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1

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For an optimal control problem with state constraints, an iterative solution method is described based on reduction to a finite-dimensional problem, followed by applying a successive linearization algorithm with the use of an augmented Lagrangian. The efficiency of taking into account state constraints in optimal control computation is illustrated by numerically solving several application problems.

Gornov, A. Yu.; Tyatyushkin, A. I.; Finkelstein, E. A.

2013-12-01

2

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,

3

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of videos is designed to showcase classrooms in which the NCTM Process Standards are evident. Scroll to video #48, Problem Solving, and select the "VoD" box to view this half-hour video. It includes 13 classroom excerpts from lessons that illustrate students investigating and learning mathematics through problem solving. Teachers share their approaches and observations.

Boston, Wgbh

1997-01-01

4

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to a systematic procedure for solving problems through a demonstration and then the application of the method to an everyday activity. The unit project is introduced to provide relevance to subsequent lessons.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

5

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task…

Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael

2012-01-01

6

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes, characterizes and outlines the benefits of a new computer level specifically for multi-agent problem solvers. This level is called the cooperation knowledge level and involves describing and developing richer and more explicit models of common social phenomena. We then focus on one particular form of social interaction in which groups of agents decide they wish to work

Nick Jennings

1967-01-01

7

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, some numerical algorithms (spectral collocation method, block spectral collocation method, boundary value method, block boundary value method, implicit Runge-Kutta method, diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method and total variation diminishing Runge-Kutta method) are used to solve the highly oscillatory second-order initial value problems. We first derive these methods for the first-order initial value problems, and then extend these methods to the highly oscillatory nonlinear systems by matrix analysis methods. These new methods preserve the accuracy of the original methods and the main advantages of these new methods are low storage requirements and high efficiency. Extensive numerical results are presented to demonstrate the convergence properties of these methods.

Liu, Wenjie; Wu, Boying; Sun, Jiebao

2014-11-01

8

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of a satisfactory numerical method for calculating the propagation of steep fronted shock life waveforms in a solid rocket motor combustion chamber is discussed. A number of different numerical schemes were evaluated by comparing the results obtained for three problems: the shock tube problems; the linear wave equation, and nonlinear wave propagation in a closed tube. The most promising method--a combination of the Lax-Wendroff, Hybrid and Artificial Compression techniques, was incorporated into an existing nonlinear instability program. The capability of the modified program to treat steep fronted wave instabilities in low smoke tactical motors was verified by solving a number of motor test cases with disturbance amplitudes as high as 80% of the mean pressure.

Baum, J. D.; Levine, J. N.

1980-01-01

9

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The international literature suggests students frequently resort to the use of formulae when solving stoichiometry problems without understanding the concepts. In prior work we identified Thai student alternative conceptions and ability to solve numerical problem for stoichiometry. The results indicate that many Thai students also hold alternative…

Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.; Sung-ong, Sunan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Sanguanruang, Sudjit

2008-01-01

10

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger students’ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with students’ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of students’ epistemological beliefs is important for students’ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.

Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael

2012-06-01

11

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger studentsâ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with studentsâ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of studentsâ epistemological beliefs is important for studentsâ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.

Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael

2013-05-28

12

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post, the author discusses how valuable the problem-solving tool of drawing (or acting) out the problem is to help learners make sense of the problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of work from students who were successful and who were not successful in solving the problem are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "Schmoos ânâ Goos" (cataloged separately) that is best solved by drawing a picture.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-03-04

13

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of numerical methods is developed for the numerical solution of a linear parabolic problem with boundary conditions containing integrals over the interior of the interval. The methods are seen to evolve from first- and second-order rational approximants to an exponential function in a recurrence relation. Global extrapolation procedures in space only and in both space and time are

Abdesslam Boutayeb; Abdelaziz Chetouani

2003-01-01

14

Microsoft Academic Search

Solving simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography models requires fast and accurate numerical techniques, since their system size computed is large due to multi-columns and multi-components, in addition the axial solution profiles contain steep moving fronts.The space-time conservation element\\/solution element (CE\\/SE) method addressed in this study enforces both local and global flux conservation in space and time, and uses a simple

Young-Il Lim; Sten Bay Jorgensen

2004-01-01

15

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a studentâs mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.

Taplin, Margaret

2011-01-01

16

E-print Network

formulas which is not sufficient for difficult problems The Formula-Memorizing Approach: High school 1. I feel that problem-solving courses I feel that problem-solving courses involve memorizing lots is between 0 Â­ 18, you favour the formula-memorizing approach If your score is between 19 Â­ 36, you favour

17

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change experienced by students in the process of problem-solving is discussed: the analysis of the problem, the formulation of hypothesis, the design of a solution, the putting into practice of that strategy and the analysis of results. As genetics is one of the few biology topics best addressed through problem-solving, and problem-solving traditionally has been treated in Spain as that of closed problems, it is important that we have shown that working with genuine problematic situations allows students to successfully solve closed problems without prior training.

Martínez Aznar, Mercedes; Ibáńez Orcajo, Teresa

2005-01-01

18

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

19

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving, as commonly taught in schools, is an analytical or procedural approach. This approach almost exclusively employs left-brain thinking modes, is competitive, and relies on individual effort. However, creative problem solving is a framework that encourages whole-brain, iterative thinking in the most effective sequence; it is cooperative in nature and is most productive when done as a team effort

E. Lumsdaine; M. Lumsdaine

1994-01-01

20

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...

Kajigga

2009-09-23

21

USGS Publications Warehouse

We study the dynamic initiation, propagation and arrest of a 2-D in-plane shear rupture by solving the elastodynamic equation by using both a boundary integral equation method and a finite difference approach. For both methods we adopt different constitutive laws: a slip-weakening (SW) law, with constant weakening rate, and rate- and state-dependent friction laws (Dieterich-Ruina). Our numerical procedures allow the use of heterogeneous distributions of constitutive parameters along the fault for both formulations. We first compare the two solution methods with an SW law, emphasizing the required stability conditions to achieve a good resolution of the cohesive zone and to avoid artificial complexity in the solutions. Our modelling results show that the two methods provide very similar time histories of dynamic source parameters. We point out that, if a careful control of resolution and stability is performed, the two methods yield identical solutions. We have also compared the rupture evolution resulting from an SW and a rate- and state-dependent friction law. This comparison shows that despite the different constitutive formulations, a similar behaviour is simulated during the rupture propagation and arrest. We also observe a crack tip bifurcation and a jump in rupture velocity (approaching the P-wave speed) with the Dieterich-Ruina (DR) law. The rupture arrest at a barrier (high strength zone) and the barrier-healing mechanism are also reproduced by this law. However, this constitutive formulation allows the simulation of a more general and complex variety of rupture behaviours. By assuming different heterogeneous distributions of the initial constitutive parameters, we are able to model a barrier-healing as well as a self-healing process. This result suggests that if the heterogeneity of the constitutive parameters is taken into account, the different healing mechanisms can be simulated. We also study the nucleation phase duration Tn, defined as the time necessary for the crack to reach the half-length Ic. We compare the Tn values resulting from distinct simulations calculated using different constitutive laws and different sets of constitutive parameters. Our results confirm that the DR law provides a different description of the nucleation process than the SW law adopted in this study. We emphasize that the DR law yields a complete description of the rupture process, which includes the most prominent features of SW.

Bizzarri, A.; Cocco, M.; Andrews, D. J.; Boschi, E.

2001-01-01

22

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to a three-stage process for problem solving. The three stages are identify the problem, test the solutions, and evaluate the results. A student tip sheet explains each stage and enables students to work through the processes in a step-by-step manner while seeing how the information is tied together. A graphic organizer provides students with an opportunity to evaluate the problem-solving solutions they have developed. A brief outline of the problem-solving process gives students a handy summary to use while investigating problems. The downloadable activity sheets are in pdf files. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

23

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…

Thorson, Annette, Ed.

1999-01-01

24

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many important human activities involve accomplishing goals without a script. There is no formula for true problem-solving. Heuristic, cognitive "rules of thumb" are the problem-solver's best guide. Learners should understand heuristic tools such as means-end analysis, working backwards, successive approximation, and external representation. Since…

Martinez, Michael E.

1998-01-01

25

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

1992-01-01

26

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video third grade teacher Jean Saul demonstrates how she uses problem solving tasks to create a classroom climate that fosters persistence, independence, responsibility, and risk-taking. Students are asked to find three different methods for solving each problem and to record them on a Choose Three Ways graphic organizer. Through collaboration and presentation of their work to peers, students develop math language and discourse skills. A side bar provides reflection questions. Supporting materials include a transcript of the video (doc), the graphic organizer (doc), and two samples of student work (pdf).

2012-01-01

27

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.

2005-01-01

28

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

29

E-print Network

Science? What makes a good computer scientist? #12;Why Computer Science? To Change the World! Empower People to be their own business and sell world-wide! Empower People to spread their own convictionsSolving problems with technology: Computer Science! by: Saiph and Veronika #12;What is Computer

California at Santa Barbara, University of

30

E-print Network

to assign students to groups is because 25 years of past research in cooperative group learning (includingCooperative Problem Solving Page I. How do I form cooperative groups? 7 II. What criteria do I use IV. How do I coach students during group work? 25 #12;#12;Page 7 I. How Do I Form Cooperative Groups

Minnesota, University of

31

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having used the DfES "Problem Solving" pack in a variety of school and centre-based applications, the author taught some of the lessons to classes of children and also observed lessons from the pack being taught to classes from Y1 to Y6. The lessons are part of a series of materials from the Primary National Strategy designed to help all staff…

Kurta, Jon

2006-01-01

32

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes numerical experience with solving MPECs as NLPs on a large collection of test problems. The key idea is to use off-the-shelf NLP solvers to tackle large instances of MPECs. It is shown that SQP methods are very well suited to solving MPECs and at present outperform Interior Point solvers both in terms of speed and reliability. All

Roger Fletcher; Sven Leyffer

2002-01-01

33

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams follow the steps of the engineering design process to meet the challenge of getting their entire class from one location on the playground to the sidewalk without touching the ground between. The class develops a well thought-out plan while following the steps of the engineering design process. Then, they test their solution by going outside and trying it out. Through the post-activity assessment, they compare their problem-solving experience to real life engineering challenges, such as creating new forms of transportation or new product invention.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

34

E-print Network

We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and ...

Pawl, Andrew

35

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

2005-09-01

36

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Kirkley, Rob F.

2003-01-01

37

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively reviewed problem-solving theory and research for possible applications in behavior modification. Problem solving was defined as a behavioral process which (a) makes available a variety of response alternatives for dealing with a problematic situation, and (b) increases the probability of selecting the most effective response from among these alternatives. 5 stages of problem solving were identified: (a) general orientation

Thomas J. DZurilla; Marvin R. Goldfried

1971-01-01

38

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops a theory of biases in decision making. Discovering a strategy for solving a game is a complex problem that may be solved by decomposition; a player decomposing a problem into many simple sub-problems may easily identify the optimal solution to each sub-problem: however it is shown that even though all partial solutions are optimal, the solution to

Massimo Egidi

2003-01-01

39

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving

Lin, Shih-Yin

2012-01-01

40

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…

Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.

2009-01-01

41

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous field researchers have described cooperative hunting in social carnivores, but experimental evidence of cooperative problem solving typically derives from laboratory studies of nonhuman primates. We present the first experimental evidence of cooperation in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta. Eight captive hyaenas, paired in 13 combinations, coordinated their behaviour temporally and spatially to solve cooperation tasks that

Christine M. Drea; Allisa N. Carter

2009-01-01

42

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in

DiVincenzo

2007-01-01

43

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

Hodgson, J. P. E.

1992-01-01

44

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

Lacy, Grace

45

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

46

MedlinePLUS

... problems are relatively common, severe damage to these aspects of the self are not. The first step ... Colorado, have published a study that compared cognitive aspects of the two diseases. A recent review article ...

47

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A non-traditional Algebra text (high school and early college levels) placed on the Web by the Science Education Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Browse it on the Web or download a PDF version. Chapter headings include: The Pascal Triangle; The Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers; Factorials; Arithmetic and Geometric Progressions; Mathematical Induction; The Binomial Theorem; Combinations and Permutations; Polynomial Equations; Determinants; and Inequalities. Problems (and answers to the odd-numbered problems) are provided for each section.

Hillman, Alexanderson

2007-08-06

48

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students apply what they have learned about the engineering design process to a real-life problem that affects them and/or their school. They chose a problem as a group, and then follow the engineering design process to come up with and test their design solution. This activity teaches students how to use the engineering design process while improving something in the school environment that matters to them. By performing each step of the design process, students can experience what it is like to be an engineer.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

49

SciTech Connect

Overheating is a major indicator, along with vibration and noise, of an underlying problem affecting a bearing or related components. Because normal operating temperatures vary widely from one application to another, no single temperature is a reliable sign of overheating in every situation. By observing an application when it is running smoothly, a technician can establish a benchmark temperature for a particular bearing arrangement. Wide deviations from this accepted norm generally indicate troublesome overheating. The list of possible causes of over-heating ranges from out-of-round housings and oversize shaft diameters to excessive lubrication and bearing preloading. These causes fall into two major categories: improper or faulty lubrication and mechanical problems, such as incorrect fits and tolerances. These are discussed along with solutions.

Jendzurski, T. [SKF Bearing Services, King of Prussia, PA (United States)

1995-05-08

50

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Metaheuristics support managers in decision making with robust tools providing high quality solutions to important problems\\u000a in business, engineering, economics and science in reasonable time horizons. While finding exact solutions in these applications\\u000a still poses a real challenge despite the impact of recent advances in computer technology and the great interactions between\\u000a computer science, management science\\/operations research and mathematics, (meta-)

Marco Caserta; Stefan Voß

51

E-print Network

, racial minorities, governments, multinational corporations, banks, and universities. I have written textbooks for introductory sociology,social problems, criminology, family, and sport. And, I have penned essays on ethics, values, violence, crime... capitalism, interlocking ownership among 'the major 'banks, and domestic and international corporate social expenditures. Currently, I am involved in an ongoing project with David R. Simon analyzing crimes by the powerful. This research centers on crimes...

Schellenberg, James A.

1990-01-01

52

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use cooperation and logical thinking to find solutions to network problems on the playground. Learners act both as computer routers, figuring out with each other how to effectively get data to the place it's being sent, and as the actual data, because the learners travel various edges of a network to get to their destination or "home" point. Learners use geometry skills to determine the most efficient routes in the network.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

53

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving and decision making in multicultural work teams are the last of the skill areas to be covered in this book.\\u000a This topic will be discussed from the cultural, individual, and organizational levels of multicultural team development, building\\u000a on the frameworks that have been presented in previous chapters. Many theorists consider problem solving and decision making\\u000a as synonymous-all decisions

Linda Drake Gobbo; Walt Disney

54

PubMed

Some of the key factors that contribute to an effective immunization program are reviewed, focusing on organization (the cold chain, vaccines, injection equipment, and training) and management. The 3 steps of the organization phase are: to examine the objectives of the plan and the population served, determining what is needed, looking for underserved areas, and calculating the number of immunizations to be given; to determine one 's resources, paying particular attention to transport, referigerators, deep freezes, and infection and sterilization equipment; and to identify what tasks must be performed to achieve program ojectives, realizing that the main areas of concern are the system which ensure that staff have done what is necessary to do the job properly. Organization of the cold chain involves ordering replacements, spare parts, fuel supplies, installation, and monitoring. I for vaccines, different vaccines have different storage requirements, and checklists on correct storage procedures are necessary for each vaccine. The person responsible for storage must also sign for all arriving vaccine and enter it into the stocks. Finally, forms are needed to record vaccine used and individuals immunized. The forms should be simple to use. In terms of injection equipment, it must be determined what is needed, and attention must be paid to the system of ordering, receipt, and storage of equipment. Training should be carried out by supervisors, and the method should be based on teaching the tasks. Regarding management, the District Medical Officer most likely will have overall responsibility. At the community level, shared management, where everyone takes some responsibility and which therefore leads to decisions everyone understands may be best. 1 way to achieve this is to have the staff of each immunization unit meet together as a team, encouraging them to identify and resolve local problems locally. The immunization program requires special supervision because of the different components involved. Someone should be trained as a supervisor and visit several units once every 6 weeks or so to look at the quality of the tasks being performed. By monitoring the process rather than simply the work done, the supervisor should be able to help and support the staff in their work. PMID:12268038

Gowers, P

1984-02-01

55

SciTech Connect

One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

DiVincenzo, David (IBM Watson Research Center) [IBM Watson Research Center

2007-04-11

56

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

1974-01-01

57

E-print Network

emissions or decreasing car use. An air pollution model is never exact in its attempt to simulatePSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN COMPUTER MODELS An air pollution model is a computer program that computes how the different chemical

Nizkorodov, Sergey

58

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-Â­making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.

2013-01-01

59

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.

Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

1974-01-01

60

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

Dale, Esther

61

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip presents students engaged in The Common Core Practice Standard #1âMake sense of problems and persevere in solving them. The learners gather data for a bubble gum contest, as part of a larger activity involving recording data and writing up results. Students understand the problem and persevere with the task as they independently go to other classrooms to conduct their survey. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

62

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…

Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.

2010-01-01

63

SciTech Connect

Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.

Baltz, Ted (SLAC) [SLAC

2007-02-07

64

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip shows students engaged in the first Common Core Practice StandardâMake sense of problems and persevere in solving them as learners make a decision about how much stain will be needed to cover the surface area of twenty-six completed boxes. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video. A related clip (cataloged separately) shows the same exploration by the same students but Common Core Practice Standard # #5-Use appropriate tools strategically is evident.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

65

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes steps of teaching problem solving to college students and provides examples in the context of a university course. The steps involve (1) identifying the types of problems and types of problem solving methods to be covered, (2) instructing the students in problem-recognition and problem solving methods, along with ways of…

Malouff, John M.

2011-01-01

66

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the behavior of high order shock-capturing schemes for problems with stiff source terms and discontinuities and on corresponding numerical prediction strategies. The studies by Yee et al. (2012) and Wang et al. (2012) focus only on solving the reactive system by the fractional step method using the Strang splitting (Strang 1968). It is a common practice by developers in computational physics and engineering simulations to include a cut off safeguard if densities are outside the permissible range. Here we compare the spurious behavior of the same schemes by solving the fully coupled reactive system without the Strang splitting vs. using the Strang splitting. Comparison between the two procedures and the effects of a cut off safeguard is the focus the present study. The comparison of the performance of these schemes is largely based on the degree to which each method captures the correct location of the reaction front for coarse grids. Here "coarse grids" means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows of similar problem setup. It is remarked that, in order to resolve the sharp reaction front, local refinement beyond standard mesh density is still needed.

Kotov, D. V; Yee, H. C.; Wang, W.; Shu, C.-W.

2013-01-01

67

SciTech Connect

Abstract. Interest in complex integrated digital or virtual human modeling has seen a significant increase over the last decade. Coincident with that increased interest, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) initiated the development of a human simulation tool, the Virtual Human. The Virtual Human includes a problem-solving environment (PSE) for implementing the integration of physiological models in different programming languages and connecting physiological function to anatomy. The Virtual Human PSE (VHPSE) provides the computational framework with which to develop the concept of a "Virtual Human." Supporting the framework is a data definition for modeling parameters, PhysioML, a Virtual Human Database (VHDB), and a Web-based graphical user interface (GUI) developed using Java. Following description of the VHPSE, we discuss four example implementations of models within the framework. Further expansion of a human modeling environment was carried out in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Virtual Soldier Project. SCIRun served as the Virtual Soldier problem solving environment (VSPSE). We review and compare specific developments in these projects that have significant potential for the future of Virtual Human modeling and simulation. We conclude with an evaluation of areas of future work that will provide important extensions to the VHPSE and VSPSE and make possible a fully-integrated environment for human anatomical and physiological modeling: the Virtual Human.

Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; Fischer, Sarah Kathleen [ORNL

2008-01-01

68

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post the author explores another tool for the problem-solving toolbox: Wish for an easier problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of ways students could use this strategy are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "One Step at a Time" that is best solved utilizing this strategy.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-04-02

69

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a novel approach (the macro transform) for solving indecomposable problems, which cannot be decomposed into a sequence of subgoals before they are solved. This kind of problem cannot be solved by either the GPS (general problem solver) or the MPS (macro-operator problem solver). The diamond game is discussed in detail as an example. The proposed approach has

Q. S. GaoZ; H. D. Cheng

1989-01-01

70

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Artificial Intelligence is concerned with problem solving in which groups solve tasks. In this paper we describe stra­ tegies of cooperation that groups require to solve shared tasks effectively. We discuss such strategies in the context of a specific group problem solving application: collision avoidance in air traffic control. Experimental findings with four distinct air-traffic control systems, each implementing

Stephanie J. Cammarata; David Mcarthur; Randall Steeb

1983-01-01

71

E-print Network

/Skills: 1. Parents will learn how to use family meetings to promote effective parent-child communication 2 practice problem solving in our group. Group Exercise Solve a problem involving a child of someone

72

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on…

Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

2008-01-01

73

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author teaches a content course in problem solving for middle school teachers. During the course, teacher candidates have the opportunity to confront their insecurities as they actively engage in solving math problems using a variety of strategies. As the semester progresses, they add new strategies to their problem-solving arsenal and…

Roberts, Sally K.

2010-01-01

74

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2013-01-01

75

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

Ouellette, Hugh

1979-01-01

76

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategy flexibility in mathematical problem solving was investigated. In Studies 1 and 2, high school juniors and seniors solved Scholastic Assessment Test–Mathematics (SAT-M) problems classified as conventional or unconventional. Algorithmic solution strategies were students' default choice for both types of problems across conditions that manipulated item format and solution time. Use of intuitive strategies on unconventional problems was evident only

Ann M. Gallagher; Richard De Lisi; Patricia C. Holst; Ann V. McGillicuddy-De Lisi; Mary Morely; Cara Cahalan

2000-01-01

77

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether adolescent suicide attempters would have deficits in interpersonal problem solving and the relation between social problem solving, suicide intent, and medical lethality were evaluated. Compared with psychiatric and normal controls, adolescents who attempted suicide exhibited poorer social problem-solving abilities, particularly in terms of problem orientation. Specifically, suicide attempters brought more maladaptive cognitive–emotional–behavioral response sets to problematic situations than did

Christine Sadowski; Mary Lou Kelley

1993-01-01

78

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Diagraming Analysis of a Fuzzy Technique" (DAFT) is a model rectifying two problems associated with Future Problem Solving Bowl activities, namely problem definition by teams and evaluation of team responses. (MC)

Carey, Russell L.

1984-01-01

79

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef

2013-01-01

80

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews a class of continuous locational optimization problems (where an optimal location or an optimal configuration of facilities is found in a continuum on a plane or a network) that can be solved through the Voronoi diagram. Eight types of continuous locational optimization problems are formulated, and these problems are solved through the ordinary Voronoi diagram, the farthest-point

Atsuyuki Okabe; Atsuo Suzuki

1997-01-01

81

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.

Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil

1993-01-01

82

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving curricular materials and practices aimed at complex cognitive processes such as problem solving requires careful planning and useful tools for assessment. To illustrate the challenges of measuring a change in students' problem solving in physics, we present the results of and a reflection on a pilot assessment of the effectiveness of computer problem-solving coaches [1] in a large (200+ student) section of an introductory physics course.

Xu, Qing; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Aryal, Bijaya

2013-01-01

83

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important problem in scientific computing consists in finding a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a very large and sparse matrix. The most popular methods to solve these problems are based on projection techniques on appropriate subspaces. The main attraction of these methods is that they only require the use of the matrix in the form of matrix by vector multiplications. The implementations on supercomputers of two such methods for symmetric matrices, namely Lanczos' method and Davidson's method are compared. Since one of the most important operations in these two methods is the multiplication of vectors by the sparse matrix, methods of performing this operation efficiently are discussed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each method are compared and implementation aspects are discussed. Numerical experiments on a one processor CRAY 2 and CRAY X-MP are reported. Possible parallel implementations are also discussed.

Philippe, Bernard; Saad, Youcef

1988-01-01

84

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the mathematical background for solving eigenvalue problems, with illustrations of the applications in computer programing. The numerical matrix treatment is presented, with a demonstration of the simple HMO theory. (CS)

Bauer, H.; Roth, K.

1980-01-01

85

PubMed

We proposed that an individual's characteristic style of interaction will predict his or her problem-solving behavior and family problem-solving effectiveness. We test this hypothesis for mothers, fathers, and adolescent boys and girls (M age = 12.7 years) in 431 rural families using both warm and hostile interaction styles. One set of videotape coders observed a general family discussion and measured interaction style. A year later, another, independent set of coders observed a family problem-solving task. Family members reported family problem-solving effectiveness immediately following the problem-solving task. The results indicated that a hostile interaction style directly predicted destructive problem-solving behavior and indirectly predicted family problem-solving effectiveness. A warm interaction style related directly to constructive problem-solving behavior and indirectly to family problem-solving effectiveness. PMID:7497832

Rueter, M A; Conger, R D

1995-02-01

86

E-print Network

.K. Jimack1 and L.E. Scales1 2 1 School of Computing, The University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT 2 Shell Global://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/ceg/ehlgospel.html Abstract In this paper we show how a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) can be used to manage and steer numerical optimisation of a challenging problem from mechanical engineering running in parallel on a remote

Jimack, Peter

87

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the site "Stella's Stunners" presents twenty-five thinking strategies that are useful in solving problems. They help students monitor their thought processes and thus help learners become better problem solvers.

2014-01-01

88

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental electronic neural network solves "traveling-salesman" problem. Plans round trip of minimum distance among N cities, visiting every city once and only once (without backtracking). This problem is paradigm of many problems of global optimization (e.g., routing or allocation of resources) occuring in industry, business, and government. Applied to large number of cities (or resources), circuits of this kind expected to solve problem faster and more cheaply.

Thakoor, Anilkumar P.; Moopenn, Alexander W.

1990-01-01

89

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year program, “The Enrichment Program for Cultivating Multiple Talents and Problem Solving Abilities for Gifted Preschoolers”, was put into effect at National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan. Participants were 61 children ages 4 to 6 who were gifted or gifted with disabilities. In this study, we report the children's changes in problem solving abilities in two different types of

Ching-Chih Kuo; Fang-Liu Su; C. June Maker

2011-01-01

90

E-print Network

A general quantum algorithm for solving a problem is discussed. The number of steps required to solve a problem using this method is independent of the number of cases that has to be considered classically. Hence, it is more efficient than existing classical algorithms or quantum algorithm, which requires O(sqrt(N)) steps.

M. P John

2003-01-28

91

E-print Network

Mathematics As Problem Solving Math250.... Instructor: Dr. M. Shiyyab, mathematics Dept. (637 Office Text: Curriculum and Evaluation Standards. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989, or 1999. Course Objective: 1. To improve your mathematical problem solving ability, including reasoning. 2

92

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

2014-01-01

93

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making problem solving a central part of teaching may be challenging to teachers who have limited experiences in learning and teaching mathematics in this way. Math Teachers' Circles were developed with the aim of establishing a "culture of problem solving" among middle school mathematics teachers. This culture could then be carried back into…

Fernandes, Anthony; Koehler, Jacob; Reiter, Harold

2011-01-01

94

E-print Network

Pavements Using New Technologies to Solve Old Problems Bridges Meeting Future Texas Bridge paid at College Station. http://www.youtube.com/user/ttitamu http://www.facebook.com/ttitamu http://twitter 14 Pavements Using New Technologies to Solve Old Problems 16 Traffic Safety Getting Information

95

E-print Network

PHYSICS PROBLEM SOLVING IN COOPERATIVE LEARNING GROUPS A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December, 1995 #12;PHYSICS PROBLEM SOLVING IN COOPERATIVE LEARNING GROUPS Copyright Ă? 1995 by Mark Hollabaugh All rights reserved. This dissertation may

Minnesota, University of

96

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A law professor explains how he came to view legal problem solving as the driving concept in law school curriculum design and draws on personal experience and a survey of students concerning teaching methods in a commercial law course. He outlines six curriculum design principles for teaching legal problem solving. (MSE)

Nathanson, Stephen

1994-01-01

97

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated systematic problem solving with 52 elementary school students. The experimental group (N=26) received Galvin Alternative Intervention Network (GAIN) training. Results indicated the GAIN program was effective in facilitating problem solving. Students' responses were unique and constituted creative behavior. (JAC)

Galvin, Maryanne

1983-01-01

98

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for teaching problem solving skills. It was conducted in three phases. During the first phase, two pieces of problem solving software, "The King's Rule" and "Safari Search," were identified and analyzed. During the second phase, two groups of six…

Duffield, Judith A.

99

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two questions are dealt with: (1) Can those strategies or behaviors which enable experts to solve problems well be characterized, and (2) Can students be trained to use such strategies? A problem-solving course for college students is described and the model on which the course is based is outlined in an attempt to answer these questions. The…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

100

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summative evaluation of "Square One TV," an educational mathematics series produced by the Children's Television Workshop, shows that children who regularly viewed the program showed significant improvement in solving unfamiliar, complex mathematical problems, and viewers showed improvement in their mathematical problem-solving ability…

Fisch, Shalom M.; And Others

1994-01-01

101

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book shows how to increase one's power to analyze and comprehend problems. First, it outlines and illustrates the methods that good problem solvers use in attacking complex ideas. Then it gives some practice in applying these methods to a variety of questions in comprehension and reasoning. Chapters include: (1) "Test Your Mind--See How It…

Whimbey, Arthur; Lochhead, Jack

102

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five geometry experiments with 127 Australian high school students found that guidance provided in a format requiring attention to two sources of information resulted in performance no better than that on conventional problems. A format not requiring split attention resulted in the superiority of worked examples over conventional problems. (SLD)

Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Sweller, John

1988-01-01

103

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problem which English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teacher trainees who are nonnative English speakers have in reading articles about EFL teaching methods. As a solution to this problem, the author produced a worksheet for the students to fill in while reading the articles which followed Hoey's…

Edge, Julian

1985-01-01

104

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 33-question research-based multiple-choice survey is designed to evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards physics problem solving. The survey is based on investigations of responses from introductory physics students, graduate students, and faculty members. It expands upon the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey (Marx and Cummings, 2007) to also consider approaches to problem solving and different levels of problem solving expertise. Statistical results have shown the survey to be reliable and valid. A summary of the construction and analysis of the survey is available in A. J. Mason and C. Singh, "Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving", PRST-PER, 6 (2), 020124 (2010). This survey is free for use by instructors in their classroom. The expert-like responses to the survey are enclosed.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-05-10

105

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more effective teaching methods for physics courses because such programs can be the basis for computer-assisted instruction, or CAI. This type of instruction combined with the program could answer questions about solving various physics problems and could also have the ability to analyze where the student went wrong in his or her solution(s). It is for reasons such as these that it is important to enhance the amount of research going into physics problem solving strategies. (Contains 12 references.)

Brekke, Stewart

2006-12-06

106

SciTech Connect

The numerical methods for solving systems of partial differential equations can be analyzed by decoupling the space and time discretizations and analyzing them independently. First a method is selected to discretize the differential equation in space and incorporate the boundary conditions. The spectrum of this discrete operator is then used as a guide to choose an appropriate method to integrate the equations through time. The dissipative effects of a numerical method are crucial to constructing reliable methods for conservation laws. This is particularly true when the solution is discontinuous as in a shock wave or contact discontinuity. Choosing an accurate method to accomplish each of these tasks, space and time discretization and incorporating artificial dissipation in the numerical solution, determines the success of the calculation. We will describe the methodologies used in each of these choices to construct reliable, accurate and efficient methods. 13 refs., 6 figs.

Hyman, J.M.

1989-01-01

107

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an experiment that was conducted to investigate the effects of cooperative group learning on the problem solving performance of college students in a large introductory physics course. An explicit problem solving strategy was taught in the course, and students practiced using the strategy to solve problems in mixed-ability cooperative groups. A technique was developed to evaluate students' problem solving performance and determine the difficulty of context-rich problems. It was found that better problem solutions emerged through collaboration than were achieved by individuals working alone. The instructional approach improved the problem solving performance of students at all ability levels.

Heller, Patricia; Keith, Ronald; Anderson, Scott

2006-06-19

108

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a research project on thedevelopment of pre-service mathematicsteachers' skills and understanding ofthemselves as pedagogical problem solvers. Theproblems were similar to those they are likelyto encounter in their future mathematicsclassrooms. The project took place within aBachelor of Education program. The articledescribes changes in the students' attitudestowards problem-based learning and examines thecritical incidents that were catalysts forthese changes to

Margaret Taplin; Carol Chan

2001-01-01

109

E-print Network

are associated with either edges, nodes or both. Examples of this family of problems are the Minimum Steiner Tree Salesman Problem and the Steiner Tree problem. The connectivity constraint plays a key roleSolving Connected Subgraph Problems in Wildlife Conservation Bistra Dilkina & Carla P. Gomes

Keinan, Alon

110

E-print Network

Solving Facility Layout Problems Using Genetic Programming Jaime Garces-Perez, Dale A. Schoenefeld problem. The facility layout problem (FLP) is an NP-complete com- binatorial optimization problem that has applications to e cient facility design for manufacturing and service industries. A facility layout

Fernandez, Thomas

111

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-minute video demonstrates how students learn to persevere through challenging number puzzles and games. Headteacher Kate Frood discusses her philosophy and models teaching children to use core multiplication facts as tools for more complex problems. She differentiates tasks to accommodate advanced and struggling learners.

2012-01-01

112

Microsoft Academic Search

This book explains how many major scientific algorithms can be used on large parallel machines. Based on five years of research on hypercubes, the book concentrates on practically motivated model problems, that serve to illustrate generic algorithmic and decomposition techniques. The authors include results for hypercube-class concurrent computers with up to 128 nodes, and the principles behind the extrapolation to

G Fox

1988-01-01

113

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between individual interactional style, individual problem-solving behavior, and family problem-solving effectiveness in 431 intact rural families with 2 children, 1 of whom was in seventh grade. Results indicated that a hostile interactional style directly predicted destructive problem-solving behavior, whereas a warm…

Rueter, Martha A.; Conger, Rand D.

1995-01-01

114

PubMed

Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

2014-10-01

115

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between students' social mental models of the ideal science student, science epistemological beliefs, problem solving strategies used, and problem solving ability in a robotics environment. Participants were twenty-six academically advanced eleven and twelve year old students attending the Center for Talented Youth summer camp. Survey data was collected from the students including demographic background, views of the ideal science student, and science epistemological beliefs. Students also solved a robotics challenge. This problem solving session was videotaped and students were asked to think aloud as they solved the problem. Two social mental models were identified, a traits-based social mental model and a robust social mental model. A significant association was found between social mental model group and strategy usage. The robust social mental model group is more likely to use domain specific strategies than the traits-based group. Additionally, the robust social mental model group achieved significantly higher scores on their final solution than the traits-based social mental model group. Science epistemological beliefs do not appear to be associated with students' social mental model of the ideal science student. While students with a puzzle-solver view of science were more likely to use domain specific strategies in the planning phase of the problem solving session, there was no significant difference in problem solving ability between this group and students who have a dynamic view of the nature of science knowledge. This difference in strategy usage and problem solving performance may be due to a difference in the students' views of learning and cognition. The robust social mental model group evidenced a situative view of learning and cognition. These students made excellent use of the tools available in the task environment. The traits-based social mental model group displayed an information processing view of learning and cognition. These students were more likely to attempt to solve the problem based only on their mental representations of the problems.

Sullivan, Florence R.

116

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.

Miller, Alan

1982-11-01

117

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

2011-01-01

118

Microsoft Academic Search

We have explored using neurophysiologic collaboration patterns as an approach for developing a deeper understanding of how teams collaborate when solving time-critical, complex real-world problems. Teams of three students solved substance abuse management simulations using IMMEX software while measures of mental workload (WL) and engagement (E) were generated by electroencephalography (EEG). Levels of high and low workload and engagement were

Ron Stevens; Trysha Galloway; Chris Berka; Marcia Sprang

2009-01-01

119

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempted to evaluate the assumption that suicidal behavior in adolescents is linked to diminished problem-solving capacity. The wais arithmetic subtest and rokeach's map reading problems test were administered to 13 suicidal, 13 psychiatric but nonsuicidal, and 13 normal adolescents. It was found that the suicidal group made significantly lower arithmetic subtest scores and failed the map test problems more often

Marvin Levenson; Charles Neuringer

1971-01-01

120

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module is designed to enable participants to look at problems from a variety of perspectives, to apply a basic problem-solving strategy, to implement a plan of action, and to identify problems that are of particular importance to their workplace. The module includes units for six class sessions. Each unit includes the following…

Diller, Janelle; Moore, Rita

121

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of cooperation in distributed problem solving are considered: task-sharing and result-sharing. In the former, nodes assist each other by sharing the computational load for the execution of subtasks of the overall problem. In the latter, nodes assist each other by sharing partial results which are based on somewhat different perspectives on the overall problem. Different perspectives arise because

REID G. SM; Randall Davis

1981-01-01

122

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)

Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

1997-01-01

123

E-print Network

This article assesses the current state of understanding of coronal heating, outlines the key elements of a comprehensive strategy for solving the problem, and warns of obstacles that must be overcome along the way.

James A. Klimchuk

2005-11-30

124

PubMed Central

Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

2012-01-01

125

PubMed

Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E

2012-10-01

126

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Graph Partitioning Problem (GPP) is one of the fundamental multimodal combinatorial problems that has many applications\\u000a in computer science. Many algorithms have been devised to obtain a reasonable approximate solution for the GP problem. This\\u000a paper applies different Genetic Algorithms in solving GP problem. In addition to using the Simple Genetic Algorithm (SGA),\\u000a it introduces a new genetic algorithm

Sahar Shazely; Hoda Baraka; Ashraf H. Abdel-wahab; Hanan Kamal

1999-01-01

127

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…

Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

128

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn how to use their knowledge of beginning, middle, and end to solve word problems that include result unknown, change unknown, and start unknown. They will learn how to use a modified story map to write an equation to represent the problem.

2012-10-16

129

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)

Middleton, Howard

2002-01-01

130

E-print Network

i A Hospital Facility Layout Problem Finally Solved by Peter M. Hahn Department of Systems This paper presents a history of a difficult facility layout problem that falls into the category: find a layout minimizing the sum CDIST of Communication x DISTance taken over all pairs of facilities

131

Microsoft Academic Search

The crew pairing problem is posed as a set partitioning zero-one integer program. Variables are generated as legal pairings meeting all work rules. Dual values obtained from solving successive large linear program relaxations are used to prune the search tree. In this paper we present a graph based branching heuristic applied to a restricted set partitioning problem representing a collection

Hai D. Chu; Eric Gelman; Ellis L. Johnson

1997-01-01

132

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…

Blasetti, Sean M.

2010-01-01

133

Microsoft Academic Search

GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. The challenges that problem-based learning affords can engage teachers and students in research, and the use of technology can serve

Rita Hagevik; Diana Hales; Julia Harrell

134

E-print Network

Creative Problem Solving for the Virtual Storyteller Students: Niels Bloom, Joost Vromen for use in the Virtual Storyteller domain. The Virtual Storyteller generates and tells stories similar to the Virtual Storyteller to express the cases, problems, and solutions. We also propose several heuristic

Theune, MariĂ«t

135

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing methods for constructive induction usually isolate feature generationfrom problem solving, and do not exploit information about the purposefor which features are created. This paper describes a theory of feature generationthat creates features using both a domain theory and feedback from aconcept learner. An evaluation function can then be learned using these featuresthat is able to direct a problem-solver. The

Tom Fawcett; Paul E. Utgoff

1992-01-01

136

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search Readings: Chapter 3 of Russell & Norvig. Artificial Intelligence Â­ p.1/89 Example: Romania Problem: On holiday in Romania; currently in Arad. Flight, Bucharest Artificial Intelligence Â­ p.2/89 Example: Romania Giurgiu Urziceni Hirsova Eforie Neamt Oradea

Srinivasan, Padmini

137

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search Readings: Chapter 3 of Russell & Norvig. Artificial Intelligence Â­ p.1/89 #12;Example: Romania Problem: On holiday in Romania; currently in Arad, Fagaras, Bucharest Artificial Intelligence Â­ p.2/89 #12;Example: Romania Giurgiu Urziceni Hirsova Eforie

Srinivasan, Padmini

138

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…

Forgan, James W.

2002-01-01

139

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

Sriraman, Bharath

2004-01-01

140

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…

Benson, Dave

2011-01-01

141

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt was made to redress a critical fault of decisionmaking and problem solving research-a lack of a standard method to classify problem or decision states or conditions. A basic model was identified and expanded to indicate a possible taxonomy of conditions which may be used in reviewing previous research or for systematically pursuing new research designs. A generalization of the basic conditions was then made to indicate that the conditions are essentially the same for both concepts, problem solving and decisionmaking.

Dieterly, D. L.

1980-01-01

142

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

143

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. The work is also unique due to its diversity of individuals examined and the range of tasks it evaluates. Chapter 1 includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science. Chapter 2 contains information about studies involving the PhET Interactive Simulations and presents design guidelines for interface design. Chapter 3 contains information on the development and validation of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for physics. Chapter 4 describes the work done by the author to develop and validate the Colorado Assessment of Problem Solving (CAPS). This problem solving evaluation tool identifies 44 separate skills (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show the skills identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same skills that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. A discussion is included about how this work extends what is currently understood about the skills that students use to solve problems and which of these skills are applicable in other disciplines. Understanding this set of component skills will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

Adams, Wendy K.

2010-06-29

144

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.

Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho

2014-09-01

145

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

2007-01-01

146

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

Beane, Arthur J.

1988-01-01

147

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article presents a prescriptive analysis of the kinds of knowledge and procedures leading to effective human problem solving in a quantitative science such as physics. The knowledge about such a science, explicated in the case of mechanics, specifies special descriptive concepts and relations described at various levels of abstractness, is organized hierarchically, and is accompanied by explicit guidelines specifying when and how this knowledge is to be applied. General problem-solving procedures, to be used in conjunction with such domain-specific knowledge, specify how initially to describe and analyze any problem so as to facilitate its subsequent solution; how to search for a solution by methods of constraint satisfaction used together with heuristic methods for decomposing problems and exploring decisions; and how to assess whether the resulting solution is correct and reasonably optimal. The preceding model of effective human problem solving is compared with some relevant observations and with special experiments designed to test such a prescriptive model. It also suggests methods for teaching students improved scientific problem-solving skills.

Reif, Frederick; Heller, Joan I.

2006-06-23

148

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.

Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui

1991-01-01

149

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distributed problem solving is anayzed as a blend of two disciplines: (1) problem solving and ai; and (2) distributed systems (monitoring). It may be necessary to distribute because the application itself is one of managing distributed resources (e.g., distributed sensor net) and communication delays preclude centralized processing, or it may be desirable to distribute because a single computational engine may not satisfy the needs of a given task. In addition, considerations of reliability may dictate distribution. Examples of multi-process language environment are given.

Rashid, R. F.

1980-01-01

150

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic programming is discussed as an approach to solving variational problems in vision. Dynamic programming ensures global optimality of the solution, is numerically stable, and allows for hard constraints to be enforced on the behavior of the solution within a natural and straightforward structure. As a specific example of the approach's efficacy, applying dynamic programming to the energy-minimizing active contours

Amir A. Amini; Terry E. Weymouth; Ramesh Jain

1990-01-01

151

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heppner, Witty and Dixon have presented the development and theoretical base of the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). They link it to numerous validity and reliability studies, with findings in predicted directions. This article expresses concerns about its use as a target in counseling and its applicability to individuals of the nonmajority…

Lucas, Margaretha S.

2004-01-01

152

PubMed

A large-sample (n=75) fMRI study guided the development of a theory of how people extend their problem-solving procedures by reflecting on them. Both children and adults were trained on a new mathematical procedure and then were challenged with novel problems that required them to change and extend their procedure to solve these problems. The fMRI data were analyzed using a combination of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). This HMM-MVPA analysis revealed the existence of 4 stages: Encoding, Planning, Solving, and Responding. Using this analysis as a guide, an ACT-R model was developed that improved the performance of the HMM-MVPA and explained the variation in the durations of the stages across 128 different problems. The model assumes that participants can reflect on declarative representations of the steps of their problem-solving procedures. A Metacognitive module can hold these steps, modify them, create new declarative steps, and rehearse them. The Metacognitive module is associated with activity in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The ACT-R model predicts the activity in the RLPFC and other regions associated with its other cognitive modules (e.g., vision, retrieval). Differences between children and adults seemed related to differences in background knowledge and computational fluency, but not to the differences in their capability to modify procedures. PMID:25063939

Anderson, John R; Fincham, Jon M

2014-11-01

153

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an "easy" problem and a "hard" problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible "ways of selecting" an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible "ways of selecting" an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.

Aerts, Diederik; de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli

2014-08-01

154

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…

Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.

2008-01-01

155

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…

Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.

2014-01-01

156

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.

2013-01-01

157

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some easily graded measures of problem-solving processes are introduced, and the impact of a month-long intensive problem-solving course on a selected group of college freshmen and sophomores is demonstrated. The measures are thought to have shown themselves to be both reliable and informative. (MP)

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

1982-01-01

158

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in introductory physics courses treat problem solving as an exercise in manipulating equations, symbols, and quantities with the goal of obtaining the correct answer. Although this approach is efficient for getting answers, it is far from optimal for learning how conceptual knowledge is applied in the problem-solving process. The goal of this study is to refine and evaluate an approach that encourages students to begin by writing a strategic analysis of a problem based on principles and procedures, and then to follow with a documented problem solution that exhibits, side-by-side, how concepts and equations go together in a solution. We will discuss the implementation and effectiveness of this approach in four local high school classrooms.

Docktor, Jennifer; Strand, Natalie; Mestre, Jose P.; Ross, Brian H.

2011-01-01

159

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful learning of introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. In the physics department at the University of Minnesota, this duality is understood and attempts are being made to teach successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a problem-solving strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. However, since there has been no similar study conducted on a class were an explicit problem-solving strategy was not taught, it was necessary to examine another, more traditionally taught class. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. The primary data used is the student's exam solutions. Student's solutions to exam problems provide valuable insights into the students understanding of physics. These solutions were analyzed using a coding rubric developed from the extensive research literature on problem solving. The coding rubric examined four skills: General Approach, Specific Application of the Physics, Logical Progression, and Appropriate Mathematics. From the codes, the development of the students' problem solving skills was examined. The results of the study were skewed slightly by the students in the more traditionally taught course who had average grades higher than their peers. This was not a problem in the course where an explicit problem-solving strategy was taught. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year. Implications for further research and instruction are also discussed.

Foster, Thomas Michael

160

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is primarily meant as a position paper. After more than ten years of research on the nature of tasks, problem solving\\u000a methods (PSMs) and ontologies, it appears to me that indexing PSMs by their function (task, goal, problem type) is not a good\\u000a idea. The alternative — indexing by preconditions of their reuse — does not capture “what

Joost Breuker

1999-01-01

161

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Representations play an essential role in mathematical thinking. They favor the understanding of mathematical concepts and stimulate the development of flexible and versatile thinking in problem solving. Here our focus is on their use in optimization problems, a type of problem considered important in mathematics teaching and…

Villegas, Jose L.; Castro, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jose

2009-01-01

162

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately 780 officers in the chains of command of 53 U.S. Army battalions responded to paper-and-pencil exercises in order to test the replicability of earlier results on a model which links effective leadership to problem-solving abilities. In this ...

T. R. Tremble, T. D. Kane, S. R. Stewart

1997-01-01

163

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia are more prone to impairment in planning and problem–solving as compared with normal controls and patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) by administering the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) task. A total of one hundred and fifty–three participants (51 in each group) were recruited. The performance of the patient groups was markedly worse

R. C. K. Chan; E. Y. H. Chen; E. F. C. Cheung; R. Y. L. Chen; H. K. Cheung

2004-01-01

164

E-print Network

a new set of mathematics basics that enable them to compute fluently and to solve problems creatively their understanding of mathematics. More students pursue educational paths that prepare them for lifelong work must provide our students with the best mathematics education possible, one that enables them

Lee, Carl

165

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef

2010-01-01

166

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over three decades ago, D'Zurilla and Goldfried (1971) published a seminal article delineating a model of problem-solving training geared to enhance social competence and decrease psychological distress. Since that time, a substantial amount of research has been conducted to test various hypotheses that this model has engendered. Much of this…

Nezu, Arthur M.

2004-01-01

167

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

Polland, Mark J.

168

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a computer-supported environment designed to facilitate distance learning through collaborative problem-solving. The goal is to encourage distance learning students to work together, in order to promote both learning of collaboration and learning through collaboration. Collaboration is defined as working together on a common…

Verdejo, M. F.; Barros, B.; Abad, M. T.

169

E-print Network

include modification of the environment in which the agent operates. Intelligent behaviour frequentlySwarm Intelligence and Problem Solving in Telecommunications Abstract This paper describes how and their interactions is central to the ideas of Artificial Life. Nature provides us with many examples of social

White, Tony

170

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a long-standing debate in the fields of philosophy and cognitive science surrounding the relationship of language to cognition, but the exact nature of this relationship is still unclear (Sokolov, 1968/1972). In the current study, we explored the role of language in one aspect of cognition, namely problem solving, by administering…

Baldo, J.V.; Dronkers, N.F.; Wilkins, D.; Ludy, C.; Raskin, P.; Kim, J.

2005-01-01

171

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of biology, and apply them to new sets of facts.

Wisehart, Gary; Mandell, Mark

2008-03-01

172

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A taxonomy for assessing development of speech-language clinicians based upon cognitive learning theory was applied in the analysis of videotaped clinical sessions involving three student clinicians. Developmental profiles in three areas of clinical problem solving (perspective taking, variables considered, and solutions generated) were derived.…

Moses, Nelson; Shapiro, David A.

1996-01-01

173

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

Crul, Liselore

2014-01-01

174

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…

Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

2013-01-01

175

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were observed in school playgrounds in Malta

Suzanne Borg

2009-01-01

176

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of…

Wisehart, Gary; Mandell, Mark

2008-01-01

177

Microsoft Academic Search

Solving belief problems develops as a skill in normal children during the preschool years. To understand this process of development, it is necessary to provide an analysis of the tasks used to test preschool theory of mind' skills. This analysis should allow us to relate the structure of a given task to the underlying cognitive mechanisms that the task engages.

Daniel Roth; Alan M. Leslie

1998-01-01

178

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

Borg, Suzanne

2009-01-01

179

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to identify effective pedagogical strategies to increase 4th grade students' mathematics problem-solving skills. Numerous researchers have looked at mathematics problem solving; however, there is a scarcity of data relating to 4th grade mathematics problem solving proficiency. Fourth grade students at the…

Norford, Jennifer A.

2012-01-01

180

PubMed

We present a numerical method to solve the quasistatic Maxwell equations and compute the electroencephalography (EEG) forward problem solution. More generally, we develop a computationally efficient method to obtain the electric potential distribution generated by a source of electric activity inside a three-dimensional body of arbitrary shape and layers of different electric conductivities. The method needs only a set of nodes on the surface and inside the head, but not a mesh connecting the nodes. This represents an advantage over traditional methods like boundary elements or finite elements since the generation of the mesh is typically computationally intensive. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the boundary element method (BEM) by numerically solving some EEG forward problems examples. For a large number of nodes and the same precision, our method has lower computational load than BEM due to a faster convergence rate and to the sparsity of the linear system to be solved. PMID:15709662

von Ellenrieder, Nicolas; Muravchik, Carlos H; Nehorai, Arye

2005-02-01

181

SciTech Connect

We examine the possibility of using the standard Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems arising from electronic structure calculation. We show that the Jacobian matrix associated with this nonlinear system has a special structure that can be exploited to reduce the computational complexity of the Newton's method. Preliminary numerical experiments indicate that the Newton's method can be more efficient for small problems in which a few smallest eigenpairs are needed.

Gao, Weiguo; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.

2009-07-02

182

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.

Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg

2008-01-01

183

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe a set of two computer-implemented models that solve physics problems in ways characteristic of more and less competent human solvers. The main features accounting for different competences are differences in strategy for selecting physics principles, and differences in the degree of automation in the process of applying a single principle. The models provide a good account of the order in which principles are applied by human solvers working problems in kinematics and dynamics. They also are sufficiently flexible to allow easy extension to several related domains of physics problems.

Larkin, Jill H.; Mcdermott, John; Simon, Dorothea P.; Simon, Herbert A.

2012-05-15

184

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A continuing challenge to the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum is the time-effective incorporation and use of computer-based tools throughout the educational program. Computing skills in academia and industry require some proficiency in programming and effective use of software packages for solving 1) single-model, single-algorithm…

Shacham, Mordechai; Cutlip, Michael B.; Brauner, Neima

2009-01-01

185

E-print Network

Problem-solving research, and formal problem-solving practice as well, begins with the assumption that a problem has been identified or formulated for solving. The problem-solving process then involves a search for a ...

von Hippel, Eric A.

2013-11-27

186

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A competition-based connectionist model for solving diagnostic problems is described. The problems considered are computationally difficult in that (1) multiple disorders may occur simultaneously and (2) a global optimum in the space exponential to the total number of possible disorders is sought as a solution. The diagnostic problem is treated as a nonlinear optimization problem, and global optimization criteria are decomposed into local criteria governing node activation updating in the connectionist model. Nodes representing disorders compete with each other to account for each individual manifestation, yet complement each other to account for all manifestations through parallel node interactions. When equilibrium is reached, the network settles into a locally optimal state. Three randomly generated examples of diagnostic problems, each of which has 1024 cases, were tested, and the decomposition plus competition plus resettling approach yielded very high accuracy.

Peng, Yun; Reggia, James A.

1989-01-01

187

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to explore an alternative mechanism of problem solving that focuses on broadcasting problems to diverse and peripheral problem solvers, what I call broadcast search. Broadcasting problems is a radical departure from traditional problem solving as it involves problem holders engaging in as little problem-solving as possible - instead they attempt to interest a heterogeneous

Karim R. Lakhani

2006-01-01

188

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…

Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.

2012-01-01

189

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.

Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

2008-10-01

190

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.

Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

2009-01-24

191

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of parallel computers for numerically solving flow fields has gained much importance in recent years. This paper introduces a new high order numerical scheme for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) specifically designed for parallel computational e...

A. Lin, E. J. Milner, M. Liou, R. A. Belch

1992-01-01

192

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem-solving courts are increasingly imposing requirements that adversely affect immigrant defendants seeking to participate in alternative sentencing and diversion programs. Upfront guilty pleas, admissions of guilt, and jail sanctions may leave immigrants at risk of deportation and other negative immigration consequences—even if they successfully complete court-ordered programming and the court ultimately dismisses the charges against them. These consequences in turn

Alina Das

2008-01-01

193

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

2006-01-01

194

E-print Network

Structure preserving integrators for solving linear quadratic optimal control problems Valencia, Spain. Abstract We present structure preserving integrators for solving linear quadratic optimal control problems. This problem requires the numerical integration of matrix Riccati differential equations

Blanes, Sergio

195

Microsoft Academic Search

. Coached problem solving is known to be effective for teachingcognitive skills. Simple forms of coached problem solving are usedin many ITS. This paper first considers how university physics can betaught via coached problem solving. It then discusses how coached problemsolving can be extended to support two other forms of learning:conceptual learning and meta learning.1 IntroductionCoached problem solving occurs when

Kurt Vanlehn

1996-01-01

196

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research described here seeks to characterize the "managerial" aspects of expert and novice problem-solving behavior, and to describe the impact of managerial or "executive" actions on success or failure in problem solving. A framework for analyzing protocols of problem-solving sessions based on "episodes" of problem-solving behavior and…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

197

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

2014-01-01

198

PubMed

This paper proposes an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problem. The objective of the OPF problem is to minimize total cost of thermal units while satisfying the unit and system constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance, line flow limits, bus voltages limits, and transformer tap settings limits. The ABC algorithm is an optimization method inspired from the foraging behavior of honey bees. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the IEEE 30-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus systems. The numerical results have indicated that the proposed algorithm can find high quality solution for the problem in a fast manner via the result comparisons with other methods in the literature. Therefore, the proposed ABC algorithm can be a favorable method for solving the OPF problem. PMID:24470790

Le Dinh, Luong; Vo Ngoc, Dieu; Vasant, Pandian

2013-01-01

199

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research investigated the process of argument co-construction in 14 cooperative problem-solving groups in an algebra-based, college level, introductory physics course. The results of the research provide a rich description of argument co-construction, which, while predicted in previous literature, has not been systematically described. The research was a qualitative, case-study analysis of each group's discussion of the "physics description" portion of the group's problem solution. In a physics description physics concepts and principles are use to qualitatively analyze the problem. Transcripts were made from videotapes and the analysis focused on sequential groups of statements, called episodes, instead of isolated, individual statements. The groups' episodes were analyzed and described in terms of Stephen Toulmin's argument structure which consists of claims, grounds, warrants, and backings.

Hollabaugh, Mark

2007-01-01

200

SciTech Connect

Inverse problems of identification type for nonlinear equations are considered within the framework of optimal control theory. The rigorous solution of any particular problem depends on the functional setting, type of equation, and unknown quantity (or quantities) to be determined. Here the authors present only the general articulations of the formalism. Compared to classical regularization methods (e.g. Tikhonov coupled with optimization schemes), their approach presents several advantages, namely: (i) a systematic procedure to solve inverse problems of identification type; (ii) an explicit expression for the approximations of the solution; and (iii) a convenient numerical solution of these approximations.

Lenhart, S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Mathematics Dept.; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Jiongmin Yong [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Mathematics Dept.

1997-06-01

201

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews and synthesizes more than 120 studies from 20 years (1982-2002) of research that has examined problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). The goals of the article are fourfold: (a) introduce the construct of problem-solving appraisal and the PSI within the applied problem-solving literature,…

Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.

2004-01-01

202

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research in problem solving, especially in physics. The references were compiled with two audiences in mind: physicists who are (or might become) engaged in research on problem solving, and physics instructors who are interested in using research results to improve their students' learning of problem solving. In addition to general references, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: cognitive aspects of problem solving, expert-novice problem-solver characteristics, problem solving in mathematics, alternative problem types, curricular interventions, and the use of computers in problem solving.

Hsu, Leonardo; Brewe, Eric; Foster, Thomas M.; Harper, Kathleen A.

2010-03-11

203

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the concept of distributed problem solving and define it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. We present a framework called the contract net that specifies

Randall Davis; Reid G. Smith

1983-01-01

204

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…

Diamond, Lindsay Lile

2012-01-01

205

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categories…

Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John

2008-01-01

206

E-print Network

of simple problem solving exercises in Java, providing robust and safe I/O as well as a basic graphics window. We discuss possible uses for unit testing of classes and explore how the design of this application can be a case study in an object oriented design course. 1. INTRODUCTION Java is becoming

Proulx, Viera K.

207

PubMed

Glycoproteins present special problems for structural genomic analysis because they often require glycosylation in order to fold correctly, whereas their chemical and conformational heterogeneity generally inhibits crystallization. We show that the "glycosylation problem" can be solved by expressing glycoproteins transiently in mammalian cells in the presence of the N-glycosylation processing inhibitors, kifunensine or swainsonine. This allows the correct folding of the glycoproteins, but leaves them sensitive to enzymes, such as endoglycosidase H, that reduce the N-glycans to single residues, enhancing crystallization. Since the scalability of transient mammalian expression is now comparable to that of bacterial systems, this approach should relieve one of the major bottlenecks in structural genomic analysis. PMID:17355862

Chang, Veronica T; Crispin, Max; Aricescu, A Radu; Harvey, David J; Nettleship, Joanne E; Fennelly, Janet A; Yu, Chao; Boles, Kent S; Evans, Edward J; Stuart, David I; Dwek, Raymond A; Jones, E Yvonne; Owens, Raymond J; Davis, Simon J

2007-03-01

208

PubMed Central

Summary Glycoproteins present special problems for structural genomic analysis because they often require glycosylation in order to fold correctly, whereas their chemical and conformational heterogeneity generally inhibits crystallization. We show that the “glycosylation problem” can be solved by expressing glycoproteins transiently in mammalian cells in the presence of the N-glycosylation processing inhibitors, kifunensine or swainsonine. This allows the correct folding of the glycoproteins, but leaves them sensitive to enzymes, such as endoglycosidase H, that reduce the N-glycans to single residues, enhancing crystallization. Since the scalability of transient mammalian expression is now comparable to that of bacterial systems, this approach should relieve one of the major bottlenecks in structural genomic analysis. PMID:17355862

Chang, Veronica T.; Crispin, Max; Aricescu, A. Radu; Harvey, David J.; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Fennelly, Janet A.; Yu, Chao; Boles, Kent S.; Evans, Edward J.; Stuart, David I.; Dwek, Raymond A.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Owens, Raymond J.; Davis, Simon J.

2007-01-01

209

PubMed

In this study, the incidence of the degree of abstraction in solving addition and subtraction problems with the unknown in the first term and in the result is analyzed. Ninety-six students from first grade to fourth grade in Primary Education (24 students per grade) solved arithmetic problems with objects, drawings, algorithms, and verbal problems. The participants were interviewed individually and all sessions were video-taped. The results indicate a different developmental pattern in achievement for each school grade depending on the levels of abstraction. The influence of the level of abstraction was significant, especially in first graders, and even more so in second graders, that is, at the developmental stage in which they start to learn these arithmetic tasks. Direct modeling strategies are observed more frequently at the concrete and pictorial level, counting strategies occur at all levels of abstraction, whereas numerical fact strategies are found at higher levels of abstraction. PMID:17992955

Bermejo, Vicente; Díaz, Juan José

2007-11-01

210

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

Billionniere, Elodie V.

211

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

1988-01-01

212

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly inluence their motivation to learn and their development of expertise. We administered an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to physics graduate students and analyzed their responses about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in introductory physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory students and physics faculty. Survey responses suggest that graduate students' attitudes about graduate level problem solving sometimes has similar patterns to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Singh, Chandralekha; Mason, Andrew J.

2010-01-18

213

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines cognitive elements used by 29 student teachers in solving problems involving instruction, discipline, supervisors, and time demands. Assesses relationship between problem types and teachers' strategies. Examines effect of experience and knowledge on problem-solving processes. Links problem-solving decisions to task environments…

Cummings, Anne L.; Curtis, Karen

1992-01-01

214

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the problem-solving behaviors of six novice subjects attempting to solve an electrostatics problem in calculus-based college physics. The level of qualitative thinking exhibited by these novices was determined. Sound procedural knowledge and problem representation were suggested as an integral part of skilled problem solving in physics.

Mcmillan, Claude; Swadener, Marc

2006-06-19

215

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes benefits of service learning for middle school students. Describes the Community Problem Solving (CPS) Program, a competitive program in which students use the creative problem- solving process to identify community problems and develop and implement solutions. Differentiates community problem solving from other service learning…

Bohnenberger, Jann E.; Terry, Alice W.

2002-01-01

216

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem-solving is one of the main goals in science teaching and is something many students find difficult. This research reports on the development, implementation and evaluation of a problem-solving heuristic. This heuristic intends to help students to understand the steps involved in problem solving (metacognitive tool), and to provide them with an organized approach to tackling problems in a systematic

Mercedes Lorenzo

2005-01-01

217

PubMed

In this paper, using the idea of successive approximation, we propose a neural network to solve convex quadratic bilevel programming problems (CQBPPs), which is modeled by a nonautonomous differential inclusion. Different from the existing neural network for CQBPP, the model has the least number of state variables and simple structure. Based on the theory of nonsmooth analysis, differential inclusions and Lyapunov-like method, the limit equilibrium points sequence of the proposed neural networks can approximately converge to an optimal solution of CQBPP under certain conditions. Finally, simulation results on two numerical examples and the portfolio selection problem show the effectiveness and performance of the proposed neural network. PMID:24333480

He, Xing; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chaojie

2014-03-01

218

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, accurate and efficient numerical technique for solving the dynamic population balance associated with precipitation\\/crystallization reactors is presented. The basic approach is to determine the solute concentration dynamics first using the method of moments and an efficient ordinary differential equation solver, and then to solve the dynamic population balance, a partial differential equation having coefficients which depend on the

W.-S. KIM; J. M. TARBELL

1991-01-01

219

E-print Network

Recently a study of the first superposed mechanical quantum object ("machine") visible to the naked eye was published. However, as we show, it turns out that if the object would actually be observed, i.e. would interact with an optical photon, the quantum behavior should vanish. This, the actual observation, has long been suspected in many interpretations of quantum mechanics to be what makes the transition quantum $\\rightarrow$ classical, but so far it has not been available for direct experimental study in a mechanical system. We show how any interaction, even a purely quantum one, of sufficient strength can constitute a physical "measurement" - essentially the emergence of an effectively classical object - active observation thus being a sufficient but not necessary criterion. So it seems we have in this case of the "quantum machine" a unique possibility to study, and possibly solve, the long-standing "measurement problem" of quantum mechanics.

Johan Hansson

2014-01-23

220

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach to solve Fractional Programming Problems (FPPs) based on two different Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. The two algorithms are: Particle Swarm Optimization, and Firefly Algorithm. The two algorithms are tested using several FPP benchmark examples and two selected industrial applications. The test aims to prove the capability of the SI algorithms to solve any type of FPPs. The solution results employing the SI algorithms are compared with a number of exact and metaheuristic solution methods used for handling FPPs. Swarm Intelligence can be denoted as an effective technique for solving linear or nonlinear, non-differentiable fractional objective functions. Problems with an optimal solution at a finite point and an unbounded constraint set, can be solved using the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given to show the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The results obtained using the two SI algorithms revealed the superiority of the proposed technique among others in computational time. A better accuracy was remarkably observed in the solution results of the industrial application problems.

Raouf, Osama Abdel; Hezam, Ibrahim M.

2014-04-01

221

E-print Network

This course,which is geared toward Freshmen, is an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. It is intended for students who enjoy solving challenging mathematical problems and who are interested in learning ...

Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-

222

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical problems are introduced as mappings from the space of input data to that of the desired output information. Then a numerical process is defined as a prescribed recurrence of elementary operations creating the mapping of the underlying mathematical problem. The ratio of the error committed by executing the operations of the numerical process (the roundoff errors) to the error introduced by perturbations of the input data (initial error) gives rise to the concept of lambda-stability. As examples, several processes are analyzed from this point of view, including, especially, old and new processes for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with tridiagonal matrices. In particular, it is shown how such a priori information can be utilized as, for instance, a knowledge of the row sums of the matrix. Information of this type is frequently available where the system arises in connection with the numerical solution of differential equations.

Babuska, I.

1972-01-01

223

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving

Emily G. Becker-Weidman; Rachel H. Jacobs; Mark A. Reinecke; Susan G. Silva; John S. March

2010-01-01

224

Microsoft Academic Search

Many programs for gifted and talented students try to provide a foundation for later creative achievement. Creative achievement, however, depends on the individual's ability to solve novel, ill?defined problems. In this article, we examine cognitive capacities that contribute to creative problem solving. It is argued that problem solving requires expertise and information processing skills. We also note that other characteristics

Michael D. Mumford; Mary S. Connelly; Wayne A. Baughman; Michelle A. Marks

1994-01-01

225

Microsoft Academic Search

The concern of the study was to examine the impact of mathematical symbolism on students' problem solving performance. The researchers report the findings of the effects of an instructional strategy using mathematical symbolism on students' problem solving skills in college algebra when taught at the beginning and throughout a mathematical course. The students' performance indicator is their problem solving achievement

Charita A. Luna

226

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…

Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.

2005-01-01

227

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new computational cognitive model that is being developed for solving complex problems in bioinformatics. This cognitive model was developed based on observing biologists solving problems in their current environments. Bioinformatics provides several challenges to current problem-solving environments: 1) massive heterogeneous data to mine and fuse; 2) quantity of information is growing and changing on a monthly basis;

Olga Anna Kuchar; Jorge F. Reyes-spindola; Michel Benaroch

2004-01-01

228

E-print Network

; Computational intelligence; Reference model of the brain; Cognitive proce- 24 sses; Problem solving intelligent 28 ability of human beings for problem solving has intrigued 29 researchers from multiple disciplines, which can be traced 30 back to the Aristotle's era (384Â­322BC). Problem solving 31 is identified

Wang, Yingxu

229

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new authentic performance-based approach to assessing problem solving was developed for use in vocational education and other programs in Australia. The process of developing the problem-solving assessment instrument and process included the following phases: (1) exploration of the theoretical conceptions of problem solving; (2) identification…

Curtis, David; Denton, Rob

230

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…

Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel

2012-01-01

231

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

2010-01-01

232

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

Hung, Woei

2013-01-01

233

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…

Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.

2010-01-01

234

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

2012-01-01

235

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving has been recognized as a key aspect of community policing. We use expectancy motivation theory to explain variation in police officers' problem-solving behavior. Specifically, we expect that the amount of problem solving performed by officers will be explained by (1) the opportunity to do so, (2) the ability to do so, (3) the likelihood that officers will be

Christina Dejong; Stephen D. Mastrofski; Roger B. Parks

2001-01-01

236

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematics is one of the most difficult courses to study for engineering students. In addition, effective communication, teamwork, and problem solving are important skills for graduate engineers in their professional work. This study proposes Creative Problem Solving as a framework to improve the way engineering students learn mathematics and support their critical problem solving, communication, and team working skills. The

Hamidreza Kashefi; Zaleha Ismail; Yudariah Mohammad Yusof; Roselainy Abdul Rahman

2011-01-01

237

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

2005-01-01

238

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methodological issues in the use of protocol analysis for research into human problem solving processes are examined through a case study in which two students were videotaped as they worked together to solve mathematical problems "out loud." The students' chosen strategic or executive behavior in examining and solving a problem was studied,…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

239

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports a study of the knowledge preservice secondary school mathematics teachers (PSSMT) hold of problem solving and the role of a reflective-inquiry approach in creating self-awareness of, and in enhancing, this knowledge. The approach included solving problems, narratives, flow charts and observations. The finding shows that the participants were able to construct a deeper understanding of problem solving.

Olive Chapman

240

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a companion paper, we discuss studentsâ ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss studentsâ ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two- step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2011-01-01

241

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving, and technological problem solving in particular, is clearly a critical survival skill in our technologically advanced world. Government, business, vocational and technology education leaders have increasingly called for more emphasis on higher-order thinking skills and problem solving in both general and technological areas. The American technology education profession has identified problem solving as the technological method (Savage & Sterry, 1990). Authors outside technology education have also suggested that both general and technology teachers would be well advised to focus on enhancing problem solving skills. Given this, the authors sought to examine several key aspects of problem solving in more depth. Of these, the first was problem solving style. Problem-solving style is defined as a tendency to respond in a certain way while addressing problems and not as the steps employed in actually solving the problem. It has been operationally defined by Heppner (1988) in terms of three distinct dimensions which can be measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). Collectively, these dimensions (problem-solving confidence, approach/avoidance, and personal control) comprise problem-solving style. Although many educators claim to address problem solving, if the increasing frequency of mention in the literature is to be believed, the portion of citizens who have developed adequate problem solving capabilities is insufficient. It is no coincidence that this inadequacy is occurring at the same time when our society is experiencing a decrease in technological literacy. This problem is all the more critical given that the pace of technological growth is escalating (Dyrenfurth, 1991; Johnson, 1989). Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Custer, Rodney L.; Dyrenfurth, Michael J.; Wu, Tain-Fung

2009-10-20

242

PubMed

It is now the year 2001, and in many endemic regions leprosy remains a public health problem by any definition. It is clear that defining leprosy purely by prevalence side-steps some of the real issues. There is still much to do to solve the problem of leprosy. Control programmes require better tests for early diagnosis if leprosy is to be reduced much further. Treatment of the infection and of reactions is still far from ideal, whilst an effective vaccine would be valuable in high-risk regions. Research into the true incidence in each endemic area is essential, and control programs of the future will need a more detailed understanding of the transmission of M. leprae to permit new logical interventions. Leprosy remains a devastating disease. Much of the damage that it inflicts is irreversible, and leads to disability and stigmatization. This is perhaps the greatest problem posed. It is easy to dwell on the successes of the elimination campaign, so diverting attention from those populations of 'cured' patients who still suffer from the consequences of infection. Leprosy should be regarded as a problem unsolved so long as patients continue to present with disabilities. WHO has carried out a highly successful campaign in reducing the prevalence of leprosy, and this needs to be acknowledged, but what is happening to the incidence in core endemic areas? Maintaining this success, however, may be an even greater struggle if funding is withdrawn and vertical programmes are absorbed into national health structures. We must take heed of the historian George Santayana, 'those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it'. We should take the example of tuberculosis as a warning of the dangers of ignoring a disease before it has been fully controlled, and strive to continue the leprosy elimination programmes until there are no new cases presenting with disability. The World Health Organisation has shown that leprosy is an eminently treatable disease, and has prepared the ground. The leprosy elimination campaigns truly are 'at a height... ready to decline'. Can it be that this is the chance to take leprosy 'at the flood'? If so, perhaps an extension of the elimination programs beyond the year 2001 would indeed 'lead to fortune'. PMID:12449886

Stearns, A T

2002-09-01

243

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A Community health assessment (CHA) involves the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in conjunction with other software to analyze health and population data and perform numerical-spatial problem solving. There has been little research on identifying how public health professionals integrate this software during typical problem solving scenarios. A better understanding of this is needed to answer the \\

Matthew Scotch; Bambang Parmanto; Cynthia S Gadd; Ravi K Sharma

2006-01-01

244

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are there other worlds out there? What can science tell us about American history? These are but a few of the important questions asked by the people at the Smithsonian's Online Conference on problem solving. The conference was convened twice during April 2010, and it was sponsored in part by the Microsoft Partners in Learning organization. The experts asking and answering these questions are all from the Smithsonian Institution, and the website offers access to all of the sessions in question. First-time visitors should feel free to dive right into the "Program" area to view the welcome message from Betsy Broun, the director of the Smithsonian American Art Museum. After that, visitors are free to view the programs at their leisure, and they may also wish to check out the "Exhibit Hall" section of the website. Here they will find highlighted resources from across the Smithsonian community relating to the conference topics. All in all, this is a tremendously valuable resource that can be used in the classroom, or just to expand one's horizon for personal edification.

245

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differential effects of two different types of problem-solving training on the problem-solving abilities of gifted fourth graders were studied. Two successive classes of gifted fourth graders from Weslaco Independent School District (Texas) were pretested with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Thinking Creatively With Pictures…

Dufner, Hillrey A.; Alexander, Patricia A.

246

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results from Singaporean and Australian studies on the relationships between the cognitive variables and problem solving performance in three electrochemistry problems of different degrees of familiarity for comparisons. Concludes that idea association, problem translating skill, prior problem solving experience, specific knowledge, and…

Lee, Kam-Wah Lucille; And Others

1996-01-01

247

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents preliminary hypotheses about a common core of faculty beliefs about how their students learn to solve problems in their introductory courses. Using a process of structured interviews and a concept map based analysis, we find that faculty appear to believe that students learn problem solving primarily through a process of reflective introspection (educators call this process metacognition) while they practice solving problems and getting assistance from example problem solutions.

Heller, Patricia; Heller, Kenneth; Henderson, Charles R.; Kuo, H. V.; Yerushalmi, Edit

2010-07-12

248

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents a way of solving the problem of planetary motion, or, the Kepler problem, without using the r\\to 1/r transition. The governing equation is solved for the components of the velocity vector in Cartesian coordinates. Substitution for speed in the law of energy conservation yields the equation of the trajectory. A time implicit closed formula for the azimuth is derived. An Excel application is presented that simulates the motion by solving the azimuth equation numerically without using programming.

Benacka, Jan

2014-07-01

249

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four well-articulated models that offer structured approaches to problem solving were identified in the engineering research literature. These models provided a conceptual base for the study reported here. Four undergraduates enrolled in statics and two engineering faculty members provided think-aloud data as they solved two statics problems. The data were used to develop a coding system for characterizing engineering students behavioral and cognitive processes. These codes were used to analyze students problem solving procedures in a detailed manner, particularly differences between good and not-so-good problem solvers. The analyses provide a picture of how students and faculty solve problems at a cognitive level, and indicate that published problem-solving models are incomplete in describing actual problem-solving processes.

2009-10-12

250

E-print Network

conjunctive inequalities are important and widely encountered database problems that need to be efficientlySolving Satisfiability and Implication Problems in Database Systems SHA GUO, WEI SUN, and MARK A. WEISS Florida International University Satisfiability, implication, and equivalence problems involving

Weiss, Mark Allen

251

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas

2011-03-03

252

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of parallel computers for numerically solving flow fields has gained much importance in recent years. This paper introduces a new high order numerical scheme for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) specifically designed for parallel computational environments. A distributed MIMD system gives the flexibility of treating different elements of the governing equations with totally different numerical schemes in different regions of the flow field. The parallel decomposition of the governing operator to be solved is the primary parallel split. The primary parallel split was studied using a hypercube like architecture having clusters of shared memory processors at each node. The approach is demonstrated using examples of simple steady state incompressible flows. Future studies should investigate the secondary split because, depending on the numerical scheme that each of the processors applies and the nature of the flow in the specific subdomain, it may be possible for a processor to seek better, or higher order, schemes for its particular subcase.

Lin, Avi; Milner, Edward J.; Liou, May-Fun; Belch, Richard A.

1992-01-01

253

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of parallel computers for numerically solving flow fields has gained much importance in recent years. This paper introduces a new high order numerical scheme for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) specifically designed for parallel computational environments. A distributed MIMD system gives the flexibility of treating different elements of the governing equations with totally different numerical schemes in different regions of the flow field. The parallel decomposition of the governing operator to be solved is the primary parallel split. The primary parallel split was studied using a hypercube like architecture having clusters of shared memory processors at each node. The approach is demonstrated using examples of simple steady state incompressible flows. Future studies should investigate the secondary split because, depending on the numerical scheme that each of the processors applies and the nature of the flow in the specific subdomain, it may be possible for a processor to seek better, or higher order, schemes for its particular subcase.

Lin, Avi; Milner, Edward J.; Liou, May-Fun; Belch, Richard A.

1992-02-01

254

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving is recognized as a valuable educational experience in science. Thus genetics, essentially a problem-solving science included in almost all high school biology courses, offers a fruitful area for studying student problem-solving performance. The research reported in this article describes the performance of 30 high school students solving 119 problems generated by the computer program GENETICS CONSTRUCTION KIT (Jungck

Susie Johnston Slack; Jim Stewart

1990-01-01

255

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those skills are the foundation for the quantitative aspects of problem solving. (Chi, et al., 1981). The literature also indicates that cooperative problem solving should enhance the students' performance. As a practical matter surveys of departments that require introductory physics classes expect their students to have general qualitative problem solving skills. The students in this study were asked to solve problem(s) before coming to a lab session and then cooperatively assess whether or not their answers were correct by conducting a laboratory activity for which they had to plan the procedure and obtain the necessary results. TA's were expected to provide instruction under a cognitive apprenticeship model. The results showed that the cooperative problem solving laboratories had almost no impact on the students' problem solving skills as measured from the start of a two hour lab session to the end of the lab session...The reason for this may have been that students did not have enough experience in the solving of different kinds of problems in the two domains of Newton's second Law and gravitation to overcome their misconceptions and become competent. Another possibility was that the TA's did not follow the cognitive apprenticeship model as consistently as might have been needed.

Knutson, Paul Aanond

256

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of studentsâ ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on studentsâ common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on studentsâ problem solving abilities.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. S.

2011-01-01

257

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative problem solving is the major ingredient of core pre-engineering physics courses. The analysis of problem-solving behaviors in these courses can provide an important source of information not only about how students approach problems in general, but how their performance might be enhanced through the development and assessment of instructional innovations. We have focused on the electromagnetics portion of our

Kimberly Morton; Edward W. Thomas; Neff Walker; Jack Marr

1996-01-01

258

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, a heuristic genetic algorithm for solving resource allocation problems is proposed. The resource allocation problems are to allocate resources to activities so that the fitness becomes as optimal as possible. The objective of this paper is to develop an efficient algorithm to solve resource allocation problems encountered in practice. Various genetic algorithms are studied and a heuristic

Zne-Jung Lee; Shun-Feng Su; Chou-Yuan Lee; Yao-Shan Hung

2003-01-01

259

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…

Knutson, Paul Aanond

2011-01-01

260

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…

Wiest, Lynda R.

2008-01-01

261

E-print Network

Sequential Methods in Solving Economic Power Flow Problems William D. Rosehart Claudio A. Ca linear and quadratic programming to solve the OPF economic dispatch problem are reviewed in this paper Flow and System Modeling The objective of the economic dispatch problem is to minimize

CaĂ±izares, Claudio A.

262

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…

Pescetti, D.

2008-01-01

263

E-print Network

Proteus: Visual Analogy in Problem Solving Jim Davies a Ashok K. Goel b Patrick W. Yaner b a of visual analogy in problem solving which has been implemented in a computer program called Proteus. Proteus provides two main things. Firstly, it provides a content account for visual analogy in problem

Davies, Jim

264

PubMed Central

Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677

Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

2009-01-01

265

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

Man, Yiu-Kwong

2010-01-01

266

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing from social learning theories and symbolic interactionist understandings of social life, the authors suggest that physical punishment teaches aggressive and controlling strategies for solving the problems of living together and hinders the development of important problem-solving skills, specifically the ability to role take with others. These strategies and skills become part of an individual’s toolkit for problem resolution within

Alicia D. Cast; David Schweingruber; Nancy Berns

2006-01-01

267

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning knowledge, is described. Perdix' planning knowledge enables it to augment the problem space it is given by constructing auxiliary lines. The planning system also…

Greeno, James G.; And Others

268

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if problem solving skills can be improved through the use of an interdisciplinary program incorporating reading, music, and mathematics. The study was conducted in seven fifth grade classrooms, and addresses the need to teach problem solving strategies in elementary school and the importance of problem

Rousseau, Donna

2009-01-01

269

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study is a hierarchical set of categories that describe the studentsâ problem solving approaches in the context of introductory physics.

Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert; Bowe, Brian

2008-09-24

270

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: In this paper, we present the implementation of a branch-and-cut algorithm for solving Steiner tree problems,in graphs. Our algorithm,is based,on an integer programming,formulation,for directed graphs and comprises preprocessing, separation algorithms, and primal heuristics. We are able to solve nearly all problem instances discussed in the literature to optimality, including one problem that—to our knowledge—has,not yet been,solved. We also report

Thorsten Koch; Alexander Martin

1998-01-01

271

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magnetic Reconnection Code (MRC), developed at the Center for Magnetic Reconnection Studies, solves Hall MHD equations using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) methods in collisional as well as collisionless regimes. The Navier-Stokes/Euler equations of hydrodynamics also fit into the MRC framework. Much of the previous work on AMR methods has concentrated on solving hyperbolic equations with explicit timestepping. However, for many problems, either due to their physical nature (e.g., collisionless reconnection dynamics in which electron inertia breaks field lines and incompressible Euler flows) or for performance reasons (semi-implicit and implicit numerical methods), it becomes necessary to solve global equations (Poisson and/or Helmholtz). This paper investigates the application and performance of well-established preconditioned Krylov-Schwarz solvers in an AMR context, using a combination of an outer multi-level method (fast adaptive composite) and iterative Krylov-Schwarz smoothers. We present an implementation within the MRC which allows us to leverage the powerful toolkit of preconditioners and linear solvers from the PETSc library. We show two applications of this new adaptive elliptic solver: the problem of finite-time singularities of 3D Euler flows using a highly symmetric initial condition due to Kida and the collisionless reconnection problem for the m=1 sawtooth instability using so-called two-field and four-field models which have been derived from the full two-fluid equations using asymptotic ordering. In the reconnnection problem, it is demonstrated that these reduced models produce parametric scalings in the nonlinear regime that are qualitatively different than those obtained from recent studies such as the GEM Reconnection Challenge.

Germaschewski, K.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Ng, C. S.; Linde, T.; Malyshkin, L.; Rosner, R.; Dobrian, F.; Keyes, D.; Smith, B.

2003-10-01

272

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studentsâ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate studentsâ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate studentsâ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate studentsâ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-01-20

273

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

2010-07-01

274

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…

Szeberényi, József

2014-01-01

275

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students better understand problem solving when the basis for the problems are real-life situations. This book, geared for grades 4-8, offers multi-step, real-life problems to encourage students to think flexibly, creatively, and analytically about problem solving. It includes ideas for setting up a problem-solving classroom and assessment…

Illingworth, Mark

276

E-print Network

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A STROKE : NUMERICAL PROBLEMS AND METHODOLOGY STÂ´EPHANE DESCOMBES dimensional more realistic simulations 16 7. Conclusion 16 References 16 1. Introduction The numerical simulation of a stroke is a challenging problem, with many sources of numerical difficulties: a complex

Boyer, Edmond

277

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What makes problem solving in physics difficult? How do students solve physics problems, and how does this compare to an expert physicist's strategy? Over the past twenty years, physics education research has revealed several differences between novice and expert problem solving. The work of Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser demonstrates that novices tend to categorize problems based on surface features, while experts categorize according to theory, principles, or concepts1. If there are differences between how problems are categorized, then are there differences between how physics problems are solved? Learning more about the problem solving process, including how students like to learn and what is most effective, requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In an effort to learn how novices and experts solve introductory electricity problems, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to learn if there are any significant problem solving differences between: (a) novices and experts, (b) genders, (c) students who like to answer questions in class and those who don't, (d) students who like to ask questions in class and those who don't, (e) students employing an interrogative approach to problem solving and those who don't, and (f) those who like physics and those who dislike it. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative methods reveal that inquiry-based problem solving is prevalent among novices and experts, and frequently leads to the correct physics. These findings serve as impetus for the third dimension of this work: the development of Choose Your Own Adventure Physics(c) (CYOAP), an innovative teaching tool in physics which encourages inquiry-based problem solving. 1Chi, M., P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, "Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices", Cognitive Science, 5, 121--152 (1981).

Koleci, Carolann

278

E-print Network

The Mutual Exclusion Problem Has Been Solved Leslie Lamport Digital Equipment Corporation 14- glish Language. Random House, New York, second edition, 1987. 2 #12;[5] Leslie Lamport. A new solution] Leslie Lamport. The mutual exclusion problem--p

Rajamani, Sriram K.

279

SciTech Connect

Consistent labeling problems are a family of np-complete constraint satisfaction problems such as school timetabling, for which a conventional computer may be too slow. There are a variety of techniques for reducing the elapsed time to find one or all solutions to a consistent labeling problem. The paper discusses and illustrates solutions consisting of special hardware to accomplish the required constraint propagation and an asynchronous network of intercommunicating computers to accomplish the tree search in parallel. 5 references.

Ullmann, J.R.; Haralick, R.M.; Shapiro, L.G.

1982-01-01

280

Microsoft Academic Search

Social problem-solving skills among dual-diagnosis patients were compared to two control groups: psychiatric patients without substance abuse problems and community volunteers. A standardized, behavioral role-play test consisting of four scenarios representing interpersonal problems yielded two reliable dependent variables: (a) specificity, or elaboration, of the problem-solving response and (b) overall effectiveness of the response. Analyses of covariance (using a measure of

Kate B. Carey; Michael P. Carey

1990-01-01

281

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving laboratories comprise an important part of our introductory physics courses at Minnesota. These courses emphasize learning fundamental physics through problem solving using cooperative groups. This paper outlines the structure and rationale for both the algebra-based and calculus-based introductory courses. The sample class is one of four laboratory problems on the topic of forces. A section of our student laboratory manual, including the introduction and this problem, is given in this paper.

Heller, Patricia; Foster, Thomas M.; Heller, Kenneth

2006-05-31

282

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment is concerned with the identification of physiological correlative evidence of test anxiety in a problem-solving situation. While low-anxious, medium-anxious, and high-anxious Ss attempted to solve anagrams, pulse-monitored heart-rate recordings were taken. The principal findings were that high-anxious Ss produced significantly larger increases in heart rate with the onset of the problem-solving task than low-anxious Ss. Also, large increases

Bernard W. Harleston; M. Glenn Smith; Donald Arey

1965-01-01

283

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the effects of using online notepads to take notes on problem solving and learning in a scientific domain. Describes experiments conducted at George Mason University with undergraduate students that showed positive benefits for problems solving and self-explanation when using online notepads. (Contains 50 references.) (Author/LRW)

Trafton, J. Gregory; Trickett, Susan B.

2001-01-01

284

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports an example of a situation in which university students had to solve geometrical problems presented to them dynamically using the interactive computerized environment of the "MicroWorlds Project Builder". In the process of the problem solving, the students used ten different solution strategies. The unsuccessful strategies were…

Lavy, Ilana

2007-01-01

285

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

2013-01-01

286

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth analyses…

Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber

2009-01-01

287

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore prospective biology teachers' understandings of fundamental genetics concepts and the association between misconceptions and genetics problem solving abilities. Specifically, the study describes conceptual and procedural difficulties which influence prospective biology teachers' genetics problem solving

Karagoz, Meryem; Cakir, Mustafa

2011-01-01

288

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…

Hong, Dae S.

2011-01-01

289

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is a general agreement among mathematics educators that students need to acquire problem solving skill, learn to communicate using mathematical knowledge and skills, develop mathematical thinking and reasoning, to see the interconnectedness between mathematics and other disciplines. Based on this perspective, this research looked into the levels of problem solving ability amongst selected Malaysian secondary school students. A

NOOR AZLAN AHMAD

290

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the use of Condor, a distributed resource management system, as a provider of computational resources for NEOS, an environment for solving optimization problems over the Internet. We also describe how problems are submitted and processed by NEOS, and then scheduled and solved by Condor on available (idle) workstations

Michael C. Ferris; Michael P. Mesnier; Jorge J. Moré

2000-01-01

291

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides activity structures for and gives examples of problem-solving projects to be used with educational telecomputing. Highlights include information searches, electronic process writing, sequential creations, parallel problem solving, simulations, social action projects, and instructions for accessing information about these and other…

Harris, Judi

1994-01-01

292

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Figural response (FR) items in architecture were compared with multiple-choice (MC) counterparts for their ability to predict architectural problem-solving proficiency of 33 practicing architects, 34 architecture interns, and 53 architecture students. Although both FR and MC predicted verbal design problem solving, only FR scores predicted…

Martinez, Michael E.

1993-01-01

293

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of flexible, transferable problem-solving skills is an important aim of contemporary educational systems. Since processing limitations of our mind represent a major factor influencing any meaningful learning, the acquisition of flexible problem-solving skills needs to be based on known characteristics of our cognitive architecture…

Kalyuga, Slava; Renkl, Alexander; Paas, Fred

2010-01-01

294

E-print Network

Solving convex problems involving powers using conic optimization and a new self-concordant barrier CFG 07 Heidelberg University CFG 07 Solving convex problems involving powers using conic optimization 1 #12;Overview 1. Motivation Why convex optimization? Why a conic formulation? 2. Unified conic

Glineur, FranĂ§ois

295

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based medicine--the process of using research findings systematically as the basis for clinical decisions--can be taught using problem-solving teaching methods. Evaluates whether it was possible to motivate students to use the original literature by giving them selected patient problems to solve. (Author/ASK)

Mottonen, Merja; Tapanainen, Paivi; Nuutinen, Matti; Rantala, Heikki; Vainionpaa, Leena; Uhari, Matti

2001-01-01

296

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until…

Sautter, Rachael A.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Jay, Allison A.; Goldsmith, Tina R.; Carr, James E.

2011-01-01

297

EPA Science Inventory

This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of information on the use of GIS as a tool in environmental problem solving. Solving environmental problems has become more complex with consideration of cross-media pollutant transport and watershed-based decision-making. T...

298

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A concern of many educators and managers is students' ability to transfer concepts and procedures learned in school to the work environment. When children are taught a skill, such as solving a mathematical problem, they often fail to recognize that their new skill can be used to solve a similar problem outside of school. In other cases, students…

Dixon, Raymond A.; Brown, Ryan A.

2012-01-01

299

Microsoft Academic Search

Tam and Chan (1998) present a parallel genetic algorithm approach to solve the facility layout problem. They adopt a slicing tree representation of a floor layout. The coding scheme represents a layout as a string with three parts. This paper demonstrates the difficulties in applying classical crossover and mutation operators for solving facility layout problems. The paper modifies the representation

L. Al-Hakim

2000-01-01

300

E-print Network

[Epstein et al. 1984]) cognition, occurring in perception, memory retrieval, lan- guage comprehension processes are shared by most types of problem solving, insight solutions appear to differ from noninsight the baths shouting Eureka!'' without donning his clothes first. In addition, problem solving with insight

Haberman, Jason

301

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…

Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby

2011-01-01

302

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…

Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

2012-01-01

303

E-print Network

82 ROBOTS IN PROBLEM-SOLVING AND PROGRAMMING. Scott Turner University of Northampton Avenue Campus based on using Mindstorm (LEGO, Denmark) robot kits. This is being done as a foundation step before experience, problem-solving, robots, Java. INTRODUCTION Mindstorm based robots have been used previously

Hill, Gary

304

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic objective of the research is to determine whether the education that prospective teachers in different fields receive is related to their levels of problem solving skills and self-confidence. Within the mentioned framework, the prospective teachers' problem solving and self-confidence levels have been examined under several variables.…

Gursen Otacioglu, Sena

2008-01-01

305

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Desktop Adventures are computer-based scenarios incorporating the standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics for practicing problem solving across the curriculum suitable for whole class or cooperative group instruction. Reviews problem solving steps and approaches and describes introducing, creating, and extending desktop…

Ivers, Karen S.

1997-01-01

306

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local, state, and national professional organizations have endorsed problem solving as the most important outcome to be achieved in a K-12 mathematics program. This booklet illustrates some ways to teach different problem solving strategies to elementary school students. It concentrates on methods involving: (1) working background; (2) using a…

Reeves, Charles A.

307

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book about Logo programming and problem solving is designed to introduce preservice and inservice teachers to problem solving in a Logo programming environment. Such a unit of study can be an important part of an introductory computers in education course for educators. Although Logowriter--a version of Logo--was developed by Logo Computer…

Yoder, Sharon Burrowes; Moursund, Dave

308

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

2007-01-01

309

Microsoft Academic Search

A box-structured methodology for solving business problems using available management science techniques is proposed. The procedure is free of bias caused by the choice of solution technique. Abstraction levels are developed for available management-science solution techniques. A mapping algorithm is defined that identifies what technique, or path of techniques, can be used to solve the problem. The abstraction categories are

S. Bandyopahyay; A. R. Hevner

1988-01-01

310

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major goal of education is to help learners store information in long-term memory and use that information on later occasions to effectively solve problems (Vockell 2010). Therefore, this author began to use the Rubik's cube to help students learn to problem solve. There is something special about this colorful three-dimensional puzzle that…

Rohrig, Brian

2010-01-01

311

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes that the behavior of teachers conducting small-scale evaluations of their own programs is analogous to the behavior of students solving curriculum-specific problems in classrooms and that teaching methods for training students in problem-solving skills can be usefully adapted to training teachers in evaluation skills.…

Ross, John A.

1985-01-01

312

E-print Network

with multilevel techniques is illustrated by 2D and 3D simulations of laminar methane combustion including have used the simple diffusion law (7). #12;Solving multidimensional reactive flow problems 3Solving multidimensional reactive flow problems with adaptive finite elements M. Braack and T

Richter, Thomas

313

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate agression and interpersonal problem solving in terms of gender, and to investigate relationship between agression and interpersonal problem solving of adolescents. The study was in survey model and participants were 483 (180 female and 303 male) adolescents. T test, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis were determined. In study it

Erdal HAMARTA; Emel ARSLAN; Yeliz SAYGIN

314

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to help better understand problem-solving instruction. It presents information on helping students understand the problem-solving process as well as information on teaching specific strategies, including: Choose an Operation; Find a Pattern; Make a Table; Make an Organized List; Draw a Picture or Diagram; Guess, Check, and…

O'Connell, Susan

315

E-print Network

A society's single emergent, increasing intelligence arises partly from the thermodynamic advantages of networking the innate intelligence of different individuals, and partly from the accumulation of solved problems. Economic growth is proportional to the square of the network entropy of a society's population times the network entropy of the number of the society's solved problems.

Shour, Robert

2009-01-01

316

Microsoft Academic Search

SCIRun is a problem solving environment that allows the interactive construction, debugging, and steering of large-scale scientific computations. We review related systems and introduce a taxonomy that explores different computational steering solutions. Considering these approaches, we discuss why a tightly integrated problem solving environment, such as SCIRun, simplifies the design and debugging phases of computational science applications and how such

Steven G. Parker; Michelle Miller; Charles D. Hansen; Christopher R. Johnson

1997-01-01

317

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work aims to improve the assessment of creative problem-solving in science education by employing language technologies and computational-statistical machine learning methods to grade students' natural language responses automatically. To evaluate constructs like creative problem-solving with validity, open-ended questions that elicit…

Wang, Hao-Chuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Tsai-Yen

2008-01-01

318

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from social learning theories and symbolic interactionist understandings of social life, the authors suggest that physical punishment teaches aggressive and controlling strategies for solving the problems of living together and hinders the development of important problem-solving skills, specifically the ability to role take with others.…

Cast, Alicia D.; Schweingruber, David; Berns, Nancy

2006-01-01

319

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An observation on teaching introductory programming courses on SLN for a period of two terms led me to believe that online students try various ways to solve a problem. In the beginning, I got the impression that some of their approaches for a solution were wrong; but after a little investigation, I found that some of the problem-solving

Ebrahimi, Alireza

2007-01-01

320

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

1997-01-01

321

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving, reasoning, and analytical thinking are defined and described as teachable repertoires. This paper describes work performed at a school serving special needs children, Morningside Academy, that has resulted in specific procedures developed over the past 15 years. These procedures include modifying "Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving"…

Robbins, Joanne K.

2011-01-01

322

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Problem-solving through reflective thinking should be both the method and valuable outcome of science instruction in America's schools" proclaimed John Dewey (Gabel, 1995). If the development of problem-solving is a primary goal of science education, more problem-solving opportunities must be an integral part of K-16 education. To examine the effective use of technology in developing and assessing problem-solving skills, a problem-solving authoring, learning, and assessment software, the UCLA IMMEX Program-Interactive Multimedia Exercises-was investigated. This study was a twenty-week quasi-experimental study that was implemented as a control-group time series design among 120 tenth grade students. Both the experimental group (n = 60) and the control group (n = 60) participated in a problem-based learning curriculum; however, the experimental group received regular intensive experiences with IMMEX problem-solving and the control group did not. Problem-solving pretest and posttest were administered to all students. The instruments used were a 35-item Processes of Biological Inquiry Test and an IMMEX problem-solving assessment test, True Roots. Students who participated in the IMMEX Program achieved significant (p <.05) gains in problem-solving skills on both problem-solving assessment instruments. This study provided evidence that IMMEX software is highly efficient in evaluating salient elements of problem-solving. Outputs of students' problem-solving strategies revealed that unsuccessful problem solvers primarily used the following four strategies: (1) no data search strategy, students simply guessed; (2) limited data search strategy leading to insufficient data and premature closing; (3) irrelevant data search strategy, students focus in areas bearing no substantive data; and (4) extensive data search strategy with inadequate integration and analysis. On the contrary, successful problem solvers used the following strategies; (1) focused search strategy coupled with the ability to fill in knowledge gaps by accessing the appropriate resources; (2) targeted search strategy coupled with high level of analytical and integration skills; and (3) focused search strategy coupled with superior discrimination, analytical, and integration skills. The strategies of students who were successful and unsuccessful solving IMMEX problems were consistent with those of expert and novice problem solvers identified in the literature on problem-solving.

Palacio-Cayetano, Joycelin

323

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this study was on the processes students used in making mathematical conjectures for five divergent problem situations. The relationship of the processes to creativity factors across the problems was also examined. The results of various cluster analyses and correlational measures indicated that students use different sequences of…

Brandau, Linda I.; Dossey, John A.

324

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the researchers who report in this set of papers there are two causes for the phenomenon that primary- and secondary-school students ignore relevant and plausibly familiar aspects of reality in answering word problems. The first cause is the stereotyped character of common word problems. The second cause lies in the classroom climate. In this article, it is argued

Koeno Gravemeijer

1997-01-01

325

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When faced with real-world problems, students devise accurate, logical, and creative solutions using skills connecting to different subject areas. Students are intrigued by assignments involving preservation of species and design of environmentally friendly products and transit systems. Problem-based learning depends on coaching, modeling, and…

Krynock, Karoline; Robb, Louise

1999-01-01

326

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's mental performance was studied in the context of arithmetic word problem solution. Response latency and error data indicated subtraction was more difficult than addition. Understanding children's problem solutions in terms of flexible strategy use and the fact that many errors have a systematic basis are important in studying children's…

Vakali, Mary

1985-01-01

327

Microsoft Academic Search

This research applies techniques and toolsfrom Genetic Programming (GP) to the facilitylayout problem. The facility layoutproblem (FLP) is an NP-complete combinatorialoptimization problem that hasapplications to efficient facility design formanufacturing and service industries. Afacility layout is represented as a collectionof rectangular blocks using a slicing treestructure (STS). We use a multiple purposegenetic programming kernel to generateslicing trees that are...

Jaime Garces-perez; Dale A. Schoenefeld; Roger L. Wainwright

1996-01-01

328

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reflection is essential to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective physics students are about problem solving and how to improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We evaluate strategies that teach reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. We find a large overlap between introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize based upon similarity of solution. Introductory students in calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in algebra-based courses. Other investigations explored if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty applying physical principles and differences between self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study suggests those who reflected with peers on problem solving drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study involved giving common problems in quantum mechanics midterm and final exams and suggested advanced students do not automatically reflect on mistakes. Interviews revealed even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than their knowledge structure. A survey was developed to evaluate studentsâ attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest introductory and graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to faculty. Responses to individual questions suggest expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.

Mason, Andrew J.

2012-05-09

329

PubMed Central

Background: The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. Methods: In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01). Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health. PMID:24404372

Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

2013-01-01

330

PubMed Central

We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until problem solving was modeled and prompted. Following the model and prompts, all participants showed immediate significant increases in intraverbal categorization, and all prompts were quickly eliminated. Use of audible self-prompts was evident initially for all participants, but declined over time for 3 of the 4 children. Within-session response patterns remained consistent with use of the problem-solving strategy even when self-prompts were not audible. These findings suggest that teaching and prompting a problem-solving strategy can be an effective way to produce intraverbal categorization responses. PMID:21709781

Sautter, Rachael A; LeBlanc, Linda A; Jay, Allison A; Goldsmith, Tina R; Carr, James E

2011-01-01

331

E-print Network

that problem solving is fostered when learners experience concrete visual representations that connectTeaching With Concrete and Abstract Visual Representations: Effects on Students' Problem Solving/or abstract visual problem representa- tions during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near

Reisslein, Martin

332

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a pilot project implemented at the University of Kansas, a team of instructors from the education and chemistry departments modified the introductory chemistry laboratory curriculum to center on problem-based inquiry learning units. The new laboratory

Wolfer, Adam; Ellis, James; Robinson, Janet; Heppert, Joseph; Mason, Susan

2002-02-01

333

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this workshop is to demonstrate how we select lens systems for experiments at our facility. Different layouts and different types of experiments will provide different constraints, but the basic lens selection problems will be similar. Most...

W. P. Brooks

1985-01-01

334

E-print Network

Key words. bilinear problems, McCormick envelopes, binary expansion, ...... However, we found no performance gain with this approach. ...... [22] R. Karuppiah and I.E. Grossmann, Global optimization for the synthesis of integrated water.

2013-01-29

335

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p < .10) related to ability to solve "Creeping Crud". Peer learning strategy showed a positive significant (p < .10) relationship with scores obtained from solving "Creeping Crud". Students' declared major made a significant (p < .05) difference on the ability to solve "Microquest". A subset (18) volunteered for a think aloud method to determine decision-making process. High achievers used fewer steps, and had more focused approach than low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.

Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota

336

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer

1993-12-01

337

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the outcomes of teaching an inventive problem-solving course in junior high schools in an attempt to deal with the current relative neglect of fostering students' creativity and problem-solving capabilities in traditional schooling. The method involves carrying out systematic manipulation with attributes, functions and…

Barak, Moshe

2013-01-01

338

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most computationally useful ideas of the 1970s is the observation that many hard integer programming problems can be viewed as easy problems complicated by a relatively small set of side constraints. Dualizing the side constraints produces a Lagrangian problem that is easy to solve and whose optimal value is a lower bound (for minimization problems) on the

Marshall L. Fisher

1981-01-01

339

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a gap between the problems our students typically encounter in their education and the problems they are likely to be asked to solve in their future employments. It is convenient in education, both in specification and assessment, to provide fairly well- structured problems, and many instructors view using such problems as a way to manage the learning process.

Mats Daniels; Angela Carbone; Amie Hauer; Dan Moore

2007-01-01

340

E-print Network

Problem solving strategies in an online homework environment: "Student Choice and Analytics" Daniel within LON-CAPA - E-text with instructor videos - Concept questions - Easy, Medium, Hard homework problems #12;AAPT - Feb. 2012 D.T. Seaton, MIT Problem Categorization in Homework Â· Problems categorized

341

PubMed

We address the problem of how to reinforce learning in ultracomplex environments, with huge state-spaces, where one must learn to exploit a compact structure of the problem domain. The approach we propose is to simulate the evolution of an artificial economy of computer programs. The economy is constructed based on two simple principles so as to assign credit to the individual programs for collaborating on problem solutions. We find empirically that starting from programs that are random computer code, we can develop systems that solve hard problems. In particular, our economy learned to solve almost all random Blocks World problems with goal stacks that are 200 blocks high. Competing methods solve such problems only up to goal stacks of at most 8 blocks. Our economy has also learned to unscramble about half a randomly scrambled Rubik's cube and to solve several commercially sold puzzles. PMID:11112253

Baum; Durdanovic

2000-12-01

342

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this workshop is to demonstrate how we select lens systems for experiments at our facility. Different layouts and different types of experiments will provide different constraints, but the basic lens selection problems will be similar. Most of our work involves the use of explosives and (usually) lens systems are protected. This protection is a wall of concrete

Brooks

1985-01-01

343

E-print Network

We explore the possibility of having a composite (self-conserved) dark energy (DE) whose dynamics is controlled by the quantum running of the cosmological parameters. We find that within this scenario it is feasible to find an explanation for the cosmological coincidence problem and at the same time a good qualitative description of the present data.

Javier Grande; Joan Sola; Hrvoje Stefancic

2006-09-25

344

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College teachers have done an excellent job over the years of teaching technical concepts, but they may not have done as good a job of teaching their adult students to be a good problem-solvers. Nine representatives from the technical industry and academia were interviewed in this study for their expert opinions on the subject of teaching…

Jozwiak, Jim

2004-01-01

345

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose five heuristic procedures for the solution of the multiple competitive facilities location problem. A franchise of several facilities is to be located in a trade area where competing facilities already exist. The objective is to maximize the market share captured by the franchise as a whole. We perform extensive computational tests and conclude that a

Tammy Drezner; Zvi Drezner; Said Salhi

2002-01-01

346

E-print Network

Mar 7, 2011 ... the new algorithm with existing codes on a diverse set of test instances, ... We consider the problem of optimizing a general quadratic function ... in Matlab's Optimization Toolbox (MathWorks, 2010) is a widely ..... Quadprogbb does, we were unsuccessful due to CPLEX run-time errors that we could not fix.

2011-08-15

347

E-print Network

Â¨re Anthropologie, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany 3 Sub-Department of Animal Behaviour, University to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. We tested cooperative problem; chimpanzees; cooperation; cognition; tolerance 1. INTRODUCTION Animal cooperation is a topic that has

Indiana University

348

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate mathematical formulations and solution techniques for a variant of the Connected Subgraph Problem. Given a connected graph with costs and profits associated with the nodes, the goal is to find a connected subgraph that contains a subset of distinguished vertices. In this work we focus on the budget-constrained version, where we maximize the total profit of the nodes in the subgraph subject to a budget constraint on the total cost. We propose several mixed-integer formulations for enforcing the subgraph connectivity requirement, which plays a key role in the combinatorial structure of the problem. We show that a new formulation based on subtour elimination constraints is more effective at capturing the combinatorial structure of the problem, providing significant advantages over the previously considered encoding which was based on a single commodity flow. We test our formulations on synthetic instances as well as on real-world instances of an important problem in environmental conservation concerning the design of wildlife corridors. Our encoding results in a much tighter LP relaxation, and more importantly, it results in finding better integer feasible solutions as well as much better upper bounds on the objective (often proving optimality or within less than 1% of optimality), both when considering the synthetic instances as well as the real-world wildlife corridor instances.

Dilkina, Bistra; Gomes, Carla P.

349

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the role of evaluation in mathematics in 749 elementary school children. The macroevaluative skills and calibration scores of high versus low mathematical problem solvers were contrasted as measures of metacognition. No relevant calibration differences were found for gender. In addition, the performances of children with…

Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert

2006-01-01

350

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author presents five principles of developing a problem solving culture that he believes will allow students to grow into mathematical thinkers and sophisticated problem solvers: conjecture, communication, collaboration, chaos, and celebration. Each of these principles encompasses several mindsets and practices, which enable the teacher to build that culture in the classroom. The author includes a link to his webinar on this topic, "Creating a Culture of Problem Solving in Your School or Classroom" (cataloged separately).

Aungst, Gerald

2014-08-10

351

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper develops a technique of dependency net modeling which relies on an explicit representation of justifications for beliefs held by the problem solver. Using these justifications, the modeling mechanism is able to determine the relevant lines of inference to pursue during problem solving. Three particular problem-solving difficulties which may be handled by the dependency-based technique are discussed: (1) subgoal violation detection, (2) description binding, and (3) maintaining a consistent world model.

London, P.

1978-01-01

352

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem-solving behavior of six novice subjects attempting to solve an electrostatics problem in second-semester calculus-based college physics was observed and recorded. Five of the subjects were characterized as A or B students and one subject as a D student in introductory college physics. Although the A or B subjects were able to arrive at a correct solution to the problem,

Claude McMillan III; Marc Swadener

1991-01-01

353

Microsoft Academic Search

Facility-location problems have several applications, such as telecommunications, industrial transportation and distribution. One of the most well-known facility-location problems is the p-median problem. This work addresses an application of the capacitated p-median problem to a real-world problem. We propose a genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the capacitated p-median problem. The proposed GA uses not only conventional genetic operators, but also

Elon Santos Correa; Maria Teresinha A. Steiner; Alex A. Freitas; Celso Carnieri

2004-01-01

354

Microsoft Academic Search

While there has been recent interest in research on planning and reasoning about actions,nearly all research results have been theoretical. We know of no previous examples of aplanning system that has made a significant impact on a problem of practical importance.One of the primary goals during the development of the SIPE-2 planning system has beenthe balancing of efficiency with expressiveness

David E. Wilkins

1990-01-01

355

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative creativity is traditionally supported by formal techniques, such as brainstorming. These techniques im- prove the idea-generation process by creating group syner- gies, but also suffer from a number of negative effects (12). Current electronic tools to support collaborative creativity overcome some of these problems, but introduce new ones, by either losing the benefits of face-to-face communication or the immediacy

Otmar Hilliges; Lucia Terrenghi; Sebastian Boring; David Kim; Hendrik Richter; Andreas Butz

2007-01-01

356

SciTech Connect

A clear understanding of aerodynamic noise theory and cavitation will avoid most major valve problems in process plants and allow the valve engineer to design out potential problems. On the other hand, the plant owner has to recognize that such valves may require a cost premium. However, such a premium will be recovered in a small amount of time because of the savings from reduced downtime and lower maintenance costs. Pressure reducing valves used on gases or high pressure steam valves, such as turbine bypass valves, convert substantial energy into heat and a lower pressure level. Unfortunately, this can only be done by accelerating the gas in one or more orifices and then decelerating it rapidly again through a turbulence mechanism or super-sonic shock cells. This causes a lot of noise and vibration. Valve engineering science has made substantial strides in the past few years, and one is now able to predict cavitation and aerodynamic sound levels before a valve is purchased. Similarly, newer valve sizes incorporate features that reduce noise and cavitation effects. Some other minor problems are resonant plug vibration and flashing. The paper discusses how to predict aerodynamic sound, how close can one estimate the sound level, cavitation, and incorrect installation.

Baumann, H.D. [Fisher Controls International, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1997-03-01

357

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to present the finite element scheme for solving the Earth potential problems in 3D domains above the Earth surface. To that goal we formulate the boundary-value problem (BVP) consisting of the Laplace equation outside the Earth accompanied by the Neumann as well as the Dirichlet boundary conditions (BC). The 3D computational domain consists of the bottom boundary in the form of a spherical approximation or real triangulation of the Earth’s surface on which surface gravity disturbances are given. We introduce additional upper (spherical) and side (planar and conical) boundaries where the Dirichlet BC is given. Solution of such elliptic BVP is understood in a weak sense, it always exists and is unique and can be efficiently found by the finite element method (FEM). We briefly present derivation of FEM for such type of problems including main discretization ideas. This method leads to a solution of the sparse symmetric linear systems which give the Earth’s potential solution in every discrete node of the 3D computational domain. In this point our method differs from other numerical approaches, e.g. boundary element method (BEM) where the potential is sought on a hypersurface only. We apply and test FEM in various situations. First, we compare the FEM solution with the known exact solution in case of homogeneous sphere. Then, we solve the geodetic BVP in continental scale using the DNSC08 data. We compare the results with the EGM2008 geopotential model. Finally, we study the precision of our solution by the GPS/levelling test in Slovakia where we use terrestrial gravimetric measurements as input data. All tests show qualitative and quantitative agreement with the given solutions.

Fašková, Zuzana; ?underlík, Róbert; Mikula, Karol

2010-02-01

358

E-print Network

large-scale level, changes in concentrations that occur during a complex chemical reaction are describedHigh-Concentration Chemical Computing Techniques for Solving Hard-To-Solve Problems. University El Paso, TX 79968, USA {vladik, ofuentes}@utep.edu Abstract Chemical computing Â­ using chemical

Kreinovich, Vladik

359

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Being able to represent physics problems and concepts in multiple ways for qualitative reasoning and problem solving is a scientific ability we want our students to develop. These representations can include but are not limited to words, diagrams, equations, graphs, and sketches. Physics education literature indicates that using multiple representations is beneficial for student understanding of physics ideas and for problem solving. To find out why and how students use different representations for problem solving, we conducted a case study of six students during the second semester of a two-semester introductory physics course. These students varied both in their use of representations and in their physics background. This case study helps us understand how students' use or lack of use of representations relates to their ability to solve problems.

Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, Alan; Etkina, Eugenia

2009-07-13

360

SciTech Connect

Drilling surface hole offshore is one aspect of drilling practice that should command greater planning and design. Surface hole could be crucial if the well is in an area with a chance of shallow gas, or if it is required to run a 30-in. pin corrector and a long string of riser back to surface. The problem grows more critical with deeper water and a longer riser which in turn gives a longer column of drilling fluid. Consequently, the hydrostatic pressure is much higher at the 30-in. casing shoe. Higher pressure increases the chance of exceeding the fracture gradient and may result in the loss of returns around the 30-in. shoe. This article describes a simple practice which can eliminate some surface hole problems. A control-drilling equation sets the maximum drilling rate (MDR) based on maximum permitted pressures at the casing shoe. Eliminating lost circulation will ultimately save rig downtime due to retrieving the conductor pipe and base plate, relocating the rig, and respudding the hole after suffering losses. This technique also has been successful while drilling out below drive pipe on jack ups and platform wells. Control drilling is most effectively used on these types of wells because only a friction seal (instead of cement coverage) exists around the bottom of the drive pipe.

Jean, T.W.

1986-08-01

361

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is proposed that humans in automated systems will be asked to assume the role of troubleshooter or problem solver and that the problems which they will be asked to solve in such systems will not be amenable to rote solution. The design of visual displays for problem solving in such situations is considered, and the results of two experimental investigations of human problem solving performance in the diagnosis of faults in graphically displayed network problems are discussed. The effects of problem size, forced-pacing, computer aiding, and training are considered. Results indicate that human performance deviates from optimality as problem size increases. Forced-pacing appears to cause the human to adopt fairly brute force strategies, as compared to those adopted in self-paced situations. Computer aiding substantially lessens the number of mistaken diagnoses by performing the bookkeeping portions of the task.

Rouse, W. B.

1978-01-01

362

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two equally skilled groups of students taking introductory mechanics solve related physics problem pairs in reverse order with respect to each other, using the web-based Socratic tutor, MasteringPhysics. In tutorial problems containing help in the form of requestable hints, descriptive text, and feedback, twice as many students were able to complete problems correctly in real-time compared to problems that did not provide any help (end-of-chapter problems). The prepared group in a given related pair was able to solve it in ~15% less time on average compared to the unprepared group. Furthermore, the prepared group requests ~7% fewer hints on average than the unprepared group. We conclude that shorter completion times and problem-solving transfer are facilitated through tutorial problems.

Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

2009-11-30

363

E-print Network

Assuming a cloning oracle, satisfiability, which is an NP complete problem, is shown to belong to $BPP^C$ and $BQP^C$ (depending on the ability of the oracle C to clone either a binary random variable or a qubit). The same result is extended in the case of an approximate cloning oracle, thus establishing that $NP \\subseteq BPP^C \\subseteq BQP^C$ and $NP \\subseteq BPP^{AC} \\subseteq BQP^{AC}$, where C and AC are the exact and approximate cloning oracles, respectively. Although exact cloning is impossible in quantum systems, approximate cloning remains a possibility. However, the best known methods for approximate cloning (based on unitary evolution) do not currently achieve the desired precision levels. And it remains an open question whether they could be improved when non-linear (or non-unitary) operators are used. Finally, a straightforward attempt to dispense with cloning, replacing it by unitary evolution, is proved to be impossible.

John A. Drakopoulos; Theodore N. Tomaras

2001-12-21

364

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analysed the different types of arithmetic knowledge that young children utilise when solving a multiple-step addition task. The focus of the research was on the procedural and conceptual changes that occur as children develop their overall problem solving approach. Combining qualitative case study with a micro-genetic approach,…

Voutsina, Chronoula

2012-01-01

365

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SProblem solving has a long and successful history in mathematics education and is valued by many teachers as a way to engage and facilitate learning within their classrooms. The potential benefit for using problem solving in the development of algebraic thinking is that "it may broaden and develop students' mathematical thinking beyond the…

Windsor, Will

2011-01-01

366

Microsoft Academic Search

Using effective teaching practices is a high priority for educators. One important pedagogical skill for computer science instructors is asking effective questions. This paper presents a set of instructional principles for effective question asking during guided problem solving. We illustrate these principles with results from classifying the questions that untrained human tutors asked while working with students solving an introductory

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer; William Lahti; Robert Phillips; Michael D. Wallis; Mladen A. Vouk; James C. Lester

2010-01-01

367

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to explore student multiple representation skills and creativity in solving mathematical problems when supported by a multimedia whiteboard system. The subjects were 6th grade primary school students that were tested and selected as excellent students in mathematics. Twenty-one numerical and geometry problems were given to the students in the experiment. The learning activities including

Wu-yuin Hwang; Nian-shing Chen; Jian-jie Dung; Yi-lun Yang

2007-01-01

368

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to explore student multiple representation skills and creativity in solving mathematical problems when supported by a multimedia whiteboard system. The subjects were 6th grade primary school students that were tested and selected as excellent students in mathematics. Twenty-one numerical and geometry problems were given to…

Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Nian-Shing; Dung, Jian-Jie; Yang, Yi-Lun

2007-01-01

369

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how optimal control problems can be solved with a spreadsheet, such as Microsoft Excel. Suggests the method can be used by students, teachers, and researchers as a tool to find numerical solutions for optimal control problems. Provides several examples that range from simple to advanced. (JEH)

Naevdal, Eric

2003-01-01

370

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers domain-specific design specifications in the process of designing teaching materials for learning problem solving in technology education in order to raise learning outcomes with these materials. Focuses on a construction problem (open-ended) and an explanation problem (constrained). Compares these newly-designed teaching materials with…

Doornekamp, B. G.

2001-01-01

371

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an important class of cutting stock problems not previously discussed in the literature. The problem is one of determining the patterns to be used in a two-stage cutting process with restrictions imposed on the locations of cuts in the first stage. A particularly difficult version of this problem from the plastic film industry is presented and solved.

Robert W Haessler

1979-01-01

372

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed child behavior problems and parent-child communication behaviors during problem solving in three groups of families with adolescents: foster families, birthfamilies with a child at risk for behavior problems, and birthfamilies with a child not at risk. Found that levels of positive and negative communication behaviors in foster families…

Vuchinich, Sam; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Pratt, Clara C.; Kneedler, Blythe

2002-01-01

373

E-print Network

Solving the Course Timetabling Problem with a Hybrid Heuristic Algorithm Zhipeng Lďż˝u1,2 and Jin zhipeng.lui@gmai.com, hao@info.univ-angers.fr Abstract. The problem of curriculum-based course timetabling known results on two problem formulations. Keywords: Timetabling, hybrid heuristic, tabu search

Hao, Jin-Kao

374

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The success of human safety requires the ability of police officers in problem solving within continuing professional development to be considered. Aim of the study: To analyze problem based teaching and learning in tertiary education within continuing professional development. Materials and methods: The search for problem based…

Zascerinska, Jelena; Zascerinskis, Mihails

2011-01-01

375

Microsoft Academic Search

Imitation poses a unique problem: how does the imi- tator know what pattern of motor activation will make their action look like that of the model? Specialist theories suggest that this correspondence problem has a unique solution; there are functional and neurological mechanisms dedicated to controlling imitation. General- ist theories propose that the problem is solved by general mechanisms of

Marcel Brass; Cecilia Heyes

2005-01-01

376

E-print Network

Computer Sciences Department Solving Large Steiner Triple Covering Problems Jim Ostrowski Jeff of the system is the size of its smallest covering. The problem of computing the incidence width of a Steiner Triple System is known as Steiner Triple Covering Problem. Fulkerson, Nemhauser, and Trotter [4

Linderoth, Jeffrey T.

377

E-print Network

Solving Rectilinear Steiner Tree Problems Exactly in Theory and Practice Ulrich FÂ¨oĂ?meier Michael foessmei / mk g @informatik.uniÂ­tuebingen.de Abstract. The rectilinear Steiner tree problem asks time algorithms, this is an enormous step. 1 Introduction The Steiner tree problem is one of the most

Kaufmann, Michael

378

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the first year of research on a system for automatically generating hierarchical plans containing parallel (concurrent) actions. This is a general planning and problem-solving system that is not tied to a particular domain. Results ...

D. E. Wilkins

1980-01-01

379

E-print Network

The Mutual Exclusion Problem Has Been Solved Leslie Lamport Digital Equipment Corporation 14 Language. Random House, New York, second edition, 1987. 2 #12; [5] Leslie Lamport. A new solution] Leslie Lamport. The mutual exclusion prob

Rajamani, Sriram K.

380

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distributed computing in intelligent systems is investigated from a different perspective. From the viewpoint that problem solving can be viewed as intelligent knowledge retrieval, the use of distributed knowledge sources in intelligent systems is proposed.

Chen, Zhengxin

1987-01-01

381

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method developed at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine for teaching modification of cavity design to large numbers of preclinical students in operative dentistry is reported. It standardizes the learning process for this complex problem-solving skill. (MLW)

Silvestri, Anthony R., Jr.; Cohen, Steven N.

1981-01-01

382

E-print Network

the proposal of a theory. Animals continually solve problems that are posed to them by events. We, the humans and by their 1 Invited Lecture, Academia Europaea Conference on "Use and Abuse of Bibliometrics", Stockholm, May

Longo, Giuseppe

383

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson plan, students learn how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, then apply what they’ve learned in activities that are based on real-world scenarios.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-10-25

384

E-print Network

A structured approach to planning and debugging is obtained by using an Augmented Transition Network (ATN) to model the problem solving process. This proves to be a perspicuous representation for planning concepts including ...

Miller, Mark L.

1976-06-08

385

E-print Network

This paper describes GEL, a new geometry theorem prover. GEL is the result of an attempt to transfer the problem solving abilities of the EL electronic circuit analysis program of Sussman and Stallman to the domain of ...

Doyle, Jon

386

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a method to solve the Rubik's cube problem that has the advantage of being systematic and of relying on a small set of basic transformations. It was developed independently of any other studies.

Serge Abiteboul; Gerard Medioni

1981-01-01

387

E-print Network

subspaces of the original infinite-dimensional space and solve the corresponding ... a continuous time setting lead to infinite-dimensional problems. † The first author is a ... In this work, we consider a different method of resolution that does not ...

2010-03-31

388

E-print Network

A new algorithm is introduced for effectively solving the airline schedule transition problem, which involves efficiently re-routing aircraft in order to balance the number and the types of aircraft at each station at the ...

Fujiwara, Tsuneo

1988-01-01

389

SciTech Connect

Alabama Power's E.C. Gaston generating plant, a 1904-MW facility located 40 miles south of Birmingham, consists of four 250-MW units, one 884-MW unit, and a 20-MW combustion turbine. Over the years the utility has experienced recurring failure of turbine drain valves on Gaston Unit 5. Unit 5 uses a Combustion Engineering supercritical steam generator rated at 6,351,470 lb/hr main steam flow to deliver steam to a General Electric tandem-compound reheat turbine with a rated capacity of 884 MW at 3500 psig and 1000 F. Main steam enters the turbine through four combined stop and control valves mounted independent of the turbine shell. This paper reports that each stop and control valve is equipped with two before-seat drain valves. One of the drain valves is motor-operated to facilitate remote operation: the other is a manual valve. In an effort to improve drain systems and reduce costs, alternatives to the problem-ridden Y-pattern glove valves were investigated. One such alternative was the Mogas severe-service metal-seated ball valve.

McDaniel, P. (Alabama Power Co., Birmingham, AL (United States))

1992-01-01

390

PubMed

Simulating quantum circuits using classical computers lets us analyse the inner workings of quantum algorithms. The most complete type of simulation, strong simulation, is believed to be generally inefficient. Nevertheless, several efficient strong simulation techniques are known for restricted families of quantum circuits and we develop an additional technique in this article. Further, we show that strong simulation algorithms perform another fundamental task: solving search problems. Efficient strong simulation techniques allow solutions to a class of search problems to be counted and found efficiently. This enhances the utility of strong simulation methods, known or yet to be discovered, and extends the class of search problems known to be efficiently simulable. Relating strong simulation to search problems also bounds the computational power of efficiently strongly simulable circuits; if they could solve all problems in P this would imply that all problems in NP and #P could be solved in polynomial time. PMID:23390585

Johnson, T H; Biamonte, J D; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D

2013-01-01

391

E-print Network

DOC TA24S.7 873 0.1264 --","--- Measure Your Sew-How Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System . Daniel C . Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas "'164 [Blank Page... in Original Bulletin] ~. 'I \\ ! fri SOLVING COMMON SEWING MACHINE PROBLEMS Beverly Rhoades* Machine Parts ? Former Extension clothing specialist, The Texas A&M University System. Sewing can be a relaxing, creative and money-saving talent when...

Rhoades, Beverly

1981-01-01

392

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Excel is an effective and inexpensive tool available on all computers equipped with Microsoft Office. This software has the necessary functions for solving a large class of engineering problems, including those related to heat transfer. This paper provides several examples to demonstrate the application of Excel in solving problems involving one-dimensional heat conduction in various fin configurations. It provides formulas for the temperature distribution and heat transfer for several different fin profiles.

Karimi, Amir

2011-04-04

393

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this work is to solve mathematical program with complementarity constraints (MPCC) using nonlinear programming techniques (NLP). An hyperbolic penalty function is used to solve MPCC problems by including the complementarity constraints in the penalty term. This penalty function [1] is twice continuously differentiable and combines features of both exterior and interior penalty methods. A set of AMPL problems from MacMPEC [2] are tested and a comparative study is performed.

Melo, Teófilo; Monteiro, M. Teresa T.; Matias, Joa~O.

2011-09-01

394

SciTech Connect

Genetic algorithms are based on the mechanics of the natural selection and natural genetics processes. These algorithms are finding increasing application to a wide variety of engineering optimization and machine learning problems. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the use of a genetic algorithm to solve fluid flow problems. Specifically, the authors use the algorithm to solve the one-dimensional flow equations for a pipe.

Pryor, R.J. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-06-01

395

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the effects of an intervention designed to develop the mathematical word problem solving of low?achievers. The eight students participating in the intervention were selected from 429 10?year?olds on the basis of their difficulties in word problem solving. In the intervention, we combined intensive, systematic, and explicit teacher scaffolding in the cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational activities involved in skillful

Anu Kajamies; Marja Vauras; Riitta Kinnunen

2010-01-01

396

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solving the unconstrained optimization problems is not easy and DFP update method is one of the methods that we can work with to solve the problems. In unconstrained optimization, the time computing needed by the method's algorithm to solve the problems is very vital and because of that, we proposed a hybrid search direction for DFP update method in order to reduce the computation time needed for solving unconstrained optimization problems. Some convergence analysis and numerical results of the hybrid search direction were analyzed and the results showed that the proposed hybrid search direction strictly reduce the computation time needed by DFP update method and at the same time increase the method's efficiency which is sometimes fail for some complicated unconstrained optimization problems.

Sofi, A. Z. M.; Mamat, M.; Ibrahim, M. A. H.

2013-04-01

397

PubMed

High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751

Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M

2013-01-01

398

PubMed Central

Classroom response systems, or clickers, have become pedagogical staples of the undergraduate science curriculum at many universities. In this study, the effectiveness of clickers in promoting problem-solving skills in a genetics class was investigated. Students were presented with problems requiring application of concepts covered in lecture and were polled for the correct answer. A histogram of class responses was displayed, and students were encouraged to discuss the problem, which enabled them to better understand the correct answer. Students were then presented with a similar problem and were again polled. My results indicate that those students who were initially unable to solve the problem were then able to figure out how to solve similar types of problems through a combination of trial and error and class discussion. This was reflected in student performance on exams, where there was a statistically significant positive correlation between grades and the percentage of clicker questions answered. Interestingly, there was no clear correlation between exam grades and the percentage of clicker questions answered correctly. These results suggest that students who attempt to solve problems in class are better equipped to solve problems on exams. PMID:22135374

Levesque, Aime A.

2011-01-01

399

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider nonwandering dynamics near heteroclinic cycles between two hyperbolic equilibria. The constituting heteroclinic connections are assumed to be such that one of them is transverse and isolated. Such heteroclinic cycles are associated with the termination of a branch of homoclinic solutions, and called T-points in this context. We study codimension-two T-points and their unfoldings in Rn. In our consideration we distinguish between cases with real and complex leading eigenvalues of the equilibria. In doing so we establish Lin's method as a unified approach to (re)gain and extend results of Bykov's seminal studies and related works. To a large extent our approach reduces the study to the discussion of intersections of lines and spirals in the plane. Case (RR): Under open conditions on the eigenvalues, there exist open sets in parameter space for which there exist periodic orbits close to the heteroclinic cycle. In addition, there exist two one-parameter families of homoclinic orbits to each of the saddle points p1 and p2.See Theorem 2.1 and Proposition 2.2 for precise statements and Fig. 2 for bifurcation diagrams. Cases (RC) and (CC): At the bifurcation point ?=0 and for each N?2, there exists an invariant set S0N close to the heteroclinic cycle on which the first return map is topologically conjugated to a full shift on N symbols. For any fixed N?2, the invariant set S?N persists for |?| sufficiently small.In addition, there exist infinitely many transversal and non-transversal heteroclinic orbits connecting the saddle points p1 and p2 in a neighbourhood of ?=0, as well as infinitely many one-parameter families of homoclinic orbits to each of the saddle points.For full statements of the results see Theorem 2.3 and Propositions 2.4, 2.5 and Fig. 3 for bifurcation diagrams. The dynamics near T-points has been studied previously by Bykov [6-10], Glendinning and Sparrow [20], Kokubu [27,28] and Labouriau and Rodrigues [30,31,38]. See also the surveys by Homburg and Sandstede [24], Shilnikov et al. [43] and Fiedler [18]. The occurrence of T-points in local bifurcations has been discussed by Barrientos et al. [4], and by Lamb et al. [32] in the context of reversible systems. All these studies consider dynamics in R3 using a geometric return map approach, and their results reflect the description of types of nonwandering dynamics described above.Further related studies concerning T-points can be found in [34] and [37], where inclination flips were considered in this context. In [5], numerical studies of T-points are performed using kneading invariants.The main aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive study of dynamics near T-points, including detailed proofs of all results, employing a unified functional-analytic approach, without making any assumption on the dimension of the phase space. In the process, we recover and generalise to higher dimensional settings all previously reported results for T-points in R3. In addition, we reveal the existence of richer dynamics in the (RC) and (CC) cases. A detailed discussion of our results is contained in Section 2.The functional analytic approach we follow is commonly referred to as Lin's method, after the seminal paper by Lin [33], and employs a reduction on an appropriate Banach space of piecewise continuous functions approximating the initial heteroclinic cycle to yield bifurcation equations whose solutions represent orbits of the nonwandering set. The development of such an approach is typical for the school of Hale, and is in contrast to the analysis contained in previous T-point studies, which relies on the construction of a first return map. Our choice of analytical framework is motivated by the fact that Lin's method provides a unified approach to study global bifurcations in arbitrary dimension, and has been shown to extend to a larger class of settings, such as delay and advance-delay equations [19,33].

Knobloch, Jürgen; Lamb, Jeroen S. W.; Webster, Kevin N.

2014-10-01

400

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, numerical methods are considered in solving the fuzzy boundary value problem (FBVP). This boundary value problem will then be discretized to derive second order finite difference equation and hence generated fuzzy linear system. The approximation solver towards system of linear equations is described through the implementation of the Gauss-Seidel (GS) and Successive Over Relaxation (SOR) iterative methods. Then several numerical experiments were shown to illustrate the effectiveness of SOR iterative method compared with the GS method.

Dahalan, A. A.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Sulaiman, J.

2013-04-01

401

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics studentsâ problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that solutions can be triggered by particular details of the representation. Previous studies are complemented with a fine grained analysis of solution strategies. We find that students use different problem-solving strategies, depending on the representational format in which the problem is stated.

De Cock, Mieke

2014-01-31

402

PubMed Central

We study the performance of stochastic local search algorithms for random instances of the K-satisfiability (K-SAT) problem. We present a stochastic local search algorithm, ChainSAT, which moves in the energy landscape of a problem instance by never going upwards in energy. ChainSAT is a focused algorithm in the sense that it focuses on variables occurring in unsatisfied clauses. We show by extensive numerical investigations that ChainSAT and other focused algorithms solve large K-SAT instances almost surely in linear time, up to high clause-to-variable ratios ?; for example, for K = 4 we observe linear-time performance well beyond the recently postulated clustering and condensation transitions in the solution space. The performance of ChainSAT is a surprise given that by design the algorithm gets trapped into the first local energy minimum it encounters, yet no such minima are encountered. We also study the geometry of the solution space as accessed by stochastic local search algorithms. PMID:18832149

Alava, Mikko; Ardelius, John; Aurell, Erik; Kaski, Petteri; Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Orponen, Pekka; Seitz, Sakari

2008-01-01

403

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new, spectrally accurate method for solving matrix-valued Riemann–Hilbert problems numerically. The effectiveness\\u000a of this approach is demonstrated by computing solutions to the homogeneous Painlevé II equation. This can be used to relate\\u000a initial conditions with asymptotic behavior.

Sheehan Olver

2011-01-01

404

E-print Network

Differential game theory provides a potential means for the parametric analysis of combat engagement scenarios. To determine its viability for this type of analysis, three frameworks for solving differential game problems ...

Johnson, Philip A. (Philip Arthur)

2009-01-01

405

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, which is a part of a research project about realistic word problem solving and problem posing in Chinese\\u000a elementary schools, a problem solving and a problem posing test were administered to 128 pre-service and in-service elementary\\u000a school teachers from Tianjin City in China, wherein the teachers were asked to solve 3 contextually challenging division-with-remainder\\u000a (DWR) word

Limin Chen; Wim Van Dooren; Qi Chen; Lieven Verschaffel

2011-01-01

406

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student problem-solving ability appears to be tied to the representational format of the problem (math, pictorial, graphical, verbal). In a study of a 367-student algebra-based physics class, we examine student problem solving ability on homework problems given in four different representational formats, with problems as close to isomorphic as possible. In addition, we examine students' capacity for assessing their own representational competence by giving follow-up quizzes in which the students can choose between various problem formats. We report student performance and consider factors that may influence their ability or choices. As a control, part of the class was assigned a random-format follow-up quiz where students received quiz formats at random. We find that there are statistically significant performance differences between isomorphic problems. We also find that allowing students to choose which representational format they use improves student performance under some circumstances and degrades it in others.

Kohl, Patrick B.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2010-01-18

407

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals the difficulties of teaching problem solving in an introductory level computer science course where the majority of students are not computer science majors. An approach is suggested using top-down design techniques. The specific pseudo language, problem definition form, and design procedure taught in this course are described.

David D. Riley

1981-01-01

408

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creative problem-solving has been linked to successful adjustment to the demands of daily life. The ability to recognize problems as opportunities can be an essential skill when dealing with uncertainty and adapting to continuous changes, both in personal and professional lives. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals should strive to…

Marcketti, Sara B.; Karpova, Elena; Barker, Jessica

2009-01-01

409

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for solving genetics problems when problem statements include information on which alleles are dominant/recessive and on what forms of a trait are coded for by the alleles. Includes procedural steps employed in a solution and conceptual knowledge of genetics/meiosis allowing students to justify what they have done. (Author/JN)

Stewart, James

1982-01-01

410

Microsoft Academic Search

The small sample size problem is often encountered in pattern recognition. It results in the singularity of the within-class scatter matrix Sw in Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Different methods have been proposed to solve this problem in face recognition literature. Some methods reduce the dimension of the original sample space and hence unavoidably remove the null space of Sw, which

Rui Huang; Qingshan Liu; Hanqing Lu; Songde Ma

2002-01-01

411

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For an advanced manufacturing system to function efficiently, all workers must know how to identify problems within their departments and develop solutions for them. Today's employers expect technicians entering the workplace to possess "soft skills." These include the ability to analyze a problem logically and formulate a solution, but also the ability to work in teams and to effectively communicate with others.This lesson uses real-world scenarios to encourage critical thinking and improve problem-solving skills. The lesson begins with an invitation to explore the many different areas and career paths within advanced manufacturing. Following a brief small-group discussion on how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, students review a handout that lays out some guidelines for how to approach problem solving. Students watch a video about a manufacturing supervisor, and then begin to relate problem solving to other workplace scenarios. Then, through two short activities, they have a chance to demonstrate their ability to think critically. An optional extension activity has students apply what they've learned by researching an industry of their choice and assessing the problems that are likely to come up. Students prepare a report that includes their analysis of the problems, probable causes, and a possible solution to one of them. They then present their report to the rest of the class.

2012-05-24

412

E-print Network

Interactively solving school timetabling problems using extensions of constraint programming Cedex 3, France 2 ISoft Chemin de Moulon 91190 Gif sur Yvette Abstract. Timetabling problems have been. This paper deals with a timetabling system based on constraint programming with the use of explanations

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de

413

E-print Network

Solving LEGO brick layout problem using Evolutionary Algorithms1 QhryĂ?QrvĂľ Evolutionary Computation and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway, pavel.petrovic@idi.ntnu.no Abstract. LEGOÂ® presented the following problem at the SCAI'01 conference in February 2001: Given any 3D body, how can it be built from LEGO

Petrovic, Pavel

414

E-print Network

Solving the GPS problem in almost linear complexity Shamgar Gurevich University of Wisconsin. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was built to fulfill this task. It works as follows: Satellites send white noise. The GPS Problem is: Design S, and an effective method of extracting (b, 0) from S and R

Weinberger, Hans

415

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an ongoing effort to better understand student problem-solving processes to open- ended problems, we have coded 14 mechanical engineering projects (representing about 60 journals) according to abstraction level, design activity, planning, and reporting. We also developed quantitative outcome measures that are reported in a separate submission to this conference. We then developed a computer model of the

Durward K. Sobek II; Vikas K. Jain

2004-01-01

416

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a brief presentation of Harold Lasswell's model of the social process, the authors discuss problems of policy formation and meaning determination, describe the "decision seminar" proposed by Lasswell as a technique for facilitating collective problem-solving, and provide illustrations of the seminar's successful application to specific…

Muth, Rodney; Bolland, John M.

1983-01-01

417

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an approach that uses comparable corpora as tools for solving translation problems. First, we present several case studies for practical translation problems and their solutions using large comparable corpora for English and Russian. Then we generalise the results of these studies by outlining a practical methodology, which has been tested in the course of translation training. 1.

Serge Sharoff

418

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in problem-solving ability among organic chemistry graduate students and faculty were studied within the domain of problems that involved the determination of the structure of a molecule from the molecular formula of the compound and a combination of IR and [to the first power]H NMR spectra. The participants' performance on these tasks…

Cartrette, David P.; Bodner, George M.

2010-01-01

419

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of classroom learning, strategic transfer can be viewed as a tool for academic problem solving. Strategic transfer is defined as the spontaneous access and retrieval (remembering) of previously learned formal procedures for the successful solution of a problem. The transfer-appropriate processing encoding model (Morris, Bransford, and Franks, 1977), and the transfer-appropriate procedures retrieval model (Roediger, Weldon, and

Gary D. Phye

1992-01-01

420

E-print Network

. SCIRun allows a scientist or engineer to interactively steer a computation, changing parameters, a scientist or engineer can rapidly investigate the solution space for iterative computational design problemsTHE SCIRUN PROBLEM SOLVING ENVIRONMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL STEERING SOFTWARE SYSTEM by Steven Gregory

Parker, Steven G.

421

E-print Network

Aspartame: Solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Answer Set Programming M. Banbara1 , M experimentation with different implementations. The resulting system aspartame re-uses parts of sugar for parsing contrasting aspartame and sugar. 1 Introduction Encoding finite linear Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs

Schaub, Torsten

422

E-print Network

84 #12;Chapter 6 Diffusion: Diffusive initial value problems and how to solve them Selected Reading of the simplest partial dif- ferential equations for diffusive initial value problems in the absence of advection be written T t = Â· T (6.0.1) where T is the temperature and = k/(cP ) is the thermal diffusivity (which has

Spiegelman, Marc W.

423

E-print Network

Help your child to health: problem-solving without recourse to drugs or treatment \$99 Does your child have problems learning? Is your child able to follow through tasks? Could your child be suffering, health, and learning Â­ and shows you how to help your child to achieve balanced activity in each without

Qiu, Weigang

424

PubMed

When confronted with a real-world problem, heuristic knowledge and experience can guide the solution of a specific technical problem as the key step toward innovation. In particular, a heuristic prototype must be used correctly to cue the technical problem that exists in a particular situation. The present study selected an innovative paradigm and scientific innovation materials to investigate the neural basis of insight induced by heuristic prototypes using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The day prior to undergoing fMRI scanning, participants were asked to solve 42 difficult technical problems that scientists might have already encountered but were unknown to the participants. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, the same participants were randomly presented with 84 prototypes classified into two types: related prototypes (RPs), which were useful for solving previously encountered problems, and unrelated prototypes (UPs), which sometimes did not contribute to problem solving. While being scanned, participants were asked to assess whether a prototype is relevant to any of the technical problems. This study comprised two conditions: solving technical problems when presented with a related heuristic prototype and failing to solve technical problems using unrelated heuristic prototypes. The authors assumed that the regions significantly activated by the RP condition, compared with the UP condition, reflected brain activity related to the role of heuristic prototypes in scientific insight. fMRI data showed that the left dorsolateral prefrontal gyrus (left DLFPC, BA9) and the left angular gyrus (left AG, BA39) were more significantly activated when presented with RPs than with UPs. The results suggest that the DLPFC may be involved in the automatic retrieval of technical problems and breaking of mental sets. Moreover, the left AG may be involved in forming novel associations between technical problems and related prototypes. PMID:23860118

Dandan, Tong; Haixue, Zhu; Wenfu, Li; Wenjing, Yang; Jiang, Qiu; Qinglin, Zhang

2013-09-15

425

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem-based learning has been widely used in teaching introductory/general physics courses for a long time. The role of problem-solving sessions in the learning process is absolutely critical: they give the students an opportunity to learn how to apply both newly and previously acquired knowledge to practical situations, how to put together different strategies and portions of material, and much more. Unfortunately, the traditional format used for the problem solving sessions is not very accommodative for the goal: large class sizes and limited time often force instructors to spend most of the time solving sample problems in front of the class, which leaves the students with the role of passive observers. In this work, we will discuss how one can involve the students in the process of active learning using collaborative strategies and principles of cognitive apprenticeship.

Shakov, Jerry; McGuire, Jim

2007-04-01

426

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares the stability, accuracy, and computational cost of several numerical methods for solving the kinematic wave equation. The numerical methods include the second-order MacCormack finite difference scheme, the MacCormack scheme with a dissipative interface, the second-order MUSCL finite volume scheme, and the fifth-order WENO finite volume scheme. These numerical schemes are tested against several synthetic cases and an overland flow experiment, which include shock wave, rarefaction wave, wave steepening, uniform/non-uniform rainfall generated overland flows, and flow over a channel of varying bed slope. The results show that the MacCormack scheme is not a Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) scheme because oscillatory solutions occurred at the presence of shock wave, rarefaction wave, and overland flow over rapidly varying bed slopes. The MacCormack scheme with a dissipative interface is free of oscillation but with considerable diffusions. The Godunov-type schemes are accurate and stable when dealing with discontinuous waves. Furthermore the Godunov-type schemes, like MUSCL and WENO scheme, are needed for simulating surface flow from spatially non-uniformly distributed rainfalls over irregular terrains using moderate computing resources on current personal computers.

Yu, Chunshui; Duan, Jennifer G.

2014-11-01

427

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates one way humans cope with change--problem-solving. It concentrates on the human abilities important to efficient problem-solving and the processes involved in problem-solving. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop three group administration tasks that measure problem-solving processes; (2) to evaluate the…

Speedie, Stuart M.; And Others

428

PubMed Central

This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving. PMID:12102132

Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

2002-01-01

429

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving and product design experiences can empower students by presenting unique learning opportunities. Although the problem solving method may have been important to technology education, as well as industrial arts, as far back as the 1920s (Foster, 1994), the movement to incorporate more problem solving and product design in technology education kept surfacing in the 1990s. For example, the Commonwealth of Virginia introduced a series of high school technology courses grouped together as Design and Technology (Virginia Department of Education, 1992); TIES Magazine's web site offered 70 video tapes "that will support the teaching of design, problem solving and technology" (Ties, 1998); the use of design briefs was emphasized (Ritz & Deal, 1992); the popularity of a textbook titled Design and Problem Solving in Technology (Hutchinson & Karsnitz, 1994) continued to grow; and smiling students and their technological inventions were featured in articles (Edwards, 1996), at fairs, and in promotional materials. In the newer approaches to technology education that center on design, students are often asked to design new products. They creatively invent products like: pizza cutters with built-in flashlights; roller skates that work in sand; hats with built-in fans for cooling; and yet another way to store compact discs. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Flowers, Jim

2009-10-26

430

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this work we describe three sequential algorithms and their parallel counterparts for solving nonlinear systems, when the\\u000a Jacobian matrix is symmetric and positive definite. This case appears frequently in unconstrained optimization problems. Two\\u000a of the three algorithms are based on Newton’s method. The first solves the inner iteration with Cholesky decomposition while\\u000a the second is based on the inexact

Jesús Peinado; Antonio M. Vidal

2004-01-01

431

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an Adaptive Immune Genetic Algorithm (AIGA) solution to solve the Unit Commitment (UC) problem. The unit commitment problem formulation takes into consideration the minimum up and down time constraints, start up cost and spinning reserve, which is defined as the minimization of the total objective function while satisfying all the associated constraints. Mathematical formulation, illustration and production results for a 10 generator-scheduling problem are presented. Finally, numerical results of systems are established the effectiveness of purpose technique.

Oonsivilai, Anant; Marungsri, Boonruang

2008-10-01

432

Microsoft Academic Search

When 15- to 16-year-old subjects were presented with five different problem situations as a writing task, a clear relationship between success on the problems and scores on a test of general intelligence was found among the 32 boys. Among the 41 girls fewer solutions were found, and IQ was not seen to be closely related to problem-solving behavior. Lack of

Kjell Raaheim; Geir Kaufmann

1974-01-01

433

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of an investigation of the possibilities offered by geneticalgorithms to solve the timetable problem. This problem has been chosen since it is representative ofthe class of multi-constrained, NP-hard, combinatorial optimization problems with real-worldapplication. First we present our model, including the definition of a hierarchical structure for theobjective function and the generalized genetic operators

Alberto Colorni; Marco Dorigo; Vittorio Maniezzo

1993-01-01

434

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an integrator consisting of three types of linear multistep methods: classical Cowell pairs, P-stable methods, and adaptive Cowell methods. P-stable and adaptive Cowell methods have been constructed in order to eliminate the numerical instability of the classical Cowell methods. This has been achieved in the first case, by selecting the constant coefficients

M. Palacios; J. M. Franco

1990-01-01

435

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential expressions and multi-dimensional integrations, and the Gauss and Ampčre laws learnt in electromagnetism courses. To enhance those skills in a quick and efficient way we have developed 'Integrating Mathematics in University Physics', in which students are provided with a selection of problems (exercises) that explicitly deal with the relation between physics and mathematics. The project is based on computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and available via the Internet (http://tnweb.tn.utwente.nl/onderwijs/; or http://www.utwente.nl/; search or click to: CONECT). Normally, in CAI a predefined student-guiding sequence for problem solving is used (systematic problem solving). For self-learning this approach was found to be far too rigid. Therefore, we developed the 'adventurous problem solving' (APS) method. In this new approach, the student has to find the solution by developing his own problem-solving strategy in an interactive way. The assessment of mathematical answers to physical questions is performed using a background link with an algebraic symbolic language interpreter. This manuscript concentrates on the subject of APS.

DeMul, Frits F. M.; Batlle, Cristina Martin i.; DeBruijn, Imme; Rinzema, Kees

2004-01-01

436

PubMed Central

This study investigated individual differences in older adults' everyday problem-solving performance using 3 instruments. Past research, typically using only single measures, has yielded a multitude of findings regarding age effects in everyday problem solving. The present sample consisted of 111 older adults (44 men, 67 women) who ranged in age from 68 to 94 years. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that, within each of the 3 instruments, subscales representing particular content domains could be reliably identified. There was, however, little relation between the different instruments, and the measures also differed in their relation with chronological age. These results support the view that everyday problem-solving competence is a multidimensional construct, of which previous investigations may only have studied particular dimensions. PMID:7662186

Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L.

2010-01-01

437

PubMed Central

The central thesis of this paper is the importance of the framework in which information is structured. It is technically important in the design of systems; it is also important in guaranteeing that systems are usable by clinicians. Progress in medical computing depends on our ability to develop a more quantitative understanding of the role of context in our choice of problem solving techniques. This in turn will help us to design more flexible and responsive computer systems. The paper contains an overview of some models of knowledge and problem solving methods, a characterization of modern diagnostic techniques, and a discussion of skill development in medical practice. Diagnostic techniques are examined in terms of how they are taught, what problem solving methods they use, and how they fit together into an overall theory of interpretation of the medical status of a patient.

Harbort, Robert A.

1980-01-01

438

E-print Network

good about, and tackle them! You'll do best if you engage your conscious brain fully on a single to read all the problems before tackling one, to allow your subconscious brain to mull over the whole set are tackling! Sometimes, the solution can come from an unexpected quarter. The point of Math 43900

Galvin, David

439

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose new hybrid methods for solving the multidimensional knapsack problem. They can be viewed as matheuristics that combine mathematical programming with the variable neighbourhood decomposition search heuristic. In each iteration a relaxation of the problem is solved to guide the generation of the neighbourhoods. Then the problem is enriched with a pseudo-cut to produce a sequence of not only lower, but also upper bounds of the problem, so that integrality gap is reduced. The results obtained on two sets of the large scale multidimensional knapsack problem instances are comparable with the current state-of-the-art heuristics. Moreover, a few best known results are reported for some large, long-studied instances.

Hanafi, Saďd; Lazi?, Jasmina; Mladenovi?, Nenad; Wilbaut, Christophe; Crévits, Igor

440

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an approach that formulates diagnosis of physical systems in operation as problem solving in a hypothesis space. Such a formulation increases robustness by: (1) incremental hypotheses construction via dynamic inputs, (2) reasoning at a higher level of abstraction to construct hypotheses, and (3) partitioning the space by grouping fault hypotheses according to the type of physical system representation and problem solving techniques used in their construction. It was implemented for a turbofan engine and hydraulic subsystem. Evaluation of the implementation on eight actual aircraft accident cases involving engine faults provided very promising results.

Abbott, Kathy H.

1988-01-01

441

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a hybrid finite difference\\/finite volume method and we apply it to solve an automotive electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problem. The principles of the hybrid method and the numerical schemes are described. Simple examples are used to compare this method with the finite difference and finite volume methods alone in terms of accuracy and computing speed. The

Xavier Ferrieres; Jean-Philippe Parmantier; Solange Bertuol; Alastair R. Ruddle

2004-01-01

442

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the concept and use of artificial intelligence techniques for solving problems in electrical power systems in the final year of an undergraduate programme in Electrical and Electronic Engineering. Nowadays, the analysis and design of power systems involve numerical computer modeling and simulations. Besides the classical techniques, which are conventionally used for analyzing power systems, artificial intelligence techniques

R. T. F. Ah King; Harry C. S. Rughooputh

2003-01-01

443

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive and numerically implement a fourth order Diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm for solving quantum many-body problems. The method uses a factorization of the imaginary time propagator in terms of the usual local energy and Langevin operators as well as an additional pseudo-potential consisting of the double commutator [EL, [L, EL

Harald Alexander Forbert

1999-01-01

444

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive and numerically implement a fourth order Diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm for solving quantum many-body problems. The method uses a factorization of the imaginary time propagator in terms of the usual local energy and Langevin operators as well as an additional pseudo-potential consisting of the double commutator [EL, [L, EL

Forbert, Harald Alexander

445

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument…

Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.

2007-01-01

446

E-print Network

A Grid-enabled Problem Solving Environment for Parallel Computational Engineering Design C and involves optimising the computational model for a lubricant based on the match between simulation results The use of numerical simulation as part of the engineering design process is now com- monplace. A major

Utah, University of

447

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a numerical method, the finite volume multiscale finite element method (FVMSFEM), for solving the groundwater flow problems in heterogeneous porous media spanning over many scales. This method is based on an efficient coupling between the finite volume discretization and the multiscale finite element base functions. It can efficiently capture the large-scale structure of the solution

Xinguang He; Li Ren

2005-01-01

448

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.

1988-01-01

449

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this research is to study the use of a numerical method which has been developed by this investigator to solve unsymmetric fluid flow problems which are formulated in terms of the primitive variables; i.e., pressure and velocity. The numerical solution of these equations presents several difficulties due to (a) coupling of nonlinear equations, (b) lack of

Jhy-hong J Lin

1989-01-01

450

PubMed Central

The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Scale (SPSI-R) has been shown to be a reliable and valid self-report measure of social problem-solving abilities. In busy medical and rehabilitation settings, a brief and efficient screening version with psychometric properties similar to the SPSI-R would have numerous benefits including decreased patient and caregiver assessment burden and administration/scoring time. Thus, the aim of the current study was to identify items from the SPSI-R that would provide for a more efficient assessment of global social problem-solving abilities. This study consisted of three independent samples: 121 persons in low-vision rehabilitation (M age = 71 years old, SD = 15.53), 301 persons living with diabetes mellitus (M age = 58, and SD = 14.85), and 131 family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities (M age = 56 years old, SD = 12.15). All persons completed a version of the SPSI-R, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Using Rasch scaling of the SPSI-R short-form, we identified a subset of 10 items that reflected the five-component model of social problem solving. The 10 items were separately validated on the sample of persons living with diabetes mellitus and the sample of family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities. Results indicate that the efficient 10-item version, analyzed separately for all three samples, demonstrated good reliability and validity characteristics similar to the established SPSI-R short form. The 10-item version of the SPSI-R represents a brief, effective way in which clinicians and researchers in busy health care settings can quickly assess global problem-solving abilities and identify those persons at-risk for complicated adjustment. Implications for the assessment of social problem-solving abilities are discussed. PMID:19267395

Dreer, Laura E.; Berry, Jack; Rivera, Patricia; Snow, Marsha; Elliott, Timothy R.; Miller, Doreen; Little, Todd D.

2009-01-01

451

SciTech Connect

The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.

Debardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sass, Ron [U NORTH CAROLINA; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel [ASU; Ligon, Ill, Walter [CLEMSON UNIV

2009-01-01

452

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the combine use of Wikispaces (Wikis) and Group Problem Solving (GPS) sessions conducted in the introductory level and upper level physics classes. This method gradually evolved from the combine use of Wikis and Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) practiced over the past years. As a part of this new teaching method, some essay type problems, parallel to the chapter in discussion, were posted on the Wikis at the beginning of each week and students were encouraged to visit the pages and do the work without providing numerical final answers but the steps. At the end of each week students were evaluated on the problem solving skills opening up more opportunity for peer interaction by putting them into small groups and letting them solve one selected problem. A class of 30 students is divided into 6 groups and as a whole four lengthy essay problems are discussed - each group is given to solve one problem. The problem numbers are drawn in a raffle and the groups are excited to find out what they get each week. The required skills to solve a problem are gained from the weekly given Wiki exercises. Wiki provides a user-friendly platform to make this effort a success. GPS sessions help the professor identify the failing students earlier and help them before it's too late.

Mohottala, Hashini

2013-03-01

453

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems can be subdivided into two main categories: well structured problems and ill structured problems. The first require routine repetitive decisions which are generally amenable to programmable decision processes. The second require novel nonprogrammable decision processes. The decision making processes can be subdivided into those representative of those done by humans and those done by machine. Many of such decision processes require a combination of humans d machines. Automated decision making and problem solving technologies are expected to have their greatest potential impact in the space program.

Heer, E.

1980-01-01

454

SciTech Connect

This paper will discuss the conventional wisdom that limits ones problem solving effectiveness and then explore new and unique knowledge and skills that help one break out of the old paradigms. One will discover how there is no such thing as a single right answer; how there is an infinite set of solutions to any problem; and how to find the most creative and innovative solutions such that the problem does not recur. One will see how these new methods can be used by almost anyone on any event-based problem. Several recent examples will be presented to support understanding of this new approach.

Gano, D.L. [Apollo Associated Services, Richland, WA (United States)

1996-11-01

455

PubMed Central

We present a new numerical technique to solve large-scale eigenvalue problems. It is based on the projection technique, used in strongly correlated quantum many-body systems, where first an effective approximate model of smaller complexity is constructed by projecting out high energy degrees of freedom and in turn solving the resulting model by some standard eigenvalue solver. Here we introduce a generalization of this idea, where both steps are performed numerically and which in contrast to the standard projection technique converges in principle to the exact eigenvalues. This approach is not just applicable to eigenvalue problems encountered in many-body systems but also in other areas of research that result in large-scale eigenvalue problems for matrices which have, roughly speaking, mostly a pronounced dominant diagonal part. We will present detailed studies of the approach guided by two many-body models. PMID:21969734

Gamillscheg, Ralf; Haase, Gundolf; von der Linden, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

456

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and the graphing calculator. The lesson starts with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Students then complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies that allows them to explore a linear pattern and express that pattern in symbolic form. Algebra tiles are introduced as the students practice solving linear equations. Working from the concrete to the abstract is especially important for students who have difficulty with mathematics, and algebra tiles help students make this transition. In addition to using algebra tiles, students also use symbolic manipulation and the graphing calculator. Finally, the students return to solve the yo-yo problem. A feature of this lesson is the effective use of peer tutors in this inclusion classroom. Student worksheets are included to print.

2007-12-12

457

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A supportive environment based on cooperative grouping was developed to foster students' learning of an effective problem-solving strategy. Experiments to adapt the technique of cooperative grouping to physics problem solving were carried out in two diverse settings: a large introductory course at state university, and a small modern physics class at a community college. Groups were more likely to use an effective problem-solving strategy when given context-rich problems to solve than when given standard textbook problems. Well-functioning cooperative groups were found to result from specific structural and management procedures governing group members' interactions. Group size, the gender and ability composition of groups, seating arrangement, role assignment, textbook use, and group as well as individual testing were all found to contribute to the problem-solving performance of cooperative groups.

Heller, Patricia; Hollabaugh, Mark

1992-07-01

458

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A supportive environment based on cooperative grouping was developed to foster students' learning of an effective problem-solving strategy. Experiments to adapt the technique of cooperative grouping to physics problem solving were carried out in two diverse settings: a large introductory course at a state university, and a small modern physics class at a community college. Groups were more likely to use an effective problem-solving strategy when given context-rich problems to solve than when given standard textbook problems. Well-functioning cooperative groups were found to result from specific structural and management procedures governing group members' interactions. Group size, the gender and ability composition of groups, seating arrangement, role assignment, textbook use, and group as well as individual testing were all found to contribute to the problem-solving performance of cooperative groups.

Heller, Patricia; Hollabaugh, Mark

2006-06-19

459

E-print Network

While humans may solve problems by applying any one of a number of different problem solving strategies, computerized problem solving is typically brittle, limited in the number of available strategies and ways of combining ...

Jacobi, Ian Campbell

2013-01-01

460

E-print Network

computer technology to solve economic, scientific, engineering, physics, and business problems modeling and computational methods, to formulate and solve practical problems in business, governmentApplied Mathematics programs1 teach individuals to use mathematical methods in solving problems

Lawrence, Rick L.

461

Microsoft Academic Search

This study—to our knowledge the first to model the dynamics of knowledge creation in an engineering problem solving context—addresses a gap in the literature by illustrating “engineering epistemology,” nurtured by “ba,” as a critical knowledge asset that facilitates superior problem resolution. Rich narratives generated by phenomenological interviews with US product engineers were interpreted using Nonaka and Takeuchi’s knowledge-creation model and

Rachel Itabashi-Campbell; Sheri Perelli; Julia Gluesing

2011-01-01

462

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, the multistage inspection problem has been formulated as consisting of a decision schedule where some manufacturing stages receive full inspection and the rest none. Dynamic programming and heuristic methods (like local search) are the most commonly used solution techniques. A highly constrained multistage inspection problem is presented where all stages must receive partial rectifying inspection and it is solved using a real-valued genetic algorithm. This solution technique can handle multiple objectives and quality constraints effectively.

Heredia-Langner, Alejandro (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Montgomery, D C.(Arizona State University) [Arizona State University; Carlyle, W M.(Naval Postgraduate School) [Naval Postgraduate School

2002-01-01

463

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a framework for solving minimum-cost flow problems. Our approach measures the quality of a solution by the amount that the complementary slackness conditions are violated. We show how to extend techniques developed for the maximum flow problem to improve the quality of a solution. This framework allows us to achieve &Ogr;(min(n3, n5\\/3 m2\\/3, nm log n) log (nC))

Andrew V. Goldberg; Robert Endre Tarjan

1987-01-01

464

Microsoft Academic Search

The job-shop scheduling problem is well known for its complexity as an NP-hard problem. We have considered JSSPs with an objective\\u000a of minimizing makespan while satisfying a number of hard constraints. In this paper, we developed a memetic algorithm (MA)\\u000a for solving JSSPs. Three priority rules were designed, namely partial re-ordering, gap reduction and restricted swapping,\\u000a and used as local

S. M. Kamrul Hasan; Ruhul A. Sarker; Daryl Essam; David Cornforth

2009-01-01

465

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A 4-6 week unit for use with college-bound high school students, combining the introduction of chemistry with a methodical method of problem solving and a review of the mathematics needed for high school chemistry. It includes the vocabulary used in describing the physical properties of matter, the metric system and decimals, a progression of problems dealing with the derived quantities of density and heat, and the calculation of percentage of error.

Stepan, Thelma

2007-04-10

466

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development session is from an Annenberg Learner course that explores the NCTM process standard of problem solving as a key means to introducing new material and building conceptual understanding in students grades 3-5. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, student responses and reflection opportunities. This session is eligible for graduate credit for a fee when taken in conjunction with the other Teaching Math sessions from this course.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

467

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development session is from an Annenberg Learner course that explores the NCTM process standard of problem solving as a key means to introducing new material and building conceptual understanding in students grades K-2. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, student responses and reflection opportunities. This session is eligible for graduate credit for a fee when taken in conjunction with the other Teaching Math sessions from this course.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

468

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cognitive functioning and a performance-based measure of everyday problem-solving, the Everyday Problems Test (EPT), thought to index instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), was examined in 291 community-dwelling non-demented older adults. Performance on the EPT was found to vary according to age, cognitive status, and education. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, after adjusting for demographic and health

Catherine L. Burton; Esther Strauss; David F. Hultsch; Michael A. Hunter

2006-01-01

469

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal metaphors can play an important role in making the task of programming serve problem-solving processes. Visual programming research hopes to capitalize on innate human perceptual skills to make the programming task easier by using visualization to simplify program construction at the syntactic level. Instead, we advocate that the role of visualizations, and the consequent use of spatial

Alexander Repenning; Tamara Sumner

1994-01-01

470

E-print Network

RANA 99Â­06 A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass B.J. van der Linden --- R, The Netherlands eÂ­mail: linden@win.tue.nl 15th May 2000 #12; Abstract In the production of glass, temperature Conclusion 25 2 #12; Chapter 1 Introduction The production of glass belongs to the oldest forms of human

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

471

E-print Network

RANA 99-06 A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass B.J. van der Linden -- R, The Netherlands e-mail: linden@win.tue.nl 15th May 2000 #12;Abstract In the production of glass, temperature plays Conclusion 25 2 #12;Chapter 1 Introduction The production of glass belongs to the oldest forms of human

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

472

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compared the quantitative problem-solving skills of conceptually-taught and traditionally-taught introductory physics students. Found that students taught conceptually through peer instruction performed significantly better on quantitative exam questions for two out of three exams. However, the conceptually taught students were not as satisfied.

Jones, Linda R.; Miller, Andrew G.; Watts, J. F.

2006-05-24

473

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The feasibility of collaborative problem solving as a strategy for change in a third world setting was the focus of this study. Two projects of the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) were assessed. Project I, undertaken during 1981-1983 by the Caribbean CXC, included a series of organization development interventions. The assessment suggested…

Voeth, Rita A.

474

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large-scale computer managed training program in problem-solving in applied mathematics and basic physics for first-year medical students at the University of Leuven is described. Students do calculations away from the terminals, but are corrected and evaluated at terminals. Some tentative results are presented. (Author/MSE)

van Humbeeck, G.; And Others

1982-01-01

475

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiagent optimization system (MAOS) is a nature-inspired method, which supports cooperative search by the self-organization of a group of compact agents situated in an environment with certain sharing public knowledge. Moreover, each agent in MAOS is an autonomous entity with personal declarative memory and behavioral components. In this paper, MAOS is refined for solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP),

Xiao-Feng Xie; Jiming Liu

2009-01-01

476

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 544 junior high technology education programs in Japan indicated that the structure of project-based learning activities coincided with the DeLuca model. Student projects were supported by self-evaluation competencies and motivation. Learning activities promoted development of technological problem-solving skills. (SK)

Moriyama, Jun; Satou, Masashi; King, Cyril T.

2002-01-01

477

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various aspects of the cognitive model of physics problem solving are discussed in detail including relevant cues, encoding, memory, and input stimuli. The learning process involved in the recognition of familiar and non-familiar sensory stimuli is highlighted. Its four components include selection, acquisition, construction, and integration. The…

Brekke, Stewart E.

478

E-print Network

Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes, and making products to improve the quality of human life and shape the economy. Mechanical engineers apply the principles of physics, mathematics, computing and practical skills to design mechanical systems and artefacts

Waikato, University of

479

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Proceedings of the 1998 Puerto Rico conference on Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research (sponsored in part by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations) are available at this Website. The proceedings include the program, abstracts from presentations and posters, and contact information for presenters.

480

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the objectives of Cognitive Robotics is to construct robot systems that can be directed to achieve realworld goals by high-level directions rather than complex, low-level robot programming. Such a system must have the ability to represent, problem-solve and learn about its environment as well as communicate with other agents. In previous work, we have proposed ADAPT, a Cognitive Architecture that views perception as top-down and goaloriented and part of the problem solving process. Our approach is linked to a SOAR-based problem-solving and learning framework. In this paper, we present an architecture for the perceptive and world modelling components of ADAPT and report on experimental results using this architecture to predict complex object behaviour. A novel aspect of our approach is a 'mirror system' that ensures that the modelled background and foreground objects are synchronized with observations and task-based expectations. This is based on our prior work on comparing real and synthetic images. We show results for a moving object that collides and rebounds from its environment, hence showing that this perception-based problem solving approach has the potential to be used to predict complex object motions.

Lyons, Damian M.; Chaudhry, Sirhan; Agica, Marius; Monaco, John Vincent

2010-04-01

481

E-print Network

New Heuristics to Solve the "CSOP" Railway Timetabling Problem L. Ingolotti1 , A. Lova2 , F. Barber. The paper presents a friendly and flexible computer-based decision support system for railway timetabling. It implements an efficient method, based on meta-heuristic techniques, which provides railway timetables

Salido, Miguel Angel

482

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a heavily constrained un iversity time- tabling problem, and ou r genetic a lgorithm based approach to solve it. A pro- blem-specific c hromosome representation and knowledge-augmented genetic operators have been d eveloped; t hese operators 'intelligently' avoid bu ilding illegal ti metables. The prototype timetabling system which is presented h as been implemented in

Wilhelm Erben; Jürgen Keppler

1995-01-01

483

E-print Network

Some Finance Problems Solved with Nonsmooth Optimization Techniques R. B. VINTER 1 AND H. ZHENG 2 analysis and mathematical finance communities to the scope for applications of nonsmooth optimization to finance, by studying in detail two illustrative examples. The first concerns the maximization of a ter

Vinter, Richard

484

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the redevelopment method and process of the laboratory experiments for the Mechanics and Vibration Laboratory, MIME3390, in the Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering Department at the University of Toledo. The redevelopment objective was to transform the learning process from a subject-based learning to a problem- solving learning . Particular objective was to provide the students with more

Constantin Ciocanel

2008-01-01

485

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants in this study were asked to report what strategies were most often used in their attempts to foster their students' problem solving abilities. Participants included 70 second through fifth-grade elementary teachers from 42 schools in a large state of the south central region in the U.S. Data analyses of the interviews revealed…

Bruun, Faye

2013-01-01

486

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The equation of motion for a mass that moves under the influence of a central, inverse-square force is formulated and solved as a problem in complex variables. To find the solution, the constancy of angular momentum is first established using complex variables. Next, the complex position coordinate and complex velocity of the particle are assumed…

Gauthier, N.

2005-01-01

487

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metacognitive monitoring and regulation play an essential role in mathematical problem solving. Therefore, it is important for researchers and practitioners to assess students' metacognition. One proven valid, but time consuming, method to assess metacognition is by using think-aloud protocols. Although valuable, practical drawbacks of this method…

Jacobse, Annemieke E.; Harskamp, Egbert G.

2012-01-01

488

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found…

Storm, Benjamin C.; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

2011-01-01

489

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domain specific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involves knowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activities that incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies, this paper outlines how…

Cram, Andrew; Hedberg, John G.; Gosper, Maree; Dick, Geoff

2011-01-01

490

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores aspects of the theory and practice of cooperative problem solving in education from the perspective of community-based adult learning. It describes how society can benefit from using collaborative and questioning approaches as a positive alternative to more confrontational methods of resolving differences and how collective…

Walker, Ann

2013-01-01

491

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students crave problem-solving strategies that promise increased achievement on tests. Student ambitions seem to align with teacher goals, yet students resist using these strategies for various reasons. We seek to establish a pedagogy modifying student behavior so they are more likely to use any strategy a teacher deems useful. (Contains 1 figure…

DiLisi, Gregory A.; Eulberg, Jennifer E.; Lanese, James F.; Padovan, Patricia

2006-01-01

492

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we present an integer sequence approach to solve the classic water jugs problem. The solution steps can be obtained easily by additions and subtractions only, which is suitable for manual calculation or programming by computer. This approach can be introduced to secondary and undergraduate students, and also to teachers and…

Man, Yiu-Kwong

2012-01-01

493

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify Polya's art of…

Curcio, Frances R., Ed.

494

E-print Network

Overnight Problem Solving Kriti 2009 and Equinox, the Astronomy Club Midnight separating February are filled with drawings). 1 #12;1 Venus, the evening star? EASY Venus is the brightest object in the night. Do people who call it these sleep so early that they don't see it late at night? Or is it that Venus

Plotkin, Joshua B.

495

E-print Network

Solving the Robots Gathering Problem Mark Cieliebak1 , Paola Flocchini2 , Giuseppe Prencipe3 a set of n > 2 simple autonomous mobile robots (decentralized, asyn- chronous, no common coordinate, deterministic) moving freely in the plane and able to sense the positions of the other robots. We study

Flocchini, Paola

496

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In CSCL systems, students who are solving problems in group have to negotiate with each other by exchanging proposals and arguments in order to resolve the conflicts and generate a shared solution. In this context, argument construction assistance is necessary to facilitate reaching to a consensus. This assistance is usually provided with isolated…

Monteserin, Ariel; Schiaffino, Silvia; Amandi, Analia

2010-01-01

497

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of expertise in chemistry problem solving was tested on undergraduate science majors enrolled in a chemistry course. The model was based on Anderson's "Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational" (ACT-R) theory. The model shows how conceptualization, self-efficacy, and strategy interact and contribute to the successful solution of quantitative,…

Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Glynn, Shawn M.

2009-01-01

498

E-print Network

we extract from the Earth, such as fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas), minerals, and water. Our are symptomatic for a particular region. For example, oil and gas tend to concentrate near the top of naturalUsing Expert Knowledge in Solving the Seismic Inverse Problem Matthew G. Averill, Kate C. Miller, G

Ward, Karen

499

E-print Network

depends on the things we extract from the Earth, such as fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas), minerals are symptomatic for a particular region. For example, oil and gas tend to concentrate near the top of naturalUsing Expert Knowledge in Solving the Seismic Inverse Problem ? Matthew G. Averill, Kate C. Miller

Ward, Karen

500

E-print Network

to form their own groups? If not, what should be the gender and performance mix of the groups? How often Roles We pass out this chart to students the first day they work in cooperative groups. This chart introduces students to their problem-solving roles. The roles were selected to correspond to the planning

Minnesota, University of