

256

Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.

Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja

2014-01-01

257

Technological and Personal Problem Solving Styles: Is there a Difference?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving, and technological problem solving in particular, is clearly a critical survival skill in our technologically advanced world. Government, business, vocational and technology education leaders have increasingly called for more emphasis on higher-order thinking skills and problem solving in both general and technological areas. The American technology education profession has identified problem solving as the technological method (Savage & Sterry, 1990). Authors outside technology education have also suggested that both general and technology teachers would be well advised to focus on enhancing problem solving skills. Given this, the authors sought to examine several key aspects of problem solving in more depth. Of these, the first was problem solving style. Problem-solving style is defined as a tendency to respond in a certain way while addressing problems and not as the steps employed in actually solving the problem. It has been operationally defined by Heppner (1988) in terms of three distinct dimensions which can be measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). Collectively, these dimensions (problem-solving confidence, approach/avoidance, and personal control) comprise problem-solving style. Although many educators claim to address problem solving, if the increasing frequency of mention in the literature is to be believed, the portion of citizens who have developed adequate problem solving capabilities is insufficient. It is no coincidence that this inadequacy is occurring at the same time when our society is experiencing a decrease in technological literacy. This problem is all the more critical given that the pace of technological growth is escalating (Dyrenfurth, 1991; Johnson, 1989). Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Custer, Rodney L.; Dyrenfurth, Michael J.; Wu, Tain-Fung

2009-10-20

258

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

2012-01-01

259

Prescribing effective human problem solving processes: Problem description in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A theoretical model specifying the underlying knowledge and procedures whereby human subjects can generate effective initial descriptions of scientific problems was formulated. The model is prescriptive since it does not necessarily try to simulate the behavior of actual experts nor assume that their performance is optimal. The model, elaborated in the domain of mechanics, specifies explicit procedures for redescribing problems in terms of a relevant knowledge base. To test the model, carefully controlled experiments were devised where human subjects were induced to act in accordance with alternative models and where their resulting performance was observed in detail. Such experiments, carried out with undergraduate physics students, showed that the proposed model is sufficient to generate excellent problem descriptions, that these markedly improve subsequent problem solutions, and that most components of the model are indeed necessary for good performance. Detailed data analysis also showed how the model predictably prevents the occurrence of many common errors. Such a validated model of effective problem description provides a useful basis for teaching students improved scientific problem-solving skills.

Heller, Joan I.; Reif, Frederick

2006-06-09

260

Online Conference: Problem Solving with Smithsonian Experts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are there other worlds out there? What can science tell us about American history? These are but a few of the important questions asked by the people at the Smithsonian's Online Conference on problem solving. The conference was convened twice during April 2010, and it was sponsored in part by the Microsoft Partners in Learning organization. The experts asking and answering these questions are all from the Smithsonian Institution, and the website offers access to all of the sessions in question. First-time visitors should feel free to dive right into the "Program" area to view the welcome message from Betsy Broun, the director of the Smithsonian American Art Museum. After that, visitors are free to view the programs at their leisure, and they may also wish to check out the "Exhibit Hall" section of the website. Here they will find highlighted resources from across the Smithsonian community relating to the conference topics. All in all, this is a tremendously valuable resource that can be used in the classroom, or just to expand one's horizon for personal edification.

261

Novel method of solving PMD problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method of splitting signals from fast and slow axes of polarization maintaining fibers by using a polarization splitter. The new scheme includes a turning connector and a polarization splitter. The polarization splitter will split signals from a fiber and give two separated outputs. It gives some theoretical calculations and the relations between the turning angle and output power from the splitter. It also analyzes the relationship of electrical power spectrum versus differential group delay and relative angles between the axis of a fiber and direction of a polarization splitter. The scheme uses a turning connector to adjust incoming optical signals in fast and slow axes to vertical and horizontal ones of a polarization splitter. We extract useful information to control how to turn the connector. Theoretical calculations show that there exists a relationship between the position of the turning connector and output electrical power at a certain frequency. Preliminary experiments are also given in this paper. The scheme has a great potential of becoming an effective method of solving polarization mode dispersion (PMD) problem.

Wang, Jian; Yu, Jinlong; Liu, Jianfei; Hu, Hao; Yang, Enze

2002-08-01

262

A New Method for Solving Hard Satisfiability Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a greedy local search procedure called GSAT for solving propositional satisfiability problems.Our experiments show that this procedure can be used to solve hard, randomly generated problems that are an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by more traditional approaches such as the Davis-Putnam procedure or resolution. We also show that GSAT can solve structured

Bart Selman; Hector J. Levesque; David G. Mitchell

1992-01-01

263

Neos And Condor: Solving Optimization Problems Over The Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the use of Condor, a distributed resource management system, as aprovider of computational resources for NEOS, an environment for solving optimizationproblems over the Internet. We also describe how problems are submitted and processedby NEOS, and then scheduled and solved by Condor on available (idle) workstations.1 IntroductionThe NEOS Server [8] is a novel environment for solving optimization problems over

Jorge J. Mor'e; Michael C. Ferris; Michael P. Mesnier

1998-01-01

264

Measuring Problem Solving with Technology: A Demonstration Study for NAEP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study intended to demonstrate how an emerging skill, problem solving with technology, might be measured in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Two computer-delivered assessment scenarios were designed, one on solving science-related problems through electronic information search and the other on solving…

Bennett, Randy Elliot; Persky, Hilary; Weiss, Andy; Jenkins, Frank

2010-01-01

265

Instructorsâ Beliefs and Values about Learning Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents preliminary hypotheses about a common core of faculty beliefs about how their students learn to solve problems in their introductory courses. Using a process of structured interviews and a concept map based analysis, we find that faculty appear to believe that students learn problem solving primarily through a process of reflective introspection (educators call this process metacognition) while they practice solving problems and getting assistance from example problem solutions.

Heller, Patricia; Heller, Kenneth; Henderson, Charles R.; Kuo, H. V.; Yerushalmi, Edit

2010-07-12

266

Large Scale Computational Problems in Numerical Optimization  

SciTech Connect

Our work under this support broadly falls into five categories: automatic differentiation, sparsity, constraints, parallel computation, and applications. Automatic Differentiation (AD): We developed strong practical methods for computing sparse Jacobian and Hessian matrices which arise frequently in large scale optimization problems [10,35]. In addition, we developed a novel view of "structure" in applied problems along with AD techniques that allowed for the efficient application of sparse AD techniques to dense, but structured, problems. Our AD work included development of freely available MATLAB AD software. Sparsity: We developed new effective and practical techniques for exploiting sparsity when solving a variety of optimization problems. These problems include: bound constrained problems, robust regression problems, the null space problem, and sparse orthogonal factorization. Our sparsity work included development of freely available and published software [38,39]. Constraints: Effectively handling constraints in large scale optimization remains a challenge. We developed a number of new approaches to constrained problems with emphasis on trust region methodologies. Parallel Computation: Our work included the development of specifically parallel techniques for the linear algebra tasks underpinning optimization algorithms. Our work contributed to the nonlinear least-squares problem, nonlinear equations, triangular systems, orthogonalization, and linear programming. Applications: Our optimization work is broadly applicable across numerous application domains. Nevertheless we have specifically worked in several application areas including molecular conformation, molecular energy minimization, computational finance, and bone remodeling.

coleman, thomas f. [cornell university] [cornell university

2000-07-01

267

An Assessment of Problem Solving Processes in Undergraduate Statics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four well-articulated models that offer structured approaches to problem solving were identified in the engineering research literature. These models provided a conceptual base for the study reported here. Four undergraduates enrolled in statics and two engineering faculty members provided think-aloud data as they solved two statics problems. The data were used to develop a coding system for characterizing engineering students behavioral and cognitive processes. These codes were used to analyze students problem solving procedures in a detailed manner, particularly differences between good and not-so-good problem solvers. The analyses provide a picture of how students and faculty solve problems at a cognitive level, and indicate that published problem-solving models are incomplete in describing actual problem-solving processes.

2009-10-12

268

Problem Solving Skill Evaluation Instrument â Validation Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have created several tools for evaluating conceptual understanding as well as students' attitudes and beliefs about physics; however, the field of problem solving is sorely lacking a broad use evaluation tool. This missing tool is an indication of the complexity of the field. The most obvious and largest hurdle to evaluating physics problem solving skills is untangling the skills from the physics content knowledge necessary to solve problems. We are tackling this problem by looking for the physics problem solving skills that are useful in other disciplines as well as physics. We report on the results of a series of interviews comparing physics students' skills when solving physics problems with their anonymous completion of the problem solving instrument.

Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2007-11-25

269

The Development of Students' Probllem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas

2011-03-03

270

The Effects of GO Solve Word Problems Math Intervention on Applied Problem Solving Skills of Low Performing Fifth Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigation examined the effects of "GO Solve Word Problems" math intervention on problem-solving skills of struggling 5th grade students. In a randomized controlled study, 16 5th grade students were given a 12-week intervention of "GO Solve", a computer-based program designed to teach schema-based instruction strategies (SBI.s) to…

Fede, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

271

The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities, post recitation interviews, and a modified version of the CLASS survey taken at the beginning and end of the semester. I assessed the skills and strategies students used to solve problems, characterized how they framed the activity of problem solving, and then evaluated how these frames shifted through a semester of instruction. Findings indicate that the M&I curriculum helped all the students shift towards a deliberate, more productive problem solving frame. Results also show that beliefs and expectations, as well as knowledge of problem solving skills and strategies must be aligned for students to shift to a productive frame.

Wampler, Wendi N.

272

Facilitating Studentsâ Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of studentsâ ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on studentsâ common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on studentsâ problem solving abilities.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. S.

2011-01-01

273

Strategies for Creative Problem Solving: Interactive Computer Modules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These Interactive Computer Modules (ICMs) are contained on the Strategies for Creative Problem Solving CD-ROM, but are also freely available to download from the website. The ICMs offer participatory problem solving activities for students, intended to supplement the text. The website also includes summary notes from each text chapter and sample problems.

Fogler, H. Scott

274

Improving Mathematical Problem Solving Skills: The Journey to Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if problem solving skills can be improved through the use of an interdisciplinary program incorporating reading, music, and mathematics. The study was conducted in seven fifth grade classrooms, and addresses the need to teach problem solving strategies in elementary school and the importance of problem…

Rousseau, Donna

2009-01-01

275

Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

2011-01-01

276

A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

2003-01-01

277

Problem Solving. Philadelphia Inquirer Newspaper in Education Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual on problem solving was culled from a set of newspaper articles in the Philadelphia Inquirer. Each brief article typically suggests problem solving strategies and offers sample problems on which to test one's skill. Articles are organized into the categories of input, process, and output. The input section offers ideas about analysis,…

Cummings, Alysa

278

Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…

Wiest, Lynda R.

2008-01-01

279

Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…

Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University

1997-01-01

280

Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…

Pescetti, D.

2008-01-01

281

Schoenfeld's Problem Solving Theory in a Student Controlled Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes of solving problems. Crucial episodes are:…

Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.

2007-01-01

282

Using MCMCF to Solve Multicommodity Flow Problems Jeffrey D. Oldham  

E-print Network

Using MCMCF to Solve Multicommodity Flow Problems Jeffrey D. Oldham 1998 October 09 1 Introduction The program MCMCF approximately solves the minimum-cost multicommodity flow problems on directed graphs-cost multicommodity flow problem, the default is . That is, stop when the flow fits within a network using at most

Pratt, Vaughan

283

Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

Man, Yiu-Kwong

2010-01-01

284

Numerical Grid Generation for Solving the Navier-Stokes Equations  

E-print Network

Numerical Grid Generation for Solving the Navier-Stokes Equations using B-Spline Techniques Philipp grids, whose sin- gle blocks are represented as tensor product B-Splines or, more generally, as para 1 ¤¼ Œ¥¢£§¨¼Š ¥¢£ Figure 2. Parametric Mappings. B-Spline-Representations For the representation

285

Cognitive Science: Problem Solving And Learning For Physics Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cognitive Science has focused on general principles of problem solving and learning that might be relevant for physics education research. This paper examines three selected issues that have relevance for the difficulty of transfer in problem solving domains: specialized systems of memory and reasoning, the importance of content in thinking, and a characterization of memory retrieval in problem solving. In addition, references to these issues are provided to allow the interested researcher entries to the literatures.

Ross, Brian H.

2009-07-13

286

Adaptive Expertise as Knowledge Building in Science Teachers’ Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Research,on expert\\/expert, differences ,has ,lead ,to a differentiation of adaptive ,expertise and ,routine expertise. Adaptive expertise was,investigated as a,knowledge-building orientation to problem ,solving ,in high ,school ,science teachers’ instructional problem solving. An authentic task was administered,to adaptive ,and ,routine experts as well ,as novices. Adaptive experts were ,found ,to show ,a higher orientation to knowledge-building during ,problem ,solving than

Valerie M. Crawford

287

Numerical solution of transient eddy current problems with input current intensities as boundary data  

E-print Network

Numerical solution of transient eddy current problems with input current intensities as boundary to solve transient eddy current problems with input current intensities as data, formulated in terms: Eddy current problems, time-dependent electromagnetic problems, input current intensities, finite

RodrĂ­guez, Rodolfo

288

Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studentsâ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate studentsâ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate studentsâ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate studentsâ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-01-20

289

Innovation and problem solving: A review of common mechanisms.  

PubMed

Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25245306

Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David

2014-11-01

290

Problem-Solving Therapy in the Elderly.  

PubMed

We systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials of problem-solving therapy (PST) in older adults. Our results indicate that PST led to greater reduction in depressive symptoms of late-life major depression than supportive therapy (ST) and reminiscence therapy. PST resulted in reductions in depression comparable with those of paroxetine and placebo in patients with minor depression and dysthymia, although paroxetine led to greater reductions than placebo. In home health care, PST was more effective than usual care in reducing symptoms of depression in undiagnosed patients. PST reduced disability more than ST in patients with major depression and executive dysfunction. Preliminary data suggest that a home-delivered adaptation of PST that includes environmental adaptations and caregiver involvement is efficacious in reducing disability in depressed patients with advanced cognitive impairment or early dementia. In patients with macular degeneration, PST led to improvement in vision-related disability comparable to that of ST, but PST led to greater improvement in measures of vision-related quality of life. Among stroke patients, PST participants were less likely to develop a major or minor depressive episode than those receiving placebo treatment, although the results were not sustained in a more conservative statistical analysis. Among patients with macular degeneration, PST participants had significantly lower 2-month incidence rates of major depression than usual care participants and were less likely to suffer persistent depression at 6 months. Finally, among stroke patients, PST participants were less likely to develop apathy than those receiving placebo treatment. PST also has been delivered via phone, Internet, and videophone, and there is evidence of feasibility and acceptability. Further, preliminary data indicate that PST delivered through the Internet resulted in a reduction in depression comparable with that of in-person PST in home-care patients. PST delivered via videophone results in an improvement in hospice caregivers' quality of life and a reduction in anxiety comparable to those of in-person PST. PST-treated patients with cognitive impairment may require additional compensatory strategies, such as written notes, memory devices, environmental adaptations, and caregiver involvement. PMID:24729951

Kiosses, Dimitris N; Alexopoulos, George S

2014-03-01

291

Grid-Based Numerical Optimisation in a Problem Solving Environment C.E. Goodyer1, M. Berzins1, P.K. Jimack1 and L.E. Scales1 2  

E-print Network

Grid resource. The industrial code used by Shell Global Solutions in their lubrication work Solutions, Cheshire Innovation Park, Chester, CH1 3SH http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/ceg/ehlgospel.html Abstract In this paper we show how a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) can be used to manage and steer

Jimack, Peter

292

How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

2009-01-01

293

THE NUMERICAL APPROXIMATION FOR THE INTEGRABILITY PROBLEM AND THE MEASURE OF WELFARE CHANGES, AND ITS APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

differential equation since this transform possibility provides a way to solve the integrability problem using the numerical method. Second, several numerical methods were investigated as a possible solution of both problem including the Vartia, the RK-4th...

Lim, Sung Jin

2012-01-01

294

Understanding the Problem. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series. The Math Forum: Problems of the Week  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…

Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009

2009-01-01

295

A Meaningless but Nonalgorithmic Solving Course: Solving a Graphing Problem about Osmosis by Analogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various researchers have associated meaningful problem solving with methods guided directly by a conceptual knowledge base. By contast, a meaningless solving course, or sequence of operations, is essentially independent of the solver's conceptual understanding of the problem under consideration. This paper is the first to document a meaningless,…

Zuckerman, June T.

296

Quality Literature as a Springboard to Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to use a well-known book, "Caps for Sale", with children as a springboard for mathematical problem solving. Presents patterning problems, problems created by the student, problems with a known total and unknown parts, and problems with known parts and an unknown total. (KHR)

Ducolon, Colin K.

2000-01-01

297

Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…

Szeberényi, József

2014-01-01

298

Strategies in Subtraction Problem Solving in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the strategies used by third graders in solving the 81 elementary subtractions that are the inverses of the one-digit additions with addends from 1 to 9 recently studied by Barrouillet and Lepine. Although the pattern of relationship between individual differences in working memory, on the one hand, and…

Barrouillet, Pierre; Mignon, Mathilde; Thevenot, Catherine

2008-01-01

299

Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)

Norris, A. C.

1980-01-01

300

Projective algorithms for solving complementarity problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present robust projective algorithms of the von Neumann type for the linear comple- mentarity problem and for the generalized linear complementarity problem. The methods, an extension of Projections Onto Convex Sets (POCS) are applied to a class of problems consisting of finding the intersection of closed nonconvex sets. We give conditions under which convergence occurs (always in 2 dimensions,

Caroline N. Haddad; George J. Habetler

2002-01-01

301

Cooperative group problem solving laboratories for introductory classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving laboratories comprise an important part of our introductory physics courses at Minnesota. These courses emphasize learning fundamental physics through problem solving using cooperative groups. This paper outlines the structure and rationale for both the algebra-based and calculus-based introductory courses. The sample class is one of four laboratory problems on the topic of forces. A section of our student laboratory manual, including the introduction and this problem, is given in this paper.

Heller, Patricia; Foster, Thomas M.; Heller, Kenneth

2006-05-31

302

Problem-solving skills in high school biology: The effectiveness of the IMMEX problem-solving assessment software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Problem-solving through reflective thinking should be both the method and valuable outcome of science instruction in America's schools" proclaimed John Dewey (Gabel, 1995). If the development of problem-solving is a primary goal of science education, more problem-solving opportunities must be an integral part of K-16 education. To examine the effective use of technology in developing and assessing problem-solving skills, a problem-solving authoring, learning, and assessment software, the UCLA IMMEX Program-Interactive Multimedia Exercises-was investigated. This study was a twenty-week quasi-experimental study that was implemented as a control-group time series design among 120 tenth grade students. Both the experimental group (n = 60) and the control group (n = 60) participated in a problem-based learning curriculum; however, the experimental group received regular intensive experiences with IMMEX problem-solving and the control group did not. Problem-solving pretest and posttest were administered to all students. The instruments used were a 35-item Processes of Biological Inquiry Test and an IMMEX problem-solving assessment test, True Roots. Students who participated in the IMMEX Program achieved significant (p <.05) gains in problem-solving skills on both problem-solving assessment instruments. This study provided evidence that IMMEX software is highly efficient in evaluating salient elements of problem-solving. Outputs of students' problem-solving strategies revealed that unsuccessful problem solvers primarily used the following four strategies: (1) no data search strategy, students simply guessed; (2) limited data search strategy leading to insufficient data and premature closing; (3) irrelevant data search strategy, students focus in areas bearing no substantive data; and (4) extensive data search strategy with inadequate integration and analysis. On the contrary, successful problem solvers used the following strategies; (1) focused search strategy coupled with the ability to fill in knowledge gaps by accessing the appropriate resources; (2) targeted search strategy coupled with high level of analytical and integration skills; and (3) focused search strategy coupled with superior discrimination, analytical, and integration skills. The strategies of students who were successful and unsuccessful solving IMMEX problems were consistent with those of expert and novice problem solvers identified in the literature on problem-solving.

Palacio-Cayetano, Joycelin

303

Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

2010-01-01

304

Assessing Creative Problem-Solving with Automated Text Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work aims to improve the assessment of creative problem-solving in science education by employing language technologies and computational-statistical machine learning methods to grade students' natural language responses automatically. To evaluate constructs like creative problem-solving with validity, open-ended questions that elicit…

Wang, Hao-Chuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Tsai-Yen

2008-01-01

305

Problem Solving: Getting to the Heart of Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication features articles that illustrate how several Northwest teachers are using problem solving to achieve rigorous and imaginative learning in their classrooms. Articles include: (1) "Open-Ended Problem Solving: Weaving a Web of Ideas" (Denise Jarrett); (2) "Teenager or Tyke, Students Learn Best by Tackling Challenging Math" (Suzie…

Jarrett, Denise, Ed.

2000-01-01

306

Students' Metaphors for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the metaphors used by students to describe mathematical problem solving. This study focused on identifying how students interpret and perceive mathematical problem solving via conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). These perceptions and interpretations were coded and analyzed qualitatively and…

Yee, Sean P.

2012-01-01

307

The Remediation of Problem-Solving Skills in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to remediate the problem-solving deficits of patients with schizophrenia have met with circum- scribed success. This could be viewed as a sign of the immutability of the deficit or, alternatively, as a reflec- tion of the inefficacy of the training techniques used. This study examined the feasibility of using problem- solving teaching techniques developed within educa- tional psychology for

Alice Medalia; Nadine Revheim; Casey Matthew

2001-01-01

308

An Empirical Method for Assessing Social Problem Solving in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a multimethod social problem-solving battery for schizophrenia is described. The battery is unique in that empirical methods were used throughout its development. The battery includes components that tap skills for response generation and response evaluation. The behavioral components of social problem solving are assessed in an extended role-play format. Individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well

Margaret D. Sayers; Alan S. Bellack; Julie H. Wade; Melanie E. Bennett; Pattey Fong

1995-01-01

309

Phenomenographic Study of Students' Problem Solving Approaches in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study…

Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert G.; Bowe, Brian

2007-01-01

310

Amy Bauer--Problem-solving fuels March 11, 2014  

E-print Network

- 1 - Amy Bauer--Problem-solving fuels passion March 11, 2014 Problem-solving fuels passion Always through college. She changed majors from finance to math (in fact, Bauer taught calculus for math majors doctorate in math, she joined Los Alamos as a graduate student focused on biology. #12;- 2 - Bauer developed

311

Patterns of Problem-Solving in Children's Literacy and Arithmetic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of problem-solving among 5-to-7 year-olds' were examined on a range of literacy (reading and spelling) and arithmetic-based (addition and subtraction) problem-solving tasks using verbal self-reports to monitor strategy choice. The results showed higher levels of variability in the children's strategy choice across Years 1 and 2 on the…

Farrington-Flint, Lee; Vanuxem-Cotterill, Sophie; Stiller, James

2009-01-01

312

Students' Comprehension Processes when Solving Two-Step Compare Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comprehension processes of adult students solving two-step problems of comparison were studied using eye-movement experiments based on the assumption that eye fixations are synchronous with internal cognitive processes. Twenty university students each solved 24 two-step mathematical word problems of three sentences each with consistent…

De Corte, Erik; And Others

313

Puzzling Science: Using the Rubik's Cube to Teach Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major goal of education is to help learners store information in long-term memory and use that information on later occasions to effectively solve problems (Vockell 2010). Therefore, this author began to use the Rubik's cube to help students learn to problem solve. There is something special about this colorful three-dimensional puzzle that…

Rohrig, Brian

2010-01-01

314

"Opportunities in Work Clothes": Online Problem-Solving Project Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides activity structures for and gives examples of problem-solving projects to be used with educational telecomputing. Highlights include information searches, electronic process writing, sequential creations, parallel problem solving, simulations, social action projects, and instructions for accessing information about these and other…

Harris, Judi

1994-01-01

315

Computers and Problem Solving for Sixth-Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a curriculum unit designed for average sixth-grade students intended to engage them in problem-solving experiences and to teach them problem-solving strategies. The curriculum consists of 20 sessions in which students engage in various activities using the following software packages: The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, Rescue at Boone's…

Oughton, John M.

1995-01-01

316

A Process Approach to Problem Solving in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses uses of the process approach to teach problem solving techniques to education students enrolling in a noncalculus physics course. Indicates that the prospective teachers are given opportunities to do real problem solving with the hope that they can foster in secondary school youngsters a better inquiry approach to science. (CC)

Brouwer, Wytze

1973-01-01

317

The Role of Problem Solving in Complex Intraverbal Repertoires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until…

Sautter, Rachael A.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Jay, Allison A.; Goldsmith, Tina R.; Carr, James E.

2011-01-01

318

Problem Solving and the Development of Expertise in Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated novice and expert problem solving behavior in management to examine the role of domain specific knowledge on problem solving processes. Forty-one middle level marketing managers in a large petrochemical organization provided think aloud protocols in response to two hypothetical management scenarios. Protocol analysis…

Lash, Fredrick B.

319

Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

1997-01-01

320

A Case Study of Dynamic Visualization and Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports an example of a situation in which university students had to solve geometrical problems presented to them dynamically using the interactive computerized environment of the "MicroWorlds Project Builder". In the process of the problem solving, the students used ten different solution strategies. The unsuccessful strategies were…

Lavy, Ilana

2007-01-01

321

High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems

Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy

2001-01-01

322

Use of External Visual Representations in Probability Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the use of external visual representations in probability problem solving. Twenty-six students enrolled in an introductory statistics course for social sciences graduate students (post-baccalaureate) solved eight probability problems in a structured interview format. Results show that students spontaneously use self-generated…

Corter, James E.; Zahner, Doris C.

2007-01-01

323

Prospective Teachers' Problem Solving Skills and Self-Confidence Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic objective of the research is to determine whether the education that prospective teachers in different fields receive is related to their levels of problem solving skills and self-confidence. Within the mentioned framework, the prospective teachers' problem solving and self-confidence levels have been examined under several variables.…

Gursen Otacioglu, Sena

2008-01-01

324

NEOS and Condor: solving optimization problems over the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the use of Condor, a distributed resource management system, as a provider of computational resources for NEOS, an environment for solving optimization problems over the Internet. We also describe how problems are submitted and processed by NEOS, and then scheduled and solved by Condor on available (idle) workstations

Michael C. Ferris; Michael P. Mesnier; Jorge J. Moré

2000-01-01

325

Structured Collaboration versus Individual Learning in Solving Physics Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld's problem-solving episodes. Students took a pre-test and a post-test and had the…

Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning

2006-01-01

326

Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

2007-01-01

327

Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

2013-01-01

328

The Effects of Reading Instruction on Calculus Students' Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects of two teaching techniques on college liberal arts majors' ability to solve calculus problems; concludes that instruction involving a modified directed reading-thinking activity followed by peer tutoring may improve problem-solving ability in calculus. (DD)

Lovelace, Terry L.; McKnight, Conrad K.

1980-01-01

329

A theory of intelligence: networked problem solving in animal societies  

E-print Network

A society's single emergent, increasing intelligence arises partly from the thermodynamic advantages of networking the innate intelligence of different individuals, and partly from the accumulation of solved problems. Economic growth is proportional to the square of the network entropy of a society's population times the network entropy of the number of the society's solved problems.

Shour, Robert

2009-01-01

330

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A NATIONAL CONFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of information on the use of GIS as a tool in environmental problem solving. Solving environmental problems has become more complex with consideration of cross-media pollutant transport and watershed-based decision-making. T...

331

Use of the Computer in Solving Mathematics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer programing and problem-solving steps in mathematics are viewed to have related concepts. Some heuristics are compared with some suggestions for structured programing. The one fundamental difference between problem solving in general and when using the computer is seen as the computer solution must be finite. The computer is viewed as a…

Brooks, Sarah

332

Reflection on Problem Solving in Introductory and Advanced Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reflection is essential to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective physics students are about problem solving and how to improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We evaluate strategies that teach reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. We find a large overlap between introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize based upon similarity of solution. Introductory students in calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in algebra-based courses. Other investigations explored if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty applying physical principles and differences between self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study suggests those who reflected with peers on problem solving drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study involved giving common problems in quantum mechanics midterm and final exams and suggested advanced students do not automatically reflect on mistakes. Interviews revealed even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than their knowledge structure. A survey was developed to evaluate studentsâ attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest introductory and graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to faculty. Responses to individual questions suggest expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.

Mason, Andrew J.

2012-05-09

333

Teaching Problem-Solving as a Habit of Mind  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pat Wagener of Los Medanos College describes an inquiry project with his Developmental Math students: "Through my classroom inquiry into teaching problem-solving, I have shown that students can learn to solve problems in ways that help them develop "habits of mind" with problem solving processes with the following features in the instructional plan: Students get lots of problem solving practice, with an emphasis on long term learning of habits of mind Students are introduced to the idea of multiple representations early, and this approach is reinforced through the curriculum materials in meaningful ways and in all aspects of the course Students have many opportunities to share their problem solving publicly through board work "

2011-01-01

334

Solving seismological problems using sgraph program: II-waveform modeling  

SciTech Connect

One of the seismological programs to manipulate seismic data is SGRAPH program. It consists of integrated tools to perform advanced seismological techniques. SGRAPH is considered a new system for maintaining and analyze seismic waveform data in a stand-alone Windows-based application that manipulate a wide range of data formats. SGRAPH was described in detail in the first part of this paper. In this part, I discuss the advanced techniques including in the program and its applications in seismology. Because of the numerous tools included in the program, only SGRAPH is sufficient to perform the basic waveform analysis and to solve advanced seismological problems. In the first part of this paper, the application of the source parameters estimation and hypocentral location was given. Here, I discuss SGRAPH waveform modeling tools. This paper exhibits examples of how to apply the SGRAPH tools to perform waveform modeling for estimating the focal mechanism and crustal structure of local earthquakes.

Abdelwahed, Mohamed F. [Geological Hazards Research Unit, King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia) and National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Helwan (Egypt)

2012-09-26

335

A finite difference method of solving anisotropic scattering problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method of solving radiative transfer problems is described including a comparison of its speed with that of the doubling method, and a discussion of its accuracy and suitability for computations involving variable optical properties. The method uses a discretization in angle to produce a coupled set of first-order differential equations which are integrated between discrete depth points to produce a set of recursion relations for symmetric and anti-symmetric angular sums of the radiation field at alternate depth points. The formulation given here includes depth-dependent anisotropic scattering, absorption, and internal sources, and allows arbitrary combinations of specular and non-Lambertian diffuse reflection at either or both boundaries. Numerical tests of the method show that it can return accurate emergent intensities even for large optical depths. The method is also shown to conserve flux to machine accuracy in conservative atmospheres

Barkstrom, B. R.

1976-01-01

336

Nuclear Teaching: Propaganda or Problem Solving?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how nuclear education has evolved into nuclear age education in an attempt to prepare young people to respond responsibly to world problems. Explains how positive and preventive emphases toward social issues have helped the growing acceptance of nuclear age and peace education. Discusses some remaining problems. (RT)

La Farge, Phyllis

1988-01-01

337

Problem Solved: How To Coach Cognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When faced with real-world problems, students devise accurate, logical, and creative solutions using skills connecting to different subject areas. Students are intrigued by assignments involving preservation of species and design of environmentally friendly products and transit systems. Problem-based learning depends on coaching, modeling, and…

Krynock, Karoline; Robb, Louise

1999-01-01

338

Children's Thinking in Arithmetic Word Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's mental performance was studied in the context of arithmetic word problem solution. Response latency and error data indicated subtraction was more difficult than addition. Understanding children's problem solutions in terms of flexible strategy use and the fact that many errors have a systematic basis are important in studying children's…

Vakali, Mary

1985-01-01

339

Algorithm for Solving the School Timetabling Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic algorithms (GA) have been applied to a number of optimisation problems with some success (1). The algorithms mimic the process of natural selection, with the effect of creating a number of potentially optimal solutions to some complex search problem. One of the major disadvantages of genetic algorithms is that they are very slow. In this paper we discuss the

D. Abramson; J. Abela

340

SOLVING THE BURMESTER PROBLEM USING KINEMATIC MAPPING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planar kinematic mapping is applied to the five-position Burmester problem for planar four-bar mechanism synthesis. The problem formulation takes the five distinct rigid body poses directly as inputs to generate five quadratic constraint equations. The five poses are on the fourth order curve of intersection of two hyperboloids of one sheet in the image space. Moreover, the five poses uniquely

M. J. D. Hayes; P. J. Zsombor-Murray

2002-01-01

341

Do prescribed prompts prime sensemaking during group problem solving?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many researchers and textbooks have promoted the use of rigid prescribed strategies for encouraging development of expert-like problem-solving behavior in novice students. The University of British Columbia's introductory algebra-based course for non-physics majors uses Context-Rich problems with a prescribed six-step strategy. We have coded audio recordings of group problem-solving sessions to analyze students' epistemological framing based on the implicit goal of their discussions. By treating the goal of "understanding the physics of the situation" as sensemaking, we argue that prescribed problem-solving prompts are not sufficient to induce subsequent sensemaking discussion.

Mathew "Sandy" Martinuk; Ives, Joss

2012-05-15

342

Solving Physics Problems--How Do We Do It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three avenues of problem-solving research: misconceiving natural laws, processing information, and constructing solutions. Suggests that the change in emphasis from problem to problem solver and the key role of "physics" problems are unifying aspects of the research. (JN)

Fuller, Robert G.

1982-01-01

343

Problem solving strategies in an online homework environment  

E-print Network

Problem solving strategies in an online homework environment: "Student Choice and Analytics" Daniel within LON-CAPA - E-text with instructor videos - Concept questions - Easy, Medium, Hard homework problems #12;AAPT - Feb. 2012 D.T. Seaton, MIT Problem Categorization in Homework ¡ Problems categorized

344

Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer

1993-12-01

345

A Study of the Problem Solving Abilities of Seventh Grade Students Who Receive Anchored Problem Solving Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…

Griesser, Sara Anne

346

Impacts of Learning Inventive Problem-Solving Principles: Students' Transition from Systematic Searching to Heuristic Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the outcomes of teaching an inventive problem-solving course in junior high schools in an attempt to deal with the current relative neglect of fostering students' creativity and problem-solving capabilities in traditional schooling. The method involves carrying out systematic manipulation with attributes, functions and…

Barak, Moshe

2013-01-01

347

Effects of the Problem Solving and Subject Matter Approaches on the Problem Solving Ability of Secondary School Agricultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The approach used by teachers is very important to the success of the teaching process. This is why this study seeks to determine which teaching approaches--problem solving and subject-matter, would best improve the problem solving ability of selected secondary agricultural education students in Ikorodu Local Government Area. Ten classes and 150…

Olowa, O. W.

2009-01-01

348

Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)

DeFilippo, Shirley

1975-01-01

349

SOLVING MIXED INTEGER BILINEAR PROBLEMS USING MILP ...  

E-print Network

descriptions of the convex hulls of these reformulated single term bilinear sets and use them in a ...... Thus, our cuts seem to be doing their primary job of obtaining .... problem, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 38 (1999), pp.

2013-01-29

350

An Algorithm for Solving the Job-Shop Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a branch and bound method for solving the job-shop problem. It is based on one-machine scheduling problems and is made more efficient by several propositions which limit the search tree by using immediate selections. It solved for the first time the famous 10 \\\\times 10 job-shop problem proposed by Muth and Thompson in 1963.

J. Carlier; E. Pinson

1989-01-01

351

5 Principles for a Problem-Solving Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author presents five principles of developing a problem solving culture that he believes will allow students to grow into mathematical thinkers and sophisticated problem solvers: conjecture, communication, collaboration, chaos, and celebration. Each of these principles encompasses several mindsets and practices, which enable the teacher to build that culture in the classroom. The author includes a link to his webinar on this topic, "Creating a Culture of Problem Solving in Your School or Classroom" (cataloged separately).

Aungst, Gerald

2014-08-10

352

Swinging into thought: Directed movement guides insight in problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can directed actions unconsciously influence higher order cognitive processing? We investigated how movement interventions\\u000a affected participants’ ability to solve a classic insight problem. The participants attempted to solve Maier’s two-string\\u000a problem while occasionally taking exercise breaks during which they moved their arms either in a manner related to the problem’s\\u000a solution (swing group) or in a manner inconsistent with the

Laura E. Thomas; Alejandro Lleras

2009-01-01

353

An amoeboid algorithm for solving linear transportation problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transportation Problem (TP) is one of the basic operational research problems, which plays an important role in many practical applications. In this paper, a bio-inspired mathematical model is proposed to handle the Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) in directed networks by modifying the original amoeba model Physarum Solver. Several examples are used to prove that the provided model can effectively solve Balanced Transportation Problem (BTP), Unbalanced Transportation Problem (UTP), especially the Generalized Transportation Problem (GTP), in a nondiscrete way.

Gao, Cai; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zili; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

2014-03-01

354

Solving the membrane protein folding problem.  

PubMed

One of the great challenges for molecular biologists is to learn how a protein sequence defines its three-dimensional structure. For many years, the problem was even more difficult for membrane proteins because so little was known about what they looked like. The situation has improved markedly in recent years, and we now know over 90 unique structures. Our enhanced view of the structure universe, combined with an increasingly quantitative understanding of fold determination, engenders optimism that a solution to the folding problem for membrane proteins can be achieved. PMID:16319877

Bowie, James U

2005-12-01

355

Solving initial–boundary-value creep problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galerkin–Bubnov method with global approximations is used to find approximate solutions to initial–boundary-value creep\\u000a problems. It is shown that this approach allows obtaining solutions available in the literature. The features of how the solutions\\u000a of initial–boundary-value problems for oneand three-dimensional models are found are analyzed. The approximate solutions found\\u000a by the Galerkin–Bubnov method with global approximations is shown to

O. K. Morachkovskii; Yu. V. Romashov

2009-01-01

356

Multiple Representation Skills and Creativity Effects on Mathematical Problem Solving Using a Multimedia Whiteboard System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to explore student multiple representation skills and creativity in solving mathematical problems when supported by a multimedia whiteboard system. The subjects were 6th grade primary school students that were tested and selected as excellent students in mathematics. Twenty-one numerical and geometry problems were given to…

Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Nian-Shing; Dung, Jian-Jie; Yang, Yi-Lun

2007-01-01

357

Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…

Hilton, Michael

1998-01-01

358

Metacognitive Macroevaluations in Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the role of evaluation in mathematics in 749 elementary school children. The macroevaluative skills and calibration scores of high versus low mathematical problem solvers were contrasted as measures of metacognition. No relevant calibration differences were found for gender. In addition, the performances of children with…

Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert

2006-01-01

359

Solving Satisfiability Problems with Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

, and discuss their pros and cons. 1 Introduction Given a propositional formula like (p1 p2 ÂŹp3) (ÂŹp1 p2 p3 algorithms. Furthermore, we explore other genetic operators that may be useful to tackle 3-SAT problems strings of length n and truth assignments to n variables. Therefore the search space that we have

Harmeling, Stefan

360

Solving Discipline Problems: Strategies for Classroom Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides classroom teachers with a variety of discipline models, techniques, methods, and constructs designed to enable them to move beyond a singular approach in handling classroom behavior problems. The book first discusses the Teacher Behavior Continuum (TBC) which shows the teacher the context of his or her own general behavior with…

Wolfgang, Charles H.; Glickman, Carl D.

361

Astronomical problems solved and unsolved - Reflections thereon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process by which scientists arrive at, come to accept, and later revise solutions to major problems is discussed using examples from the field of astronomy. The 300-year history of the discovery of annual stellar parallax is reviewed, and it is pointed out that Bessel's first measurements in the 1830's gained quick acceptance, without independent confirmation, from other astronomers. Hubble's

W. H. McCrea

1983-01-01

362

SOLVING CONGRUENT CIRCLES PROBLEM USING INVERSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric constructions are known since ancient times and its history confuses itself with the raising of Geometry. In this history, a theme that deserves special attention is the one of tangency problems which can be summarized in this way: as we have three elements, combinations of point, line or circle, find a circle or circles that can be tangent with

Rovilson MAFALDA; Alexandre KAWANO

363

Acid rain: solving a transborder problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of air pollution drifting across the border into Canada and falling as acid rain is discussed. This acid rain is having a great variety of negative impacts on lakes, streams, groundwater, soil, building surfaces, and on forests and certain crops. Between seven and eight million tons of SOâ falling on Canada every year, along with four million tons

1981-01-01

364

Visual Attention Modulates Insight Versus Analytic Solving of Verbal Problems  

PubMed Central

Behavioral and neuroimaging findings indicate that distinct cognitive and neural processes underlie solving problems with sudden insight. Moreover, people with less focused attention sometimes perform better on tests of insight and creative problem solving. However, it remains unclear whether different states of attention, within individuals, influence the likelihood of solving problems with insight or with analysis. In this experiment, participants (N = 40) performed a baseline block of verbal problems, then performed one of two visual tasks, each emphasizing a distinct aspect of visual attention, followed by a second block of verbal problems to assess change in performance. After participants engaged in a center-focused flanker task requiring relatively focused visual attention, they reported solving more verbal problems with analytic processing. In contrast, after participants engaged in a rapid object identification task requiring attention to broad space and weak associations, they reported solving more verbal problems with insight. These results suggest that general attention mechanisms influence both visual attention task performance and verbal problem solving. PMID:24459538

Wegbreit, Ezra; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark

2013-01-01

365

Studentsâ Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate studentsâ difficulties with multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first semester calculus-based physics course. Each student was interviewed four times during the semester, each time after they had completed an exam in class. During these interviews students were first asked to solve a problem they had seen on the exam, followed by problems that differed in context and type of representation from the exam problem. Students were provided verbal scaffolding to solve the new problems. We discuss the common difficulties that students encountered when attempting to transfer their problem solving skills across problems in different representations.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. S.

2010-01-19

366

Embedding Game-Based Problem-Solving Phase into Problem-Posing System for Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem-posing system is developed with four phases including posing problem, planning, solving problem, and looking back, in which the "solving problem" phase is implemented by game-scenarios. The system supports elementary students in the process of problem-posing, allowing them to fully engage in mathematical activities. In total, 92 fifth…

Chang, Kuo-En; Wu, Lin-Jung; Weng, Sheng-En; Sung, Yao-Ting

2012-01-01

367

Solving subsurface structural problems using a computer  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, the solution of subsurface structural problems has required a combination of graphical construction, trigonometry, time, and patience. Recent advances in software available for both mainframe and microcomputers now reduce the time and potential error of these calculations by an order of magnitude. Software for analysis of deviated wells, three point problems, apparent dip, apparent thickness, and the intersection of two planes, as well as the plotting and interpretation of these data can be used to allow timely and accurate exploration or operational decisions. The available computer software provides a set of utilities, or tools, rather than a comprehensive, intelligent system. The burden for selection of appropriate techniques, computation methods, and interpretations still lies with the explorationist user.

Witte, D.M. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

1987-02-01

368

Webotherapy: reading web resources for problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to indicate that when webotherapy is applied, it can be of benefit to clients in giving them insight into their problems, resulting in a change of behavior. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Webotherapy, which can be conducted with individuals or groups, refers to the use of web resources or other online reading material (e.g. e-books,

Alireza Noruzi

2007-01-01

369

Reducing computation time in DFP (Davidon, Fletcher & Powell) update method for solving unconstrained optimization problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solving the unconstrained optimization problems is not easy and DFP update method is one of the methods that we can work with to solve the problems. In unconstrained optimization, the time computing needed by the method's algorithm to solve the problems is very vital and because of that, we proposed a hybrid search direction for DFP update method in order to reduce the computation time needed for solving unconstrained optimization problems. Some convergence analysis and numerical results of the hybrid search direction were analyzed and the results showed that the proposed hybrid search direction strictly reduce the computation time needed by DFP update method and at the same time increase the method's efficiency which is sometimes fail for some complicated unconstrained optimization problems.

Sofi, A. Z. M.; Mamat, M.; Ibrahim, M. A. H.

2013-04-01

370

Solve valve noise and cavitation problems  

SciTech Connect

A clear understanding of aerodynamic noise theory and cavitation will avoid most major valve problems in process plants and allow the valve engineer to design out potential problems. On the other hand, the plant owner has to recognize that such valves may require a cost premium. However, such a premium will be recovered in a small amount of time because of the savings from reduced downtime and lower maintenance costs. Pressure reducing valves used on gases or high pressure steam valves, such as turbine bypass valves, convert substantial energy into heat and a lower pressure level. Unfortunately, this can only be done by accelerating the gas in one or more orifices and then decelerating it rapidly again through a turbulence mechanism or super-sonic shock cells. This causes a lot of noise and vibration. Valve engineering science has made substantial strides in the past few years, and one is now able to predict cavitation and aerodynamic sound levels before a valve is purchased. Similarly, newer valve sizes incorporate features that reduce noise and cavitation effects. Some other minor problems are resonant plug vibration and flashing. The paper discusses how to predict aerodynamic sound, how close can one estimate the sound level, cavitation, and incorrect installation.

Baumann, H.D. [Fisher Controls International, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1997-03-01

371

The Effects of Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving on High School Students' Chemistry Problem-Solving Performance and Verbal Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effects of a thinking aloud pair problem solving (TAPPS) approach on students' chemistry problem-solving performance and verbal interactions. A total of 85 eleventh grade students from three classes in a Korean high school were randomly assigned to one of three groups; either individually using a problem-solving strategy, using a problem-solving strategy with TAPPS, or the control group. After instruction, students' problem-solving performance was examined. The results showed that students in both the individual and TAPPS groups performed better than those in the control group on recalling the related law and mathematical execution, while students in the TAPPS group performed better than those in the other groups on conceptual knowledge. To investigate the verbal behaviors using TAPPS, verbal behaviors of solvers and listeners were classified into 8 categories. Listeners' verbal behavior of "agreeing" and "pointing out", and solvers' verbal behavior of "modifying" were positively related with listeners' problem-solving performance. There was, however, a negative correlation between listeners' use of "point out" and solvers' problem-solving performance. The educational implications of this study are discussed.

Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee

2005-10-01

372

ORIGINAL PAPER Testing problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Testing problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) using the string solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), six captive vultures were presented with a string. Keywords Turkey vulture Á Cathartes aura Á Cognition Á String-pulling Introduction Selective pressures

373

Monte Carlo Method to Solve Multidimensional Bioheat Transfer Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monte Carlo method is implemented to solve the direct bioheat transfer problems, which are often encountered in the treatment planning of cancer hyperthermia. Several algorithms were developed to solve for the temperature transients inside the biological bodies with various time or space-dependent boundary conditions, blood perfusion, meta- bolic rate, and volumetric heat source for the tissues. The computer code

Zhong-Shan Deng; Jing Liu

2002-01-01

374

Creativity in Problem Solving: Uncovering the Origin of New Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovation and enterprise depend for their success on the development of new ideas. But from where do new ideas come? How do they arise? Finding solutions to such questions is at the heart of creativity research and the solving of novel problems. Reflection, not only in cognitive processes but also in the non-cognitive ones used in solving novel…

Aldous, Carol R.

2005-01-01

375

Adapting a Diagnostic Problem-Solving Model to Information Retrieval  

E-print Network

Adapting a Diagnostic Problem-Solving Model to Information Retrieval Inien Syu Department-solving is adapted to information retrieval. In this model, we treat documents as \\disorders" and user information described in (Turtle & Croft, 1991b) integrated several conventional probabilistic and Boolean retrieval

Lang, Sheau-Dong

376

Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines  

E-print Network

Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines Yuval Emek, Tobias Langner, Jara + D) #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, Sereni [PODC 2012] = #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced

377

Need New Problem-Solving Ideas? Take a Trip!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how actual or planned travel experiences can form the basis for constructing realistic, challenging, and interesting problem-solving tasks for classroom use. Provides examples of how teachers and students can create travel problems for use in the classroom. The travel-problem concept is adaptable to any elementary, secondary, or…

Wiest, Lynda R.; Sturbaum, Mary Barr

1996-01-01

378

Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…

Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.

2005-01-01

379

Imitation: is cognitive neuroscience solving the correspondence problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imitation poses a unique problem: how does the imi- tator know what pattern of motor activation will make their action look like that of the model? Specialist theories suggest that this correspondence problem has a unique solution; there are functional and neurological mechanisms dedicated to controlling imitation. General- ist theories propose that the problem is solved by general mechanisms of

Marcel Brass; Cecilia Heyes

2005-01-01

380

On optimization techniques for solving nonlinear inverse problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers optimization techniques for the solution of nonlinear inverse problems where the forward problems, like those encountered in electromagnetics, are modelled by differential equations. Such problems are often solved by utilizing a Gauss-Newton method in which the forward model constraints are implicitly incorporated. Variants of Newton's method which use second-derivative information are rarely employed because their perceived disadvantage

Eldad Haber; Uri M. Ascher; Doug Oldenburg

2000-01-01

381

Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…

Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

2014-01-01

382

Do New Caledonian crows solve physical problems through causal reasoning?  

E-print Network

Do New Caledonian crows solve physical problems through causal reasoning? A. H. Taylor*, G. R. Hunt, Auckland, New Zealand The extent to which animals other than humans can reason about physical problems complex physical problems by reasoning both causally and analogically about causal relations. Causal

Indiana University

383

A Rationale for and the Development of a Problem Solving Model of Instruction in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses problem solving and how science educators can integrate problem solving into their instruction. The Search, Solve, Create, and Share (SSCS) model was developed based on the findings of problem solving research. (YP)

Pizzini, Edward L.; And Others

1989-01-01

384

The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving  

E-print Network

Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. ...

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre

385

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson plan, students learn how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, then apply what they’ve learned in activities that are based on real-world scenarios.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-10-25

386

Attitudes Toward Problem Solving as Predictors of Student Success  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The survey of attitudes towards, and views of, problem solving that is presented here is still under development. It is part of a larger project to develop an assessment of student problem solving ability in introductory physics. The survey is intended for use in a manner similar to the Maryland Physics Expectation Survey (MPEX). That is, it is given to students pre- and post-instruction. Student responses are evaluated in comparison to the answers given by "experts". Post-instruction movement of student responses toward those given by the "experts" is considered to be improvement. This paper presents the survey questions, expert responses and discusses responses of several hundred students at three different institutions. Correlations between student survey results and grades, conceptual survey scores and instructor evaluation of student problem solving ability are presented. The goal is to begin to probe whether student attitudes toward problem solving are correlated to success on other metrics.

Cummings, Karen; Lockwood, Stephanie; Marx, Jeffrey

2005-10-26

387

Structured Planning and Debugging: A Linguistic Approach to Problem Solving  

E-print Network

A structured approach to planning and debugging is obtained by using an Augmented Transition Network (ATN) to model the problem solving process. This proves to be a perspicuous representation for planning concepts including ...

Miller, Mark L.

1976-06-08

388

Open-Ended, Problem-Solving Investigations--Getting Started.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ways in which linear lesson sequences can be modified to provide increased opportunities for open-ended activities especially with problem solving are considered. Examples drawn from chemistry and plant reproduction, seeds, and germination are given. (KR)

Lock, Roger

1991-01-01

389

A Problem-Solving Alternative to Using Key Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the pitfalls of using key words to support students when problem solving, and provides an alternative way (quantitative analysis) to support students' sense-making. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

Clement, Lisa L.; Bernhard, Jamal Z.

2005-01-01

390

Instructorsâ Ideas about Problem Solving â Setting Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents preliminary hypotheses about the relationship between faculty goals for the introductory calculus-based physics course and their beliefs about student learning of problem solving. All faculty have problem solving as a major goal for their course. There appears to be however, an instructional paradox. When discussing how students learn to solve problems in their own courses, faculty indicate that reflective-practice skills are a necessary prerequisite, and that average students enter the course with these skills. When discussing general problem solving skills, however, faculty seem to believe that similar reflective-practice skills cannot be learned in an introductory physics course, and should be a long-term goal of university education.

Henderson, Charles R.; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia; Kuo, H. V.; Yerushalmi, Edit

2010-07-12

391

Use of Spreadsheets in Solving Heat Conduction Problems in Fins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Excel is an effective and inexpensive tool available on all computers equipped with Microsoft Office. This software has the necessary functions for solving a large class of engineering problems, including those related to heat transfer. This paper provides several examples to demonstrate the application of Excel in solving problems involving one-dimensional heat conduction in various fin configurations. It provides formulas for the temperature distribution and heat transfer for several different fin profiles.

Karimi, Amir

2011-04-04

392

Problem-solving strategies in reflective and impulsive children  

Microsoft Academic Search

87 reflective and 86 impulsive 7-, 9-, and 11-yr-old children (determined by Matching Familiar Figures Test scores) were given a series of 5 problem-solving tasks in which they were required to determine the correct solution from a number of equiprobable solutions by gathering information that eliminated incorrect alternatives. Results indicate that the relative impact of cognitive style on problem solving

James D. McKinney

1975-01-01

393

Acid rain: solving a transborder problem  

SciTech Connect

The problem of air pollution drifting across the border into Canada and falling as acid rain is discussed. This acid rain is having a great variety of negative impacts on lakes, streams, groundwater, soil, building surfaces, and on forests and certain crops. Between seven and eight million tons of SO/sub 2/ falling on Canada every year, along with four million tons of No/sub x/. At least half of this amount originates from emissions released in the US. The US and Canada took the first step towards reducing the transborder flow of acid rain in 1980, with the signing of a Memorandum of Intent between the two governments. The agreement pledges both countries to negotiate an air pollution agreement. In the interim, the two countries are committed to an enforcement of existing rules and regulations, and to cooperate in studies aimed at gaining information needed to draft an effective agreement.

Roberts, J.

1981-01-01

394

Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.  

PubMed

High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751

Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M

2013-01-01

395

Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress  

PubMed Central

High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751

Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.

2013-01-01

396

Representation use and strategy choice in physics problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics studentsâ problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that solutions can be triggered by particular details of the representation. Previous studies are complemented with a fine grained analysis of solution strategies. We find that students use different problem-solving strategies, depending on the representational format in which the problem is stated.

De Cock, Mieke

2014-01-31

397

Photography helps solve distribution lightning problems  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the research project, which is being performed for NMPC by Power Technologies, Inc., involving the use of lightning-activated camera systems to photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photographs can allow the precise location of the lightning flash and power system flashovers to be observed, they are extremely valuable to engineers who are trying to make better sense of the lightning damage problem. When electrical measurements, such as fault and surge recordings, are combined with photographic data, an overall understanding of each lightning flash and its impact on the system is attained. This can hopefully lead to improved lightning protection practices and systems. The study is being performed on a 13.2 kV distribution system that is located on an exposed plateau near Little Falls, NY (about 80 miles northwest of Albany, NY). Four automated camera systems and a substation fault recorder are utilized. All camera locations afford excellent views of lines and equipment likely to be struck by lightning. The fault recorder is used to measure the fault currents and voltage sags which occur during line flashovers. Also, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) is used to confirm storm activity and camera triggering efficiency. After each storm, all data is analyzed to determine how lightning affected the power system. Areas being investigated include: What are the relative portions of lightning flashovers caused by induced surges (nearby strikes) and direct lightning hits to the line How often do shielding failures occur What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices are problematic

Barker, P.; Burns, C.W.

1993-06-01

398

How Do I Do A Math Problem? Strategies for mathematical problem solving  

E-print Network

How Do I Do A Math Problem? Strategies for mathematical problem solving This quote tells us how NOT to approach mathematical problem solving - Alice doesn't know her basic math facts, starts her solution are in the problem? What do they mean? As we learn new material, we also learn to identify and understand new math

Maxwell, Bruce D.

399

Problem-Based Learning: A Framework for Prospective Teachers' Pedagogical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current educational reform movements emphasize preparing teachers for pedagogical problem solving in the classroom. This study examines the impact of problem-based learning on prospective teachers' problem-solving abilities. Two classes of prospective teachers were included in this study. The experimental class used problem-based learning while…

De Simone, Christina

2008-01-01

400

Effect of Misconception on Transfer in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We examine the effect of misconceptions about friction on students' ability to solve problems and transfer from one context to another. We analyze written responses to paired isomorphic problems given to introductory physics students and discussions with a subset of students. Misconceptions associated with friction in problems were sometimes so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students fully discern their underlying similarities.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-06-24

401

Using Lin's method to solve Bykov's problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider nonwandering dynamics near heteroclinic cycles between two hyperbolic equilibria. The constituting heteroclinic connections are assumed to be such that one of them is transverse and isolated. Such heteroclinic cycles are associated with the termination of a branch of homoclinic solutions, and called T-points in this context. We study codimension-two T-points and their unfoldings in Rn. In our consideration we distinguish between cases with real and complex leading eigenvalues of the equilibria. In doing so we establish Lin's method as a unified approach to (re)gain and extend results of Bykov's seminal studies and related works. To a large extent our approach reduces the study to the discussion of intersections of lines and spirals in the plane. Case (RR): Under open conditions on the eigenvalues, there exist open sets in parameter space for which there exist periodic orbits close to the heteroclinic cycle. In addition, there exist two one-parameter families of homoclinic orbits to each of the saddle points p1 and p2.See Theorem 2.1 and Proposition 2.2 for precise statements and Fig. 2 for bifurcation diagrams. Cases (RC) and (CC): At the bifurcation point ?=0 and for each N?2, there exists an invariant set S0N close to the heteroclinic cycle on which the first return map is topologically conjugated to a full shift on N symbols. For any fixed N?2, the invariant set S?N persists for |?| sufficiently small.In addition, there exist infinitely many transversal and non-transversal heteroclinic orbits connecting the saddle points p1 and p2 in a neighbourhood of ?=0, as well as infinitely many one-parameter families of homoclinic orbits to each of the saddle points.For full statements of the results see Theorem 2.3 and Propositions 2.4, 2.5 and Fig. 3 for bifurcation diagrams. The dynamics near T-points has been studied previously by Bykov [6-10], Glendinning and Sparrow [20], Kokubu [27,28] and Labouriau and Rodrigues [30,31,38]. See also the surveys by Homburg and Sandstede [24], Shilnikov et al. [43] and Fiedler [18]. The occurrence of T-points in local bifurcations has been discussed by Barrientos et al. [4], and by Lamb et al. [32] in the context of reversible systems. All these studies consider dynamics in R3 using a geometric return map approach, and their results reflect the description of types of nonwandering dynamics described above.Further related studies concerning T-points can be found in [34] and [37], where inclination flips were considered in this context. In [5], numerical studies of T-points are performed using kneading invariants.The main aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive study of dynamics near T-points, including detailed proofs of all results, employing a unified functional-analytic approach, without making any assumption on the dimension of the phase space. In the process, we recover and generalise to higher dimensional settings all previously reported results for T-points in R3. In addition, we reveal the existence of richer dynamics in the (RC) and (CC) cases. A detailed discussion of our results is contained in Section 2.The functional analytic approach we follow is commonly referred to as Lin's method, after the seminal paper by Lin [33], and employs a reduction on an appropriate Banach space of piecewise continuous functions approximating the initial heteroclinic cycle to yield bifurcation equations whose solutions represent orbits of the nonwandering set. The development of such an approach is typical for the school of Hale, and is in contrast to the analysis contained in previous T-point studies, which relies on the construction of a first return map. Our choice of analytical framework is motivated by the fact that Lin's method provides a unified approach to study global bifurcations in arbitrary dimension, and has been shown to extend to a larger class of settings, such as delay and advance-delay equations [19,33].

Knobloch, Jürgen; Lamb, Jeroen S. W.; Webster, Kevin N.

2014-10-01

402

Representational Format, Student Choice, and Problem Solving in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student problem-solving ability appears to be tied to the representational format of the problem (math, pictorial, graphical, verbal). In a study of a 367-student algebra-based physics class, we examine student problem solving ability on homework problems given in four different representational formats, with problems as close to isomorphic as possible. In addition, we examine students' capacity for assessing their own representational competence by giving follow-up quizzes in which the students can choose between various problem formats. We report student performance and consider factors that may influence their ability or choices. As a control, part of the class was assigned a random-format follow-up quiz where students received quiz formats at random. We find that there are statistically significant performance differences between isomorphic problems. We also find that allowing students to choose which representational format they use improves student performance under some circumstances and degrades it in others.

Kohl, Patrick B.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2010-01-18

403

Numerical solution methods for differential game problems  

E-print Network

Differential game theory provides a potential means for the parametric analysis of combat engagement scenarios. To determine its viability for this type of analysis, three frameworks for solving differential game problems ...

Johnson, Philip A. (Philip Arthur)

2009-01-01

404

Solar Neutrinos: Solved and Unsolved Problems John N. Bahcall  

E-print Network

Chapter 10 Solar Neutrinos: Solved and Unsolved Problems John N. Bahcall Institute for Advanced study solar neutrinos? What does the combined standard model (solar plus electroweak) predict for solar neutrinos? Why are the calculations of neutrino fluxes robust? What are the three solar neutrino problems

Bahcall, John

405

Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines  

E-print Network

Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines Yuval Emek1 , Tobias Langner2 the Ants Nearby Treasure Search (ANTS) problem introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, and Sereni (PODC-time of any ANTS algorithm. 1 Introduction "They operate without any central control. Their collective

406

Problem Solving--An Attitude as well as a Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes the importance of problem-solving attitudes when the problem solver is waiting for a breakthrough. Discusses the classroom use of five components of "mathematical disposition" from the chapter on "Evaluation" in the "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Nine references are listed. (YP)

Schmalz, Rosemary

1989-01-01

407

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For an advanced manufacturing system to function efficiently, all workers must know how to identify problems within their departments and develop solutions for them. Today's employers expect technicians entering the workplace to possess "soft skills." These include the ability to analyze a problem logically and formulate a solution, but also the ability to work in teams and to effectively communicate with others.This lesson uses real-world scenarios to encourage critical thinking and improve problem-solving skills. The lesson begins with an invitation to explore the many different areas and career paths within advanced manufacturing. Following a brief small-group discussion on how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, students review a handout that lays out some guidelines for how to approach problem solving. Students watch a video about a manufacturing supervisor, and then begin to relate problem solving to other workplace scenarios. Then, through two short activities, they have a chance to demonstrate their ability to think critically. An optional extension activity has students apply what they've learned by researching an industry of their choice and assessing the problems that are likely to come up. Students prepare a report that includes their analysis of the problems, probable causes, and a possible solution to one of them. They then present their report to the rest of the class.

408

Solving an Air Conditioning System Problem using Constraint Satisfaction  

E-print Network

Solving an Air Conditioning System Problem using Constraint Satisfaction RaphaĂŤl Chenouard1 An air conditioning system problem 1.1 Context The design process is a sequence of phases ranging from States (2007)" DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-74970-7_4 #12;In this paper, an air conditioning system (ACS

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de

409

Using Problem Solving to Assess Young Children's Mathematics Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primary…

Charlesworth, Rosalind; Leali, Shirley A.

2012-01-01

410

Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…

Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen

2008-01-01

411

Solving a Rational Eigenvalue Problem in Fluid-Structure Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a rational eigenvalue problem governing the vibra- tions of a tube bundle immersed in an inviscid compressible fluid. Taking advantage of eigensolutions of appropriate sparse linear eigenproblems the large nonlinear eigenvalue problem is projected to a much smaller one which is solved by inverse iteration.

H. Voss

2002-01-01

412

A Problem-Solving Oral Examination for Family Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College of Family Physicians of Canada has used in its certification examination a new type of structured problem-solving examination called the Formal Oral. A series of preselected problem areas such as the complaint, relevant data base, investigation, and treatment are scored by two examiners. (Editor/PG)

Van Wart, Arthur D.

1974-01-01

413

Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS  

E-print Network

Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS Steven van Dijk Dirk Thierens Mark de in Geographical Information Systems (GIS's). The framework is especially suited for geographical problems since as well. 1 Introduction Geographic Information Systems (GIS's for short) combine a geographical database

Utrecht, Universiteit

414

Solving the Small Sample Size Problem of LDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small sample size problem is often encountered in pattern recognition. It results in the singularity of the within-class scatter matrix Sw in Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Different methods have been proposed to solve this problem in face recognition literature. Some methods reduce the dimension of the original sample space and hence unavoidably remove the null space of Sw, which

Rui Huang; Qingshan Liu; Hanqing Lu; Songde Ma

2002-01-01

415

Applications of Fitzpatrick functions for solving optimization problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents applications of Fitzparick functions to optimization problems. The main purpose of the present work is to introduce applications of the Fitzpatrick functions, involving their specific properties as the maximal monotonicity, or the proper, convex and lower semi-continuity, for solving optimization problems.

Nashed, Z.; Raykov, I.

2012-10-01

416

Two Aspects of Meaningful Problem Solving in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for solving genetics problems when problem statements include information on which alleles are dominant/recessive and on what forms of a trait are coded for by the alleles. Includes procedural steps employed in a solution and conceptual knowledge of genetics/meiosis allowing students to justify what they have done. (Author/JN)

Stewart, James

1982-01-01

417

Technologically Mediated Complex Problem-Solving on a Statistics Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simulations on computers can allow many experiments to be conducted quickly to help students develop an understanding of statistical topics. We used a simulation of a challenging problem in statistics as the focus of an exploration of situations where members of a problem-solving group are physically separated then reconnected via combinations of…

Scanlon, Eileen; Blake, Canan; Joiner, Richard; O'Shea, Tim

2005-01-01

418

Solving Quadratic Multicommodity Problems through an Interior-Point Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard interior-point algorithms usually show a poor performance when applied to multicommodity network flows problems. A recent spe- cialized interior-point algorithm for linear multicommodity network flows overcame this drawback, and was able to eciently solve large and dif- ficult instances. In this work we perform a computational evaluation of an extension of that specialized algorithm for multicommodity problems with convex

Jordi Castro

2001-01-01

419

Using educational technologies to understand how learners solve problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine how a highly interactive educational technology program Child Growth & Development in the first 12 months of life was used to investigate the problem solving behaviour of learners. This preliminary study was also used to evaluate the study instruments ahead of a more substantial investigation. The design of the program was informed by Problem Based

Kristine A. Elliott; Gregor E. Kennedy

420

A New Approach for Solving the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalized traveling problem (GTSP) is an extension of the classical traveling salesman problem. The GTSP is known to be an NP-hard problem and has many interesting applications. In this paper we present a local-global approach for the generalized traveling salesman problem. Based on this approach we describe a novel hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for solving the problem using genetic algorithms. Computational results are reported for Euclidean TSPlib instances and compared with the existing ones. The obtained results point out that our hybrid algorithm is an appropriate method to explore the search space of this complex problem and leads to good solutions in a reasonable amount of time.

Pop, P. C.; Matei, O.; Sabo, C.

421

Numerical Boundary Conditions for Computational Aeroacoustics Benchmark Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Category 1, Problems 1 and 2, Category 2, Problem 2, and Category 3, Problem 2 are solved computationally using the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme. All these problems are governed by the linearized Euler equations. The resolution requirements of the DRP scheme for maintaining low numerical dispersion and dissipation as well as accurate wave speeds in solving the linearized Euler equations are now well understood. As long as 8 or more mesh points per wavelength is employed in the numerical computation, high quality results are assured. For the first three categories of benchmark problems, therefore, the real challenge is to develop high quality numerical boundary conditions. For Category 1, Problems 1 and 2, it is the curved wall boundary conditions. For Category 2, Problem 2, it is the internal radiation boundary conditions inside the duct. For Category 3, Problem 2, they are the inflow and outflow boundary conditions upstream and downstream of the blade row. These are the foci of the present investigation. Special nonhomogeneous radiation boundary conditions that generate the incoming disturbances and at the same time allow the outgoing reflected or scattered acoustic disturbances to leave the computation domain without significant reflection are developed. Numerical results based on these boundary conditions are provided.

Tam, Chritsopher K. W.; Kurbatskii, Konstantin A.; Fang, Jun

1997-01-01

422

Problem Oriented Software Engineering: Solving the Package Router Control Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem orientation is gaining interest as a way of approaching the development of software intensive systems, and yet, a significant example that explores its use is missing from the literature. In this paper, we present the basic elements of Problem Oriented Software Engineering (POSE), which aims at bringing both nonformal and formal aspects of software development together in a single

Jon G. Hall; Lucia Rapanotti; Michael A. Jackson

2008-01-01

423

Solving Hierarchically Decomposable Problems with the Evolutionary Transition Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capturing the metaphor of evolutionary transitions in biological complexity, the Evolutionary Transition Algorithm (ETA) evolves\\u000a solutions of increasing structural and functional complexity from the symbiotic interaction of partial ones. From the definition\\u000a it follows that this algorithm should be very well suited to solve hierarchically decomposable problems. In this chapter,\\u000a we show that the ETA can indeed solve this kind

Tom Lenaerts; Anne Defaweux

2009-01-01

424

Enabling Systems Biology: A Scientific Problem-Solving Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biologists today are striving to solve multidisciplinary, complex systems biology questions. To successfully address these\\u000a questions, software tools must be created to allow scientists to capture data and information, to share this information,\\u000a and to analyze the data as elements of a complete system. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we are creating the Computational\\u000a Cell Environment, a biology-centered collaborative problem-solving

Mudita Singhal; Eric G. Stephan; Kyle R. Klicker; Lynn L. Trease; George Chin Jr.; Deborah K. Gracio; Deborah A. Payne

2004-01-01

425

Application of an adaptive numerical technique to 3-D pipeline problems with strong nonlinearities  

SciTech Connect

Several three-dimensional pipeline problems are used to illustrate a general pipeline and riser model with twist. A continuation technique is developed to solve convergence problems. Suitable stiff numerical methods are reviewed for general applications.

Konuk, I.

1982-03-01

426

Application of an adaptive numerical technique to 3-D pipeline problems with strong nonlinearities  

SciTech Connect

Several three-dimensional pipeline problems are used to illustrate a general pipeline and riser model with twist. A continuation technique is developed to solve convergence problems. Suitable stiff numerical methods are reviewed for general applications. 14 refs.

Konuk, I.

1982-03-01

427

An efficient analytical approach for solving fourth order boundary value problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the homotopy analysis method (HAM), an efficient approach is proposed for obtaining approximate series solutions to fourth order two-point boundary value problems. We apply the approach to a linear problem which involves a parameter c and cannot be solved by other analytical methods for large values of c, and obtain convergent series solutions which agree very well with the exact solution, no matter how large the value of c is. Consequently, we give an affirmative answer to the open problem proposed by Momani and Noor in 2007 [S. Momani, M.A. Noor, Numerical comparison of methods for solving a special fourth-order boundary value problem, Appl. Math. Comput. 191 (2007) 218-224]. We also apply the approach to a nonlinear problem, and obtain convergent series solutions which agree very well with the numerical solution given by the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg 4-5 technique.

Liang, Songxin; Jeffrey, David J.

2009-11-01

428

Survey of Solving Multi-Attribute Decision Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding the optimal solution of a Multi-Attribute Decision Problem (MADP) is a key problem for electronic commerce systems. In this paper, we formally define the multi-attribute decision problem, and we report our survey of four different methods (soft-CSP framework, multi-attribute decision theory, CP- network, and Heuristic strategies) which potentially could be used to solve the MADP, and their advantages and

Jiyong Zhang; Pearl Pu

2004-01-01

429

Physics Problem Solving: Student Performance Analysis on Mechanics Problems Requiring Diagrammatic Visualisation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated problem solving skills in mechanics problems that required the use of diagrams. These skills were examined in two ways. First, the study examined student problem solving skills using solution scripts from the Western Australian Tertiary Admission Examination in physics. Solution attempts by students in the 1978 and 1979…

Prendergast, Wilfred Francis

430

The Role of Conceptual Understanding in Solving Word Problems: Two-Step Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work studies the difficulties children have solving two-step word problems of a given structure (e.g., 7 lollypops/2 chocolate bars X 6 chocolate bars). Thirty-six children between the ages of 9 and 14 years were individually observed solving problems of the above type. Other tasks, repetition of the problem and model recognition, were used…

Quintero, Ana Helvia

431

Solving Word Problems using Schemas: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students are taught to recognize problems as falling within word-problem types and to apply a problem solution method that matches that problem type. This review highlights two schema approaches for 2nd- and 3rd-grade students at-risk for or with LD: schema-based instruction and schema-broadening instruction. A total of 12 schema studies were reviewed and synthesized. Both types of schema approaches enhanced the word-problem skill of students at-risk for or with LD. Based on the review, suggestions are provided for incorporating word-problem instruction using schemas. PMID:21643477

Powell, Sarah R.

2011-01-01

432

Problem Solving across the Curriculum: Improving Students' Problem-Solving Skills Using Off-Computer & On-Computer Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to provide elementary and middle school teachers with motivating problem-solving activities to use with their students. The text contains interesting and challenging problems from mathematics, language arts, social studies, and natural science which are divided into sections of activities of short, middle, and longer duration…

Beaver, John F.

433

Preservice Teachers' Use of Multiple Representations in Solving Arithmetic Mean Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines solutions presented by preservice teachers for solving graphical and numerical problems involving the arithmetic mean. Participants presented two methods: algorithmic computation and balancing deviations about the mean. A significant difference was found between science and mathematics preservice teachers in the use of balancing…

Gfeller, Mary K.; Niess, Margaret L.; Lederman, Norman G.

1999-01-01

434

Rational Legendre Approximation for Solving some Physical Problems on Semi-Infinite Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical technique for solving some physical problems on a semi-infinite interval is presented. Two nonlinear examples are proposed. In the first example the Volterra's population model growth is formulated as a nonlinear differential equation, and in the second example the Lane-Emden nonlinear differential equation is considered. The approach is based on a rational Legendre tau method. The operational matrices

K. Parand; M. Razzaghi

2004-01-01

435

Perfecting scientists’ collaboration and problem-solving skills in the virtual team environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perfecting Scientists’ Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-lo...

436

Numerical methods for multiscale elliptic problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the recent development on numerical methods for elliptic problems with multiscale coefficients. We carry out a thorough study of two representative techniques: the heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM) and the multiscale finite element method (MsFEM). For problems with scale separation (but without specific assumptions on the particular form of the coefficients), analytical and numerical results show

Pingbing Ming; Xingye Yue

2006-01-01

437

Wikispaces (Wikis) and Group Problem Solving (GPS) sessions in Physics classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the combine use of Wikispaces (Wikis) and Group Problem Solving (GPS) sessions conducted in the introductory level and upper level physics classes. This method gradually evolved from the combine use of Wikis and Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) practiced over the past years. As a part of this new teaching method, some essay type problems, parallel to the chapter in discussion, were posted on the Wikis at the beginning of each week and students were encouraged to visit the pages and do the work without providing numerical final answers but the steps. At the end of each week students were evaluated on the problem solving skills opening up more opportunity for peer interaction by putting them into small groups and letting them solve one selected problem. A class of 30 students is divided into 6 groups and as a whole four lengthy essay problems are discussed - each group is given to solve one problem. The problem numbers are drawn in a raffle and the groups are excited to find out what they get each week. The required skills to solve a problem are gained from the weekly given Wiki exercises. Wiki provides a user-friendly platform to make this effort a success. GPS sessions help the professor identify the failing students earlier and help them before it's too late.

Mohottala, Hashini

2013-03-01

438

Problem Solving and Community Activity Series: Understanding the Problem with Wooden Legs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document for teachers provides four activities to develop students' ability to understand and interpret problems. These strategies help students deepen their focus and improve their problem-solving skills. The document includes both Problem Solving goals and Communication goals, as well as sample activities and specific examples related to the Wooden Legs Problem of the Week from the Math Forum. A copy of the complete problem, the scenario (with the question removed) and student handouts for applying the problem-solving strategies are also provided.

Ray, Max; Weimar, Stephen; Regis, Troy P.

2011-01-01

439

Dirac's formalism combined with complex Fourier operational matrices to solve initial and boundary value problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximations of functions in terms of orthogonal polynomials have been used to develop and implement numerical approaches to solve spectrally initial and boundary value problems. The main idea behind these approaches is to express differential and integral operators by using matrices, and this, in turn, makes the numerical implementation easier to be expressed in computational algebraic languages. In this paper, the application of the methodology is enlarged by using Dirac's formalism, combined with complex Fourier series.

Labecca, William; Guimarăes, Osvaldo; Piqueira, José Roberto C.

2014-08-01

440

Robust operative diagnosis as problem solving in a hypothesis space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an approach that formulates diagnosis of physical systems in operation as problem solving in a hypothesis space. Such a formulation increases robustness by: (1) incremental hypotheses construction via dynamic inputs, (2) reasoning at a higher level of abstraction to construct hypotheses, and (3) partitioning the space by grouping fault hypotheses according to the type of physical system representation and problem solving techniques used in their construction. It was implemented for a turbofan engine and hydraulic subsystem. Evaluation of the implementation on eight actual aircraft accident cases involving engine faults provided very promising results.

Abbott, Kathy H.

1988-01-01

441

Dynamic application of problem solving strategies : dependency-based flow control  

E-print Network

While humans may solve problems by applying any one of a number of different problem solving strategies, computerized problem solving is typically brittle, limited in the number of available strategies and ways of combining ...

Jacobi, Ian Campbell

2013-01-01

442

Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.

1988-01-01

443

A numerical approach for solving singular nonlinear Lane-Emden type equations arising in astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we suggest a numerical method based upon hybrid of Chebyshev wavelets and finite difference methods for solving well-known nonlinear initial-value problems of Lane-Emden type. The useful properties of the Chebyshev wavelets and finite difference method are utilized to reduce the computation of the problem to a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. Making a comparison among the obtained results using the present method with those ones reported in literature by some other well-known methods confirms the accuracy and computational efficiency of the present technique.

Kazemi Nasab, A.; K?l?çman, A.; Pashazadeh Atabakan, Z.; Leong, W. J.

2015-01-01

444

Ant colony optimization for solving university facility layout problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAP) is classified as the NP hard problem. It has been used to model a lot of problem in several areas such as operational research, combinatorial data analysis and also parallel and distributed computing, optimization problem such as graph portioning and Travel Salesman Problem (TSP). In the literature, researcher use exact algorithm, heuristics algorithm and metaheuristic approaches to solve QAP problem. QAP is largely applied in facility layout problem (FLP). In this paper we used QAP to model university facility layout problem. There are 8 facilities that need to be assigned to 8 locations. Hence we have modeled a QAP problem with n ? 10 and developed an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the university facility layout problem. The objective is to assign n facilities to n locations such that the minimum product of flows and distances is obtained. Flow is the movement from one to another facility, whereas distance is the distance between one locations of a facility to other facilities locations. The objective of the QAP is to obtain minimum total walking (flow) of lecturers from one destination to another (distance).

Mohd Jani, Nurul Hafiza; Mohd Radzi, Nor Haizan; Ngadiman, Mohd Salihin

2013-04-01

445

Solving complex band structure problems with the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With straightforward extension, the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm [Polizzi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115112 (2009)] is capable of solving the generalized eigenvalue problems representing traveling-wave problems—as exemplified by the complex band-structure problem—even though the matrices involved are complex, non-Hermitian, and singular, and hence outside the originally stated range of applicability of the algorithm. The obtained eigenvalues/eigenvectors, however, contain spurious solutions which must be detected and removed. The efficiency and parallel structure of the original algorithm are unaltered. The complex band structures of Si layers of varying thicknesses and InAs nanowires of varying radii are computed as test problems.

Laux, S. E.

2012-08-01

446

Teaching Problem Solving Through Cooperative Grouping. Part 2: Designing Problems and Structuring Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A supportive environment based on cooperative grouping was developed to foster students' learning of an effective problem-solving strategy. Experiments to adapt the technique of cooperative grouping to physics problem solving were carried out in two diverse settings: a large introductory course at a state university, and a small modern physics class at a community college. Groups were more likely to use an effective problem-solving strategy when given context-rich problems to solve than when given standard textbook problems. Well-functioning cooperative groups were found to result from specific structural and management procedures governing group members' interactions. Group size, the gender and ability composition of groups, seating arrangement, role assignment, textbook use, and group as well as individual testing were all found to contribute to the problem-solving performance of cooperative groups.

Heller, Patricia; Hollabaugh, Mark

2006-06-19

447

The Yo-Yo Problem: Solving Linear Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and the graphing calculator. The lesson starts with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Students then complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies that allows them to explore a linear pattern and express that pattern in symbolic form. Algebra tiles are introduced as the students practice solving linear equations. Working from the concrete to the abstract is especially important for students who have difficulty with mathematics, and algebra tiles help students make this transition. In addition to using algebra tiles, students also use symbolic manipulation and the graphing calculator. Finally, the students return to solve the yo-yo problem. A feature of this lesson is the effective use of peer tutors in this inclusion classroom. Student worksheets are included to print.

2007-12-12

448

Teaching Math K-2 Session 3 Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development session is from an Annenberg Learner course that explores the NCTM process standard of problem solving as a key means to introducing new material and building conceptual understanding in students grades K-2. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, student responses and reflection opportunities. This session is eligible for graduate credit for a fee when taken in conjunction with the other Teaching Math sessions from this course.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

449

Writing and Reading Activities for Math Problem-Solving (WRAMPS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yu-Chung Change of Pasadena City College developed this method in an inquiry project. Here is her description of the approach: The Writing and Reading Activities for Math Problem Solving (WRAMPS) is a nine-step process that requires students to break a word problem into small pieces by using reading and writing strategies. Students then work collaboratively and concentrate on language decoding and comprehension.

2011-01-01

450

The Expanded Invasive Weed Optimization Metaheuristic for Solving Continuous and Discrete Optimization Problems  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces an expanded version of the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO) distinguished by the hybrid strategy of the search space exploration proposed by the authors. The algorithm is evaluated by solving three well-known optimization problems: minimization of numerical functions, feature selection, and the Mona Lisa TSP Challenge as one of the instances of the traveling salesman problem. The achieved results are compared with analogous outcomes produced by other optimization methods reported in the literature. PMID:24955420

Josi?ski, Henryk; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; ?wito?ski, Adam

2014-01-01

451

The expanded invasive weed optimization metaheuristic for solving continuous and discrete optimization problems.  

PubMed

This paper introduces an expanded version of the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO) distinguished by the hybrid strategy of the search space exploration proposed by the authors. The algorithm is evaluated by solving three well-known optimization problems: minimization of numerical functions, feature selection, and the Mona Lisa TSP Challenge as one of the instances of the traveling salesman problem. The achieved results are compared with analogous outcomes produced by other optimization methods reported in the literature. PMID:24955420

Josi?ski, Henryk; Kostrzewa, Daniel; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Swito?ski, Adam

2014-01-01

452

The Effect of Alternative Solutions on Problem Solving Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of instruction in alternative solutions on Taiwanese eighth-grade students' mathematical problem solving performance. This study was exploratory rather than experimental. Alternative-Solution Worksheet (ASW) was developed to encourage students' engagement with alternative solutions to…

Lee, Shin-Yi

2011-01-01

453

SOLVING A TWODIMENSIONAL HELMHOLTZ PROBLEM USING ALGEBRAIC MULTIGRID \\Lambda  

E-print Network

SOLVING A TWO­DIMENSIONAL HELMHOLTZ PROBLEM USING ALGEBRAIC MULTIGRID \\Lambda PETR VAN Ÿ EK, JAN is applied to the solution of the Helmholtz equation in a first order least squares formulation, discretized for the solution of the Helmholtz equation of scattering are known in the literature. A common disadvantage

Mandel, Jan

454

Solving Permutation Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Artificial Ants  

E-print Network

Solving Permutation Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Artificial Ants Christine Solnon 1 Abstract. We describe in this paper Ant­P­solver, a generic con­ straint solver based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) meta­ heuristic. The ACO metaheuristic takes inspiration on the observa­ tion of real ants

Solnon, Christine

455

Mental Representation and Problem Solving in Work-Study Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transitional situations, such as those experienced by work study students, may create cognitive difficulties by requiring people to simultaneously use both a learning and a use logic. To examine this phenomenon, a problem solving task (electrical schemata of a washing machine) was administered to 43 full time students and 51 work study students…

Colardyn, Danielle; White, Kathleen M.

456

A Unified Approach for Solving Nonlinear Regular Perturbation Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a simple alternative unified method of solving nonlinear regular perturbation problems. The procedure is based upon the manipulation of Taylor's approximation for the expansion of the nonlinear term in the perturbed equation. An essential feature of this technique is the relative simplicity used and the associated unified…

Khuri, S. A.

2008-01-01

457

Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…

Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

2011-01-01

458

Instructional Design as Design Problem Solving: An Iterative Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design, including instructional design, is one of most complex and ill-structured kinds of problem solving. Historically, instructional design has been conceptualized as a linear set of phases (e.g., analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation) that a designer progresses through. Silber (2007) has provided an alternative perspective…

Jonassen, David H.,

2008-01-01

459

A Study of Student Interactions during Asynchronous Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the quality and nature of the students' interactions during asynchronous online problem solving in two sections of College Algebra taught by the author. In a shared-work section, students worked independently for an initial phase and had access to classmates' work during a follow-up phase. Students in the…

Cooper, Thomas E.

2009-01-01

460

THE ART AND SCIENCE OF PARTICIPATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING  

E-print Network

and thinking, the artistic attitude and the scientific attitude are two very different worlds, they are like-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking together qualitative and creative issues from Art and Architecture with quantitative and scientific

461

What Next? Futuristic Scenarios for Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 52 units designed to assist teachers in helping their students improve their creative writing and communication skills, improve their skills in creative problem solving, and enlarge, enrich, and make more accurate their images of the future. Each unit begins with an overview of the activity, an explanation of the creative…

Myers, Robert E.; Torrance, E. Paul

462

ORIGINAL PAPER Mathematical modeling of evolution. Solved and open problems  

E-print Network

on variation and natural selection is due to the great naturalist Charles Darwin who derived it from a wealthORIGINAL PAPER Mathematical modeling of evolution. Solved and open problems Peter Schuster Received Abstract Evolution is a highly complex multilevel pro- cess and mathematical modeling of evolutionary

Schuster, Peter

463

Extending Fibonacci Numbers to Negative Subscripts through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This classroom note shows how Fibonacci numbers with negative subscripts emerge from a problem-solving context enhanced by the use of an electronic spreadsheet. It reflects the author's work with prospective K-12 teachers in a number of mathematics content courses. (Contains 4 figures.)

Abramovich, Sergei

2010-01-01

464

Addressing Cognitive Differences and Gender During Problem Solving  

E-print Network

Addressing Cognitive Differences and Gender During Problem Solving Ivon Arroyo and Beverly P. Woolf important to consider for domains for which there are well-established group differences, such as gender differences in mathematics. 1 Customization and Multimedia Improve Learning Both customized teaching

Arroyo, Ivon M.

465

Practical Parenting: Successful Strategies for Solving Your Child's Behaviour Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that all parents encounter challenges in raising their children, this book presents practical strategies for solving common behavior problems. Chapter 1, "Bonding," concerns the development of parent-child attachment. Chapter 2, "Encouraging Development," discusses "hot-housing," language development, and early intervention. Chapter 3,…

Stenhouse, Glen

466

Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process-based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

Harper, Kathleen A.

2012-01-01

467

Secondary School Genetics Instruction: Making Problem Solving Explicit and Meaningful.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains an algorithm which details procedures for solving a broad class of genetics problems common to pre-college biology. Several flow charts (developed from the algorithm) are given with sample questions and suggestions for student use. Conclusions are based on the authors' research (which includes student interviews and textbook analyses).…

Thomson, Norman; Stewart, James

1985-01-01

468

Tracing Success: Graphical Methods for Analysing Successful Collaborative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of trace diagrams for analysing collaborative problem solving. The paper describes a study where trace diagrams were used to analyse joint navigation in a virtual environment. Ten pairs of undergraduates worked together on a distributed virtual task to collect five flowers using two bees with each…

Joiner, Richard; Issroff, Kim

2003-01-01

469

The Effects of Motivation and Emotion upon Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has refuted the behaviorist approach by establishing a relationship between emotion and behavior. The data collection procedure, however, has often involved an inferred emotional state from a hypothetical situation. As partial fulfillment of a class requirement, 60 college students were asked to perform two problem solving tasks…

Sanders, Michele; Matsumoto, David

470

Solving the Inverse-Square Problem with Complex Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The equation of motion for a mass that moves under the influence of a central, inverse-square force is formulated and solved as a problem in complex variables. To find the solution, the constancy of angular momentum is first established using complex variables. Next, the complex position coordinate and complex velocity of the particle are assumed…

Gauthier, N.

2005-01-01

471

Towards Efficient Measurement of Metacognition in Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metacognitive monitoring and regulation play an essential role in mathematical problem solving. Therefore, it is important for researchers and practitioners to assess students' metacognition. One proven valid, but time consuming, method to assess metacognition is by using think-aloud protocols. Although valuable, practical drawbacks of this method…

Jacobse, Annemieke E.; Harskamp, Egbert G.

2012-01-01

472

The Nature of Gestures' Beneficial Role in Spatial Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Co-thought gestures are hand movements produced in silent, noncommunicative, problem-solving situations. In the study, we investigated whether and how such gestures enhance performance in spatial visualization tasks such as a mental rotation task and a paper folding task. We found that participants gestured more often when they had difficulties…

Chu, Mingyuan; Kita, Sotaro

2011-01-01

473

Engineering bacteria to solve the Burnt Pancake Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We investigated the possibility of executing DNA-based computation in living cells by engineering Escherichia coli to address a classic mathematical puzzle called the Burnt Pancake Problem (BPP). The BPP is solved by sorting a stack of distinct objects (pancakes) into proper order and orientation using the minimum number of manipulations. Each manipulation reverses the order and orientation of one

Karmella A Haynes; Marian L Broderick; Adam D Brown; Trevor L Butner; James O Dickson; W Lance Harden; Eric L Jessen; Kelly J Malloy; Brad J Ogden; Sabriya Rosemond; Samantha Simpson; Erin Zwack; A Malcolm Campbell; Todd T Eckdahl; Laurie J Heyer; Jeffrey L Poet

2008-01-01

474

Conceptions of Efficiency: Applications in Learning and Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to clarify conceptions, definitions, and applications of learning and problem-solving efficiency. Conceptions of efficiency vary within the field of educational psychology, and there is little consensus as to how to define, measure, and interpret the efficiency construct. We compare three diverse models that differ…

Hoffman, Bobby; Schraw, Gregory

2010-01-01

475

Elementary Teachers' Perspectives of Mathematics Problem Solving Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants in this study were asked to report what strategies were most often used in their attempts to foster their students' problem solving abilities. Participants included 70 second through fifth-grade elementary teachers from 42 schools in a large state of the south central region in the U.S. Data analyses of the interviews revealed…

Bruun, Faye

2013-01-01

476

Development of Problem Solving Strategies in Reflective and Impulsive Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a developmental study of the problem solving strategies of reflective and impulsive children. Subjects for the study were 30 nine-year-olds, 39 eleven-year-olds, and 23 thirteen-year-olds who had been classified as reflective or impulsive at ages 7, 9, and 11 and who had been followed longitudinally over a three year period.…

McKinney, James D.

477

Collaboration and Chat: Recipiency in Online Math Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine ways that participants in online math problem- solving chat sessions dis-attend and attend to postings by other participants and the ways that participants design their postings to elicit responses from recipients. This is consequential in terms of the design of CSCL systems that use chat as the basis of participant interaction. By developing a proper

Alan Zemel; Nan Zhou; Gerry Stahl

478

Assessment for Intervention: A Problem-Solving Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cutting-edge volume offers a complete primer on conducting problem-solving based assessments in school or clinical settings. Presented are an effective framework and up-to-date tools for identifying and remediating the many environmental factors that may contribute to a student's academic, emotional, or behavioral difficulties, and for…

Brown-Chidsey, Rachel, Ed.

2005-01-01

479

Robotic Toys as a Catalyst for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robotic toys present unique opportunities for teachers of young children to integrate mathematics learning with engaging problem-solving tasks. This article describes a series of tasks using Bee-bots and Pro-bots, developed as part a larger project examining young children's use of robotic toys as tools in developing mathematical and metacognitive…

Highfield, Kate

2010-01-01

480

Middleware for Building Mixed-Initiative Problem Solving Assistants  

Microsoft Academic Search

CollagenTMis Java middleware for building mixed- initiative problem solving assistants, based on Grosz and Sidner's SharedPlan theory of collaborative dis- course. The implementation includes a discourse state representation, comprised of a focus stack and a plan tree, as well as algorithms for discourse interpretation (including plan recognition) and discourse generation. Collagen has been used to build over a dozen research

Charles Rich; Candace L. Sidner

481

Solving the Water Jugs Problem by an Integer Sequence Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we present an integer sequence approach to solve the classic water jugs problem. The solution steps can be obtained easily by additions and subtractions only, which is suitable for manual calculation or programming by computer. This approach can be introduced to secondary and undergraduate students, and also to teachers and…

Man, Yiu-Kwong

2012-01-01

482

Solving Subtraction Problems by Means of Indirect Addition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subtraction problems of the type a - b = ? can be "flexibly" solved by various strategies, including the indirect addition strategy ("how much do I have to add to b to get at a?"). Little research has been done on the use of the indirect addition strategy with multi-digit numbers. The present literature review entails a summary of three recent and…

Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Stassens, Nick; Ghesquiere, Pol; Verschaffel, Lieven

2009-01-01

483

Combining Feature Selection and Neural Networks for Solving Classification Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to solving classifica- tion problems by combining feature selection and neural networks. The main idea is to use techniques from the field of information theory to select a set of important attributes that can be used to classify tuples. A neural network is trained using these attributes; the neural network is then used to classify

Paul O' Dea; Josephine Griffith; Colm O' Riordan

484

--Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Evan Glazer  

E-print Network

72 InterMath 1 --Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Technology). The development of mathematical understanding occurs when technology is used as a cognitive tool that supports to deliver the curriculum through web-based materials and to explore the mathematics using cognitive tools

Spagnolo, Filippo

485

Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify Polya's art of…

Curcio, Frances R., Ed.

486

Aha! Voila! Eureka! Bilingualism and Insightful Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What makes a person able to solve problems creatively? One interesting factor that may contribute is experience with multiple languages from an early age. Bilingual individuals who acquire two languages by the age of 6 have been shown to demonstrate superior performance on a number of thinking tasks that require flexibility. However, bilingual…

Cushen, Patrick J.; Wiley, Jennifer

2011-01-01

487

Science for Environmental Management Enhancing environmental problem solving  

E-print Network

Science for Environmental Management Enhancing environmental problem solving MEES 698Y Special Topics in Marine-Estuarine-Environmental Sciences Spring Semester 2013; Wednesdays 3:30-6:30pm Course will be taught on the Interactive Video Network (IVN) is course will address the role of science in environmental

Boynton, Walter R.

488

Sciencewise: Discovering Scientific Process through Problem Solving. Book 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book of activities uses problem solving to help students develop the basic science process skills of observing, predicting, designing/experimenting, eliminating, and drawing conclusions. The activities are divided into two sections: Dynamo Demos and Creative Challenges. The teacher-led Dynamo Demos help students to develop science process…

Holley, Dennis

489

Sciencewise: Discovering Scientific Process through Problem Solving. Book 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book of activities uses problem solving to help students develop the basic science process skills of observing, predicting, designing/experimenting, eliminating, and drawing conclusions. The activities are divided into two sections: Dynamo Demos and Creative Challenges. The teacher-led Dynamo Demos help students to develop science process…

Holley, Dennis

490

Ontological Support in Modeling Learners' Problem Solving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a new model for simulating procedural knowledge in the problem solving process with our ontological system, InfoMap. The method divides procedural knowledge into two parts: process control and action performer. By adopting InfoMap, we hope to help teachers construct curricula (declarative knowledge) and teaching strategies by…

Lu, Chun-Hung; Wu, Chia-Wei; Wu, Shih-Hung; Chiou, Guey-Fa; Hsu, Wen-Lian

2005-01-01

491

Prospective Elementary Teachers' Misunderstandings in Solving Ratio and Proportion Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores difficulties that prospective elementary mathematics teachers have with the concepts of ratio and proportion, mainly when they are engaged in solving problems using algorithm procedures. These difficulties can be traced back to earlier experiences when they were students of junior and high school. The reflection on these…

Monteiro, Cecilia

2003-01-01

492

A Working Memory Model Applied to Mathematical Word Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study is (a) to explore the relationship among cognitive style (field dependence/independence), working memory, and mathematics anxiety and (b) to examine their effects on students' mathematics problem solving. A sample of 161 school girls (13-14 years old) were tested on (1) the Witkin's cognitive style (Group Embedded…

Alamolhodaei, Hassan

2009-01-01

493

Family Problem-Solving with Children Who Have Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem-solving discussions were observed within families of children with mental retardation and multiple comparison groups (total N = 162 families). As expected, parents were more persistent and directive with their children who had mental retardation, but they also avoided negative exchanges with these children. These patterns did not spillover…

Floyd, Frank J; Harter, Kristina S. M.; Costigan, Catherine L.

2004-01-01

494

Assisting Students with Argumentation Plans when Solving Problems in CSCL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In CSCL systems, students who are solving problems in group have to negotiate with each other by exchanging proposals and arguments in order to resolve the conflicts and generate a shared solution. In this context, argument construction assistance is necessary to facilitate reaching to a consensus. This assistance is usually provided with isolated…

Monteserin, Ariel; Schiaffino, Silvia; Amandi, Analia

2010-01-01

495

Modeling and Solving Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problems by Transformation to  

E-print Network

Modeling and Solving Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problems by Transformation to Weighted Semiring Max-SAT Louise Leenen1 , Anbulagan2 , Thomas Meyer3 , and Aditya Ghose4 1 DSL, SCSSE, University of the Semiring Con- straint Satisfaction framework. We show how to encode a Semiring Con- straint Satisfaction

Anbulagan, A.

496

Thinking Can Cause Forgetting: Memory Dynamics in Creative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found…

Storm, Benjamin C.; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

2011-01-01

497

Towards a Theory of Cooperative Problem Solving Michael Wooldridge  

E-print Network

Towards a Theory of Cooperative Problem Solving Michael Wooldridge Dept. of Computing Manchester Metropolitan University Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD United Kingdom M.Wooldridge@doc.mmu.ac.uk Nicholas R Kingdom N.R.Jennings@qmw.ac.uk Abstract. One objective of distributed artificial intelligence research

Woolridge, Mike

498

Creating Alien Life Forms: Problem Solving in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project that helps students integrate biological concepts using both creativity and higher-order problem-solving skills. Involves students playing the roles of junior scientists aboard a starship in orbit around a class M planet and using a description of habitats, seasonal details, and a surface map of prominent geographic features to…

Grimnes, Karin A.

1996-01-01

499

Batik Making as Creative Problem Solving: A Naturalistic Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces an artistic model of planning and problem solving. The model is based on a case study of processes engaged in by a college art student during the course of producing a senior thesis in batik (a wax-resist fabric dyeing process). Based on the premise that knowledge of the creative process is essential to understanding the…

Bollen, Sharon Kesterson

500

SMILE Maker: A Web-Based Tool for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the purposes, theoretical model, and functionality of the SMILE (Solution Mapping Intelligent Learning Environment) Maker--a World Wide Web-based problem-solving tool. From an instructional design point of view, an attempt to establish a balance between constructivism/instructivism, content-treatment…

Stoyanov, Svetoslav; Aroyo, Lora; Kommers, Piet; Kurtev, Ivan