Sample records for solvent extraction study

  1. Solvent extraction studies of holmium with acidic extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, A.G.; Damodaran, A.D. )


    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of holmium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, naphthenic, and Versatic 10 acids have been carried out. The nature of the extracted species and the extraction equilibrium constants of these systems have been determined from aqueous nitrate solution. The extraction mechanism and complexation models have been proposed. 11 refs., 8 figs.



    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.


    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  3. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.


    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  4. Solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, R.A.


    A solvent refining process is disclosed utilizing n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent in which primary extract from the extraction zone is cooled to form a secondary raffinate and secondary extract and the secondary and primary raffinates are blended to produce an increased yield of product of desired quality. In a preferred embodiment of the process, the lubricating oil feedstock to the process is first contacted with a stripping medium previously used in the process for the recovery of solvent from at least one of the product streams whereby solvent contained in said stripping medium is recovered therefrom.



    Butler, J.P.


    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  6. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)


    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.



    Jonke, A.A.


    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  8. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from soils -- report of an interlaboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Jassie, L.B.; Kierstead, T.; Hays, M.J.; Wise, S.A.


    Solvent extractions are among the oldest and most widely practiced sample preparation techniques for chemical analysis. Solvents are selected to dissolve target analytes based on the affinity between solvent and solute and range from highly polar molecules like water to lipophilic hydrocarbons, depending on the target analyte. Although traditional liquid/solid extraction methods are labor intensive and often time consuming, newer extraction techniques using microwave heating more efficiently leach additives from plastics, natural products from botanicals, and pesticides and PAHs from sediment. Certain solvent molecules heat well in microwave fields because the electromagnetic radiation couples with the polar species and energy is transferred to the solution through dipole rotation. We`ll show why some solvents are more logical choices for matching microwave heating technology with an extraction application. Results will be presented of a study extracting PAHs from materials of environmental interest along with the results of a round robin we conducted comparing the recovery efficiency of microwave extractions with conventional extractions. We have also been evaluating solvents with good dielectric properties which may lead to more efficient and environmentally friendly extraction systems. Closed vessel microwave extraction dramatically reduces the solvent volumes needed and the length of the extraction step. With automated cleanup, improved sample throughput is possible.



    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.


    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  10. Guide for conducting treatability studies under CERCLA: Solvent extraction quick reference fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Rawe, J.


    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund Program. This fact sheet focuses on solvent extraction treatability studies, and is a highly abridged version of the guide which bears the same title. This fact sheet presents an abbreviated guide for designing and implementing solvent extraction treatability studies. The fact sheet presents a description of and discusses the applicability and limitations of solvent extraction technologies and defines the prescreening and field measurement data needed to determine if treatability testing is required.


    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund Program. his fact sheet focuses on solvent extraction treatability studies, and is highly abridged version of the guide which bears the...

  12. Time Motion Study for Modular Caustic Solvent Extraction Unit

    SciTech Connect



    The Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is used to process high-level radioactive waste from the Tank Farm into borosilicate glass to reduce the mobility of the radionuclides and has processed and vitrified nuclear wastes into canisters for long-term disposal since FY96. All wastes vitrified to date in DWPF are ''sludge only'' wastes. The old salt waste processing technology, ITP, was suspended in FY98 due to benzene build-up inside the tank. The new selected technologies for treating the salt waste are Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process (CSSX). The Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) is a cesium removal process that will be operated downstream of the ARP. The MCU is a short-term method for cesium removal, which uses the same technology as the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Once the SWPF becomes operational, the MCU will be shut down. The modeling request is from the MCU project to verify the validity of its Concept Design Package. The modeling task is not typical because there are five different facilities/projects/processes involved, i.e., Tank Farm, ARP, MCU, Saltstone, and DWPF. Each facility, project, and process has their own management team and organization, with its own fiscal responsibility and performance accountability. In addition, from a task cost perspective, MCU desires to minimize modeling not directly associated with their facility. The balancing of comprehensive analysis with limited granularity is challenging. The customer expectation is the model should be small and delivered within weeks. Modeling a stand-alone MCU will not yield overall meaningful results because it can be expected that most problems will occur at interfaces with other facilities. This paper discusses how we set out our modeling strategy, overcame obstacles, avoided touchy issues, and delivered the modeling result on time and on budget.


    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy hazardous contaminants, but is a means of separating those contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous material that must be treated. enerally it is used as one in a series of unit operations an...


    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy wastes, but is a means of separating hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous waste that must be treated. enerally it is used as one ina series of unit operations, and can reduce th...

  15. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.


    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil


    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested. PMID:21882663

  16. Studies on tropane alkaloid extraction by volatile organic solvents: dichloromethane vs. chloroform.


    El Jaber-Vazdekis, Nabil; Gutierrez-Nicolas, Fátima; Ravelo, Angel G; Zárate, Rafael


    In order to investigate the production of tropane alkaloids by hairy roots of Atropa baetica, transgenic for the gene h6h encoding the enzyme hyoscyamine 6beta-hydroxylase, solvent extraction with chloroform and with dichloromethane of the metabolites present in the liquid medium and in the root tissue was compared. The extraction of scopolamine from the liquid medium was equally effective with either solvent, giving maximum values of around 850 microg/flask. For the roots, three different extraction methods were employed: A, employing chloroform:methanol: (25%) ammonia (15:5:1) for initial extraction, followed by treatment with sulfuric acid and ammonia, and using chloroform for the final extraction and washes; B, as A but using dichloromethane for extraction and washes; and C, as B but substituting chloroform for dichloromethane in the extraction cocktail. Scopolamine was the most abundant metabolite (present in amounts of 3250-3525 microg/g dry weight) and presented similar extraction efficiencies with all of the extraction methods employed. The highest amounts of hyoscyamine and the intermediate 6beta-hydxoxyhyoscyamine were present on day 31 (800 and 975 microg/g dry weight, respectively) and no statistical differences between the three extraction methods employed were detected. This study confirms that, for the extraction of tropane alkaloids, dichloromethane can replace the commonly employed chloroform, the use of which incurs major health, security and regulation problems. PMID:16634287


    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction and soil washing studies were performed on soil samples obtained from three abandoned wood preserving sites that included in the NPL. The soil samples from these sites were contaminated with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlo...

  18. Remediation case studies: Ex situ soil treatment technologies (bioremediation, solvent extraction, thermal desorption). Volume 7

    SciTech Connect


    The case studies in this volume describe ten applications of ex situ soil treatment technologies, including three applications of land treatment (bioremediation), one application of solvent extraction, and six applications of thermal desorption. Two of the land treatment applications were full-scale remediations of sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum hydrocarbons, and one was a field demonstration at a site contaminated with pesticides. The solvent extraction application was a full-scale application to treat soil contaminated with PCBs. All six thermal desorption applications were full-scale, and involved treatment of soil contaminated with chlorinated solvents, petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, and pesticides. All case studies in this volume are for completed applications.



    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.


    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  20. Fuel characteristics and pyrolysis studies of solvent extractables and residues from the evergreen shrub Calotropis procera

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, M.D.; Gregorski, K.S.; Pavlath, A.E.


    Solvent extractables and residues from milkweed were evaluated as sources of liquid and solid fuels. Selected chemical, physical and pyrolytic determinations of the extractables and residues indicated that hexane extract is a potentially valuable, high density fuel resource. Methanol extract was shown to be a lower energy, highly toxic extract. Extracted residues were demonstrated to be valuable as solid fuel energy resources. 31 references.

  1. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents.


    Xu, B J; Chang, S K C


    The objective of this study was to investigate how 6 commonly used solvent systems affected the yields of phenolic substances and the antioxidant capacity of extracts from 8 major classes of food legumes. Several antioxidant-related phytochemical compositions, namely, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and condensed tannins content (CTC), were investigated. In addition, antioxidant activities were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The results showed that the 50% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TPC for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. Acidic 70% acetone (+0.5% acetic acid) extracts exhibited the highest TPC, TFC, and FRAP values for black bean, lentil, black soybean, and red kidney bean. The 80% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TFC, CTC, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. The 70% ethanol extracts exhibited the greatest ORAC value for all selected legumes. These results indicated that solvents with different polarity had significant effects on total phenolic contents, extracted components, and antioxidant activities. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of legume extracts were observed. The information is of interest to the nutraceutical food/ingredient industries since legumes are a rich source of antioxidants. PMID:17995858

  2. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)


    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.


    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  4. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L.


    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. A solvent extraction study of molybdenum chloride and molybdenum thiocyanate complexes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L.P.; Lillie, E.G.


    The effect of reducing agents on molybdenum(VI) solutions in hydrochloric acid was studied by a solvent extraction technique to elucidate the composition of the colored molybdenum thiocyanate complex. Neither copper(I) chloride nor ascorbic acid have any effect on the extraction of MoO2Cl2; it is inferred that tin(II) chloride reduces Mo(VI) stepwise to a polynuclear Mo(V)??Mo(VI) complex and then to Mo(V). The colored thiocyanate complex produced by copper(I) and by ascorbic acid differs only slightly in extraction characteristics from the uncolored Mo(VI) complex. It is suggested that the color may be produced by an isomerization reaction of MoO2(SCN)2, and thus that the colored species may be a hexavalent rather than pentavalent molybdenum complex. ?? 1974.

  6. Separation by solvent extraction


    Holt, Jr., Charles H.


    17. A process for separating fission product values from uranium and plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution, comprising adding an oxidizing agent to said solution to secure uranium and plutonium in their hexavalent state; contacting said aqueous solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent while agitating and maintaining the temperature at from to C. until the major part of the water present is frozen; continuously separating a solid ice phase as it is formed; separating a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing plutonium and uranium values from each other; melting at least the last obtained part of said ice phase and adding it to said separated liquid phase; and treating the resulting liquid with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of uranium and plutonium.

  7. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange in Radiochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarnemark, G.

    In 1805, Bucholz extracted uranium from a nitric acid solution into ether and back-extracted it into pure water. This is probably the first reported solvent-extraction investigation. During the following decades, the distribution of neutral compounds between aqueous phases and pure solvents was studied, e.g., by Peligot, Berthelot and Jungfleisch, and Nernst. Selective extractants for analytical purposes became available during the first decades of the twentieth century. From about 1940, extractants such as organophosphorous esters and amines were developed for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. This connection between radiochemistry and solvent-extraction chemistry made radiochemists heavily involved in the development of new solvent extraction processes, and eventually solvent extraction became a major separation technique in radiochemistry. About 160 years ago, Thompson and Way observed that soil can remove potassium and ammonium ions from an aqueous solution and release calcium ions. This is probably the first scientific report on an ion-exchange separation. The first synthesis of the type of organic ion exchangers that are used today was performed by Adams and Holmes in 1935. Since then, ion-exchange techniques have been used extensively for separations of various radionuclides in trace as well as macro amounts. During the last 4 decades, inorganic ion exchangers have also found a variety of applications. Today, solvent extraction as well as ion exchange are used extensively in the nuclear industry and for nuclear, chemical, and medical research. Some of these applications are discussed in the chapter.

  8. Metal Recognition Driven by Weak Interactions: A Case Study in Solvent Extraction.


    Poirot, Rémi; Le Goff, Xavier; Diat, Olivier; Bourgeois, Damien; Meyer, Daniel


    Tuning the affinity of a medium for a given metallic cation with the sole modification of weak interactions is a challenge for molecular recognition. Solvent extraction is a key technique employed in the recovery and purification of valuable metals, and it is facing an increased complexity of metal fluxes to deal with. The selectivity of such processes generally relies on the use of specific ligands, designed after their coordination chemistry. In the present study, we illustrate the possibility to employ the sole control of weak interactions to achieve the selective extraction of Pd(II) over Nd(III) : the control over selectivity is obtained by tuning the self-assembly of the organic phase. A model is proposed, after detailed experimental analysis of molecular (XRD, NMR) and supra-molecular (SAXS) features of the organic phases. We thus demonstrate that Pd(II) extraction is driven by metal coordination, whereas Nd(III) extraction requires aggregation of the extractant in addition to metal coordination. These results are of general interest for the applications which rely on the stabilization of metals in organic phases. PMID:27062532



    Harrington, C.D.


    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  10. Modified diglycol-amides for actinide separation: solvent extraction and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy complexation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilden, A.; Modolo, G.; Lange, S.; Sadowski, F.; Bosbach, D.; Beele, B.B.; Panak, P.J.; Skerencak-Frech, A.; Geist, A.; Iqbal, M.; Verboom, W.


    In this work, the back-bone of the diglycolamide-structure of the TODGA extractant was modified by adding one or two methyl groups to the central methylene carbon-atoms. The influence of these structural modifications on the extraction behavior of trivalent actinides and lanthanides and other fission products was studied in solvent extraction experiments. The addition of methyl groups to the central methylene carbon atoms leads to reduced distribution ratios, also for Sr(II). This reduced extraction efficiency for Sr(II) is beneficial for process applications, as the co-extraction of Sr(II) can be avoided, resulting in an easier process design. The use of these modified diglycol-amides in solvent extraction processes is discussed. Furthermore, the complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) to the ligands was studied using Time-Resolved-Laser-Fluorescence-Spectroscopy (TRLFS). The complexes were characterized by slope analysis and conditional stability constants were determined.



    Seaborg, G.T.


    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  12. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.


    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  13. A SAXS study of aggregation in the synergistic TBP-HDBP solvent extraction system.


    Ellis, Ross J; Anderson, Timothy L; Antonio, Mark R; Braatz, Alex; Nilsson, Mikael


    The macroscopic phase behaviors of a solvent system containing two extractants, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) in n-dodecane, were investigated through use of liquid-liquid extraction and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. Five organic solutions, each containing a total extractant concentration (TBP + HDBP) of 1 M in varying molar ratios (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 [TBP]:[TBP + HDBP]), were contacted with 0.2 M HNO3 aqueous solutions without and with dysprosium(III) at a concentration of 10(-4) M. An enhancement of the extraction of Dy(3+)--due to effects of synergism arising from the binary combination of extractants--was observed. SAXS data were collected for all solution compositions from 0 to 1 mol-fraction end ratios of TBP after contact with the acidic aqueous solutions both in the absence and presence of Dy as well as for the organic phases before aqueous contact. In the precontacted solutions, no notable changes in the SAXS data were observed upon combining the extractants so that the scattering intensity (I) measured at zero angle (Q = 0 Å(-1))--parameter I(0)--the experimental radius of gyration (R(g)), and the maximum linear extent (MLE) of the extractant aggregates were arithmetic averages of the two end members, 1 M HDBP, on the one hand, and 1 M TBP, on the other. In contrast, after contact with the aqueous phases with and without Dy(3+), a significant reorganization occurs with larger aggregates apparent in the extractant mixtures and smaller in the two end member solutions. In particular, the maximum values of the metrical parameters (I(0), R(g), and MLE) correlate with the apparent optimal synergistic extraction mole ratio of 0.25. The SAXS data were further analyzed using the recently developed generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) method to provide pair-distance distribution functions with real-space information on aggregate morphology. Before aqueous contact, the organic phases show

  14. Accelerated solvent extraction for natural products isolation.


    Mottaleb, Mohammad A; Sarker, Satyajit D


    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(®)), first introduced in 1995, is an automated rapid extraction technique that utilizes common solvents at elevated temperature and pressure, and thereby increases the efficiency of extraction of organic compounds from solid and semisolid matrices. ASE(®) allows extractions for sample sizes 1-100 g in minutes, reduces solvent uses dramatically, and can be applied to a wide range of matrices, including natural products. PMID:22367894

  15. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L.


    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  16. Feasibility study on chemometric discrimination of roasted Arabica coffees by solvent extraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.


    Wang, Niya; Fu, Yucheng; Lim, Loong-Tak


    In this feasibility study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric analysis were adopted to discriminate coffees from different geographical origins and of different roasting degrees. Roasted coffee grounds were extracted using two methods: (1) solvent alone (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, hexane, acetone, ethanol, or acetic acid) and (2) coextraction using a mixture of equal volume of the solvent and water. Experiment results showed that the coextraction method resulted in cleaner extract and provided a greater amount of spectral information, which was important for sample discrimination. Principal component analysis of infrared spectra of ethyl acetate extracts for dark and medium roast coffees showed separated clusters according to their geographical origins and roast degrees. Classification models based on soft independent modeling of class analogy analysis were used to classify different coffee samples. Coffees from four different countries, which were roasted to dark, were 100% correctly classified when ethyl acetate was used as a solvent. The FTIR-chemometric technique developed here may serve as a rapid tool for discriminating geographical origin of roasted coffees. Future studies involving green coffee beans and the use of larger sample size are needed to further validate the robustness of this technique. PMID:21381653

  17. Solvent Extraction of Furfural From Biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.


    Solvent-extraction method reduces energy required to remove furfural produced during acid hydrolysis of biomass. Acid hydrolysis performed in vessel containing both solvents and reacting ingredients. With intimate contact between solvents and aqueous hydrolyis liqour, furfural removed form liquor almost as fast as it forms.

  18. A spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.


    Part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

  19. Studies on complexation and solvent extraction of lanthanides in the presence of diaza-18-crown-6-di-isopropionic acid.


    Kim, J S; Lee, C H; Han, S H; Suh, M Y


    Stability constants of some lanthanides with K22DAP (diaza-18-crown-6-diisopropionic acid) were determined by potentiometric titration method. The logarithmic values of these constants for La(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Er(III), and Lu(III) are 11.14, 11.43, 11.78, 11.74, 11.95, 12.09, 11.49, and 10.88, respectively. Solvent extraction studies were carried out on the K22DAP complexes of La(III), Nd(III) and Lu(III) using TTA (thenoyltrifluoroacetone) as an extractant in different diluents. It appears that nitrobenzene, a diluent with high dielectric constant, favors the extraction of the complexes. Extraction rates of the K22DAP complexes of lanthanides were investigated at pH 5.5 and 8.0 with TTA in chloroform. The rates of extraction are found to be dependent upon the nature of the extracted species. Competitive extractions were carried out to see if selective extractions could be achieved. PMID:18967024

  20. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H


    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability. PMID:24804076

  1. The solvent-extractable organic compounds in the Indonesia biomass burning aerosols - characterization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; To, K. L.; Jaafar, A. B.; Tong, S. L.

    The large-scale air pollution episode due to the out-of-control biomass burning for agricultural purposes in Indonesia started in June 1997, has become a severe environmental problem for itself and the neighboring countries. The fire lasted for almost five months. Its impact on the health and ecology in the affected areas is expected to be substantial, costly and possibly long lasting. Air pollution Index as high as 839 has been reported in Malaysia. API is calculated based on the five pollutants: NO 2, SO 2, O 3, CO, and respirable suspended particulates (PM10). It ranges in value from 0 to 500. An index above 101 is considered to be unhealthy and a value over 201 is very unhealthy (Abidin and Shin, 1996). The solvent-extractable organic compounds from four total suspended particulate (TSP) high-volume samples collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Stations Pudu and SIRIM) were subjected to characterization - the abundance was determined and biomarkers were identified. Two of the samples were from early September when the fire was less intense, while the other two were from late September when Kuala Lumpur experienced very heavy smoke coverage which could be easily observed from NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. The samples contained mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and triterpanes, alkanoic acids, alkanols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference between the early and late September samples was very significant. The total yield increased from 0.6 to 24.3 μg m -3 at Pudu and 1.9 to 20.1 μg m -3 at SIRIM, with increases in concentration in every class. The higher input of vascular plant wax components in the late September samples, when the fire was more intense, was characterized by the distribution patterns of the homologous series n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols, e.g., lower U : R, higher >C 22/C 20/

  2. A preliminary study of extraction solvents for CW-agents and their decomposition products [3:1 (methylene chloride:isopropanol) vs. methylene chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A.; Ward, R.L.; Hulsey, S.S.; Andresen, B.D.


    The major focus of this study was to explore the possibility of using different extraction solvents (or solvent combinations) to isolate CW agents and their degradation products from environmental and industrial samples. The general approach for extracting, e.g. water samples, required the use of a 3:1 (methylene chloride:isopropanol) extraction solvent. Although the 3:1 solvent extraction work-up methods provided excellent results in several Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests, the implementation of these methods for CW on-site analysis exercises was difficult (the methods require cumbersome equipment and are labor intensive). However, due to the time, power, and size restraints set forth by the Chemical Warfare Convention (CWC) for a CW on-site inspection, LLNL developed new sample work-up methods. The approach selected by LLNL incorporated solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques. It is evident from this preliminary study that new or previously used extraction solvents should be re-investigated. It was determined that care must be taken in handling the samples prior to NMR measurements. Also, it was determined that the four target compounds used in this study were extracted on average 18% higher with 3:1 (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}: IPA) vs. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. However, additional target compounds need to be investigated using this extraction solvent to determine which classes of compounds are better extracted by the use of a 3:1 solvent system. This preliminary study clearly reveals that a mixed solvent system can yield better extraction efficiencies for mixture of compounds in aqueous samples.

  3. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Solvent-Composition Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Klatt, L.N.


    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected caustic-side solvent extraction as the preferred cesium removal technology for the treatment of high-level waste stored at the Savannah River Site. Data for the solubility of the extractant, calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6), acquired and reported for the Salt Processing Program down-select decision, showed the original solvent composition to be supersaturated with respect to the extractant. Although solvent samples have been observed for approximately 1 year without any solids formation, work was completed to define a new solvent composition that was thermodynamically stable with respect to solids formation and to expand the operating temperature with respect to third-phase formation. Chemical and physical data as a function of solvent component concentrations were collected. The data included calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6) solubility; cesium distribution ratio under extraction, scrub, and strip conditions; flow sheet robustness; temperature range of third-phase formation; dispersion numbers for the solvent against waste simulant, scrub and strip acids, and sodium hydroxide wash solutions; solvent density; viscosity; and surface and interfacial tension. These data were mapped against a set of predefined performance criteria. The composition of 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6), 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine in the diluent Isopar{reg_sign} L provided the best match between the measured properties and the performance criteria. Therefore, it is recommended as the new baseline solvent composition.

  4. A Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.


    The material balance and equilibrium equations for solvent extraction processes have been combined with computer spreadsheets in a new way so that models for very complex multicomponent multistage operations can be setup and used easily. A part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

  5. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.


    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.


    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

  7. DWPF Flowsheet Studies with Simulants to Determine Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit Solvent Partitioning and Verify Actinide Removal Process Incorporation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, C


    The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in the salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science & Engineering (PS&E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP has changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better quantify the organic distribution in the CPC vessels. The previous MCU testing used a Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) simulant since it was anticipated that both of these facilities would begin salt processing during SB4 processing. The same sludge simulant recipe was used in this round of ARP and MCU testing to minimize the number of changes between the two phases of testing so a better comparison could be made. ARP and MCU stream simulants were made for this phase of testing

  8. Proceedings of ISEC 2008, International Solvent Extraction Conference - Solvent Extraction: Fundamentals to Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.


    The North American industry has employed major solvent-extraction processes to support a wide range of separations including but not limited to chemical, metallurgical, nuclear, biochemical, pharmaceutical, and petroleum applications. The knowledge enabling these separations has been obtained through fundamental studies in academe, government and industry. The International Solvent Extraction Conferences have been and continue to be a major gathering of scientists, engineers, operators, and vendors from around the world, who present new findings since the last meeting, exchange ideas, make business contacts, and conduct collegial discussions. The ISEC 2008 program emphasizes fundamentals to industrial applications of solvent extraction, particularly how this broad spectrum of activities is interconnected and has led to the implementation of novel processes. The oral and poster sessions have been organized into seven topics: Fundamentals; Novel Reagents, Materials and Techniques; Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing; Hydrometallurgy and Metals Extraction; Analytical and Preparative Applications; Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals, Life-Science Products, and Organic Products; and Process Chemistry and Engineering. Over 350 abstracts were received, resulting in more than 260 manuscripts published in these proceedings. Five outstanding plenary presentations have been identified, with five parallel sessions for oral presentations and posters. In recognition of the major role solvent extraction (SX) plays in the hydrometallurgical and nuclear industries, these proceedings begin with sections focusing on hydrometallurgy, process chemistry, and engineering. More fundamental topics follow, including sections on novel reagents, materials, and techniques, featuring novel applications in analytical and biotechnology areas. Despite the diversity of topics and ideas represented, however, the primary focus of the ISEC community continues to be metals extraction. Four papers from these



    Long, R.L.


    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  10. Solvent extraction study of the thorium nitrate, nitric acid, and tributyl phosphate-dodecane system: density and acidity relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, A.J.; Marley, J.L.; Costanzo, D.A.


    A solvent extraction study to determine equilibrium conditions of thorium nitrate-nitric acid with 30% tributyl phosphate in normal dodecane has been completed. Experimental conditions studied were 30 to 60{sup 0}C, 0.05 to 1.5 M Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, and 0.0 to 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. The extractant concentration was constant at 30% tributyl phosphate. The equilibrium experiments have produced data which demonstrate that thorium nitrate concentration, free acid, and density are related in equilibrium behavior between the aqueous and organic phases from 30 to 60{sup 0}C in the 30% tributyl phosphate-dodecane solvent extraction system. The concentration interactions apply to both the two- and three-phase regions. A linear correlation was observed for the density (D) of the aqueous or organic phase and the concentration of thorium and free acid. The general form of the equation is D = a(C/sub Th/ + bC/sub H/) + c, where a is the slope, b is the constant, c is the intercept, and C/sub Th/ and C/sub H/ are the molar concentrations of thorium and free acid respectively. The relationship of temperature, thorium nitrate, and free acid makes possible the definitions of the boundaries between the two- and three-phase regions. This dependence, in turn, permits operational control or simulation studies of the system within the two-phase region. The data demonstrate the interactions of the components of the Thorex system and can be used to improve the mathematical description of equilibrium in the SEPHIS-Thorex computer program.

  11. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, W.R.


    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Copper leaching, solvent extraction, and electrowinning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jergensen, G.V. II


    This volume recognizes the growing role of solvent extraction and electrowinning technology in the global copper business. This process is an efficient and cost effective way to extract copper. This proceedings documents the present status of the SX-EW business. It represents a substantial body of historical, scientific, engineering, and commercial information regarding the growth and application of the technology. Sections include: the business and technology of SX-EW, theory and practice of copper leaching, theory and practice of tankhouse operations, and theory and practice of solvent extraction.



    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.


    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.



    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.


    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  15. The study on the extraction and recovery of Au from scrap of the used computer using chloride solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Su-ji; Choi, Eunju; Choi, Nagchoul; Park, Cheonyoung


    Recently, due to the realization of environmental problems of cyanide, it is a worldwide quest to find viable alternatives. One of the alternatives is a chloride solvent(chlorine-hypochlorite acid) with an appropriate oxidizing agent. The rate of dissolution of Au by chloride solvent is much faster than that by cyanide. Also, due to presence of chloride ions, there is no passivation of gold surfaces during chlorination. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of Au extraction efficiency under various experimental conditions(pulp density, chlorine-hypochlorite ratio and concentration of NaCl) from scrap of the used computer by chloride solvent. In addition, the recovery experiment was conducted to examine of the precipitation efficiency of Au under various metabisulfite concentration from extracted solution. In an EDS analysis, valuable metals such as Cu, Sn, Sb, Al, Ni, Pb and Au were observed in scrap of the used computer. The result of extraction experiment showed that the highest extraction rate was obtained under 1% of pulp density with a chlorine-hypochlorite ratio of 2:1, and a concentration of NaCl at 2M. The highest Au recovery(precipitation) rate was observed the addition of sodium metabisulfite at 2M concentration. Under these conditions, chlorine-hypochlorite could effectively Au extraction from scrap of the used computer sections and the additive reagent using sodium metabisulfite could easily precipitate the Au from the chlorine-hypochlorite solution.



    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.


    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  17. Antimicrobial potentials of different solvent extracted samples from Physalis ixocarpa.


    Khan, Wajid; Bakht, Jehan; Shafi, Mohammad


    The present study investigates the antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracted samples isolated from different parts of Physalis ixocarpa through disc diffusion assay using three different concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that different parts of the plant showed varying degree of inhibition against different bacteria at different concentrations. Different solvent extracted samples from the calyx showed inhibitory activity against most of the bacteria under study. Extracts from leaf and fruit samples showed activity against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae and extracts from the stem tissues were effective to control the growth of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Crude methanolic extract from the stem and n-butanol extracted samples from fruit exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae at highest concentrations. Antifungal activity was observed only in crude methanol extract from the leaf against Rhizopus stolinifer, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. PMID:27087074

  18. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Egyptian Basil Leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) Using Hydro-Distillation and Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction.


    Chenni, Mohammed; El Abed, Douniazad; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Fernandez, Xavier; Chemat, Farid


    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and conventional hydro-distillation (HD) were used for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Egyptian sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. The two resulting EOs were compared with regards to their chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The EO analyzed by GC and GC-MS, presented 65 compounds constituting 99.3% and 99.0% of the total oils obtained by SFME and HD, respectively. The main components of both oils were linalool (43.5% SFME; 48.4% HD), followed by methyl chavicol (13.3% SFME; 14.3% HD) and 1,8-cineole (6.8% SFME; 7.3% HD). Their antioxidant activity were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. The heating conditions effect was evaluated by the determination of the Total Polar Materials (TPM) content. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against five microorganisms: two Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, two Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and one yeast, Candida albicans. Both EOs showed high antimicrobial, but weak antioxidant, activities. The results indicated that the SFME method may be a better alternative for the extraction of EO from O. basilicum since it could be considered as providing a richer source of natural antioxidants, as well as strong antimicrobial agents for food preservation. PMID:26797599

  19. Transuranic decontamination of nitric acid solutions by the TRUEX solvent extraction process: preliminary development studies. [Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Horwitz, E.P.; Basile, L.J.; Diamond, H.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.


    This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste. Assessments were made of the use of two TRUEX solvents: one incorporating the well-studied dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and a second incorporating an extractant with superior properties for a 1M HNO/sub 3/ acid feed, octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO). In this report, conceptual flowsheets for the removal of soluble TRUs from high-level nuclear wastes using these two TRUEX proces solvents are presented, and flowsheet features are discussed in detail. The conceptual flowsheet for TRU-element removal from a PUREX waste by the O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO-TRUEX process solvent was tested in a bench-scale countercurrent experiment, and results of that experiment are presented and discussed. The conclusion of this study is that the TRUEX process is able to separate TRUs from high-level wastes so that the major portion of the solid waste (approx. 99%) can be classified as non-TRU. Areas where more experimentation is needed are listed at the end of the report. 45 references, 17 figures, 56 tables.


    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process and the remedial design/remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liabi...

  1. Solvent induced track sensitization. Extraction of oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, P.; Angert, N.; Brüchle, W.; Hermann, H.; Kampschulte, U.; Klein, P.; Kravets, L. I.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Remmert, G.; Spohr, R.; Steckenreiter, T.; Trautmann, C.; Vetter, J.


    Oligomer extraction from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) irradiated by xenon ions of 11.4 MeV/u is investigated using UV spectrophotometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The cyclic trimer is identified as the predominant diffusing species removed during extraction by dimethyl formamide (DMF). Extraction dynamics is modeled by a rapid (time constant ≈ 2 min) and a slow (time constant ≈ 100 min) diffusion process attributed to the latent ion tracks and to the virgin material, respectively. Thereby latent tracks act simultaneously as irrigation and drainage pipes for the transfer of the solvent into and the extraction of oligomers from the polymer matrix. Thus tracks help to release osmotic pressure differences and to avoid blistering of the unirradiated polymer during solvent exchange. The total extracted mass per track shows a characteristic decrease with increasing ion fluence interpreted as oxygen effect, due to the decreasing supply of oxygen in the sample during irradiation. The extractable mass corresponds to an equivalent track diameter of initially around 10 nm contracting with increasing ion fluence to an asymptotic value around 3 nm.

  2. Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction.


    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Shuhui; Li, Yubao


    The effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process on oil recovery from refinery oily sludge was examined in this study. Two types of UAE treatment including UAE probe (UAEP) system and UAE bath (UAEB) system were investigated. Their oil recovery efficiencies were compared to that of mechanical shaking extraction (MSE). Three solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), ethyl acetate (EA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were examined as the extraction solvents. The influence of experimental factors on oil and solvent recovery was investigated using an orthogonal experimental design. Results indicated that solvent type, solvent-to-sludge (S/S) ratio, and treatment duration could have significant effects on oil recovery in UAE treatment. Under the optimum conditions, UAEP treatment can obtain an oil recovery of 68.8% within 20 s, which was higher than that (i.e., 62.0%) by MSE treatment after 60 min' extraction. UAEB treatment can also obtain a promising oil recovery within shorter extraction duration (i.e., 15 min) than MSE. UAE was thus illustrated as an effective and improved approach for oily sludge recycling. PMID:27294566

  3. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.


    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B


    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents. PMID:24088789

  4. Optimization of conditions of solvent-free microwave extraction and study on antioxidant capacity of essential oil from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.


    Ma, Chun-hui; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Liu, Ting-ting


    In this article, solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of essential oil from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill was studied. A multivariate study based on central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the influence of three major variables affecting the performance of SFME. The optimum parameters were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 385 W and moisture content of the fruits was 68%. The extraction yield of essential oil was 11 ml/kg under the optimum conditions. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were determined, and compared with traditional antioxidants. GC-MS showed the different composition of essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation (HD), steam-distillation (SD) and SFME. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Micrographs and thermo gravimetric loss provided more evidences to prove SFME of essential oil is more completed than HD and SD. PMID:23442721

  5. Statistical mechanical treatment of reactive solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukhezo, M.; Dunne, L. J.; Reuben, B. G.; Verrall, M. S.


    A statistical mechanical lattice model of a reactive solvent extraction process involving two phase liquid-liquid ion exchange is presented. It is applied to literature data on the extraction of alipathic carboxylic acids by quaternary ammonium salts. The Helmholtz free energy of the system is constructed and minimised subject to the constraints of mass balance and electroneutrality. The equations defining the equilibrium conditions have been solved numerically for a range of interaction parameters and hence the equilibrium concentrations of the various partitioned species are obtained. These interaction parameters are compared with experiment. The intuitive notion that the extent of partition is dominated by electrostatic solute-extractant interactions is shown to neglect various other interactions that may, in some systems, be important.



    Figg, W.S.


    A mixer-settler extractor is described for contacting immiscible liquids having different specific gravities in order to withdraw one or more components from one liquid with the aid of the other liquid. The extractor consists of a hollow column, a rotary drive shafi extending : through the column with a number of impellers spaced thereon, an equal nunnber of separator plate sets each consisting of one fluorothene and one stainless steel plate with peripheral recesses and flow slots mounted on the column, and a pulse generator. This apparatus is particularly useful in solvent extraction processes for recovering plutonium from aqueous acidic solutions of irradiated uranium.

  7. Acidic solvent extraction of gossypol from cottonseed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to expand the use of cottonseed meal in animal feeding, extraction of the meal gossypol was studied with acetic acetone- and ethanol-based solutions. Phosphoric acid was added to hydrolyze and release gossypol bound within the meal. Both solvent systems were effective at reducing gossypo...

  8. Juniperus extraction: a comparison of species and solvents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of the three solvents, hexane, methanol and ethanol were compared for their ability to extract non-polar and polar materials from sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis and J. ashei). These species studied represent the junipers with the grea...



    Warf, J.C.


    A process is described for separating uranium values from aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions. The process consists in contacting the uramium bearing solution with an organic solvent, tributyl phosphate, preferably diluted with a less viscous organic liquida whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the organic solvent phase. The uranvl nitrate may be recovered from the solvent phase bv back extracting with an aqueous mediuin.

  10. Solvent-extraction purification of neptunium

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.A.; Hudlow, S.L.


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recovered {sup 237}Np from reactor fuel that is currently being processed into NpO{sub 2} for future production of {sup 238}Pu. Several purification flowsheets have been utilized. An oxidizing solvent-extraction (SX) flowsheet was used to remove Fe, sulfate ion, and Th while simultaneously {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, u, and nonradioactive Ce(IV) was extracted into the tributyl phosphate (TBP) based organic solvent. A reducing SX flowsheet (second pass) removed the Ce and Pu and recovered both Np and U. The oxidizing flowsheet was necessary for solutions that contained excessive amounts of sulfate ion. Anion exchange was used to perform final purification of Np from Pu, U, and various non-actinide impurities. The Np(IV) in the purified solution was then oxalate-precipitated and calcined to an oxide for shipment to other facilities for storage and future target fabrication. Performance details of the SX purification and process difficulties are discussed. (authors)

  11. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Zalupski


    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  12. Comprehensive Study of Volatile Compounds in Two Australian Rosé Wines: Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) of Extracts Prepared Using Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation (SAFE) or Headspace Solid-Phase Extraction (HS-SPE).


    Wang, Jiaming; Gambetta, Joanna M; Jeffery, David W


    Two rosé wines, representing a tropical and a fruity/floral style, were chosen from a previous study for further exploration by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles were extracted using either liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) or a recently developed dynamic headspace (HS) sampling method utilizing solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. AEDA was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O) and a total of 51 aroma compounds with a flavor dilution (FD) factor ≥3 were detected. Quantitative analysis of 92 volatiles was undertaken in both wines for calculation of odor activity values. The fruity and floral wine style was mostly driven by 2-phenylethanol, β-damascenone, and a range of esters, whereas 3-SHA and several volatile acids were seen as essential for the tropical style. When extraction methods were compared, HS-SPE was as efficient as SAFE for extracting most esters and higher alcohols, which were associated with fruity and floral characters, but it was difficult to capture volatiles with greater polarity or higher boiling point that may still be important to perceived wine aroma. PMID:27141971

  13. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.


    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd


    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction. PMID:26920267

  14. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.


    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  15. Optimization of soy isoflavone extraction with different solvents using the simplex-centroid mixture design.


    Yoshiara, Luciane Yuri; Madeira, Tiago Bervelieri; Delaroza, Fernanda; da Silva, Josemeyre Bonifácio; Ida, Elza Iouko


    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of different isoflavone forms (glycosidic, malonyl-glycosidic, aglycone and total) from defatted cotyledon soy flour using the simplex-centroid experimental design with four solvents of varying polarity (water, acetone, ethanol and acetonitrile). The obtained extracts were then analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profile of the different soy isoflavones forms varied with different extractions solvents. Varying the solvent or mixture used, the extraction of different isoflavones was optimized using the centroid-simplex mixture design. The special cubic model best fitted to the four solvents and its combination for soy isoflavones extraction. For glycosidic isoflavones extraction, the polar ternary mixture (water, acetone and acetonitrile) achieved the best extraction; malonyl-glycosidic forms were better extracted with mixtures of water, acetone and ethanol. Aglycone isoflavones, water and acetone mixture were best extracted and total isoflavones, the best solvents were ternary mixture of water, acetone and ethanol. PMID:22621769

  16. Green extraction of grape skin phenolics by using deep eutectic solvents.


    Cvjetko Bubalo, Marina; Ćurko, Natka; Tomašević, Marina; Kovačević Ganić, Karin; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana


    Conventional extraction techniques for plant phenolics are usually associated with high organic solvent consumption and long extraction times. In order to establish an environmentally friendly extraction method for grape skin phenolics, deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a green alternative to conventional solvents coupled with highly efficient microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods (MAE and UAE, respectively) have been considered. Initially, screening of five different DES for proposed extraction was performed and choline chloride-based DES containing oxalic acid as a hydrogen bond donor with 25% of water was selected as the most promising one, resulting in more effective extraction of grape skin phenolic compounds compared to conventional solvents. Additionally, in our study, UAE proved to be the best extraction method with extraction efficiency superior to both MAE and conventional extraction method. The knowledge acquired in this study will contribute to further DES implementation in extraction of biologically active compounds from various plant sources. PMID:26830574

  17. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.


    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  18. Study on solvent extraction of propionic acid from simulated discharged water in vitamin B12 production by anaerobic fermentation.


    Wang, Kang; Chang, Zhidong; Ma, Yinchen; Lei, Chao; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Tingyu; Liu, Huizhou; Zuo, Yanjun; Li, Xin


    The potential of recovering propionic acid from discharged water in vitamin B(12) production by anaerobic fermentation was investigated in this paper. A primary amine, N(1923), was used as the extractant, kerosene as diluter and n-octanol as modifier. The influences of the content of N(1923) in the organic phase, the phase ratio and the pH of aqueous phase on the extraction yield of propionic acid were studied. The organic phase composition with the volume ratio was proposed of N(1923):kerosene:n-octanol as 45:35:20. Under conditions of the phase ratio (o/w) as 1:4, the pH of aqueous phase of 3.0 and after 5 min extraction, the extraction yield of propionic acid can be over 97%. PMID:19201188

  19. Waste and Solvent Composition Limits for Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU)

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, Kofi; Waler, Douglas D.; Edwards, Thomas B


    This study examined waste feed and solvent limits for the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) currently being designed and built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove cesium from highly alkaline radioactive waste. The study involved proposing ranges for 12 waste feed components (i.e., Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, OH{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and AlO{sub 2}{sup -}) through a compilation of SRS waste data. Statistical design methods were used to generate numerous wastes with varying compositions from the proposed ranges. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) model called SXFIT was used to predict the cesium extraction distribution coefficients (D-values) between the organic (solvent) phase and the aqueous waste phase using the waste component concentrations as inputs. The D-values from the SXFIT model were used as input along with MCU base case process parameters to a SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) model to calculate final cesium concentrations for the MCU. The SASSE model was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The SXFIT D-value and the waste component concentration data were used to develop a handier alternative model (neural network model) to the SXFIT model that predicts D-values within 15% of the SXFIT D-values. Both the SXFIT and the neural network model revealed the following. The solvent extractant concentration ratios are approximately equal to the corresponding D-value ratios; a useful feature that could be used to predict extraction D-values when the extractant concentration in the solvent changes in the MCU operation. Also, potassium is the only waste component out of the 12 that shows a distinct relationship with the cesium extraction D-values; an indication of potassium's competition with cesium in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. A waste feed acceptance model suitable

  20. Selective extraction of triazine herbicides based on a combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction.


    Chimuka, Luke; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Jönsson, Jan Åke


    A selective extraction technique based on the combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for triazine herbicides in food samples was developed. Simazine, atrazine, prometon, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and prometryn were extracted from aqueous food samples into a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane bag containing 1000μL of toluene as the acceptor phase along with 100mg of MIP particles. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time and addition of salt. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazine binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and cyclohexane. Extraction time of 120min and 100mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Addition of salt increased the extraction efficiency for more polar triazines. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked cow pea and corn extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to only membrane assisted solvent extraction or only molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The study revealed that this combination may be a simple way of selectively extracting compounds in complex samples. PMID:21190688

  1. A comparative study of extraction methods reveals preferred solvents for cystine knot peptide isolation from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds.


    Mahatmanto, Tunjung; Poth, Aaron G; Mylne, Joshua S; Craik, David J


    MCoTI-I and MCoTI-II (short for Momordica cochinchinensis Trypsin Inhibitor-I and -II, respectively) are attractive candidates for developing novel intracellular-targeting drugs because both are exceptionally stable and can internalize into cells. These seed-derived cystine knot peptides are examples of how natural product discovery efforts can lead to biomedical applications. However, discovery efforts are sometimes hampered by the limited availability of seed materials, highlighting the need for efficient extraction methods. In this study, we assessed five extraction methods using M. cochinchinensis seeds, a source of well-characterized cystine knot peptides. The most efficient extraction of nine known cystine knot peptides was achieved by a method based on acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1), followed by methods based on sodium acetate (20 mM, pH 5.0), ammonium bicarbonate (5 mM, pH 8.0), and boiling water. On average, the yields obtained by these four methods were more than 250-fold higher than that obtained using dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extraction, a previously applied standard method. Extraction using acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1) yielded the highest number of reconstructed masses within the majority of plant-derived cystine knot peptide mass range but only accounted for around 50% of the total number of masses, indicating that any single method may result in under-sampling. Applying acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1), boiling water, and ammonium bicarbonate (5 mM, pH 8.0) extractions either successively or discretely significantly increased the sampling number. Overall, acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1) can facilitate efficient extraction of cystine-knot peptides from M. cochinchinensis seeds but for discovery purposes the use of a combination of extraction methods is recommended where practical. PMID:24613804

  2. Improved solvent extraction recovery of shale oil. [DOE patent application

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.F.; Chong, S.L.


    An improved process for solvent extraction of organic matter from shale by two extraction steps in sequence. The extraction steps are: (1) treating a kerogen-containing shale with a solvent system comprising a combination of water and an alcohol at a temperature of about 375 to 425/sup 0/C; and (2) treating the product of (1) with a solvent system comprising a combination of an alcohol and another organic solvent at an elevated temperature, but not above about 425/sup 0/C. The organic matter is recovered by separating the liquid which results from step (2) from the shale solids.

  3. Mutual solubility study in supercritical fluid extraction of tocopherols from crude palm oil using CO₂solvent.


    Davarnejad, Reza; Ahmad, Zainal; Sata, Suhairi A; Moraveji, Mostafa Keshavarz; Ahmadloo, Farzaneh


    In this article, the mutual solubility of tocopherols from crude palm oil was studied using carbon dioxide as a solvent at the temperatures of 80, 100 and 120 °C. Each sample from the phase equilibrium unit contained two parts. The liquid part was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in order to measure the tocopherol composition and, on the other hand, the vapor phase was conducted in an expansion vessel in order to measure the pressure increment during the expansion process. Two phase equilibrium data was calculated using the liquid phase composition and pressure increments during the expansion process. Results showed that the maximum solubility of tocopherols was around 2.27% at a temperature of 120 °C and at pressure of 5.44 MPa. PMID:21152291

  4. Mutual Solubility Study in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Tocopherols from Crude Palm Oil Using CO2 Solvent

    PubMed Central

    Davarnejad, Reza; Ahmad, Zainal; Sata, Suhairi A.; Moraveji, Mostafa Keshavarz; Ahmadloo, Farzaneh


    In this article, the mutual solubility of tocopherols from crude palm oil was studied using carbon dioxide as a solvent at the temperatures of 80, 100 and 120 °C. Each sample from the phase equilibrium unit contained two parts. The liquid part was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in order to measure the tocopherol composition and, on the other hand, the vapor phase was conducted in an expansion vessel in order to measure the pressure increment during the expansion process. Two phase equilibrium data was calculated using the liquid phase composition and pressure increments during the expansion process. Results showed that the maximum solubility of tocopherols was around 2.27% at a temperature of 120 °C and at pressure of 5.44 MPa. PMID:21152291

  5. Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents


    Nunez, Luis; Vandergrift, George F.


    A process for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents.

  6. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.


    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid


    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry. PMID:26964955

  7. Insight of solvent extraction process: Reassessment of trace level determinations.


    Chandramouleeswaran, S; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Basu, M


    Solvent extraction is hoary yet modern technique with great scope of research due to the various intriguing phenomena in the system. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a well known extractant which has been extensively used for separation of uranium matrix prior to elemental profiling. In this paper, one of the impurities namely Fe is being considered as it posed a challenge to the separation due to its co-extraction with TBP along with uranium. In these studies, for the first time, the existence of cation-cation inner sphere complexes between the UO2(2+)and Fe(3+) ions in both aqueous and organic phases have been establisted in addition to the selective separation of iron from uranium sample matrix using only TBP. The data from both spectrophotometric and thermophysical studies corroborated one another confirming the presence of cation-cation interactions (CCIs). The developed solvent extraction with only TBP showed almost no interferences on the iron extraction from matrix uranium and other co-ions like aluminum and copper. This has been the first time application of pure TBP for selective removal of iron from uranium samples. The procedure possessed excellent reproducibility and robustness. PMID:27619094

  8. Comparison of Extraction Solvents and Techniques Used for the Assay of Isoflavones from Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of extraction solvents and techniques on the assay of isoflavones from soybean was investigated. This systematic study was undertaken to address substantial variations in the solvents and procedures used for the extraction of isoflavones from soybeans by different research groups as descr...

  9. Solvent Extraction External Radiation Stability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.


    Personnel irradiated a number of samples of calixarene-based solvent. Analysis of these samples indicated that measurable loss of the calixarene occurred at very high doses (-16 Mrad). No measurable loss of the Cs-7SB modifier occurred at equivalent doses. The primary degradation product, 4-sec-butylphenol, observed during analysis of the samples came from degradation of the modifier. Also, TOA proved more susceptible to damage than the other components of the solvent. The total degradation of the solvent proved relatively minor. The consistent solvent performance, as indicated by the measured D Cs values, after exposure at high total doses serves as evidence of the relatively low degree of degradation of the solvent components. Additional tests employing internal irradiation of solvents with both simulants and SRS tank waste will be completed by the end of March 2001 to provide confirmation of the results presented herein.

  10. Optimal extraction and fingerprinting of carotenoids by accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.


    Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh; Kundu, Aditi; Sharma, Khushbu; Paul, Ranjit Kumar


    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is applied for the extraction of carotenoids from orange carrot and the extraction parameters were optimized. Two carotenoids, lutein and β-carotene, are selected as the validation process. Hildebrand solubility parameters and dielectric constant of solvents were taken into consideration in selecting solvent mixture. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as temperature, static time, drying agent etc., on the ASE extraction efficiency are investigated systematically. Interactions among the variables were also studied. Furthermore, two carotenoids were analyzed and characterized by LC-ESI MS. The study concluded that Hildebrand solubility parameter approach may be applicable for less polar bioactive molecules like carotenoids. The properties of solvent and extraction temperature are found to be the most important parameters affecting the ASE extraction efficiency of thermolabile natural compounds. PMID:25660899

  11. Sequential accelerated solvent extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different solvents: performance and implication.


    Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong; Gong, Jian; Chen, Diyun


    Sixteen USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted by Soxhlet extraction (S-PAHs) with dichloromethane and routine accelerated solvent extraction (A-PAHs) with 1:1 toluene/methanol, respectively, were investigated in 24 soil samples from two cities in the center of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methylphenanthrene and perylene, in two soils, two sediments, and an immature oil shale were also sequentially extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. The A-PAHs' concentrations are 2.41 times the S-PAHs' concentrations. For sequential three ASEs, PAHs in the first extract account for 56 to 67% of their total concentrations in the sequential three extractions and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four solvents. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs in Soxhlet extraction, routine ASE, and sequential ASE with each solvent for a given sample are very similar, suggesting their identical petrogenic and pyrogenic sources in the soils and sediments. But the PAH ratios for the shale have an obvious petrogenic origin. The perylene/5-ring PAH ratios indicate a diagenetic source, especially in the shale and sediments. The correlation analysis shows that A-PAHs/S-PAHs is better associated with the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) than those of black carbon (BC). The above results indicate the significant petrogenic origin of PAHs and the important effect of organic matter on their extraction and distribution in the investigated field soils/sediments. PMID:21284305

  12. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.


    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  13. Calculating the inventory of solvent extraction columns for material balances without shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R.J.; Davenport, L.C.; Richardson, G.L.


    This study demonstrates a feasible way to determine the nuclear material inventory of solvent extraction columns for calculating material balances without process shutdowns. An existing computer code, SEPHIS, was used to calculate the inventories in the solvent extraction cycles of a uranium recovery process. The applicability of the method was tested using published data on the uranium concentration profiles of solvent extraction pulse columns. The application of this method to the extraction cycles of the uranium recovery process is presented for daily uranium loss monitoring over those process units.



    Moore, R.L.


    An organic solvent mixure is described for extracting actinides from aqueous solutions; the solvent mixture consists of from 10 to 25% by volume of tributyl phosphate and the remainder a chlorine-fluorine-substituted saturated hydrocarbon having two carbon atoms in the molecule.

  15. Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions for Solvent Extraction Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.


    Personnel will need to routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste for solvent extraction testing. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.


    EPA Science Inventory

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was demonstrated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of PCE (tetrachloroethylene) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site...

  17. [Extraction characteristics of sequential accelerated solvent extraction for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental mediums].


    Ma, Xiao-xuan; Ran, Yong


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two soils, two sediments and an shale from the Pearl River Delta were extracted by sequential accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. PAHs in the first extract accounts for more than half of their total contents, and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four employed solvents. For a given sample the source diagnostic ratios of PAHs in sequential ASE with each solvent are very similar, suggesting the validity of those ratios in source judgement by different extraction methods. PMID:20187409

  18. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tara E.; Scherman, Carl; Martin, David; Suggs, Patricia


    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  19. Studies on solvent extraction of iron(III) as a step for conversion of a waste effluent to a value added product.


    Agrawal, Archana; Kumari, S; Sahu, K K


    Solvent extraction of iron(III) from actual sulphate waste pickle liquor was investigated using trialkylphosphine oxide diluted with kerosene. The waste pickle liquor was procured from a local company which deals with the manufacturing of pipes and tubes made of iron and steel. Various parameters were studied to optimise a suitable condition for the maximum extraction of iron. The composition of the aqueous feed used in the experiment was 60.88 g/L Fe(III), 53 g/L acid with traces of Cu, Ni and Co. An ambient extraction at 30 °C yielded acceptable kinetics and loading efficiency for 40% trialkylphosphine oxide with a saturated loading capacity of 51.85 g/L in four contacts at O/A ratio of 1/1 in a multiple contact mode. Iron from the loaded organic was stripped using various strippants such as distilled water, H(2)SO(4) and oxalic acid. Since only 32% of loaded Fe could be stripped with 2 M H(2)SO(4) in five contacts, further stripping was done with 5% oxalic acid which showed a very promising result. It was found that almost 100% of Fe(III) could be stripped out with 5% oxalic acid at O/A of 1/1 in five contacts. PMID:21862202

  20. Comparative study of thermal desorption and solvent extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis for the quantification of phthalates in polymers.


    Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Young-Min; Moon, Hye Mi; Hosaka, Akihiko; Watanabe, Chuichi; Teramae, Norio; Choe, Eun Kyung; Myung, Seung-Woon


    For the quantitative analysis of phthalates in polymers, a thermal desorption (TD)-GC-MS method was compared with solvent extraction (SE)-GC-MS methods which require the long pretreatment procedures using large amount of harmful organic solvents. Calibration curves of TD-GC-MS showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9997) and low method detection limit (<30mg/kg with 9.0% RSD). Quantification results for three kinds of test phthalate polymer samples (test PTPSs) showed an RSD below 7.4% and acceptable recoveries (78.3-117.4%) as in the standard method of International Electrotechnical Commission. Even in a sample with a high concentration of phthalates (PTPS #3), the method also showed good recovery with low RSD values. The TD-GC-MS results were comparable with those results by SE-GC-MS methods, indicating that TD-GC-MS method also can be used for the quantification of phthalates in polymers. The average recovery (92-103%) and RSD (<20%) values obtained from international inter-laboratory study for TD-GC-MS performed in six laboratories also indicated that TD-GC-MS can be used as an international standard method for the quantification of phthalates in polymers. PMID:27207579


    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.


    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign}, Tefzel{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign}) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of the guanidine suppressor and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that guanidine (LIX{reg_sign}79) selectively affected Tefzel{reg_sign} (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel{reg_sign} and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of guanidine. Tefzel{reg_sign} is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to guanidine, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel{reg_sign}) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel{reg_sign} in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel{reg_sign} seating material. PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign} were not affected by guanidine and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The

  2. Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, A.B.


    This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo0/sub 3/).

  3. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants


    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.


    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  4. Deep eutectic solvents as novel extraction media for protein partitioning.


    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Ding, Xueqin; Chen, Jing; Xu, Kaijia


    Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvent (DES) were synthesized, including choline chloride (ChCl)-urea, tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl)-urea, tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPMBr)-urea and ChCl-methylurea. An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) based ChCl-urea DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of BSA was influenced by the mass of the DES, concentration of K2HPO4 solution, separation time and extraction temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through an orthogonal experiment with the four factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the average extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.94%, 99.72%, 100.05% and 100.05% (each measured three times). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision, repeatability and stability experiments were 0.5533% (n = 5), 0.8306% (n = 5) and 0.9829% (n = 5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and the DES in the extraction process, and the CD spectra proved that the conformation of BSA did not change after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding interactions and the salting-out effect played important roles in the transfer process, and the aggregation and surrounding phenomenon were the main driving forces for the separation. All of these results proved that ionic liquid (IL)-based ATPSs could potentially be substituted with DES-based ATPSs to offer new possibilities in the extraction of proteins. PMID:24699681

  5. Recovery of catechin compounds from Korean tea by solvent extraction.


    Row, Kyung Ho; Jin, Yinzhe


    Catechin compounds from Korean green tea as potential sources of anticancer and antioxidant components were target materials in this work. The methodologies of solvent extraction and partition were utilized to recover catechin compounds from green tea. The optimum experimental condition was obtained by optimizing operating factors, such as, the extraction solvent, extraction time and operating temperature. After extracting the green tea with water at 80 degrees C for 40 min, the extract was partitioned with water/chloroform, which was best suited to remove caffeine impurity from the extract. Further, the resulting extract was partitioned water/ethyl acetate to deeply purify the catechin compounds of EGC, EC, EGCG and ECG. The experimental result in this work could be extended to preparative HPLC to obtain EGCG on commercial scale. PMID:15919205

  6. Accelerated solvent extraction of alkylresorcinols in food products containing uncooked and cooked wheat.


    Holt, Monte D; Moreau, Robert A; DerMarderosian, Ara; McKeown, Nicola; Jacques, Paul F


    This research focuses on the overall extraction process of alkylresorcinols (ARs) from uncooked grains and baked products that have been processed with wheat, corn, rice, and white flour. Previously established extraction methods developed by Ross and colleagues, as well as a semiautomated method involving accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), were applied to extract ARs within freshly ground samples. For extraction of alkylresorcinols, nonpolar solvents such as ethyl acetate have been recommended for the extraction of uncooked foods, and polar solvents such as 1-propanol:water (3:1 v/v) have been recommended for the extraction of baked foods that contain rye, wheat, or other starch-rich grains. A comparison of AR extraction methods has been investigated with the application of gas chromatography and a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to quantify the AR content. The goal of this research was to compare the rapid accelerated solvent extraction of the alkylresorcinols (ASE-AR) method to the previous manual AR extraction methods. Results for this study as well as the investigation of the overall efficiency of ASE-AR extraction with the use of a spiking study indicated that it can be comparable to current extraction methods but with less time required. Furthermore, the extraction time for ASE (approximately 40 min) is much more convenient and less tedious and time-consuming than previously established methods, which range from 5 h for processed foods to 24 h for raw grains. PMID:22530555

  7. Degradation problems with the solvent extraction organic at Roessing uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Munyungano, Brodrick; Feather, Angus; Virnig, Michael


    Roessing Uranium Ltd recovers uranium from a low-grade ore in Namibia. Uranium is recovered and purified from an ion-exchange eluate in a solvent-extraction plant. The solvent-extraction plant uses Alamine 336 as the extractant for uranium, with isodecanol used as a phase modifier in Sasol SSX 210, an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent. Since the plant started in the mid 1970's, there have been a few episodes where the tertiary amine has been quickly and severely degraded when the plant was operated outside certain operating parameters. The Rossing experience is discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  8. A new model for solvent extraction in columns

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Vandegrift, G.F.


    A new model was developed for analyzing solvent extraction processes carried out in columns. Each column is treated as a series of well-defined equilibrium stages where the backmixing (other-phase carryover) between stages can be large. By including all mass transfer effects in the backmixing value, the same number of stages can be used for all extracted components no matter what their distribution coefficients. This greatly simplifies the calculations required when modeling multicomponent solvent extraction processes. Initial testing shows the new model to be better than either the Height of an Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) or the Height of a Transfer Unit (HTU) method.


    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.


    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  10. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  11. Comparing an ionic liquid to a molecular solvent in the cesium cation extraction by a calixarene: a molecular dynamics study of the aqueous interfaces.


    Sieffert, Nicolas; Wipff, Georges


    We report a molecular dynamics (MD) study of the interfacial behavior of key partners involved in the Cs(+) cation extraction by a calix[4]arene-crown-6 host (L), comparing an ionic liquid (IL) to a classical molecular solvent (chloroform) as receiving "oil" phase. The IL is composed of hydrophobic 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cations (BMI(+)) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions (Tf(2)N(-)) and forms a biphasic system with water. The simulations reveal similarities but also interesting differences between the two types of interfaces. Much longer times are needed to "equilibrate" IL systems, compared to classical liquid mixtures, and there is more intersolvent mixing with the IL than with chloroform, especially concerning the water-in-oil content. There is also some excess of the BMI(+) cations over the Tf(2)N(-) anions in the aqueous phase. Simulations on the Na(+)NO(3)(-) and Cs(+)NO(3)(-) ions show that they sometimes interact at the interface with the IL ions, forming hydrated intimate ion pairs, whereas they are "repelled" by the classical interface. The LCs(+) complex and L ligand also behave differently, depending on the "oil phase". They are better solvated by the IL than by chloroform and thus poorly attracted at the IL interface, whereas they adsorb at the chloroform interface, adopting well-defined amphiphilic orientations. The results are discussed in the context of assisted ion transfer and provide a number of arguments explaining the specificity and efficiency of IL based, compared to classical extraction systems. PMID:17004811

  12. Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G.; Coutinho, João A. P.


    In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as solvents for the extraction of natural compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, among others, are outlined. The extraction techniques employed, namely solid–liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, are emphasized and discussed in terms of extraction yields and purification factors. Furthermore, the evaluation of the IL chemical structure and the optimization of the process conditions (IL concentration, temperature, biomass–solvent ratio, etc.) are critically addressed. Major conclusions on the role of the ILs towards the extraction mechanisms and improved extraction yields are additionally provided. The isolation and recovery procedures of the value-added compounds are ascertained as well as some scattered strategies already reported for the IL solvent recovery and reusability. Finally, a critical analysis on the economic impact versus the extraction performance of IL-based methodologies was also carried out and is here presented and discussed. PMID:25516718



    Cooley, C.R.


    The patented extraction apparatus includes a column, perforated plates extending across the column, liquid pulse means connected to the column, and an imperforate spiral ribbon along the length of the column.



    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.


    A process is given for separating lanthanide rare earths from each other from an aqueous mineral acid solution, e.g., hydrochloric or nitric acid of a concentration of above 3 M, preferably 12 to 16 M, by extraction with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate, such as tributyl phosphate or a mixture of mono-, di- and tributyl phosphate, and fractional back-extraction with mineral acid whereby the lanthanides are taken up by the acid in the order of increasing atomic number.

  15. Natural deep eutectic solvents as a new extraction media for phenolic metabolites in Carthamus tinctorius L.


    Dai, Yuntao; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae


    Developing green solvents with low toxicity and cost is an important issue for the biochemical industry. Synthetic ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have received considerable attention due to their negligible volatility at room temperature, high solubilization ability, and tunable selectivity. However, the potential toxicity of the synthetic ionic liquids and the solid state at room temperature of most deep eutectic solvents hamper their application as extraction solvents. In this study, a wide range of recently discovered natural ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents (NADES) composed of natural compounds were investigated for the extraction of phenolic compounds of diverse polarity. Safflower was selected as a case study because its aromatic pigments cover a wide range of polarities. Many advantageous features of NADES (such as their sustainability, biodegradability combined with acceptable pharmaceutical toxicity profiles, and their high solubilization power of both polar and nonpolar compounds) suggest their potential as green solvents for extraction. Experiments with different NADES and multivariate data analysis demonstrated that the extractability of both polar and less polar metabolites was greater with NADES than conventional solvents. The water content in NADES proved to have the biggest effect on the yield of phenolic compounds. Most major phenolic compounds were recovered from NADES with a yield between 75% and 97%. This study reveals the potential of NADES for applications involving the extraction of bioactive compounds from natural sources. PMID:23710664

  16. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.


    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah


    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23099617

  17. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems


    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; Heller, William T.


    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rgmore » is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.« less

  18. Solvent extraction of polychlorinated organic compounds from porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, V.M.


    A method of reducing the level of hexachlorinated organic compounds selected from hexachloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorobenzene, or mixtures thereof to a non-hazardous level in a solid, porous DERAKANE vinyl ester resin, which has been previously used as the material of construction of a cell to produce chlorine, which vinyl ester resin was in contact with chlorine during chlorine manufacture is descried which comprises: (a) contacting the hexachlorinated compound-containing porous vinyl ester resin with an extraction solvent wherein the extraction solvent is selected from chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethane, methyl chloroform, tetrachloroethane, perchloroethylene, benzene, toluene, xylene, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, or mixtures thereof, at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the absorbed hexachlorinated organic compound; and (b) separating the hexachlorianated organic compound-containing extraction solvent and vinyl ester resin.

  19. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material


    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Avgerinos, George C.


    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about and about C. and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours.

  20. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material


    Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.


    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

  1. SXLSQA. For the Interpretation of Solvent Extraction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. Jr; Moyer, B.A.


    SXLSQA models solvent extraction systems involving an acidic and/or a neutral reagent in an organic solvent that can extract from an aqueous solution one or two cations in addition to H plus and one or two anions in addition to OH minus. In modelling data, any number of product species can be assumed to form in either phase. Activity coefficients of species in the aqueous phase can be calculated by the Pitzer treatment and in the organic phase by Hildebrand-Scott treatment.

  2. Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: Supramolecular Aspects of Solvent Exchange Volume 21

    SciTech Connect

    Gloe, Karsten; Tasker, Peter A; Oshima, Tatsuya; Watarai, Hitoshi; Nilsson, Mikael


    Preface The theme of supramolecular chemistry (SC), entailing the organization of multiple species through noncovalent interactions, has permeated virtually all aspects of chemical endeavor over the past several decades. Given that the observed behavior of discrete molecular species depends upon their weak interactions with one another and with matrix components, one would have to conclude that SC must indeed form part of the fabric of chemistry itself. A vast literature now serves to categorize SC phenomena within a body of consistent terminology. The word supramolecular itself appears in the titles of dozens of books, several journals, and a dedicated encyclopedia. Not surprisingly, the theme of SC also permeates the field of solvent extraction (SX), inspiring the framework for this volume of Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction. It is attempted in the six chapters of this volume to identify both how supramolecular behavior occurs and is studied in the context of SX and how SC is influencing the current direction of SX. Researchers and practitioners have long dealt with supramolecular interactions in SX. Indeed, the use of polar extractant molecules in nonpolar media virtually assures that aggregative interactions will dominate the solution behavior of SX. Analytical chemists working in the 1930s to the 1950s with simple mono- and bidentate chelating ligands as extractants noted that extraction of metal ions obeyed complicated mass-action equilibria involving complex stoichiometries. As chemists and engineers developed processes for nuclear and hydrometallurgical applications in the 1950s and 1960s, the preference for aliphatic diluents only enhanced the complexity and supramolecular nature of extraction chemistry. Use of physical techniques such as light scattering and vapor-pressure measurements together with various spectroscopic methods revealed organic-phase aggregates from well-defined dimers to small aggregates containing a few extractant molecules to large

  3. A Fluorous Biphasic Solvent Extraction System for Lanthanides with a Fluorophilic β-Diketone Type Extractant.


    Nakamura, Etsuko; Hiruta, Yuki; Watanabe, Takafumi; Iwasawa, Naoko; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji


    The properties of a fluorous solvent extraction system for trivalent lanthanide metal ions are reported. A fluorinated extractant, 4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,9-tridecafluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-nonanedione, and HFE-7200 (C4F9OC2H5) as the extraction solvent were chosen. With this fluorous extractant/solvent combination, higher extraction ratios and separation factors compared to a conventional organic solvent system (thenoyltrifluoroacetone in CHCl3) were achieved for 5 heavy lanthanide ions (Lu, Yb, Tm, Er and Ho). On the other hand, light lanthanide ions (Nd, Pr, Ce and La) are hardly extracted, therefore enabling the mutual separation of light lanthanides from middle or heavy lanthanide ions. PMID:26353959

  4. Supercritical Fluid Extraction versus Traditional Solvent Extraction of Caffeine from Tea Leaves: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Peter M.; Larkin, Judith E.; Pines, Harvey A.; Berchou, Kelly; Wierchowski, Elizabeth; Marconi, Andrew; Suriani, Allison


    In this case-based laboratory, an instrument sales person attempts to convince an analysis laboratory of the virtues of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The sales person deals directly with the laboratory technicians who will make the decision. Arrangements are made to have SFE instrumentation brought into the laboratory for a comparative…


    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot scale demonstration of the Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was conducted at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site restoration, which combines an active in situ...

  6. Process for separation of the rare earths by solvent extraction


    Mason, George W.; Lewey, Sonia


    Production rates for solvent extraction separation of the rare earths and yttrium from each other can be improved by the substitution of di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid for di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid does not form an insoluble polymer at approximately 50% saturation as does the former extractant, permitting higher feed solution concentration and thus greater throughput.

  7. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.


    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.


    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  9. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation: Demonstration Bulletin: Organic Extraction Utilizing Solvents

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology utilizes liquified gases as the extracting solvent to remove organics, such as hydrocarbons, oil and grease, from wastewater or contaminated sludges and soils. Carbon dioxide is generally used for aqueous solutions, and propane is used for sediment, sludges and ...

  10. Pressurized solvent extraction of pure food grade starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercial pressurized solvent extractor was used to remove lipid and non-lipid material from cornstarch using n-propanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures. Yields and chemical composition of the extract fractions were determined. Cornstarch samples were characterized using pasting properties and...

  11. Understanding wash efficiency and chloride transfer in copper solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, D. J.


    Carryover of entrained aqueous from primary leaching operations into copper electrowinning electrolytes introduces impurities that can affect cathode quality and cause corrosion. As a result, more operations are introducing wash stages in their solvent extraction circuits in an attempt to dilute these entrainments with high-quality water.

  12. Application of natural deep eutectic solvents to the extraction of anthocyanins from Catharanthus roseus with high extractability and stability replacing conventional organic solvents.


    Dai, Yuntao; Rozema, Evelien; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae


    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent times as promising green media. They are generally composed of neutral, acidic or basic compounds that form liquids of high viscosity when mixed in certain molar ratio. Despite their potential, viscosity and acid or basic nature of some ingredients may affect the extraction capacity and stabilizing ability of the target compounds. To investigate these effects, extraction with a series of NADES was employed for the analysis of anthocyanins in flower petals of Catharanthus roseus in combination with HPLC-DAD-based metabolic profiling. Along with the extraction yields of anthocyanins their stability in NADES was also studied. Multivariate data analysis indicates that the lactic acid-glucose (LGH), and 1,2-propanediol-choline chloride (PCH) NADES present a similar extraction power for anthocyanins as conventional organic solvents. Furthermore, among the NADES employed, LGH exhibits an at least three times higher stabilizing capacity for cyanidins than acidified ethanol, which facilitates their extraction and analysis process. Comparing NADES to the conventional organic solvents, in addition to their reduced environmental impact, they proved to provide higher stability for anthocyanins, and therefore have a great potential as possible alternatives to those organic solvents in health related areas such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. PMID:26822320

  13. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of solvent from micromachined structures

    SciTech Connect

    Russick, E.M.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Dyck, C.W.


    We have demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide extraction can be used for solvent removal to successfully release compliant surface micromachined structures on silicon wafers developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Structures that have been successfully extracted and released include single gear microengines, bridge and cantilever beams, pressure transducers, and experimental comb drive actuators. Since the supercritical fluid has negligible surface tension, it has virtually unabated access to solvent residing in capillary-like spaces as narrow as 1--3 {mu}m under the micromachined features. While conventional drying techniques have been plagued with the collapse and sticking of micromachined structures due to surface tension effects, supercritical carbon dioxide has been shown to reproducibly dry components and test structures, including bridge and cantilever beams approaching 1000 {mu}m in length, without collapsing. The equipment and the extraction process are described, and photographs of supercritically dried test structures and components are presented.


    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A


    The remarkable development of solvent-extraction (SX) chemistry for caesium separation over the past half a century as driven by the needs of the nuclear industry now constitutes an instructive case study in exploring the limits of selectivity and cycle efficiency in SX. In this review, key milestones in the pursuit of both fundamentals and applications of caesium extraction will be highlighted along with a look at future prospects. The high-yield fission-product 137Cs constitutes a major fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear wastes, and in view of its heat production, environmental mobility, radiation hazard, and even uses as a radiation source, methods have long been sought for its separation. Toward this end, the evolving science has been challenged by daunting requirements for decontamination in the presence of high concentrations of competing cations, and demands for small footprint, modular design, and high throughput place a premium on selectivity and efficiency. Fortunately, the science has also benefited from the peculiar economics of nuclear separations, which have afforded the development of wonderfully sophisticated reagents. With its location in the lower left side of the periodic table, the Cs+ cation has the distinction of having the lowest charge density of any metal cation except short-lived francium. For practical purposes, Cs+ is thus the least hydrated and, in principle, the most directly extractable metal cation. Technologies employing liquid-liquid cation exchange with very large, durable anions like those from the dicarbollide family have therefore been quite effective based solely on solvation principles. Alternatively, researchers have turned to macrocyclic coordinating extractants, such as calix-crown ethers, following principles of molecular recognition, with dramatic results. Overall, strides continue along these lines, though it is apparent that caesium SX has reached a state of excellent fundamental understanding and technical

  15. Microfluidic Extraction of Biomarkers using Water as Solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Manohara, Harish; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran


    A proposed device, denoted a miniature microfluidic biomarker extractor (mu-EX), would extract trace amounts of chemicals of interest from samples, such as soils and rocks. Traditionally, such extractions are performed on a large scale with hazardous organic solvents; each solvent capable of dissolving only those molecules lying within narrow ranges of specific chemical and physical characteristics that notably include volatility, electric charge, and polarity. In contrast, in the mu-EX, extractions could be performed by use of small amounts (typically between 0.1 and 100 L) of water as a universal solvent. As a rule of thumb, in order to enable solvation and extraction of molecules, it is necessary to use solvents that have polarity sufficiently close to the polarity of the target molecules. The mu-EX would make selection of specific organic solvents unnecessary, because mu-EX would exploit a unique property of liquid water: the possibility of tuning its polarity to match the polarity of organic solvents appropriate for extraction of molecules of interest. The change of the permittivity of water would be achieved by exploiting interactions between the translational states of water molecules and an imposed electromagnetic field in the frequency range of 300 to 600 GHz. On a molecular level, these interactions would result in disruption of the three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network among liquid-water molecules and subsequent solvation and hydrolysis of target molecules. The mu-EX is expected to be an efficient means of hydrolyzing chemical bonds in complex macromolecules as well and, thus, enabling analysis of the building blocks of these complex chemical systems. The mu-EX device would include a microfluidic channel, part of which would lie within a waveguide coupled to an electronically tuned source of broad-band electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from 300 to 600 GHz (see figure). The part of the microfluidic channel lying in the waveguide would

  16. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaseelan, E Christy; Jenothiny, S; Pathmanathan, MK; Jeyadevan, JP


    Objective To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Methods Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals. Results Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/100 µl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower. Conclusions The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents. PMID:23569850


    EPA Science Inventory

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means of extracting arsenicals from ribbon kelp. Objective was to investigate effect of experimentally controllable ASE parameters (pressure, temperature, static time and solvent composition) on extr...

  18. Anticomplement activity of organic solvent extracts from Korea local Amarantaceae spp.


    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In


    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of nine Amarantaceae plants (Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Celosia argentea var. spicata., Amaranthus lividus L., Celosia cristata L., Amaranthus viridis L., Gomphrena globosa L.) from South Korea on the classical pathway. We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from nine Amarantaceae plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the classical pathway. Achyranthes japonica chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) value of 73.1μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Amarantaceae plants. PMID:21736535

  19. Conventional, ultrasound-assisted, and accelerated-solvent extractions of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes.


    Cai, Zhan; Qu, Ziqian; Lan, Yu; Zhao, Shujuan; Ma, Xiaohua; Wan, Qiang; Jing, Pu; Li, Pingfan


    Purple sweet potatoes (PSPs) are rich in anthocyanins. In this study, we investigated the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins from PSPs using conventional extraction (CE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and accelerated-solvent extraction (ASE). Additionally, the effects of these extraction methods on antioxidant activity and anthocyanin composition of PSP extracts were evaluated. In order of decreasing extraction efficiency, the extraction methods were ASE>UAE>CE for anthocyanins (218-244 mg/100 g DW) and CE>UAE>ASE for total phenolics (631-955 mg/100 g DW) and flavonoids (28-40 mg/100 g DW). Antioxidant activities of PSP extracts were CE≈UAE>ASE for ORAC (766-1091 mg TE/100 g DW) and ASE>CE≈UAE for FRAP (1299-1705 mg TE/100 g DW). Twelve anthocyanins were identified. ASE extracts contained more diacyl anthocyanins and less nonacyl and monoacyl anthocyanins than CE and ASE extracts (P<0.05). PMID:26616949

  20. Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Yinhai; Cao, Zhengmei; Nie, Xinhua


    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p‧-DDT, p, p‧-DDT and p, p‧-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 µgg-1 to 0.004 µgg-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (>80.7%). With a mass selective detector, better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1:1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  1. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C.; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G.; Lee, Denise L.; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Roach, Benjamin D.; Szczygiel, Patricia L.; Frederick V. Sloop, Jr.; Stoner, Erica L.; Williams, Neil J.


    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  2. Simultaneous extraction of flavonoids from Chamaecyparis obtusa using deep eutectic solvents as additives of conventional extractions solvents.


    Tang, Baokun; Park, Ha Eun; Row, Kyung Ho


    Three flavones (quercetin, myricetin and amentoflavone) were extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa leaves using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as additives to conventional extractions solvents. Sixteen DESs were synthesized from different salts and hydrogen bond donors. In addition, C. obtusa was extracted under optimal conditions of methanol as the solvent in the heating process (60°C) for 120 min at a solid/liquid ratio of 80%. Under these optimal conditions, a good linear relationship was observed at analyte concentrations ranging from 5.0 to 200.0 μg/mL (R(2) > 0.999). The extraction recovery ranged from 96.7 to 103.3% with the inter- and intraday relative standard deviations of <4.97%. Under the optimal conditions, from C. obtusa, the quantities of quercetin, myricetin and amentoflavone extracted were 325.90, 8.66 and 50.34 µg/mL, respectively. Overall, DESs are expected to have a wide range of applications. PMID:25228687

  3. Solvent extraction of southern US tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available


    The socioeconomic aspects of the tar sands recovery were investigated by Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama conducted characterization and beneficiation studies on Alabama tar sands. Two sources in the state were identified, namely, Black Wax Hill and Spring Creek. Samples were obtained, beneficiated, then shared with the University of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas conducted research in three areas, namely, solvation and characterization of the tar sands phase equilibria as well as the design and operation of a bench-scale batch model. In the solvation studies, the results indicate that grinding the tar sands too fine results in downstream processing problems. Also, preliminary indications are that the beneficiation step may not be necessary in the solvation of the bitumen. The phase equilibria of the heptane/brine/isopropyl alcohol/XTOL{trademark} system is very complex. The salt concentration of the brine is significant in the partitioning of the isopropanol and heptane. Equilibrium data for some of the various combinations of chemical constituents have been obtained. Also included are appendices: statistical data on highways; petrography; Dean-Starke technique; FTIR and NMR spectra; FORTRAN computer program for GC; simulation of flash behavior for IPA/brine/fatty acid/N-C{sub 7} mixture; and previous progress reports. 32 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Process and apparatus for solvent extraction of oil from oil-containing diatomite ore

    SciTech Connect

    Karnofsky, G. B.


    A process for solvent extraction of oil from oil bearing diatomite ore and an apparatus for use therewith, wherein the ore is extracted by countercurrent decantation with a hydrocarbon solvent, solvent is recovered from the extract by multiple effect evaporation followed by stripping, and the spent diatomite is contacted with water to displace a major portion of the solvent therefrom, and solvent is recovered from the aqueous slurry of the spent diatomite by stripping with steam at superatmospheric pressure.

  5. Extraction of ethanol from aqueous solution. 2. A solvent more volatile than ethanol: Dichloromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, F.; Gomis, V.; Botella, R.F.


    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system water-ethanol-dichloromethane have been determined experimentally at 25/sup 0/C and correlated simultaneously with vapor-liquid equilibrium data by using the UNIQUAC model. A suitable extraction process for separating ethanol and water using dichloromethane as the solvent has been chosen, and the design calculations have been carried out to determine the energetic requirements. The properties that another solvent should offer to decrease these energetic requirements have been studied.

  6. A solvent extraction route for CaF2 hollow spheres.


    Guo, Fuqiang; Zhang, Zhifeng; Li, Hongfei; Meng, Shulan; Li, Deqian


    A solvent extraction route is proposed to synthesize CaF(2) hollow spheres, which are formed by reversed micelles in a solvent extraction system templating the self-assembly of CaF(2) nanoparticles. PMID:20877846

  7. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.; Sachleben, R.; Moyer, B.


    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process to remove the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline tank waste, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands on FY 1995`s successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from alkaline tank-waste solutions. This process now includes the capability of removing both technetium and strontium simultaneously. In this form, the process has been named SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing technetium, strontium, and cesium.

  8. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.


    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R


    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p < 0.05) on the %yield of SB, with R(2) - 0.8989 which showed good fitness of a second-order model. Based on this model, optima operating variables for the extraction process were established as: sample weight of 30.04 g, solvent volume of 346.04 ml and extraction time of 40 min, which gave 66.90 % yield of SB. Furthermore, the result of the physico-chemical properties obtained for the shea butter extracted using traditional method (SBT) showed that it is a more suitable raw material for food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil. PMID:26787993

  9. Influence of solvents on the composition of condensed tannins in grape pomace seed extracts.


    Bosso, Antonella; Guaita, Massimo; Petrozziello, Maurizio


    The extracting effectiveness of some solvents (water, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate), used as pure or in binary and ternary mixtures, was studied for the extraction of seeds from the fermented pomace of Nebbiolo cv. The aqueous mixtures of acetone provided the highest extraction yields in total polyphenols and total flavonoids. Polyphenolic extracts were also obtained with aqueous mixtures of ethanol or acetone at variable concentrations, and the condensed tannins were quantified with the phloroglucinolysis method. The aqueous mixtures of acetone were more effective than the corresponding aqueous mixtures of ethanol. The solvent influenced the extraction yield and the composition of the extracts: with the increase of the yield, the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the condensed tannins increased. A significant correlation was noticed between mDP and the molar percentages of (+)-catechin as terminal unit (negative correlation), and of (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-3O-gallate as extension units (positive correlation). PMID:27080893

  10. Investigation of HNO2 Production in Solvent Extraction Organic Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh R. Martin


    This document is a letter report that was prepared to meet FCR&D level 4 milestone M4FT-14IN0304054, “Investigate HNO2 production in solvent extraction organic phases.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Fundamental Radiation Chemistry FCR&D work package. This document reports on an initial tests performed to follow HNO2 formation in reference flowsheet relevant organic phases.

  11. Copper solvent extraction: The state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordosky, Gary A.


    Copper recovery by solvent extraction has progressed from a technology with limited application for copper recovery from dilute sulfuric acid leach solution to a technology with broad application for copper recovery from a variety of leach solutions. Reagent improvements have led the way, but they have been accompanied by innovations in leaching and improvements in electrowinning. Of particular interest is the fact that specialized reagents have been developed to meet the specific needs of certain leaching solutions.

  12. Vibrational spectroscopy for online monitoring of extraction solvent degradation products

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.; Robinson, T.; Bryan, S.A.; Levitskaia, T.G.


    In our research, we are exploring the potential of online monitoring of the organic solvents for the flowsheets relevant to the used nuclear fuel reprocessing and tributyl phosphate (TBP)- based extraction processes in particular. Utilization of vibrational spectroscopic techniques permits the discrimination of the degradation products from the primary constituents of the loaded extraction solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitates development of the regression models for their quantification in real time and potentially enables online implementation of a monitoring system. Raman and FTIR spectral databases were created and used to develop the regression partial least squares (PLS) chemometric models for the quantitative prediction of HDBP (dibutyl phosphoric acid) degradation product, TBP, and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} extraction organic product phase. It was demonstrated that both these spectroscopic techniques are suitable for the quantification of the Purex solvent components in the presence of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Developed PLS models successfully predicted HDBP and TBP organic concentrations in simulated Purex solutions.

  13. Characteristics and antioxidant of Ulva intestinalis sulphated polysaccharides extracted with different solvents.


    Peasura, Napassorn; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Wanlapa, Sorada


    Ulva intestinalis, a tubular green seaweed, is a rich source of nutrient, especially sulphated polysaccharides. Sulphated polysaccharides from U. intestinalis were extracted with distilled water, 0.1N HCl, and 0.1N NaOH at 80°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h to study the effect of the extraction solvent and time on their chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different types of solvents and extraction time had a significant influence on the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity (p<0.05). Monosaccharide composition and FT-IR spectra analyses revealed that sulphated polysaccharides from all solvent extractions have a typical sugar backbone (glucose, rhamnose, and sulphate attached at C-2 or C-3 of rhamnose). Sulphated polysaccharides extracted with acid exhibited greater antioxidant activity than did those extracted with distilled water and alkali. The results indicated that solvent extraction could be an efficacious method for enhancing antioxidant activity by distinct molecular weight and chemical characteristic of sulphated polysaccharides. PMID:26400737

  14. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid...

  15. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173... Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  16. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173... Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  17. Solvent extraction of cobalt from laterite-ammoniacal leach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, D.N.; Siemens, R.E.; Rhoads, S.C.


    The Bureau of Mines is developing a method to recover Ni, Co, and Cu from laterites containing less than 1.2% Ni and 0.25% Co. The method consists of the following basic unit operations: (1) reduction roasting, (2) leaching, (3) solvent extraction, and (4) electrowinning. The method reflects three Bureau of Mines objectives: (1) recovery of critical minerals that are domestically in short supply from low-grade domestic laterites, (2) lower processing energy requirements, and (3) solution recycling. This report deals with the extraction of cobalt and the preparation of a suitable cobalt electrolyte by solvent extraction from liquor produced by this method. Nickel and copper are coextracted with LIX64N from an ammoniacal ammonium sulfate leach liquor containing about 1.00 g/1 Ni, 0.30 g/1 Co, 0.03 g/1 Cu, and 0.02 g/1 Zn. Cobalt (III) in the nickel-copper barren raffinate is reduced to cobalt (II) with cobalt metal. Reduction of cobalt (III) to cobalt (II) greatly aids subsequent extraction. Commercially available XI-51 extracts about 94% of the cobalt from the treated raffinate in one stage in a laboratory mixer-settler continuous circuit. Ammonia loaded on the solvent is removed in two washing steps. About 94% of the cobalt then is stripped from the XI-51 in one stage with spent cobalt electrolyte containing about 77 g/1 Co and 18 g/1 sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). Electrolytes containing less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also may be used. Preliminary data indicate that coextracted zinc may be removed from pregnant cobalt electrolyte containing 3 g/1 or less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with di-(2 ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA).

  18. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia; Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi; Eckert, Franck


    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF{sub 3}-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids’ ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF{sub 3} were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  19. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia; Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Eckert, Franck; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi


    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF3-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids' ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF3 were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  20. Clean recovery of antioxidant flavonoids from onions: optimising solvent free microwave extraction method.


    Zill-E-Huma; Abert Vian, Maryline; Maingonnat, Jean Francois; Chemat, Farid


    A solvent free microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity extraction (MHG) of flavonol content from onion (Allium cepa L.) was studied. Effectiveness of this innovative method in extraction of onion total phenolic content, total quercetin (TQ), quercetin aglycon (QA), quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside (QDG), quercetin-4'-monoglucoside (Q4G), quercetin-3-monoglucoside (Q3G), kaempferol (KMF) and myricetin (MRT) have been evaluated and compared with conventional solvent extraction. Microwave extraction offers important advantages like shorter extraction time (23min), cleaner feature (no solvent or water used) and extraction of valuable onion crude juice retaining fresh organoleptic properties with higher phenolic content (58.29mgGAE/gDW) at optimized power (500W). Microwave extraction resulted significant yield (81.5%) with 41.9% of flavonol contents, with better retain of remaining flavonoids (55.9%) in residues of onions. QDG (239.7mg/100gDW) and Q4G (82.55mg/100gDW) have been reported the main flavonol in this study. Minor quantities of QA (traces), Q3G (4.22mg/100gDW) and KMF (3.99mg/100gDW) were also detected in microwave onion extracts. PMID:19800069

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.


    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd


    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  2. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  3. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, P.


    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste.

  4. Tailoring and recycling of deep eutectic solvents as sustainable and efficient extraction media.


    Jeong, Kyung Min; Lee, Min Sang; Nam, Min Woo; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kwon, Sung Won; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jeongmi


    The present study demonstrates that deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with the highest extractability can be designed by combining effective DES components from screening diverse DESs. The extraction of polar ginseng saponins from white ginseng was used as a way to demonstrate the tuneability as well as recyclability of DESs. A newly designed ternary DES (GPS-5) composed of glycerol, l-proline, and sucrose at 9:4:1 was used as a sustainable and efficient extraction medium. Based on the anti-tumor activity on HCT-116 cancer cells, it was confirmed that GPS-5 was merely an extraction solvent with no influence of the bioactivity of the ginsenosides extracted. Excellent recovery of the extracted saponins was easily achieved through solid-phase extraction (SPE). Recycling of the DES was accomplished by simple freeze-drying of the washed solutions from the SPE. The extraction efficiencies of the DESs recycled once, twice, and thrice were 92%, 85%, and 83% of that of the freshly synthesized solvent. PMID:26585205

  5. Mixed Ligand Complexes of N-Methyl-N-phenyl Dithiocarbamate: Synthesis, Characterisation, Antifungal Activity, and Solvent Extraction Studies of the Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Ekennia, Anthony C.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Ume, Cyril; Ebenso, Eno E.


    A series of mixed ligand dithiocarbamate complexes with a general formula [ML2(py)2], where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II), py = pyridine, and L = N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate have been prepared and characterised by elemental analysis, FTIR and Uv spectroscopy, magnetic moment, and thermogravimetric and conductance analysis. The infrared spectra showed that symmetrical bidentate coordination occurred with the dithiocarbamate moiety through the sulfur atoms, while neutral monodentate coordination occurred through the nitrogen atom for the pyridine molecule in the complexes. The electronic spectra, elemental analysis, and magnetic moment results proved that the complexes adopted octahedral geometry. The conductance measurement showed that the complexes are nonelectrolytes proving their nonionic nature. The compounds were screened for three human pathogenic fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. The cobalt complex showed the best antifungal activity among the test compounds. Liquid-liquid extractive abilities of the ligand towards copper and nickel ions in different solvent media were investigated. The ligand showed a strong binding affinity towards the metals ions with an extractive efficiency of about 99%. PMID:26543441


    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

  7. Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method.


    Tewfik, Ihab


    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (cyclobutanones) are accepted as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipid. However, current extraction procedures (Soxhlet-florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry identification. This paper outlines an alternative isolation and clean-up method for the extraction of cyclobutanones in irradiated Camembert cheese. The newly developed direct solvent extraction method enables the efficient screening of large numbers of food samples and is not as resource intensive as the BS EN 1785:1997 method. Direct solvent extraction appears to be a simple, robust method and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time for the analysis of foods containing lipid. PMID:19382334

  8. Highly efficient extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin using deep eutectic solvents as green and tunable media.


    Jeong, Kyung Min; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Heo, Seong Rok; Han, Se Young; Yoo, Da Eun; Lee, Jeongmi


    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as tunable, environmentally benign, yet superior extraction media to enhance the extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin, which is usually discarded as waste. Ten DESs containing choline chloride as hydrogen bond acceptor combined with different hydrogen bond donors were screened for high extraction efficiencies based on the anthocyanin extraction yields. As a result, citric acid, D-(+)-maltose, and fructose were selected as the effective DES components, and the newly designed DES, CM-6 that is composed of citric acid and D-(+)-maltose at 4:1 molar ratio, exhibited significantly higher levels of anthocyanin extraction yields than conventional extraction solvents such as 80% aqueous methanol. The final extraction method was established based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction under conditions optimized using response surface methodology. Its extraction yields were double or even higher than those of conventional methods that are time-consuming and use volatile organic solvents. Our method is truly a green method for anthocyanin extraction with great extraction efficiency using a minimal amount of time and solvent. Moreover, this study suggested that grape skin, the by-products of grape juice processing, could serve as a valuable source for safe, natural colorants or antioxidants by use of the eco-friendly extraction solvent, CM-6. PMID:26534763

  9. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.


    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad


    Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker. PMID:19553890

  10. Mechanism of electrodialytic ion transport through solvent extraction membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Moskvin, L.N.; Shmatko, A.G.; Krasnoperov, V.M.


    The authors construct a mathematical model for electrodialysis and solvent extraction via an ion-selective ion exchange membrane and accounts for the electrochemical, ion exchange, and diffusional behavior of the processes including their dependence on component concentration and current and voltage. The model is tested against experimental data for the electrodialytic transport of anionic platinum complexes of chlorides from hydrochloric acid solution through tributylphosphate membranes. The platinum concentration in the aqueous solution was determined by gamma spectroscopy obtained via platinum 191 as a radiotracer.



    Voiland, E.E.


    A process for separation of the uranium from zirconium and/or niobium values contained in 3 to 7M aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. This is accomplished by adding phosphoric acid anions to the nitric acid solution containing the uranium, zirconium, and/or niobium in an amount sufficient to make the solution 0.05 to 0.2M in phosphate ion and contacting the solution with an organic water-immiscible solvent such as MEK, whereby the uranyl values are taken up by the extract phase while the zirconium and niobium preferentially remain in the aqueous raffinate.

  12. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis


    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; Davis, Mark


    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts frommore » the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. In conclusion, diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.« less

  13. Deep eutectic solvents as novel extraction media for phenolic compounds from model oil.


    Gu, Tongnian; Zhang, Mingliang; Tan, Ting; Chen, Jia; Li, Zhan; Zhang, Qinghua; Qiu, Hongdeng


    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a new kind of green solvent were used for the first time to excellently extract phenolic compounds from model oil. It was also proved that DES could be used to extract other polar compounds from non-polar or weakly-polar solvents by liquid-phase microextraction. PMID:25144155

  14. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  15. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.


    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  16. Drop-interface coalescence rate in tertiary amine solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.; McDowell, W.J.


    An important requirement for economical application of solvent extraction technology is rapid and efficient phase disengagement. However, much progress toward a clear fundamental understanding of the factors that affect phase disengagement rate will be needed before a logical approach to the problem will be possible. In this paper, the conceptual framework for the study of drop-interface coalescence in collapsing liquid/liquid dispersions is developed and the details of the experimental setup employed in the initial work are presented. The method for determining the drop-interface coalescence rate requires measurement of the average volume of drops (v/sub f/) adjacent to the interface, their number (n) per unit area of interface, and dispersed-phase throughput (Q) per unit area. Recording videomicrography for measurement of v/sub f/ and n is employed while Q is found from the changing position of the major interface as the dispersion band collapses (batch mode). Experimental results are presented for the highly purified system 0.1 M trioctylamine in o-xylene vs 0.1 M HCl, 0.9 M LiCl. Successive batch phase-mixing runs (1:1 phase ratio) using this system produced highly reproducible results, attributed to the use of high-purity chemicals and noncontaminating cell construction materials. Wall effects were found to be negligible. The results indicated that the changing throughput observed in batch experiments is brought about not only by drop size growth rates, but also by drop packing behavior and the fact that drop-interface coalescence rate changes with time.

  17. Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran.


    Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V R; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V; Prince, M V; Raghavan, G S V


    Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different current values (5, 15 and 20 A) and with different concentration of sodium chloride (1 M, 0.1 M and 0.01 M) as conducting medium. The ohmically heated rice bran was subjected to extraction studies. Ohmic heating of rice bran of paddy varieties Red Triveni and Basmati reduced the extraction time by nearly 75 % and 70 % respectively and gave a maximum quantity of oil extracted when compared to bran, which was not ohmically heated. From the experiments with varying concentrations, residence time of ohmic heating and currents, it was found that ohmically heating the rice bran with 1 M sodium chloride solution and with a current value of 20 A for 3 min gave maximum oil extraction with minimum extraction time. PMID:25328213

  18. Application of deep eutectic solvents in the extraction and separation of target compounds from various samples.


    Tang, Baokun; Zhang, Heng; Row, Kyung Ho


    Deep eutectic solvents, as a new type of eco-friendly solvent, have attracted increasing attention in chemistry for the extraction and separation of target compounds from various samples. To summarize the application of deep eutectic solvents, this review highlights some of the unique properties of deep eutectic solvents and deep-eutectic-solvent-based materials, as well as their applications in extraction and separation. In this paper, the available data and references in this field are reviewed to summarize the application developments of deep eutectic solvents. Based on the development of deep eutectic solvents, the exploitation of new deep eutectic solvents and deep-eutectic-solvent-based materials are expected to diversify into extraction and separation. PMID:25581398

  19. Influence of the amine salt anion on the synergic solvent extraction of praseodymium with mixtures of chelating extractants and tridodecylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M.


    The solvent extraction of Pr with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (HTTA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one(HP) and tridodecylammonium salt (TDAHA,A{sup -} = Cl{sup -},NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species has been determined as Pr(TTA){sub 3} TDAHA and TDAH{sup +}[PrP{sub 4}]{sup -}. The values of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated. The extraction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the experimental data. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Homogeneous liquid-liquid solvent extraction. [Propylene carbonate-water system

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, C.S.; Williams, E.T.; Finston, H.L.


    This investigation was undertaken to extend the technique of homogeneous liquid-liquid solvent extraction into propylene carbonate. The mutual solubilities of propylene carbonate in water and vice-versa are shown in the phase diagram. The extraction of a variety of monodentate and bidentate ligand complexes with Fe(III) as a function of ligand concentration and pH were investigated. The monodentate ligands studied include, thiocyanate, chloride, bromide, benzoate, and bathophenanthrolines. The bidentate ligands studied include the various ..beta..-diketones, 8-quinolinol, and also cupferron which was studied under normal conditions, i.e., not under conditions of homogeneous extraction. The homogeneous extraction proved effective for a variety of chelate complexes and ion association complexes of iron giving, in all cases, very rapid extraction as compared with the slow rate of conventional extraction methods.

  1. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting.


    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian


    As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n=3), 1.6057% (n=3) and 1.6132% (n=3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV-vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES-protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins. PMID:25732422

  2. Recovery of boric acid from wastewater by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Michiaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Hirata, Makoto; Kokubu, Shuzo; Hano, Tadashi


    An extraction system for the recovery of boric acid using 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) as an extractant was studied. Loss of the extractant to the aqueous solution was lowered by using 2-ethylhexanol as a diluent. The extraction equilibrium of boric acid with BEPD was clarified, and the equilibrium constants for various diluents were determined. Furthermore, continuous operation for the recovery of boric acid using mixer-settlers for extraction and stripping was successfully conducted during 100 hours. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of natural antioxidants from rosemary:  comparison with liquid solvent sonication.


    Tena, M T; Valcárcel, M; Hidalgo, P J; Ubera, J L


    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and liquid solvent sonication, in combination with two different sample treatments, were compared for the extraction of natural antioxidants from rosemary leaves. Dried, ground, and sieved rosemary leaves (20 mg) were subjected to SFE with CO(2) at 355 bar at 100 °C (CO(2) density 0.72 g/mL) for 20 min at a liquid flow rate of 4 mL/min. The analytes were concentrated on an ODS trap and subsequently eluted with acetone. Antioxidants in the SF and liquid solvent extract were analyzed by HPLC. Compounds of known antioxidant activity such as carnosol, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate were identified by mass spectrometry of the HPLC fractions collected. Freezing and grinding the samples in liquid nitrogen resulted in decreased carnosic acid recoveries. Supercritical CO(2) extraction provided the highest recovery of carnosic acid from rosemary leaves (35.7 mg/g), the lowest relative standard deviation (4.4%), and the cleanest extract [Formula: see text] no cleanup prior to HPLC was required. Among the liquid solvents studies, only acetone provided comparable results (73% recovery relative to SC-CO(2) extraction); however, it required decoloration with active carbon prior to HPLC analysis. PMID:21639201

  4. Optimization by response surface methodology of lutein recovery from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction.


    Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Suna; Moon, BoKyung


    In this study, we used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction conditions for recovering lutein from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The lutein content was quantitatively analyzed using a UPLC equipped with a BEH C18 column. A central composite design (CCD) was employed for experimental design to obtain the optimized combination of extraction temperature (°C), static time (min), and solvent (EtOH, %). The experimental data obtained from a twenty sample set were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the lutein extraction model was 0.9518, and the probability value (p=0.0000) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. The optimum extraction conditions for lutein were temperature: 93.26°C, static time: 5 min, and solvent: 79.63% EtOH. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield of lutein was 232.60 μg/g. PMID:27006224

  5. Effect of successive alkylation of N,N-dialkyl amides on the complexation behavior of uranium and thorium: solvent extraction, small angle neutron scattering, and computational studies.


    Verma, Parveen Kumar; Pathak, Priyanath N; Kumari, Neelam; Sadhu, Biswajit; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Aswal, Vinod Kumar; Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar


    The effect of successive alkylation of the Cα atom adjacent to the carbonyl group in N,N-dialkyl amides (i.e., di(2-ethylhexyl)acetamide (D2EHAA), di(2-ethylhexyl)propionamide (D2EHPRA), di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA), and di(2-ethylhexyl)pivalamide (D2EHPVA)) on the extraction behavior of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) and tetravalent thorium (Th(IV)) ions has been investigated. These studies show that the extraction of Th(IV) is significantly suppressed compared to that of U(VI) with increased branching at the Cα atom adjacent to the carbonyl group. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies showed an increased aggregation tendency in the presence of nitric acid and metal ions. D2EHAA showed more aggregation compared to its branched homologues, which explains its capacity for higher extraction of metal ions. These experimental observations were further supported by density function theory calculations, which provided structural evidence of differential binding affinities of these extractants for uranyl cations. The complexation process is primarily controlled by steric and electronic effects. Quantum chemical calculations showed that local hardness and polarizability can be extremely useful inputs for designing novel extractants relevant to a nuclear fuel cycle. PMID:25422857


    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.


    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and

  7. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila


    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  8. Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing.


    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid


    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  9. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid


    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  10. Choice of solvent in the extraction of Angelica archangelica roots with reference to calcium blocking activity.


    Härmälä, P; Vuorela, H; Törnquist, K; Hiltunen, R


    Twenty solvents were tested in the extraction of compounds from the roots of Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae), and the calcium-antagonistic activity of the extracts was investigated. Special attention was paid to the physical and chemical properties of the solvents and their extraction abilities. The calcium antagonistic effect of the extracts was investigated by measuring the inhibition of depolarization-induced Ca2+ uptake in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. The criteria used in determining the best solvents for the extraction were the yield and the biological activity of the extract, as well as the amount of nonpolar compounds in the extract. The final criterion used in selecting the solvent was its usability with reference to boiling point, chemical interactions (e.g. methylation), etc. Chloroform was found to be the best solvent for the extraction of nonpolar, biologically active compounds from the roots of A. archangelica. PMID:1529031

  11. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid...

  12. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for purification and extraction of silicone passive samplers used for the monitoring of organic pollutants.


    Brockmeyer, Berit; Kraus, Uta R; Theobald, Norbert


    Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 °C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66-101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85-126 %). PMID:26289330

  13. Coal extraction by aprotic dipolar solvents. Final report. [Tetramethylurea, hexa-methylphosphoramide

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, J T


    The overall goals of this project were to examine the rate and amount of extraction of coals at low temperature by a class of solvents with a generic structure to include tetramethylurea (TMU) and hexa-methylphosphoramide (HMPA) and to examine the nature of the extracted coal chemicals. The class of solvents with similar action, however, can be classified as aprotic, base solvents or, somewhat more broadly, specific solvents. The action of solvents by this last classification was then examined to postulate a mechanism of attack. Experimental work was conducted to explain the specific solvent attack including (1) pure solvent extraction, (2) extraction in mixtures with otherwise inert solvents and inhibitors, and (3) extraction with simultaneous catalytic enhancement attempts including water-gas shift conversion. Thus nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas-chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of extract molecules and extraction with high-pressure CO in TMU (plus 2% H2O) was performed. Effects of solvent additives such as cumene and quinone of large amounts of inert solvents such as tetralin, liminone, or carbon disulfide on extraction were also determined. Results are discussed. 82 refs., 36 figs., 37 tabs.

  14. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.


    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A


    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628


    SciTech Connect

    Scott Herbst; Terry Todd; Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Steve Frank; John Swanson


    process. The primary purpose of the preliminary study discussed here is to develop an alternative process flowsheet using well-known solvent extraction (SX) techniques based on decades of experience with PUREX processing of nuclear materials. Ultimately, this initial study will be used to determine if an SX approach would offer any significant processing advantages relative to the currently proposed anion exchange process.

  16. Modeling of fissile material diversion in solvent extraction cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.; Carlson, R.W.


    Changes were calculated for measurable parameters of a solvent extraction section of a reprocessing plant resulting from postulated fissile material diversion actions. The computer program SEPHIS was modified to calculate the time-dependent concentrations of uranium and plutonium in each stage of a cascade. The calculation of the inventories of uranium and plutonium in each contactor was also included. The concentration and inventory histories were computed for a group of four sequential columns during start-up and for postulated diversion conditions within this group of columns. Monitoring of column exit streams or of integrated column inventories for fissile materials could provide qualitative indications of attempted diversions. However, the time delays and resulting changes are complex and do not correlate quantitatively with the magnitude of the initiating event.

  17. Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, James; Almeida, Valmor de; Jiao, Xiangmin; Sims, Brett; Li, Xaiolin


    The objective of this project is to develop a specialized sharp interface tracking simulation capability for predicting interaction of micron-sized drops and bubbles in rotating flows relevant to optimized design of contactor devices used in solvent extraction processes of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The primary outcomes of this project include the capability to resolve drops and bubbles micro-hydrodynamics in solvent extraction contactors, determining from first principles continuum fluid mechanics how micro-drops and bubbles interact with each other and the surrounding shearing fluid for realistic flows. In the near term, this effort will play a central role in providing parameters and insight into the flow dynamics of models that average over coarser scales, say at the millimeter unit length. In the longer term, it will prove to be the platform to conduct full-device, detailed simulations as parallel computing power reaches the exaflop level. The team will develop an accurate simulation tool for flows containing interacting droplets and bubbles with sharp interfaces under conditions that mimic those found in realistic contactor operations. The main objective is to create an off-line simulation capability to model drop and bubble interactions in a domain representative of the averaged length scale. The technical approach is to combine robust interface tracking software, subgrid modeling, validation quality experiments, powerful computational hardware, and a team with simulation modeling, physical modeling and technology integration experience. Simulations will then fully resolve the microflow of drops and bubbles at the microsecond time scale. This approach is computationally intensive but very accurate in treating important coupled physical phenomena in the vicinity of interfaces. The method makes it possible to resolve spatial scales smaller than the typical distance between bubbles and to model some non-equilibrium thermodynamic features such as finite

  18. Removal of ionic dyes from water by solvent extraction using reverse micelles.


    Pandit, P; Basu, S


    Several methods (e.g., UV/H2O2 oxidation, adsorption, flocculation-precipitation) are normally employed to remove dye from water. A new technique based on liquid/liquid extraction using reverse micelles is proposed whereby recovery of solvent and reuse of dye is possible. Experiments were conducted by mixing a known quantity of dye in aqueous phase and solvent-containing surfactants in a simple mixer. The separation of solvent phase, containing encapsulated dye in reverse micelles, from aqueous phase due to gravity results in separation of dye from water. The removal of different ionic dyes (e.g., eosin yellow, methylene blue, malachite green, methyl orange, orange G) from aqueous phase in the presence of different cationic and anionic surfactants [e.g., sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and cetyl pyridinium chloride] in different solvents (e.g., amyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, methyl benzoate, and isooctane) were studied by conducting experiments. The percentage removal of dye from aqueous phase increases with the decrease in dye concentration or with the increase in surfactants concentration. Furthermore, the percentage COD removal of dye is increased with the increase in surfactant concentration. The nature of solvent has minimal effect on percentage removal of dye. The ratio of solventto aqueous phase volume required for the removal of dye decreases with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is possible to back-extract dye into aqueous phase and recover solvent by using counterionic surfactants. The separation of aqueous phase from the aqueous-phase solvent dispersion is faster for amyl alcohol as compared to benzyl alcohol and methyl benzoate. A theoretical model based on ion-exchange reaction between surfactants and dye is used to analyze the experimental data. PMID:15116851

  19. [Growth inhibition of the four species of red tide microalgae by extracts from Enteromorpha prolifera extracted with the five solvents].


    Sun, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Chang-Hai


    To study the effects of extracts of Enteromorpha prolifera on the growth of the four species of red tide microalgae (Amphidinium hoefleri, Karenia mikimitoi, Alexandrium tamarense and Skeletonema costatum), the extracts were extracted with five solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether), respectively. Based on the observation of algal morphology and the measurement of algal density, cell size and the contents of physiological indicators (chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide), the results showed methanol extracts of E. prolifera had the strongest action. The inhibitory effects of A. hoefleri, K. mikimitoi, A. tamarense and S. costatum by the methanol extracts were 54.0%, 48.1%, 44.0% and 37.5% in day 10, respectively. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate caused cavities, pieces and pigment reduction in cells, and those with chloroform and petroleum ether caused goffers on cells. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with all the five solvents decreased athletic ability of the cells, among which those extracted with ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether decreased cell size of test microalgae. The further investigation found that the methanol extracts significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide in the cells of those microalgae. The inhibitory effect of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide contents of four species of microalgae by the methanol extracts was about 51%. On the basis of the above experiments, dry powder of E. prolifera were extracts with methanol, and extracts were obtained. The methanol extracts were partitioned to petroleum ether phase, ethyl acetate phase, n-butanol phase and distilled water phase by liquid-liquid fractionation, and those with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate significantly inhibited the growth of all test microalgae, and the inhibitory effect of four species of microalgae by those two extracts was above 25% in day

  20. Evidence for Complex Molecular Architectures for Solvent-Extracted Lignins

    SciTech Connect

    Rials, Timothy G; Urban, Volker S; Langan, Paul


    Lignin, an abundant, naturally occurring biopolymer, is often considered 'waste' and used as a simple fuel source in the paper-making process. However, lignin has emerged as a promising renewable resource for engineering materials, such as carbon fibers. Unfortunately, the molecular architecture of lignin (in vivo and extracted) is still elusive, with numerous conflicting reports in the literature, and knowledge of this structure is extremely important, not only for materials technologies, but also for production of biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol due to biomass recalcitrance. As such, the molecular structures of solvent-extracted (sulfur-free) lignins, which have been modified using various acyl chlorides, have been probed using small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution along with hydrodynamic characterization using dilute solution viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in THF. Mass spectrometry shows an absolute molecular weight {approx}18-30 kDa ({approx}80-140 monomers), while GPC shows a relative molecular weight {approx}3 kDa. A linear styrene oligomer (2.5 kDa) was also analyzed in THF using SANS. Results clearly show that lignin molecular architectures are somewhat rigid and complex, ranging from nanogels to hyperbranched macromolecules, not linear oligomers or physical assemblies of oligomers, which is consistent with previously proposed delignification (extraction) mechanisms. Future characterization using the methods discussed here can be used to guide extraction processes as well as genetic engineering technologies to convert lignin into value added materials with the potential for high positive impact on global sustainability.

  1. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein with deep eutectic solvent immobilized magnetic graphene oxide nanoparticles.


    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Ding, Xueqin; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian


    As a new type of green solvent, four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized, and then a core-shell structure magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4-NH2@GO) nanoparticles have been prepared and coated with the ChCl-based DESs. Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of proteins. The characteristic results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) indicated the successful preparation of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES. The concentrations of proteins in studies were determined by a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The advantages of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES in protein extraction were compared with Fe3O4-NH2@GO and Fe3O4-NH2, and Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. The influence factors of the extraction process such as the pH value, the temperature, the extraction time, the concentration of protein and the amount of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol were evaluated. Desorption experimental result showed 98.73% of BSA could be eluted from the solid extractant with 0.1 mol/L Na2HPO4 solution contained 1 mol/L NaCl. Besides, the conformation of BSA was not changed during the elution by the investigation of circular dichromism (CD) spectra. Furthermore, the analysis of real sample demonstrated that the prepared magnetic nanoparticles did have extraction ability on proteins in bovine whole blood. PMID:26653436

  2. Combination pulsed electric field with ethanol solvent for Nannochloropsis sp. extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Ghazy Ammar; Mumpuni, Perwitasari Yekti; Indarto, Budiman, Arief


    Nowadays, energy is one of human basic needs. As the human population increased, energy consumption also increased. This condition causes energy depletion. In case of the situation, alternative energy is needed to replace existing energy. Microalgae is chosen to become one of renewable energy resource, especially biodiesel, because it contains high amount of lipid instead of other feedstock which usually used. Fortunately, Indonesia has large area of water and high intensity of sunlight so microalgae cultivation becomes easier. Nannochloropsis sp., one of microalgae species, becomes the main focus because of its high lipid content. Many ways to break the cell wall of microalgae so the lipid content inside the microalgae will be released, for example conventional extraction, ultrasonic wave extraction, pressing, and electrical method. The most effective way for extraction is electrical method such as pulsed electric field method (PEF). The principal work of this method is by draining the electrical current into parallel plate. Parallel plate will generate the electrical field to break microalgae cell wall and the lipid will be released. The aim of this work is to evaluate two-stage procedure for extraction of useful components from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. The first stage of this procedure includes pre-treatment of microalgae by ethanol solvent extraction and the second stage applies the PEF extraction using a binary mixture of water and ethanol solvent. Ethanol is chosen as solvent because it's safer to be used and easier to be handled than other solvent. Some variables that used to study the most effective operation conditions are frequency and duty cycle for microalgae. The optimum condition based on this research are at frequency 1 Hz and duty cycle 13%.

  3. Solvent extraction separation of Th-227 and Ac-225 in room temperature ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Jason R; Boll, Rose Ann; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin


    The solvent extractions of Th-227 and Ac-225 from the aqueous phase into ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated by using N,N,N ,N - tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as an extractant. Four ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][BETI]), 1-butyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [BuI5][NTf2], and 1-benzyl pyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([PhCH2Py][NTf2]) were used as extraction solvents for separation of Th-227 and Ac-225 in this study. Excellent extraction efficiencies and selectivities were found for Th-227/Ac-225 when HDEHP was used as an extractant in these ionic liquids. The effects of different extractant concentrations in ionic liquids and acidities of the aqueous phase on extraction efficiencies and selectivities of Th-227/Ac-225 are also presented in this article.


    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.


    As part of the implementation process for the Next Generation Cesium Extraction Solvent (NGCS), SRNL and F/H Lab performed a series of analytical cross-checks to ensure that the components in the NGCS solvent system do not constitute an undue analytical challenge. For measurement of entrained Isopar{reg_sign} L in aqueous solutions, both labs performed similarly with results more reliable at higher concentrations (near 50 mg/L). Low bias occurred in both labs, as seen previously for comparable blind studies for the baseline solvent system. SRNL recommends consideration to use of Teflon{trademark} caps on all sample containers used for this purpose. For pH measurements, the labs showed reasonable agreement but considerable positive bias for dilute boric acid solutions. SRNL recommends consideration of using an alternate analytical method for qualification of boric acid concentrations.


    EPA Science Inventory

    Demonstrating that pesticides are stable in field media and their extracts over extended storage periods allows operational flexibility and cost efficiency. Stability of the 31 neutral pesticides and 2 acid herbicides of the Agricultural Health Study exposure pilot was evaluate...

  6. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.


    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.


    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S


    Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed on multiple layers formed from contacting Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent with 1 M or 3 M nitric acid. A slow chemical reaction occurs (i.e., over several weeks) between the solvent and 1 M or 3 M nitric acid as evidenced by color changes and the detection of nitro groups in the infrared spectrum of the aged samples. Thermal analysis revealed that decomposition of the resulting mixture does not meet the definition of explosive or deflagrating material.


    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S


    Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed on multiple layers formed from contacting Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent with 1 M or 3 M nitric acid. A slow chemical reaction occurs (i.e., over several weeks) between the solvent and 1 M or 3 M nitric acid as evidenced by color changes and the detection of nitro groups in the infrared spectrum of the aged samples. Thermal analysis revealed that decomposition of the resulting mixture does not meet the definition of explosive or deflagrating material.

  9. Solvent Extraction Separation of La3+ and Ba2+ using Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and TODGA Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Jason R; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin


    Solvent extractions of La3+ and Ba2+ by N,N,N ,N -tetra(n-octyl)diglycolamide (TODGA) from aqueous solutions in twelve imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide / bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ([Cnmim][NTf2]/[BETI], n = 2,3, 4, 6, 8, 10) were investigated. The corresponding extraction efficiencies were found to be dependent on concentration of TODGA used, the acidity of aqueous phase, alkyl chain length on IL cation, and IL anion as well.

  10. Comparison of solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil.


    Mahindrakar, A N; Chandra, S; Shinde, L P


    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformer oil samples was evaluated using octadecyl (CI8)-bonded porous silica. The efficiency of SPE of these PCBs was compared with those obtained by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane. Average recoveries exceeding 95% for these PCBs were obtained via the SPE method using small cartridges containing 100mg of 40 pm CI8-bonded porous silica. The average recovery by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane exceeded 83%. It was concluded that the recoveries and precision for the solvent extraction of PCBs were poorer than those for the SPE. PMID:24083901

  11. Effect of osmotic pressure in the solvent extraction phase on BSA release profile from PLGA microspheres.


    Jiang, Ge; Thanoo, B C; DeLuca, Patrick P


    This study investigated the influence of osmotic pressure in the organic solvent extraction phase on release profile of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. BSA-loaded PLGA microspheres with a target load of 10% were prepared by a double emulsion phase separation method. All the microsphere batches were fabricated in the same conditions except that in the organic solvent (CH2Cl2) evaporation step. Different concentrations of NaCl (0, 1.8, and 3.6%) or sucrose (20%) were used to generate a range of osmotic pressures in the extraction aqueous phase. These microspheres were characterized for incorporation efficiency, surface and internal morphology, particle size, protein stability, and in vitro release. The microspheres were spherical with particle size ranging from 16.8 to 27.8 microns. Higher osmotic pressure resulted in a denser internal structure although similar nonporous surface morphology was observed with all batches. No significant difference in encapsulation efficiency existed from batch to batch (87-94%). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyamide gel electrophoresis showed that BSA integrity was well retained. The release profile of the batch prepared with only water as the continuous (solvent extraction) phase exhibited a 79% burst release in the first 24 hr followed by a plateau and then a little release after 21 days. In the presence of NaCl or sucrose, the burst effect significantly decreased with increase in osmotic pressure in the extraction aqueous phase, which was then followed by sustained release for 35 days. A mass balance was made when the release terminated. Therefore, in the organic solvent extraction and evaporation step, increasing the osmotic pressure in the aqueous phase both reduced the burst release from the microspheres and improved the subsequent sustained release profile. PMID:12503521

  12. Deep eutectic solvents as efficient solvent system for the extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii.


    Das, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Prasad, Kamalesh


    Three different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) prepared by the complexation of choline chloride with urea, ethylene glycol and glycerol along with their hydrated counterparts were used for the selective extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Upon comparison of the quality of the polysaccharide with the one obtained using water as extraction media as well as the one extracted using widely practiced conventional method, it was found that, the physicochemical as well as rheological properties of κ-carrageenan obtained using DESs as solvents was at par to the one obtained using conventional method and was superior in quality when compared to κ-carrageenan obtained using water as solvent. Considering the tedious nature of the extraction method employed in conventional extraction process, the DESs can be considered as suitable alternative solvents for the facile extraction of the polysaccharide directly from the seaweed. However, among the hydrated and non-hydrated DESs, the hydrated ones were found to be more effective in comparison to their non-hydrated counterparts. PMID:26572431

  13. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Peterson, Eric S.; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R.


    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  14. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction


    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Peterson, Eric S.; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R.


    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acidmore » solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.« less

  15. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.


    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R


    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets. PMID:26107531

  16. Efficient removal of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction.


    Shao, Jingjing; Cheng, Yan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Wencan; Jiao, Panpan; He, Huijun


    Naphthalene-2-ol is a typical biologically recalcitrant pollutant in dye wastewater. Solvent extraction of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions using mixed solvents was investigated. Various extractants and diluents were evaluated, and the effects of volume ratio of extractant to diluent, initial pH, initial concentration of naphthalene-2-ol in aqueous solution, extraction time, temperature, volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A), stirring rate and extraction stages, on extraction efficiency were examined separately. Regeneration and reuse of the spent extractant were also investigated. Results showed that tributyl phosphate (TBP) achieved 98% extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol in a single stage extraction, the highest among the 12 extractants evaluated. Extraction efficiency was optimized when cyclohexane and n-octane were used as diluents. The solvent combination of 20% TBP, 20% n-octanol and 60% cyclohexane (V/V) obtained the maximum extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol, 99.3%, within 20min using three cross-current extraction stages under the following extraction conditions: O/A ratio of 1:1, initial pH of 3, 25°C and stirring rate of 150r/min. Recovery of mixed solvents was achieved by using 15% (W/W) NaOH solution at an O:A ratio of 1:1 and a contact time of 15min. The mixed solvents achieved an extraction capacity for naphthalene-2-ol stably higher than 90% during five cycles after regeneration. PMID:27593279

  17. Solvent-extraction and purification of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) by tertiary amines from acid leach solutions

    SciTech Connect

    La Gamma, Ana M.G.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio


    Considering international interest in the yellow-cake price, Argentina is seeking to exploit new uranium ore bodies and processing plants. A study of similar plants would suggest that solvent- extraction with Alamine 336 is considered the best method for the purification and concentration of uranium present in leaching solutions. In order to study the purification of these leach liquors, solvent-extraction tests under different conditions were performed with simulated solutions which containing molybdenum and molybdenum-uranium mixtures. Preliminary extraction tests carried out on mill acid-leaching liquors are also presented. (authors)

  18. Radiation chemistry in solvent extraction: FY2010 Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk


    This report summarizes work accomplished under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program in the area of radiation chemistry during FY 2010. The tasks assigned during FY 2010 included: • Development of techniques to measure free radical reaction kinetics in the organic phase. • Initiation of an alpha-radiolysis program • Initiation of an effort to understand dose rate effects in radiation chemistry • Continued work to characterize TALSPEAK radiation chemistry Progress made on each of these tasks is reported here. Briefly, a method was developed and used to measure the kinetics of the reactions of the •NO3 radical with solvent extraction ligands in organic solution, and the method to measure •OH radical reactions under the same conditions has been designed. Rate constants for the CMPO and DMDOHEMA reaction with •NO3 radical in organic solution are reported. Alpha-radiolysis was initiated on samples of DMDOHEMA in alkane solution using He ion beam irradiation and 211At isotope irradiation. The samples are currently being analyzed for comparison to DMDOHEMA ?-irradiations using a custom-developed mass spectrometric method. Results are also reported for the radiolytic generation of nitrous acid, in ?-irradiated nitric acid. It is shown that the yield of nitrous acid is unaffected by an order-of-magnitude change in dose rate. Finally, recent results for TALSPEAK radiolysis are reported, summarizing the effects on solvent extraction efficiency due to HDEHP irradiation, and the stable products of lactic acid and DTPA irradiation. In addition, results representing increased scope are presented for the radiation chemistry program. These include an investigation of the effect of metal complexation on radical reaction kinetics using DTPA as an example, and the production of a manuscript reporting the mechanism of Cs-7SB radiolysis. The Cs-7SB work takes advantage of recent results from a current LDRD program to understand the fundamental chemistry

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Orange Flesh and Peel Extracted with Various Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hee; Lee, Minhee; Park, Eunju


    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of orange (Citrus auranthium) flesh (OF) and peel (OP) extracted with acetone, ethanol, and methanol. Antioxidant potential was examined by measuring total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (RSA), total radical-trapping anti-oxidant potential (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). The comet assay was used to determine the protective effects of OF and OP against H2O2-induced DNA damage. TPC was highest in the acetone extracts of OF and OP. DPPH RSA was also higher in the acetone extracts than in the ethanol extracts. The DPPH RSA was highest in the acetone extracts of OF. The TRAP and ORAC values of the all extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the TRAP assay, the acetone extracts of OF and OP had the lowest IC50 values. In the CAA assay, the methanol and acetone extracts of OP had the lowest IC50 values. All of the samples protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in human leukocytes, as measured by the comet assay, but the acetone extracts of OP had the strongest effect. These results suggest that acetone is the best solvent for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from OF and OP. Furthermore, the high antioxidant activity of OP, which is a by-product of orange processing, suggests that it can be used in nutraceutical and functional foods. PMID:25580393

  20. Batch extracting process using magnetic particle held solvents


    Nunez, L.; Vandergrift, G.F.


    A process is described for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents. 5 figs.

  1. Extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil by deep eutectic solvents (DESs).


    García, Aránzazu; Rodríguez-Juan, Elisa; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rios, José Julian; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan


    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are "green" solvents, applied in this study for the extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil (VOO). Different combinations of DES consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) in various mixing ratios with sugars, alcohols, organic acids, and urea, as well as a mixture of three sugars were used. The yields of the DES extractions were compared with those from conventional 80% (v/v) methanol/water. DES showed a good solubility of phenolic compounds with different polarities. The two most abundant secoiridoid derivatives in olive oil, oleacein and oleocanthal, extracted with ChCl/xylitol and ChCl/1,2-propanediol showed an increase of 20-33% and 67.9-68.3% with respect to conventional extraction, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time that phenolic compounds have been extracted from VOO oil using DES. Our results suggest that DES offers an efficient, safe, sustainable, and cost effective alternative to methanol for extraction of bioactive compounds from VOO. PMID:26616988

  2. Comparison of extraction techniques and modeling of accelerated solvent extraction for the authentication of natural vanilla flavors.


    Cicchetti, Esmeralda; Chaintreau, Alain


    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of vanilla beans has been optimized using ethanol as a solvent. A theoretical model is proposed to account for this multistep extraction. This allows the determination, for the first time, of the total amount of analytes initially present in the beans and thus the calculation of recoveries using ASE or any other extraction technique. As a result, ASE and Soxhlet extractions have been determined to be efficient methods, whereas recoveries are modest for maceration techniques and depend on the solvent used. Because industrial extracts are obtained by many different procedures, including maceration in various solvents, authenticating vanilla extracts using quantitative ratios between the amounts of vanilla flavor constituents appears to be unreliable. When authentication techniques based on isotopic ratios are used, ASE is a valid sample preparation technique because it does not induce isotopic fractionation. PMID:19425014



    Rainey, R.H.; Moore, J.G.


    A liquid-liquid extraction process was developed for recovering thorium and uranium values from a neutron irradiated thorium composition. They are separated from a solvent extraction system comprising a first end extraction stage for introducing an aqueous feed containing thorium and uranium into the system consisting of a plurality of intermediate extractiorr stages and a second end extractron stage for introducing an aqueous immiscible selective organic solvent for thorium and uranium in countercurrent contact therein with the aqueous feed. A nitrate iondeficient aqueous feed solution containing thorium and uranium was introduced into the first end extraction stage in countercurrent contact with the organic solvent entering the system from the second end extraction stage while intro ducing an aqueous solution of salting nitric acid into any one of the intermediate extraction stages of the system. The resultant thorium and uranium-laden organic solvent was removed at a point preceding the first end extraction stage of the system. (AEC)

  4. Extracting fumonisins from maize: efficiency of different extraction solvents in multi-mycotoxin analytics.


    Marschik, Stefanie; Hepperle, Julia; Lauber, Uwe; Schnaufer, Renate; Maier, Susanne; Kühn, Caren; Schwab-Bohnert, Gabriele


    The complete extraction of analytes is of utmost importance when analyzing matrix samples for mycotoxins. Mycotoxins consist of substances with widely different physicochemical properties; therefore, the loss of toxins that occurs in multi-mycotoxin methods due to compromises in the extraction solvent is currently a topic under discussion. With regard to fumonisins, several extractants from recently published multi-mycotoxin methods were investigated when analyzing unprocessed and processed maize matrices. All extractants were tested in a validated on-site method and the extraction yields were compared to those of an HPLC-FLD reference method (EN 14352). Most of the compared multi-mycotoxin methods that have been published were only for analyzing fumonisins in maize or maize-meal; we have applied the extractants of these methods to processed, complex maize matrices for the first time. Our results show that, for extractions with aqueous acetonitrile mixtures with the addition of acid, e.g. MeCN/H2O/acetic acid (79/20/1, v/v/v), higher extraction yields are obtained than with MeCN/H2O (80/20, v/v), in both spiked and naturally contaminated maize matrices. But compared to the results of the reference method EN 14352, the two extractants did not show a similar extraction efficiency. Overall, the extractant MeCN/MeOH/H2O (1/1/2, v/v/v) turned out to be the most appropriate extractant applied in all experiments, obtaining the best and most comparable extraction yields and recoveries. Furthermore, our investigations showed that, with some of the tested extraction solvents, e.g. MeCN/H2O (75/25) containing 50 mmol/l formic acid, stark differences occur when analyzing spiked and naturally contaminated matrices. With spiked matrices, recoveries of approximately 80-110% were obtained, but with naturally contaminated matrices no results comparable to the EN method have been achieved. In contrast, a double extraction with MeCN/H2O/formic acid (80/19,9/0,1, v/v/v), followed by a

  5. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.


    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  6. Presidential Rapid Commercialization Initiative for mixed waste solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.; Sattler, J.


    Recently, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has made some major steps in mixed waste treatment which have taken it closer to meeting final remediation goals. However, one major hurdle remains for the FEMP mixed waste treatment program, and that hurdle is tri-mixed waste. Tri-mixed is a term coined to describe low-level waste containing RCRA hazardous constituents along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The prescribed method for disposal of PCBs is incineration. In mixed waste treatment plans developed by the FEMP with public input, the FEMP committed to pursue non-thermal treatment methods and avoid the use of incineration. Through the SITE Program, the FEMP identified a non-thermal treatment technology which uses solvents to extract PCBs. The technology belongs to a small company called Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. A question arose as to how can this new and innovative technology be implemented by a small company at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The answer came in the form of the Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) and the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). RCI is a program sponsored by the Department of commerce (DOC), DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), US EPA and various state agencies to aid companies to market new and innovative technologies.

  7. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts.


    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng


    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  8. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng


    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  9. Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica Rutledge; Kristi Christensen; Troy Garn; Jack Law


    This testing will support NEAMS SafeSep Modeling efforts related to droplet simulation in liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Physical characteristic determinations will be completed for the fluids being used in the experiment including viscosity, density, surface tension, distribution coefficients, and diffusion coefficients. Then, experiments will be carried out to provide data for comparison to the simulation’s calculation of mass transfer coefficients. Experiments will be conducted with solutions used in the TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process extraction section. The TRUEX process was chosen since it is one solvent extraction system currently proposed for the separation of actinides and lanthanides from used nuclear fuel, it is diffusion limited, testing can be performed using non radioactive lanthanides to evaluate mass transfer. The extraction section involves transfer of one or more lanthanide species from an aqueous solution to an organic solvent. Single droplets rising by buoyancy will be studied first. Droplet size and number of species transferred will be varied independently to provide mass transfer coefficients as a function of each variable. An apparatus has been designed specifically for these experiments. In order to get more accurate measurements of droplet size, contact time, time of droplet formation, and possibly droplet breakup and coalescence, a high speed camera will be utilized for these experiments. Other potential experiments include examining the effects of jetted droplets and shear flow on the mass transfer coefficients.

  10. Determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater by solvent extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhize, Nontando T.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Momba, Maggy

    The purpose of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction method for the analysis of volatile fatty acids collected at the elutriation units of Unit 3, 4 and 5 at Johannesburg Water-Northern Works Wastewater Treatment Plant. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method employing dichloromethane (DCM) and methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) as extracting solvents was used during the quantitative analysis of volatile fatty acids namely acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and heptanoic acid. The detection of the extracts was by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating under electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). The results showed that MTBE was a better extraction solvent than DCM as it gave much higher recoveries (>5 folds). On the other hand, the overall reactor performance for all the three units in the period when the samples were collected, which was measured by the ratio of propionic to acetic acid was good since the ratio o did not exceed 1.4 with the exception of the samples collected on the 3rd of October where the ratio exceeded 1.4 significantly. The concentration of acetic acid, another indicator for the reactor performance in all three units was way below 800 mg/L thus the digester balance was on par.


    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and pilot-scale studies have demonstrated that cosolvent-enhanced in situ extraction can remove residual and free-phase nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), but may leave levels of contaminants in the ground water and subsurface formations in excess of the regulatory requir...

  12. Assessment of the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from gasworks soil using different extraction solvents and techniques.


    Bergknut, Magnus; Kitti, Anna; Lundstedt, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats; Haglund, Peter


    This study was designed to assess the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present at a gasworks site to different soil remediation techniques. The study examined the effect on PAH availability of using different organic solvents, the degree of pretreatment, and the extraction time. In total, 25 PAHs (with two to six fused rings) and five carbonyl derivatives were measured. The results indicated that the PAHs and their derivatives were bound loosely to the surface of the studied soil and that there were no significant kinetic boundaries associated with the extraction of the PAHs. Furthermore, it was concluded that the studied soil was not suitable for bioremediation, as the concentration of PAHs with low molecular weight were limited. However, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with methanol as the solvent extracted 97% of all PAHs and PAH-derivatives, indicating that extraction may be effective as part of a soil remediation technique for old gasworks soils. PMID:15352473


    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C; Samuel Fink, S; Michael Restivo, M; Dan Burns, D; Wallace Smith, W; S Crump, S; Zane Nelson, Z; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Michael Norato, M


    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility will remove radioactive cesium from Savannah River Site supernate wastes using an organic solvent system. Both designs include decanters and coalescers to reduce carryover of organic solvent droplets. Savannah River National Laboratory personnel conducted experimental demonstrations using a series of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors. They also examined organic carryover during operation of a CINC (Costner Industries Nevada Corporation) V-5 contactor under prototypical conditions covering the range of expected MCU operation. This report details the findings from those studies and the implications on design for the MCU.

  14. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation


    Tedder, Daniel W.


    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  15. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.


    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  16. Complexation thermodynamics of diglycolamide with f-elements: solvent extraction and density functional theory analysis.


    Ali, Sk M; Pahan, S; Bhattacharyya, A; Mohapatra, P K


    Comparative extraction of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions (La(3+), Eu(3+), Lu(3+), Am(3+) and Cm(3+)) with tetra-n-octyl diglycolamide (TODGA) was studied and showed the trend: Lu(3+) > Eu(3+) > Cm(3+) > Am(3+) > La(3+). The structure, bonding, energetic and thermodynamic parameters of the trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions (La(3+), Eu(3+), Lu(3+), Am(3+) and Cm(3+)) with a tridentate ligand, tetra-methyl diglycolamide (TMDGA), are reported in the gas and solvent phases in order to understand their complexation and extraction behaviour. The calculations were performed using the generalized gradient approximated BP86 density functional and the hybrid B3LYP functional using SVP and TZVPP basis sets. The calculated structure obtained at the BP86/SVP level of optimization was found to be in close agreement with the X-ray data and also with the structure obtained at the B3LYP/TZVP level of theory. The free energy of extraction was found to be exergonic for the explicit monomer water model. From the solvent extraction experiment the order of extraction was observed as Lu(3+) > Eu(3+) > Cm(3+) > Am(3+) > La(3+), which was in line with the trends predicted based on the free energy changes in the gas phase calculations (ΔGgp). The Born-Haber thermodynamic cycle and the COSMO (conductor like screening model) solvation model were applied to calculate the free energy of extraction, ΔGext, of lanthanide and actinide ions in the aqueous-dodecane biphasic system and ΔGext, however, predicted different extraction trends. After dispersion correction (B3LYP-D3), the free energy of extraction for the metal ions was found to follow the order: Lu(3+) > Eu(3+) > La(3+), which was also observed in the solvent extraction experiments. Both COSMO and DCOSMO-RS models predict the same metal ion selectivity trend. Different bonding analyses indicate the electrostatic and less covalent nature of interactions between the ligands and the metal ions. PMID:27001244

  17. Solvent extraction of Pb(II) with AGDOMD

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, O.F.; Neves, E.F.A.


    The distribution of Pb(II) between an aqueous phase and a toluene phase containing dehydrated fatty acids found in distilled castor oil (AGDOMD) has been studied. Using the slope technique the conditional equilibrium constant of extraction was determined (kext = 1.02 x 10/sup -7/) and the main species present in the organic phase was identified as (PbNO/sub 3/R.2HR)/sub (o)/, where HR represents the fatty acid used.

  18. Extraction and quantification of phenolic acids and flavonols from Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents.


    Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro; Plata-Oviedo, Manuel Salvador Vicente; de Mattos, Gisely; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Branco, Ivanise Guilherme


    The recovery of phenolic compounds of Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents was investigated in this study. The compounds were identified and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet-visible diode-array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD/UV-vis). Absolute methanol was the most effective extraction agent of phenolic acids and flavonols (588.31 mg/Kg) from Eugenia pyriformis, although similar results (p ≤ 0.05) were observed using methanol/water (1:1 ratio). Our results clearly showed that higher contents of phenolic compounds were not obtained either with the most or the least polar solvents used. Several phenolic compounds were identified in the samples whereas gallic acid and quercetin were the major compounds recovered. PMID:25328239


    SciTech Connect

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo


    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  20. Mixed solvent systems for recovery of ethanol from dilute aqueous solution by liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.J.; Arrowsmith, A.; Ashton, N.


    Distribution coefficients and selectivities of a number of mixed solvent systems have been determined in order to assess their suitability in preferentially extracting ethanol from aqueous solution. The measured values of distribution coefficients and selectivities differ substantially from the values estimated by interpolating between the pure solvents. (Refs. 10).


    EPA Science Inventory

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...


    EPA Science Inventory

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a wood preserving agent that is commonly found in contaminated soils at wood treatment sties. The extraction of PCP from contaminated soils was evaluated using water-ethanol mixtures as solvents. A mixed solvent containing equal proportions of water and...

  3. Solvent effects on focused microwave assisted extraction of polyphenolic acids from Eucommia ulmodies.


    Li, Hui; Chen, Bo; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo


    An open microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid from Eucommia ulmodies. The effect of extraction variables, especially solvent, on the recoveries of these polyphenolic compounds was investigated using factorial design. As extracting solvent for these compounds, methanol produced a higher recovery than pure water. For straight chain alcohol solvents, the lower the carbon number, the higher the recoveries of the polyphenolic acids. The optimal ratio of methanol:water:glacial acetic acid in the solvent mixture used in microwave-assisted extraction was 2:8:0.3 (v/v) and this solvent could be directly used as the mobile phase in HPLC separation without additional intermittent treatment as reported in literature. The extraction under the condition of 50% microwave power and 30 s irradiation at a solvent:sample ratio of 10 (mL/g) was found to be the most advantageous. The repeatability test of extraction and chromatographic analysis was satisfactory for the analysis of these polyphenolic compounds. PMID:15508835

  4. Pilot-scale subcritical solvent extraction of curcuminoids from Curcuma long L.


    Kwon, Hye-Lim; Chung, Myong-Soo


    Curcuminoids consisted curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, were extracted from turmeric using subcritical solvent by varying conditions of temperature (110-150 °C), time (1-10 min), pressure (5-100 atm), solid-to-solvent ratio, and mixing ratio of solvent. Preliminary lab-scale experiments were conducted to determine the optimum extraction temperature and mixing ratio of water and ethanol for the pilot-scale extraction. The maximum yield of curcuminoids in the pilot-scale system was 13.58% (curcumin 4.94%, demethoxycurcumin 4.73%, and bisdemethoxycurcumin 3.91% in dried extracts) at 135 °C/5 min with water/ethanol mixture (50:50, v/v) as a solvent. On the other hand, the extraction yields of curcuminoids were obtained as 10.49%, 13.71% and 13.96% using the 50%, 95% and 100% ethanol, respectively, at the atmospheric condition (60 °C/120 min). Overall results showed that the subcritical solvent extraction is much faster and efficient extraction method considering extracted curcuminoids contents and has a potential to develop a commercial process for the extraction of curcuminoids. PMID:25952841

  5. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.


    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F


    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel. PMID:19748936

  6. Semiautomated solid-phase extraction manifold with a solvent-level sensor.


    Orlando, R M; Rath, S; Rohwedder, J J R


    A semiautomated solid-phase extraction manifold for multiple extractions is presented. The manifold utilizes commercial solid-phase syringe cartridges and automatically introduces and elutes all the solvents during the extraction, reducing the typical workload and stress of the analyst. The manifold consists of a peristaltic pump with solenoid valves in a flow circuit that contains transmissive photomicrosensors. The photomicrosensors were used to control the solvent dispenser and the solvent level inside the cartridge. As solvent-level sensors, the photomicrosensors determined the exact time the solvent reached the top frit to avoid sorbent drying and accurately perform the solvent exchange. The repeatability of the manifold to introduce a particular volume of solvent into the cartridges was measured, and the precisions were between 0.05 and 2.89% (RSD). To evaluate the manifold, the amount of two fluoroquinolones in a fortified blank milk sample was determined. The results of the intra- and inter-day precision of multiple extractions from the fortified milk samples resulted in precisions better than 9.0% (RSD) and confirmed that the arrangement of the semiautomated manifold could adequately be used in solid-phase extraction with commercial cartridges. PMID:24148370

  7. Ion flotation and solvent extraction of ferric thiocyanate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Jurkiewicz, K.


    The influence of thiocyanate and accompanying mineral acids concentration on the effectiveness of Fe(III) ion flotation, Fe(III) precipitation in cetyltrimethylammonium ferric-thiocyanate form (as sublate), and Fe(III) extraction using ethyl acetate was studied. The effectiveness of these processes improves with the extent of Fe(III) complexation by thiocyanates. In the presence of acids, flotation and precipitation are increased as follows: HClO/sub 4/ < HCl < HNO/sub 3/ < H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The position of H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in this series changes with changing thiocyanate concentration. Extraction effectiveness is increased in the series: H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ < H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ < HNO/sub 3/, HClO/sub 4/, HCl. The following points are discussed: (a) the influence of acid anions competing with thiocyanate anions in Fe(III) complexation; (b) the influence of the competition between acid anions and complex ferric-thiocyanate anions in sublate formation; (c) the influence of hydrogen ion concentration increase in thiocyanate medium on the results of Fe(III) flotation, precipitation, and extraction; and (d) the influence of anion affinity for a collector on the solution surface properties and on Fe(III) flotation.

  8. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae


    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.


    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more » Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  9. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.


    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  10. Cytotoxic effects of solvent-extracted active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge on human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central



    Herbal extracts and dietary supplements may be extracted from the medicinal plants used in traditional Chinese medicine, and are used increasingly commonly worldwide for their benefits to health and quality of life. Thus, ensuring that they are safe for human consumption is a critical issue for the preparation of plant extracts as dietary supplements. The present study investigated extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (S. miltiorrhiza), traditionally used in Asian countries to treat a variety of conditions, as a dietary supplement or as an ingredient in functional foods. Dried S. miltiorrhiza root was extracted with various solvents and under varying extraction conditions, and the effects of the extracts on the viability of five human cancer cell lines were compared. Extracts obtained using 100% ethanol and 100% acetone as solvents exhibited more potent effects compared with extracts obtained using 70 and 30% aqueous ethanol. Furthermore, the active components of S. miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts, known as tanshinones, were investigated. Dihydrotanshinone I was observed to exhibit a higher cytotoxic potential compared with the other tanshinones in the majority of the examined cell lines. Conversely, cryptotanshinone exhibited weak anti-cancer activity. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that the active components obtained from an ethanol extract of S. miltiorrhiza possess the potential to be used as ingredients in functional and health care foods that may be used to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics in the prevention and/or treatment of cancer. PMID:25780445