Sample records for solve numerical problems

  1. Numerical methods for solving applied optimal control problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornov, A. Yu.; Tyatyushkin, A. I.; Finkelstein, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    For an optimal control problem with state constraints, an iterative solution method is described based on reduction to a finite-dimensional problem, followed by applying a successive linearization algorithm with the use of an augmented Lagrangian. The efficiency of taking into account state constraints in optimal control computation is illustrated by numerically solving several application problems.

  2. Numerical methods for solving linear least squares problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Golub

    1965-01-01

    A common problem in a Computer Laboratory is that of finding linear least squares solutions. These problems arise in a variety of areas and in a variety of contexts. Linear least squares problems are particularly difficult to solve because they frequently involve large quantities of data, and they are ill-conditioned by their very nature. In this paper, we shall consider

  3. A numerical scheme to solve unstable boundary value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay Derivas, E.

    1975-01-01

    A new iterative scheme for solving boundary value problems is presented. It consists of the introduction of an artificial time dependence into a modified version of the system of equations. Then explicit forward integrations in time are followed by explicit integrations backwards in time. The method converges under much more general conditions than schemes based in forward time integrations (false transient schemes). In particular it can attain a steady state solution of an elliptical system of equations even if the solution is unstable, in which case other iterative schemes fail to converge. The simplicity of its use makes it attractive for solving large systems of nonlinear equations.

  4. Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K-12 Outreach,

    Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

  5. Abstract Applets: A Method for Integrating Numerical Problem Solving into the Undergraduate Physics Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, Michael E

    2003-02-13

    In upper-division undergraduate physics courses, it is desirable to give numerical problem-solving exercises integrated naturally into weekly problem sets. I explain a method for doing this that makes use of the built-in class structure of the Java programming language. I also supply a Java class library that can assist instructors in writing programs of this type.

  6. Computers & Operations Research 27 (2000) 399}408 Solving a savings allocation problem by numerical dynamic

    E-print Network

    L'Ecuyer, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    dynamic programming with shape-preserving interpolation Sheng-Pen Wang *, Kenneth L. Judd Department of a dynamic program. First, we present a savings allocation problem between a pension account and another non involved with various tax rules is in dynamic programming formulation and can only be solved numerically

  7. Role of Beliefs and Emotions in Numerical Problem Solving in University Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task…

  8. An iterative boundary element method for solving numerically the Cauchy problem for the Laplace equation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lesnic; L. Elliott; D. B. Ingham

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the boundary element method (BEM) is used iteratively in order to implement numerically the alternating algorithm proposed by Kozlov et al. (Kozlov, V. A., Maz'ya, V. G. & Fomin, A. V. Comput. Maths. Phys., 1991, 31, 45–52) for solving the Cauchy problem for the Laplace equation. Various types of convergence and accuracy criteria, and boundary condition formulations

  9. Arithmetic and algebraic problem solving and resource allocation: The distinct impact of fluid and numerical intelligence.

    PubMed

    Dix, Annika; van der Meer, Elke

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates cognitive resource allocation dependent on fluid and numerical intelligence in arithmetic/algebraic tasks varying in difficulty. Sixty-six 11th grade students participated in a mathematical verification paradigm, while pupil dilation as a measure of resource allocation was collected. Students with high fluid intelligence solved the tasks faster and more accurately than those with average fluid intelligence, as did students with high compared to average numerical intelligence. However, fluid intelligence sped up response times only in students with average but not high numerical intelligence. Further, high fluid but not numerical intelligence led to greater task-related pupil dilation. We assume that fluid intelligence serves as a domain-general resource that helps to tackle problems for which domain-specific knowledge (numerical intelligence) is missing. The allocation of this resource can be measured by pupil dilation. PMID:25327870

  10. Interactive insight problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Weller; Gaëlle Villejoubert; Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

    2011-01-01

    Insight problem solving was investigated with the matchstick algebra problems developed by Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider, and Rhenius (1999). These problems are false equations expressed with Roman numerals that can be made true bymoving one matchstick. In a first group participants examined a static two-dimensional representation of the false algebraic expression and told the experimenter which matchstick should be moved. In

  11. Some numerical algorithms for solving the highly oscillatory second-order initial value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjie; Wu, Boying; Sun, Jiebao

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, some numerical algorithms (spectral collocation method, block spectral collocation method, boundary value method, block boundary value method, implicit Runge-Kutta method, diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method and total variation diminishing Runge-Kutta method) are used to solve the highly oscillatory second-order initial value problems. We first derive these methods for the first-order initial value problems, and then extend these methods to the highly oscillatory nonlinear systems by matrix analysis methods. These new methods preserve the accuracy of the original methods and the main advantages of these new methods are low storage requirements and high efficiency. Extensive numerical results are presented to demonstrate the convergence properties of these methods.

  12. Problem solving What is problem solving?

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    solving. There are problems all around us. · Much of our life is spent solving problems. Getting-defined problems. ­ Chess: After a few moves, there are too many possible moves and counter moves to consider all

  13. An efficient numerical algorithm for solving scattering and inverse scattering problems of electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung M.

    1987-09-01

    The development of an efficient numerical algorithm of determining the unknown material composition and shape of an arbitrary target from the measured electromagnetic waves in the far field region will enhance the capability of the defense radar system to defeat known evasive schemes. The first step in this research effort is the development of an efficient and versatile numerical algorithm for calculating the scattered electromagnetic waves/radar cross section by a target with known complex geometry and material property. Hence the purpose of this Phase 1 research is to develop an efficient numerical algorithm for solving two dimensional scattering problems. This is achieved by using a special finite difference method based upon a natural spatial discretization of the integral form of Maxwell's equations on a non-orthogonal grid-system and the leap-frog finite differencing in the time domain. It has the advantages of being: (1) more efficient than other known numerical methods, (2) highly accurate due to the body-fitted grid system, and (3) the easiest numerical method to implement boundary conditions. The capability and feasibility of this two-dimensional computer code are tested by performing numerical simulations on few realistic examples, e.g., cylindrical objects with cross sections of metallic jet and a composite airfoil. In these processes, the radar cross sections as functions of both the incident angle and the scattering angle are calculated and they seem to be quite good.

  14. Problem Solving Information

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-01

    This page provides a summary of five topics on problems solving: What is a Problem?, What is Problem Solving?, Problem Solving Strategies, Why Teach Problem Solving?, Organizing the Teaching of Problem Solving and a reference section. Users can read more detailed information by accessing the 'More Information' link under each heading.

  15. New efficient numerical procedures for solving stochastic variational problems with a priori maximum pointwise error estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, John; Hughes, H. R.

    2007-04-01

    In a previous paper we gave a new formulation and derived the Euler equations and other necessary conditions to solve strong, pathwise, stochastic variational problems with trajectories driven by Brownian motion. Thus, unlike current methods which minimize the control over deterministic functionals (the expected value), we find the control which gives the critical point solution of random functionals of a Brownian path and then, if we choose, find the expected value. This increase in information is balanced by the fact that our methods are anticipative while current methods are not. However, our methods are more directly connected to the theory and meaningful examples of deterministic variational theory and provide better means of solution for free and constrained problems. In addition, examples indicate that there are methods to obtain nonanticipative solutions from our equations although the anticipative optimal cost function has smaller expected value. In this paper we give new, efficient numerical methods to find the solution of these problems in the quadratic case. Of interest is that our numerical solution has a maximal, a priori, pointwise error of O(h3/2) where h is the node size. We believe our results are unique for any theory of stochastic control and that our methods of proof involve new and sophisticated ideas for strong solutions which extend previous deterministic results by the first author where the error was O(h2). We note that, although our solutions are given in terms of stochastic differential equations, we are not using the now standard numerical methods for stochastic differential equations. Instead we find an approximation to the critical point solution of the variational problem using relations derived from setting to zero the directional derivative of the cost functional in the direction of simple test functions. Our results are even more significant than they first appear because we can reformulate stochastic control problems or constrained calculus of variations problems in the unconstrained, stochastic calculus of variations formulation of this paper. This will allow us to find efficient and accurate numerical solutions for general constrained, stochastic optimization problems. This is not yet being done, even in the deterministic case, except by the first author.

  16. Children with mathematical learning disability fail in recruiting verbal and numerical brain regions when solving simple multiplication problems.

    PubMed

    Berteletti, Ilaria; Prado, Jérôme; Booth, James R

    2014-08-01

    Greater skill in solving single-digit multiplication problems requires a progressive shift from a reliance on numerical to verbal mechanisms over development. Children with mathematical learning disability (MD), however, are thought to suffer from a specific impairment in numerical mechanisms. Here we tested the hypothesis that this impairment might prevent MD children from transitioning toward verbal mechanisms when solving single-digit multiplication problems. Brain activations during multiplication problems were compared in MD and typically developing (TD) children (3rd to 7th graders) in numerical and verbal regions which were individuated by independent localizer tasks. We used small (e.g., 2 × 3) and large (e.g., 7 × 9) problems as these problems likely differ in their reliance on verbal versus numerical mechanisms. Results indicate that MD children have reduced activations in both the verbal (i.e., left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal to superior temporal gyri) and the numerical (i.e., right superior parietal lobule including intra-parietal sulcus) regions suggesting that both mechanisms are impaired. Moreover, the only reliable activation observed for MD children was in the numerical region when solving small problems. This suggests that MD children could effectively engage numerical mechanisms only for the easier problems. Conversely, TD children showed a modulation of activation with problem size in the verbal regions. This suggests that TD children were effectively engaging verbal mechanisms for the easier problems. Moreover, TD children with better language skills were more effective at engaging verbal mechanisms. In conclusion, results suggest that the numerical- and language-related processes involved in solving multiplication problems are impaired in MD children. PMID:24858066

  17. Mathematics Through Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Margaret Taplin

    2011-01-01

    This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a student’s mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.

  18. Problem Solving with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Howard; Brannigan, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    A sequence is suggested for teachers working with parents in solving problems. Steps include: problem definition; problem analysis; generation of alternatives; establishment of criteria for selecting solutions; and evaluation and selection of solutions. (CB)

  19. Techniques of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Steven G.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

  20. A numerical method for solving a stochastic inverse problem for parameters

    PubMed Central

    Butler, T.; Estep, D.

    2013-01-01

    We review recent work (Briedt et al., 2011., 2012) on a new approach to the formulation and solution of the stochastic inverse parameter determination problem, i.e. determine the random variation of input parameters to a map that matches specified random variation in the output of the map, and then apply the various aspects of this method to the interesting Brusselator model. In this approach, the problem is formulated as an inverse problem for an integral equation using the Law of Total Probability. The solution method employs two steps: (1) we construct a systematic method for approximating set-valued inverse solutions and (2) we construct a computational approach to compute a measure-theoretic approximation of the probability measure on the input space imparted by the approximate set-valued inverse that solves the inverse problem. In addition to convergence analysis, we carry out an a posteriori error analysis on the computed probability distribution that takes into account all sources of stochastic and deterministic error. PMID:24347806

  1. Problem Solving by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…

  2. A toolkit for numerical simulation of PDEs. II. Solving generic multiphysics problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Boivin; Carl Ollivier-Gooch

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulations of partial different equations are used in a variety of domains, allowing complete testing and simulation of a product or process even before it is created. However, numerical solvers are not used in all the domains where such equations arise due to the lack of available software or knowledge of numerical methods by scientists. The difficulty of writing

  3. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  4. Problem-Solving Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

  5. Effective Numerical Methods for Solving Elliptical Problems in Strengthened Sobolev Spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'yakonov, Eugene G.

    1996-01-01

    Fourth-order elliptic boundary value problems in the plane can be reduced to operator equations in Hilbert spaces G that are certain subspaces of the Sobolev space W(sub 2)(exp 2)(Omega) is identical with G(sup (2)). Appearance of asymptotically optimal algorithms for Stokes type problems made it natural to focus on an approach that considers rot w is identical with (D(sub 2)w - D(sub 1)w) is identical with vector of u as a new unknown vector-function, which automatically satisfies the condition div vector of u = 0. In this work, we show that this approach can also be developed for an important class of problems from the theory of plates and shells with stiffeners. The main mathematical problem was to show that the well-known inf-sup condition (normal solvability of the divergence operator) holds for special Hilbert spaces. This result is also essential for certain hydrodynamics problems.

  6. Persistence in Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    In this 5-minute video third grade teacher Jean Saul demonstrates how she uses problem solving tasks to create a classroom climate that fosters persistence, independence, responsibility, and risk-taking. Students are asked to find three different methods for solving each problem and to record them on a Choose Three Ways graphic organizer. Through collaboration and presentation of their work to peers, students develop math language and discourse skills. A side bar provides reflection questions. Supporting materials include a transcript of the video (doc), the graphic organizer (doc), and two samples of student work (pdf).

  7. Numerical methods for solving some fluid mechanics problems met in a strongly rotating gas centrifuge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. La Hargue; Soub Baramayer

    1981-01-01

    The communication is presented in the form of a computer-animation movie, made from the output data of three numerical models. These models have been built to investigate in a gas centrifuge respectively the flow, the species separation and the optimization of the flow field. The figures heredown have been extracted from the movie.

  8. Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maase, Eric L.; High, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    "Chemical Engineering Modeling" is a first-semester graduate course traditionally taught in a lecture format at Oklahoma State University. The course as taught by the author for the past seven years focuses on numerical and mathematical methods as necessary skills for incoming graduate students. Recent changes to the course have included Visual…

  9. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  10. [Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

  11. Problem Solving with Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterall, P.; Lewis, R.

    1985-01-01

    Documents the educational use of spreadsheets through a description of exploratory work which utilizes spreadsheets to achieve the objectives of Conway's Game of Life, a scientific method game for the development of problem-solving techniques. The implementation and classroom use of the spreadsheet programs are discussed. (MBR)

  12. Solving Problems in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez

    2005-01-01

    A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…

  13. Cooperative Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    , and Skeptic. When a student solves a homework or test problem, she has to be an executive manager, organizing to continually be skeptical, asking herself questions about each step -- "Am I sure that I am going in the right students to practice the different metacognitive actions individually. Students also have an opportunity

  14. Numerical experience with solving MPECs as NLPs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Fletcher; Sven Leyffer

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes numerical experience with solving MPECs as NLPs on a large collection of test problems. The key idea is to use off-the-shelf NLP solvers to tackle large instances of MPECs. It is shown that SQP methods are very well suited to solving MPECs and at present outperform Interior Point solvers both in terms of speed and reliability. All

  15. Problem Solving with Patents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jerilou Moore

    2008-03-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.

  16. Clinical Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Christine; Nishino, Mizuki; Jagannathan, Jyothi; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Di Salvo, Donald; Krajewski, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    This review demonstrates the unique advantages of sonography in the oncologic setting. Although computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography are primary imaging modalities for evaluation of the oncologic patient, sonography is useful for evaluation of various conditions and clinical scenarios associated with cancer. The following article will illustrate the utility of sonography at a tertiary cancer center for diagnosis and problem solving. PMID:24371094

  17. Transformation Problem Solving Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmel, Sarah Jane

    The relationship between transformation problem performance and Guilford Structure of Intellect (SI) abilities is explored. During two group sessions 42 females and 35 males, age 18-39, were administered 12 Guilford SI tests exemplifying all five symbolic content (numeric) operations, and three contents in the divergent production area. Logical…

  18. Measuring Family Problem Solving: The Family Problem Solving Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieren, Dianne K.

    The development and use of the family problem-solving diary are described. The diary is one of several indicators and measures of family problem-solving behavior. It provides a record of each person's perception of day-to-day family problems (what the problem concerns, what happened, who got involved, what those involved did, how the problem

  19. Solving Problems with Twenty Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on how student problem solving skills can be improved by teaching them a problem solving model. Includes a technique for developing student inquiry thinking using the game, Twenty Questions, or by examining conflicting statements. Includes the article, "Using Problem Solving Skills in a Fifth-Grade Classroom" (Alan Rock and Nicole…

  20. Principles for Teaching Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rob Foshay and Jamie Kirkley

    2003-01-01

    This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

  1. PROBLEM SOLVING FOR ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    ? Self ­ Assessment Exercise: Each of the nine items presents two opposing statements: - If you feel to understand Them better. 4. I do not do a careful analysis of the I do a careful analysis of the solved solved examples presented. examples presented to see how the concept is applied. 5. When I look at a solved

  2. A Method for Solving Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Problem solving and decision making are considered to be keys to successful management. A normative method for problem solving is presented, suggesting that the analysis of the problem be structured along a five-step procedure: problem identification, analysis, decision alternatives, decision making, and decision implementation. Follow-up…

  3. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving

  4. Solving Trade Discount Word Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Coonce, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

  5. Problem Solving Tips for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daffer, Phares G.

    1985-01-01

    The focus is on the problem-solving strategy of find a pattern, with a problem explored to illustrate how to use the strategy. Other tips concern classroom climate, checking skills, research, and type of problems. (MNS)

  6. Problem Solving Style, Creative Thinking, and Problem Solving Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.

    2009-01-01

    Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…

  7. Learning Impasses in Problem Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. P. E.

    1992-01-01

    Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

  8. Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

  9. Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

  10. A Personal Problem Solving Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Petersen, Chris H.

    Few studies have explicitly attended to the personal problem-solving process within the counseling literature, perhaps due in part to the dearth of relevant assessment instruments. To examine the dimensions underlying the applied problem-solving process, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from four samples of college…

  11. Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin F. Shakun

    2009-01-01

    Difficult polarizing problems\\/conflicts are pervasive in the United States and the world. Welcome to spiritual rationality\\/connectedness\\u000a problem solving and negotiation involving spirituality and rationality, and emphasizing connectedness in problem solving.\\u000a In particular, we develop CPSN-ESD—Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation (CPSN) through Evolutionary Systems Design\\u000a (ESD)—discussing spiritual rationality\\/connectedness and highlighting connectedness with One and with each other as values,\\u000a among others,

  12. Modeling Applied to Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-10-01

    Modeling Applied to Problem Solving (MAPS) is a pedagogy that helps students transfer instruction to problem solving in an expert-like manner. Declarative and Procedural syllabus content is organized and learned (not discovered) as a hierarchy of General Models. Students solve problems using an explicit Problem Modeling Rubric that begins with System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.). System and Interactions are emphasized as the key to a strategic description of the system and the identification of the appropriate General Model to apply to the problem. We have employed the pedagogy in a three-week review course for students who received a D in mechanics. The course was assessed by a final exam retest as well as pre and post C-LASS surveys, yielding a one standard deviation improvement in the students' ability to solve final exam problems and a statistically significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the C-LASS.

  13. Algebra Through Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hillman, Alexanderson

    A non-traditional Algebra text (high school and early college levels) placed on the Web by the Science Education Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Browse it on the Web or download a PDF version. Chapter headings include: The Pascal Triangle; The Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers; Factorials; Arithmetic and Geometric Progressions; Mathematical Induction; The Binomial Theorem; Combinations and Permutations; Polynomial Equations; Determinants; and Inequalities. Problems (and answers to the odd-numbered problems) are provided for each section.

  14. Problem solving: Waking and dreaming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalind D. Cartwright

    1974-01-01

    Investigated whether problem-solving ability is either quantitatively or qualitatively superior following an interval of sleep including dreaming than it is following an equal interval of waking time. 24 college students were tested on matched problems before and after these 2 conditions on 3 problem types: crossword puzzles, Remote Associates Test, and Thematic Apperception Test story completions. These were predicted to

  15. Problem Solving in Teaching Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Esa-Matti Jarvinen (University of Oulu)

    2012-01-16

    This chapter from the dissertation "Education About and Through Technology: In Search of More Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches to Technology Education" explores the importance and nature of problem solving in technology.

  16. Gender and Mathematical Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Duffy; Georg Gunther; Lloyd Walters

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between gender and mathematical problem-solving among high ability students depends on the attributes of the problem solving questions. This was evident in the present study of 12-year-olds. The children were from predominately White families. Eighty-three males and 76 females were tested in both the fall and the spring on the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales and on the Canadian

  17. Aging and skilled problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Charness

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relation of age and skill to problem solving in chess, using 34 16–64 yr old males in 2 experiments. Ss were selected to vary widely in age and skill such that these variables were uncorrelated. Problem-solving and memory tasks were administered. Skill level was the only significant predictor for accuracy in both a choose-a-move task and a speeded

  18. Descriptive languages and problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Minsky

    1961-01-01

    Advances in machine problem solving may depend on use of internal languages for description and abstraction of the outcomes of experiments. As more complex problems are attempted there will have to be less trial and error and more systematic analysis of the results of each trial. Learning on the basis of experience will require a phase of refinement in which

  19. Handbook for Community Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Sara E.; Rossing, Boyd E.

    This handbook is a practical guide that can be used by an individual, group, or group leader in planning an active role in community development. Major topics covered are organizing the group; purpose and structure of your organization; how to identify the problem; planning an active program to solve a community problem; planning a large meeting…

  20. Robot, computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.

  1. Assessing Problem Solving with "Diana"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harper, Kathleen Andre

    This research paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, discusses an experiment in which expert and novice participants completed a task either completing a mechanics problem (novices) or evaluating the answer to the problem (experts). The results indicated that instructors were more likely to make specific criticisms if the students spoke in generalities. Additional evidence indicates that novice problem solving knowledge consists of both conscious and tacit pieces.

  2. Aging and skilled problem solving.

    PubMed

    Charness, N

    1981-03-01

    Information-processing models of problem solving too often are based on restrictive age ranges. On the other hand, gerontologists have investigated few problem-solving tasks and have rarely generated explicit models. As this article demonstrates, both fields can benefit by closer collaboration. One major issue in gerontology is whether aging is associated with irreversible decrement or developmental plasticity. If both processes occur, then an appropriate strategy for investigating aging is to equate age groups for molar problem-solving performance and search for differences in the underlying components. This strategy was adopted to examine the relation of age and skill to problem solving in chess. Chess players were selected to vary widely in age and skill such that these variables were uncorrelated. Problem-solving and memory tasks were administered. Skill level was the only significant predictor for accuracy in both a choose-a-move task and a speeded end-game evaluation task. Age (negatively) and skill (positively) jointly determined performance in an unexpected recall task. Efficient chunking in recall was positively related to skill, though negatively related to age. Recognition confidence, though not accuracy, was negatively related to age. Thus despite age-related declines in encoding and retrieval of information, older players match the problem-solving performance of equivalently skilled younger players. Apparently, they can search the problem space more efficiently, as evidenced by taking less time to select an equally good move. Models of chess skill that stress that role of encoding efficiency, as indexed by chunking in recall, need to be modified to account for performance over the life span. PMID:6453184

  3. Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

    2007-01-01

    TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…

  4. A meshless numerical method based on the local boundary integral equation (LBIE) to solve linear and non-linear boundary value problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tulong Zhu; Jindong Zhang; S. N. Atluri

    1999-01-01

    Meshless methods for solving boundary value problems have been extensively popularized in recent literature owing to their flexibility in engineering applications, especially for problems with discontinuities, and because of the high accuracy of the computed results. A meshless method for solving linear and non-linear boundary value problems, based on the local boundary integral equation method and the moving least squares

  5. Teaching through Collaborative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandford, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of a prototype intelligent education system called WOMBAT (Weighted Objectives Method by Arguing with the Tutor) focuses on dialogue and negotiation in collaborative problem solving. The results of a formative evaluation, in which the system was used by 10 subjects who commented on various aspects of the design, are presented. (Contains…

  6. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-­making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.

  7. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  8. Problem Solving: Bubble Gum Contest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGHB Boston

    2013-01-01

    This professional development video clip presents students engaged in The Common Core Practice Standard #1—Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. The learners gather data for a bubble gum contest, as part of a larger activity involving recording data and writing up results. Students understand the problem and persevere with the task as they independently go to other classrooms to conduct their survey. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

  9. Calculator solves pipe flow problems

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, C.P.

    1980-07-28

    For facilitating pipe-flow calculations that involve the horizontal flow of constant-density fluids, a simple program tailored to the TI-59 hand-held calculator uses the Darcy pressure-drop formula (modified for expressing the friction factor) to compute the unknown parameter needed to solve the fluid problem. Instead of several friction-factor equations applicable only in the individual flow regimes, the program uses a single, full-range friction-factor equation with three sets of coefficients to suit the conditions of the problem.

  10. On Spurious Numerics in Solving Reactive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotov, D. V; Yee, H. C.; Wang, W.; Shu, C.-W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the behavior of high order shock-capturing schemes for problems with stiff source terms and discontinuities and on corresponding numerical prediction strategies. The studies by Yee et al. (2012) and Wang et al. (2012) focus only on solving the reactive system by the fractional step method using the Strang splitting (Strang 1968). It is a common practice by developers in computational physics and engineering simulations to include a cut off safeguard if densities are outside the permissible range. Here we compare the spurious behavior of the same schemes by solving the fully coupled reactive system without the Strang splitting vs. using the Strang splitting. Comparison between the two procedures and the effects of a cut off safeguard is the focus the present study. The comparison of the performance of these schemes is largely based on the degree to which each method captures the correct location of the reaction front for coarse grids. Here "coarse grids" means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows of similar problem setup. It is remarked that, in order to resolve the sharp reaction front, local refinement beyond standard mesh density is still needed.

  11. Modeling Applied to Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-11-01

    We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and validate their own Models through guided discovery. Instead, students classify problems under the appropriate instructor-generated Model by selecting a system to consider and describing the interactions that are relevant to that system. We believe that this explicit System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.) problem modeling strategy represents a key simplification and clarification of the widely disseminated modeling approach originated by Hestenes and collaborators. Our narrower focus allows modeling physics to be integrated into (as opposed to replacing) a typical introductory college mechanics course, while preserving the emphasis on understanding systems and interactions that is the essence of modeling. We have employed the approach in a three-week review course for MIT freshmen who received a D in the fall mechanics course with very encouraging results.

  12. Toward a New Perspective on Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolff-Michael Roth; Michelle K. McGinn

    1997-01-01

    Educating students to become successful problem solvers has been a goal of education at least since Dewey. However, the kinds of problems students do in school to practice their problem-solving competence have little to do with the problems they will need to solve in everyday settings. We briefly critique traditional conceptions of problem solving, propose a different framework for theorizing

  13. Developing Problem Solving Skills for Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michelle Pauls

    2013-04-02

    In this blog post the author explores another tool for the problem-solving toolbox: Wish for an easier problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of ways students could use this strategy are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "One Step at a Time" that is best solved utilizing this strategy.

  14. King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchardt, Donald A.

    An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and applying…

  15. Strategies of Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie J. Cammarata; David Mcarthur; Randall Steeb

    1983-01-01

    Distributed Artificial Intelligence is concerned with problem solving in which groups solve tasks. In this paper we describe stra­ tegies of cooperation that groups require to solve shared tasks effectively. We discuss such strategies in the context of a specific group problem solving application: collision avoidance in air traffic control. Experimental findings with four distinct air-traffic control systems, each implementing

  16. Big vs little problems :What is Problem Solving?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Judy Spicer

    This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In this wiki page, the focus is on those problems--big and small--that encourage students to think, ask questions, try a variety of problem-solving approaches, and discuss their strategies and solutions. It points out the vast difference between numerical problems dressed up as episodes of everyday life and real mathematics used every day to facilitate understanding and decision making. Built on the ideas found in the NCTM Standards, the Background section offers pedagogical examples and resources to expand teachers' understanding of mathematics and problem solving. The Activities sections feature selected online resources that are useful in expanding student thinking as they learn to become problem solvers in math class and beyond.

  17. Grade 1 Practice Problems: Reasoning, Problem Solving & Communication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This is a set of 46 problems that focus on reasoning and problem solving skills. Successful solving requires careful reading of the problems. Math content topics include applications of basic operations, multistep problems, and comparing quantities and attributes.

  18. Statistical Education Through Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Statistical Education Through Problem Solving (STEPS) was a collaborative project between seven universities throughout the United Kingdom "to develop problem-based teaching and learning materials for statistics." The materials draw on specific problems arising in Biology, Business, Geography and Psychology to help students learn that statistical issues are "important natural parts of the process of reaching conclusions." The software developed as a result of this project, which utilizes the computer and graphical illustration to support learning, is available to educational institutions free of charge and can be downloaded from this website. (Note that other organizations are expected to purchase the software.) A glossary of statistical terms is provided in the software program as well as on this website. Although the funding for the project ended in 1995 and the website was last updated in January 2004, the material is still current and useful for teaching statistics. The authors note that the STEPS modules are intended to be used to support existing coursework, and "not intended to replace lecturing staff or to provide a self-study course in statistics."

  19. Instructors' Ideas about Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has developed an interview tool to investigate physics faculty views about the learning and teaching of problem solving. In the part of the interview dealing with grading, faculty members were asked to evaluate a set of five student solutions and explain their reasons for the grades that they assigned. Preliminary analysis on two of the five student solutions was done on six physics faculty members from a large research university. The results indicate that faculty members hold conflicting beliefs when grading between valuing reasoning in student solutions and wanting to give students the benefit of the doubt. This paper illustrates the hypothesis that physics faculty hold conflicting values when grading, and describes how the research university faculty resolved their conflicts.

  20. Physics Problem Solving Research Using Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Stewart E.

    This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more…

  1. LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

  2. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Hugh

    1979-01-01

    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  3. Community-powered problem solving.

    PubMed

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections. PMID:23593769

  4. Grade 2 Practice Problems: Reasoning, Problem Solving & Communication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This is a set of 13 problems that focus on reasoning and problem solving skills. Successful solving requires careful reading of the problems. Math content topics include basic operations, counting, halving and doubling, money and measuring.

  5. Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a metatheory of problem solving. Describes differences among problems in terms of their structured ness, domain specificity (abstractness), and complexity; describes individual differences that affect problem solving; and presents a typology of problems, each of which engages different cognitive, affective, and conative process and…

  6. Big vs little problems : what is problem solving?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Judy Spicer

    2005-01-01

    In this web publication, the focus is on those problems--big and small--that encourage students to think, ask questions, try a variety of problem-solving approaches, and discuss their strategies and solutions. It points out the vast difference between numerical problems dressed up as episodes of everyday life and real mathematics used every day to facilitate understanding and decision making. Built on the ideas found in the NCTM Standards, the Background section offers pedagogical examples and resources to expand teachers' understanding of mathematics and problem solving. The Activities sections feature selected online resources that are useful in expanding student thinking as they learn to become problem solvers in math class and beyond. The highlighted resources are from collections in the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). Information about each resource includes links to the catalog record and to the resource's original NSDL collection. The publication's final Standards section ties the problem solving standard to the other four NCTM process standards as the foundation for high quality mathematics teaching. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  7. A Powerful Numerical Technique Solving Zakai Equation for Nonlinear Filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. U. Ahmed; S. M. Radaideh

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we have developed a simple but powerful numerical method forthe approximation of the unnormalized conditional (probability) density offiltered diffusion process which satisfies Zakai equation and solves thenonlinear filtering problem. Using Galerkin technique the solution of Zakaiequation is approximated by means of a sequence of nonstandard basisfunctions given by a parameterized family of Gaussian densities. The methodis then

  8. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem

  9. Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil

    1993-01-01

    The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.

  10. Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Louis L.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…

  11. Insightful Problem Solving in an Asian Elephant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preston Foerder; Marie Galloway; Tony Barthel; Donald E. Moore; Diana Reiss

    2011-01-01

    The “aha” moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three

  12. Doing Right: Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin F. Shakun

    \\u000a We discuss individual and multiagent (group) problem solving and negotiation. We consider connectedness, a dynamic subjective\\u000a relation experience of consciousness involving awareness\\/qualia experience – as cognition, emotion, social, conation, holistic,\\u000a etc. We develop Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation (CPSN) for doing right meaning defining\\/solving a validated\\u000a “right” problem\\/solution, as discussed in the chapter. The validated solution constitutes right action. CPSN

  13. Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

  14. Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills. PMID:19592762

  15. Numerical methodologies for solving partial differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The numerical methods for solving systems of partial differential equations can be analyzed by decoupling the space and time discretizations and analyzing them independently. First a method is selected to discretize the differential equation in space and incorporate the boundary conditions. The spectrum of this discrete operator is then used as a guide to choose an appropriate method to integrate the equations through time. The dissipative effects of a numerical method are crucial to constructing reliable methods for conservation laws. This is particularly true when the solution is discontinuous as in a shock wave or contact discontinuity. Choosing an accurate method to accomplish each of these tasks, space and time discretization and incorporating artificial dissipation in the numerical solution, determines the success of the calculation. We will describe the methodologies used in each of these choices to construct reliable, accurate and efficient methods. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Collective Problem Solving through Coordinated Reaction

    E-print Network

    Yu, Bin

    of problem solving is con­ straint satisfaction problems. We have applied the method­ ology to job shop scheduling, an NP­complete constraint satisfaction problem. Experimental results on a benchmark suite on problems of larger sizes and showed favorable scaling­up characteristics. KeyW ords--- Collective Problem

  17. Some Helpful Problem-Solving Heuristics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-01

    This page from the site "Stella's Stunners" presents twenty-five thinking strategies that are useful in solving problems. They help students monitor their thought processes and thus help learners become better problem solvers.

  18. Characteristics of problem solving success in physics 

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Marsali Beth

    2014-06-28

    Skills in problem solving, including finding and applying the appropriate knowledge to a problem, are important learning outcomes from the completion of a Physics degree at University. This thesis investigates the ...

  19. Common Core: Solve Math Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

  20. Strengthening Programs through Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes a secondary agricultural education program that was a dumping ground for academically disadvantaged students. Discusses how such a program can be improved by identifying problems and symptoms, treating problems, and goal setting. (JOW)

  1. Mathematics As Problem Solving Math250....

    E-print Network

    Mathematics As Problem Solving Math250.... Instructor: Dr. M. Shiyyab, mathematics Dept. (637 Office Text: Curriculum and Evaluation Standards. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989, or 1999. Course Objective: 1. To improve your mathematical problem solving ability, including reasoning. 2

  2. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

  3. Presenting a Model of Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    Two questions are dealt with: (1) Can those strategies or behaviors which enable experts to solve problems well be characterized, and (2) Can students be trained to use such strategies? A problem-solving course for college students is described and the model on which the course is based is outlined in an attempt to answer these questions. The…

  4. Class Meetings: Young Children Solving Problems Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Emily; Weaver, Patricia Jimenez

    When young children can solve problems in a nonthreatening classroom environment, they feel emotionally safe and can focus their efforts on learning. This book describes the use of class meetings in which early childhood teachers provide guidance in solving a problem or resolving a conflict to help children reach a solution that all can accept.…

  5. When problem solving prevents organizational learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita L. Tucker; Amy C. Edmondson; Steven Spear

    2002-01-01

    We propose that research on problem-solving behavior can provide critical insight into mechanisms through which organizations resist learning and change. In this paper, we describe typical front-line responses to obstacles that hinder workers’ effectiveness and argue that this pattern of behavior creates an important and overlooked barrier to organizational change. Past research on quality improvement and problem solving has found

  6. Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

  7. Problem Solving in Automata, Languages, and Complexity

    E-print Network

    Ko, Ker-I

    .3 Graph Representations for Regular Expressions 2 Finite Automata 2.1 Deterministic Finite Automata 2Problem Solving in Automata, Languages, and Complexity c Copyright, 2001 Ding-Zhu Du Department@cs.sunysb.edu #12; Problem Solving in Automata, Languages, and Complexity c 2001 Ding-Zhu Du and Ker-I Ko CONTENTS

  8. Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez; Aznar, Mercedes Martinez

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students…

  9. Children Solving Problems. The Developing Child Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Stephanie

    The developmental increase in the ability to solve problems is a puzzle. Does it come from basic changes in mental skills, or is it a matter of practice? This book from the Developing Child series synthesizes recent research examining children's problem-solving skills development. Chapter 1 presents the major themes: (1) there is increasing…

  10. Geographic Information Systems: Implications for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Richard H.; Abegg, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    Compares expert-/novice-based problem-solving behaviors with a Geographic Information Systems program. Uses naturalistic methods to analyze problem-solving strategies for occurrence of thematic elements. Reports that experts relied on logical formulations to query the database while novices used trial-and-error methods and midlevel cognitive…

  11. Worrying, social problem-solving abilities, and social problem-solving confidence.

    PubMed

    Davey, G C

    1994-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between worrying and two features of social problem solving: problem-solving ability and confidence. However, while levels of worrying were significantly related to both poor problem-solving confidence and poor perceived control over the problem-solving process, worrying was unrelated to problem-solving ability per se. The failure to find a relationship between worrying and social problem-solving skills was found separately at both low and high levels of worrying, and also when levels of trait anxiety had been controlled for. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that chronic worrying results from poor social problem-solving abilities, but the results are consistent with the belief that worrying is primarily an anxiety-related phenomenon with any problem-solving deficits occurring at the level of solution implementation rather than solution generation. PMID:8192632

  12. Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

  13. Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

    2009-01-01

    How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

  14. Algorithms For Solving Near Point Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F Connor

    2011-01-01

    Near point problems are widely used in computational geometry as well as a variety of other scientific fields. This work examines four common near point problems and presents original algorithms that solve them.\\u000aPlanar nearest neighbor searching is highly motivated by geographic information system and sensor network problems. Efficient data structures to solve near neighbor queries in the plane can

  15. Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...

  16. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  17. New computer program solves wide variety of heat flow problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almond, J. C.

    1966-01-01

    Boeing Engineering Thermal Analyzer /BETA/ computer program uses numerical methods to provide accurate heat transfer solutions to a wide variety of heat flow problems. The program solves steady-state and transient problems in almost any situation that can be represented by a resistance-capacitance network.

  18. Solving the Tulsa ozone problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, K.K. [Atmospheric Information Systems, Norman, OK (United States); Wilson, J.D. [Wilson Consulting Group, Tulsa, OK (United States); Gibeau, E. [Aeromet Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.

  19. Building Confidence through Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This 14-minute video demonstrates how students learn to persevere through challenging number puzzles and games. Headteacher Kate Frood discusses her philosophy and models teaching children to use core multiplication facts as tools for more complex problems. She differentiates tasks to accommodate advanced and struggling learners.

  20. Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

    2011-01-01

    This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

  1. Developing Cognitive Strategies through Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Karen P.; Reimer, Dauri

    1988-01-01

    A program designed to teach cognitive strategies through logical problem-solving and developed for elementary learning disabled students is presented. For each problem set, the instructional procedure involves a discovery activity, discussion, conclusion, follow-up activities, and integration. Five samples of the program's problem sets (e.g.,…

  2. Optimistic Problem Solving Susan L. Epstein

    E-print Network

    Epstein, Susan L.

    Optimistic Problem Solving Susan L. Epstein Computer Science Department, Hunter College and The Graduate Center of The City University of New York 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA susan.epstein

  3. An Alternate Path To Stoichiometric Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    1997-01-01

    Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)

  4. Problem solving and mathematical knowledge Joseph Corneli

    E-print Network

    Problem solving and mathematical knowledge Joseph Corneli December 15, 2010 Abstract This report activity pat- terns correlate with indicators of learning, and a set of narratives that assemble these key

  5. Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E

    2012-10-01

    Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

  6. Learning to Solve Complex Planning Problems: Finding Useful Auxiliary Problems

    E-print Network

    Stone, Peter

    Learning to Solve Complex Planning Problems: Finding Useful Auxiliary Problems Peter Stone,veloso@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Learning from past experience allows a problem solver to increaseits solvability horizon from is extracted from simple problems. But how are these simple problems constructed? All cur- rent learning

  7. Learning to Solve Complex Planning Problems: Finding Useful Auxiliary Problems

    E-print Network

    Stone, Peter

    Learning to Solve Complex Planning Problems: Finding Useful Auxiliary Problems Peter Stone,veloso@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Learning from past experience allows a problem solver to increase its solvability horizon from is extracted from simple problems. But how are these simple problems constructed? All cur­ rent learning

  8. Interior point method for solving optimization problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiong Zhang; Ji Zhou

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a nonlinear optimization method for solving engineering optimal design problems. In addition to maintaining main advantages of typical recursive quadratic methods, our algorithm uses an interior point quadratic programming (QP) subroutine as its QP solver. An implementation of the algorithm proposed in the paper has been applied to standard test problems and real engineering design

  9. PULSATION DAMPER SOLVES ANALYZER PROBLEM (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the use of a pulsation damper to solve a severe output signal interference problem with a Beckman Model 402 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer. The analyzer was used in a computerized data-gathering system. The problem was traced to compressions/decompressions of flow...

  10. Solving Math Word Problems: A Software Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiser, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed are 11 software packages for the Apple II computer designed to help teach elementary and secondary school children how to solve mathword problems. Included in the review are hardware requirements, price, grade level, use of graphics, kinds of problems, tools provided, strengths, and weaknesses of each program. (CW)

  11. Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasetti, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…

  12. Complex Problem Solving in a Workplace Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)

  13. Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search Readings: Chapter 3 of Russell & Norvig. Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/89 Example: Romania Problem: On holiday in Romania; currently in Arad. Flight, Bucharest Artificial Intelligence ­ p.2/89 Example: Romania Giurgiu Urziceni Hirsova Eforie Neamt Oradea

  14. Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search Readings: Chapter 3 of Russell & Norvig. Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/89 #12;Example: Romania Problem: On holiday in Romania; currently in Arad, Fagaras, Bucharest Artificial Intelligence ­ p.2/89 #12;Example: Romania Giurgiu Urziceni Hirsova Eforie

  15. GIS Live and Web Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.

    2007-01-01

    GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

  16. Solving Word Problems Using Story Structure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-16

    In this lesson, students will learn how to use their knowledge of beginning, middle, and end to solve word problems that include result unknown, change unknown, and start unknown. They will learn how to use a modified story map to write an equation to represent the problem.

  17. Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A.; Hegarty, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naive students were administered kinematics problems and…

  18. Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, José N.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…

  19. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The activities in this series may be used as stand-alone exercises but are designed to support Math Forum's Problems of the Week and to help students develop, formalize, and reflect on their problem-solving strategies. Membership subscription is required.

  20. Values in Principals' Thinking when Solving Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2007-01-01

    The values that school principals use when solving organisational problems were studied. Data were collected by a think aloud procedure, in which the participants verbalised their thoughts while working on a set of five administrative problems. The results show that the principals referred to seven values that had subtle but important sub-texts:…

  1. Solving combinatorial optimization problems using Karmarkar's algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Mitchell; Michael J. Todd

    1992-01-01

    We describe a cutting plane algorithm for solving combinatorial optimization problems. The primal projective standard-form variant of Karmarkar's algorithm for linear programming is applied to the duals of a sequence of linear programming relaxations of the combinatorial optimization problem.

  2. Effective Metaroutines for Organizational Problem Solving EFFECTIVE METAROUTINES FOR ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING

    E-print Network

    Sobek II, Durward K.

    of the economy, but one that continues to grapple with systemic issues (Tucker 2004). Healthcare organizations, Organizational Problem Solving, Healthcare, A3 Process #12;Effective Metaroutines for Organizational Problem, and thus sustainable improvement, as "second-order problem solving." Improving healthcare work processes

  3. Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.

  4. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy C. Payne

    2006-11-01

    Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of "real" scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.

  5. Using Dynamic Programming for Solving Variational Problems in Vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir A. Amini; Terry E. Weymouth; Ramesh Jain

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic programming is discussed as an approach to solving variational problems in vision. Dynamic programming ensures global optimality of the solution, is numerically stable, and allows for hard constraints to be enforced on the behavior of the solution within a natural and straightforward structure. As a specific example of the approach's efficacy, applying dynamic programming to the energy-minimizing active contours

  6. Increasing Fourth-Grade Students' Proficiency at Solving Mathematical Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norford, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify effective pedagogical strategies to increase 4th grade students' mathematics problem-solving skills. Numerous researchers have looked at mathematics problem solving; however, there is a scarcity of data relating to 4th grade mathematics problem solving proficiency. Fourth grade students at the…

  7. Predicting Positive Self-Efficacy in Group Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kay N.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 288 hospital employees engaged in problem-solving groups found that previous group problem-solving experience, educational level, work expertise, and problem-solving confidence were the best predictors of self-efficacy. (SK)

  8. Insightful Problem Solving in an Asian Elephant

    PubMed Central

    Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E.; Reiss, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The “aha” moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food. PMID:21876741

  9. Extending problem-solving procedures through reflection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Fincham, Jon M

    2014-11-01

    A large-sample (n=75) fMRI study guided the development of a theory of how people extend their problem-solving procedures by reflecting on them. Both children and adults were trained on a new mathematical procedure and then were challenged with novel problems that required them to change and extend their procedure to solve these problems. The fMRI data were analyzed using a combination of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). This HMM-MVPA analysis revealed the existence of 4 stages: Encoding, Planning, Solving, and Responding. Using this analysis as a guide, an ACT-R model was developed that improved the performance of the HMM-MVPA and explained the variation in the durations of the stages across 128 different problems. The model assumes that participants can reflect on declarative representations of the steps of their problem-solving procedures. A Metacognitive module can hold these steps, modify them, create new declarative steps, and rehearse them. The Metacognitive module is associated with activity in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The ACT-R model predicts the activity in the RLPFC and other regions associated with its other cognitive modules (e.g., vision, retrieval). Differences between children and adults seemed related to differences in background knowledge and computational fluency, but not to the differences in their capability to modify procedures. PMID:25063939

  10. Measures of Problem-Solving Performance and of Problem-Solving Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    Some easily graded measures of problem-solving processes are introduced, and the impact of a month-long intensive problem-solving course on a selected group of college freshmen and sophomores is demonstrated. The measures are thought to have shown themselves to be both reliable and informative. (MP)

  11. Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…

  12. A meshless method for solving the EEG forward problem.

    PubMed

    von Ellenrieder, Nicolas; Muravchik, Carlos H; Nehorai, Arye

    2005-02-01

    We present a numerical method to solve the quasistatic Maxwell equations and compute the electroencephalography (EEG) forward problem solution. More generally, we develop a computationally efficient method to obtain the electric potential distribution generated by a source of electric activity inside a three-dimensional body of arbitrary shape and layers of different electric conductivities. The method needs only a set of nodes on the surface and inside the head, but not a mesh connecting the nodes. This represents an advantage over traditional methods like boundary elements or finite elements since the generation of the mesh is typically computationally intensive. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the boundary element method (BEM) by numerically solving some EEG forward problems examples. For a large number of nodes and the same precision, our method has lower computational load than BEM due to a faster convergence rate and to the sparsity of the linear system to be solved. PMID:15709662

  13. A Problem Solving Intervention for Hospice Caregivers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Parker Oliver, Debra; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive–behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area. PMID:20649438

  14. Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Aerts, Diederik, E-mail: diraerts@vub.ac.be [Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies and Department of Mathematics, Brussels Free University, Brussels (Belgium); Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano, E-mail: autoricerca@gmail.com [Laboratorio di Autoricerca di Base, Lugano (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an “easy” problem and a “hard” problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible “ways of selecting” an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible “ways of selecting” an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.

  15. Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Weiguo; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.

    2009-07-02

    We examine the possibility of using the standard Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems arising from electronic structure calculation. We show that the Jacobian matrix associated with this nonlinear system has a special structure that can be exploited to reduce the computational complexity of the Newton's method. Preliminary numerical experiments indicate that the Newton's method can be more efficient for small problems in which a few smallest eigenpairs are needed.

  16. TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 Problem Solving: Cowboy Bob Problem

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 Problem Solving: Cowboy Bob Problem Page 61 Below is a problem from the outlaws. #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 (continued) Page 62 Notes: #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 7. #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 7 (continued) Page 64 Answer Sheet for Activity 7 1. Examine your

  17. Effective Practices (Part 4): Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moursund, Dave

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of computers to help with problem solving. Topics include information science, including effective procedure and procedural thinking; templates; artificially intelligent agents and expert systems; and applications in education, including the goal of computer literacy for all students, and integrated software packages such as…

  18. Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…

  19. Stoichiometric Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to create and test questions on stoichiometry with number ratios for quick mental calculations and to identify students' problem-solving strategies. The present study was a component of a more comprehensive investigation in which 7,441 German senior high school students were asked to work on 154 test items…

  20. Raise the Bar on Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englard, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS…

  1. Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…

  2. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

  3. Should Children Learn to Solve Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy the…

  4. Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…

  5. Will Biotech Crops Solve World Problems?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College; )

    2003-02-01

    This lesson examines implications of biotechnology on agriculture. Students can discuss the pro & con arguments and economics of GM food labeling, create a dinner menu of GM food, develop a GM crop testing company, submit ideas for a GM crop that may solve a selected nation's problem, update statistics & data used in the original article... and more!

  6. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  7. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  8. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  9. Introduction to Ocean Acoustics: Guided Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joceline Boucher

    Students learn about sound propagation in the ocean through instructor-guided problem solving. The activity promotes a conceptual understanding of the physical and chemical factors that influence ocean acoustics, with applications to how whales communicate over long distances. The activity serves as a way to introduce the topic of ocean sound.

  10. Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James

    1983-01-01

    Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)

  11. Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems

    E-print Network

    Libre de Bruxelles, Université

    Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems Marco Dorigo IRIDIA Universit´e Libre de Bruxelles 50 Avenue F. Roosevelt B-1050 Brussels, Belgium mdorigo@ulb.ac.be Abstract. The ant algorithms research field builds on the idea that the study of the behavior of ant colonies or other social insects

  12. Gun violence and police problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George W Burruss; Scott H Decker

    2002-01-01

    This article uses gun seizure data from the gun lab of the St. Louis Police Department to examine a problem-solving approach to seizing illegal firearms. Further, it explores narrative data from the police reports to understand the context surrounding 113 firearms seizure. The most important findings are that most illegal firearms are seized by the police department in the course

  13. Dynamical systems that solve linear programming problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Faybusovich

    1992-01-01

    The author introduces and studies a class of vector fields which are defined on a given polyhedron and solve linear programming problems. A Dikin-type algorithm is constructed. Relationships with double-bracket equations and entropy-type barrier functions are established

  14. Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Liselore

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

  15. A SURVEY OF PROBLEM-SOLVING COURSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDWARDS, M.O.

    TO DETERMINE THE DESIRABILITY OF HAVING ITS OWN CREATIVITY COURSE, THE STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE SURVEYED 43 ORGANIZATIONS ON THEIR PROBLEM SOLVING COURSES. FIFTEEN INDUSTRIAL CORPORATIONS, FOUR CONSULTING FIRMS, A GOVERNMENT AGENCY, A RESEARCH CORPORATION, AND NINE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES RESPONDED WITH SPECIFIC INFORMATION ON COURSE LENGTH…

  16. Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.

  17. From Numerical Problem Solving to Model-Based Experimentation Incorporating Computer-Based Tools of Various Scales into the ChE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shacham, Mordechai; Cutlip, Michael B.; Brauner, Neima

    2009-01-01

    A continuing challenge to the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum is the time-effective incorporation and use of computer-based tools throughout the educational program. Computing skills in academia and industry require some proficiency in programming and effective use of software packages for solving 1) single-model, single-algorithm…

  18. Episodes and Executive Decisions in Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    The research described here seeks to characterize the "managerial" aspects of expert and novice problem-solving behavior, and to describe the impact of managerial or "executive" actions on success or failure in problem solving. A framework for analyzing protocols of problem-solving sessions based on "episodes" of problem-solving behavior and…

  19. Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Charles

    The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…

  20. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Solving Optimal Power Flow Problem

    PubMed Central

    Le Dinh, Luong; Vo Ngoc, Dieu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problem. The objective of the OPF problem is to minimize total cost of thermal units while satisfying the unit and system constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance, line flow limits, bus voltages limits, and transformer tap settings limits. The ABC algorithm is an optimization method inspired from the foraging behavior of honey bees. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the IEEE 30-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus systems. The numerical results have indicated that the proposed algorithm can find high quality solution for the problem in a fast manner via the result comparisons with other methods in the literature. Therefore, the proposed ABC algorithm can be a favorable method for solving the OPF problem. PMID:24470790

  1. Artificial bee colony algorithm for solving optimal power flow problem.

    PubMed

    Le Dinh, Luong; Vo Ngoc, Dieu; Vasant, Pandian

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problem. The objective of the OPF problem is to minimize total cost of thermal units while satisfying the unit and system constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance, line flow limits, bus voltages limits, and transformer tap settings limits. The ABC algorithm is an optimization method inspired from the foraging behavior of honey bees. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the IEEE 30-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus systems. The numerical results have indicated that the proposed algorithm can find high quality solution for the problem in a fast manner via the result comparisons with other methods in the literature. Therefore, the proposed ABC algorithm can be a favorable method for solving the OPF problem. PMID:24470790

  2. Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

  3. Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).

  4. Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2012-01-01

    Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…

  5. Negotiation as a Metaphor for Distributed Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall Davis; Reid G. Smith

    1983-01-01

    We describe the concept of distributed problem solving and define it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. We present a framework called the contract net that specifies

  6. Context, Connection and Opportunity in Environmental Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses increasing emphasis on connectivity in the field of environmental problem solving. Touches on several major environmental problems as it discusses multidisciplinarity, marketization, and democratization as aspects of a new paradigm for environmental problem solving. (LZ)

  7. Temperature, pressure measurements solve column operating problems

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, S.W. [Process Consulting Services Inc., Grapevine, TX (United States)

    1995-12-25

    Refinery process engineers use computer modeling to design, monitor, operate, and troubleshoot refinery units. Basic chemical engineering principles, coupled with these high-technology tools, offer the engineer opportunities to identify and fix process unit problems. Pressure, temperature, and composition profiles are fundamental process measurements. But these simple tools that identify system design and operating problems are often lost among the more sophisticated high-tech tools. The details of three operations will show how these basic chemical engineering tools can be used to identify and solve operating problems in refinery distillation columns. Case 1 is an overhead crude unit; the second is a deethanizer reboiler; and the third is a crude atmospheric column.

  8. Data completion problems solved as Nash games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habbal, A.; Kallel, M.

    2012-09-01

    The Cauchy problem for an elliptic operator is formulated as a two-player Nash game. Player (1) is given the known Dirichlet data, and uses as strategy variable the Neumann condition prescribed over the inaccessible part of the boundary. Player (2) is given the known Neumann data, and plays with the Dirichlet condition prescribed over the inaccessible boundary. The two players solve in parallel the associated Boundary Value Problems. Their respective objectives involve the gap between the non used Neumann/Dirichlet known data and the traces of the BVP's solutions over the accessible boundary, and are coupled through a difference term. We prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium, which turns out to be the reconstructed data when the Cauchy problem has a solution. We also prove that the completion algorithm is stable with respect to noise, and present two 3D experiments which illustrate the efficiency and stability of our algorithm.

  9. Strategy switch costs in arithmetic problem solving.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick; Lecacheur, Mireille

    2010-04-01

    Three experiments tested whether switching between strategies involves a cost. In three experiments, participants had to give approximate products to two-digit multiplication problems (e.g., 47 x 76). They were told which strategy to use (Experiments 1 and 2) or could choose among strategies (Experiment 3). The participants showed poorer performance when they used different strategies on two consecutive trials than when they used the same strategy. They also used the same strategy over two consecutive problems more often than they used different strategies. These effects, termed strategy switch costs, were found when the participants executed the easiest strategy and when they solved easy problems. We discuss possible processes underlying these strategy switch costs and the implications of these strategy switch costs for models of strategy choices. PMID:20234022

  10. Problem-solving deficits in depressed children, adolescents, and adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard A. Doerfler; Larry L. Mullins; Nora J. Griffin; Lawrence J. Siegel; C. Steven Richards

    1984-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of interpersonal problems with depression. It has been hypothesized that deficits in interpersonal problem-solving skills may account for many of these problems. Three studies that examined the relationship between problem-solving skills and depression are reported. Problem-solving skills among children, adolescents, and adults were assessed by the Means-Ends Problem Solving Test. Contrary to prediction, there

  11. On the Modied Interior Point Algorithm for Solving Multi-Objective Linear Programming Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Tsai Lin; Chie-Bein Chen; Po-Ting Chen

    2006-01-01

    This study presents a modied interior point algorithm for solving multiple objective linear programming (MOLP) problems. The modied algorithm identies the local optional solution obtained using existing interior point algorithms. This study also conducts a numer- ical experiment to solve MOLP problems and to examine optimal objective-value accuracy and computing eciency (or CPU running time) in dieren t problems using

  12. On multistep interval methods for solving the initial value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak, Andrzej

    2007-02-01

    In this paper we shortly complete our previous considerations on interval versions of Adams multistep methods [M. Jankowska, A. Marciniak, Implicit interval multistep methods for solving the initial value problem, Comput. Meth. Sci. Technol. 8(1) (2002) 17-30; M. Jankowska, A. Marciniak, On explicit interval methods of Adams-Bashforth type, Comput. Meth. Sci. Technol. 8(2) (2002) 46-57; A. Marciniak, Implicit interval methods for solving the initial value problem, Numerical Algorithms 37 (2004) 241-251]. It appears that there exist two families of implicit interval methods of this kind. More considerations are dealt with two new kinds of interval multistep methods based on conventional well-known Nystrom and Milne-Simpson methods. For these new interval methods we prove that the exact solution of the initial value problem belongs to the intervals obtained. Moreover, we present some estimations of the widths of interval solutions. Some conclusions bring this paper to the end.

  13. March 23, 2008 ICS102: Prob. solving 2 1 Problem Solving 2

    E-print Network

    Adam, Salah

    March 23, 2008 ICS102: Prob. solving 2 1 Problem Solving 2 #12;March 23, 2008 ICS102: Prob. solving A GPA ICS102: Prob. solving 500 and under 5000 5 % of SALES 5000 and over 8 % of SALES #12;March 23, 2008 ICS102: Prob. solving 2

  14. Design Guidelines for Social Problem-Solving Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. McCann

    1983-01-01

    Two or more social actors-individuals, groups, and organizations-engage in social problem solving when resolving or managing a shared problem. Social problem solving poses significant conceptual and control difficulties that make it highly episodic and prone to setbacks. This paper proposes a framework for understanding social problem solving and offers four guidelines for designing interventions to facilitate the process. A case

  15. Problem solving and chemical equilibrium: Successful versus unsuccessful performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moises Camacho; Ron Good

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the problem-solving behaviors of experts and novices engaged in solving seven chemical equilibrium problems. Thirteen novices (five high-school students, five undergraduate majors, and three nonmajors) and ten experts (six doctoral students and four faculty members) were videotaped as they individually solved standard chemical equilibrium problems. The nature of the problems was such

  16. Environmental Problem Solving: Theory, Practice and Possibilities in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardwell, Lisa V., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph is a resource for educators who wish to explore environmental problem solving. It consists of five parts. Chapter 1 presents a psychological perspective on problem solving and its implications for teaching problem solving skills in an interdisciplinary arena. Chapter 2 presents four approaches to developing environmental problem

  17. Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billionniere, Elodie V.

    Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

  18. Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus).

    PubMed

    Seed, Amanda M; Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2008-06-22

    Recent work has shown that captive rooks, like chimpanzees and other primates, develop cooperative alliances with their conspecifics. Furthermore, the pressures hypothesized to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. We tested cooperative problem-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly solved a problem in which two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously in order to pull in a food platform. Similar to chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, performance was better when within-dyad tolerance levels were higher. In contrast to chimpanzees, rooks did not delay acting on the apparatus while their partner gained access to the test room. Furthermore, given a choice between an apparatus that could be operated individually over one that required the action of two individuals, four out of six individuals showed no preference. These results may indicate that cooperation in chimpanzees is underpinned by more complex cognitive processes than that in rooks. Such a difference may arise from the fact that while both chimpanzees and rooks form cooperative alliances, chimpanzees, but not rooks, live in a variable social network made up of competitive and cooperative relationships. PMID:18364318

  19. Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

  20. Numerical stability in problems of linear algebra.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babuska, I.

    1972-01-01

    Mathematical problems are introduced as mappings from the space of input data to that of the desired output information. Then a numerical process is defined as a prescribed recurrence of elementary operations creating the mapping of the underlying mathematical problem. The ratio of the error committed by executing the operations of the numerical process (the roundoff errors) to the error introduced by perturbations of the input data (initial error) gives rise to the concept of lambda-stability. As examples, several processes are analyzed from this point of view, including, especially, old and new processes for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with tridiagonal matrices. In particular, it is shown how such a priori information can be utilized as, for instance, a knowledge of the row sums of the matrix. Information of this type is frequently available where the system arises in connection with the numerical solution of differential equations.

  1. Numerical Solution of Elliptic Boundary Value Problems by Spline Functions

    E-print Network

    Shah, Jayant M.

    1968-04-01

    A numerical method for solving linear, two-dimensional elliptic boundary value problems is presented. The method is essentially the Ritz procedure which uses; polynomial spline functions to approximate the exact solution. ...

  2. Solving Fractional Programming Problems based on Swarm Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raouf, Osama Abdel; Hezam, Ibrahim M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach to solve Fractional Programming Problems (FPPs) based on two different Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. The two algorithms are: Particle Swarm Optimization, and Firefly Algorithm. The two algorithms are tested using several FPP benchmark examples and two selected industrial applications. The test aims to prove the capability of the SI algorithms to solve any type of FPPs. The solution results employing the SI algorithms are compared with a number of exact and metaheuristic solution methods used for handling FPPs. Swarm Intelligence can be denoted as an effective technique for solving linear or nonlinear, non-differentiable fractional objective functions. Problems with an optimal solution at a finite point and an unbounded constraint set, can be solved using the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given to show the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The results obtained using the two SI algorithms revealed the superiority of the proposed technique among others in computational time. A better accuracy was remarkably observed in the solution results of the industrial application problems.

  3. 18.S34 Problem Solving Seminar, Fall 2004

    E-print Network

    Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-

    This course,which is geared toward Freshmen, is an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. It is intended for students who enjoy solving challenging mathematical problems and who are interested in learning ...

  4. Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941

  5. Problem Solving in the School Curriculum from a Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Tin Lam; Leong, Yew Hoong; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng

    2010-01-01

    In this symposium, the participants discuss some preliminary data collected from their problem solving project which uses a design experiment approach. Their approach to problem solving in the school curriculum is in tandem with what Schoenfeld (2007) claimed: "Crafting instruction that would make a wide range of problem-solving strategies…

  6. Solving Word Problems Using Schemas: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students…

  7. On the Analysis of Two-Person Problem Solving Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    Methodological issues in the use of protocol analysis for research into human problem solving processes are examined through a case study in which two students were videotaped as they worked together to solve mathematical problems "out loud." The students' chosen strategic or executive behavior in examining and solving a problem was studied,…

  8. Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

  9. Basic Processes in Simple Problem Solving. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Guy J.

    This paper presents the results of three experiments studying routine problem-solving tasks in simple addition and subtraction. Indications are that children tend to solve such problems by internalized counting procedures which may be learned independently as a consequence of practice in problem solving. Brief descriptions of exploratory studies…

  10. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  11. Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.

    2010-01-01

    Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…

  12. The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…

  13. A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…

  14. Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-01-01

    Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

  15. Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)

  16. Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Woei

    2013-01-01

    Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

  17. Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Sweller

    1988-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that domain specific knowledge in the form of schemes is the primary factor distinguishing experts from novices in problem- solving skill. Evidence that conventional problem-solving activity is not effective in schema acquisition is also accumulating. It is suggested that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes

  18. Problem Solving Strategies for Pharmaceutical/Chemical Technology College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, George F.; Alexander, William E.

    Teaching problem solving strategies and steps to first year college students enrolled in the pharmaceutical/chemical technology program as a part of their first year chemistry course focused on teaching the students the basic steps in problem solving and encouraging them to plan carefully and focus on the problem solving process rather than to…

  19. Averaging Schemes for Solving Fived Point and Variational Inequality Problems

    E-print Network

    Magnanti, Thomas L.

    We develop and study averaging schemes for solving fixed point and variational inequality problems. Typically, researchers have established convergence results for solution methods for these problems by establishing ...

  20. Exploring the role of GIS during community health assessment problem solving: experiences of public health professionals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Scotch; Bambang Parmanto; Cynthia S Gadd; Ravi K Sharma

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A Community health assessment (CHA) involves the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in conjunction with other software to analyze health and population data and perform numerical-spatial problem solving. There has been little research on identifying how public health professionals integrate this software during typical problem solving scenarios. A better understanding of this is needed to answer the \\

  1. COMP 115 Robots, Games, and Problem Solving Spring 2011 Assignment P2

    E-print Network

    Gousie, Michael B.

    COMP 115 Robots, Games, and Problem Solving Spring 2011 Assignment P2 Due Date: March 3 Purpose Hi similar to the picture on the top of the next page. The graphic does not need to look exactly like the one 115 Robots, Games, and Problem Solving Spring 2011 Lastly, the numeric averages for each rebar type

  2. Young children's analogical problem solving: gaining insights from video displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:24077465

  3. Children use salience to solve coordination problems.

    PubMed

    Grueneisen, Sebastian; Wyman, Emily; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Humans are routinely required to coordinate with others. When communication is not possible, adults often achieve this by using salient cues in the environment (e.g. going to the Eiffel Tower, as an obvious meeting point). To explore the development of this capacity, we presented dyads of 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds (N = 144) with a coordination problem: Two balls had to be inserted into the same of four boxes to obtain a reward. Identical pictures were attached to three boxes whereas a unique - and thus salient - picture was attached to the fourth. Children either received one ball each, and so had to choose the same box (experimental condition), or they received both balls and could get the reward independently (control condition). In all cases, children could neither communicate nor see each other's choices. Children were significantly more likely to choose the salient option in the experimental condition than in the control condition. However, only the two older age groups chose the salient box above chance levels. This study is the first to show that children from at least age 5 can solve coordination problems by converging on a salient solution. PMID:25066201

  4. Effect of Explicit Problem Solving Instructions on the Problem Solving Performance and Conceptual Understanding of Introductory College Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numan, Muhammad; Sobolewski, Stanley

    1998-04-01

    Two sections of introductory non-calculus general physics lecture courses, with a total enrolment of 120 students, were used to investigate the impact of explicit problem solving instruction on students' problem solving ability and conceptual understanding. The comparison group was instructed in textbook style problem solving strategy. Students' conceptual understanding was assessed by adminstering the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) at the begening and end of the semester. Required written rationale for multiple choice questions and responses to multistep problems were analyzed to further assess conceptual understanding and problem solving skills of the students in the two groups. A significant difference was noted in both understanding and problem solving performance.

  5. The Effects of Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving on High School Students' Chemistry Problem-Solving Performance and Verbal Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee

    2005-01-01

    A problem solving strategy, Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS), developed by Arthur Whimbey to help students monitor and understand their own thought process is presented. The TAPPS strategy encouraged the students interact verbally with each other to solve chemistry problems and improve the achievements in chemistry.

  6. Large Scale Computational Problems in Numerical Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    coleman, thomas f. [cornell university] [cornell university

    2000-07-01

    Our work under this support broadly falls into five categories: automatic differentiation, sparsity, constraints, parallel computation, and applications. Automatic Differentiation (AD): We developed strong practical methods for computing sparse Jacobian and Hessian matrices which arise frequently in large scale optimization problems [10,35]. In addition, we developed a novel view of "structure" in applied problems along with AD techniques that allowed for the efficient application of sparse AD techniques to dense, but structured, problems. Our AD work included development of freely available MATLAB AD software. Sparsity: We developed new effective and practical techniques for exploiting sparsity when solving a variety of optimization problems. These problems include: bound constrained problems, robust regression problems, the null space problem, and sparse orthogonal factorization. Our sparsity work included development of freely available and published software [38,39]. Constraints: Effectively handling constraints in large scale optimization remains a challenge. We developed a number of new approaches to constrained problems with emphasis on trust region methodologies. Parallel Computation: Our work included the development of specifically parallel techniques for the linear algebra tasks underpinning optimization algorithms. Our work contributed to the nonlinear least-squares problem, nonlinear equations, triangular systems, orthogonalization, and linear programming. Applications: Our optimization work is broadly applicable across numerous application domains. Nevertheless we have specifically worked in several application areas including molecular conformation, molecular energy minimization, computational finance, and bone remodeling.

  7. Finite difference preconditioning for solving orthogonal collocation equations of boundary value problems

    E-print Network

    Sun, Weiwei; Huang, Weizhang; Russell, Robert D.

    1996-12-01

    A technique to construct a low-order finite difference preconditioner for solving orthogonal collocation equations for boundary value problems is presented. It is shown numerically and theoretically that the spectral condition numbers...

  8. Solving linear variational inequality problems by a self-adaptive projection method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deren Han

    2006-01-01

    We propose a self-adaptive projection method for solving linear variational inequality problems and show its global convergence under mild conditions. Some numerical results are also addressed which indicate that the method is quite robust and efficient.

  9. Investigating the Effect of Mental Set on Insight Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Öllinger; Gary Jones; Günther Knoblich

    2008-01-01

    Mental set is the tendency to solve certain problems in a fixed way based on previous solutions to similar problems. The moment of insight occurs when a problem cannot be solved using solution methods suggested by prior experience and the problem solver suddenly realizes that the solution requires different solution methods. Mental set and insight have often been linked together

  10. Solving the Quorumcast Routing Problem as a Mixed Integer Program

    E-print Network

    Deville, Yves

    Solving the Quorumcast Routing Problem as a Mixed Integer Program Quoc Trung BUI1 , Quang Dung PHAM on a given undirected weighted graph. In this paper, we solve this problem as a mixed integer program In this paper, we propose four mathematical formulations for QRP and use them to solve QRP as a mixed integer

  11. The quadratic interior point method solving power system optimization problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Momoh; S. X. Guo; E. C. Ogbuobiri; R. Adapa

    1994-01-01

    Karmarkar's interior point method as a computation method for solving linear programming (LP) has attracted interest in the operation research community, due to its efficiency, reliability, and accuracy. This paper presents an extended quadratic interior point (EQIP) method, based on improvement of initial condition for solving both linear and quadratic programming problems, to solve power system optimization problem (PSOP), such

  12. A New Method for Solving Hard Satisfiability Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Selman; Hector J. Levesque; David G. Mitchell

    1992-01-01

    We introduce a greedy local search procedure called GSAT for solving propositional satisfiability problems.Our experiments show that this procedure can be used to solve hard, randomly generated problems that are an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by more traditional approaches such as the Davis-Putnam procedure or resolution. We also show that GSAT can solve structured

  13. Fourier method for solving the multi-frequency inverse source problem for the Helmholtz equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Deyue; Guo, Yukun

    2015-03-01

    We consider an inverse source problem for the Helmholtz equation. This is concerned with the reconstruction of an unknown source from multi-frequency data obtained from the radiated fields. Based on a Fourier expansion of the source, a numerical method is proposed to solve the inverse problem. Stability is analyzed and numerical experiments are presented to show the effectiveness of our method.

  14. Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.

    PubMed

    Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PMID:25000309

  15. Age and gender differences in social problem-solving ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. D'Zurilla; Albert Maydeu-Olivares; Gail L. Kant

    1998-01-01

    Age and gender differences in social problem-solving ability were examined using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (D'Zurilla et al., 1998). In general, the results suggest that social problem-solving ability increases from young adulthood (ages 17–20) to middle-age (ages 40–55) and then decreases in older age (ages 60–80). Specifically, compared to younger adults, middle-aged individuals scored higher on positive problem orientation and

  16. An Assessment of Problem Solving Processes in Undergraduate Statics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Four well-articulated models that offer structured approaches to problem solving were identified in the engineering research literature. These models provided a conceptual base for the study reported here. Four undergraduates enrolled in statics and two engineering faculty members provided think-aloud data as they solved two statics problems. The data were used to develop a coding system for characterizing engineering students behavioral and cognitive processes. These codes were used to analyze students problem solving procedures in a detailed manner, particularly differences between good and not-so-good problem solvers. The analyses provide a picture of how students and faculty solve problems at a cognitive level, and indicate that published problem-solving models are incomplete in describing actual problem-solving processes.

  17. The Development of Students' Probllem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Foster, Thomas

    Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

  18. The Effects of GO Solve Word Problems Math Intervention on Applied Problem Solving Skills of Low Performing Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fede, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigation examined the effects of "GO Solve Word Problems" math intervention on problem-solving skills of struggling 5th grade students. In a randomized controlled study, 16 5th grade students were given a 12-week intervention of "GO Solve", a computer-based program designed to teach schema-based instruction strategies (SBI.s) to…

  19. Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lynda R.

    2008-01-01

    Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…

  20. A Rubric for Assessing Students' Experimental Problem-Solving Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadle, Susan E.; Brown, Eric C.; Towns, Marcy H.; Warner, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to couple problem solving both to the understanding of chemical concepts and to laboratory practices is an essential skill for undergraduate chemistry programs to foster in our students. Therefore, chemistry programs must offer opportunities to answer real problems that require use of problem-solving processes used by practicing…

  1. Sequential Methods in Solving Economic Power Flow Problems

    E-print Network

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    Sequential Methods in Solving Economic Power Flow Problems William D. Rosehart Claudio A. Ca and an interior point quadratic programmingalgorithm that are used to solve the opti- mal power ow problem of the problem. Two methods to reduce the oscillations are discussed and implemented on a six bus test system

  2. Schema Induction in Problem Solving: A Multidimensional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhe; Mo, Lei

    2004-01-01

    The present research examined the processes of schema formation in problem solving. In 4 experiments, participants experienced a series of tasks analogous to A. S. Luchins' (1942) water jar problems before attempting to solve isomorphic target problems. Juxtaposing illustrative source instances varying in procedural features along multiple…

  3. Right Problem Solving: Doing the Right Thing Right

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin F. Shakun

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses right problem solving to define\\/solve a right problem for doing the right thing right. In so doing, the paper operationally considers purposeful complex adaptive systems (PCAS), Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD), group\\/negotiation support systems, consciousness, connectedness, spirituality, rationality, problems, and right rationality in theory and practice. System agents may be natural (human) and\\/or artificial.

  4. A. Grothey Solving Large Financial Planning Problems School of Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Grothey, Andreas

    . Grothey Solving Large Financial Planning Problems Portfolio Optimization: Asset and Liability Management Large Financial Planning Problems Asset and Liability Management as Stochastic Program With every node i-31 August 2007 1 #12;A. Grothey Solving Large Financial Planning Problems Overview · Asset and Liability

  5. Strategies for Creative Problem Solving: Interactive Computer Modules

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fogler, H. Scott

    These Interactive Computer Modules (ICMs) are contained on the Strategies for Creative Problem Solving CD-ROM, but are also freely available to download from the website. The ICMs offer participatory problem solving activities for students, intended to supplement the text. The website also includes summary notes from each text chapter and sample problems.

  6. A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

  7. Theory of Constructions and Set in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; And Others

    Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning knowledge, is described. Perdix' planning knowledge enables it to augment the problem space it is given by constructing auxiliary lines. The planning system also…

  8. Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

  9. Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pescetti, D.

    2008-01-01

    The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…

  10. Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University

    1997-01-01

    Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…

  11. Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

  12. Solving Accounting Problems: Differences Between Accounting Experts and Novices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Douglas Marshall

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated the extent to which accounting experts and accounting novices differ in their application of accounting principles to solve accounting problems. Results show that 90 accounting experts applied more accounting principles in solving problems than did 60 accounting novices. There were no important differences in the type of accounting principles applied to problem facts and

  13. Phenomenographic study of students' problem solving approaches in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert G.; Bowe, Brian

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study is a hierarchical set of categories that describe the students’ problem solving approaches in the context of introductory physics.

  14. CORRELATIVE SPARSITY IN SOLVING OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunyoung Kim

    Exploiting sparsity has been a key issue in solving large-scale optimization pro blems. The most time-consuming part of primal-dual interior-point methods for linear programs, second-order cone programs, and semidefinite programs is solving the Schur complement equation at each iteration, usually by the Cholesky factorization. The computational efficiency is greatly affected by the sparsity of the coefficient matrix of the equation

  15. Problem-solving strategies for teaching mathematics to deaf students.

    PubMed

    Mousley, K; Kelly, R R

    1998-10-01

    Three teaching and learning strategies for problem solving were implemented with first- and second-year deaf college students enrolled in mathematics courses at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), Rochester Institute of Technology. These strategies involved the students in (a) giving an explanation to a peer observer in sign language, after which they would put their understanding of a problem and its solution in writing; (b) visualizing the problem-solving process prior to starting to solve a problem; and (c) observing their teacher modeling the analytical process step by step for a sample problem prior to solving math word problems. The students were asked to solve two types of problems: typical word problems, and a visual/manipulative puzzle that would provide a problem-solving experience that would contrast with the experience of solving a problem presented in text format. The results showed that these kinds of instructional strategies can enhance the problem-solving performance of deaf and hard of hearing college students. PMID:9842060

  16. A Software Framework for Solving Problems of Bioelectricity Applying High-Order Finite Elements

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    A Software Framework for Solving Problems of Bioelectricity Applying High-Order Finite Elements M of this work is the design of a framework for describing and solving high-order finite elements in the software process. In this work a software framework for apply- ing high-order finite elements to numerically calcu

  17. Solving the inverse problem of electrocardiography using a Duncan and Horn formulation of the Kalman filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith L. Berrier; Danny C. Sorensen; Dirar S. Khoury

    2004-01-01

    Numeric regularization methods most often used to solve the ill-posed inverse problem of electrocardiography are spatial and ignore the temporal nature of the problem. In this paper, a Kalman filter reformulation incorporated temporal information to regularize the inverse problem, and was applied to reconstruct left ventricular endocardial electrograms based on cavitary electrograms measured by a noncontact, multielectrode probe. These results

  18. Real-Life Math Problem Solving: 40 Exciting, Classroom-Tested Problems with Annotated Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Mark

    Students better understand problem solving when the basis for the problems are real-life situations. This book, geared for grades 4-8, offers multi-step, real-life problems to encourage students to think flexibly, creatively, and analytically about problem solving. It includes ideas for setting up a problem-solving classroom and assessment…

  19. Learning New Problem-Solving Strategies Leads to Changes in Problem Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alibali, Martha W.; Phillips, Karin M. O.; Fischer, Allison D.

    2009-01-01

    Children sometimes solve problems incorrectly because they fail to represent key features of the problems. One potential source of improvements in children's problem representations is learning new problem-solving strategies. Ninety-one 3rd- and 4th-grade students solved mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3+4+6=3+__) and completed a…

  20. Same Old Problem, New Name? Alerting Students to the Nature of the Problem-Solving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Magen, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Students frequently misconceive the process of problem-solving, expecting the linear process required for solving an exercise, rather than the convoluted search process required to solve a genuine problem. In this paper we present an activity designed to foster in students realization and appreciation of the nature of the problem-solving process,…

  1. How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

  2. A Meaningless but Nonalgorithmic Solving Course: Solving a Graphing Problem about Osmosis by Analogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, June T.

    Various researchers have associated meaningful problem solving with methods guided directly by a conceptual knowledge base. By contast, a meaningless solving course, or sequence of operations, is essentially independent of the solver's conceptual understanding of the problem under consideration. This paper is the first to document a meaningless,…

  3. Subject mediation approach for scientific problem solving in Virtual Observatories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonid Kalinichenko

    2007-01-01

    There exist two principally different approaches to the organization of problem solving in VO: (i) information resources driven approach (choice and integrated definition of resources are made independently of the problem specification); and (ii) scientific problem driven approach (a specification of a problem domain is created, the relevant to the problem resources are identified and semantically mapped into the domain).

  4. Digit Delight: Problem-solving Activities Using 0 through 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balka, Don S.

    1988-01-01

    Several problem-solving activities involving only 0-9 to be used with sets of ceramic tiles are presented. Finding specified sums, differences, or products is the object of most of the problems. (MNS)

  5. Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberényi, József

    2014-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…

  6. Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus)

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    , UK 2 Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max-Planck Institut fu¨r evolutiona¨re Anthropologie, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany 3 Sub-Department of Animal Behaviour, University-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly

  7. Using Microcomputers to Solve Probability Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, William E.

    1985-01-01

    Use of the computer to simulate or imitate probability problems that are difficult to analyze in any other way is discussed. How the Monte Carlo method works is clarified, with sample problems and programs. (MNS)

  8. Iterative Methods for Solving Nonlinear Parabolic Problem in Pension Saving Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, M. N.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we consider a nonlinear parabolic equation, obtained from Riccati like transformation of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, arising in pension saving management. We discuss two numerical iterative methods for solving the model problem—fully implicit Picard method and mixed Picard-Newton method, which preserves the parabolic characteristics of the differential problem. Numerical experiments for comparison the accuracy and effectiveness of the algorithms are discussed. Finally, observations are given.

  9. Roulette wheel Graph Colouring for Solving Examination Timetabling Problems

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    Roulette wheel Graph Colouring for Solving Examination Timetabling Problems Nasser R. Sabar1 heuristic that employs a roulette wheel selection mechanism for solving examination timetabling problems. We determines the size of a segment in a roulette wheel, with a larger degree giving a larger segment

  10. M. Bahrami ENSC388, Help Session 1 Solving Thermodynamics Problems

    E-print Network

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami ENSC388, Help Session 1 Solving Thermodynamics Problems Solving thermodynamic problems conservation of energy to process (1st law of thermodynamics) For a control mass/closed system: WQE properties using Tables or models, such as ideal gas relationship 11.Substitute numbers into equation

  11. ROBOTS IN PROBLEM-SOLVING AND PROGRAMMING. Scott Turner

    E-print Network

    Hill, Gary

    82 ROBOTS IN PROBLEM-SOLVING AND PROGRAMMING. Scott Turner University of Northampton Avenue Campus based on using Mindstorm (LEGO, Denmark) robot kits. This is being done as a foundation step before experience, problem-solving, robots, Java. INTRODUCTION Mindstorm based robots have been used previously

  12. "Opportunities in Work Clothes": Online Problem-Solving Project Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judi

    1994-01-01

    Provides activity structures for and gives examples of problem-solving projects to be used with educational telecomputing. Highlights include information searches, electronic process writing, sequential creations, parallel problem solving, simulations, social action projects, and instructions for accessing information about these and other…

  13. The Winning Edge: Tips for Creative Problem-Solving Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safris, Richard

    Intended for coaches of school competitive problem-solving teams, this publication details 70 suggestions for building, motivating, and training problem-solving teams in grades 4 to 8. The tips cover a range of topics related to preparing for competition, the competition itself, and post-competition. The pre-competition suggestions include: (1)…

  14. Teaching Problem Solving to Year 6 Students: A New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adibnia, Assad; Putt, Ian J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of an instructional intervention derived from the Garofalo and Lester cognitive-metacognitive framework on the problem-solving performance of year six students with different ability levels. Concludes that there was significant improvement in problem-solving performance for the experimental class compared to the control…

  15. An Application Driven Problem Solving Methodology Teodor Rus1

    E-print Network

    Rus, Teodor

    for application-domain structuring using ontology engineering tools; this will enable the design of domain-driven of a domain driven approach to problem solving with a computer system that integrates computer educationAn Application Driven Problem Solving Methodology Teodor Rus1 , PI, Department of Computer Science

  16. Problem Solving in Social Studies: Concepts and Critiques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sickle, Ronald L.; Hoge, John D.

    Recent developments in the field of cognitive psychology, particularly in the area of information processing, have shed light on the way people think in order to make decisions and solve problems. In addition, cooperative learning research has provided evidence of the effectiveness of cooperatively structured group work aimed at problem solving.…

  17. Secondary 2 Students' Difficulties in Solving Non-Routine Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study on mathematical problem solving of secondary 2 (13- to 14-years old) students in Singapore, 56 Secondary two students from ten secondary schools participated in this study. The purpose of this paper is to explore difficulties faced by 56 Secondary 2 students when solving problems. These interviews were analysed using the…

  18. Solving Natural Gas Loadflow Problems Using Electric Loadflow Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Li; Seungwon An; Thomas W. Gedra

    Methods to solve natural gas loadflow problems using electric loadflow techniques are presented. The motivation is to integrate a natural gas network with an electric power transmission network so that the network analysis for a combined natural gas and electric power distribution network can be performed in a consistent manner. The issues arising from solving gas loadflow problems are discussed

  19. Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…

  20. Ideational Fluency as a Predictor of Original Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Roberta M.; Arad, Rivka

    1981-01-01

    Empirical validity of nonoverlapping scores of original problem solving on a lenient solution-standard predictor was evidenced in college students by high correlations with corresponding scores on stringent solution-standard criterion tasks. Findings support the construct validity of conceptualizations of original problem solving based on…

  1. Transfer of Learning: Connecting Concepts during Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Raymond A.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    A concern of many educators and managers is students' ability to transfer concepts and procedures learned in school to the work environment. When children are taught a skill, such as solving a mathematical problem, they often fail to recognize that their new skill can be used to solve a similar problem outside of school. In other cases, students…

  2. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  3. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  4. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  5. The Effects of Age on Perceptual Problem-Solving Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jo Ann; Pollack, Robert H.

    Witkin's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) was used to measure the changes with age in field dependence and problem-solving ability. Qualitative data concerning problem-solving strategies and quantitative data were collected. EFT was administered to 12 females in each of the following decades: 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s. All subjects were moderately…

  6. An ESD Computer Culture for Intercultural Problem Solving and Negotiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin F. Shakun

    1999-01-01

    Intercultural problem solving and negotiation involves interaction of two or more cultures. These processes may be formally modeled using the Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD) framework implemented by appropriate computer group support systems (GSS). The ESD\\/GSS combination provides an ESD computer culture for intercultural problem solving and negotiation in a same place\\/same time or telework mode. With this, players in a

  7. Problem Solving, Reasoning, and Analytical Thinking in a Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Joanne K.

    2011-01-01

    Problem solving, reasoning, and analytical thinking are defined and described as teachable repertoires. This paper describes work performed at a school serving special needs children, Morningside Academy, that has resulted in specific procedures developed over the past 15 years. These procedures include modifying "Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving"…

  8. Logo Programming, Problem Solving, and Knowledge-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Karen; Black, John B.

    The research reported in this paper was designed to investigate the hypothesis that computer programming may support the teaching and learning of problem solving, but that to do so, problem solving must be explicitly taught. Three studies involved students in several grades: 4th, 6th, 8th, 11th, and 12th. Findings collectively show that five…

  9. Structured Collaboration versus Individual Learning in Solving Physics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld's problem-solving episodes. Students took a pre-test and a post-test and had the…

  10. Introduction to Problem Solving: Strategies for the Elementary Math Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Susan

    This book is designed to help better understand problem-solving instruction. It presents information on helping students understand the problem-solving process as well as information on teaching specific strategies, including: Choose an Operation; Find a Pattern; Make a Table; Make an Organized List; Draw a Picture or Diagram; Guess, Check, and…

  11. Problem Solving and the Development of Expertise in Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Fredrick B.

    This study investigated novice and expert problem solving behavior in management to examine the role of domain specific knowledge on problem solving processes. Forty-one middle level marketing managers in a large petrochemical organization provided think aloud protocols in response to two hypothetical management scenarios. Protocol analysis…

  12. NEOS and Condor: solving optimization problems over the Internet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Ferris; Michael P. Mesnier; Jorge J. Moré

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the use of Condor, a distributed resource management system, as a provider of computational resources for NEOS, an environment for solving optimization problems over the Internet. We also describe how problems are submitted and processed by NEOS, and then scheduled and solved by Condor on available (idle) workstations

  13. Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…

  14. Determining Students' Attitude towards Physics through Problem-Solving Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdemir, Naki

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of teacher-directed and self-directed problem-solving strategies on students' attitudes toward physics were explored. Problem-solving strategies were used with the experimental group, while the control group was instructed using traditional teaching methods. The study was conducted with 270 students at various high…

  15. The Role of Problem Solving in Complex Intraverbal Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sautter, Rachael A.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Jay, Allison A.; Goldsmith, Tina R.; Carr, James E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until…

  16. Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Dae S.

    2011-01-01

    In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…

  17. Problem Solving Variations in an Online Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahimi, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    An observation on teaching introductory programming courses on SLN for a period of two terms led me to believe that online students try various ways to solve a problem. In the beginning, I got the impression that some of their approaches for a solution were wrong; but after a little investigation, I found that some of the problem-solving

  18. Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Susan Preston

    1999-01-01

    Compared the impact of robotics (computer-powered manipulative) to a battery-powered manipulative (novelty control) and traditionally taught science class on science achievement and problem solving of fourth through sixth graders. Found that the robotics group had higher scores on programming logic-problem solving than did the novelty control…

  19. Future Problem Solving: Taking It beyond the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibel, John

    1991-01-01

    A former participant in the Future Problem Solving Program reminisces about his experience in local and national competitions, describes the program's unique features (its emphasis on creativity and focus on the future), and notes the usefulness of the problem-solving process in his work with the Corporate Audit Staff of General Electric. (JDD)

  20. Puzzling Science: Using the Rubik's Cube to Teach Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrig, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A major goal of education is to help learners store information in long-term memory and use that information on later occasions to effectively solve problems (Vockell 2010). Therefore, this author began to use the Rubik's cube to help students learn to problem solve. There is something special about this colorful three-dimensional puzzle that…

  1. SOLVING THE SIMPLE PLANT LOCATION PROBLEM BY GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jozef Kratica; Vladimir Filipovi; Ivana Ljubi; P. Tolla

    2001-01-01

    The simple plant location problem (SPLP) is considered and a genetic algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. By using the developed algorithm it is possible to solve SPLP with more than 1000 facility sites and customers. Computational results are presented and compared to dual based algorithms.

  2. Solving The Simple Plant Location Problem By Genetic Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jozef Kratica; Dusan Tosic; Vladimir Filipovic; Ivana Ljubic

    2001-01-01

    The simple plant location problem (SPLP) is consideredand a genetic algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. By usingthe developed algorithm it is possible to solve SPLP with more than1000 facility sites and customers. Computational results are presentedand compared to dual based algorithms.

  3. High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy

    2001-01-01

    Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…

  4. Heuristics - intelligent search strategies for computer problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judea Pearl

    1984-01-01

    Heuristics stand for strategies using readily accessible information to control problem-solving processes in man and machine. This book presents an analysis of the nature and the power of typical heuristic methods, primarily those used in artificial intelligence and operations research, to solve problems in areas such as reasoning, design, scheduling, planning, signal interpretation, symbolic computation, and combinatorial optimization. It is

  5. Students' Metaphors for Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the metaphors used by students to describe mathematical problem solving. This study focused on identifying how students interpret and perceive mathematical problem solving via conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). These perceptions and interpretations were coded and analyzed qualitatively and…

  6. Engineering students' experiences and perceptions of workplace problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Rui

    In this study, I interviewed 22 engineering Co-Op students about their workplace problem solving experiences and reflections and explored: 1) Of Co-Op students who experienced workplace problem solving, what are the different ways in which students experience workplace problem solving? 2) How do students perceive a) the differences between workplace problem solving and classroom problem solving and b) in what areas are they prepared by their college education to solve workplace problems? To answer my first research question, I analyzed data through the lens of phenomenography and I conducted thematic analysis to answer my second research question. The results of this study have implications for engineering education and engineering practice. Specifically, the results reveal the different ways students experience workplace problem solving, which provide engineering educators and practicing engineers a better understanding of the nature of workplace engineering. In addition, the results indicate that there is still a gap between classroom engineering and workplace engineering. For engineering educators who aspire to prepare students to be future engineers, it is imperative to design problem solving experiences that can better prepare students with workplace competency.

  7. A Markov Model Analysis of Problem-Solving Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendlinski, Terry

    This study used a computerized simulation and problem-solving tool along with artificial neural networks (ANN) as pattern recognizers to identify the common types of strategies high school and college undergraduate chemistry students would use to solve qualitative chemistry problems. Participants were 134 high school chemistry students who used…

  8. Computers and Problem Solving for Sixth-Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oughton, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a curriculum unit designed for average sixth-grade students intended to engage them in problem-solving experiences and to teach them problem-solving strategies. The curriculum consists of 20 sessions in which students engage in various activities using the following software packages: The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, Rescue at Boone's…

  9. Problem Solving in Genetics: Conceptual and Procedural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagoz, Meryem; Cakir, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore prospective biology teachers' understandings of fundamental genetics concepts and the association between misconceptions and genetics problem solving abilities. Specifically, the study describes conceptual and procedural difficulties which influence prospective biology teachers' genetics problem solving

  10. Problem Solving with a Small "p": A Teacher's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Rick

    This case study examined an experienced secondary school mathematics teacher's knowledge and teaching of problem solving, using interviews, classroom observations, teaching documents, and experimental tasks. The informant revealed a broad interpretation of problem solving, integrated with mathematics but widely applicable. This interpretation…

  11. Social Problem Solving, Conduct Problems, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Walsh, Trudi M.; Andrade, Brendan F.; King, Sara; Carrey, Normand J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7-12 years. Social problem solving was evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce…

  12. THE ROLE OF PROBLEM SOLVING IN COMPLEX INTRAVERBAL REPERTOIRES

    PubMed Central

    Sautter, Rachael A; LeBlanc, Linda A; Jay, Allison A; Goldsmith, Tina R; Carr, James E

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until problem solving was modeled and prompted. Following the model and prompts, all participants showed immediate significant increases in intraverbal categorization, and all prompts were quickly eliminated. Use of audible self-prompts was evident initially for all participants, but declined over time for 3 of the 4 children. Within-session response patterns remained consistent with use of the problem-solving strategy even when self-prompts were not audible. These findings suggest that teaching and prompting a problem-solving strategy can be an effective way to produce intraverbal categorization responses. PMID:21709781

  13. Teaching Problem-Solving as a Habit of Mind

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    Pat Wagener of Los Medanos College describes an inquiry project with his Developmental Math students: "Through my classroom inquiry into teaching problem-solving, I have shown that students can learn to solve problems in ways that help them develop "habits of mind" with problem solving processes with the following features in the instructional plan: Students get lots of problem solving practice, with an emphasis on long term learning of habits of mind Students are introduced to the idea of multiple representations early, and this approach is reinforced through the curriculum materials in meaningful ways and in all aspects of the course Students have many opportunities to share their problem solving publicly through board work "

  14. Nonlinear Projective-Iteration Methods for Solving Transport Problems on Regular and Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Adrian Constantinescu; Loren Roberts; William Wieselquist

    2007-04-30

    This is a project in the field of fundamental research on numerical methods for solving the particle transport equation. Numerous practical problems require to use unstructured meshes, for example, detailed nuclear reactor assembly-level calculations, large-scale reactor core calculations, radiative hydrodynamics problems, where the mesh is determined by hydrodynamic processes, and well-logging problems in which the media structure has very complicated geometry. Currently this is an area of very active research in numerical transport theory. main issues in developing numerical methods for solving the transport equation are the accuracy of the numerical solution and effectiveness of iteration procedure. The problem in case of unstructured grids is that it is very difficult to derive an iteration algorithm that will be unconditionally stable.

  15. Solving seismological problems using sgraph program: II-waveform modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelwahed, Mohamed F. [Geological Hazards Research Unit, King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia) and National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Helwan (Egypt)

    2012-09-26

    One of the seismological programs to manipulate seismic data is SGRAPH program. It consists of integrated tools to perform advanced seismological techniques. SGRAPH is considered a new system for maintaining and analyze seismic waveform data in a stand-alone Windows-based application that manipulate a wide range of data formats. SGRAPH was described in detail in the first part of this paper. In this part, I discuss the advanced techniques including in the program and its applications in seismology. Because of the numerous tools included in the program, only SGRAPH is sufficient to perform the basic waveform analysis and to solve advanced seismological problems. In the first part of this paper, the application of the source parameters estimation and hypocentral location was given. Here, I discuss SGRAPH waveform modeling tools. This paper exhibits examples of how to apply the SGRAPH tools to perform waveform modeling for estimating the focal mechanism and crustal structure of local earthquakes.

  16. Field-dependent-independent cognitive style in solving dynamics problems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Xin; Ren, Ming-Zhang

    2003-06-01

    251 senior middle school (Grade 11) students were tested on the Chinese Group Embedded Figures Test and Dynamic Problems Test. A 2 (cognitive style) x 2 (sex) analysis of variance indicated a nonsignificant effect with respect to cognitive style in solving easier Dynamics problems but a main significant effect in solving complex Dynamics problems. Multiple comparisons (post hoc t tests) indicated that cognitive style is a significant factor among boys but not girls. The difference between Field-independent students and Field-dependent students in solving complex Dynamics problems may be that the former students more easily form a clear map of motion than the latter students. PMID:12841460

  17. Problem Solved: How To Coach Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krynock, Karoline; Robb, Louise

    1999-01-01

    When faced with real-world problems, students devise accurate, logical, and creative solutions using skills connecting to different subject areas. Students are intrigued by assignments involving preservation of species and design of environmentally friendly products and transit systems. Problem-based learning depends on coaching, modeling, and…

  18. Climate-Change Problem Solving: Structured Approaches

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    : Major Design Considerations · Draw a single thread through a complex problem #12;Knowledge System · Need of the necessary information to address the problem. · Analysis is the consideration of the nature with a content management system ­How to extend this to support · Analysis · Evaluation · Synthesis Itera3ve

  19. Teaching that Enhances Problem-Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Wayne D.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses three identifiable problem areas and teaching techniques that improve student performance regarding truss reactions and truss forces. Problems are as follows: (1) students fail to identify proper number of reaction forces; (2) students fail to consider applied and reactive forces; and (3) students fail to recognize where to cut the…

  20. The meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) approach for solving problems in elasto-statics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Atluri; T.-L. Zhu

    2000-01-01

    The meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) approach is an effective method for solving boundary value problems, using a local\\u000a symmetric weak form and shape functions from the moving least squares approximation. In the present paper, the MLPG method\\u000a for solving problems in elasto-statics is developed and numerically implemented. The present method is a truly meshless method,\\u000a as it does not need

  1. Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer

    1993-12-01

    Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

  2. Problem solving performance and learning strategies of undergraduate students who solved microbiology problems using IMMEX educational software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p < .10) related to ability to solve "Creeping Crud". Peer learning strategy showed a positive significant (p < .10) relationship with scores obtained from solving "Creeping Crud". Students' declared major made a significant (p < .05) difference on the ability to solve "Microquest". A subset (18) volunteered for a think aloud method to determine decision-making process. High achievers used fewer steps, and had more focused approach than low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.

  3. The Lagrangian Relaxation Method for Solving Integer Programming Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall L. Fisher

    1981-01-01

    One of the most computationally useful ideas of the 1970s is the observation that many hard integer programming problems can be viewed as easy problems complicated by a relatively small set of side constraints. Dualizing the side constraints produces a Lagrangian problem that is easy to solve and whose optimal value is a lower bound (for minimization problems) on the

  4. Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems Stefano Bistarelli1

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Francesca

    Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems Stefano Bistarelli1 , Maria Silvia Pini2 with both positive and negative preferences, that we call bipolar problems. Although seemingly specular with bipolar problems. 1 Introduction Many real-life problems contain statements which can be expressed

  5. Solving an Inverse Problem of Erosive Burning Rate Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Arkhipov; E. A. Zverev; D. A. Zimin

    2002-01-01

    A new method for an experimental study of burning processes in condensed substances is suggested, based on the statement and solution of inverse problems. An inverse problem of reconstructing the erosive burning rate of solid propellants from experimental data is formulated. The choice of an approach to solving the problem by the joint application of well-known methods for inverse problem

  6. Solving Physics Problems--How Do We Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses three avenues of problem-solving research: misconceiving natural laws, processing information, and constructing solutions. Suggests that the change in emphasis from problem to problem solver and the key role of "physics" problems are unifying aspects of the research. (JN)

  7. Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    an approximate median graph using real databases containing large graphs. Mots-clés : Graph Matching, GraphApplication of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Ernest Valveny1 ­ Miquel Ferrer1 Centre de Visió per Computador, Dep

  8. A Study of the Problem Solving Abilities of Seventh Grade Students Who Receive Anchored Problem Solving Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesser, Sara Anne

    Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…

  9. SOLVING MIXED INTEGER BILINEAR PROBLEMS USING MILP ...

    E-print Network

    2013-01-29

    Key words. bilinear problems, McCormick envelopes, binary expansion, ...... However, we found no performance gain with this approach. ...... [22] R. Karuppiah and I.E. Grossmann, Global optimization for the synthesis of integrated water.

  10. Toward an Inventory Assessing Expert Problem Solving Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-10-01

    We describe some of the challenges inherent in constructing a standardized instrument assessing problem solving skills, and suggest ways to overcome these challenges. We present items from a conceptual multiple choice instrument assessing problem solving skills relevant to freshman mechanics that we are developing. This instrument is inspired in part by Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning and Van Domelen's Problem Decomposition Diagnostic. We seek teachers who are interested in testing the preliminary version!

  11. 5 Principles for a Problem-Solving Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gerald Aungst

    2014-08-10

    The author presents five principles of developing a problem solving culture that he believes will allow students to grow into mathematical thinkers and sophisticated problem solvers: conjecture, communication, collaboration, chaos, and celebration. Each of these principles encompasses several mindsets and practices, which enable the teacher to build that culture in the classroom. The author includes a link to his webinar on this topic, "Creating a Culture of Problem Solving in Your School or Classroom" (cataloged separately).

  12. An Algorithm for Solving the Job-Shop Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Carlier; E. Pinson

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a branch and bound method for solving the job-shop problem. It is based on one-machine scheduling problems and is made more efficient by several propositions which limit the search tree by using immediate selections. It solved for the first time the famous 10 \\\\times 10 job-shop problem proposed by Muth and Thompson in 1963.

  13. An amoeboid algorithm for solving linear transportation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cai; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zili; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Transportation Problem (TP) is one of the basic operational research problems, which plays an important role in many practical applications. In this paper, a bio-inspired mathematical model is proposed to handle the Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) in directed networks by modifying the original amoeba model Physarum Solver. Several examples are used to prove that the provided model can effectively solve Balanced Transportation Problem (BTP), Unbalanced Transportation Problem (UTP), especially the Generalized Transportation Problem (GTP), in a nondiscrete way.

  14. Solving optimal control problems with generating functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Scheeres; Vincent Guibout

    The optimal control of a spacecraft as it transitions between specified states in a fixed amount of time is studied. We approach the solution to our optimal control problem with a novel technique, treating the resulting system for the state and adjoints as a Hamiltonian system. We show that the optimal control for this system can be found once the

  15. SOLVING CONGRUENT CIRCLES PROBLEM USING INVERSION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rovilson MAFALDA; Alexandre KAWANO

    Geometric constructions are known since ancient times and its history confuses itself with the raising of Geometry. In this history, a theme that deserves special attention is the one of tangency problems which can be summarized in this way: as we have three elements, combinations of point, line or circle, find a circle or circles that can be tangent with

  16. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozwiak, Jim

    2004-01-01

    College teachers have done an excellent job over the years of teaching technical concepts, but they may not have done as good a job of teaching their adult students to be a good problem-solvers. Nine representatives from the technical industry and academia were interviewed in this study for their expert opinions on the subject of teaching…

  17. Metacognitive Macroevaluations in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of evaluation in mathematics in 749 elementary school children. The macroevaluative skills and calibration scores of high versus low mathematical problem solvers were contrasted as measures of metacognition. No relevant calibration differences were found for gender. In addition, the performances of children with…

  18. Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…

  19. Human problem solving performance in a fault diagnosis task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    It is proposed that humans in automated systems will be asked to assume the role of troubleshooter or problem solver and that the problems which they will be asked to solve in such systems will not be amenable to rote solution. The design of visual displays for problem solving in such situations is considered, and the results of two experimental investigations of human problem solving performance in the diagnosis of faults in graphically displayed network problems are discussed. The effects of problem size, forced-pacing, computer aiding, and training are considered. Results indicate that human performance deviates from optimality as problem size increases. Forced-pacing appears to cause the human to adopt fairly brute force strategies, as compared to those adopted in self-paced situations. Computer aiding substantially lessens the number of mistaken diagnoses by performing the bookkeeping portions of the task.

  20. Solving subsurface structural problems using a computer

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, D.M. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

    1987-02-01

    Until recently, the solution of subsurface structural problems has required a combination of graphical construction, trigonometry, time, and patience. Recent advances in software available for both mainframe and microcomputers now reduce the time and potential error of these calculations by an order of magnitude. Software for analysis of deviated wells, three point problems, apparent dip, apparent thickness, and the intersection of two planes, as well as the plotting and interpretation of these data can be used to allow timely and accurate exploration or operational decisions. The available computer software provides a set of utilities, or tools, rather than a comprehensive, intelligent system. The burden for selection of appropriate techniques, computation methods, and interpretations still lies with the explorationist user.

  1. Can AI planners solve practical problems?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Wilkins

    1990-01-01

    While there has been recent interest in research on planning and reasoning about actions,nearly all research results have been theoretical. We know of no previous examples of aplanning system that has made a significant impact on a problem of practical importance.One of the primary goals during the development of the SIPE-2 planning system has beenthe balancing of efficiency with expressiveness

  2. PROBLEM SOLVING IN GAME PLAYING: COMPUTER CHESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARBARA PERNICI

    1982-01-01

    This paper contains a historical review on computer chess, from 1950 to the present. Several methods have been proposed to make a computer playing chess, some of them making use of artificial intelligence techniques: state-space, production-systems, semantic-networks, problem-reduction, analysis with a data base. These methods in computer chess are examined and for each method its deficiencies for a “solution” of

  3. An iterative boundary element method for solving the one-dimensional backward heat conduction problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Mera; L. Elliott; D. B. Ingham; D. Lesnic

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the iterative algorithm proposed by V.A. Kozlov and V.G. Maz'ya [Leningrad Math. J. 5 (1990) 1207–1228] is numerically implemented using the boundary element method (BEM) in order to solve the backward heat conduction problem (BHCP). The convergence and the stability of the numerical method are investigated and a stopping criterion is proposed. The numerical results obtained confirm

  4. Solve valve noise and cavitation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, H.D. [Fisher Controls International, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A clear understanding of aerodynamic noise theory and cavitation will avoid most major valve problems in process plants and allow the valve engineer to design out potential problems. On the other hand, the plant owner has to recognize that such valves may require a cost premium. However, such a premium will be recovered in a small amount of time because of the savings from reduced downtime and lower maintenance costs. Pressure reducing valves used on gases or high pressure steam valves, such as turbine bypass valves, convert substantial energy into heat and a lower pressure level. Unfortunately, this can only be done by accelerating the gas in one or more orifices and then decelerating it rapidly again through a turbulence mechanism or super-sonic shock cells. This causes a lot of noise and vibration. Valve engineering science has made substantial strides in the past few years, and one is now able to predict cavitation and aerodynamic sound levels before a valve is purchased. Similarly, newer valve sizes incorporate features that reduce noise and cavitation effects. Some other minor problems are resonant plug vibration and flashing. The paper discusses how to predict aerodynamic sound, how close can one estimate the sound level, cavitation, and incorrect installation.

  5. Do New Caledonian crows solve physical problems through causal reasoning?

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    is contentious. The benchmark test for this ability has been the trap-tube task. We presented New Caledonian crows with a series of two-trap versions of this problem. Three out of six crows solved the initial trap-tube were in the tube. In contrast to a recent primate study, the three crows then solved a causally

  6. Solving distance geometry problems for protein structure determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atilla Sit

    2010-01-01

    A well-known problem in protein modeling is the determination of the structure of a protein with a given set of interatomic distances obtained from either physical experiments or theoretical estimates. A more general form of this problem is known as the distance geometry problem in mathematics, which can be solved in polynomial time if a complete set of exact distances

  7. Imitation: is cognitive neuroscience solving the correspondence problem?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Brass; Cecilia Heyes

    2005-01-01

    Imitation poses a unique problem: how does the imi- tator know what pattern of motor activation will make their action look like that of the model? Specialist theories suggest that this correspondence problem has a unique solution; there are functional and neurological mechanisms dedicated to controlling imitation. General- ist theories propose that the problem is solved by general mechanisms of

  8. Solving Customer-Driven Microgrid Optimization Problems as DCOPs

    E-print Network

    Yeoh, William

    Solving Customer-Driven Microgrid Optimization Problems as DCOPs Saurabh Gupta , Palak Jain common customer-driven microgrid (CDMG) optimization problems ­ a comprehensive CDMG optimization problem that there is an urgent need to move away from fossil fuel to renewable energy resources given that the demand for fossil

  9. Bipolar preference problems: framework, properties and solving techniques

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Francesca

    Bipolar preference problems: framework, properties and solving techniques Stefano Bistarelli1 preferences, that we call bipolar prefer- ence problems. Although seemingly specular notions, these two kinds the notion of arc consis- tency to bipolar problems, and we show how branch and bound (with or without

  10. Evaluative factors in social problem solving by aggressive boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy G. Guerra; Ronald G. Slaby

    1989-01-01

    Components of social problem solving (problem definition, generation and prioritization of solutions, and generation and evaluation of consequences) were assessed in high aggressive and low aggressive boys from grades 2– 3 and 5–6. When compared with their low aggressive peers, high aggressive boys at both grade levels were more likely to (1) define social problems based on the perception that

  11. Solving the brachistochrone and other variational problems with soap films

    E-print Network

    Criado, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We show a method to solve the problem of the brachistochrone as well as other variational problems with the help of the soap films that are formed between two suitable surfaces. We also show the interesting connection between some variational problems of dynamics, statics, optics, and elasticity.

  12. Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines

    E-print Network

    Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines Yuval Emek, Tobias Langner, Jara + D) #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, Sereni [PODC 2012] = #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced

  13. Working memory demands in insight versus analytic problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica I. Fleck

    2008-01-01

    Working memory is one of the cognitive processes thought to differentiate insight and analytic forms of problem solving. The present research examined memory involvement in the solution of insight versus analytic problems. Participants completed verbal and spatial working memory and short-term memory measures and a series of analytic and insight problems. Results demonstrated a relationship between working-memory capacity and the

  14. A new method for solving a linear programming problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for solving a linear programming problem, which is an extended version of the one previously presented by the author. The optimal solution of a linear programming problem is composed of some inequality constraints in their equality form. Then, it is possible to recognize the problem of finding the equality constraints which constitute the optimal

  15. The Senior Experience: Applied, Team Problem Solving in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, Leonard M.

    1995-01-01

    A yearlong senior experience course requires teams of business students to solve real problems for organizations in the community. Students enhanced responsibility, confidence, and organizational skills. Problems centered on differentiating the course from internships and improving staffing. Students had problems with group dynamics, team…

  16. Problem Solving as Metaphor: Negotiation and Identity Conflict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice Gross Stein

    1999-01-01

    Interactive problem solving is generally conceived as an important complement to official processes of negotiation. The two, though related, occupied distinct domains, with demarcated boundaries. Kelman, in his article, \\

  17. Open-Ended, Problem-Solving Investigations--Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Ways in which linear lesson sequences can be modified to provide increased opportunities for open-ended activities especially with problem solving are considered. Examples drawn from chemistry and plant reproduction, seeds, and germination are given. (KR)

  18. Planning and problem solving: From neuropsychology to functional neuroimaging

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    . The following sections will focus on the role of the prefrontal cortex in planning and problem solving and on disorders of these functions in patients with frontal-lobe lesions. Specific emphasis will be placed

  19. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. ...

  20. Structured Planning and Debugging: A Linguistic Approach to Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    Miller, Mark L.

    1976-06-08

    A structured approach to planning and debugging is obtained by using an Augmented Transition Network (ATN) to model the problem solving process. This proves to be a perspicuous representation for planning concepts including ...

  1. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-02

    In this media-rich lesson plan, students learn how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, then apply what they’ve learned in activities that are based on real-world scenarios.

  2. Analyzing patterns in experts' approaches to solving experimental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?an?ula, Maja Poklinek; Planinši?, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    We report detailed observations of three pairs of expert scientists and a pair of advanced undergraduate students solving an experimental optics problem. Using a new method ("transition graphs") of visualizing sequences of logical steps, we were able to compare the groups and identify patterns that could not be found using previously existing methods. While the problem solving of undergraduates significantly differed from that of experts at the beginning of the process, it gradually became more similar to the expert problem solving. We mapped problem solving steps and their sequence to the elements of an approach to teaching and learning physics called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), and we speculate that the ISLE educational framework closely represents the actual work of physicists.

  3. Hybrid Discontinuous Galerkin methods for solving incompressible flow problems

    E-print Network

    Hybrid Discontinuous Galerkin methods for solving incompressible flow problems Diplomarbeit zur, discussion and analysis of the Hybrid (exactly divergence-free) Discontinuous Galerkin method which results of Discontinuous Galerkin Methods is proposed resulting in the Hybrid Discontinuous Galerkin Method which

  4. Solving search problems by strongly simulating quantum circuits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, T. H.; Biamonte, J. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.

    2013-01-01

    Simulating quantum circuits using classical computers lets us analyse the inner workings of quantum algorithms. The most complete type of simulation, strong simulation, is believed to be generally inefficient. Nevertheless, several efficient strong simulation techniques are known for restricted families of quantum circuits and we develop an additional technique in this article. Further, we show that strong simulation algorithms perform another fundamental task: solving search problems. Efficient strong simulation techniques allow solutions to a class of search problems to be counted and found efficiently. This enhances the utility of strong simulation methods, known or yet to be discovered, and extends the class of search problems known to be efficiently simulable. Relating strong simulation to search problems also bounds the computational power of efficiently strongly simulable circuits; if they could solve all problems in P this would imply that all problems in NP and #P could be solved in polynomial time. PMID:23390585

  5. Extending self-organizing particle systems to problem solving.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Reggia, James A

    2004-01-01

    Self-organizing particle systems consist of numerous autonomous, purely reflexive agents ("particles") whose collective movements through space are determined primarily by local influences they exert upon one another. Inspired by biological phenomena (bird flocking, fish schooling, etc.), particle systems have been used not only for biological modeling, but also increasingly for applications requiring the simulation of collective movements such as computer-generated animation. In this research, we take some first steps in extending particle systems so that they not only move collectively, but also solve simple problems. This is done by giving the individual particles (agents) a rudimentary intelligence in the form of a very limited memory and a top-down, goal-directed control mechanism that, triggered by appropriate conditions, switches them between different behavioral states and thus different movement dynamics. Such enhanced particle systems are shown to be able to function effectively in performing simulated search-and-collect tasks. Further, computational experiments show that collectively moving agent teams are more effective than similar but independently moving ones in carrying out such tasks, and that agent teams of either type that split off members of the collective to protect previously acquired resources are most effective. This work shows that the reflexive agents of contemporary particle systems can readily be extended to support goal-directed problem solving while retaining their collective movement behaviors. These results may prove useful not only for future modeling of animal behavior, but also in computer animation, coordinated movement control in robotic teams, particle swarm optimization, and computer games. PMID:15479544

  6. Solving unit commitment problems with general ramp constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Frangioni; Claudio Gentile; Fabrizio Lacalandra

    2008-01-01

    Lagrangian relaxation (LR) algorithms are among the most successful approaches for solving large-scale hydro-thermal unit commitment (UC) problems; this is largely due to the fact that the single-unit commitment (1UC) problems resulting from the decomposition, incorporating many kinds of technical constraints such as minimum up- and down-time requirements and time-dependent startup costs, can be efficiently solved by dynamic programming (DP)

  7. Measure Your Sew - How: Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems.

    E-print Network

    Rhoades, Beverly

    1981-01-01

    DOC TA24S.7 873 0.1264 --","--- Measure Your Sew-How Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System . Daniel C . Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas "'164 [Blank Page... in Original Bulletin] ~. 'I \\ ! fri SOLVING COMMON SEWING MACHINE PROBLEMS Beverly Rhoades* Machine Parts ? Former Extension clothing specialist, The Texas A&M University System. Sewing can be a relaxing, creative and money-saving talent when...

  8. Use of Spreadsheets in Solving Heat Conduction Problems in Fins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Karimi, Amir

    Excel is an effective and inexpensive tool available on all computers equipped with Microsoft Office. This software has the necessary functions for solving a large class of engineering problems, including those related to heat transfer. This paper provides several examples to demonstrate the application of Excel in solving problems involving one-dimensional heat conduction in various fin configurations. It provides formulas for the temperature distribution and heat transfer for several different fin profiles.

  9. Individual Differences in Need for Cognition and Complex Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Unnikrishnan Nair; S. Ramnarayan

    2000-01-01

    This article reports an empirical study investigating the relation between Need for cognition of individuals and their effectiveness in solving complex problems. A complex, long-duration, computer-simulated, multifaceted cognitive task was presented to 45 managers from a very large Indian metal-processing unit. Problem-solving effectiveness was assessed on success, consistency, and crisis-free nature. Need for cognition was assessed using the 18-item, short-form

  10. On solving linear complementarity problems as linear programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Cottle; Jong-Shi Pang

    Recently, Mangasarian [18, 19] has discussed the idea of solving certain classes of linear complementarity problems as linear\\u000a programs. The present paper (1) demonstrates how these complementarity problems are related to the theory of polyhedral sets\\u000a having least elements and (2) discusses the question of whether the linear programming approach can be recommended for solving\\u000a them.

  11. Rumination and social problem-solving in depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ed Watkins; Simona Baracaia

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that impaired social problem solving in depression is a consequence of state-oriented rumination, which can be ameliorated by improving awareness of mental processes. 32 currently depressed, 26 recovered depressed, and 26 never depressed participants completed the Means Ends Problem Solving Test while randomly allocated to no questions, state-oriented ruminative questions, (e.g. focusing on why you have

  12. Solving MPCC Problem with the Hyperbolic Penalty Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Teófilo; Monteiro, M. Teresa T.; Matias, João

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this work is to solve mathematical program with complementarity constraints (MPCC) using nonlinear programming techniques (NLP). An hyperbolic penalty function is used to solve MPCC problems by including the complementarity constraints in the penalty term. This penalty function [1] is twice continuously differentiable and combines features of both exterior and interior penalty methods. A set of AMPL problems from MacMPEC [2] are tested and a comparative study is performed.

  13. Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Global Optimization Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radha Thangaraj; Millie Pant; Ajith Abraham; Youakim Badr

    2009-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a novel evolutionary approach capable of handling non-differentiable, non-linear and multi-modal objective functions. DE has been consistently ranked as one of the best search algorithm for solving global optimization problems in several case studies. This paper presents a simple and modified hybridized Differential Evolution algorithm for solving global optimization problems. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid

  14. The influence of nonreportable primes on problem solving

    E-print Network

    Schumacher, Jay Scott

    1994-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF NONREPORTABLE PRIMES ON PROBLEM SOLVING A Thesis by JAY SCOTT SCHUMACHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1994 Major Subject: Psychology THE INFLUENCE OF NONREPORTABLE PRIMES ON PROBLEM SOLVING A Thesis JAY SCOTT SCHUMACHER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

  15. The evaluation of a kindergarten social problem solving program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice I. Winer; Pamela L. Hilpert; Ellis L. Gesten; Emory L. Cowen; Wendy E. Schubin

    1982-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a Social Problem Solving (SPS) competence training program for kindergartners, and examined relationships between SPS skill and adjustment gains. Subjects included 63 suburban middle-classSs from three classes, who participated in the 42 lesson program, and 46 comparisonSs from two classes, who did not. Subjects were evaluated on problem solving, peer sociometric and teacher

  16. Using accumulators to solve hydraulic circuit problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mordas, J.B. (Hydac Corp., Bethlehem, PA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Accumulators can be useful to the plant engineer. Hydropneumatic or gas-charged version are used effectively in hydraulic circuits for auxiliary power, energy storage, emergency operation, leakage compensation or makeup fluid, and motor soft starts. Accumulators are also applied for shock absorption in pressure and tank lines, pulsation dampening, elimination of pump cavitation, and noise attenuation. The first reaction to a malfunction in a hydraulic circuit is to check the pump and valves. Many times the problem may be flow related, either too much or too little. Jeffrey B. Mordas of Hydac Corp. explains how an accumulator resolves difficulties with fluid circuits and provides auxiliary power, energy storage, shock absorption, pulsation dampening, and noise attenuation.

  17. Using Clickers to Facilitate Development of Problem-Solving Skills

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Aime A.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom response systems, or clickers, have become pedagogical staples of the undergraduate science curriculum at many universities. In this study, the effectiveness of clickers in promoting problem-solving skills in a genetics class was investigated. Students were presented with problems requiring application of concepts covered in lecture and were polled for the correct answer. A histogram of class responses was displayed, and students were encouraged to discuss the problem, which enabled them to better understand the correct answer. Students were then presented with a similar problem and were again polled. My results indicate that those students who were initially unable to solve the problem were then able to figure out how to solve similar types of problems through a combination of trial and error and class discussion. This was reflected in student performance on exams, where there was a statistically significant positive correlation between grades and the percentage of clicker questions answered. Interestingly, there was no clear correlation between exam grades and the percentage of clicker questions answered correctly. These results suggest that students who attempt to solve problems in class are better equipped to solve problems on exams. PMID:22135374

  18. How chimpanzees solve collective action problems

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Anna-Claire; Melis, Alicia P.; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We presented small groups of chimpanzees with two collective action situations, in which action was necessary for reward but there was a disincentive for individuals to act owing to the possibility of free-riding on the efforts of others. We found that in simpler scenarios (experiment 1) in which group size was small, there was a positive relationship between rank and action with more dominant individuals volunteering to act more often, particularly when the reward was less dispersed. Social tolerance also seemed to mediate action whereby higher tolerance levels within a group resulted in individuals of lower ranks sometimes acting and appropriating more of the reward. In more complex scenarios, when group size was larger and cooperation was necessary (experiment 2), overcoming the problem was more challenging. There was highly significant variability in the action rates of different individuals as well as between dyads, suggesting success was more greatly influenced by the individual personalities and personal relationships present in the group. PMID:23075841

  19. Work in progress — Improving problem-solving skills via dynamically worked-out problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asad Azemi; Roxanne Toto; Thomas Litzinger

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our continued work in creating a set of narrated dynamically worked-out problems for the Electric Circuits students using a Tablet PC. The examples are intended to improve problem-solving skills by enhancing understanding of the key concepts and the way that they should be utilized in solving circuits' problems. A detailed explanation of how these worked out problems

  20. Photography helps solve distribution lightning problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, P.; Burns, C.W.

    1993-06-01

    This article describes the research project, which is being performed for NMPC by Power Technologies, Inc., involving the use of lightning-activated camera systems to photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photographs can allow the precise location of the lightning flash and power system flashovers to be observed, they are extremely valuable to engineers who are trying to make better sense of the lightning damage problem. When electrical measurements, such as fault and surge recordings, are combined with photographic data, an overall understanding of each lightning flash and its impact on the system is attained. This can hopefully lead to improved lightning protection practices and systems. The study is being performed on a 13.2 kV distribution system that is located on an exposed plateau near Little Falls, NY (about 80 miles northwest of Albany, NY). Four automated camera systems and a substation fault recorder are utilized. All camera locations afford excellent views of lines and equipment likely to be struck by lightning. The fault recorder is used to measure the fault currents and voltage sags which occur during line flashovers. Also, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) is used to confirm storm activity and camera triggering efficiency. After each storm, all data is analyzed to determine how lightning affected the power system. Areas being investigated include: What are the relative portions of lightning flashovers caused by induced surges (nearby strikes) and direct lightning hits to the line How often do shielding failures occur What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices are problematic

  1. Solving Semi-Infinite Optimization Problems with Interior Point Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Stein; Georg Still

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new numerical solution method for semi-infinite optimization prob- lems with convex lower level problems. The method is based on a reformulation of the semi-infinite problem as a Stackelberg game and the use of regularized nonlinear complementarity problem func- tions. This approach leads to central path conditions for the lower level problems, where for a given path parameter

  2. Using Lin's method to solve Bykov's problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Jürgen; Lamb, Jeroen S. W.; Webster, Kevin N.

    2014-10-01

    We consider nonwandering dynamics near heteroclinic cycles between two hyperbolic equilibria. The constituting heteroclinic connections are assumed to be such that one of them is transverse and isolated. Such heteroclinic cycles are associated with the termination of a branch of homoclinic solutions, and called T-points in this context. We study codimension-two T-points and their unfoldings in Rn. In our consideration we distinguish between cases with real and complex leading eigenvalues of the equilibria. In doing so we establish Lin's method as a unified approach to (re)gain and extend results of Bykov's seminal studies and related works. To a large extent our approach reduces the study to the discussion of intersections of lines and spirals in the plane. Case (RR): Under open conditions on the eigenvalues, there exist open sets in parameter space for which there exist periodic orbits close to the heteroclinic cycle. In addition, there exist two one-parameter families of homoclinic orbits to each of the saddle points p1 and p2.See Theorem 2.1 and Proposition 2.2 for precise statements and Fig. 2 for bifurcation diagrams. Cases (RC) and (CC): At the bifurcation point ?=0 and for each N?2, there exists an invariant set S0N close to the heteroclinic cycle on which the first return map is topologically conjugated to a full shift on N symbols. For any fixed N?2, the invariant set S?N persists for |?| sufficiently small.In addition, there exist infinitely many transversal and non-transversal heteroclinic orbits connecting the saddle points p1 and p2 in a neighbourhood of ?=0, as well as infinitely many one-parameter families of homoclinic orbits to each of the saddle points.For full statements of the results see Theorem 2.3 and Propositions 2.4, 2.5 and Fig. 3 for bifurcation diagrams. The dynamics near T-points has been studied previously by Bykov [6-10], Glendinning and Sparrow [20], Kokubu [27,28] and Labouriau and Rodrigues [30,31,38]. See also the surveys by Homburg and Sandstede [24], Shilnikov et al. [43] and Fiedler [18]. The occurrence of T-points in local bifurcations has been discussed by Barrientos et al. [4], and by Lamb et al. [32] in the context of reversible systems. All these studies consider dynamics in R3 using a geometric return map approach, and their results reflect the description of types of nonwandering dynamics described above.Further related studies concerning T-points can be found in [34] and [37], where inclination flips were considered in this context. In [5], numerical studies of T-points are performed using kneading invariants.The main aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive study of dynamics near T-points, including detailed proofs of all results, employing a unified functional-analytic approach, without making any assumption on the dimension of the phase space. In the process, we recover and generalise to higher dimensional settings all previously reported results for T-points in R3. In addition, we reveal the existence of richer dynamics in the (RC) and (CC) cases. A detailed discussion of our results is contained in Section 2.The functional analytic approach we follow is commonly referred to as Lin's method, after the seminal paper by Lin [33], and employs a reduction on an appropriate Banach space of piecewise continuous functions approximating the initial heteroclinic cycle to yield bifurcation equations whose solutions represent orbits of the nonwandering set. The development of such an approach is typical for the school of Hale, and is in contrast to the analysis contained in previous T-point studies, which relies on the construction of a first return map. Our choice of analytical framework is motivated by the fact that Lin's method provides a unified approach to study global bifurcations in arbitrary dimension, and has been shown to extend to a larger class of settings, such as delay and advance-delay equations [19,33].

  3. A new genetic approach for solving the unit commitment problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debjani Ganguly; Vaskar Sarkar; Jagadish Pal

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new genetic approach for solving the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem. A parallel system model has been developed to handle the infeasibility problem in a structured way and thus to provide an effective search. Typical constraints like minimum up and down times, start up and shut down ramps, must run and must not run have been

  4. A new approach for solving extended unit commitment problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ruzic; N. Rajakovic

    1991-01-01

    An original approach is presented for solving the extended unit commitment problem using the Lagrangian relaxation method. The unit ramp rates have been incorporated into a dual optimization algorithm, making it possible to use the feasible direction method for primal problem solution. The mathematical model developed also includes transmission capacity limits, regulation reserve requirements of a prespecified group of units,

  5. Technologically Mediated Complex Problem-Solving on a Statistics Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Eileen; Blake, Canan; Joiner, Richard; O'Shea, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Simulations on computers can allow many experiments to be conducted quickly to help students develop an understanding of statistical topics. We used a simulation of a challenging problem in statistics as the focus of an exploration of situations where members of a problem-solving group are physically separated then reconnected via combinations of…

  6. Solving LEGO brick layout problem using Evolutionary Algorithms1

    E-print Network

    Petrovic, Pavel

    Solving LEGO brick layout problem using Evolutionary Algorithms1 Qhry�Qrvþ Evolutionary Computation and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway, pavel.petrovic@idi.ntnu.no Abstract. LEGO® presented the following problem at the SCAI'01 conference in February 2001: Given any 3D body, how can it be built from LEGO

  7. Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS Steven van Dijk Dirk Thierens Mark de in Geographical Information Systems (GIS's). The framework is especially suited for geographical problems since as well. 1 Introduction Geographic Information Systems (GIS's for short) combine a geographical database

  8. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For an advanced manufacturing system to function efficiently, all workers must know how to identify problems within their departments and develop solutions for them. Today's employers expect technicians entering the workplace to possess "soft skills." These include the ability to analyze a problem logically and formulate a solution, but also the ability to work in teams and to effectively communicate with others.This lesson uses real-world scenarios to encourage critical thinking and improve problem-solving skills. The lesson begins with an invitation to explore the many different areas and career paths within advanced manufacturing. Following a brief small-group discussion on how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, students review a handout that lays out some guidelines for how to approach problem solving. Students watch a video about a manufacturing supervisor, and then begin to relate problem solving to other workplace scenarios. Then, through two short activities, they have a chance to demonstrate their ability to think critically. An optional extension activity has students apply what they've learned by researching an industry of their choice and assessing the problems that are likely to come up. Students prepare a report that includes their analysis of the problems, probable causes, and a possible solution to one of them. They then present their report to the rest of the class.

  9. Formulating and Solving Nonlinear Programs as Mixed Complementarity Problems ?

    E-print Network

    Ferris, Michael C.

    optimization problems to be communicated to solvers in an efficient form, carrying out data manipulations of interior point methods for linear programming by Karmarkar [21] in 1984, as a practical alternativeFormulating and Solving Nonlinear Programs as Mixed Complementarity Problems ? Michael C. Ferris 1

  10. Cognitive Principles of Problem Solving and Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; And Others

    Research in this project studied cognitive processes involved in understanding and solving problems used in instruction in the domain of mathematics, and explored implications of these cognitive analyses for the design of instruction. Three general issues were addressed: knowledge required for understanding problems, knowledge of the conditions…

  11. Experimental Model for Stimulating Creative Problem Solving by Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Harold L.

    A heuristic model designed to improve creative problem-solving by engineering students was studied. Ten students majoring in industrial engineering were pre-tested to establish the range and accuracy of their performance prior to training and to identify stereotyped thinking. The test was an adventure scenario with 50 embedded problems along with…

  12. Solar Neutrinos: Solved and Unsolved Problems John N. Bahcall

    E-print Network

    Bahcall, John

    Chapter 10 Solar Neutrinos: Solved and Unsolved Problems John N. Bahcall Institute for Advanced study solar neutrinos? What does the combined standard model (solar plus electroweak) predict for solar neutrinos? Why are the calculations of neutrino fluxes robust? What are the three solar neutrino problems

  13. Solving an Air Conditioning System Problem using Constraint Satisfaction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Solving an Air Conditioning System Problem using Constraint Satisfaction Raphaël Chenouard1 An air conditioning system problem 1.1 Context The design process is a sequence of phases ranging from States (2007)" DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-74970-7_4 #12;In this paper, an air conditioning system (ACS

  14. Applications of Fitzpatrick functions for solving optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, Z.; Raykov, I.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents applications of Fitzparick functions to optimization problems. The main purpose of the present work is to introduce applications of the Fitzpatrick functions, involving their specific properties as the maximal monotonicity, or the proper, convex and lower semi-continuity, for solving optimization problems.

  15. Solving Euclidean Distance Matrix Completion Problems Via Semidefinite Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdo Y. Alfakih; Amir Khandani; Henry Wolkowicz

    1999-01-01

    Given a partial symmetric matrix A with only certain elements specified, the Euclidean distance matrix completion problem (EDMCP) is to find the unspecified elements of A that make A a Euclidean distance matrix (EDM). In this paper, we follow the successful approach in [20] and solve the EDMCP by generalizing the completion problem to allow for approximate completions. In particular,

  16. Representation Use and Strategy Choice in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cock, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics students' problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that…

  17. Two Aspects of Meaningful Problem Solving in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James

    1982-01-01

    Presents a model for solving genetics problems when problem statements include information on which alleles are dominant/recessive and on what forms of a trait are coded for by the alleles. Includes procedural steps employed in a solution and conceptual knowledge of genetics/meiosis allowing students to justify what they have done. (Author/JN)

  18. Fuzzy expert system for solving lost circulation problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonid Sheremetov; Ildar Z. Batyrshin; Denis Filatov; Jorge Martinez; Hector Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    Lost circulation is the most common problem encountered while drilling oil wells. This paper describes a distributed fuzzy expert system, called Smart-Drill, aimed in helping petroleum engineers to diagnose and solve lost circulation problems. To represent and manipulate perception-based evaluations of uncertainties of facts and rules, the expert system uses an uncertainty model with qualitative scales of plausibility values and

  19. Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines

    E-print Network

    Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines Yuval Emek1 , Tobias Langner2 the Ants Nearby Treasure Search (ANTS) problem introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, and Sereni (PODC-time of any ANTS algorithm. 1 Introduction "They operate without any central control. Their collective

  20. Assessing Group Process during Collaborative Problem-Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Bontrager, Terry; Ventrone, Paula; Correia, Margaret

    This study developed a method to assess group process in a collaborative problem-solving situation. Participants were 32 fifth- and sixth-grade students. Students in seven collaborative groups worked on a two-part mathematics problem first individually, then in groups, and finally individually again. Groups engaging in behaviors that facilitated…

  1. Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen

    2008-01-01

    A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…

  2. Social Problem Solving of Children With and Without Mental Retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Jacobs; Lisa A. Turner; Mark Faust; Margaret Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Social skills and social status are important aspects of development that are likely to be influenced by an individual's ability to appropriately solve social problems. In this investigation, children (9–13 year olds) with and without mental retardation were asked to provide solutions to three types of social problems. Students were first asked to respond to open-ended questions and then were

  3. Paradigms and Problem-Solving: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berner, Eta S.

    1984-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's conceptions of the influence of paradigms on the progress of science form the framework for analyzing how medical educators have approached research on medical problem solving. A new paradigm emphasizing multiple types of problems with varied solution strategies is proposed. (Author/MLW)

  4. Diffusion: Diffusive initial value problems and how to solve them

    E-print Network

    Spiegelman, Marc W.

    84 #12;Chapter 6 Diffusion: Diffusive initial value problems and how to solve them Selected Reading of the simplest partial dif- ferential equations for diffusive initial value problems in the absence of advection be written T t = · T (6.0.1) where T is the temperature and = k/(cP ) is the thermal diffusivity (which has

  5. Non-Mathematical Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartrette, David P.; Bodner, George M.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in problem-solving ability among organic chemistry graduate students and faculty were studied within the domain of problems that involved the determination of the structure of a molecule from the molecular formula of the compound and a combination of IR and [to the first power]H NMR spectra. The participants' performance on these tasks…

  6. Effects of Instruction on Verbal Interactions during Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoek, Dirk J.; Seegers, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    During one school year, data were collected for vocational education students while they worked collaboratively on open-ended mathematics problems. In collaboration with participating teachers, instructional activities were designed with a twofold goal of modelling the process of problem solving and improving collaboration. Instructional…

  7. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving. PMID:12102132

  8. Problems and problem solving among aging White and Black Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara M Barer; Colleen L Johnson

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the problems of growing older among Whites and Blacks in two age groups: the younger old, ages 70–84, and the oldest old, 85 years and older. Despite differences in age, education, occupational opportunities, and the experiences of prejudice and discrimination among the Blacks, the majority of all respondents reported similar concerns. Problems with decreasing health, finances, and

  9. Distributed Problem Solving through Coordination in a Society of Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyishane Liu; Katia Sycara

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology, called Constraint Partition and Coordinated Reaction (CP&CR),where a problem solution emerges from the evolving computational process of a group of diverse,interacting, and well-coordinated reactive agents. Problem characteristics are utilizedto achieve problem solving by asynchronous and well coordinated local interactions. The coordinationmechanisms guide the search space exploration by the society of interacting agents,facilitating rapid convergence to a...

  10. Evaluation of Different Metaheuristics Solving the RND Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel A. Vega-rodríguez; Juan Antonio Gómez Pulido; Enrique Alba; David Vega-pérez; Silvio Priem-mendes; Guillermo Molina

    2007-01-01

    RND (Radio Network Design) is a Telecommunication problem consisting in covering a certain geographical area by using the smallest number of radio antennas achieving the biggest cover rate. This is an important problem, for example, in mobile\\/cellular technology. RND can be solved by bio-inspired algorithms. In this work we use different metaheuristics to tackle this problem. PBIL (Population-Based Incremental Learning),

  11. The CAOS problem-solving environment: recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbillet, Marcel; Desiderà, Gabriele; Augier, Evelyne; La Camera, Andrea; Riccardi, Armando; Boccaletti, Anthony; Jolissaint, Laurent; Ab Kabir, Diyana

    2010-07-01

    We present recent developments of the CAOS problem-solving environment (PSE), an IDL-based software tool whose original aim was to define and simulate as realistically as possible the behavior of a generic adaptive optics (AO) system -from the atmospheric propagation of light, to the sensing of the wave-front aberrations and the correction through a deformable mirror- but which results in a widely more general tool now. In fact, the different developments made through the last years result in a very versatile numerical tool complete of a global graphical interface (the CAOS Application Builder), a general utilities library (the CAOS Library), and different packages dedicated to a wide range of astronomical-optics-related scientific topics: the original package designed for end-to-end AO system simulations (the Software Package CAOS), an image simulation/ reconstruction package with interferometric capabilities (the Software Package AIRY), an extension of the latter specialized for the LBT instrument LINC-NIRVANA (the Software Package AIRY-LN), an ad hoc package dedicated to the VLT instrument SPHERE (the Software Package SPHERE), and an embedment of the analytical AO simulation code PAOLA (the Software Package PAOLAC).We present the status of the whole CAOS PSE, together with the most recent developments, and plans for the future of the overall tool.

  12. Solving topology optimization problems by the Guide-Weight method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinjun; Li, Zhidong; Wang, Liping; Wang, Jinsong

    2011-03-01

    Finding a good solution method for topology optimization problems is always paid attention to by the research field because they are subject to the large number of the design variables and to the complexity that occurs because the objective and constraint functions are usually implicit with respect to design variables. Guide-Weight method, proposed first by Chen in 1980s, was effectively and successfully used in antenna structures' optimization. This paper makes some improvement to it so that it possesses the characteristics of both the optimality criteria methods and the mathematical programming methods. When the Guide-Weight method is applied into topology optimization, it works very well with unified and simple form, wide availability and fast convergence. The algorithm of the Guide-Weight method and the improvement on it are described; two formulations of topology optimization solved by the Guide-Weight method combining with SIMP method are presented; subsequently, three numerical examples are provided, and comparison of the Guide-Weight method with other methods is made.

  13. Problem-Based Learning and Problem-Solving Tools: Synthesis and Direction for Distributed Education Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Robert S.; Deek, Fadi P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the design and implementation of problem-solving tools used in programming instruction are complementary with both the theories of problem-based learning (PBL), including constructivism, and the practices of distributed education environments. Examines how combining PBL, Web-based distributed education, and a problem-solving

  14. Solving Word Problems using Schemas: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students are taught to recognize problems as falling within word-problem types and to apply a problem solution method that matches that problem type. This review highlights two schema approaches for 2nd- and 3rd-grade students at-risk for or with LD: schema-based instruction and schema-broadening instruction. A total of 12 schema studies were reviewed and synthesized. Both types of schema approaches enhanced the word-problem skill of students at-risk for or with LD. Based on the review, suggestions are provided for incorporating word-problem instruction using schemas. PMID:21643477

  15. AN hp FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO SOLVE A FLUID-SOLID VIBRATION PROBLEM

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez, Rodolfo

    are studied. An adaptive scheme driven by these indicators is proposed and numerically tested. Key words problem and an hp finite element adaptive scheme to solve it. The need of computing the vibration modes Ingenier´ia Matem´atica, Universidad de Concepci´on, Casilla 160-C, Concepci´on, Chile (rodolfo@ing-mat

  16. Thai Grade 10 and 11 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Ability to Solve Stoichiometry Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument…

  17. Perfecting scientists’ collaboration and problem-solving skills in the virtual team environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfecting Scientists’ Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-lo...

  18. Preservice Teachers' Use of Multiple Representations in Solving Arithmetic Mean Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfeller, Mary K.; Niess, Margaret L.; Lederman, Norman G.

    1999-01-01

    Examines solutions presented by preservice teachers for solving graphical and numerical problems involving the arithmetic mean. Participants presented two methods: algorithmic computation and balancing deviations about the mean. A significant difference was found between science and mathematics preservice teachers in the use of balancing…

  19. Observational Investigation of Student Problem Solving: The Role and Importance of Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Bowman, Charles R.; Feakes, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    The problem-solving strategies of students enrolled in general chemistry courses have been the subject of numerous research investigations. In most cases, the investigators were interested in the specific areas or concepts that posed the greatest difficulty to a student's success in achieving the correct answer. However, the investigation…

  20. The minimal residual QR-factorization algorithm for reliably solving subset regression problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhaegen, M. H.

    1987-01-01

    A new algorithm to solve test subset regression problems is described, called the minimal residual QR factorization algorithm (MRQR). This scheme performs a QR factorization with a new column pivoting strategy. Basically, this strategy is based on the change in the residual of the least squares problem. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that this basic scheme might be extended in a numerically efficient way to combine the advantages of existing numerical procedures, such as the singular value decomposition, with those of more classical statistical procedures, such as stepwise regression. This extension is presented as an advisory expert system that guides the user in solving the subset regression problem. The advantages of the new procedure are highlighted by a numerical example.

  1. Solving Geometric Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeel, Robert D.; Zhao, Ruijun

    2011-09-01

    Presented here is a case study on overcoming difficulties encountered in solving an important class of nonlinear advection-dominated two-point boundary value problems. The problems under consideration are ones whose solution is a "curve", i.e., unique only up to an arbitrary transformation of the independent variable. Of particular interest is the calculation of a maximum flux transition path ("finite temperature" minimum energy path). It is complicated by the presence of an exponential factor having a great range of values. The method proposed for solving the problem includes (i) a suitable finite element discretization and (ii) a robust, efficient, and relatively simple minimization method for solving the resulting system of nonlinear equations.

  2. Characterization and Developmental History of Problem Solving Methods in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Harbort, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    The central thesis of this paper is the importance of the framework in which information is structured. It is technically important in the design of systems; it is also important in guaranteeing that systems are usable by clinicians. Progress in medical computing depends on our ability to develop a more quantitative understanding of the role of context in our choice of problem solving techniques. This in turn will help us to design more flexible and responsive computer systems. The paper contains an overview of some models of knowledge and problem solving methods, a characterization of modern diagnostic techniques, and a discussion of skill development in medical practice. Diagnostic techniques are examined in terms of how they are taught, what problem solving methods they use, and how they fit together into an overall theory of interpretation of the medical status of a patient.

  3. A numerical approach for solving singular nonlinear Lane-Emden type equations arising in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi Nasab, A.; K?l?çman, A.; Pashazadeh Atabakan, Z.; Leong, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest a numerical method based upon hybrid of Chebyshev wavelets and finite difference methods for solving well-known nonlinear initial-value problems of Lane-Emden type. The useful properties of the Chebyshev wavelets and finite difference method are utilized to reduce the computation of the problem to a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. Making a comparison among the obtained results using the present method with those ones reported in literature by some other well-known methods confirms the accuracy and computational efficiency of the present technique.

  4. New Hybrid Matheuristics for Solving the Multidimensional Knapsack Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafi, Saïd; Lazi?, Jasmina; Mladenovi?, Nenad; Wilbaut, Christophe; Crévits, Igor

    In this paper we propose new hybrid methods for solving the multidimensional knapsack problem. They can be viewed as matheuristics that combine mathematical programming with the variable neighbourhood decomposition search heuristic. In each iteration a relaxation of the problem is solved to guide the generation of the neighbourhoods. Then the problem is enriched with a pseudo-cut to produce a sequence of not only lower, but also upper bounds of the problem, so that integrality gap is reduced. The results obtained on two sets of the large scale multidimensional knapsack problem instances are comparable with the current state-of-the-art heuristics. Moreover, a few best known results are reported for some large, long-studied instances.

  5. Problem Solving and Community Activity Series: Understanding the Problem with Wooden Legs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Max Ray

    2011-01-01

    This document for teachers provides four activities to develop students' ability to understand and interpret problems. These strategies help students deepen their focus and improve their problem-solving skills. The document includes both Problem Solving goals and Communication goals, as well as sample activities and specific examples related to the Wooden Legs Problem of the Week from the Math Forum. A copy of the complete problem, the scenario (with the question removed) and student handouts for applying the problem-solving strategies are also provided.

  6. Teaching problem solving to year 6 students: A new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibnia, Assad; Putt, Ian J.

    1998-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of an instructional intervention derived from the Garofalo and Lester (1985) cognitive-metacognitive framework on the problem-solving performance of Year 6 students with different ability levels. A quasi-experimental design was employed using one experimental and two control classes. Four different techniques were applied to identify above average, average, and below average students. There was a significant improvement in problem-solving performance for the experimental class compared with both control classes. Furthermore, higher ability students appeared to gain more from the experimental instruction than lower ability students. Implications for instruction and research are explored.

  7. Dynamic application of problem solving strategies : dependency-based flow control

    E-print Network

    Jacobi, Ian Campbell

    2013-01-01

    While humans may solve problems by applying any one of a number of different problem solving strategies, computerized problem solving is typically brittle, limited in the number of available strategies and ways of combining ...

  8. Building problem solving environments with the arches framework

    SciTech Connect

    Debardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sass, Ron [U NORTH CAROLINA; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel [ASU; Ligon, Ill, Walter [CLEMSON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.

  9. Solving Nonlinear Aeronautical Problems Using the Carleman Linearization Method

    SciTech Connect

    GAUDE, BRIAN W.

    2001-09-01

    Many problems in aeronautics can be described in terms of nonlinear systems of equations. Carleman developed a technique to linearize such equations that could lead to analytical solutions of nonlinear problems. Nonlinear problems are difficult to solve in closed form and therefore the construction of such solutions is usually nontrivial. This research will apply the Carleman linearization technique to three model problems: a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) ballistic trajectory, Blasius' boundary layer, and Van der Pol's equation and evaluate how well the technique can adequately approximate the solutions of these ordinary differential equations.

  10. E101E101 Introduction toIntroduction to Engineering & Problem SolvingEngineering & Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    Hunt, William F.

    Solving ·· Dr. William F. HuntDr. William F. Hunt ·· SectionsSections 002002 andand 003003 ·· Daniels 341Syllabus ""HighlightsHighlights"" ·· Dr. HuntDr. Hunt''s Contact Info:s Contact Info: ­­ 208 Weaver Labs208 Weaver Labs ­­ bill_hunt@ncsu.edbill_hunt@ncsu.eduu ­­ Office Hours between Sec 002 & 003 & upOffice Hours between Sec

  11. An interior-point approach for solving MC 2 linear programming problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Shi

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an interior-point method to solve the multiple criteria and multiple constraint level linear programming (MC2LP) problems. This approach utilizes the known interior-point method to multiple criteria linear programming (MCLP) and a convex combination method to generate potential solutions for the MC2LP problems. This method can be used as an alternative to the well-known MC2-simplex method. The numerical

  12. The expanded invasive weed optimization metaheuristic for solving continuous and discrete optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Josi?ski, Henryk; Kostrzewa, Daniel; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Swito?ski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an expanded version of the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO) distinguished by the hybrid strategy of the search space exploration proposed by the authors. The algorithm is evaluated by solving three well-known optimization problems: minimization of numerical functions, feature selection, and the Mona Lisa TSP Challenge as one of the instances of the traveling salesman problem. The achieved results are compared with analogous outcomes produced by other optimization methods reported in the literature. PMID:24955420

  13. The Expanded Invasive Weed Optimization Metaheuristic for Solving Continuous and Discrete Optimization Problems

    PubMed Central

    Josi?ski, Henryk; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; ?wito?ski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an expanded version of the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO) distinguished by the hybrid strategy of the search space exploration proposed by the authors. The algorithm is evaluated by solving three well-known optimization problems: minimization of numerical functions, feature selection, and the Mona Lisa TSP Challenge as one of the instances of the traveling salesman problem. The achieved results are compared with analogous outcomes produced by other optimization methods reported in the literature. PMID:24955420

  14. Solving a special class of large-scale fuzzy multiobjective integer linear programming problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed S. Osman; Omar M. Saad; Azza G. Hasan

    1999-01-01

    We present a method useful in solving a special class of large-scale multiobjective integer problems depending on the decomposition algorithm. These problems involve fuzzy parameters on the right-hand side of the independent constraints. The presented solution method is based upon a combination of the decomposition algorithm coupled with the weighting method together with the branch-and-bound method. An illustrative numerical example

  15. The Yo-Yo Problem: Solving Linear Equations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-06-30

    In this lesson, students explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and the graphing calculator. The lesson starts with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Students then complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies that allows them to explore a linear pattern and express that pattern in symbolic form. Algebra tiles are introduced as the students practice solving linear equations. Working from the concrete to the abstract is especially important for students who have difficulty with mathematics, and algebra tiles help students make this transition. In addition to using algebra tiles, students also use symbolic manipulation and the graphing calculator. Finally, the students return to solve the yo-yo problem. A feature of this lesson is the effective use of peer tutors in this inclusion classroom. Student worksheets are included to print.

  16. Mighty Mathematicians: Using Problem Posing and Problem Solving to Develop Mathematical Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGatha, Maggie B.; Sheffield, Linda J.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a year-long professional development institute combined with a summer camp for students. Both were designed to help teachers and students develop their problem-solving and problem-posing abilities.

  17. Engineering problem solving and knowledge creation: An epistemological perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Itabashi-Campbell; Sheri Perelli; Julia Gluesing

    2011-01-01

    This study—to our knowledge the first to model the dynamics of knowledge creation in an engineering problem solving context—addresses a gap in the literature by illustrating “engineering epistemology,” nurtured by “ba,” as a critical knowledge asset that facilitates superior problem resolution. Rich narratives generated by phenomenological interviews with US product engineers were interpreted using Nonaka and Takeuchi’s knowledge-creation model and

  18. Writing and Reading Activities for Math Problem-Solving (WRAMPS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    Yu-Chung Change of Pasadena City College developed this method in an inquiry project. Here is her description of the approach: The Writing and Reading Activities for Math Problem Solving (WRAMPS) is a nine-step process that requires students to break a word problem into small pieces by using reading and writing strategies. Students then work collaboratively and concentrate on language decoding and comprehension.

  19. From scientific software libraries to problem-solving environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Rice; R. F. Boisvert

    1996-01-01

    As more scientists and engineers adopt computation as a primary tool, they will want more problem-solving help from easy-to-use, comprehensive software systems. A workshop discussed the long path to this vision of scientific software's future, and the roadblocks in the way. In order to understand the findings of the workshop, the paper presents some background on software libraries and problem

  20. Teaching Math K-2 Session 3 Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Boston

    2002-01-01

    This professional development session is from an Annenberg Learner course that explores the NCTM process standard of problem solving as a key means to introducing new material and building conceptual understanding in students grades K-2. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, student responses and reflection opportunities. This session is eligible for graduate credit for a fee when taken in conjunction with the other Teaching Math sessions from this course.

  1. Solving Integer Programs from Dependence and Synchronization Problems

    E-print Network

    Subhlok, Jaspal

    Solving Integer Programs from Dependence and Synchronization Problems Jaspal Subhlok March 1993 CMU a method to determine whether a set of equations has a non­negative integer solution. The method programs. The system of equations is first transformed to Smith normal form to determine if any integer

  2. A Method for Solving the Fuel Constrained Unit Commitment Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur I. Cohen; S. H. Wan

    1987-01-01

    The unit commitment problem involves finding the hourly commitment schedule for the thermal units of an electrical system, and their associated generation, over a period of up to a week. For some utilities, contractual or other factors limit the amount of fuel available to certain of the units or plants. This paper describes a new method which solves the unit

  3. An evolutionary programming method for solving the unit commitment problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. A. Rajan; M. R. Mohan

    2004-01-01

    Summary form only given. This paper presents a new approach to solving the short-term unit commitment problem using an evolutionary programming based tabu search method. The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to

  4. Fuzzy logic implementation for solving the unit commitment problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chenthur Pandian; K. Duraiswamy

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for solving the unit commitment problem using fuzzy logic. The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. The fuzzy logic is an effective approach that can be implemented to take into account the uncertainty in

  5. Argo: An Analogical Reasoning System for Solving Design Problems

    E-print Network

    Huhns, Michael N.

    Argo: An Analogical Reasoning System for Solving Design Problems Michael N. Huhns and Ram'on D, have been incorporated into Argo, a tool for building knowledge­based systems. Closely integrated into Argo's analogical reasoning facilities are modules for the acquisition, storage, retrieval, evaluation

  6. Studies of Visual Attention in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Adrian M.

    2013-01-01

    The work described here represents an effort to understand and influence visual attention while solving physics problems containing a diagram. Our visual system is guided by two types of processes--top-down and bottom-up. The top-down processes are internal and determined by ones prior knowledge and goals. The bottom-up processes are external and…

  7. What Next? Futuristic Scenarios for Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Robert E.; Torrance, E. Paul

    This book contains 52 units designed to assist teachers in helping their students improve their creative writing and communication skills, improve their skills in creative problem solving, and enlarge, enrich, and make more accurate their images of the future. Each unit begins with an overview of the activity, an explanation of the creative…

  8. Ontological Support in Modeling Learners' Problem Solving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chun-Hung; Wu, Chia-Wei; Wu, Shih-Hung; Chiou, Guey-Fa; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new model for simulating procedural knowledge in the problem solving process with our ontological system, InfoMap. The method divides procedural knowledge into two parts: process control and action performer. By adopting InfoMap, we hope to help teachers construct curricula (declarative knowledge) and teaching strategies by…

  9. The CAOS problem-solving environment: last news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbillet, M.; Desiderà, G.; Augier, É.; La Camera, A.; Riccardi, A.; Boccaletti, A.; Jolissaint, L.; Ab Kadir, D.

    2010-12-01

    We present recent developments of the CAOS problem-solving environment (PSE), an IDL-based software tool complete of a global graphical interface, a general utilities library, and different specialized scientific packages going from end-to-end and analytical simulations to image simulation/reconstruction, with specialization to given instruments.

  10. Solving the Vela pulsar infrared excess problem Dima Zyuzin1

    E-print Network

    Solving the Vela pulsar infrared excess problem Dima Zyuzin1 , Yuri Shibanov 1 , Andrey Danilenko1 Universidad de Concepcion, Chile ABSTRACT Our previous IR studies of the young Vela pulsar with the VLT of the pulsar. Such an excess could be caused either by a fall-back disc around the pulsar, possibly formed

  11. Agent-Support for Problem Solving through Concept-Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoyanov, Svetoslav; Kommers, Piet

    1999-01-01

    Presents an experimental verification of a hypothetical construct explaining the basic mechanism behind the behavior of an intelligent agent implemented in the Solution, Mapping, Intelligent, Learning Environment (SMILE) performance supported system. Explains the SMILE concept mapping method and its role as a problem-solving tool. (Author/LRW)

  12. Increasing Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance through Relaxation Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conni Sharp; Hazel Coltharp; David Hurford; AmyKay Cole

    2000-01-01

    Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the begimung and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation trailung during an initial class

  13. A Study of Student Interactions during Asynchronous Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the quality and nature of the students' interactions during asynchronous online problem solving in two sections of College Algebra taught by the author. In a shared-work section, students worked independently for an initial phase and had access to classmates' work during a follow-up phase. Students in the…

  14. Decision-making and problem solving methods in automation technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Hankins; J. E. Pennington; L. K. Barker

    1983-01-01

    This report presents a brief review of the state of the art in the automation of decision making and problem solving. The information upon which the report is based was derived from literature searches, visits to university and government laboratories performing basic research in the area, and a 1980 Langley Research Center sponsored conference on the subject. It is the

  15. A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass

    E-print Network

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    RANA 99­06 A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass B.J. van der Linden --- R, The Netherlands e­mail: linden@win.tue.nl 15th May 2000 #12; Abstract In the production of glass, temperature Conclusion 25 2 #12; Chapter 1 Introduction The production of glass belongs to the oldest forms of human

  16. A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass

    E-print Network

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    RANA 99-06 A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass B.J. van der Linden -- R, The Netherlands e-mail: linden@win.tue.nl 15th May 2000 #12;Abstract In the production of glass, temperature plays Conclusion 25 2 #12;Chapter 1 Introduction The production of glass belongs to the oldest forms of human

  17. Solving the Inverse-Square Problem with Complex Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, N.

    2005-01-01

    The equation of motion for a mass that moves under the influence of a central, inverse-square force is formulated and solved as a problem in complex variables. To find the solution, the constancy of angular momentum is first established using complex variables. Next, the complex position coordinate and complex velocity of the particle are assumed…

  18. Teaching Problem Solving to At-Risk Students through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knights, Christine

    Using instructional system design, a unit of instruction for teaching problem solving through literature to at-risk students was developed to reduce frustrations, increase productive time on task, and show low-achieving students that they can have fun in an English classroom. The target population was a 7th-grade multi-ethnic English class of 28…

  19. Teacher Level of Questioning and Problem Solving in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Pauline H.

    1980-01-01

    To determine the effects of a teacher's level of questioning on the development of children's problem-solving ability, children were exposed to three five-week treatment conditions in a half-day laboratory nursery school program. High-level cognitive questioning seemed to result in children's ability to generate significantly more alternative…

  20. Collaborative Problem Solving in Young Typical Development and HFASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimhi, Yael; Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative problem solving (CPS) requires sharing goals/attention and coordinating actions--all deficient in HFASD. Group differences were examined in CPS (HFASD/typical), with a friend versus with a non-friend. Participants included 28 HFASD and 30 typical children aged 3-6 years and their 58 friends and 58 non-friends. Groups were matched on…

  1. REMOTE TRANSFER OF SCIENTIFIC REASONING-AND PROBLEM-SOLVING

    E-print Network

    Klahr, David

    REMOTE TRANSFER OF SCIENTIFIC REASONING- AND PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES IN CHILDREN Zhe Chena.g., Gelman, 1969; Siegler, 1995), understanding of physical rules (Siegler & Chen, 1998), tool use and causal reasoning (Brown & Kane, 1990 AU :1; Chen & Siegler, 2000; Chen, Sanchez, & Campbell, 1997), scientific

  2. Improving Benders Decomposition to Solve the Tree-Bucking Problem

    E-print Network

    Ferland, Jacques A.

    forest units of minimal dimension. Each stand is a homogeneous unit containing trees of the same speciesImproving Benders Decomposition to Solve the Tree-Bucking Problem Sylvie Roussel, D´epartement d level of decision to select the proper bucking (crosscutting) rule for each stand and a second level

  3. Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcio, Frances R., Ed.

    This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify Polya's art of…

  4. Preparing Teachers of Gifted Students to Solve Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Theresa M.; Georgiades, William Den Hartog

    1986-01-01

    Teachers have successfully used three Principles of Teacher Training (Curry Sato, 1984) as guidelines for identifying and solving instructional problems with gifted students. Teaching styles were changed through training, which was (1) reinforced through appropriate materials; (2) attempted to meet participants' specific needs; and (3) was…

  5. John Dewey--Problem Solving and History Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorella, Peter H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a model for introducing inquiry and problem-solving into middle grade history classes. It is based on an educational approach suggested by John Dewey. The author uses the model to explore two seemingly contradictory statements by Abraham Lincoln about slavery. (AV)

  6. Assisting Students with Argumentation Plans when Solving Problems in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteserin, Ariel; Schiaffino, Silvia; Amandi, Analia

    2010-01-01

    In CSCL systems, students who are solving problems in group have to negotiate with each other by exchanging proposals and arguments in order to resolve the conflicts and generate a shared solution. In this context, argument construction assistance is necessary to facilitate reaching to a consensus. This assistance is usually provided with isolated…

  7. Towards Multi-Swarm Problem Solving in Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony White; Bernard Pagurek

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes how multiple interacting swarms of adaptive mobile agents can be used to solve problems in networks. The paper introduces a new architectural description for an agent that is chemically inspired and proposes chemical interaction as the principal mechanism for inter-swarm communication. Agents within a given swarm have behavior that is inspired by the foraging activities of ants,

  8. Collaboration in Children: Dyadic Interaction Skills in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Catherine R.

    Communication behaviors which facilitate cooperative problem solving were investigated in 3- to 5-year-old children. Thirty-two dyads, matched on age, sex and friendship were videotaped as they used balance scales to locate pairs of blocks of varying weight and surface design, but identical in size. All subjects had conventional labels for the…

  9. POLYA PROBLEM-SOLVING SEMINAR WEEK 5: INVARIANTS AND MONOVARIANTS

    E-print Network

    Vakil, Ravi

    1/(ni + 1) also works in Sample 3. Date: Monday, November 5, 2007. 1 #12;3. N men and N women moves from a room with more men than women (counted before he moves) into a room with more women than with them. You are not allowed to try a problem that you already know how to solve. Otherwise, work

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Mathematical modeling of evolution. Solved and open problems

    E-print Network

    Schuster, Peter

    on variation and natural selection is due to the great naturalist Charles Darwin who derived it from a wealthORIGINAL PAPER Mathematical modeling of evolution. Solved and open problems Peter Schuster Received Abstract Evolution is a highly complex multilevel pro- cess and mathematical modeling of evolutionary

  11. Problem solving in out-of-school settings: Children \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Lowrie

    This investigation describes the way in which a case study participant (aged 7) used maps (including large- and small-scale maps, dynamic and static maps) to solve problems in a technology game-based context. The participant demonstrated the capacity to decipher graphical information when simultaneously moving between maps with different representations, orientations, perspectives and scales as he played a Pokemon Game Boy.

  12. Theory-Based Teaching: Problem Solving in Studio Art Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Jean C.

    The call for more empirical research in art education during the 1950s seems to be a precursor of the contemporary move toward more systematic instruction in the visual arts. If making art employs nonverbal aesthetic concepts, then conceptual consistency and problem solving within studio instruction can facilitate students' acquisition, retention,…

  13. Developmental Trends in Children's Aggression and Social Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Fumito; Koseki, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hironori

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to clarify how social problem-solving processes develop and to identify developmentally-sensitive intervention components for children's aggression. Elementary and junior-high school Japanese students (N = 1100) from urban public schools participated in the present investigation. Their alternative thinking skills,…

  14. Using Sociodrama to Help Young Children Problem Solve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, Deanna Marie Pecaski

    2012-01-01

    Sociodrama is an arts-based, action-oriented tool of individual and collective social exploration and creative problem solving that allows participants to explore and find potential resolutions to issues of concern and conflict in their lives. This article describes how Early Years educators can begin to implement basic sociodrama into their…

  15. Situated, Embodied and Social Problem-Solving in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Andrew; Hedberg, John G.; Gosper, Maree; Dick, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domain specific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involves knowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activities that incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies, this paper outlines how…

  16. Creativity, Problem Solving, and Solution Set Sightedness: Radically Reformulating BVSR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-01-01

    Too often, psychological debates become polarized into dichotomous positions. Such polarization may have occurred with respect to Campbell's (1960) blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) theory of creativity. To resolve this unnecessary controversy, BVSR was radically reformulated with respect to creative problem solving. The reformulation…

  17. Family Problem-Solving with Children Who Have Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Frank J; Harter, Kristina S. M.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2004-01-01

    Problem-solving discussions were observed within families of children with mental retardation and multiple comparison groups (total N = 162 families). As expected, parents were more persistent and directive with their children who had mental retardation, but they also avoided negative exchanges with these children. These patterns did not spillover…

  18. Extending Fibonacci Numbers to Negative Subscripts through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    This classroom note shows how Fibonacci numbers with negative subscripts emerge from a problem-solving context enhanced by the use of an electronic spreadsheet. It reflects the author's work with prospective K-12 teachers in a number of mathematics content courses. (Contains 4 figures.)

  19. Reasoning Processes Used by Paramedics to Solve Clinical Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to determine the reasoning processes used by paramedics to solve clinical problems. Existing research documents concern over the accuracy of paramedics' clinical decision-making, but no research was found that examines the cognitive processes by which paramedics make either faulty or accurate…

  20. Training State Child Service Coordinators in Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Wendy LeeAnn; Gilman, David Alan

    The preliminary findings of the evaluation of the training program, Creative Problem Solving, are presented. The training was provided through the Blumberg Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Special Education at Indiana State University. Twenty-one state and county child service coordinators participated in the training on a voluntary basis.…

  1. Designing WebQuests to Support Creative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    WebQuests have been a popular alternative for collaborative group work that utilizes internet resources, but studies have questioned how effective they are in challenging students to use higher order thinking processes that involve creative problem solving. This article explains how different levels of inquiry relate to categories of learning…

  2. SOLVING PROBLEMS ON THE INNOVATION FRONTIER Zack Kertcher

    E-print Network

    Levit, Anna

    as innovation frontiers. As I shall demonstrate, using the early stages of development and adoption of GridSOLVING PROBLEMS ON THE INNOVATION FRONTIER Zack Kertcher Department of Sociology University of conceptual inspiration to students of technological innovation. In this paper, I broaden the scope

  3. Problem Solving in Social Studies: A Model Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma City Public School System, OK.

    These model lessons from the primary grades are on the techniques of advertising drawn from a unit on, "Creating and Producing Tools and Techniques". They include behaviorial objectives, teaching and motivational strategies, evaluation techniques. The model lessons follow the problem solving inquiry approach in social studies using multimedia…

  4. Motivating Performance: Part 1--Diagnosing and Solving Motivation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a way to diagnose and solve motivation problems at work. Describes a model based on recent cognitive performance motivation research. Explains the CANE (Commitment And Necessary Effort) model and illustrates with a case study. Discusses the CANE model's applicability in any performance setting. (AEF)

  5. Young Children's Use of a Shortcut to Solve Addition Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paliwal, Veena; Baroody, Arthur J.; Reid, Erin E.; Purpura, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine if computer-based training programs promoted fluent and flexible use of reasoning strategies to solve addition problems using different tasks. Specifically, does participation in strategy training result in the fluent application of the target strategy on a traditional mental arithmetic task? Does…

  6. Encouraging Problem-Solving Disposition in a Singapore Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Yew Hoong; Yap, Sook Fwe; Quek, Khiok Seng; Tay, Eng Guan; Tong, Cherng Luen; Ong, Yao Teck; Chia, Alexander Stanley Foh Soon; Zaini, Irni Karen Mohd; Khong, Wee Choo; Lock, Oi Leng; Zhang, Qiao Tian Beatrice; Tham, Yi Hui; Noorhazman, Nur-Illya Nafiza Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we share our learning experience as a Lesson Study team. The Research Lesson was on Figural Patterns taught in Year 7. In addition to helping students learn the skills of the topic, we wanted them to develop a problem-solving disposition. The management of these two objectives was a challenge to us. From the lesson observation and…

  7. Problem Solving: Physics Modeling-Based Interactive Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how modeling-based instruction combined with an interactive-engagement teaching approach promotes students' problem solving abilities. I focused on students in a calculus-based introductory physics course, based on the matter and interactions curriculum of Chabay & Sherwood (2002) at a large state…

  8. Problem Solving and the Use of Math in Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redish, Edward F.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematics is an essential element of physics problem solving, but experts often fail to appreciate exactly how they use it. Math may be the language of science, but math-in-physics is a distinct dialect of that language. Physicists tend to blend conceptual physics with mathematical symbolism in a way that profoundly affects the way equations are…

  9. Practical Parenting: Successful Strategies for Solving Your Child's Behaviour Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenhouse, Glen

    Recognizing that all parents encounter challenges in raising their children, this book presents practical strategies for solving common behavior problems. Chapter 1, "Bonding," concerns the development of parent-child attachment. Chapter 2, "Encouraging Development," discusses "hot-housing," language development, and early intervention. Chapter 3,…

  10. Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…

  11. A Working Memory Model Applied to Mathematical Word Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamolhodaei, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study is (a) to explore the relationship among cognitive style (field dependence/independence), working memory, and mathematics anxiety and (b) to examine their effects on students' mathematics problem solving. A sample of 161 school girls (13-14 years old) were tested on (1) the Witkin's cognitive style (Group Embedded…

  12. Science for Environmental Management Enhancing environmental problem solving

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Science for Environmental Management Enhancing environmental problem solving MEES 698Y Special Topics in Marine-Estuarine-Environmental Sciences Spring Semester 2013; Wednesdays 3:30-6:30pm Course will be taught on the Interactive Video Network (IVN) is course will address the role of science in environmental

  13. Elementary Teachers' Perspectives of Mathematics Problem Solving Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruun, Faye

    2013-01-01

    Participants in this study were asked to report what strategies were most often used in their attempts to foster their students' problem solving abilities. Participants included 70 second through fifth-grade elementary teachers from 42 schools in a large state of the south central region in the U.S. Data analyses of the interviews revealed…

  14. Strategies for Promoting Problem Solving and Transfer: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Problem solving allows students to use what they know to achieve a goal when no solution is apparent. Traditional educational models evolved from an earlier system, based on rote memorization and designed to produce employees for industry. The workforce of tomorrow must move beyond rote learning by both applying current knowledge and using…

  15. Make Sense of Problems and Persevere in Solving Them

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-01

    This site from the Tennessee Early Grades Math Tool Kit provides a rationale for fostering the CCSS Math Practice Standard. Included is a four-step model for learners to follow when solving a mathematical problem, teaching strategies and helpful questions for developing mathematical thinking. Also includes are additional resources (videos, articles and websites) that foster this habit of mind with learners.

  16. Problem solving in hyperactive, normal, and reading-disabled boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy L. Tant; Virginia I. Douglas

    1982-01-01

    Diagnostic problem solving was examined in groups of hyperactive, normal, and nonhyperactive reading disabled boys matched on age and verbal IQ. On the matrix solution task employed (a version of the game of 20 Questions) hyperactives used less efficient questions and strategies than the other two groups, in spite of the task being designed to maximize the performance of the

  17. Animated Pedagogical Agents and Problem-Solving E ectiveness

    E-print Network

    Lester, James C.

    Animated Pedagogical Agents and Problem-Solving E ectiveness: A Large-Scale Empirical Evaluation by providing students with customized advice. To evaluate the e ects of animatedpedagogical agents on students with an animated pedagog- ical agent that inhabits Design-A-Plant, a design-centered learning environment

  18. Appropriate Combinations of Technology for Solving Landscape Management Problems--

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Appropriate Combinations of Technology for Solving Landscape Management Problems-- Session K: Water Resource Development Landscape Preference Assessment of Louisiana River Landscapes: A Methodological Study1 of Land Manage- ment, Denver, Colorado Abstract: The study pertains to the development of an assessment

  19. Analysis of Errors Made by Students Solving Genetics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Sandra Judith

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the errors made by students solving genetics problems. A sample of 10 non-science undergraduate students was obtained from a private college in Northern New Jersey. The results support prior research in the area of genetics education and show that a weak understanding of the relationship of meiosis to…

  20. Tracing Success: Graphical Methods for Analysing Successful Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Richard; Issroff, Kim

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of trace diagrams for analysing collaborative problem solving. The paper describes a study where trace diagrams were used to analyse joint navigation in a virtual environment. Ten pairs of undergraduates worked together on a distributed virtual task to collect five flowers using two bees with each…