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1

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,

2

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to a systematic procedure for solving problems through a demonstration and then the application of the method to an everyday activity. The unit project is introduced to provide relevance to subsequent lessons.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

3

Symbolic-Numerical Algorithms for Solving Parabolic Quantum Well Problem with Hydrogen-Like Impurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

For parabolic quantum well problem with hydrogen-like impurity a two-dimensional boundary-value problem is formulated in spherical\\u000a coordinates at fixed magnetic quantum number. Calculational scheme using modified angular prolate spheroidal functions is presented. Symbolic-numerical algorithms for solving the problem are elaborated.\\u000a The efficiency of the algorithms and their implementation is demonstrated by solving typical test examples and proving the\\u000a compatibility conditions

Sergey I. Vinitsky; Ochbadrakh Chuluunbaatar; Vladimir P. Gerdt; A. A. Gusev; V. A. Rostovtsev

2009-01-01

4

Role of Beliefs and Emotions in Numerical Problem Solving in University Physics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task…

Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael

2012-01-01

5

Numerical methods for solving nonnegative inverse singular value problems with prescribed structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inverse singular value problems have been a research focus for decades. It is true that an inverse singular value problem is trivial if the desired matrix is not restricted to any structure. This paper presents a numerical procedure, based on an alternating projection process, for solving inverse singular value problems for nonnegative matrices subject to given diagonal entries. In theory, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of nonnegative 2 × 2 matrices subject to prescribed singular values and diagonal entries are derived. Although the focus of this paper is on inverse singular value problems with prescribed diagonal entries, the entire procedure can be straightforwardly applied to other types of structure. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the capacity and efficiency of our method.

Wu, Sheng-Jhih; Lin, Matthew M.

2014-05-01

6

New efficient numerical procedures for solving stochastic variational problems with a priori maximum pointwise error estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous paper we gave a new formulation and derived the Euler equations and other necessary conditions to solve strong, pathwise, stochastic variational problems with trajectories driven by Brownian motion. Thus, unlike current methods which minimize the control over deterministic functionals (the expected value), we find the control which gives the critical point solution of random functionals of a Brownian path and then, if we choose, find the expected value. This increase in information is balanced by the fact that our methods are anticipative while current methods are not. However, our methods are more directly connected to the theory and meaningful examples of deterministic variational theory and provide better means of solution for free and constrained problems. In addition, examples indicate that there are methods to obtain nonanticipative solutions from our equations although the anticipative optimal cost function has smaller expected value. In this paper we give new, efficient numerical methods to find the solution of these problems in the quadratic case. Of interest is that our numerical solution has a maximal, a priori, pointwise error of O(h3/2) where h is the node size. We believe our results are unique for any theory of stochastic control and that our methods of proof involve new and sophisticated ideas for strong solutions which extend previous deterministic results by the first author where the error was O(h2). We note that, although our solutions are given in terms of stochastic differential equations, we are not using the now standard numerical methods for stochastic differential equations. Instead we find an approximation to the critical point solution of the variational problem using relations derived from setting to zero the directional derivative of the cost functional in the direction of simple test functions. Our results are even more significant than they first appear because we can reformulate stochastic control problems or constrained calculus of variations problems in the unconstrained, stochastic calculus of variations formulation of this paper. This will allow us to find efficient and accurate numerical solutions for general constrained, stochastic optimization problems. This is not yet being done, even in the deterministic case, except by the first author.

Gregory, John; Hughes, H. R.

2007-04-01

7

Role of beliefs and emotions in numerical problem solving in university physics education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger students’ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with students’ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of students’ epistemological beliefs is important for students’ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.

Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael

2012-06-01

8

Children with mathematical learning disability fail in recruiting verbal and numerical brain regions when solving simple multiplication problems.  

PubMed

Greater skill in solving single-digit multiplication problems requires a progressive shift from a reliance on numerical to verbal mechanisms over development. Children with mathematical learning disability (MD), however, are thought to suffer from a specific impairment in numerical mechanisms. Here we tested the hypothesis that this impairment might prevent MD children from transitioning toward verbal mechanisms when solving single-digit multiplication problems. Brain activations during multiplication problems were compared in MD and typically developing (TD) children (3rd to 7th graders) in numerical and verbal regions which were individuated by independent localizer tasks. We used small (e.g., 2 × 3) and large (e.g., 7 × 9) problems as these problems likely differ in their reliance on verbal versus numerical mechanisms. Results indicate that MD children have reduced activations in both the verbal (i.e., left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal to superior temporal gyri) and the numerical (i.e., right superior parietal lobule including intra-parietal sulcus) regions suggesting that both mechanisms are impaired. Moreover, the only reliable activation observed for MD children was in the numerical region when solving small problems. This suggests that MD children could effectively engage numerical mechanisms only for the easier problems. Conversely, TD children showed a modulation of activation with problem size in the verbal regions. This suggests that TD children were effectively engaging verbal mechanisms for the easier problems. Moreover, TD children with better language skills were more effective at engaging verbal mechanisms. In conclusion, results suggest that the numerical- and language-related processes involved in solving multiplication problems are impaired in MD children. PMID:24858066

Berteletti, Ilaria; Prado, Jérôme; Booth, James R

2014-08-01

9

Creating Problem Solving Natives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post, the author discusses how valuable the problem-solving tool of drawing (or acting) out the problem is to help learners make sense of the problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of work from students who were successful and who were not successful in solving the problem are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "Schmoos ânâ Goos" (cataloged separately) that is best solved by drawing a picture.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-03-04

10

Applied mathematical problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case is presented for the importance of focusing on (1) average ability students, (2) substantive mathematical content, (3) real problems, and (4) realistic settings and solution procedures for research in problem solving. It is suggested that effective instructional techniques for teaching applied mathematical problem solving resembles “mathematical laboratory” activities, done in small group problem solving settings.

Richard Lesh

1981-01-01

11

Environmental problem solving  

SciTech Connect

Human influences create both environmental problems and barriers to effective policy aimed at addressing those problems. In effect, environmental managers manage people as much as they manage the environment. Therefore, they must gain an understanding of the psychological and sociopolitical dimensions of environmental problems that they are attempting to resolve. The author reappraises conventional analyses of environmental problems using lessons from the psychosocial disciplines. The author combines the disciplines of ecology, political sociology and psychology to produce a more adaptive approach to problem-solving that is specifically geared toward the environmental field. Numerous case studies demonstrate the practical application of theory in a way that is useful to technical and scientific professionals as well as to policymakers and planners.

Miller, A. [Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)

1999-06-01

12

Mathematics Through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a studentâs mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.

Taplin, Margaret

2011-01-01

13

Teaching through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

14

Problem Solving - Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...

Kajigga

2009-09-23

15

Problem Solving Seminar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course includes elements from an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. The material will help students develop their mathematical and problem solving skills. A few topics that are covered include probability, generating mathematical functions and polynomials. Course materials include student assignments and solutions. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Kedlaya, Kiran Sridhara, 1974-; Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-; Stanley, Richard

2010-12-22

16

Solving the dynamic rupture problem with different numerical approaches and constitutive laws  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We study the dynamic initiation, propagation and arrest of a 2-D in-plane shear rupture by solving the elastodynamic equation by using both a boundary integral equation method and a finite difference approach. For both methods we adopt different constitutive laws: a slip-weakening (SW) law, with constant weakening rate, and rate- and state-dependent friction laws (Dieterich-Ruina). Our numerical procedures allow the use of heterogeneous distributions of constitutive parameters along the fault for both formulations. We first compare the two solution methods with an SW law, emphasizing the required stability conditions to achieve a good resolution of the cohesive zone and to avoid artificial complexity in the solutions. Our modelling results show that the two methods provide very similar time histories of dynamic source parameters. We point out that, if a careful control of resolution and stability is performed, the two methods yield identical solutions. We have also compared the rupture evolution resulting from an SW and a rate- and state-dependent friction law. This comparison shows that despite the different constitutive formulations, a similar behaviour is simulated during the rupture propagation and arrest. We also observe a crack tip bifurcation and a jump in rupture velocity (approaching the P-wave speed) with the Dieterich-Ruina (DR) law. The rupture arrest at a barrier (high strength zone) and the barrier-healing mechanism are also reproduced by this law. However, this constitutive formulation allows the simulation of a more general and complex variety of rupture behaviours. By assuming different heterogeneous distributions of the initial constitutive parameters, we are able to model a barrier-healing as well as a self-healing process. This result suggests that if the heterogeneity of the constitutive parameters is taken into account, the different healing mechanisms can be simulated. We also study the nucleation phase duration Tn, defined as the time necessary for the crack to reach the half-length Ic. We compare the Tn values resulting from distinct simulations calculated using different constitutive laws and different sets of constitutive parameters. Our results confirm that the DR law provides a different description of the nucleation process than the SW law adopted in this study. We emphasize that the DR law yields a complete description of the rupture process, which includes the most prominent features of SW.

Bizzarri, A.; Cocco, M.; Andrews, D. J.; Boschi, E.

2001-01-01

17

Problem-Solving Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

1992-01-01

18

A numerical method to solve the inverse medium problem: an application to the Ipswich data. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see ibid., vol.39, no.14-19 (1997). The following electromagnetic inverse scattering problem is considered: reconstruction of the refractive index of a cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneity from knowledge of the scattered electromagnetic fields, when the inhomogeneity is hit by known incident electromagnetic fields. Taking advantage of the cylindrical symmetry, the problem for the Maxwell equations is reduced to a boundary-value problem

Pierluigi Maponi; Francesco Zirilli

1999-01-01

19

Problem Solving with Patents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-01-01

20

Solving Common Mathematical Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.

2005-01-01

21

Preparing for Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeking more effective mathematics instruction, this author decided to incorporate Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) into first-grade classroom lessons. Students in CGI mathematics classrooms are prompted to use their prior knowledge to solve new problems, establish cognitive structures to which new learning can be connected, and be driven by…

Holden, Becky

2007-01-01

22

Solving Energy Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

23

Effective Numerical Methods for Solving Elliptical Problems in Strengthened Sobolev Spaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourth-order elliptic boundary value problems in the plane can be reduced to operator equations in Hilbert spaces G that are certain subspaces of the Sobolev space W(sub 2)(exp 2)(Omega) is identical with G(sup (2)). Appearance of asymptotically optimal algorithms for Stokes type problems made it natural to focus on an approach that considers rot w is identical with (D(sub 2)w - D(sub 1)w) is identical with vector of u as a new unknown vector-function, which automatically satisfies the condition div vector of u = 0. In this work, we show that this approach can also be developed for an important class of problems from the theory of plates and shells with stiffeners. The main mathematical problem was to show that the well-known inf-sup condition (normal solvability of the divergence operator) holds for special Hilbert spaces. This result is also essential for certain hydrodynamics problems.

D'yakonov, Eugene G.

1996-01-01

24

Encouraging Meaningful Quantitative Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative problem-solving is a challenging aspect of any physical science course. Traditionally, students have been encouraged to pursue various techniques in an effort to provide structure to this task. While such methods may help students to generate numerical answers, they can become exercises in symbol manipulation that leave the student without a clear picture of the physical situation associated with the problem. This paper describes the efforts of a group of teachers to help college freshman chemistry students and high school science students to improve their problem-solving skills. The presentation includes several sets of questions intended to elucidate ideas and to involve the reader in the process of reflecting upon his or her own problem-solving strategies.

Cohen, Jeff; Kennedy-Justice, Meghan; Pai, Sunny; Torres, Carmen; Toomey, Rick; Depierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred

2000-09-01

25

Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Chemical Engineering Modeling" is a first-semester graduate course traditionally taught in a lecture format at Oklahoma State University. The course as taught by the author for the past seven years focuses on numerical and mathematical methods as necessary skills for incoming graduate students. Recent changes to the course have included Visual…

Maase, Eric L.; High, Karen A.

2008-01-01

26

A numerical method to solve the inverse medium problem: an application to the Ipswich data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves in an inhomogeneous medium. The inhomogeneity is contained in a vertical cylinder with a compact base. When an incident wave meets the inhomogeneity, a scattered wave is generated. We consider the problem of the reconstruction of the inhomogeneous refractive index from some knowledge of the scattered waves generated by the interaction of the

P. Maponi; L. Misici; F. Zirilli

1997-01-01

27

Problem Solving Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this workshop was to address multiple aspects of research on problem solving environments (PSEs), including design\\u000a and implementation issues, exploitation of enabling technologies, applications, and education issues. A PSE is a complete,\\u000a integrated computing environment for composing, compiling, and running applications in a specific area. A PSE may also incorporate\\u000a many features of an expert system and

David Walker; Ken Hawick; Domenico Laforenza; Efstratios Gallopoulos

28

Problem Solving with Patents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-03-01

29

Problem Solving: Tips for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents several suggestions for teaching problem-solving. They include: (1) using the "reduction" strategy (which permits students to solve problems involving a large number of cases or a very complex figure); (2) a problem for students in grades 4-8 to solve; and (3) ways of fostering a problem-solving climate. (JN)

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

1985-01-01

30

The Spreadsheet: Solving Word Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents several examples of algebraic word problems and demonstrates how spreadsheets are used to solve the problems. Spreadsheet templates are included to illustrate how each problem is solved. (MBR)

Arad, Ofar S.

1987-01-01

31

Depression and Social Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty depressed patients with major depressive disorder, 20 nondepressed matched control subjects, and 17 patients with anxiety disorders were compared in different measures of social problem solving. Problem solving was assessed with the Means–Ends Problem-Solving Test (Study 1), the solution of personal problems, and a problem-solving questionnaire (Study 2). Results showed that, as predicted, depressed subjects suffered from a deficit

Elisabeth M. Marx; J. Mark G. Williams; Gordon C. Claridge

1992-01-01

32

Problem Solving: A Classroom Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student problem solving, even with emotionally disturbed children, provides students and teachers with a way to deal with impulsive behavior. Outlines steps to respectful problem solving by introducing students to ways to reframe their thinking. (JPS)

Templeton, Rosalyn Anstine; Lorsbach, Anthony W.

1996-01-01

33

Correlates of Creative Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purposes of this research were to (a) identify individual differences related to unstructured problem-solving capability and (b) evaluate the effective- ness of a training course designed to enhance performance in solving unstructured problems. One gr...

S. R. Stewart D. C. Angle

1992-01-01

34

Solving Verbal Problems in Mathematics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video shows effective ways to promote verbal problem solving skills. Examples of teachers and pupils in action, using various problem solving techniques, are interspersed with examples of actual work which result from the use of multiple approaches. I...

1994-01-01

35

Principles for Teaching Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Kirkley, Rob F.

2003-01-01

36

A Method for Solving Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving and decision making are considered to be keys to successful management. A normative method for problem solving is presented, suggesting that the analysis of the problem be structured along a five-step procedure: problem identification, analysis, decision alternatives, decision making, and decision implementation. Follow-up…

Knoop, Robert

1987-01-01

37

Models of group problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the group problem solving process was investigated with college Ss working on Maier's horse trading problem (1952). 3 theoretical models were posited to be utilized to interpret the results: an independent model (group response will not differ from those of Ss working alone), a rational model (when one group member solves the problem, the group will adopt

Edwin J. Thomas; Clinton F. Fink

1961-01-01

38

Technological Problem Solving: A Proposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of newer technology education materials reveals two recurring themes: one relates to curriculum content, familiarizing students with technology, and another to a technique of classroom instruction, i.e., problem solving. A problem-solving framework for technical education has the following components: (1) define the problem; (2)…

Waetjen, Walter B.

39

Numerical methods based on multipoint Hermite interpolating polynomials for solving the Cauchy problem for stiff systems of ordinary differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Families of A-, L-, and L(?)-stable methods are constructed for solving the Cauchy problem for a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs).\\u000a The L(?)-stability of a method with a parameter ? ? (0, 1) is defined. The methods are based on the representation of the right-hand\\u000a sides of an ODE system at the step h in terms of two-or three-point

A. F. Latypov; Yu. V. Nikulichev

2007-01-01

40

Numerical methods based on multipoint Hermite interpolating polynomials for solving the Cauchy problem for stiff systems of ordinary differential equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Families of A-, L-, and L(?)-stable methods are constructed for solving the Cauchy problem for a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The L(?)-stability of a method with a parameter ? ? (0, 1) is defined. The methods are based on the representation of the right-hand sides of an ODE system at the step h in terms of two-or three-point Hermite interpolating polynomials. Comparative results are reported for some test problems. The multipoint Hermite interpolating polynomials are used to derive formulas for evaluating definite integrals. Error estimates are given.

Latypov, A. F.; Nikulichev, Yu. V.

2007-02-01

41

GOAL-oriented Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving skills, although an important goal of many introductory science courses, are not easily mastered by many students. The GOAL approach is easy to recall and encourages students to Gather information about the problem, Organize an approach to the solution, Analyze the problem, and then Learn from their efforts. This mnemonic is based on the findings of other researchers who have studied how students solve problems and was conceived during development of an introductory physics text as a mental aid to avoid formula-centered problem solving and to teach skills employed by experienced problem solvers.

Beichner, Robert J.; Deardorff, Duane; Zhang, Binghua

2006-12-06

42

GOAL-oriented Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving skills, although an important goal of many introductory science courses, are not easily mastered by many students. The GOAL approach is easy to recall and encourages students to Gather information about the problem, Organize an approach to the solution, Analyze the problem, and then Learn from their efforts. This mnemonic is based on the findings of other researchers who have studied how students solve problems and was conceived during development of an introductory physics text as a mental aid to avoid formula-centered problem solving and to teach skills employed by experienced problem solvers.

Beichner, Robert J.; Deardorff, Duane; Zhang, Binghua

2010-11-08

43

Solving Cognitive Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... answering this, some consistent information has emerged. n Memory or recall problems. Problems with memory — the most ... of ways to compensate for cognitive changes: > Where memory is weak, try substituting organization. Get yourself a ...

44

Learning Impasses in Problem Solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

Hodgson, J. P. E.

1992-01-01

45

Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

46

Problem Solving on a Monorail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)

Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others

1994-01-01

47

The Microcomputer and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four goals of teaching for problem solving and the characteristics of microcomputers that could be used to further these goals are examined. The combination of an enthusiastic teacher and the new technology is expected to open up new vistas of possibilities for problem solving in the curriculum of the 1980's. (MP)

Kantowski, Mary Grace

1983-01-01

48

Problem Solving vis Soap Bubbles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a scientific phenomenon related to the concept of surface tension as an intriguing vehicle to direct attention to useful problem solving techniques. The need for a definite building process in attempts to solve mathematical problems is stressed. (EB)

Bader, William A.

1975-01-01

49

Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

50

Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

Lacy, Grace

51

The Future Problem Solving Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…

Crabbe, Anne B.

1989-01-01

52

A Weighty Problem Solved.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A word problem concerning weights of a pail containing different amounts of nails appeared in January 1997 issue of Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School. Teachers were invited to try the problem with classes and submit examples of students' work with a brief analysis. This article contains three student solutions. Argues that posing such…

McClain, Kay, Ed.

1997-01-01

53

Math problem solving model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers will find the information and tools in this module a useful introduction to teaching with open-ended problems. Information about related professional development opportunities is also available at the site.

Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL)

2002-01-01

54

Modeling Applied to Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling Applied to Problem Solving (MAPS) is a pedagogy that helps students transfer instruction to problem solving in an expert-like manner. Declarative and Procedural syllabus content is organized and learned (not discovered) as a hierarchy of General Models. Students solve problems using an explicit Problem Modeling Rubric that begins with System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.). System and Interactions are emphasized as the key to a strategic description of the system and the identification of the appropriate General Model to apply to the problem. We have employed the pedagogy in a three-week review course for students who received a D in mechanics. The course was assessed by a final exam retest as well as pre and post C-LASS surveys, yielding a one standard deviation improvement in the students' ability to solve final exam problems and a statistically significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the C-LASS.

Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

2009-10-01

55

Children Solve Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

De Bono, Edward

56

On Solving "Problems"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting and estimating are no doubt ancient survival skills. And yet, present educational methods tend to downplay these very skills. This breeds senseless innumeracy and social disruption. Jumbling inches with centimeters, for example, can cause a Mars mission to fail. With minor distortion, elementary and high schools (and beyond) teach that all fractions are simple, that all square roots are rational, and that trigonometric functions need be evaluated only for 30, 45, and 60 degrees. We thus inflict threefold damage on our children and students. First, they come to believe that numbers beyond 10 (except for current account deficits) are intuitively inaccessible; second, that answers to all mathematical questions are "formulas"; and third, that the art of estimation merely requires punching keys on a calculator—a dismal sort of black magic. These beliefs I wish to expose in the form of eight short numerical tales.

Ghez, Richard

2006-04-01

57

Solving a Deconvolution Problem in Photon Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We solve numerically a deconvolution problem to extract the undisturbed spectrum from the measured distribution contaminated by the finite resolution of the measuring device. A problem of this kind emerges when one wants to infer the momentum distribution of the neutral pions by detecting the ?0 decay photons using the photon spectrometer of the ALICE LHC experiment at CERN [1].

D. Aleksandrov; J. Alme; V. Basmanov; B. Batyunya; D. Blau; M. Bogolyubsky; V. Budilov; D. Budnikov; J. I. Buskenes; X. Cai; F. Chuman; A. Deloff; V. Demanov; O. Djuvsland; T. Dobrowolski; M. Faltys; D. Fehlker; S. Fil’chagin; A. Hiei; P. T. Hille; T. Horaguchi; M. Huang; R. Il’kaev; I. Ilkiv; M. Ippolitov; T. Iwasaki; A. Kazantsev; K. Karadzhev; Y. Kharlov; Y. Kucheryaev; P. Kurashvili; A. Kuryakin; D. T. Larsen; S. Lindal; L. Liu; G. Lovhoiden; K. Ma; A. Mamonov; V. Manko; Y. Mao; J. Mares; Y. Maruyama; H. Müller; K. Mizoguchi; S. Nazarenko; G. Nazarov; S. Nikolaev; S. Nikolaev; P. Nomokonov; J. Nystrand; A. Pavlinov; D. Peresunko; V. Petrov; K. Polak; B. Polichtchouk; T. Potcheptsov; V. Punin; H. Qvigstad; K. Redlich; D. Roehrich; S. Sadovsky; V. Senko; K. Shigaki; I. Sibiryak; T. Siemiarczuk; B. Skaali; K. Skjerdal; G. Shabratova; A. Soloviev; P. Stolpovsky; T. Sugitate; M. Sukhorukov; H. Torii; T. Tveter; K. Ullaland; J. Wikne; O. Vikhlyantsev; A. Vinogradov; Y. Vinogradov; A. Vodopyanov; R. Wan; Y. Wang; G. Wilk; D. Wang; C. Xu; Z. Yin; V. Yanovsky; X. Yuan; S. Zaporozhets; A. Zenin; X. Zhang; D. Zhou

2010-01-01

58

Structural Understanding in Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A common instructional objective in domains of math and science is the capability to use formulas and arithmetic procedures to solve problems. Although students are explicitly taught the relevant formulas and principals, are shown worked-out examples, and...

M. Riley

1989-01-01

59

Database Supported Cooperative Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of problems in office environments, medical diagnosis, and planningthat require cooperation among agents (either active or passive) for their solutions.Briefly, cooperative problem solving can be viewed as a complex activity requiringharmonious and dynamic interaction between active agents (typically humans -- providingsequencing, decision making, and coordination components) and passive agents(typically computing systems -- providing inferencing, algorithmic...

A. Tanaka; K. Karlapalem; S. B. Navathe; S. Chakravarthy

1992-01-01

60

Robot, computer problem solving system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.

Becker, J. D.

1972-01-01

61

Assessment in a Problem Solving Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we elaborate on the ways for assessing problem solving that goes beyond the usual focus on the products of the problem solving process. We designed a 'practical' worksheet to guide the students through the problem solving process. The worksheet focuses the solver's attention on the key stages in problem solving. To assess the students' problem solving throughout

Khiok Seng; Dindyal Jaguthsing; Eng Guan

62

Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…

Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

2007-01-01

63

Customer Service & Team Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a six-session, site-specific training course in customer service and team problem solving for the Claretian Medical Center. The course outline is followed the six lesson plans. Components of each lesson plan include a list of objectives, an outline of activities and discussion topics for the lesson,…

Martin, Sabrina Budasi

64

Teacher Assistance in Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tenth graders solved mathematical problems assisted by varying amounts of help from their teacher. Significant differences occurred between students receiving aid and the unaided control group. Partial assistance resulted in better immediate performance, but this difference was less observable three weeks later. (Author/GDC)

Flener, Frederick O.

1979-01-01

65

Robot computer problem solving system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

1974-01-01

66

Looking Back in Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Often after students solve a problem they believe they have accomplished their mission and stop further exploration. The purpose of this article is to discuss ways to encourage students to "look back" so as to maximise their learning opportunities. According to Polya, by "looking back" at a completed solution, by reconsidering and re-examining the…

Cai, Jinfa; Brook, Michael

2006-01-01

67

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-­making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.

2013-01-01

68

Genetics problem solving and worldview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

Dale, Esther

69

Problem Solving and Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, presents a framework for thinking about knowledge and its organization that can account for known expert-novice differences in knowledge storage and problem solving behavior. The author argues that interpreting any relationship between the ability to answer qualitative and quantitative questions requires a model of cognition, and that PER should seek to develop assessments that monitor component aspects of developing expertise.

Gerace, William J.

2006-12-06

70

Problem Solving and Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, presents a framework for thinking about knowledge and its organization that can account for known expert-novice differences in knowledge storage and problem solving behavior. The author argues that interpreting any relationship between the ability to answer qualitative and quantitative questions requires a model of cognition, and that PER should seek to develop assessments that monitor component aspects of developing expertise.

Gerace, William J.

2010-04-30

71

Problem Solving: Bubble Gum Contest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip presents students engaged in The Common Core Practice Standard #1âMake sense of problems and persevere in solving them. The learners gather data for a bubble gum contest, as part of a larger activity involving recording data and writing up results. Students understand the problem and persevere with the task as they independently go to other classrooms to conduct their survey. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

72

Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…

Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.

2010-01-01

73

Toward a New Perspective on Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educating students to become successful problem solvers has been a goal of education at least since Dewey. However, the kinds of problems students do in school to practice their problem-solving competence have little to do with the problems they will need to solve in everyday settings. We briefly critique traditional conceptions of problem solving, propose a different framework for theorizing

Wolff-Michael Roth; Michelle K. McGinn

1997-01-01

74

Teaching Problem Solving to College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes steps of teaching problem solving to college students and provides examples in the context of a university course. The steps involve (1) identifying the types of problems and types of problem solving methods to be covered, (2) instructing the students in problem-recognition and problem solving methods, along with ways of…

Malouff, John M.

2011-01-01

75

Problem solving ability of parkinsonians.  

PubMed

The hypothesis to be verified is that the cognitive defects in nondemented and nondepressed Parkinsonians are due solely to a bilateral nigrostriatal disorder that causes motor slowing. It was tested on 26 mildly disabled patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease optimally controlled with L-Dopa, nondemented and nondepressed and not receiving anticholinergic. The test used was a simplified version of the London Towers Test of problem-solving ability, designed to measure a facet of prefrontally-induced bradyphrenia, already calibrated on 131 healthy subjects. The results revealed no significant difference between the Parkinsonians and controls, thus providing no support for the hypothesis in question. PMID:3356523

Alberoni, M; Della Salla, S; Pasetti, C; Spinnler, H

1988-02-01

76

Numerical Aspects of Solving Differential Equations: Laboratory Approach for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three labs designed to help students in a first course on ordinary differential equations with three of the most common numerical difficulties they might encounter when solving initial value problems with a numerical software package. The goal of these labs is to help students advance to independent work on common numerical anomalies.…

Witt, Ana

1997-01-01

77

Virtual Human Problem Solving Environments  

SciTech Connect

Abstract. Interest in complex integrated digital or virtual human modeling has seen a significant increase over the last decade. Coincident with that increased interest, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) initiated the development of a human simulation tool, the Virtual Human. The Virtual Human includes a problem-solving environment (PSE) for implementing the integration of physiological models in different programming languages and connecting physiological function to anatomy. The Virtual Human PSE (VHPSE) provides the computational framework with which to develop the concept of a "Virtual Human." Supporting the framework is a data definition for modeling parameters, PhysioML, a Virtual Human Database (VHDB), and a Web-based graphical user interface (GUI) developed using Java. Following description of the VHPSE, we discuss four example implementations of models within the framework. Further expansion of a human modeling environment was carried out in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Virtual Soldier Project. SCIRun served as the Virtual Soldier problem solving environment (VSPSE). We review and compare specific developments in these projects that have significant potential for the future of Virtual Human modeling and simulation. We conclude with an evaluation of areas of future work that will provide important extensions to the VHPSE and VSPSE and make possible a fully-integrated environment for human anatomical and physiological modeling: the Virtual Human.

Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; Fischer, Sarah Kathleen [ORNL

2008-01-01

78

On Spurious Numerics in Solving Reactive Equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the behavior of high order shock-capturing schemes for problems with stiff source terms and discontinuities and on corresponding numerical prediction strategies. The studies by Yee et al. (2012) and Wang et al. (2012) focus only on solving the reactive system by the fractional step method using the Strang splitting (Strang 1968). It is a common practice by developers in computational physics and engineering simulations to include a cut off safeguard if densities are outside the permissible range. Here we compare the spurious behavior of the same schemes by solving the fully coupled reactive system without the Strang splitting vs. using the Strang splitting. Comparison between the two procedures and the effects of a cut off safeguard is the focus the present study. The comparison of the performance of these schemes is largely based on the degree to which each method captures the correct location of the reaction front for coarse grids. Here "coarse grids" means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows of similar problem setup. It is remarked that, in order to resolve the sharp reaction front, local refinement beyond standard mesh density is still needed.

Kotov, D. V; Yee, H. C.; Wang, W.; Shu, C.-W.

2013-01-01

79

Developing Problem Solving Skills for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post the author explores another tool for the problem-solving toolbox: Wish for an easier problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of ways students could use this strategy are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "One Step at a Time" that is best solved utilizing this strategy.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-04-02

80

Teaching Problem Solving to Preservice Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes ways to help preservice teachers become good classroom instructors of problem solving. It is felt it is impossible to teach problem solving if teachers themselves are not adequate problem solvers. In all cases, preservice teachers should have opportunities to solve problems and identify strategies used. (MP)

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

1982-01-01

81

Research on Computers and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight articles review and report on research involving computers and problem solving skills. Topics discussed include research design; problem solving skills and programing languages, including BASIC and LOGO; computer anxiety; diagnostic programs for arithmetic problems; and relationships between ability and problem solving scores and between…

Burton, John K.; And Others

1988-01-01

82

King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and applying…

Borchardt, Donald A.

83

Key Issues in Technical Problem Solving Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems facing society today have reached a level of complexity far beyond that faced by previous generations, such that it exceeds the ability of one person to solve the problems on their own, and it is becoming more common to see teams of people come together to solve problems. Before being able to understand problem solving leadership, first one

Rebecca Silverman

84

Strategies of Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Artificial Intelligence is concerned with problem solving in which groups solve tasks. In this paper we describe stra­ tegies of cooperation that groups require to solve shared tasks effectively. We discuss such strategies in the context of a specific group problem solving application: collision avoidance in air traffic control. Experimental findings with four distinct air-traffic control systems, each implementing

Stephanie J. Cammarata; David Mcarthur; Randall Steeb

1983-01-01

85

Robot computer problem solving system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robot computer problem solving system which represents a robot exploration vehicle in a simulated Mars environment is described. The model exhibits changes and improvements made on a previously designed robot in a city environment. The Martian environment is modeled in Cartesian coordinates; objects are scattered about a plane; arbitrary restrictions on the robot's vision have been removed; and the robot's path contains arbitrary curves. New environmental features, particularly the visual occlusion of objects by other objects, were added to the model. Two different algorithms were developed for computing occlusion. Movement and vision capabilities of the robot were established in the Mars environment, using LISP/FORTRAN interface for computational efficiency. The graphical display program was redesigned to reflect the change to the Mars-like environment.

Merriam, E. W.; Becker, J. D.

1973-01-01

86

Big vs little problems :What is Problem Solving?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In this wiki page, the focus is on those problems--big and small--that encourage students to think, ask questions, try a variety of problem-solving approaches, and discuss their strategies and solutions. It points out the vast difference between numerical problems dressed up as episodes of everyday life and real mathematics used every day to facilitate understanding and decision making. Built on the ideas found in the NCTM Standards, the Background section offers pedagogical examples and resources to expand teachers' understanding of mathematics and problem solving. The Activities sections feature selected online resources that are useful in expanding student thinking as they learn to become problem solvers in math class and beyond.

Spicer, Judy

2005-03-01

87

Grade 1 Practice Problems: Reasoning, Problem Solving & Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of 46 problems that focus on reasoning and problem solving skills. Successful solving requires careful reading of the problems. Math content topics include applications of basic operations, multistep problems, and comparing quantities and attributes.

2011-01-01

88

Using Logo to Develop Problem Solving Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes using computer programing teaching problem solving. Describes the problem-solving technique of Top-Down Design, discusses its application to LOGO, and provides examples of programs using LOGO. (MDH)

Denenberg, Stewart A.

1993-01-01

89

Training Metacognitive Skills for Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metacognitive skills that involve monitoring and control of cognitive skills like problem solving develop in expert executives and lead to great improvement in the problem-solving process. In this report, we review theory and research on metacognition to ...

J. Geiwitz

1994-01-01

90

Flexibility in Problem Solving: The Case of Equation Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on…

Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

2008-01-01

91

Physics Problem Solving Research Using Protocols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more…

Brekke, Stewart E.

92

Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2013-01-01

93

Group Metacognition During Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various studies have shown that groups are more productive than individuals in complex mathematical problem solving, not all groups work together cooperatively. This review highlights that addressing organisational and cognitive factors to help scaffold group mathematical problem solving is necessary but not sufficient. Successful group problem solving also needs to incorporate metacognitive factors in order for groups to reflect

Christina Chalmers

2009-01-01

94

LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

2011-01-01

95

Stabilization: A Descriptive Framework for Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative description of problem solving was tested against the think-aloud protocols of twelve introductory calculus-based physics students. Think-aloud protocols are transcripts of problem-solving sessions during which participants are asked to verbalize their thoughts as they attempt to solve a problem. The stabilization model tested considers perceptions of problem difficulty to be related to four primary factors: categorization, goal interpretation, resource relevance, and complexity. A fifth superordinate factor, stabilization, considers the shifting relationships between the four primary factors over the problem-solving process. Problem solving is then described in terms of a search for a stable relationship among the four primary factors. Results from the study to be presented suggest that with further refinement, the stabilization model could be an effective alternative model of problem solving. Results related to the observed problem-solving processes undertaken by the participants will also be presented.

Savrda, Sherry L.

2006-12-01

96

Grade 2 Practice Problems: Reasoning, Problem Solving & Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of 13 problems that focus on reasoning and problem solving skills. Successful solving requires careful reading of the problems. Math content topics include basic operations, counting, halving and doubling, money and measuring.

2011-01-01

97

Super 7: Daily Exercises in Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a year-long program of daily exercises in problem solving for 2nd and 3rd grade students that presents 144 lessons, each with seven problems. The problems cover number sense, computation, measurements, geometry, problem solving, and patterns. The material is presented in a sequential fashion with concepts repeated and expanded, and…

Hamilton, Octavia

98

Lp-based combinatorial problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tutorial outline of the polyhedral theory that underlies linear programming (LP)-based combinatorial problem solving is given. Design aspects of a combinatorial problem solver are discussed in general terms. Three computational studies in combinatorial problem solving using the polyhedral theory developed in the past fifteen years are surveyed: one addresses the symmetric traveling salesman problem, another the optimal triangulation of

K. Hoffman; M. Padberg

1985-01-01

99

Improving mathematical problem solving: A computerized approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction on domain-specific knowledge required in different episodes of problem solving. The first program is based on a direct instructional approach to learning,

Egbert G. Harskamp; Cor J. M. Suhre

2006-01-01

100

Assessment of Student Problem Solving Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is a complex process important both in itself and as a tool for learning physics. Currently there is no standard way to measure problem solving that is independent of physics topic, pedagogy, and problem characteristics. At Minnesota we have been developing a rubric to evaluate studentsâ written solutions to physics problems that is easy to use and reasonably valid and reliable. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: useful description, physics approach, specific application of physics, math procedures, and logical progression. An important test of the instrument is to check whether these categories as represented in studentsâ written solutions correspond to processes students engage in during problem solving. Eight problem-solving interviews were conducted with students enrolled in an introductory university physics course to compare what students write down during problem solving with what they say they were thinking about as determined by their interview statements.

Docktor, Jennifer; Heller, Kenneth

2010-01-19

101

Assessment of Student Problem Solving Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem solving is a complex process important both in itself and as a tool for learning physics. Currently there is no standard way to measure problem solving that is independent of physics topic, pedagogy, and problem characteristics. At Minnesota we have been developing a rubric to evaluate students' written solutions to physics problems that is easy to use and reasonably valid and reliable. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: useful description, physics approach, specific application of physics, math procedures, and logical progression. An important test of the instrument is to check whether these categories as represented in students' written solutions correspond to processes students engage in during problem solving. Eight problem-solving interviews were conducted with students enrolled in an introductory university physics course to compare what students write down during problem solving with what they say they were thinking about as determined by their interview statements.

Docktor, Jennifer; Heller, Kenneth

2009-11-01

102

Understanding Undergraduates' Problem-Solving Processes †  

PubMed Central

Fostering effective problem-solving skills is one of the most longstanding and widely agreed upon goals of biology education. Nevertheless, undergraduate biology educators have yet to leverage many major findings about problem-solving processes from the educational and cognitive science research literatures. This article highlights key facets of problem-solving processes and introduces methodologies that may be used to reveal how undergraduate students perceive and represent biological problems. Overall, successful problem-solving entails a keen sensitivity to problem contexts, disciplined internal representation or modeling of the problem, and the principled management and deployment of cognitive resources. Context recognition tasks, problem representation practice, and cognitive resource management receive remarkably little emphasis in the biology curriculum, despite their central roles in problem-solving success.

Nehm, Ross H.

2010-01-01

103

Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef

2013-01-01

104

Solving Word Problems. Math in Action. Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook was designed as an easy-to-read, slower-paced text for students who have learning, reading, and language problems. As one of five workbooks to aid low achievers in problem solving, it focuses on strategies for solving one step and multistep word problems in mathematics. Students use skills learned in the four previous workbooks in…

Echaore, Susan D.; Roderman, Winifred Ho

105

Fast Algorithms for Solving Path Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G = (V, E) be a directed graph with a distinguished source vertex s. The single-source path expression problem is to find, for each vertex v, a regular expression P(s, v) which represents the set of all paths in G from s to v A solution to this problem can be used to solve shortest path problems, solve sparse

Robert Endre Tarjan

1981-01-01

106

Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.

Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil

1993-01-01

107

Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…

Warren, Louis L.

2005-01-01

108

Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem

Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

2013-01-01

109

Problem-solving in open environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

ipants. The problem can then be solved as before using a centralized constraint solver. Work in the database commu-With the increasing use of the internet, many problem-solving tasks such as resource allocation, scheduling, plan-ning, and configur ation pose themselves in an open set-ting involving multiple participants. Existing search-based problem-solving techniques are based on the closed-world assumption and require that all

Santiago Macho-gonzalez; Boi Faltings

2003-01-01

110

Inservice Teacher Development in Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

A humanistic perspective provided the basis for a problem-solving oriented teacher inservice program. The program was designed\\u000a to provide opportunities that allowed elementary teachers to focus on personal experience as a way of achieving self-understanding\\u000a and a way of reconstructing their personal meanings about problem solving and problem-solving instruction. Impact of the program\\u000a was studied through interviews with the six

Olive Chapman

1999-01-01

111

Solving large sparse eigenvalue problems on supercomputers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important problem in scientific computing consists in finding a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a very large and sparse matrix. The most popular methods to solve these problems are based on projection techniques on appropriate subspaces. The main attraction of these methods is that they only require the use of the matrix in the form of matrix by vector multiplications. The implementations on supercomputers of two such methods for symmetric matrices, namely Lanczos' method and Davidson's method are compared. Since one of the most important operations in these two methods is the multiplication of vectors by the sparse matrix, methods of performing this operation efficiently are discussed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each method are compared and implementation aspects are discussed. Numerical experiments on a one processor CRAY 2 and CRAY X-MP are reported. Possible parallel implementations are also discussed.

Philippe, Bernard; Saad, Youcef

1988-01-01

112

Common Core: Solve Math Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

Strom, Erich

2012-01-01

113

Cultivating Problem Solving Skills via a New Problem Categorization Scheme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When one looks at STEM disciplines as a whole, the need for effective problem solving skills is a commonality. However, studies indicate that the bulk of students who graduate from problem-solving intensive programs display little increase in their problem solving abilities. Also, there is little evidence for transfer of general skills from one subject area to another. Furthermore, the types of problems typically encountered in introductory STEM courses do not often cultivate the skills students will need when solving âreal-worldâ problems. Initial efforts to develop and implement an interdisciplinary problem categorization matrix as a tool for instructional design are described. The matrix, which is independent of content, shows promise as a means for promoting useful problem-solving discussion among faculty, designing problem-solving intensive courses, and instructing students in developing real-world problem solving skills.

Harper, Kathleen A.; Freuler, Richard; Demel, John

2007-11-25

114

The Numeric Solution of Eigenvalue Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the mathematical background for solving eigenvalue problems, with illustrations of the applications in computer programing. The numerical matrix treatment is presented, with a demonstration of the simple HMO theory. (CS)

Bauer, H.; Roth, K.

1980-01-01

115

Problem Posing and Solving with Mathematical Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical modeling is explored as both problem posing and problem solving from two perspectives, that of the child and the teacher. Mathematical modeling provides rich learning experiences for elementary school children and their teachers.

English, Lyn D.; Fox, Jillian L.; Watters, James J.

2005-01-01

116

Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)

Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette

2003-01-01

117

The pseudospectra method for solving differential eigenvalue problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple pseudospectral method is presented for the numerical solution of linear, differential eigenvalue problems. The method does not produce the spurious eigenvalues which generally occur when such problems are solved by the spectral tau method. The pseudospectral method is presented using two model problems, and the presentation contains a useful algorithm for the computation of the spectral differentiation matrices

Weizhang Huang; David M. Sloan

1994-01-01

118

Stiffness in numerical initial-value problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews various aspects of stiffness in the numerical solution of initial-value problems for systems of ordinary differential equations.In the literature on numerical methods for solving initial value problems the term “stiff” has been used by various authors with quite different meanings, which often causes confusion. This paper attempts to clear up this confusion by reviewing some of these

M. N. Spijker

1996-01-01

119

Problem Solving Software for Math Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are 10 computer software programs for problem solving related to mathematics. Programs described are: (1) Box Solves Story Problems; (2) Safari Search; (3) Puzzle Tanks; (4) The King's Rule; (5) The Factory; (6) The Royal Rules; (7) The Enchanted Forest; (8) Gears; (9) The Super Factory; and (10) Creativity Unlimited. (RH)

Troutner, Joanne

1987-01-01

120

Activities: Developing Problem-Solving Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity for students in grades 7-10 (with ready-to-copy worksheets and overhead projector transparency masters) designed to develop the problem-solving skills of making and reading an organized list and searching for a pattern, and to provide practice in using the general heuristics of the problem-solving process. (JN)

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

1985-01-01

121

Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…

Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim

2012-01-01

122

THE FUNCTIONS OF PICTURES IN PROBLEM SOLVING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A number of tasks were developed and techniques of observation and interviews

Iliada Elia; George Philippou

123

Solving Problems with Charts & Tables. Pipefitter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, this instructional module is designed to help individuals employed as pipefitters learn to solve problems with charts and tables. Outlined in the first section is a five-step procedure for solving problems involving tables and/or charts: identifying the question to…

Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

124

Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

Brown, Wayne

2007-01-01

125

When problem solving prevents organizational learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that research on problem-solving behavior can provide critical insight into mechanisms through which organizations resist learning and change. In this paper, we describe typical front-line responses to obstacles that hinder workers’ effectiveness and argue that this pattern of behavior creates an important and overlooked barrier to organizational change. Past research on quality improvement and problem solving has found

Anita L. Tucker; Amy C. Edmondson; Steven Spear

2002-01-01

126

Model of Frustration during Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central theme of Mandler's theory of emotion is that the interruption of a cognitive activity sets the stage for emotion. Mandler's theory is particularly applicable to mathematical problem-solving experiences. Mandler's linking of emotion to perception also makes emotion during problem solving an excellent candidate to be modeled with…

Allen, Bradford D.

127

Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students…

Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez; Aznar, Mercedes Martinez

2005-01-01

128

Mathematics Teachers Circle around Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making problem solving a central part of teaching may be challenging to teachers who have limited experiences in learning and teaching mathematics in this way. Math Teachers' Circles were developed with the aim of establishing a "culture of problem solving" among middle school mathematics teachers. This culture could then be carried back into…

Fernandes, Anthony; Koehler, Jacob; Reiter, Harold

2011-01-01

129

Alternative Generation in Marital Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of two types of instruction to investigate how proficiency in generating alternatives in marital problem solving can be improved, using a sample of 44 Canadian couples. Results showed increased generation of alternatives. Communication skills training did not enhance creativity in problem solving. (Author/JAC)

Warmbrod, Mary Taylor

1982-01-01

130

Diagnostic Assessment in Mathematics Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has recently seen falling test scores for mathematics problem solving in comparison to other countries. This paper reviews cur- rent approaches to diagnosing mathematics problem solving, and then introduces emerging technologies being developed at Educational Testing Service that address open areas found in the review. The application of these technologies to assessment design must be weighed against

VALERIE SHUTE; JODY UNDERWOOD

2006-01-01

131

Teaching and Learning through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author relates some problem solving work with primary schools to Department for Children, Schools, and Families (DfES) support. In four primary schools in the West Midlands, the focus was teaching mathematics through problem solving, based on materials published on the DfES "standards" website. The author noticed the way…

Ollerton, Mike

2007-01-01

132

The Functions of Pictures in Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A…

Elia, Iliada; Philippou, George

2004-01-01

133

Problem Solving Interactions on Electronic Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguing that electronic networking provides a medium which is qualitatively superior to the traditional classroom for conducting certain types of problem solving exercises, this paper details the Water Problem Solving Project, which was conducted on the InterCultural Learning Network in 1985 and 1986 with students from the United States, Mexico,…

Waugh, Michael; And Others

134

Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

2008-01-01

135

Solving Differential Equations with Random Ultra-Sparse Numerical Discretizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We proposed a novel approach which employs random sampling to generate an accurate non-uniform mesh for numerically solving Partial Differential Equation Boundary Value Problems (PDE-BVPs). From a uniform probability distribution U over a 1D domain, we co...

A. J. Christlieb D. M. Bortz

2011-01-01

136

A Numerical Method for Solving Nonlinear Heat Transfer Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer problems are usually governed by nonlinear differential equations, which, after discretization, result in a set of algebraic and transcendental equations with the nonlinearity retained. In the present study, a numerical method for solving such equations is proposed. The primary interest of the present study focuses on situations where the traditional Newton-Raphson method fails to converge.The proposed method combines

Tien-Mo Shih; Chao-Ho Sung; Bao Yang

2008-01-01

137

Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 33-question research-based multiple-choice survey is designed to evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards physics problem solving. The survey is based on investigations of responses from introductory physics students, graduate students, and faculty members. It expands upon the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey (Marx and Cummings, 2007) to also consider approaches to problem solving and different levels of problem solving expertise. Statistical results have shown the survey to be reliable and valid. A summary of the construction and analysis of the survey is available in A. J. Mason and C. Singh, "Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving", PRST-PER, 6 (2), 020124 (2010). This survey is free for use by instructors in their classroom. The expert-like responses to the survey are enclosed.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-05-10

138

Physics Problem Solving Research Using Protocols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more effective teaching methods for physics courses because such programs can be the basis for computer-assisted instruction, or CAI. This type of instruction combined with the program could answer questions about solving various physics problems and could also have the ability to analyze where the student went wrong in his or her solution(s). It is for reasons such as these that it is important to enhance the amount of research going into physics problem solving strategies. (Contains 12 references.)

Brekke, Stewart

2006-12-06

139

Solving the Pallet Loading Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents new bounds, heuristics, and an exact algorithm for the Pallet Loading Problem (PLP). PLP maximizes the number of boxes placed on a rectangular pallet. All boxes have identical rectangular dimensions and, when placed, must be located co...

G. H. Martins R. F. Dell

2008-01-01

140

Solving the Multicommodity Transshipment Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We examine two categories of solution algorithms for the large-scale multicommodity transshipment problem (MCTP): resource direction and price direction. In the former category we construct RDLB, a new algorithm which uses a simplified projection method i...

C. J. Staniec

1987-01-01

141

Application of Theorem Proving to Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how an extension of the resolution proof procedure can be used to con­ struct problem solutions. The extended proof procedure can solve problems involving state transformations. The paper explores several alternate problem representations and provides a discussion of solutions to sample problems including the \\

C. Cordell Green

1969-01-01

142

Numerical methodologies for solving partial differential equations  

SciTech Connect

The numerical methods for solving systems of partial differential equations can be analyzed by decoupling the space and time discretizations and analyzing them independently. First a method is selected to discretize the differential equation in space and incorporate the boundary conditions. The spectrum of this discrete operator is then used as a guide to choose an appropriate method to integrate the equations through time. The dissipative effects of a numerical method are crucial to constructing reliable methods for conservation laws. This is particularly true when the solution is discontinuous as in a shock wave or contact discontinuity. Choosing an accurate method to accomplish each of these tasks, space and time discretization and incorporating artificial dissipation in the numerical solution, determines the success of the calculation. We will describe the methodologies used in each of these choices to construct reliable, accurate and efficient methods. 13 refs., 6 figs.

Hyman, J.M.

1989-01-01

143

Building Confidence through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-minute video demonstrates how students learn to persevere through challenging number puzzles and games. Headteacher Kate Frood discusses her philosophy and models teaching children to use core multiplication facts as tools for more complex problems. She differentiates tasks to accommodate advanced and struggling learners.

2012-01-01

144

Sour landfill gas problem solved  

SciTech Connect

In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

1996-05-01

145

Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

2009-01-01

146

The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has four…

Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene

2005-01-01

147

The ideal science student and problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between students' social mental models of the ideal science student, science epistemological beliefs, problem solving strategies used, and problem solving ability in a robotics environment. Participants were twenty-six academically advanced eleven and twelve year old students attending the Center for Talented Youth summer camp. Survey data was collected from the students including demographic background, views of the ideal science student, and science epistemological beliefs. Students also solved a robotics challenge. This problem solving session was videotaped and students were asked to think aloud as they solved the problem. Two social mental models were identified, a traits-based social mental model and a robust social mental model. A significant association was found between social mental model group and strategy usage. The robust social mental model group is more likely to use domain specific strategies than the traits-based group. Additionally, the robust social mental model group achieved significantly higher scores on their final solution than the traits-based social mental model group. Science epistemological beliefs do not appear to be associated with students' social mental model of the ideal science student. While students with a puzzle-solver view of science were more likely to use domain specific strategies in the planning phase of the problem solving session, there was no significant difference in problem solving ability between this group and students who have a dynamic view of the nature of science knowledge. This difference in strategy usage and problem solving performance may be due to a difference in the students' views of learning and cognition. The robust social mental model group evidenced a situative view of learning and cognition. These students made excellent use of the tools available in the task environment. The traits-based social mental model group displayed an information processing view of learning and cognition. These students were more likely to attempt to solve the problem based only on their mental representations of the problems.

Sullivan, Florence R.

148

Resource Activation Patterns In Expert Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the analysis of video recordings of physics experts solving novel problems involving solar cells, which involved such advanced physics topics as complex circuits and semiconductors. By performing a fine grained analysis using a resource based model of cognition, we determined what resources experts use while reasoning in the current context and how they used them. By analyzing critical events in the problem solving process, we searched for meaningful patterns of resource activation to help gain insight into expert problem solving processes.

Jones, Darrick C.; Malysheva, Marina; Richards, Aj; Planinå¡ic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

2014-01-31

149

The Effects of Problem-Based Learning on Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study found that participants (n=78) in Science, Society and the Future, a problem-based course for gifted high school students, exhibited significant improvement in problem-solving schemes compared to a group of 42 gifted nonparticipants. The pattern of change was not consistent across problem-solving steps. (JDD)

Gallagher, Shelagh A.; And Others

1992-01-01

150

Mass collaboration problem solving: A new approach to wicked problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system that would harness the brainpower of vast numbers of humans and orchestrate their efforts could be used to solve hard problems that are beyond the reach of computational methods. This paper describes such a system. This system will use a recursive problem solving life cycle model based on a continuously evolving distributed supply chain infrastructure. The problems to

Andrew Potter; Melody McClure; Ken Sellers

2010-01-01

151

A Vehicle Routing Problem Solved by Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study is to find out a good solution to the vehicle routing problem considering heterogeneous vehicles. This problem tries to solve the generation of paths and the assignment of buses on these routes. The objective of this problem is to minimize the number of vehicles required and to maximize the number of demands transported. This

Maria Belén Vaquerizo García

2009-01-01

152

Solving Probability Problems Using Monte Carlo Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a strategy that allows students to experiment with probability without applying formulas to solve problems. Students are able to intuitively develop concepts of probability before formal definitions and properties. Sample problems are included along with BASIC programs for some of the problems. (KR)

Rudolph, William B.; Tvrdik, Debra

1991-01-01

153

Representation Processes in Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the construct of problem representation and the processes used by learners to construct or modify problem representations in problem-solving situations. Students (n=14) from freshman calculus courses at the University of California at San Diego participated in videotaped interviews in which they were asked to think aloud as…

Cifarelli, Victor

154

Multilevel projection algorithm for solving obstacle problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstacle problems are nonlinear free boundary problems and the computation of approximate solutions can be difficult and expensive. Little work has been done on effective numerical methods of such problems. This paper addresses some aspects of this issue. Discretizing the problem in a continuous piecewise linear finite element space gives a quadratic programming problem with inequality constraints. A new method,

Yongmin Zhang

2001-01-01

155

Response Mode Effects on Computer Based Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessments were made of the impact of various overt response modes on the problem-solving process. The Luchins Water Jar Problems were presented to undergraduate university students via interactive cathode ray tube computer terminals under four response mode conditions: Mnemonic Code, Multiple Choice (MC), Numerical List, and Constructed Response…

Sustik, Joan M.; Brown, Bobby R.

156

An Alternate Path To Stoichiometric Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)

Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

1997-01-01

157

Developing Creative Problem-Solving Talent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First itemizing the barriers to creative thinking, the author proceeds to suggest brainstorming, morphology, and a method of alternating circles as procedures to encourage creativity. Courses in problem-solving have proven successful. (AG)

O'Reilly, A. P.

1973-01-01

158

Workshop Three: Creativity, Problem Solving, and Constructivism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents salient features of workshop discussion examining good educational practice related to creative thinking and problem solving. Describes constructivist teaching, incorporating examples of classroom learning opportunities that use different forms of scaffolding and vignettes that illustrate constructive educational interactions. Explores…

Siraj-Blatchford, John; Brudenell, Iain MacLeod

1996-01-01

159

Titration Calculations -- A Problem-Solving Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem-solving network (flow chart) constructed for use in calculating titration is described. Points out that use of the network has greatly improved student confidence and skill in performing these calculations. (Author/JN)

Waddling, Robin E. L.

1983-01-01

160

Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas  

PubMed Central

Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals.

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

2012-01-01

161

PULSATION DAMPER SOLVES ANALYZER PROBLEM (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the use of a pulsation damper to solve a severe output signal interference problem with a Beckman Model 402 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer. The analyzer was used in a computerized data-gathering system. The problem was traced to compressions/decompressions of flow...

162

Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The activities in this series may be used as stand-alone exercises but are designed to support Math Forum's Problems of the Week and to help students develop, formalize, and reflect on their problem-solving strategies. Membership subscription is required.

163

Reflect ... for Better Problem Solving and Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elaborates the final step of Polya's heuristic model, reflecting, to improve students' problem-solving performance. After checking answers for accuracy, the following steps are suggested: (1) test reasonableness and practicality; (2) write a summary paragraph; (3) find other solutions; (4) change the conditions; and (5) extend the problem. (MKR)

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

1994-01-01

164

STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE PROBLEM-SOLVING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES WERE (A) TO DEVELOP A BATTERY OF INSIGHT-PROBLEMS FOR USE IN PROBLEM-SOLVING RESEARCH, (B) TO REPLICATE A TRAINING EXPERIMENT IN ORDER TO DETERMINE WHAT A SUBJECT MIGHT HAVE LEARNED IN A SPECIFIC SITUATION WHICH COULD INFLUENCE NONSPECIFIC SITUATIONS, AND (C) TO ATTEMPT TO TEACH SUBJECTS STRATEGY WHICH WILL ALLOW THEM TO…

DANIELS, PHILLIP B.

165

Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)

Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.

1985-01-01

166

Connecting Concepts to Problem-solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, offers a new way to approach homework problems in electrostatics through the use of âÂÂbridging exercisesâ as part of studentsâ homework. These exercises encourage students to solve problems by starting with developed physics concepts and models.

Kanim, Stephen

2010-06-18

167

Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naive students were administered kinematics problems and…

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A.; Hegarty, Mary

2007-01-01

168

Solving graph problems with dynamic computation structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce dynamic computation structures (DCS), a compilation technique to produce dynamic code for reconfigurable computing. DCS specializes directed graph instances into user-level hardware for reconfigurable architectures. Several problems such as shortest path and transitive closure exhibit the general properties of closed semirings, an algebraic structure for solving directed paths. Motivating our application domain choice of closed semiring problems is

Jonathan W. Babb; Matthew I. Frank; Anant Agarwal

1996-01-01

169

Problem-Solving Competitions: Just the Solution!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes competitions across a range of curricular areas that develop students' problem solving skills by setting authentic, real-world tasks. As individuals or members of a team, students in these competitions are challenged with finding solutions to problems faced not only in today's scientific and technological world, but also in…

Riley, Tracy L.; Karnes, Frances A.

2005-01-01

170

Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…

Blasetti, Sean M.

2010-01-01

171

Teacher Preparation for a Problem Solving Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the teacher is central to the success of any curriculum innovation. Thus, teachers' professional development has become an increasingly important subject of discussion in recent education literature. In the design and implementation of the project reported here, teachers' preparation for the problem-solving curriculum featured prominently. This paper discusses the challenges of selecting a suitable problem and ways

Khiok Seng; Jaguthsing Dindyal; Eng Guan

2009-01-01

172

GIS Live and Web Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.

2007-01-01

173

Analogy Generation in Scientific Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The spontaneous use of analogies in problem-solving occurs when a subject first spontaneously shifts his attention to a situation (B) which differs in some significant way from an original problem situation (A), and then tries to apply findings from B to A. This paper describes research on the process with 10 scientifically trained subjects…

Clement, John

174

PERM for solving circle packing problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a new algorithm that incorporates the improved PERM into an already existing simple deterministic heuristic, the principle of maximum cave degree for corner-occupying actions, to solve the problem of packing equal or unequal circles into a larger circle container. We compare the performance of our algorithm on several problem instances taken from the literature with

Lü Zhipeng; Wenqi Huang

2008-01-01

175

Solving Problems of Practice in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the many complexities involved in the translation of scientific information in the social sciences into forms usable for solving problems of practice in education. Prescribes a series of stages to be followed from the advent of a practitioner's situational problem to the design of a response to it. (Author/JN)

Boyd, Robert D.; Menlo, Allen

1984-01-01

176

Problem solving and decisionmaking: An integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt was made to redress a critical fault of decisionmaking and problem solving research-a lack of a standard method to classify problem or decision states or conditions. A basic model was identified and expanded to indicate a possible taxonomy of conditions which may be used in reviewing previous research or for systematically pursuing new research designs. A generalization of the basic conditions was then made to indicate that the conditions are essentially the same for both concepts, problem solving and decisionmaking.

Dieterly, D. L.

1980-01-01

177

The Development of Students' Problem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

178

Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; Untangling of specific problem solving skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. The work is also unique due to its diversity of individuals examined and the range of tasks it evaluates. Chapter 1 includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science. Chapter 2 contains information about studies involving the PhET Interactive Simulations and presents design guidelines for interface design. Chapter 3 contains information on the development and validation of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for physics. Chapter 4 describes the work done by the author to develop and validate the Colorado Assessment of Problem Solving (CAPS). This problem solving evaluation tool identifies 44 separate skills (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show the skills identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same skills that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. A discussion is included about how this work extends what is currently understood about the skills that students use to solve problems and which of these skills are applicable in other disciplines. Understanding this set of component skills will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

Adams, Wendy K.

2010-06-29

179

Problem-solving analysis: A piagetian study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-nine second-year medical students were asked to solve 12 Piagetian formal operational tasks. The purpose was to describe the formal logical characteristics of this medical student sample (59 of a total 65 possible) in terms of their abilities to solve problems in four formal logical schemata-combinatorial logic, probabilistic reasoning, propositional logic, and proportional reasoning. These tasks were presented as videotape

James P. Hale

1983-01-01

180

Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of "real" scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.

Payne, Amy C.; Zenner, Greta; Sammel, Lauren M.; Hemling, Melissa A.; Crone, Wendy C.

2006-11-01

181

Knowledge Structure and Problem Solving in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article presents a prescriptive analysis of the kinds of knowledge and procedures leading to effective human problem solving in a quantitative science such as physics. The knowledge about such a science, explicated in the case of mechanics, specifies special descriptive concepts and relations described at various levels of abstractness, is organized hierarchically, and is accompanied by explicit guidelines specifying when and how this knowledge is to be applied. General problem-solving procedures, to be used in conjunction with such domain-specific knowledge, specify how initially to describe and analyze any problem so as to facilitate its subsequent solution; how to search for a solution by methods of constraint satisfaction used together with heuristic methods for decomposing problems and exploring decisions; and how to assess whether the resulting solution is correct and reasonably optimal. The preceding model of effective human problem solving is compared with some relevant observations and with special experiments designed to test such a prescriptive model. It also suggests methods for teaching students improved scientific problem-solving skills.

Reif, Frederick; Heller, Joan I.

2006-06-23

182

Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

2007-01-01

183

Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.

Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui

1991-01-01

184

The Hamilton-Jacobi theory for solving two-point boundary value problems: Theory and numerics with application to spacecraft formation flight, optimal control and the study of phase space structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation has been motivated by the need for new methods to address complex problems that arise in spacecraft formation design. As a direct result of this motivation, a general methodology for solving two-point boundary value problems for Hamiltonian systems has been found. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi theory in conjunction with the canonical transformation induced by the phase flow, it is shown that generating functions solve two-point boundary value problems. Traditional techniques for addressing these problems are iterative and require an initial guess. The method presented in this dissertation solves boundary value problems at the cost of a single function evaluation, although it requires knowledge of at least one generating function. Properties of this method are presented. Specifically, we show that it includes perturbation theory and generalizes it to nonlinear systems. Most importantly, it predicts the existence of multiple solutions and allows one to recover all of these solutions. To demonstrate the efficiency of this approach, an algorithm for computing the generating functions is proposed and its convergence properties are studied. As the method developed in this work is based on the Hamiltonian structure of the problem, particular attention must be paid to the numerics of the algorithm. To address this, a general framework for studying the discretization of certain dynamical systems is developed. This framework generalizes earlier work on discretization of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems on tangent and cotangent bundles respectively. In addition, it provides new insights into some symplectic integrators and leads to a new discrete Hamilton-Jacobi theory. Most importantly, it allows one to discretize optimal control problems. In particular, a discrete maximum principle is presented. This dissertation also investigates applications of the proposed method to solve two-point boundary value problems. In particular, new techniques for designing spacecraft formation flight, reconfiguring a formation, and searching for stable configurations in a general dynamical environment are presented. In addition, the present work allows one to reduce the search for periodic orbits with specified periods or locations to solving a set of nonlinear equations. Finally, a novel approach for solving optimal control problems is derived and applied.

Guibout, Vincent M.

185

Using PLATO to Teach Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the results of three studies which investigated the use of PLATO to teach problem solving. Subjects were 244 children from kindergarten through third grade. The first study explored the extent to which kindergartners and second graders used the knowledge about which answers were right and which were wrong to develop the correct strategy to solve a novel picture problem. The next study looked at the procedures used by kindergartners and second graders while they were in the process of trying to get the answer. The third study considered three conditions of teaching first and third graders the necessary problem solving skills: experience only, feedback consisting of a visual record of the student's work on the first five problems, and interactive instructional feedback on how to solve each problem that the child had done wrong. Abstracts, methods, results, and discussions are given for each of the studies. Results of this research led to a post hoc study which is described. Seven figures show sample displays and nine references are also given.

Steinberg, Esther R.

2006-12-07

186

Artificial Immune System for Solving Constrained Optimization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an artificial immune system (AIS) based on the CLONALG algorithm for solving constrained (numerical) optimization problems. We develop a new mutation operator which produces large and small step sizes and which aims to provide better exploration capabilities. We validate our proposed approach with 13 test functions taken from the specialized literature and we compare our

Susana C. Esquivel; Carlos Artemio Coello Coello; Victoria S. Aragón

2007-01-01

187

Variational iteration method for solving nonlinear boundary value problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, He’s variational iteration method is implemented to give approximate and analytical solutions for a class of boundary value problems. The variational iteration method, which produces the solutions in terms of convergent series, requiring no linearization or small perturbation. Numerical examples are given and comparisons are made with the Adomian decomposition method. The fact that this method solves

Shaher Momani; Salah Abuasad; Zaid Odibat

2006-01-01

188

Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…

Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.

2014-01-01

189

Understanding Individual Problem-Solving Style: A Key to Learning and Applying Creative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…

Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.

2008-01-01

190

Understanding individual problem-solving style: A key to learning and applying creative problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process tools more effectively, and when

Donald J. Treffinger; Edwin C. Selby; Scott G. Isaksen

2008-01-01

191

Problem-Solving Models for Computer Literacy: Getting Smarter at Solving Problems. Student Lessons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended for use as a student guide. It is about human problem solving and provides information on how the mind works, placing a major emphasis on the role of computers as an aid in problem solving. The book is written with the underlying philosophy of discovery-based learning based on two premises: first, through the appropriate…

Moursund, David

192

Assessing Affect after Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks: Validating the Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.

2013-01-01

193

The development of students' problem-solving skill from instruction emphasizing qualitative problem-solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful learning of introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. In the physics department at the University of Minnesota, this duality is understood and attempts are being made to teach successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a problem-solving strategy that

Thomas Michael Foster

2000-01-01

194

A Conceptual Approach to Physics Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in introductory physics courses treat problem solving as an exercise in manipulating equations, symbols, and quantities with the goal of obtaining the correct answer. Although this approach is efficient for getting answers, it is far from optimal for learning how conceptual knowledge is applied in the problem-solving process. The goal of this study is to refine and evaluate an approach that encourages students to begin by writing a strategic analysis of a problem based on principles and procedures, and then to follow with a documented problem solution that exhibits, side-by-side, how concepts and equations go together in a solution. We will discuss the implementation and effectiveness of this approach in four local high school classrooms.

Docktor, Jennifer; Strand, Natalie; Mestre, Jose P.; Ross, Brian H.

2011-01-01

195

Solving problems of an injection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full-scale waterflooding, at the rate of 200,000 bpd, is proceeding smoothly at a Mexican field after some inital operating problems. There have been successfully solved by Petroleos Mexicanos. Main problems and their solutions were: (1) Salt-water damage of key pump components, and electrolitic corrosion--water-well tubings were internally coated with epoxy and pump were protected with magnesium anodes. (2) Galvanic corrosion

Mascorro

1971-01-01

196

A meta Problem Solving Environment (PSE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a new framework called PSE Park for constructing a Problem Solving Environment (PSE); it enables us to construct PSEs easily. PSE Park outputs PSEs depending on user's demand\\/input. In this sense, PSE Park is a kind of PSE for PSE, and helps users to construct PSEs. PSE Park consists of four engines: PIPE server, core,

Hiromichi Kobashi; S. Kawata; M. Matsumoto; H. Usami; D. Barada

2010-01-01

197

Introduction to Ocean Acoustics: Guided Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about sound propagation in the ocean through instructor-guided problem solving. The activity promotes a conceptual understanding of the physical and chemical factors that influence ocean acoustics, with applications to how whales communicate over long distances. The activity serves as a way to introduce the topic of ocean sound.

Boucher, Joceline

198

Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

2006-01-01

199

ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

Borg, Suzanne

2009-01-01

200

ARPACK: Solving large scale eigenvalue problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARPACK is a collection of Fortran77 subroutines designed to solve large scale eigenvalue problems. The package is designed to compute a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a general n by n matrix A. It is most appropriate for large sparse or structured matrices A where structured means that a matrix-vector product w

Lehoucq, Rich; Maschhoff, Kristi; Sorensen, Danny; Yang, Chao

2013-11-01

201

Supporting Distance Learners for Collaborative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a computer-supported environment designed to facilitate distance learning through collaborative problem-solving. The goal is to encourage distance learning students to work together, in order to promote both learning of collaboration and learning through collaboration. Collaboration is defined as working together on a common…

Verdejo, M. F.; Barros, B.; Abad, M. T.

202

Developing students' physics problem-solving skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes a protocol designed to help students taking their first undergraduate physics course in acquiring the basic skills of physics problem-solving. The educational effectiveness of this protocol for mature students in distance education has been extensively evaluated, and it is now being used as the basis for an interactive multimedia learning package.

Bolton, John; Ross, Shelagh

2005-11-03

203

Developing Students' Physics Problem-Solving Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a protocol designed to help students taking their first undergraduate physics course acquire the basic skills of physics problem solving. Discusses the evaluation of the educational effectiveness of this protocol and its use in an interactive multimedia learning package. Contains 16 references. (Author/JRH)

Bolton, John; Ross, Shelagh

1997-01-01

204

Effective Practices (Part 4): Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of computers to help with problem solving. Topics include information science, including effective procedure and procedural thinking; templates; artificially intelligent agents and expert systems; and applications in education, including the goal of computer literacy for all students, and integrated software packages such as…

Moursund, Dave

1996-01-01

205

Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

Polland, Mark J.

206

How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…

Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

2013-01-01

207

Processes Involved in Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This clinical, exploratory study describes processes used by 8 ninth-graders learning to solve non-routine geometry problems and changes in those processes as instruction in heuristic methods was given. Directions for future research are indicated, and several hypotheses to be investigated are suggested. (DT)

Kantowski, Mary Grace

1977-01-01

208

Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…

Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz

2009-01-01

209

Using Problem-Solving Conversation With Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal communication is a major tool for parents and educators who want to influence children's behavior and development. Although the literature concerning interviewing skills is extensive, only a few authors address conversation techniques, specifically processes that may be used with children. Problem-solving conversation (PSC) with children comprises a structured interview that parents, educators, counselors, and therapists can implement. It consists

Marwan Dwairy

2005-01-01

210

The Power of Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To make the best use of one's creativity in problem solving, it is important to first create an atmosphere in which creativity can flourish. Two methods that can be used to generate ideas are brainstorming and analogizing. After generating ideas, the best solution must be chosen and then the chosen ideas must be implemented. (MLW)

Standley, Thad

1990-01-01

211

Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of biology, and apply them to new sets of facts.

Wisehart, Gary; Mandell, Mark

2008-03-01

212

The Problem-Solving Nemesis: Mindless Manipulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indicates that only 21% of respondents (secondary school math teachers) used computer-assisted instruction for tutorial work, physical models to interpret abstract concepts, or real-life application of the arithmetic or algebraic manipulation. Recommends that creative teaching methods be applied to problem solving. (NKA)

Hawkins, Vincent J.

1987-01-01

213

Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitive…

Ng, Kit Ee Dawn

2010-01-01

214

Creative Problem Solving in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second and third grade students used the creative problem solving strategy developed by Sidney Parnes and Alex Osborn in their social studies classes. The second graders, finding few biographies written for students reading on a first or second grade level, interviewed community members, collected photographs of them, and wrote their biographies,…

Ayers, Samuel J.

215

Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)

Stewart, James

1983-01-01

216

Computer Simulation Helps Solve Refinery Combustion Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulation played a key role in solving a difficult combustion problem in a vertical cylindrical furnace used in an oil refinery. Low NOx burners, arranged in a circle, were retrofitted in the furnace floor. The new burner installation created unexpected and undesirable flame merging, creating unacceptable flame lengths and high temperature peaks resulting in excessive NOx emissions. Computational fluid

Roberto Ruiz

2006-01-01

217

Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…

Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

2012-01-01

218

Learning to Solve Complex Problems in Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an instructional exercise at the University of Newcastle (Australia), social work students, staff, and organizations role-play in a simulated city to solve complex problems in a realistic but safe learning context. Experience suggests the extended simulation technique is effective. (MSE)

Hughes, Ian

1992-01-01

219

Structured Development of Problem Solving Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract . Problem solving methods (PSMs) are domain-independent reasoning components, which specify patterns of behavior which can be reused across applications. While the availability of extensive PSM libraries and the emerging consensus on PSM specification languages indicate the maturity of the field, a number of important research issues are still open. In particular, very little progress has been achieved on

Dieter Fensel; Enrico Motta

2001-01-01

220

Conceptual Structures in Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The processes by which conceptual knowledge is constructed during mathematical problem solving were studied, focusing on the cognitive activity of learners (i.e., the ways they elaborate, reorganize, and reconceptualize their solution activity). Underlying this research is the view that learners' mathematical conceptions evolve from their activity…

Cifarelli, Victor

221

A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area. PMID:20649438

Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna

2010-08-01

222

FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR PROBLEM SOLVING RESEARCH AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1960s, numerous studies on problem solving have revealed the complexity of the domain and the difficulty in translating research findings into practice. The literature suggests that the impact of problem solving research on the mathematics curriculum has been limited. Furthermore, our accumulation of knowledge on the teaching of problem solving is lagging. In this first discussion paper we

Lyn English; Richard Lesh; Thomas Fennewald

223

Discovering the structure of mathematical problem solving.  

PubMed

The goal of this research is to discover the stages of mathematical problem solving, the factors that influence the duration of these stages, and how these stages are related to the learning of a new mathematical competence. Using a combination of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and hidden Markov models (HMM), we found that participants went through 5 major phases in solving a class of problems: A Define Phase where they identified the problem to be solved, an Encode Phase where they encoded the needed information, a Compute Phase where they performed the necessary arithmetic calculations, a Transform Phase where they performed any mathematical transformations, and a Respond Phase where they entered an answer. The Define Phase is characterized by activity in visual attention and default network regions, the Encode Phase by activity in visual regions, the Compute Phase by activity in regions active in mathematical tasks, the Transform Phase by activity in mathematical and response regions, and the Respond phase by activity in motor regions. The duration of the Compute and Transform Phases were the only ones that varied with condition. Two features distinguished the mastery trials on which participants came to understand a new problem type. First, the duration of late phases of the problem solution increased. Second, there was increased activation in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and angular gyrus (AG), regions associated with metacognition. This indicates the importance of reflection to successful learning. PMID:24746954

Anderson, John R; Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M

2014-08-15

224

A two-phase computational scheme for solving bang-bang control problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on numerical methods for solving time-optimal control problems using discrete-valued controls. A numerical\\u000a Two-Phase Scheme, which combines admissible optimal control problem formulation with enhanced branch-and-bound algorithms,\\u000a is introduced to efficiently solve bang-bang control problems in the field of engineering. In Phase I, the discrete restrictions\\u000a are relaxed, and the resulting continuous problem is solved by an existing

Chih-Hung Huang; Ching-Huan Tseng

2006-01-01

225

Improved cyclic reduction for solving queueing problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cyclic reduction technique (Buzbee et al., 1970), rephrased in functional form (Bini and Meini, 1996), provides a numerically stable, quadratically convergent method for solving the matrix equation X = ?+ ? iD0 Xi Ai, where the Ai's are nonnegative k k matrices such that ?+ ? iD0 Ai is column stochastic. In this paper we propose a further improvement of the above method, based on a point-wise evaluation/interpolation at a suitable set of Fourier points, of the functional relations defining each step of cyclic reduction (Bini and Meini,1996). This new technique allows us to devise an algorithm based on FFT having a lower computational cost and a higher numerical stability. Numerical results and comparisons are provided.

Bini, Dario; Meini, Beatrice

1997-07-01

226

Broadcast Search in Problem Solving: Attracting Solutions From the Periphery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to explore an alternative mechanism of problem solving that focuses on broadcasting problems to diverse and peripheral problem solvers, what I call broadcast search. Broadcasting problems is a radical departure from traditional problem solving as it involves problem holders engaging in as little problem-solving as possible - instead they attempt to interest a heterogeneous

Karim R. Lakhani

2006-01-01

227

Problem Solving and Problem Orientation in Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study’s main objective is to examine whether problem orientation and problem-solving skills differ according to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptom level or clinical status (seeking help for GAD). Its secondary goal is to examine whether two cognitive variables (intolerance of uncertainty and beliefs about worry) vary according to GAD symptom level or clinical status. Three groups of subjects

Robert Ladouceur; France Blais; Mark H. Freeston; Michel J. Dugas

1998-01-01

228

Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…

Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.

2012-01-01

229

Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.

Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

2009-01-24

230

Federal policies and technological problem-solving  

SciTech Connect

The Report addresses the question of whether existing policies either enhance or inhibit the achievement of a new policy's primary objective; namely, to solve public interest problems at the least cost and risk to taxpayers. (See: How to Motivate Private Investment in Public Goods, NTIS Accession No. PB92-106731). The Report's Appendix briefly describes the new policy and its several techno-economic objectives. Only two existing policies are analyzed: OMB Circular 76, Performance of Commercial Activities, and Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs). The Report concludes that both policies are irrelevant to the new policy since neither enhances nor inhibits achievement of the new policy's objectives, and that a new federal policy is needed to cost-effectively solve the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ecological and environmental preservation problems.

Soergel, G.

1992-01-01

231

From Numerical Problem Solving to Model-Based Experimentation Incorporating Computer-Based Tools of Various Scales into the ChE Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A continuing challenge to the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum is the time-effective incorporation and use of computer-based tools throughout the educational program. Computing skills in academia and industry require some proficiency in programming and effective use of software packages for solving 1) single-model, single-algorithm…

Shacham, Mordechai; Cutlip, Michael B.; Brauner, Neima

2009-01-01

232

On Generating Solved Instances of Computational Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

)M. AbadiE. AllenderyA. BroderJ. FeigenbaumzL. HemachandraxAbstract: We consider the efficient generation of solved instances of computational problems. Inparticular, we consider invulnerable generators. Let S be a subset of f0; 1gand M be a TuringMachine that accepts S; an accepting computation w of M on input x is called a "witness" thatx 2 S. Informally, a program is an ff-invulnerable generator

Martín Abadi; Eric Allendert; Andrei Z. Broder; Joan Feigenbaum

1988-01-01

233

Mathematical Problem Solving: Linking Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mathematical problem solving is the primary goal of school mathematics curriculum in Singapore. Prospective secondary school\\u000a mathematics teachers, as part of their teacher education at the National Institute of Education, undertake a 96 hour course\\u000a called Teaching and Learning of Mathematics. Throughout the course, as part of the study of content and pedagogy of various\\u000a topics of secondary mathematics, they are

Berinderjeet Kaur; Tin Lam Toh

234

Solving the Beam Bending Problem with an Unilateral Winkler Foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our work is going to deal with the bending of a beam resting on an unilateral elastic foundation and develops further the ideas from the article [5]. In some cases the beam has fixed connection with the foundation. Such problems are linear. However there are applications where the beam is not connected with the foundation. This so-called unilateral case represents an interesting nonlinear problem and cannot be solved by easy means. We propose here first a new formulation of this problem which is based upon the idea of a decomposition. This way we can convert the usual variational formulation of our problem to a saddle-point formulation. In the second part of this paper we will deal with a numerical solution using the finite element method. The system of equations for the saddle point is nonlinear and nondifferentiable. It can be handled by the transformation to a complementarity problem which is solved by the nonsmooth Newton method.

Machalová, Jitka; Netuka, Horymír

2011-09-01

235

Employing Human Knowledge to Solve Integrated Coordination Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Integrated Coordination Problem involves solving multiple related subproblems that collectively satisfy the requirements of a user, including subproblems that depend on the user's participation to solve. Fundamental challenges in solving such a problem...

D. Mihalcik E. Durfee K. Tang W. Chen Y. Tang

2010-01-01

236

Selective Problem Solving (sps): A Model for Teaching Creative Problem-Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving is an integral part of human life from mathematics and science to business, marketing, arts, technology and more. It is sometimes a form of creativity with discoveries and aesthetics. In fact, wherever a genuine problem exists novel behavior is needed on the part of the problem solver. The aim of this article was to describe and discuss the

Ugur Sak

2011-01-01

237

Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

238

Worry and problem solving: Evidence of a specific relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that worry is related to deficient problem-solving ability. This paper presents the relationship between worry and problem solving. Worry was measured with the Worry Domains Questionnaire (Tallis, Eysenck, & Mathews, 1992) and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (Meyer, Miller, Metzger, & Borkovec, 1990); problem solving was assessed with the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (D'Zurilla & Nezu, 1990) and

Michel J. Dugas; Hélène Letarte; Josée Rhéaume; Mark H. Freeston; Robert Ladouceur

1995-01-01

239

Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).

Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin

2006-01-01

240

Problem-solving analysis: A piagetian study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifty-nine second-year medical students were asked to solve 12 Piagetian formal operational tasks. The purpose was to describe the formal logical characteristics of this medical student sample (59 of a total 65 possible) in terms of their abilities to solve problems in four formal logical schemata-combinatorial logic, probabilistic reasoning, propositional logic, and proportional reasoning. These tasks were presented as videotape demonstrations or in written form, depending on whether or not equipment manipulation was required, and were scored using conventional, prespecified scoring criteria. The results of this study show approximately 96% of the sample function at the transitional (Piaget's 3A level) stage of formal operations on all tasks and approximately 4% function at the full formal (Piaget's 3B level) stage of formal operations on all tasks. This sample demonstrates formal level thinking to a much greater degree than other samples reported in the literature to date and suggests these students are adequately prepared and developed to meet the challenge of their training (i.e., medical problem solving).

Hale, James P.

241

Strategies in subtraction problem solving in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the strategies used by third graders in solving the 81 elementary subtractions that are the inverses of the one-digit additions with addends from 1 to 9 recently studied by Barrouillet and Lépine. Although the pattern of relationship between individual differences in working memory, on the one hand, and strategy choices and response times, on the other, was the same in both operations, subtraction and addition differed in two important ways. First, the strategy of direct retrieval was less frequent in subtraction than in addition and was even less frequent in subtraction solving than the recourse to the corresponding additive fact. Second, contrary to addition, the retrieval of subtractive answers is confined to some peculiar problems involving 1 as the subtrahend or the remainder. The implications of these findings for developmental theories of mental arithmetic are discussed. PMID:18241880

Barrouillet, Pierre; Mignon, Mathilde; Thevenot, Catherine

2008-04-01

242

Habits of Mind: Mathematics Problem Solving Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These roughly 200 lesson plans are related to mathematical problem solving and are provided by the non-profit Education Development Center. The lesson plans are designed to help students develop both deep conceptual mathematical understandings and technical skills. The plans are provided both as PDF files and in HTML, and teacher comments are also provided. Topics covered include modeling / mathematizing; finding analogies / structural similarities / isomorphisms; working with graphs; working with units/dimensional analysis; proving; formulating conjectures / generalizing / abstracting; finding and using invariants; creating / analyzing an algorithm; dealing with non-unique solutions; visualization; solving by special cases; verifying / interpreting results; analyzing parameters; estimating; inventing and using notation. This is an extensive and thorough resource for first-cycle college mathematics teachers and teachers of advanced high school math.

2007-11-12

243

How Do College Students Solve Proportion Problems?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problems which could be solved using proportional reasoning were administered nationwide by college faculty to their own science classes during a three year period. The reasoning of more than 8000 students covering three sections of the country was classified as concrete, transitional, or formal using Piagetian categories. Data from the West closely replicated that from the Midwest on similar metric conversion tasks. Student performance changed noticeably with a different problem format. The percentages of students using a ratio formula, ratio attempt, or intuitive methods of solution held approximately constant over time, task, and section of the country. The data shows the use of additive and conversion methods of solution depends upon the problem presentation.

Thornton, Melvin C.; Fuller, Robert G.

2012-05-15

244

Physics Problem Solving in Cooperative Learning Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research investigated the process of argument co-construction in 14 cooperative problem-solving groups in an algebra-based, college level, introductory physics course. The results of the research provide a rich description of argument co-construction, which, while predicted in previous literature, has not been systematically described. The research was a qualitative, case-study analysis of each group's discussion of the "physics description" portion of the group's problem solution. In a physics description physics concepts and principles are use to qualitatively analyze the problem. Transcripts were made from videotapes and the analysis focused on sequential groups of statements, called episodes, instead of isolated, individual statements. The groups' episodes were analyzed and described in terms of Stephen Toulmin's argument structure which consists of claims, grounds, warrants, and backings.

Hollabaugh, Mark

2010-01-06

245

Physics Problem Solving in Cooperative Learning Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research investigated the process of argument co-construction in 14 cooperative problem-solving groups in an algebra-based, college level, introductory physics course. The results of the research provide a rich description of argument co-construction, which, while predicted in previous literature, has not been systematically described. The research was a qualitative, case-study analysis of each group's discussion of the "physics description" portion of the group's problem solution. In a physics description physics concepts and principles are use to qualitatively analyze the problem. Transcripts were made from videotapes and the analysis focused on sequential groups of statements, called episodes, instead of isolated, individual statements. The groups' episodes were analyzed and described in terms of Stephen Toulmin's argument structure which consists of claims, grounds, warrants, and backings.

Hollabaugh, Mark

2007-01-01

246

Resource Letter RPS-1: Research in problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research in problem solving, especially in physics. The references were compiled with two audiences in mind: physicists who are (or might become) engaged in research on problem solving, and physics instructors who are interested in using research results to improve their students' learning of problem solving. In addition to general references, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: cognitive aspects of problem solving, expert-novice problem-solver characteristics, problem solving in mathematics, alternative problem types, curricular interventions, and the use of computers in problem solving.

Hsu, Leonardo; Brewe, Eric; Foster, Thomas M.; Harper, Kathleen A.

2004-09-01

247

Solving inverse problems of identification type by optimal control methods  

SciTech Connect

Inverse problems of identification type for nonlinear equations are considered within the framework of optimal control theory. The rigorous solution of any particular problem depends on the functional setting, type of equation, and unknown quantity (or quantities) to be determined. Here the authors present only the general articulations of the formalism. Compared to classical regularization methods (e.g. Tikhonov coupled with optimization schemes), their approach presents several advantages, namely: (i) a systematic procedure to solve inverse problems of identification type; (ii) an explicit expression for the approximations of the solution; and (iii) a convenient numerical solution of these approximations.

Lenhart, S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Mathematics Dept.; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Jiongmin Yong [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Mathematics Dept.

1997-06-01

248

Arithmetic word problem solving: a Situation Strategy First framework.  

PubMed

Before instruction, children solve many arithmetic word problems with informal strategies based on the situation described in the problem. A Situation Strategy First framework is introduced that posits that initial representation of the problem activates a situation-based strategy even after instruction: only when it is not efficient for providing the numerical solution is the representation of the problem modified so that the relevant arithmetic knowledge might be used. Three experiments were conducted with Year 3 and Year 4 children. Subtraction, multiplication and division problems were created in two versions involving the same wording but different numerical values. The first version could be mentally solved with a Situation strategy (Si version) and the second with a Mental Arithmetic strategy (MA version). Results show that Si-problems are easier than MA-problems even after instruction, and, when children were asked to report their strategy by writing a number sentence, equations that directly model the situation were predominant for Si-problems but not for MA ones. Implications of the Situation Strategy First framework regarding the relation between conceptual and procedural knowledge and the development of arithmetic knowledge are discussed. PMID:20121866

Brissiaud, Rémi; Sander, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

249

Individual differences in solving arithmetic word problems  

PubMed Central

Background With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 3 T, we investigated the neural correlates of visualization and verbalization during arithmetic word problem solving. In the domain of arithmetic, visualization might mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate) results while calculating, and verbalization might mean that numbers and (intermediate) results are verbally repeated during calculation. If the brain areas involved in number processing are domain-specific as assumed, that is, that the left angular gyrus (AG) shows an affinity to the verbal domain, and that the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) shows an affinity to the visual domain, the activation of these areas should show a dependency on an individual’s cognitive style. Methods 36 healthy young adults participated in the fMRI study. The participants habitual use of visualization and verbalization during solving arithmetic word problems was assessed with a short self-report assessment. During the fMRI measurement, arithmetic word problems that had to be solved by the participants were presented in an event-related design. Results We found that visualizers showed greater brain activation in brain areas involved in visual processing, and that verbalizers showed greater brain activation within the left angular gyrus. Conclusions Our results indicate that cognitive styles or preferences play an important role in understanding brain activation. Our results confirm, that strong visualizers use mental imagery more strongly than weak visualizers during calculation. Moreover, our results suggest that the left AG shows a specific affinity to the verbal domain and subserves number processing in a modality-specific way.

2013-01-01

250

Negotiation as a Metaphor for Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the concept of distributed problem solving and define it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. We present a framework called the contract net that specifies

Randall Davis; Reid G. Smith

1983-01-01

251

A Problem Set for the Investigation of Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Polya claims that true problem solving is accompanied by the cognitive activities of mobilization, organization, isolation and combination, and by the evaluations of relevancy, proximity, and quality. Evaluations occur as a result of monitoring cognitive activities. According to Polya, these particular cognitive activities are a necessary part of…

Allen, Bradford D.; Carifio, James

252

Curriculum Units in Mathematics and Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute (YNHTI) is an educational partnership between Yale University and the New Haven Public Schools designed to strengthen teaching and learning in local schools. Produced by teachers participating in Institute seminars since 1978, the 100+ volumes containing the teaching units offer many ideas and procedures for teaching English, history, social studies, the languages, the arts, mathematics, and science in elementary, middle, and high schools. From the YNHTI home page, search for units or guides; a full list appears in the Directory of Volumes page. Mathematics curriculum units range from Integrating Mathematical Concepts in the Study of the Atmosphere to A Chronological History of Pi with Developmental Activities in Problem Solving to Practicing Precision: Lessons from Mathematical Language and Writing. Statistics curriculum units range from Paper Airplanes to Scaling the Natural World Using Dimensional Analysis. Each unit includes a guide (synopsis and recommendations), introduction, some lesson plans or sample problems, and bibliographies.

2007-03-10

253

Solving numerical difficulties for element-free Galerkin analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study solves the numerical problems associated with the element-free Galerkin method (EFGM) to perform analyses efficiently in shared-memory computers. The truncation error is generally large for the moving least-squares approximation, and this can be overcome by using orthogonal basis functions, 16-byte floats, or the local origin. Then, the analysis accuracy is similar to that obtained with the reproducing kernel particle approximation. Determining the index array of the global stiffness matrix requires a large amount of computer memory. We thus propose a scheme to overcome this problem using slightly more computer time but much less computer memory. A binary search is also proposed to find the support domain nodes for Gaussian points, and this method is much more efficient than the linear search one. A Fortran module is developed to establish parallel solutions in the EFGM, and the programmer does not need to handle the global stiffness directly.

Ju, S. H.; Hsu, H. H.

2014-02-01

254

Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus).  

PubMed

Recent work has shown that captive rooks, like chimpanzees and other primates, develop cooperative alliances with their conspecifics. Furthermore, the pressures hypothesized to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. We tested cooperative problem-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly solved a problem in which two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously in order to pull in a food platform. Similar to chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, performance was better when within-dyad tolerance levels were higher. In contrast to chimpanzees, rooks did not delay acting on the apparatus while their partner gained access to the test room. Furthermore, given a choice between an apparatus that could be operated individually over one that required the action of two individuals, four out of six individuals showed no preference. These results may indicate that cooperation in chimpanzees is underpinned by more complex cognitive processes than that in rooks. Such a difference may arise from the fact that while both chimpanzees and rooks form cooperative alliances, chimpanzees, but not rooks, live in a variable social network made up of competitive and cooperative relationships. PMID:18364318

Seed, Amanda M; Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

2008-06-22

255

Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

Billionniere, Elodie V.

256

Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

1988-01-01

257

Physics Graduate Studentsâ Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly inluence their motivation to learn and their development of expertise. We administered an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to physics graduate students and analyzed their responses about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in introductory physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory students and physics faculty. Survey responses suggest that graduate students' attitudes about graduate level problem solving sometimes has similar patterns to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Singh, Chandralekha; Mason, Andrew J.

2010-01-18

258

Problem Solving: A Handbook for Teachers. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past decade, problem solving has become a major focus of the mathematics curriculum. Many feel that in this era of increasing technology, it is important for students to learn how to approach a problem situation. This book was designed to help teachers teach problem solving. Chapter 1, "An Introduction to Problem Solving," deals with…

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

259

Problem solving and chemical equilibrium: Successful versus unsuccessful performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the problem-solving behaviors of experts and novices engaged in solving seven chemical equilibrium problems. Thirteen novices (five high-school students, five undergraduate majors, and three nonmajors) and ten experts (six doctoral students and four faculty members) were videotaped as they individually solved standard chemical equilibrium problems. The nature of the problems was such

Moises Camacho; Ron Good

1989-01-01

260

Novice use of qualitative versus quantitative problem solving in electrostatics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the problem-solving behaviors of six novice subjects attempting to solve an electrostatics problem in calculus-based college physics. The level of qualitative thinking exhibited by these novices was determined. Sound procedural knowledge and problem representation were suggested as an integral part of skilled problem solving in physics.

Mcmillan, Claude; Swadener, Marc

2006-06-19

261

Integral calculus problem solving: an fMRI investigation.  

PubMed

Only a subset of adults acquires specific advanced mathematical skills, such as integral calculus. The representation of more sophisticated mathematical concepts probably evolved from basic number systems; however its neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of integral calculus while healthy participants were engaged in an integration verification task. Solving integrals activated a left-lateralized cortical network including the horizontal intraparietal sulcus, posterior superior parietal lobe, posterior cingulate gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results indicate that solving of more abstract and sophisticated mathematical facts, such as calculus integrals, elicits a pattern of brain activation similar to the cortical network engaged in basic numeric comparison, quantity manipulation, and arithmetic problem solving. PMID:18596607

Krueger, Frank; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Pardini, Matteo; Pajevic, Sinisa; Wood, Jacqueline N; Weiss, George H; Landgraf, Steffen; Grafman, Jordan

2008-07-16

262

Employing human knowledge to solve integrated coordination problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Integrated Coordination Problem involves solving multiple related subproblems that collectively satisfy the requirements of a user, including subproblems that depend on the user's participation to solve. Fundamental challenges in solving such a problem include defining mechanisms to solve the individual subproblems, formulating the information and control flow between these mechanisms that supports flexible end-to-end problem-solving, and providing access for

Wei Chen; Kaizhi Tang; David Mihalcik; Yunshen Tang; Edmund Durfee; Melanie Dumas

2010-01-01

263

Solving Fractional Programming Problems based on Swarm Intelligence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach to solve Fractional Programming Problems (FPPs) based on two different Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. The two algorithms are: Particle Swarm Optimization, and Firefly Algorithm. The two algorithms are tested using several FPP benchmark examples and two selected industrial applications. The test aims to prove the capability of the SI algorithms to solve any type of FPPs. The solution results employing the SI algorithms are compared with a number of exact and metaheuristic solution methods used for handling FPPs. Swarm Intelligence can be denoted as an effective technique for solving linear or nonlinear, non-differentiable fractional objective functions. Problems with an optimal solution at a finite point and an unbounded constraint set, can be solved using the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given to show the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The results obtained using the two SI algorithms revealed the superiority of the proposed technique among others in computational time. A better accuracy was remarkably observed in the solution results of the industrial application problems.

Raouf, Osama Abdel; Hezam, Ibrahim M.

2014-04-01

264

Method of Solving the Isoperimetric Problem of Isotope Irradiation Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The algorithm of solving the reactor optimization problem with isoperimetric conditions is drawn. The problem is solved in terms of the iterative method directly using the maximum principle. The thermal and resonance neutron fluxes which ensure maximum yi...

A. I. Volovik

1977-01-01

265

The Integration Of TRIZ Problem Solving Techniques With Other Problem Solving And Assessment Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRIZ, as a problem-solving process, is seldom used or brought into an organization in a vacuum. There is almost always an existing structure of tools and processes in use into which TRIZ enters. TRIZ can be brought into an organization as a replacement, or in collaboration with the most commonly used innovation and creativity tools in use such as Creative

Jack Hipple

266

Why Solve Problems?--Interviewing College Faculty about the Learning and Teaching of Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the design and initial data analysis of an ongoing study to determine the important elements, as perceived by faculty, of the learning and teaching of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course. To elicit instructors' beliefs that inform their instructional choices, an interview around…

Yerushalmi, E.; Heller, K.; Heller, P.; Henderson, C.; Kuo, V.

267

Students' Use of Imagery in Solving Qualitative Problems in Kinematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes a study that investigated the relationship between mental imagery and problem solving in physics, specifically in kinematics. A distinction is made between visual imagery and spatial imagery used in solving physics problems. The results of this study indicate that while spatial imagery may promote problem solving success, the use of visual imagery presents an obstacle to problem solving in kinematics. (Contains 23 references.)

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Hegarty, Mary; Mayer, Richard

2006-06-16

268

A numerical method for solving the Vlasov equation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical procedure is derived for the solution of the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations in two phase-space variables. Derivatives with respect to the phase-space variables are approximated by a weighted sum of the values of the distribution function at property chosen neighboring points. The resulting set of ordinary differential equations is then solved by using an appropriate time intergration scheme. The accuracy of the proposed method is tested with some simple model problems. The results for the free streaming case, linear Landau damping, and nonlinear Landau damping are investigated and compared with those of the splitting scheme. The proposed method is found to be very accurate and efficient.

Satofuka, N.

1982-01-01

269

Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.

Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja

2014-01-01

270

A BASIC Programming Curriculum for Enhancing Problem-Solving Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum is proposed to enhance problem-solving ability through learning to program in BASIC. Current research shows development of problem-solving skills from learning to program in BASIC. Successful treatments have been based on contemporary problem-solving theory, top-down, modular programing, and rigorous length and intensity. The…

Overbaugh, Richard C.

271

Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

2012-01-01

272

Enhancing Mathematical Problem Solving for Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the research program on mathematical problem solving conducted by the Center on Accelerating Student Learning (CASL). First, a subset of CASL themes, illustrated in the mathematical problem-solving studies, is highlighted. Then, the theoretical underpinnings of the mathematical problem-solving intervention methods are…

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs,Douglas

2005-01-01

273

CONSTRUCTING PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE OF PROBLEM SOLVING: PRESERVICE MATHEMATICS TEACHERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports a study of the knowledge preservice secondary school mathematics teachers (PSSMT) hold of problem solving and the role of a reflective-inquiry approach in creating self-awareness of, and in enhancing, this knowledge. The approach included solving problems, narratives, flow charts and observations. The finding shows that the participants were able to construct a deeper understanding of problem solving.

Olive Chapman

274

Math Problem Solving and Mental Discipline: The Myth of Transferability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is alleged by math teachers and their supporters that math problem solving actually transfers to skills in real or applied problem solving (RAPS). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issue of math problem solving and the concomitant concept of mental discipline/transfer of learning. The mental discipline theory and evidence to support…

Lemire, David

275

Problem Solving in the Treatment of Childhood Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study randomized obese children from 67 families to groups that received a 6-month family-based behavioral weight-control program plus parent and child problem solving, child problem solving, or standard treatment with no additional problem solving. The standard group showed larger body mass index (BMI) decreases than the parent + child group through 2 years, with significant differences in the percentage

Leonard H. Epstein; Rocco A. Paluch; Constance C. Gordy; Brian E. Saelens; Michelle M. Ernst

2000-01-01

276

TEACHING TRIZ AS A SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD: BREAKING MINDSETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present education has often a dysfunctional approach in that it gives students knowledge and examples of how to solve problems using that knowledge, and then assumes that the student will somehow by a process similar to osmosis understand how to solve further problems in that domain. In reality there appears to be little focus on 'teaching' how to solve problems

Paul R. Filmore

2007-01-01

277

Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…

Modica, Erasmo

2010-01-01

278

Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

Hung, Woei

2013-01-01

279

Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

2012-01-01

280

Solving Word Problems Using Schemas: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students…

Powell, Sarah R.

2011-01-01

281

A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…

Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.

2005-01-01

282

Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

2012-01-01

283

Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a companion paper, we discuss studentsâ ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss studentsâ ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two- step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2011-01-01

284

Solving Multi Objective Stochastic Programming Problems Using Differential Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic (or probabilistic) programming is an optimization technique in which the constraints and/or the objective function of an optimization problem contains random variables. The mathematical models of these problems may follow any particular probability distribution for model coefficients. The objective here is to determine the proper values for model parameters influenced by random events. In this study, Differential Evolution (DE) and its two recent variants LDE1 and LDE2 are presented for solving multi objective linear stochastic programming (MOSLP) problems, having several conflicting objectives. The numerical results obtained by DE and its variants are compared with the available results from where it is observed that the DE and its variants significantly improve the quality of solution of the given considered problem in comparison with the quoted results in the literature.

Thangaraj, Radha; Pant, Millie; Bouvry, Pascal; Abraham, Ajith

285

Technological and Personal Problem Solving Styles: Is there a Difference?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving, and technological problem solving in particular, is clearly a critical survival skill in our technologically advanced world. Government, business, vocational and technology education leaders have increasingly called for more emphasis on higher-order thinking skills and problem solving in both general and technological areas. The American technology education profession has identified problem solving as the technological method (Savage & Sterry, 1990). Authors outside technology education have also suggested that both general and technology teachers would be well advised to focus on enhancing problem solving skills. Given this, the authors sought to examine several key aspects of problem solving in more depth. Of these, the first was problem solving style. Problem-solving style is defined as a tendency to respond in a certain way while addressing problems and not as the steps employed in actually solving the problem. It has been operationally defined by Heppner (1988) in terms of three distinct dimensions which can be measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). Collectively, these dimensions (problem-solving confidence, approach/avoidance, and personal control) comprise problem-solving style. Although many educators claim to address problem solving, if the increasing frequency of mention in the literature is to be believed, the portion of citizens who have developed adequate problem solving capabilities is insufficient. It is no coincidence that this inadequacy is occurring at the same time when our society is experiencing a decrease in technological literacy. This problem is all the more critical given that the pace of technological growth is escalating (Dyrenfurth, 1991; Johnson, 1989). Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Custer, Rodney L.; Dyrenfurth, Michael J.; Wu, Tain-Fung

2009-10-20

286

Effect of Explicit Problem Solving Instructions on the Problem Solving Performance and Conceptual Understanding of Introductory College Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two sections of introductory non-calculus general physics lecture courses, with a total enrolment of 120 students, were used to investigate the impact of explicit problem solving instruction on students' problem solving ability and conceptual understanding. The comparison group was instructed in textbook style problem solving strategy. Students' conceptual understanding was assessed by adminstering the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) at the begening and end of the semester. Required written rationale for multiple choice questions and responses to multistep problems were analyzed to further assess conceptual understanding and problem solving skills of the students in the two groups. A significant difference was noted in both understanding and problem solving performance.

Numan, Muhammad; Sobolewski, Stanley

1998-04-01

287

The Effects of Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving on High School Students' Chemistry Problem-Solving Performance and Verbal Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem solving strategy, Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS), developed by Arthur Whimbey to help students monitor and understand their own thought process is presented. The TAPPS strategy encouraged the students interact verbally with each other to solve chemistry problems and improve the achievements in chemistry.

Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee

2005-01-01

288

Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In How to Solve It, accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to mathematicians but of interest to cognitive psychologists and problem solvers in all fields. I had the good fortune to be introduced to Polya's ideas in my first undergraduate class in physics.

Lederman, Eric

2009-02-01

289

Prescribing effective human problem solving processes: Problem description in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A theoretical model specifying the underlying knowledge and procedures whereby human subjects can generate effective initial descriptions of scientific problems was formulated. The model is prescriptive since it does not necessarily try to simulate the behavior of actual experts nor assume that their performance is optimal. The model, elaborated in the domain of mechanics, specifies explicit procedures for redescribing problems in terms of a relevant knowledge base. To test the model, carefully controlled experiments were devised where human subjects were induced to act in accordance with alternative models and where their resulting performance was observed in detail. Such experiments, carried out with undergraduate physics students, showed that the proposed model is sufficient to generate excellent problem descriptions, that these markedly improve subsequent problem solutions, and that most components of the model are indeed necessary for good performance. Detailed data analysis also showed how the model predictably prevents the occurrence of many common errors. Such a validated model of effective problem description provides a useful basis for teaching students improved scientific problem-solving skills.

Heller, Joan I.; Reif, Frederick

2006-06-09

290

Exploring the role of GIS during community health assessment problem solving: experiences of public health professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A Community health assessment (CHA) involves the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in conjunction with other software to analyze health and population data and perform numerical-spatial problem solving. There has been little research on identifying how public health professionals integrate this software during typical problem solving scenarios. A better understanding of this is needed to answer the \\

Matthew Scotch; Bambang Parmanto; Cynthia S Gadd; Ravi K Sharma

2006-01-01

291

Solving the sod shock tube problem using localized differential quadrature (LDQ) method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The localized differential quadrature (LDQ) method is a numerical technique with high accuracy for solving most kinds of nonlinear problems in engineering and can overcome the difficulties of other methods (such as difference method) to numerically evaluate the derivatives of the functions. Its high efficiency and accuracy attract many engineers to apply the method to solve most of the numerical problems in engineering. However, difficulties can still be found in some particular problems. In the following study, the LDQ was applied to solve the Sod shock tube problem. This problem is a very particular kind of problem, which challenges many common numerical methods. Three different examples were given for testing the robustness and accuracy of the LDQ. In the first example, in which common initial conditions and solving methods were given, the numerical oscillations could be found dramatically; in the second example, the initial conditions were adjusted appropriately and the numerical oscillations were less dramatic than that in the first example; in the third example, the momentum equation of the Sod shock tube problem was corrected by adding artificial viscosity, causing the numerical oscillations to nearly disappear in the process of calculation. The numerical results presented demonstrate the detailed difficulties encountered in the calculations, which need to be improved in future work. However, in summary, the localized differential quadrature is shown to be a trustworthy method for solving most of the nonlinear problems in engineering.

Zong, Zhi; Li, Zhangrui; Dong, Jing

2011-03-01

292

A recurrent neural network for solving bilevel linear programming problem.  

PubMed

In this brief, based on the method of penalty functions, a recurrent neural network (NN) modeled by means of a differential inclusion is proposed for solving the bilevel linear programming problem (BLPP). Compared with the existing NNs for BLPP, the model has the least number of state variables and simple structure. Using nonsmooth analysis, the theory of differential inclusions, and Lyapunov-like method, the equilibrium point sequence of the proposed NNs can approximately converge to an optimal solution of BLPP under certain conditions. Finally, the numerical simulations of a supply chain distribution model have shown excellent performance of the proposed recurrent NNs. PMID:24807959

Xing He; Chuandong Li; Tingwen Huang; Chaojie Li; Junjian Huang

2014-04-01

293

Numerical Exploration of Chermnykh's Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the equilibrium points and the zero-velocity curves of Chermnykh's problem when the angular velocity omega varies continuously and the value of the mass parameter is fixed. The planar symmetric simple-periodic orbits are determined numerically and they are presented for three values of the parameter omega. The stability of the periodic orbits of all the families is computed. Particularly,

K. E. Papadakis

2005-01-01

294

Effects of Training in Problem Solving on the Problem-Solving Abilities of Gifted Fourth Graders: A Comparison of the Future Problem Solving and Instrumental Enrichment Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differential effects of two different types of problem-solving training on the problem-solving abilities of gifted fourth graders were studied. Two successive classes of gifted fourth graders from Weslaco Independent School District (Texas) were pretested with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Thinking Creatively With Pictures…

Dufner, Hillrey A.; Alexander, Patricia A.

295

Why solve problems? Interviewing College Faculty About the Learning and Teaching of Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper was presented at the XVIII International GIREP Conference, held at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, during the week of August 28th-1st September 2000. The author describes the design and initial data analysis of an ongoing study to determine the important elements, as perceived by faculty, of the learning and teaching of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course. This paper discusses the preliminary results of a comparison of two instructors who are known to differ primarily in their approaches to the teaching of problem solving. To elicit instructors' beliefs that inform their instructional choices, an interview around three concrete situations was designed: instructors' solutions, students' solutions, and actual practice. There is evidence to suggest that the primary difference between the two instructors is not in their vision of the expert problem solving process, but in the presence and treatment of competing models of learning and instruction. This article, along with others, have been compiled in a book.

Yerushalmi, Edit; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia; Henderson, Charles R.; Kuo, H. V.

2006-09-14

296

Problem Solving: A Handbook for Elementary School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book combines suggestions for the teaching of problem solving with activities and carefully discussed non-routine problems which students should find interesting as they gain valuable experience in problem solving. The over 300 activities and problems have been gleaned from a variety of sources and have been classroom tested by practicing…

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

297

A Distributed Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for Scientific Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is proposed to help users solve partial differential equation (PDE) based problems in scientific computing. The system inputs a problem description and outputs a program flow, a C-language source code for the problem and also a document for the program. Each module is distributed on distributed computers. The PSE contains all the information of

Shigeo Kawata; Hideaki Fuju; Hideaki Sugiura; Yuichi Saitoh; Yoshikazu Hayase; Takayuki Teramoto; Takashi Kikuchi

2005-01-01

298

Teaching Creative Problem Solving Using the Fundamentals of Manufacturing Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing addresses the problem of converting raw materials into desired shapes with functional characteristics that are affected by the manufacturing processes themselves. Manufacturing problems were used to teach problem solving techniques in a Manufacturing Processes course at Gonzaga University. The students solved the problems to develop processes and the equipment to implement the processes. They analyzed and designed parts, and

Douglas L. Ramers

299

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

2012-01-01

300

Cognitive process validation of an online problem solving assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we tested a novel cognitive validation strategy that yoked participants' verbal protocols with their clickstream data using a problem solving assessment (IMMEX—Interactive Multimedia Exercises). Participants were presented with a scenario and provided with relevant and irrelevant information to solve the task. Participants could access the information in any order and attempt to solve the problem at any

Gregory K. W. K Chung; Linda F de Vries; Alicia M Cheak; Ronald H Stevens; William L Bewley

2002-01-01

301

Measuring Problem Solving with Technology: A Demonstration Study for NAEP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study intended to demonstrate how an emerging skill, problem solving with technology, might be measured in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Two computer-delivered assessment scenarios were designed, one on solving science-related problems through electronic information search and the other on solving

Bennett, Randy Elliot; Persky, Hilary; Weiss, Andy; Jenkins, Frank

2010-01-01

302

The Hamilton-Jacobi theory for solving two-point boundary value problems: Theory and numerics with application to spacecraft formation flight, optimal control and the study of phase space structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation has been motivated by the need for new methods to address complex problems that arise in spacecraft formation design. As a direct result of this motivation, a general methodology for solving two-point boundary value problems for Hamiltonian systems has been found. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi theory in conjunction with the canonical transformation induced by the phase flow, it is

Vincent M. Guibout

2004-01-01

303

Application of Photorefractive Crystals to Solve Matrix Algebra Problems Optically.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals for the project are to solve matrix algebraic problems at high speed by applying photorefractive crystals in optical processing systems, and to study the photorefractives for such application. Although our interest was primarily on solving matri...

S. H. Lee

1992-01-01

304

Variational iteration method for solving two-point boundary value problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variational iteration method is introduced to solve two-point boundary value problems. Numerical results demonstrate that the method is promising and may overcome the difficulty arising in Adomian decomposition method.

Junfeng Lu

2007-01-01

305

Variational iteration method for solving a nonlinear system of second-order boundary value problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variational iteration method is introduced to solve a nonlinear system of second-order boundary value problems. Numerical results demonstrate that this method is promising and readily implemented.

Junfeng Lu

2007-01-01

306

Problem Solving Skill Evaluation Instrument â Validation Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have created several tools for evaluating conceptual understanding as well as students' attitudes and beliefs about physics; however, the field of problem solving is sorely lacking a broad use evaluation tool. This missing tool is an indication of the complexity of the field. The most obvious and largest hurdle to evaluating physics problem solving skills is untangling the skills from the physics content knowledge necessary to solve problems. We are tackling this problem by looking for the physics problem solving skills that are useful in other disciplines as well as physics. We report on the results of a series of interviews comparing physics students' skills when solving physics problems with their anonymous completion of the problem solving instrument.

Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2007-11-25

307

On planetary motion—a way to solve the problem and a spreadsheet simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents a way of solving the problem of planetary motion, or, the Kepler problem, without using the r\\to 1/r transition. The governing equation is solved for the components of the velocity vector in Cartesian coordinates. Substitution for speed in the law of energy conservation yields the equation of the trajectory. A time implicit closed formula for the azimuth is derived. An Excel application is presented that simulates the motion by solving the azimuth equation numerically without using programming.

Benacka, Jan

2014-07-01

308

The Development of Students' Probllem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas

2011-03-03

309

Tools to Think With: Detecting Different Strategies in Solving Arithmetic Word Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two approaches to solving word problems that consider the verbal text of the problem, and analyze it to obtain its mathematical expression, as well as its numerical solution. Uses two computerized programs for word problems to capture the various strategies employed by the problem solvers. Contains 21 references. (Author/ASK)

Hershkovitz, Sara; Nesher, Pearla

1998-01-01

310

The Effects of GO Solve Word Problems Math Intervention on Applied Problem Solving Skills of Low Performing Fifth Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigation examined the effects of "GO Solve Word Problems" math intervention on problem-solving skills of struggling 5th grade students. In a randomized controlled study, 16 5th grade students were given a 12-week intervention of "GO Solve", a computer-based program designed to teach schema-based instruction strategies (SBI.s) to…

Fede, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

311

Solving the sod shock tube problem using localized differential quadrature (LDQ) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localized differential quadrature (LDQ) method is a numerical technique with high accuracy for solving most kinds of nonlinear\\u000a problems in engineering and can overcome the difficulties of other methods (such as difference method) to numerically evaluate\\u000a the derivatives of the functions. Its high efficiency and accuracy attract many engineers to apply the method to solve most\\u000a of the numerical

Zhi Zong; Zhangrui Li; Jing Dong

2011-01-01

312

Large Scale Computational Problems in Numerical Optimization  

SciTech Connect

Our work under this support broadly falls into five categories: automatic differentiation, sparsity, constraints, parallel computation, and applications. Automatic Differentiation (AD): We developed strong practical methods for computing sparse Jacobian and Hessian matrices which arise frequently in large scale optimization problems [10,35]. In addition, we developed a novel view of "structure" in applied problems along with AD techniques that allowed for the efficient application of sparse AD techniques to dense, but structured, problems. Our AD work included development of freely available MATLAB AD software. Sparsity: We developed new effective and practical techniques for exploiting sparsity when solving a variety of optimization problems. These problems include: bound constrained problems, robust regression problems, the null space problem, and sparse orthogonal factorization. Our sparsity work included development of freely available and published software [38,39]. Constraints: Effectively handling constraints in large scale optimization remains a challenge. We developed a number of new approaches to constrained problems with emphasis on trust region methodologies. Parallel Computation: Our work included the development of specifically parallel techniques for the linear algebra tasks underpinning optimization algorithms. Our work contributed to the nonlinear least-squares problem, nonlinear equations, triangular systems, orthogonalization, and linear programming. Applications: Our optimization work is broadly applicable across numerous application domains. Nevertheless we have specifically worked in several application areas including molecular conformation, molecular energy minimization, computational finance, and bone remodeling.

coleman, thomas f. [cornell university] [cornell university

2000-07-01

313

The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities, post recitation interviews, and a modified version of the CLASS survey taken at the beginning and end of the semester. I assessed the skills and strategies students used to solve problems, characterized how they framed the activity of problem solving, and then evaluated how these frames shifted through a semester of instruction. Findings indicate that the M&I curriculum helped all the students shift towards a deliberate, more productive problem solving frame. Results also show that beliefs and expectations, as well as knowledge of problem solving skills and strategies must be aligned for students to shift to a productive frame.

Wampler, Wendi N.

314

Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress  

PubMed Central

High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.

Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.

2013-01-01

315

Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2010-10-01

316

Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

2011-01-01

317

Problem Solving: A Handbook for Senior High School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of problem solving begins the moment a child first enters school and the senior high school plays a major role in the development of this skill since a number of students terminate their formal education at the end of this period. This book combines suggestions for the teaching of problem solving with activities, problems, and…

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

318

Problem Solving Treatment for Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past thirty years, Problem Solving Therapy (PST) has been shown to be an effective treatment for many different problems and patient populations (Nezu, 2004). Among its many clinical applications, PST interventions were developed for persons with intellectually disabilities (ID), where improving problem-solving skills led to adaptive…

Nezu, Christine Maguth; Fiore, Alicia A.; Nezu, Arthur M.

2006-01-01

319

A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

2003-01-01

320

Developing authentic problem solving skills in introductory computing classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to solve problems is the key to developing software, and it is an ability that can be difficult to learn. Introductory Computer Science students are often taught syntax and semantics, along with simple problems designed to develop logical, structured thinking, but authentic problem-solving skills are rarely developed at these early stages. In this paper we describe an approach

Katrina Falkner; Edward Palmer

2009-01-01

321

Right Problem Solving: Doing the Right Thing Right  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses right problem solving to define\\/solve a right problem for doing the right thing right. In so doing, the paper operationally considers purposeful complex adaptive systems (PCAS), Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD), group\\/negotiation support systems, consciousness, connectedness, spirituality, rationality, problems, and right rationality in theory and practice. System agents may be natural (human) and\\/or artificial.

Melvin F. Shakun

2003-01-01

322

Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a

R. Taconis; M. G. M. Ferguson-Hessler; H. Broekkamp

2001-01-01

323

Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

Man, Yiu-Kwong

2010-01-01

324

Phenomenographic study of studentsâ problem solving approaches in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study is a hierarchical set of categories that describe the studentsâ problem solving approaches in the context of introductory physics.

Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert; Bowe, Brian

2008-09-24

325

PRESERVICE AGRICULTURAL EDUCATORS' ABILITY TO SOLVE AGRICULTURALLY RELATED MATHEMATICS PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to apply academic skills to agriculture is increasingly important. Even so, studies have shown that students and teachers of agricultural education lack competence in solving agriculture-related mathematics problems. The purpose of this correlational study was to explain variance in the mathematical problem-solving ability of preservice agricultural educators. Findings show a lack of competence in mathematical problem-solving among the

Greg Miller; Joe A. Gliem

326

Solving Elliptic Problems Using the Magnetic Reconnection Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magnetic Reconnection Code (MRC), developed at the Center for Magnetic Reconnection Studies, solves Hall MHD equations using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) methods in collisional as well as collisionless regimes. The Navier-Stokes/Euler equations of hydrodynamics also fit into the MRC framework. Much of the previous work on AMR methods has concentrated on solving hyperbolic equations with explicit timestepping. However, for many problems, either due to their physical nature (e.g., collisionless reconnection dynamics in which electron inertia breaks field lines and incompressible Euler flows) or for performance reasons (semi-implicit and implicit numerical methods), it becomes necessary to solve global equations (Poisson and/or Helmholtz). This paper investigates the application and performance of well-established preconditioned Krylov-Schwarz solvers in an AMR context, using a combination of an outer multi-level method (fast adaptive composite) and iterative Krylov-Schwarz smoothers. We present an implementation within the MRC which allows us to leverage the powerful toolkit of preconditioners and linear solvers from the PETSc library. We show two applications of this new adaptive elliptic solver: the problem of finite-time singularities of 3D Euler flows using a highly symmetric initial condition due to Kida and the collisionless reconnection problem for the m=1 sawtooth instability using so-called two-field and four-field models which have been derived from the full two-fluid equations using asymptotic ordering. In the reconnnection problem, it is demonstrated that these reduced models produce parametric scalings in the nonlinear regime that are qualitatively different than those obtained from recent studies such as the GEM Reconnection Challenge.

Germaschewski, K.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Ng, C. S.; Linde, T.; Malyshkin, L.; Rosner, R.; Dobrian, F.; Keyes, D.; Smith, B.

2003-10-01

327

A problem solving approach to nutrition education and counseling.  

PubMed

This report applies problem-solving principles to the design and implementation of nutrition education and counseling programs. A framework is proposed that builds on an extensive body of research in mental health and health education that has demonstrated the efficacy of a problem-solving approach to helping people cope with stressful life events. Our framework uses problem-solving principles in helping participants in nutrition education or counseling programs to overcome obstacles they experience in changing their nutrition behaviors. Both research and clinical experience suggest that incorporating problem-solving techniques in nutrition education and counseling will increase long term change in nutrition behaviors. PMID:16785096

Peter, Houts; Shankar, Sharada; Sharada, Shankar; Klassen, Ann C; Robinson, Ellen B; McCarthy, Marline

2006-01-01

328

Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studentsâ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate studentsâ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate studentsâ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate studentsâ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-01-20

329

Modifying PASVART to solve singular nonlinear 2-point boundary problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To study the buckling and post-buckling behavior of shells and various other structures, one must solve a nonlinear 2-point boundary problem. Since closed-form analytic solutions for such problems are virtually nonexistent, numerical approximations are inevitable. This makes the availability of accurate and reliable software indispensable. In a series of papers Lentini and Pereyra, expanding on the work of Keller, developed PASVART: an adaptive finite difference solver for nonlinear 2-point boundary problems. While the program does produce extremely accurate solutions with great efficiency, it is hindered by a major limitation. PASVART will only locate isolated solutions of the problem. In buckling problems, the solution set is not unique. It will contain singular or bifurcation points, where different branches of the solution set may intersect. Thus, PASVART is useless precisely when the problem becomes interesting. To resolve this deficiency we propose a modification of PASVART that will enable the user to perform a more complete bifurcation analysis. PASVART would be combined with the Thurston bifurcation solution: as adaptation of Newton's method that was motivated by the work of Koiter 3 are reinterpreted in terms of an iterative computational method by Thurston.

Fulton, James P.

1988-01-01

330

Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)

Norris, A. C.

1980-01-01

331

Understanding the Problem. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series. The Math Forum: Problems of the Week  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…

Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009

2009-01-01

332

How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

2009-01-01

333

Mechanisms of Incubation in Creative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjects worked on a problem, engaged in an intervening activity, and then resumed work on the problem. Different intervening activities represented various mechanisms that produce incubation (e.g., set breaking, facilitation by analogy, review of the problem's elements). These various treatment groups were compared to a control group that worked…

Olton, Robert M.; Johnson, David M.

1976-01-01

334

A Meaningless but Nonalgorithmic Solving Course: Solving a Graphing Problem about Osmosis by Analogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various researchers have associated meaningful problem solving with methods guided directly by a conceptual knowledge base. By contast, a meaningless solving course, or sequence of operations, is essentially independent of the solver's conceptual understanding of the problem under consideration. This paper is the first to document a meaningless,…

Zuckerman, June T.

335

Subject mediation approach for scientific problem solving in Virtual Observatories  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exist two principally different approaches to the organization of problem solving in VO: (i) information resources driven approach (choice and integrated definition of resources are made independently of the problem specification); and (ii) scientific problem driven approach (a specification of a problem domain is created, the relevant to the problem resources are identified and semantically mapped into the domain).

Leonid Kalinichenko

2007-01-01

336

Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social Contextual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

Jennifer Jie Xu; G. Alan Wang; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

2007-01-01

337

Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

Jennifer Xu; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

338

A Framework for Problem Solving in a Distributed Processing Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of distributed problem solving, or the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely-coupled collection of knowledge-sources that operates in a distributed processor architecture is presented. Such architectures offer high-sp...

R. G. Smith

1978-01-01

339

Creativity and Problem Solving: The Challenge for HRD Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses these questions: Who can solve problems? What is creativity? How can human resource development foster an environment that nourishes creativity? Describes approaches--problem centering, encouraging learning-theory perspective, mentoring, and diversity. (SK)

King, Susan C.

1998-01-01

340

Exploring the Episodic Structure of Algebra Story Problem Solving. Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper analyzes the quantitative and situational structure of algebra story problems, uses these materials to propose an interpretive framework for written problem-solving protocols, and then presents an exploratory study of the episodic structure of ...

C. Truxaw D. Kibler E. Wenger R. Hall

1989-01-01

341

Cooperative group problem solving laboratories for introductory classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving laboratories comprise an important part of our introductory physics courses at Minnesota. These courses emphasize learning fundamental physics through problem solving using cooperative groups. This paper outlines the structure and rationale for both the algebra-based and calculus-based introductory courses. The sample class is one of four laboratory problems on the topic of forces. A section of our student laboratory manual, including the introduction and this problem, is given in this paper.

Heller, Patricia; Foster, Thomas M.; Heller, Kenneth

2006-05-31

342

Childhood Physical Punishment and Problem Solving in Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from social learning theories and symbolic interactionist understandings of social life, the authors suggest that physical punishment teaches aggressive and controlling strategies for solving the problems of living together and hinders the development of important problem-solving skills, specifically the ability to role take with others.…

Cast, Alicia D.; Schweingruber, David; Berns, Nancy

2006-01-01

343

Does Incubation Enhance Problem Solving? A Meta-Analytic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analytic review of empirical studies that have investigated incubation effects on problem solving is reported. Although some researchers have reported increased solution rates after an incubation period (i.e., a period of time in which a problem is set aside prior to further attempts to solve), others have failed to find effects. The…

Sio, Ut Na; Ormerod, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

344

Understanding and Teaching Problem-Solving in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes a systematic study of skills for solving problems in basic physics. Also discusses how detailed observations of individuals were used to formulate models for problem-solving processes in mechanics and applications for teaching basic college physics or engineering courses.

Larkin, Jill H.; Reif, Frederick

2006-06-22

345

Prospective Teachers' Problem Solving Skills and Self-Confidence Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic objective of the research is to determine whether the education that prospective teachers in different fields receive is related to their levels of problem solving skills and self-confidence. Within the mentioned framework, the prospective teachers' problem solving and self-confidence levels have been examined under several variables.…

Gursen Otacioglu, Sena

2008-01-01

346

Introduction to LogoWriter and Problem Solving for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book about Logo programming and problem solving is designed to introduce preservice and inservice teachers to problem solving in a Logo programming environment. Such a unit of study can be an important part of an introductory computers in education course for educators. Although Logowriter--a version of Logo--was developed by Logo Computer…

Yoder, Sharon Burrowes; Moursund, Dave

347

Representations in Problem Solving in Science: Directions for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we focus on some of the findings of the science education research community in the area of representations and problem solving. Problem solving depends on the construction and manipulation of mental models (internal representations) in the mind. A large knowledge base (declarative, procedural, strategic, situational, and schematic…

Solaz-Portoles, Joan Josep; Lopez, Vicent Sanjose

2007-01-01

348

Problem Solving in Genetics: Conceptual and Procedural Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore prospective biology teachers' understandings of fundamental genetics concepts and the association between misconceptions and genetics problem solving abilities. Specifically, the study describes conceptual and procedural difficulties which influence prospective biology teachers' genetics problem solving

Karagoz, Meryem; Cakir, Mustafa

2011-01-01

349

Introducing Problem Solving through Literature at the Elementary Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much publicity the past few years, regarding students' lack of basic skills, their inability to think clearly, and their poor use of problem solving strategies. To focus on this need, the following program has been designed to help elementary teachers introduce problem solving in an organized manner adding very little, if any extra material to the curriculum.

Peg Harbert

1989-01-01

350

Agent based Service Integration for Distributed Problem Solving Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-disciplinary problem solving environments (M-PSEs) are developed to support sharing of services across multiple application domains. A PSE is, by definition, aimed to support problem solving in a given application domain. However, the infrastructure used to maintain and develop a PSE is not, and various common themes emerge when considering applications across domains. This is the predominant reason for developing

Omer F. Rana; David W. Walker

2001-01-01

351

Peer Instruction Enhanced Meaningful Learning: Ability to Solve Novel Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students must be able to interpret, relate, and incorporate new information with existing knowledge and apply the new information to solve novel problems. Peer instruction is a cooperative learning technique that promotes critical thinking, problem solving, and decision-making skills. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that peer instruction…

Cortright, Ronald N.; Collins, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2005-01-01

352

Hierarchical Problem Solving as a Means of Promoting Expertise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the effects of structuring problem solving activities of novices in the domain of physics in a way consistent with the problem solving approaches used by experts. A total of 42 undergraduate students who completed a first semester physics course and received a grade of B or better participated in this study. The treatment…

Mestre, Jose; And Others

353

Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

2013-01-01

354

Heuristics - intelligent search strategies for computer problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heuristics stand for strategies using readily accessible information to control problem-solving processes in man and machine. This book presents an analysis of the nature and the power of typical heuristic methods, primarily those used in artificial intelligence and operations research, to solve problems in areas such as reasoning, design, scheduling, planning, signal interpretation, symbolic computation, and combinatorial optimization. It is

Judea Pearl

1984-01-01

355

Problem-Solving Appraisal: Helping Normal People Lead Better Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We are very grateful for the thoughtful, scholarly, and insightful comments of the reactants and appreciate the kind words about our Major Contribution. One of the goals of the Major Contribution was to review the existing literature on problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) (Heppner, 1988) and, subsequently,…

Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.

2004-01-01

356

Determining Students' Attitude towards Physics through Problem-Solving Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effects of teacher-directed and self-directed problem-solving strategies on students' attitudes toward physics were explored. Problem-solving strategies were used with the experimental group, while the control group was instructed using traditional teaching methods. The study was conducted with 270 students at various high…

Erdemir, Naki

2009-01-01

357

Structured Collaboration versus Individual Learning in Solving Physics Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld's problem-solving episodes. Students took a pre-test and a post-test and had the…

Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning

2006-01-01

358

Competence Development Learning by Problem Solving. No. 74.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dialogue between two secondary school students engaged in solving a problem is the basis for the assertion that the students differ in their problem solving capabilities; that is, they reduce the complexity of the situation in different ways. The discussion also suggests that students do not use the same form of competence. They make sense of…

Bang, Jytte; Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup

359

Transfer of Learning: Connecting Concepts during Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A concern of many educators and managers is students' ability to transfer concepts and procedures learned in school to the work environment. When children are taught a skill, such as solving a mathematical problem, they often fail to recognize that their new skill can be used to solve a similar problem outside of school. In other cases, students…

Dixon, Raymond A.; Brown, Ryan A.

2012-01-01

360

Computational Steering and the SCIRun Integrated Problem Solving Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCIRun is a problem solving environment that allows the interactive construction, debugging, and steering of large-scale scientific computations. We review related systems and introduce a taxonomy that explores different computational steering solutions. Considering these approaches, we discuss why a tightly integrated problem solving environment, such as SCIRun, simplifies the design and debugging phases of computational science applications and how such

Steven G. Parker; Michelle Miller; Charles D. Hansen; Christopher R. Johnson

1997-01-01

361

Future Problem Solving: Taking It beyond the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A former participant in the Future Problem Solving Program reminisces about his experience in local and national competitions, describes the program's unique features (its emphasis on creativity and focus on the future), and notes the usefulness of the problem-solving process in his work with the Corporate Audit Staff of General Electric. (JDD)

Hibel, John

1991-01-01

362

Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…

Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby

2011-01-01

363

Problem Solving and the Development of Expertise in Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated novice and expert problem solving behavior in management to examine the role of domain specific knowledge on problem solving processes. Forty-one middle level marketing managers in a large petrochemical organization provided think aloud protocols in response to two hypothetical management scenarios. Protocol analysis…

Lash, Fredrick B.

364

Administrator Participation in Promoting Effective Problem-Solving Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the participation of administrators in problem-solving consultation teams is frequently mentioned in the literature as an important factor in the effectiveness of those teams, there has been little research into the impact of administrators on such teams. The impact of administrator participation on problem-solving consultation teams…

Rafoth, Mary Ann; Foriska, Terry

2006-01-01

365

PIPS: A Problem-Solving Model for Practicum and Internship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that practicum and internship programs in a counselor education department may encounter two basic types of problems: those which require structural change and those which do not. Presents the Practicum-Internship Problem Solving (PIPS) model, a model that combines systems concepts with consultative approach to help to identify and solve

Pitts, James H.

1992-01-01

366

Software Tools for Geometrical Problem Solving: Potentials and Pitfalls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the role of software tools in geometry problem solving and how these tools, in interaction with activities that embed the goals of teachers and students, mediate the problem solving process. Through analysis of successful student responses, shows how dynamic software tools can not only scaffold the solution process but also help students…

Healy, Lulu; Hoyles, Celia

2001-01-01

367

A Descriptive Model of Information Problem Solving while Using Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth analyses…

Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber

2009-01-01

368

A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…

Gok, Tolga

2010-01-01

369

Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…

Hong, Dae S.

2011-01-01

370

Problem-Solving Correlates of New Assessment Forms in Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Figural response (FR) items in architecture were compared with multiple-choice (MC) counterparts for their ability to predict architectural problem-solving proficiency of 33 practicing architects, 34 architecture interns, and 53 architecture students. Although both FR and MC predicted verbal design problem solving, only FR scores predicted…

Martinez, Michael E.

1993-01-01

371

On solving facility layout problems using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tam and Chan (1998) present a parallel genetic algorithm approach to solve the facility layout problem. They adopt a slicing tree representation of a floor layout. The coding scheme represents a layout as a string with three parts. This paper demonstrates the difficulties in applying classical crossover and mutation operators for solving facility layout problems. The paper modifies the representation

L. Al-Hakim

2000-01-01

372

Granular problem solving and its applications in software engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulation is an important component of granular computing (GrC) as a problem solving paradigm. Specification and regulation of granulation are necessary in helping researchers and practitioners apply GrC into different applications. At present, there is insufficient investigation of this topic. This paper defines concepts and mechanisms of problem solving, investigates the fundamental principles and processes of granulation and demonstrates that

Haibin Zhu

2009-01-01

373

Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational skills in problem solving. Cognitive skills include instructional objectives, components in a learning hierarchy, and components in information processing. Metacognitive skills include strategies for reading comprehension, writing, and mathematics. Motivational skills include motivation based on interest, self-efficacy, and attributions. All three kinds of skills are required for successful problem solving

RICHARD E. MAYER

1998-01-01

374

High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…

Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy

2001-01-01

375

Metaphors in the Teaching of Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a study1 that investigated the teaching of mathematical problem solving from a teacher's perspective. The study focused on three teachers and their way of making sense of teaching problem solving. Data collected through interviews and classroom observations were analyzed in the context of an interpretive qualitative study to understand the meanings of the participants' classroom processes.

Olive Chapman

1997-01-01

376

Using Manipulatives in Mathematical Problem Solving: A Performance Based Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores problem solving in elementary classrooms while focusing on how children use (perform tasks) manipulatives and\\/or tools in problem solving while working on mathematical tasks. Ways for teachers to assess children's learning through performance-based tool (manipulative) use will also be examined and suggested. Current research reveals that teachers need to teach and assess children's mathematical knowledge in ways

Catherine A. Kelly

2006-01-01

377

Mathematical problem solving: an evolving research and practice domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research programs in mathematical problem solving have evolved with the development and availability of computational tools. I review and discuss research pro- grams that have influenced and shaped the development of mathematical education in Mexico and elsewhere. An overarching principle that distinguishes the problem solv- ing approach to develop and learn mathematics is to conceptualize the discipline as a set

Manuel Santos-Trigo

2007-01-01

378

Assessing Creative Problem-Solving with Automated Text Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work aims to improve the assessment of creative problem-solving in science education by employing language technologies and computational-statistical machine learning methods to grade students' natural language responses automatically. To evaluate constructs like creative problem-solving with validity, open-ended questions that elicit…

Wang, Hao-Chuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Tsai-Yen

2008-01-01

379

Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the impact of robotics (computer-powered manipulative) to a battery-powered manipulative (novelty control) and traditionally taught science class on science achievement and problem solving of fourth through sixth graders. Found that the robotics group had higher scores on programming logic-problem solving than did the novelty control…

Wagner, Susan Preston

1999-01-01

380

Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…

Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

2012-01-01

381

Mathematics Circles: A Structured Approach to Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To guide problem-solving activities in the classroom, this article presents a strategy similar to the reading model found in literature circles. The goal of mathematics circles is to provide guidance and structure to problem-solving activities so that students can internalize the strategies needed for them to develop into mathematicians. (Contains…

Kridler, Patricia G.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.

2008-01-01

382

New Testing Methods to Assess Technical Problem-Solving Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests to assess problem-solving ability being provided for the Air Force are described, and some details on the development and validation of these computer-administered diagnostic achievement tests are discussed. Three measurement approaches were employed: (1) sequential problem solving; (2) context-free assessment of fundamental skills and…

Hambleton, Ronald K.; And Others

383

Students THINK: A Framework for Improving Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of research about students' and teachers' use of an interaction framework (THINK) to guide group communication about problem solving. Students who used the THINK framework demonstrated greater gains in problem-solving achievement than students who did not use the framework.

Thomas, Kelli R.

2006-01-01

384

Teaching to Enhance Problem Solving: It's More Than the Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates an instructional method in general chemistry that attempts to bridge the gap between algorithmic problem-solving abilities and conceptual understanding of chemistry students and emphasizes conceptual problem solving in the initial phase of a concept. Concludes that using a conceptual focus for the chemistry courses had many positive…

Phelps, Amy J.

1996-01-01

385

Future Problem Solving and Quality Circles in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two programs are described: the first, the Future Problem Solving Program, is an interdisciplinary approach to studying and solving future problems. The second, Quality Circles, originally a management technique, has been implemented in schools to improve motivation, attendance, learning, and quality of life. (Author/LC)

Torrance, E. Paul

1982-01-01

386

Solving Facility Layout Problems Using Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research applies techniques and toolsfrom Genetic Programming (GP) to the facilitylayout problem. The facility layoutproblem (FLP) is an NP-complete combinatorialoptimization problem that hasapplications to efficient facility design formanufacturing and service industries. Afacility layout is represented as a collectionof rectangular blocks using a slicing treestructure (STS). We use a multiple purposegenetic programming kernel to generateslicing trees that are...

Jaime Garces-perez; Dale A. Schoenefeld; Roger L. Wainwright

1996-01-01

387

Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students  

PubMed Central

Background: The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. Methods: In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01). Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health.

Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

2013-01-01

388

THE ROLE OF PROBLEM SOLVING IN COMPLEX INTRAVERBAL REPERTOIRES  

PubMed Central

We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until problem solving was modeled and prompted. Following the model and prompts, all participants showed immediate significant increases in intraverbal categorization, and all prompts were quickly eliminated. Use of audible self-prompts was evident initially for all participants, but declined over time for 3 of the 4 children. Within-session response patterns remained consistent with use of the problem-solving strategy even when self-prompts were not audible. These findings suggest that teaching and prompting a problem-solving strategy can be an effective way to produce intraverbal categorization responses.

Sautter, Rachael A; LeBlanc, Linda A; Jay, Allison A; Goldsmith, Tina R; Carr, James E

2011-01-01

389

Teaching Problem-Solving as a Habit of Mind  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pat Wagener of Los Medanos College describes an inquiry project with his Developmental Math students: "Through my classroom inquiry into teaching problem-solving, I have shown that students can learn to solve problems in ways that help them develop "habits of mind" with problem solving processes with the following features in the instructional plan: Students get lots of problem solving practice, with an emphasis on long term learning of habits of mind Students are introduced to the idea of multiple representations early, and this approach is reinforced through the curriculum materials in meaningful ways and in all aspects of the course Students have many opportunities to share their problem solving publicly through board work "

2011-01-01

390

Word Problem Structure and Its Effect on the Transfer of Learning to Solve Algebra Word Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem in learning to solve mathematics word problems students have been facing is to transfer the learned problem-solving knowledge from one story context to another story context. Some studies have provided evidence showing that structure facilitates transfer of learning to solve word problems. However, it is still under development for what…

Chang, Kuo-Liang

2010-01-01

391

Social Problem Solving, Conduct Problems, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7-12 years. Social problem solving was evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce…

Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Walsh, Trudi M.; Andrade, Brendan F.; King, Sara; Carrey, Normand J.

2007-01-01

392

An Investigation on Chinese Teachers' Realistic Problem Posing and Problem Solving Ability and Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, which is a part of a research project about realistic word problem solving and problem posing in Chinese elementary schools, a problem solving and a problem posing test were administered to 128 pre-service and in-service elementary school teachers from Tianjin City in China, wherein the teachers were asked to solve 3…

Chen, Limin; Van Dooren, Wim; Chen, Qi; Verschaffel, Lieven

2011-01-01

393

Solving nonlinear boundary value problems using the homotopy analysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homotopy analysis method (HAM) has been employed recently by many authors to solve nonlinear problems, in particular nonlinear initial and boundary values problems. Such nonlinear problems are usually derived from physical problems such as fluid mechanics; heat transfer, boundary layer equations and many others. In the suggested work we will extend the use of the HAM to solve a certain class of boundary value problems. Focus will be on multi-layer boundary problems. Examples of these kind of problems include fluid flow through multi-layer porous media.

Hajji, Mohamed A.; Allan, Fathi M.

2012-09-01

394

Solving Infeasibility Problems in Computerized Test Assembly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses problems of diagnosing and repairing infeasible linear-programming models in computerized test assembly. Demonstrates that it is possible to localize the causes of infeasibility, although this is not always easy. (SLD)

Timminga, Ellen

1998-01-01

395

Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)

DeFilippo, Shirley

1975-01-01

396

Diversity and Evaluation in Creative Problem-Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic constraint relaxation theory predicts crucial roles of the initial diversity and evaluation in creative problem-solving. We reported the experimental evidence supporting these predictions, using an insight problem. The experiments showed that the degrees of making different types of trials and the appropriate evaluation were closely related to individual differences in insight problem-solving, and that evaluation became more appropriate by making the problem-solving goal explicit. The review of the research in related fields showed that these experimental findings were in congruent with the evidence obtained from different types of creative activities.

Suzuki, Hiroaki

397

Background field removal by solving the Laplacian boundary value problem.  

PubMed

The removal of the background magnetic field is a critical step in generating phase images and quantitative susceptibility maps, which have recently been receiving increasing attention. Although it is known that the background field satisfies Laplace's equation, the boundary values of the background field for the region of interest have not been explicitly addressed in the existing methods, and they are not directly available from MRI measurements. In this paper, we assume simple boundary conditions and remove the background field by explicitly solving the boundary value problems of Laplace's or Poisson's equation. The proposed Laplacian boundary value (LBV) method for background field removal retains data near the boundary and is computationally efficient. Tests on a numerical phantom and an experimental phantom showed that LBV was more accurate than two existing methods. PMID:24395595

Zhou, Dong; Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Yi

2014-03-01

398

Problem solving performance and learning strategies of undergraduate students who solved microbiology problems using IMMEX educational software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p < .10) related to ability to solve "Creeping Crud". Peer learning strategy showed a positive significant (p < .10) relationship with scores obtained from solving "Creeping Crud". Students' declared major made a significant (p < .05) difference on the ability to solve "Microquest". A subset (18) volunteered for a think aloud method to determine decision-making process. High achievers used fewer steps, and had more focused approach than low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.

Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota

399

Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer

1993-12-01

400

Effects of the Problem Solving and Subject Matter Approaches on the Problem Solving Ability of Secondary School Agricultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The approach used by teachers is very important to the success of the teaching process. This is why this study seeks to determine which teaching approaches--problem solving and subject-matter, would best improve the problem solving ability of selected secondary agricultural education students in Ikorodu Local Government Area. Ten classes and 150…

Olowa, O. W.

2009-01-01

401

Collaborative tool for solving human factors problems in the manufacturing environment: the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Technique (TRIZ) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study an analysis is made regarding the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Technique (TRIZ), which emerged in Russia in 1946 and has been commonly used in the USA and Europe in the past few last decades. TRIZ is a method that is used successfully to solve the problems arising during the process of product development. Within this study

D. Akay; A. Dem?ray; M. Kurt

2008-01-01

402

THE EFFECTS ON STUDENTS' PROBLEM SOLVING BEHAVIOUR OF LONG-TERM TEACHING THROUGH A PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students from two Year 9 classes at an Australian high school were interviewed as they worked on various mathematical problem solving questions. One class had for three years been taught by a teacher very committed to teaching through a problem solving approach and to demonstrating the everyday usefulness of mathematical ideas. The other class had received traditional instruction, with only

Kaye Stacey

403

A Study of the Problem Solving Abilities of Seventh Grade Students Who Receive Anchored Problem Solving Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…

Griesser, Sara Anne

404

An applicable method for solving the shortest path problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theorem of Hardy, Littlewood, and Polya, first time is used to find the variational form of the well known shortest path problem, and as a consequence of that theorem, one can find the shortest path problem via quadratic programming. In this paper, we use measure theory to solve this problem. The shortest path problem can be written as an

M. Zamirian; M. H. Farahi; A. R. Nazemi

2007-01-01

405

Chimpanzee Problem-Solving: A Test for Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adult chimpanzee was shown videotaped scenes of a human actor struggling with one of eight problems and was then shown two photographs, one of which depicted an action or an object (or both) that could constitute a solution to the problem. On seven of the eight problems, the animal consistently chose the correct photograph. This test of problem-solving comprehension

David Premack; Guy Woodruff

1978-01-01

406

When the solution is part of the problem: problem solving in elderly suicide attempters  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives Depression, loss, and physical illness are associated with suicide in the elderly. However, the nature of individual vulnerability remains poorly understood. Poor problem solving has been suggested as a risk factor for suicide in younger adults. Unresolved problems may create an accumulation of stressors. Thus, those with perceived deficits in problem-solving ability may be predisposed to suicidal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether elderly suicide attempters perceived their problem solving as deficient. Methods Sixty-four individuals aged 60 and older participated in the study including depressed suicide attempters, depressed non-attempters, and non-depressed controls. The social problem solving inventory-revised: short-version was used to measure participants' perceived social problem solving, assessing both adaptive problem-solving dimensions (positive problem orientation and rational problem solving) and dysfunctional dimensions (negative problem orientation, impulsivity/carelessness, and avoidance). Results Depressed elderly who had attempted suicide perceived their overall problem solving as deficient, compared to non-suicidal depressed and non-depressed elderly. Suicide attempters perceived their problems more negatively and approached them in a more impulsive manner. On rational problem solving and avoidant style sub-scales, suicide attempters did not differ from non-suicidal depressed. However, both depressed groups reported lower rational problem solving and higher avoidance compared to non-depressed controls. Conclusions A perception of life problems as threatening and unsolvable and an impulsive approach to problem solving appear to predispose vulnerable elderly to suicide attempts.

Gibbs, Lawrence M.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Morse, Jennifer; Siegle, Greg J.; Houck, Patricia R.; Szanto, Katalin

2011-01-01

407

Solving Multiconstraint Assignment Problems Using Learning Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are ldquosimilarrdquo to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate

Geir Horn; B. John Oommen

2010-01-01

408

On Solving the Coronal Heating Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of what heats the solar corona remains one of the most important problems in astrophysics. Finding a definitive solution involves a number of challenging steps, beginning with an identification of the energy source and ending with a prediction of observable quantities that can be compared directly with actual observations. Critical intermediate steps include realistic modeling of both the

James A. Klimchuk

2006-01-01

409

Metacognitive Macroevaluations in Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the role of evaluation in mathematics in 749 elementary school children. The macroevaluative skills and calibration scores of high versus low mathematical problem solvers were contrasted as measures of metacognition. No relevant calibration differences were found for gender. In addition, the performances of children with…

Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert

2006-01-01

410

Solving Discipline Problems: Strategies for Classroom Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides classroom teachers with a variety of discipline models, techniques, methods, and constructs designed to enable them to move beyond a singular approach in handling classroom behavior problems. The book first discusses the Teacher Behavior Continuum (TBC) which shows the teacher the context of his or her own general behavior with…

Wolfgang, Charles H.; Glickman, Carl D.

411

Acid rain: solving a transborder problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of air pollution drifting across the border into Canada and falling as acid rain is discussed. This acid rain is having a great variety of negative impacts on lakes, streams, groundwater, soil, building surfaces, and on forests and certain crops. Between seven and eight million tons of SOâ falling on Canada every year, along with four million tons

1981-01-01

412

Evolutionary strategies for solving optimization problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will give a survey of applications of thermodynamically and biologically oriented evolutionary strategies for optimization problems. Primarily, we investigate the solution of discrete optimization problems, most of combinatorial type, using a certain class of coupled differential equations. The problem is to find the minimum on a large set of real numbers (the potential) Ui, defined on the integer set i = 1 ...s, where s is an extremely large nu mber. The stationary states of the system correspond to relative optima on the discrete set. First, several elementary evolutionary strategies are described by simple deterministic equations, leading to a high-dimensional system of coupled differential equations. The known equations for thermodynamic search processes and for simple models of biological evolution are unified by defining a two-parameter family of equations which embed both cases. The unified equations model mixed Boltzmann/Darwin- strategies including basic elements of thermodynamical and biological evolution as well. In a next step a master equation model in the occupation number space is defined. We investigate the transition probabilities and the convergence properties using tools from the theory of stochastic processes. Several examples are analyzed. In particular we study the optimization of theoretical model sequences with simple valuation rules. In order to demonstrate that the strategies developed here may also be used to investigate realistic problems we present an example application to RNA folding (search for a minimum free energy configuration).

Ebeling, Werner; Reimann, Axel; Molgedey, Lutz

413

Numerical Exploration of Chermnykh's Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the equilibrium points and the zero-velocity curves of Chermnykh’s problem when the angular velocity ? varies continuously and the value of the mass parameter is fixed. The planar symmetric simple-periodic orbits are determined numerically and they are presented for three values of the parameter ?. The stability of the periodic orbits of all the families is computed. Particularly, we explore the network of the families when the angular velocity has the critical value ? = 2?2 at which the triangular equilibria disappear by coalescing with the collinear equilibrium point L1. The analytic determination of the initial conditions of the family which emanate from the Lagrangian libration point L1 in this case, is given. Non-periodic orbits, as points on a surface of section, providing an outlook of the stability regions, chaotic and escape motions as well as multiple-periodic orbits, are also computed. Non-linear stability zones of the triangular Lagrangian points are computed numerically for the Earth Moon and Sun Jupiter mass distribution when the angular velocity varies.

Papadakis, K. E.

2005-09-01

414

On Solving the Coronal Heating Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of what heats the solar corona remains one of the most important problems in astrophysics. Finding a definitive\\u000a solution involves a number of challenging steps, beginning with an identification of the energy source and ending with a prediction\\u000a of observable quantities that can be compared directly with actual observations. Critical intermediate steps include realistic\\u000a modeling of both the

James A. Klimchuk

2006-01-01

415

Relationship of Scientific Reasoning to Solving Different Physics Problem Types  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In recent years researchers have compared scientific reasoning abilities of students in introductory physics courses with gains in conceptual learning. This research suggests students with more formal reasoning patterns are more proficient learners. However, little has been done to investigate how scientific reasoning abilities relate to ability to solve problems based on the application of simple algorithms and those which depend on conceptual understanding. In this pilot study we compare student scientific reasoning abilities, as measured by Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, to student ability to correctly solve both problem types on a final examination. Results indicate that students with higher reasoning abilities perform equally well on both problem types while students of average and lower reasoning abilities struggle in solving problems that depend on conceptual understanding. This suggests that students with average and lower reasoning abilities may depend more readily on memorization of simple procedures to solve problems.

Fabby, Carol; Koenig, Kathleen M.

2014-01-31

416

Case Study: Students' Use of Multiple Representations in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Being able to represent physics problems and concepts in multiple ways for qualitative reasoning and problem solving is a scientific ability we want our students to develop. These representations can include but are not limited to words, diagrams, equations, graphs, and sketches. Physics education literature indicates that using multiple representations is beneficial for student understanding of physics ideas and for problem solving. To find out why and how students use different representations for problem solving, we conducted a case study of six students during the second semester of a two-semester introductory physics course. These students varied both in their use of representations and in their physics background. This case study helps us understand how students' use or lack of use of representations relates to their ability to solve problems.

Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, Alan; Etkina, Eugenia

2009-07-13

417

The meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) approach for solving problems in elasto-statics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) approach is an effective method for solving boundary value problems, using a local\\u000a symmetric weak form and shape functions from the moving least squares approximation. In the present paper, the MLPG method\\u000a for solving problems in elasto-statics is developed and numerically implemented. The present method is a truly meshless method,\\u000a as it does not need

S. N. Atluri; T.-L. Zhu

2000-01-01

418

Toward the problem-centered classroom: trends in mathematical problem solving in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I summarize the influence of mathematical problem solving on mathematics education in Japan. During the 1980-1990s, many studies had been conducted under the title of problem solving, and, therefore, even until now, the curriculum, textbook, evaluation and teaching have been changing. Considering these, it is pos- sible to identify several influences. They include that mathematical problem solving

Keiko Hino

2007-01-01

419

ENLIVENING PROBLEMS WITH HEURISTICS THROUGH LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND PROBLEM SOLVING (LAPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving receives much emphasis in the mathematics curriculum. The use of heuristics as an approach to problem solving is equally significant. From the time Polya (1946) introduced heuristics to the present, there has been a significant change in the way teaching mathematics has been delivered. LAPS, which stands for Learning Activities and Problem Solving is an intervention strategy using

Jerome A. Chavez

2007-01-01

420

Time to completion reveals problem-solving transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two equally skilled groups of students taking introductory mechanics solve related physics problem pairs in reverse order with respect to each other, using the web-based Socratic tutor, MasteringPhysics. In tutorial problems containing help in the form of requestable hints, descriptive text, and feedback, twice as many students were able to complete problems correctly in real-time compared to problems that did not provide any help (end-of-chapter problems). The prepared group in a given related pair was able to solve it in ~15% less time on average compared to the unprepared group. Furthermore, the prepared group requests ~7% fewer hints on average than the unprepared group. We conclude that shorter completion times and problem-solving transfer are facilitated through tutorial problems.

Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

2009-11-30

421

Time to completion reveals problem-solving transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two equally skilled groups of students taking introductory mechanics solve related physics problem pairs in reverse order with respect to each other, using the web-based Socratic tutor, MasteringPhysics. In tutorial problems containing help in the form of requestable hints, descriptive text, and feedback, twice as many students were able to complete problems correctly in real-time compared to problems that did not provide any help (end-of-chapter problems). The prepared group in a given related pair was able to solve it in ~15% less time on average compared to the unprepared group. Furthermore, the prepared group requests ~7% fewer hints on average than the unprepared group. We conclude that shorter completion times and problem-solving transfer are facilitated through tutorial problems.

Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

2005-09-01

422

Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties with multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first semester calculus-based physics course. Each student was interviewed four times during the semester, each time after they had completed an exam in class. During these interviews students were first asked to solve a problem they had seen on the exam, followed by problems that differed in context and type of representation from the exam problem. Students were provided verbal scaffolding to solve the new problems. We discuss the common difficulties that students encountered when attempting to transfer their problem solving skills across problems in different representations.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2009-11-01

423

Distributing working memory resources during problem solving.  

PubMed

This study examines how problem solvers distribute working memory demands over internal and external resources. Participants recorded notes while performing an arithmetic task. They recorded a majority of intermediate results and labeled many of those results (e.g., "C = 10"). When more effort was required to take notes, participants recorded fewer results. Participants with a consistent goal structure recorded fewer results and with practice labeled fewer recorded results than those with varied goal structures. When notes were displayed in a consistent spatial arrangement participants labeled fewer recorded results than when notes appeared in varied locations. These findings indicate that individuals use explicit and implicit strategies for indexing intermediate results. The data support the view that individuals flexibly distribute working memory over internal and external resources in response to situational cost-benefit considerations. PMID:11394683

Cary, M; Carlson, R A

2001-05-01

424

Solving multiple-stage cementing problems  

SciTech Connect

A problem-free stage cementing job starts with a clean well bore. Attention should be given to such areas as proper drilling techniques, wiper trips, and mud conditioning. In addition, before running the casing, casing threads should be visually inspected for thread damage caused by careless handling or removal of thread protectors. Any foreign debris or material should be removed before placing the casing in the casing string. A thorough inspection of the stage tool, float equipment, and operating plugs is necessary to assure that the opening bomb and closing plug will seat properly and all parts will operate as designed. Proper application of thread compound and thread lock should be strictly enforced.

Bailey, M.E.

1984-07-01

425

Earth rotation: Solved and unsolved problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A workshop dedicated to earth rotation problems was held in Bonas, France, June 11-13, 1985. It was organized by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Scientific Affairs Division and the Council of Europe and was attended by 39 participants from eight different countries.In the last 10 years, extremely precise measurements of the earth's rotation parameters and new global geophysical data have become available, allowing major advances to be made in the understanding of the various irregularities affecting the earth's rotation. The aim of this workshop was to bring together scientists who have made important contributions in this field during the last decade, both at the observational and geophysical interpretation levels. The first session was dedicated to the definition, implementation, and maintenance of the terrestrial and celestial reference systems.

Cazenave, A.; Paquet, P.

426

How chimpanzees solve collective action problems  

PubMed Central

We presented small groups of chimpanzees with two collective action situations, in which action was necessary for reward but there was a disincentive for individuals to act owing to the possibility of free-riding on the efforts of others. We found that in simpler scenarios (experiment 1) in which group size was small, there was a positive relationship between rank and action with more dominant individuals volunteering to act more often, particularly when the reward was less dispersed. Social tolerance also seemed to mediate action whereby higher tolerance levels within a group resulted in individuals of lower ranks sometimes acting and appropriating more of the reward. In more complex scenarios, when group size was larger and cooperation was necessary (experiment 2), overcoming the problem was more challenging. There was highly significant variability in the action rates of different individuals as well as between dyads, suggesting success was more greatly influenced by the individual personalities and personal relationships present in the group.

Schneider, Anna-Claire; Melis, Alicia P.; Tomasello, Michael

2012-01-01

427

Embedding Game-Based Problem-Solving Phase into Problem-Posing System for Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem-posing system is developed with four phases including posing problem, planning, solving problem, and looking back, in which the "solving problem" phase is implemented by game-scenarios. The system supports elementary students in the process of problem-posing, allowing them to fully engage in mathematical activities. In total, 92 fifth…

Chang, Kuo-En; Wu, Lin-Jung; Weng, Sheng-En; Sung, Yao-Ting

2012-01-01

428

Procedural and Conceptual Changes in Young Children's Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analysed the different types of arithmetic knowledge that young children utilise when solving a multiple-step addition task. The focus of the research was on the procedural and conceptual changes that occur as children develop their overall problem solving approach. Combining qualitative case study with a micro-genetic approach,…

Voutsina, Chronoula

2012-01-01

429

Principles of asking effective questions during student problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using effective teaching practices is a high priority for educators. One important pedagogical skill for computer science instructors is asking effective questions. This paper presents a set of instructional principles for effective question asking during guided problem solving. We illustrate these principles with results from classifying the questions that untrained human tutors asked while working with students solving an introductory

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer; William Lahti; Robert Phillips; Michael D. Wallis; Mladen A. Vouk; James C. Lester

2010-01-01

430

Problem-Solving without Awareness: An ERP Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When subjects are given the balls-and-boxes problem-solving task (Kotovsky & Simon, 1990), they move rapidly towards the goal after an extended exploratory phase, despite having no awareness of how to solve the task. We investigated possible non-conscious learning mechanisms by giving subjects three runs of the task while recording ERPs. Subjects…

Paynter, Christopher A.; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Reder, Lynne M.

2010-01-01

431

Creativity in Problem Solving: Uncovering the Origin of New Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovation and enterprise depend for their success on the development of new ideas. But from where do new ideas come? How do they arise? Finding solutions to such questions is at the heart of creativity research and the solving of novel problems. Reflection, not only in cognitive processes but also in the non-cognitive ones used in solving novel…

Aldous, Carol R.

2005-01-01

432

Mathematical Sophistication and Differentiated Emotions during Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

George Polya, author of Mathematical Discovery and the enduring best seller How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method, claims that more sophisticated people experience more differentiated emotion during mathematical problem solving, a claim that has been untested for nearly fifty years. Using instruments that measure ongoing evaluations and emotion in real time, and traits that reflect mathematical

Bradford D. Allen; James Carifio

2007-01-01

433

Probabilistic Approach for Solving Poisson Equations in Computer Vision Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we describe the probabilistic approach to solve Poisson equations and how this method may be used to solve computer vision problems. We also give a complexity analysis of this method and compare our method with the Boundary Element Method (...

J. Tian J. Tai X. Zhang

1994-01-01

434

The Effects of Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving on High School Students' Chemistry Problem-Solving Performance and Verbal Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effects of a thinking aloud pair problem solving (TAPPS) approach on students' chemistry problem-solving performance and verbal interactions. A total of 85 eleventh grade students from three classes in a Korean high school were randomly assigned to one of three groups; either individually using a problem-solving strategy, using a problem-solving strategy with TAPPS, or the control group. After instruction, students' problem-solving performance was examined. The results showed that students in both the individual and TAPPS groups performed better than those in the control group on recalling the related law and mathematical execution, while students in the TAPPS group performed better than those in the other groups on conceptual knowledge. To investigate the verbal behaviors using TAPPS, verbal behaviors of solvers and listeners were classified into 8 categories. Listeners' verbal behavior of "agreeing" and "pointing out", and solvers' verbal behavior of "modifying" were positively related with listeners' problem-solving performance. There was, however, a negative correlation between listeners' use of "point out" and solvers' problem-solving performance. The educational implications of this study are discussed.

Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee

2005-10-01

435

Overcoming Obstacles To Understanding and Solving Word Problems in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of problem re-wording, language format, students' grade level, and academic achievement on understanding and solving word problems among Filipino-English bilingual students. Reveals that better understanding and solution performance occurred when problems were (1) re-worded, (2) in the students' first language, and (3) for…

Bernardo, Allan B. I.

1999-01-01

436

Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…

Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.

2005-01-01

437

Arithmetic Word Problem Solving: A Situation Strategy First Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before instruction, children solve many arithmetic word problems with informal strategies based on the situation described in the problem. A Situation Strategy First framework is introduced that posits that initial representation of the problem activates a situation-based strategy even after instruction: only when it is not efficient for providing…

Brissiaud, Remi; Sander, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

438

Heuristic Methods for Solving Job-Shop Scheduling Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solving scheduling problems with Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSP's) techniques implies a wide space search with a large number of variables, each one of them with a wide interpretation domain. This paper discusses the application of CSP heuristic techniques (based on the concept of slack of activities) for variable and value ordering on a special type of job-shop scheduling problems in

Antonio Garrido Tejero; Miguel A. Salido; Federico Barber; Montserrat Abril López

2000-01-01

439

Imitation: is cognitive neuroscience solving the correspondence problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imitation poses a unique problem: how does the imi- tator know what pattern of motor activation will make their action look like that of the model? Specialist theories suggest that this correspondence problem has a unique solution; there are functional and neurological mechanisms dedicated to controlling imitation. General- ist theories propose that the problem is solved by general mechanisms of

Marcel Brass; Cecilia Heyes

2005-01-01

440

Solving Continuous-Time Optimal-Control Problems with a Spreadsheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how optimal control problems can be solved with a spreadsheet, such as Microsoft Excel. Suggests the method can be used by students, teachers, and researchers as a tool to find numerical solutions for optimal control problems. Provides several examples that range from simple to advanced. (JEH)

Naevdal, Eric

2003-01-01

441

Use of the finite element method in solving transient flow problems in aquifer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite element method is a new numerical approach for solving transient flow problems that is particularly well adapted to digital computers. In this method the partial differ­ ential equation together with the appropriate initial and boundary conditions are replaced by a corresponding variational problem. The continuum is replaced by a finite number of subrogions, and the variational principle is

P. A. Witherspoon; I. Javandel; S. P. Neuman

442

Place Value and Rational Number Representations: Problem Solving in the Unfamiliar Domain of Non-decimals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the problem-solving strategies and systematic errors of (n=82) preservice elementary school teachers related to place value concepts and decimal representations of rational numbers. Problems were posed in the unfamiliar domain of numeration systems with bases other than base ten. (Contains 13 references.) (MKR)

Zazkis, Rina; Khoury, Helen A.

1993-01-01

443

An Analysis of Kindergarten and First Grade Children's Addition and Subtraction Problem Solving Modeling and Accuracy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken of the effects of formal education and conservation of numerousness on addition and subtraction problem types. Thirty-six kindergarten and 36 first-grade subjects randomly selected from one area of a school district were administered measures of conservation, problem-solving success, and modeling ability. Following factor…

Shores, Jay H.; Underhill, Robert G.

444

Multiple Representation Skills and Creativity Effects on Mathematical Problem Solving using a Multimedia Whiteboard System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to explore student multiple representation skills and creativity in solving mathematical problems when supported by a multimedia whiteboard system. The subjects were 6th grade primary school students that were tested and selected as excellent students in mathematics. Twenty-one numerical and geometry problems were given to the students in the experiment. The learning activities including

Wu-yuin Hwang; Nian-shing Chen; Jian-jie Dung; Yi-lun Yang

2007-01-01

445

Team Problem Solving: Effects of Communication and Function Overlap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical framework is developed to assess factors that affect crew productivity in problem solving tasks. A taxonomic analysis is expanded to consider interrelations between categories of factors, namely characteristics of resources, of the task, and...

E. O. Eimer

1987-01-01

446

Observation can be as effective as action in problem solving.  

PubMed

This study discusses findings that replicate and extend the original work of Burns and Vollmeyer (2002), which showed that performance in problem-solving tasks was more accurate when people were engaged in a non-specific goal than in a specific goal. The main innovation here was to examine the goal specificity effect under both observation-based and conventional action-based learning conditions. The findings show that goal specificity affects the accuracy of problem solving in the same way when the learning stage of the task is observation-based as when it is action-based. In addition, the findings show that, when instructions do not promote goal specificity, observation-based problem solving is as effective as action-based problem solving. PMID:21635335

Osman, Magda

2008-01-01

447

Teaching Clinical Problem Solving in a Preclinical Operative Dentistry Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method developed at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine for teaching modification of cavity design to large numbers of preclinical students in operative dentistry is reported. It standardizes the learning process for this complex problem-solving skill. (MLW)

Silvestri, Anthony R., Jr.; Cohen, Steven N.

1981-01-01

448

Problem Solving and Total Quality Goals in University Technology Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how quality concepts such as customer satisfaction, continuous improvement, and defining the customer apply to education. Describes how creative problem solving can overcome such conceptual blocks as constancy, commitment to the past, compression of ideas, and complacency. (SK)

Smith, Taggart

1993-01-01

449

From Students' Problem-Solving Strategies to Connections in Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategies that children used to solve a fraction problem are presented, and an insight into how students think about divisions and fractions is described. Teachers can use these strategies to help students establish connections related to fractions.

Flores, Alfinio; Klein, Erika

2005-01-01

450

Retention of Problem-Solving Performance in School Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports data on the retention of problem-solving performance after one month, four months, and six months, in three separate studies conducted in school settings involving a variety of grades and subjects. (Author/LMO)

Ross, John A.; Maynes, Florence J.

1985-01-01

451

A General Purpose Algorithm for Developing Problem Solving Simulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an algorithm for developing problem solving simulations using microcomputers, and describes both the components of the simulation algorithm and the user interface. Examples of simulation and programming methods are presented. (MBR)

Marion, Rodger; Niebuhr, Bruce R.

1986-01-01

452

The complex problem-solving competence of team coaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe complexity and dynamics of team sports places high information-processing demands on coaches. They can meet these demands by applying either domain-specific or domain-unspecific problem-solving strategies.

Norbert Hagemann; Bernd Strauss; Dirk Büsch

2008-01-01

453

It's the Thought that Counts: Reflecting on Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses how metacognitive skills contribute to the teaching and learning of problem solving in mathematics. It describes the development and use of a metacognitive journal activity in the classroom. (Contains 2 figures.)

Roberts, Sally; Tayeh, Carla

2007-01-01

454

Attitudes Toward Problem Solving as Predictors of Student Success  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The survey of attitudes towards, and views of, problem solving that is presented here is still under development. It is part of a larger project to develop an assessment of student problem solving ability in introductory physics. The survey is intended for use in a manner similar to the Maryland Physics Expectation Survey (MPEX). That is, it is given to students pre- and post-instruction. Student responses are evaluated in comparison to the answers given by "experts". Post-instruction movement of student responses toward those given by the "experts" is considered to be improvement. This paper presents the survey questions, expert responses and discusses responses of several hundred students at three different institutions. Correlations between student survey results and grades, conceptual survey scores and instructor evaluation of student problem solving ability are presented. The goal is to begin to probe whether student attitudes toward problem solving are correlated to success on other metrics.

Cummings, Karen; Lockwood, Stephanie; Marx, Jeffrey

2005-10-26

455

Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We examine the possibility of using the standard Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems arising from electronic structure calculation. We show that the Jacobian matrix associated with this nonlinear system has a special struc...

C. Yang J. Meza W. Gao

2009-01-01

456

Analyzing, solving offshore seawater injection problems  

SciTech Connect

Changes in seawater treatment, necessary cleaning of injection lines, and modifying well completion practices have reduced injection well plugging on pressure maintenance projects operated by Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co., (Adma-Opco) in Zakum and Umm Shaif fields, offshore Abu Dhabi, in the Arabian Gulf. Plugging was caused primarily by iron sulfide and corrosion products that were displaced down hole after being formed in the water distribution system. These materials, in turn, resulted from O/sub 2/ inadvertently entering the injection system where it combined with corrosive H/sub 2/S generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria. The problem was further compounded by debris peeling from the interior of well tubulars, a high solids content of brine used to complete injectors, and slime formation in injection pipe lines. Acidizing wells proved a quick method for partially restoring injectivity, but a continuing concerted effort is being made to achieve more permanent results by eliminating the O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S, which are at the root of the difficulty.

Al-Rubale, J.S.; Muhsin, A.A.; Shaker, H.A.; Washash, I.

1988-01-01

457

Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was developed to further evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest that introductory students and even graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to physics faculty members. Furthermore, responses to individual survey questions suggest that expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.

Mason, Andrew J.

458

Photography helps solve distribution lightning problems  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the research project, which is being performed for NMPC by Power Technologies, Inc., involving the use of lightning-activated camera systems to photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photographs can allow the precise location of the lightning flash and power system flashovers to be observed, they are extremely valuable to engineers who are trying to make better sense of the lightning damage problem. When electrical measurements, such as fault and surge recordings, are combined with photographic data, an overall understanding of each lightning flash and its impact on the system is attained. This can hopefully lead to improved lightning protection practices and systems. The study is being performed on a 13.2 kV distribution system that is located on an exposed plateau near Little Falls, NY (about 80 miles northwest of Albany, NY). Four automated camera systems and a substation fault recorder are utilized. All camera locations afford excellent views of lines and equipment likely to be struck by lightning. The fault recorder is used to measure the fault currents and voltage sags which occur during line flashovers. Also, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) is used to confirm storm activity and camera triggering efficiency. After each storm, all data is analyzed to determine how lightning affected the power system. Areas being investigated include: What are the relative portions of lightning flashovers caused by induced surges (nearby strikes) and direct lightning hits to the line How often do shielding failures occur What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices are problematic

Barker, P.; Burns, C.W.

1993-06-01

459

Perfectionism, social problem-solving ability, and psychological distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examined the relation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-appraised problem-solving behaviors and attitudes. Specifically, in two separate studies, we tested the hypothesis that socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., the perception that others demand perfection from the self) is associated with poorer social problem-solving ability. In addition, measures of psychological adjustment were included in Study 2 so that we

Gordon L. Flett; Paul L. Hewitt; Kirk R. Blankstein; Melanie Solnik; Michelle Van Brunschot

1996-01-01

460

Use of Spreadsheets in Solving Heat Conduction Problems in Fins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Excel is an effective and inexpensive tool available on all computers equipped with Microsoft Office. This software has the necessary functions for solving a large class of engineering problems, including those related to heat transfer. This paper provides several examples to demonstrate the application of Excel in solving problems involving one-dimensional heat conduction in various fin configurations. It provides formulas for the temperature distribution and heat transfer for several different fin profiles.

Karimi, Amir

2011-04-04

461

Instructing Low?Achievers in Mathematical Word Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the effects of an intervention designed to develop the mathematical word problem solving of low?achievers. The eight students participating in the intervention were selected from 429 10?year?olds on the basis of their difficulties in word problem solving. In the intervention, we combined intensive, systematic, and explicit teacher scaffolding in the cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational activities involved in skillful

Anu Kajamies; Marja Vauras; Riitta Kinnunen

2010-01-01

462

Teachers’ pedagogies and their impact on students’ mathematical problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the classroom practices of three teachers teaching mathematics at the 5th grade level in three Singapore schools. Using a video-coding scheme, a series of lessons was coded into relevant phases comprising problem solving, teaching concepts\\/skills, going over assigned work, and student activities. It explores the teachers’ pedagogical experimentation in their teaching of mathematical problem solving after an

Kai Fai Ho; John G. Hedberg

2005-01-01

463

Social problem solving and autobiographical memory in posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and social problem solving in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Civilian trauma survivors with and without PTSD (N=41) provided autobiographical memories of events in response to positive and negative cue words. Participants also completed the means–end problem-solving (MEPS) procedure. PTSD participants reported more overgeneral memories, regardless of cue valence, than non-PTSD participants.

Kylie Sutherland; Richard A. Bryant

2008-01-01

464

Reducing computation time in DFP (Davidon, Fletcher & Powell) update method for solving unconstrained optimization problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solving the unconstrained optimization problems is not easy and DFP update method is one of the methods that we can work with to solve the problems. In unconstrained optimization, the time computing needed by the method's algorithm to solve the problems is very vital and because of that, we proposed a hybrid search direction for DFP update method in order to reduce the computation time needed for solving unconstrained optimization problems. Some convergence analysis and numerical results of the hybrid search direction were analyzed and the results showed that the proposed hybrid search direction strictly reduce the computation time needed by DFP update method and at the same time increase the method's efficiency which is sometimes fail for some complicated unconstrained optimization problems.

Sofi, A. Z. M.; Mamat, M.; Ibrahim, M. A. H.

2013-04-01

465

Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.  

PubMed

High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751

Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M

2013-01-01

466

Representation use and strategy choice in physics problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics students’ problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that solutions can be triggered by particular details of the representation. Previous studies are complemented with a fine grained analysis of solution strategies. We find that students use different problem-solving strategies, depending on the representational format in which the problem is stated.

De Cock, Mieke

2012-12-01

467

Developing Metacognitive and Problem-Solving Skills through Problem Manipulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a collaborative effort between the our university's department of chemistry and the academic resource center, we designed a model for general chemistry recitation based on a problem manipulation method in which students actively assess the skills and knowledge used to answer a chemical problem and then manipulate the problem to create a new…

Parker Siburt, Claire J.; Bissell, Ahrash N.; Macphail, Richard A.

2011-01-01

468

Circumspect descent prevails in solving random constraint satisfaction problems  

PubMed Central

We study the performance of stochastic local search algorithms for random instances of the K-satisfiability (K-SAT) problem. We present a stochastic local search algorithm, ChainSAT, which moves in the energy landscape of a problem instance by never going upwards in energy. ChainSAT is a focused algorithm in the sense that it focuses on variables occurring in unsatisfied clauses. We show by extensive numerical investigations that ChainSAT and other focused algorithms solve large K-SAT instances almost surely in linear time, up to high clause-to-variable ratios ?; for example, for K = 4 we observe linear-time performance well beyond the recently postulated clustering and condensation transitions in the solution space. The performance of ChainSAT is a surprise given that by design the algorithm gets trapped into the first local energy minimum it encounters, yet no such minima are encountered. We also study the geometry of the solution space as accessed by stochastic local search algorithms.

Alava, Mikko; Ardelius, John; Aurell, Erik; Kaski, Petteri; Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Orponen, Pekka; Seitz, Sakari

2008-01-01

469

B-spline method for solving linear system of second-order boundary value problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The B-spline method is used for the numerical solution of a linear system of second-order boundary value problems. Two examples are considered for the numerical illustration and the method is also compared with the method proposed by J. Lu [J. Lu, Variational iteration method for solving a nonlinear system of second-order boundary value problems, Comput. Math. Appl. 54 (2007) 1133–1138].

Nazan Caglar; Hikmet Caglar

2009-01-01

470

Work in progress — Improving problem-solving skills via dynamically worked-out problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our continued work in creating a set of narrated dynamically worked-out problems for the Electric Circuits students using a Tablet PC. The examples are intended to improve problem-solving skills by enhancing understanding of the key concepts and the way that they should be utilized in solving circuits' problems. A detailed explanation of how these worked out problems

Asad Azemi; Roxanne Toto; Thomas Litzinger

2010-01-01

471

Characteristics of Problem Representation Indicative of Understanding in Mathematics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the problem representations formed by college students while solving mathematics problems. Problem representation characteristics indicative of understanding were identified by analyzing audio-tapes and written work of sixteen subjects, ages 16 to 24, who solved mathematics problems using the think-aloud technique. These…

Yackel, Erna; Wheatley, Grayson H.

472

Effect of Misconception on Transfer in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We examine the effect of misconceptions about friction on students' ability to solve problems and transfer from one context to another. We analyze written responses to paired isomorphic problems given to introductory physics students and discussions with a subset of students. Misconceptions associated with friction in problems were sometimes so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students fully discern their underlying similarities.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-06-24

473

A numerical method for solving partial differential algebraic equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear systems of partial differential equations with constant coefficient matrices are considered. The matrices multiplying the derivatives of the sought vector function are assumed to be singular. The structure of solutions to such systems is examined. The numerical solution of initialboundary value problems for such equations by applying implicit difference schemes is discussed.

Diep, Nguyen Khac; Chistyakov, V. F.

2013-06-01

474

Analogical Problem Construction and Transfer in Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of three experiments in which high school students constructed their own analogous problems. Focuses on utilizing instructional strategies to encourage analogous transfer using word problems in basic probability. Discusses the skills the students who used the analogical strategy could perform. Includes references. (CMK)

Bernardo, Allan B. I.

2001-01-01

475

Problem Oriented Software Engineering: Solving the Package Router Control Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem orientation is gaining interest as a way of approaching the development of software intensive systems, and yet, a significant example that explores its use is missing from the literature. In this paper, we present the basic elements of Problem Oriented Software Engineering (POSE), which aims at bringing both nonformal and formal aspects of software development together in a single

Jon G. Hall; Lucia Rapanotti; Michael A. Jackson

2008-01-01

476

Exploring the Role of Conceptual Scaffolding in Solving Synthesis Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC) problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring…

Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

2011-01-01

477

A Cognitive Model for Problem Solving in Computer Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to industry representatives, computer science education needs to emphasize the processes involved in solving computing problems rather than their solutions. Most of the current assessment tools used by universities and computer science departments analyze student answers to problems rather than investigating the processes involved in…

Parham, Jennifer R.

2009-01-01

478

Solving four-colouring map problem using genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors outline an approach to four-coloring of maps using a genetic algorithm. The objective of this map coloring problem is to shade each region of the map with a color such that no adjacent regions are of the same color. Simulation results show that the 48-region USA map problem can be solved on a PC platform within 400 generations

B. H. Gwee; M. H. Lim; J. S. Ho

1993-01-01

479

Case Study: Students' Use of Multiple Representations in Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being able to represent physics problems and concepts in multiple ways for qualitative reasoning and problem solving is a scientific ability we want our students to develop. These representations can include but are not limited to words, diagrams, equations, graphs, and sketches. Physics education literature indicates that using multiple representations is beneficial for student understanding of physics ideas and for

David Rosengrant; Alan van Heuvelen; Eugenia Etkina

2006-01-01

480

Solving the Small Sample Size Problem of LDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small sample size problem is often encountered in pattern recognition. It results in the singularity of the within-class scatter matrix Sw in Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Different methods have been proposed to solve this problem in face recognition literature. Some methods reduce the dimension of the original sample space and hence unavoidably remove the null space of Sw, which

Rui Huang; Qingshan Liu; Hanqing Lu; Songde Ma

2002-01-01

481

Using Clickers to Facilitate Development of Problem-Solving Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom response systems, or clickers, have become pedagogical staples of the undergraduate science curriculum at many universities. In this study, the effectiveness of clickers in promoting problem-solving skills in a genetics class was investigated. Students were presented with problems requiring application of concepts covered in lecture and…

Levesque, Aime A.

2011-01-01

482

A Model of Routine and Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses the iterative nature of problem solving; operant analysis of the response repertoire available in a problem situation; the likelihood of reaching a solution versus escaping from the situation; and the relationship between exiting with solution and exiting without solution, modeled on catastrophe theory. (JDD)

Boles, Shawn

1990-01-01

483

Physics Problem Solving Using Multiple Views. TR-173.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary task in solving a physics problem is to select ways of viewing the problem in terms of physical systems whose behavior is described by physical laws. The physical systems are, in general, only approximate models of the real-world systems. As models of real-world systems are made more accurate, the equations involved quickly become…

Novak, Gordon S., Jr.; Araya, Agustin A.

484

Group problem solving under two types of executive structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speed of problem solving by 4-man teams of airmen was measured for 2 conditions of group organization: (a) with responsibility centered in 1 team member, and (b) with responsibility shared equally by all members. Problems in algebraic form required Ss to acquire environmental state information and to adjust the settings of certain response switches. The 2 conditions of group structure

Elizabeth H. Nicol; Francis M. Farrell

1963-01-01

485

Applications of Fitzpatrick functions for solving optimization problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents applications of Fitzparick functions to optimization problems. The main purpose of the present work is to introduce applications of the Fitzpatrick functions, involving their specific properties as the maximal monotonicity, or the proper, convex and lower semi-continuity, for solving optimization problems.

Nashed, Z.; Raykov, I.

2012-10-01

486

Constructive Critical Thinking. Ten Steps to Effective Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was written for junior and senior high school students to help them learn to cope more effectively with their problems. It is intended as a quide for helping adolescents explore and solve problems through constructive critical thinking. Ten steps in the process of constructive critical thinking are presented with personal and social…

Valett, Robert E.

487

Teaching Creativity and Inventive Problem Solving in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence- based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used.

Robert L. DeHaan

2009-01-01

488

Quantitative Literacy in the Media: An Arena for Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "quantitative literacy" is used in this article to reinforce its importance in catering for reform-based curricula in Australia. The medium chosen for the problems discussed in this paper is the newspaper. The purpose of this article is to tie together traditional views of the importance of problem solving with the current aims of…

Watson, Jane M.

2004-01-01

489

An algorithm of global optimization for solving layout problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-dimensional layout problem is known to be NP-complete, and the current research work is basically in the heuristic way. In this paper, we mainly discuss the methods for solving layout problem about the artificial satellite module by virtue of graph theory and group theory. Also, an algorithm of global optimization is presented first time. The method given here can

Enmin Feng; Xilu Wang; Xiumei Wang; Hongfei Teng

1999-01-01

490

Two Aspects of Meaningful Problem Solving in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for solving genetics problems when problem statements include information on which alleles are dominant/recessive and on what forms of a trait are coded for by the alleles. Includes procedural steps employed in a solution and conceptual knowledge of genetics/meiosis allowing students to justify what they have done. (Author/JN)

Stewart, James

1982-01-01

491

The Use of Problem Solving Strategies in Teaching Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the research literature suggests that teachers need to provide students with engaging problems, facilitate their discovery of analysis methods, and encourage classroom discussion and presentation of their approaches to solving problems. Two separate studies compared differences in mathematics test scores involving students randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions using a causal-comparative design. The results from both

Randall E. Schumacker

2000-01-01

492

Strategic transfer: A tool for academic problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of classroom learning, strategic transfer can be viewed as a tool for academic problem solving. Strategic transfer is defined as the spontaneous access and retrieval (remembering) of previously learned formal procedures for the successful solution of a problem. The transfer-appropriate processing encoding model (Morris, Bransford, and Franks, 1977), and the transfer-appropriate procedures retrieval model (Roediger, Weldon, and

Gary D. Phye

1992-01-01

493

Solving Vehicle Routing Problems using Constraint Programming and Metaheuristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraint Programming typically uses the technique of depth-first branch and bound as the method of solving optimisation problems. Although this method can give the optimal solution, for large problems, the time needed to find the optimal can be prohibitive. This paper introduces a method for using iterative improvement techniques within a Constraint Programming framework, and applies this technique to vehicle

494

Finding and solving problems in software new product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

New product development is notoriously difficult, and software new product development particularly so. Although a great deal of research has investigated new product development, projects developing new software products continue to have problems meeting their goals. In fact, one line of research proposes new product development is difficult because it must solve an ongoing stream of complex problems. I integrate

Willow A. Sheremata

2002-01-01

495

Experimental Model for Stimulating Creative Problem Solving by Engineering Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A heuristic model designed to improve creative problem-solving by engineering students was studied. Ten students majoring in industrial engineering were pre-tested to establish the range and accuracy of their performance prior to training and to identify stereotyped thinking. The test was an adventure scenario with 50 embedded problems along with…

Hayes, Harold L.

496

Problem-Solving Without Awareness: An ERP Investigation  

PubMed Central

When subjects are given the balls-and-boxes problem-solving task (Kotovsky & Simon, 1990), they move rapidly toward the goal after an extended exploratory phase, despite having no awareness of how to solve the task. We investigated possible non-conscious learning mechanisms by giving subjects three runs of the task while recording ERPs. Subjects showed significant differences in their ERP components during the exploratory phase between correct and incorrect moves. Exploratory incorrect moves were associated with a shallower response-locked N1 component and a larger response-locked P3 component compared with exploratory correct moves. Subjects who solved the task more quickly exhibited a trend towards larger N1 and P3 components. These results suggest that the brain processes information about the correctness of a move well before subjects are aware of move correctness. They further suggest that relatively simple attentional and error-monitoring processes play an important role in complex problem-solving.

Paynter, Christopher A.; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Reder, Lynne M.

2010-01-01

497

The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.  

PubMed Central

This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

2002-01-01

498

Construction and Validation of Family Problem Solving Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present research was to indices and characteristics of scale validation for family problem solving scale. The sample size of 55 couples (110 people) were selected among married men and women in Tehran and assigned to adjusted/compatible and maladjusted/incompatible groups. ENRICH marital satisfaction scale and the new FPS scale was used as research tools. Analysis of the aspects revealed 2 aspects out of 30: communication and problem solving. Studying internal correlation of total scores of the scales and subscales showed the association rate between total score and the aspects of communication and problem solving was 0.95. Reliability index of total score re-test was 0.91 and that of communication and problem solving was 0.78 and 2.89, respectively. Internal correlation of total score, communication and problem solving was 0.91, 0.78 and 0.83, respectively. As this scale is significantly associated with ENRICH marital satisfaction scale, is permanent and can distinguish adjusted/compatible and maladjusted/incompatible couples, it can be applied for clinical and research purposes.

Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Raiisi, Fateme

499

A Heuristic Framework to Solve a General Delivery Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new distribution and route planning problem, General Delivery Problem (GDP) which is more general than the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem. To solve a GDP, a three-phase framework heuristic approach based on decomposition techniques is introduced. The decomposition techniques are employed to divide an original problem into a set of sub-problems, which can reduce the problem size. A kind of decomposition technique, Capacity Clustering Algorithm (CCA), is embedded into the framework with Simulated Annealing (SA) to solve a special GDP. The proposed three-phase framework with the above two algorithms is compared with five other decomposition methods in a distribution instance of the Regional Fire and Emergency Center in the north of France.

Lian, Lian; Castelain, Emmanuel

2010-06-01

500

Designing Teaching Materials for Learning Problem Solving in Technology Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of designing teaching materials for learning problem solving in technology education, domain-specific design specifications are considered important elements to raise learning outcomes with these materials. Two domain-specific design specifications were drawn up using a four-step procedure and were applied to improve existing teaching-learning packages. The study focused on a construction problem (open-ended) and an explanation problem (constrained).

B. G. Doornekamp

2001-01-01