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Sample records for solvent-dependent conformational transitions

  1. A mononuclear iron(ii) complex: cooperativity, kinetics and activation energy of the solvent-dependent spin transition.

    PubMed

    Bushuev, Mark B; Pishchur, Denis P; Logvinenko, Vladimir A; Gatilov, Yuri V; Korolkov, Ilya V; Shundrina, Inna K; Nikolaenkova, Elena B; Krivopalov, Viktor P

    2015-12-14

    The system [FeL2](BF4)2 ()-EtOH-H2O (L is 4-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-methylpyrimidine) shows a complicated balance between the relative stabilities of solvatomorphs and polymorphs of the complex [FeL2](BF4)2. New solvatomorphs, (LS)EtOHH2O and ?-(LS)xH2O, were isolated in this system. They were converted into four daughter phases, (A/LS), (D/LS), (E/LS)yEtOHzH2O and (F/LS). On thermal cycling in sealed ampoules, the phases (LS)EtOHH2O and ?-(LS)xH2O transform into the anhydrous phase (A/LS). The hysteresis loop width for the (A/LS) ? (A/HS) spin transition depends on the water and ethanol contents in the ampoule and varies from ca. 30 K up to 145 K. The reproducible hysteresis loop of 145 K is the widest ever reported one for a spin crossover complex. The phase (A/LS) combines the outstanding spin crossover properties with thermal robustness allowing for multiple cycling in sealed ampoules without degradation. The kinetics of the (A/LS) ? (A/HS) transition is sigmoidal which is indicative of strong cooperative interactions. The cooperativity of the (A/LS) ? (A/HS) transition is related to the formation of a 2D supramolecular structure of the phase (A/LS). The activation energy for the spin transition is very high (hundreds of kJ mol(-1)). The kinetics of the (A/HS) ? (A/LS) transition can either be sigmoidal or exponential depending on the water and ethanol contents in the ampoule. The phases (D/LS) and (F/LS) show gradual crossover, whereas the phase (E/LS)yEtOHyH2O shows a reversible hysteretic transition associated with the solvent molecule release and uptake. PMID:26599731

  2. Quantifying macromolecular conformational transition pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Sean; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, Michael; Beckstein, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes that are challenging for computer simulations. A range of fast path-sampling techniques have been used to generate transitions, but it has been difficult to compare paths from (and assess the relative strengths of) different methods. We introduce a comprehensive method (pathway similarity analysis, PSA) for quantitatively characterizing and comparing macromolecular pathways. The Hausdorff and Fréchet metrics (known from computational geometry) are used to quantify the degree of similarity between polygonal curves in configuration space. A strength of PSA is its use of the full information available from the 3 N-dimensional configuration space trajectory without requiring additional specific knowledge about the system. We compare a sample of eleven different methods for the closed-to-open transitions of the apo enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK) and also apply PSA to an ensemble of 400 AdK trajectories produced by dynamic importance sampling MD and the Geometrical Pathways algorithm. We discuss the method's potential to enhance our understanding of transition path sampling methods, validate them, and help guide future research toward deeper physical insights into conformational transitions.

  3. Conformational Transitions in Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, M.; Janke, W.

    2008-11-01

    Proteins are the "work horses" in biological systems. In almost all functions specific proteins are involved. They control molecular transport processes, stabilize the cell structure, enzymatically catalyze chemical reactions; others act as molecular motors in the complex machinery of molecular synthetization processes. Due to their significance, misfolds and malfunctions of proteins typically entail disastrous diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, the understanding of the trinity of amino acid composition, geometric structure, and biological function is one of the most essential challenges for the natural sciences. Here, we glance at conformational transitions accompanying the structure formation in protein folding processes.

  4. Conformational transitions in cyclohexane and benzol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melker, Alexander I.; Kornilov, Dimitri A.; Vorobyeva, Tatiana V.; Ivanov, Alexander

    2003-10-01

    In this contribution we report on a study of structure changes of cyclic hydrocarbon molecule, cyclohexane and two electronic isomers of benzol, in the temperature range from 100° to 1200° C by a new molecular dynamics with charges at bonds. We have also studied time dependence of interatomic distance at these temperatures. It was found that C-(C)-C and C-(C-C)-C interactomic distance can serve as a criterion for conformation transitions between the following confirmations: a boat, a chair, and a new conformation in the form of a propeller. Explanation is based on the theory of stability.

  5. Elastic models of conformational transitions in macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon K; Chirikjian, Gregory S; Jernigan, Robert L

    2002-10-01

    We develop a computationally efficient and physically realistic method to simulate the transition of a macromolecule between two conformations. Our method is based on a coarse-grained elastic network model in which contact interactions between spatially proximal parts of the macromolecule are modelled with Gaussian/harmonic potentials. To delimit the interactions in such models, we introduce a cutoff to the permitted number of nearest neighbors. This generates stiffness (Hessian) matrices that are both sparse and quite uniform, hence, allowing for efficient computations. Several toy models are tested using our method to mimic simple classes of macromolecular motions such as stretching, hinge bending, shear, compression, ligand binding and nucleic acid structural transitions. Simulation results demonstrate that the method developed here reliably generates sequences of feasible intermediate conformations of macromolecules, since our method observes steric constraints and produces monotonic changes to virtual bond angles and torsion angles. A final application is made to the opening process of the protein lactoferrin. PMID:12398345

  6. Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan Nair, Arun Kumar; Uyaver, Sahin; Sun, Shuyu

    2014-10-01

    Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain.

  7. Transitions to catalytically inactive conformations in EGFR kinase.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yibing; Arkhipov, Anton; Kim, Eric T; Pan, Albert C; Shaw, David E

    2013-04-30

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a key protein in cellular signaling, and its kinase domain (EGFR kinase) is an intensely pursued target of small-molecule drugs. Although both catalytically active and inactive conformations of EGFR kinase have been resolved crystallographically, experimental characterization of the transitions between these conformations remains difficult. Using unbiased, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we observed EGFR kinase spontaneously transition from the active to the so-called "Src-like inactive" conformation by way of two sets of intermediate conformations: One corresponds to a previously identified locally disordered state and the other to previously undescribed "extended" conformations, marked by the opening of the ATP-binding site between the two lobes of the kinase domain. We also simulated the protonation-dependent transition of EGFR kinase to another ["Asp-Phe-Gly-out" ("DFG-out")] inactive conformation and observed similar intermediate conformations. A key element observed in the simulated transitions is local unfolding, or "cracking," which supports a prediction of energy landscape theory. We used hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange measurements to corroborate our simulations and found that the simulated intermediate conformations correlate better with the H/D exchange data than existing active or inactive EGFR kinase crystal structures. The intermediate conformations revealed by our simulations of the transition process differ significantly from the existing crystal structures and may provide unique possibilities for structure-based drug discovery. PMID:23576739

  8. Solvent dependence of the intersystem crossing kinetics of thioxanthone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, C.; Morlet-Savary, F.; Jacques, P.; Fouassier, J. P.

    2000-05-01

    Intersystem crossing (ISC) of thioxanthone is investigated in a large number of solvents by employing picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The measurement of ISC rate constants for this particular molecule is somewhat difficult due to the overlap between the T 1-T n and S 1-S n transitions and to the solvatochromism of the triplet-triplet absorption. The S 1-S n transition, as well as the excited state lifetime has been assigned. Indeed, the population kinetics of the triplet state consists in a fast component k2 presumably higher than 10 11 s -1 and a slow component k1 which is dramatically solvent dependent; k1 decreases from 710 10 s -1 in toluene to 410 8 s -1 in methanol. A strong correlation between 1/ k1 and the fluorescence lifetime is observed. A four excited state level diagram is proposed which accounts for the complex kinetics of the S?T conversions.

  9. Fluctuation Flooding Method (FFM) for accelerating conformational transitions of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Ryuhei; Takano, Yu; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2014-03-01

    A powerful conformational sampling method for accelerating structural transitions of proteins, "Fluctuation Flooding Method (FFM)," is proposed. In FFM, cycles of the following steps enhance the transitions: (i) extractions of largely fluctuating snapshots along anisotropic modes obtained from trajectories of multiple independent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and (ii) conformational re-sampling of the snapshots via re-generations of initial velocities when re-starting MD simulations. In an application to bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, FFM successfully accelerated the open-closed transition with the 6 ns simulation starting solely from the open state, although the 1-?s canonical MD simulation failed to sample such a rare event.

  10. Maximum Flux Transition Paths of Conformational Change

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ruijun; Shen, Juanfang; Skeel, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Given two metastable states A and B of a biomolecular system, the problem is to calculate the likely paths of the transition from A to B. Such a calculation is more informative and more manageable if done for a reduced set of collective variables chosen so that paths cluster in collective variable space. The computational task becomes that of computing the center of such a cluster. A good way to define the center employs the concept of a committor, whose value at a point in collective variable space is the probability that a trajectory at that point will reach B before A. The committor foliates the transition region into a set of isocommittors. The maximum flux transition path is defined as a path that crosses each isocommittor at a point which (locally) has the highest crossing rate of distinct reactive trajectories. This path is based on the same principle as the minimum resistance path of Berkowitz et al (1983), but it has two advantages: (i) the path is invariant with respect to a change of coordinates in collective variable space and (ii) the differential equations that define the path are simpler. It is argued that such a path is nearer to an ideal path than others that have been proposed with the possible exception of the finite-temperature string method path. To make the calculation tractable, three approximations are introduced, yielding a path that is the solution of a nonsingular two-point boundary-value problem. For such a problem, one can construct a simple and robust algorithm. One such algorithm and its performance is discussed. PMID:20890401

  11. Native proteins trap high-energy transit conformations

    PubMed Central

    Brereton, Andrew E.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    During protein folding and as part of some conformational changes that regulate protein function, the polypeptide chain must traverse high-energy barriers that separate the commonly adopted low-energy conformations. How distortions in peptide geometry allow these barrier-crossing transitions is a fundamental open question. One such important transition involves the movement of a non-glycine residue between the left side of the Ramachandran plot (that is, ϕ < 0°) and the right side (that is, ϕ > 0°). We report that high-energy conformations with ϕ ~ 0°, normally expected to occur only as fleeting transition states, are stably trapped in certain highly resolved native protein structures and that an analysis of these residues provides a detailed, experimentally derived map of the bond angle distortions taking place along the transition path. This unanticipated information lays to rest any uncertainty about whether such transitions are possible and how they occur, and in doing so lays a firm foundation for theoretical studies to better understand the transitions between basins that have been little studied but are integrally involved in protein folding and function. Also, the context of one such residue shows that even a designed highly stable protein can harbor substantial unfavorable interactions. PMID:26601321

  12. General trends of dihedral conformational transitions in a globular protein.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yinglong; Baudry, Jerome; Smith, Jeremy C; McCammon, J Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Dihedral conformational transitions are analyzed systematically in a model globular protein, cytochrome P450cam, to examine their structural and chemical dependences through combined conventional molecular dynamics (cMD), accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) and adaptive biasing force (ABF) simulations. The aMD simulations are performed at two acceleration levels, using dihedral and dual boost, respectively. In comparison with cMD, aMD samples protein dihedral transitions approximately two times faster on average using dihedral boost, and ∼3.5 times faster using dual boost. In the protein backbone, significantly higher dihedral transition rates are observed in the bend, coil, and turn flexible regions, followed by the β bridge and β sheet, and then the helices. Moreover, protein side chains of greater length exhibit higher transition rates on average in the aMD-enhanced sampling. Side chains of the same length (particularly Nχ  = 2) exhibit decreasing transition rates with residues when going from hydrophobic to polar, then charged and aromatic chemical types. The reduction of dihedral transition rates is found to be correlated with increasing energy barriers as identified through ABF free energy calculations. These general trends of dihedral conformational transitions provide important insights into the hierarchical dynamics and complex free energy landscapes of functional proteins. Proteins 2016; 84:501-514. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26799251

  13. Theoretical analysis of competing conformational transitions in superhelical DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhabinskaya, Dina; Benham, Craig J

    2012-01-01

    We develop a statistical mechanical model to analyze the competitive behavior of transitions to multiple alternate conformations in a negatively supercoiled DNA molecule of kilobase length and specified base sequence. Since DNA superhelicity topologically couples together the transition behaviors of all base pairs, a unified model is required to analyze all the transitions to which the DNA sequence is susceptible. Here we present a first model of this type. Our numerical approach generalizes the strategy of previously developed algorithms, which studied superhelical transitions to a single alternate conformation. We apply our multi-state model to study the competition between strand separation and B-Z transitions in superhelical DNA. We show this competition to be highly sensitive to temperature and to the imposed level of supercoiling. Comparison of our results with experimental data shows that, when the energetics appropriate to the experimental conditions are used, the competition between these two transitions is accurately captured by our algorithm. We analyze the superhelical competition between B-Z transitions and denaturation around the c-myc oncogene, where both transitions are known to occur when this gene is transcribing. We apply our model to explore the correlation between stress-induced transitions and transcriptional activity in various organisms. In higher eukaryotes we find a strong enhancement of Z-forming regions immediately 5' to their transcription start sites (TSS), and a depletion of strand separating sites in a broad region around the TSS. The opposite patterns occur around transcript end locations. We also show that susceptibility to each type of transition is different in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. By analyzing a set of untranscribed pseudogenes we show that the Z-susceptibility just downstream of the TSS is not preserved, suggesting it may be under selection pressure. PMID:22570598

  14. Accurate Determination of Conformational Transitions in Oligomeric Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Hernández, Máximo; Vostrikov, Vitaly V; Veglia, Gianluigi; De Simone, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The structural dynamics governing collective motions in oligomeric membrane proteins play key roles in vital biomolecular processes at cellular membranes. In this study, we present a structural refinement approach that combines solid-state NMR experiments and molecular simulations to accurately describe concerted conformational transitions identifying the overall structural, dynamical, and topological states of oligomeric membrane proteins. The accuracy of the structural ensembles generated with this method is shown to reach the statistical error limit, and is further demonstrated by correctly reproducing orthogonal NMR data. We demonstrate the accuracy of this approach by characterising the pentameric state of phospholamban, a key player in the regulation of calcium uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and by probing its dynamical activation upon phosphorylation. Our results underline the importance of using an ensemble approach to characterise the conformational transitions that are often responsible for the biological function of oligomeric membrane protein states. PMID:26975211

  15. Conformal Map Modeling Of The Pinning Transition In Laplacian Growth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Mihail; Hentschel, George; Family, Fereydoon

    2001-03-01

    The distribution of pressure gradients in Laplacian growth has a multifractal distribution which will influence its ability to grow at different interfacial regions in the presence of a critical pressure for flow. Such critical pressures can be expected in very thin films undergoing a solid-liquid transition. Here we describe a conformal mapping approach to such flows using a stochastic iteration of conformal maps, a variant of the Hastings-Levitov approach to DLA. As expected, the dynamics of the interface shows a transition from moving to pinning. It is shown that both the mass and the linear size of the flow pattern at the pinning point have a power-law divergent dependence on the barrier to flow. The scaling exponents characterizing the divergences are derived from the Laurent expansion of the mapping. The effect of thermal noise on the present results will also be discussed.

  16. Accurate Determination of Conformational Transitions in Oligomeric Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Hernández, Máximo; Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Veglia, Gianluigi; De Simone, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The structural dynamics governing collective motions in oligomeric membrane proteins play key roles in vital biomolecular processes at cellular membranes. In this study, we present a structural refinement approach that combines solid-state NMR experiments and molecular simulations to accurately describe concerted conformational transitions identifying the overall structural, dynamical, and topological states of oligomeric membrane proteins. The accuracy of the structural ensembles generated with this method is shown to reach the statistical error limit, and is further demonstrated by correctly reproducing orthogonal NMR data. We demonstrate the accuracy of this approach by characterising the pentameric state of phospholamban, a key player in the regulation of calcium uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and by probing its dynamical activation upon phosphorylation. Our results underline the importance of using an ensemble approach to characterise the conformational transitions that are often responsible for the biological function of oligomeric membrane protein states. PMID:26975211

  17. Folding funnels and conformational transitions via hinge-bending motions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Ma, B; Tsai, C J; Wolfson, H; Nussinov, R

    1999-01-01

    In this article we focus on presenting a broad range of examples illustrating low-energy transitions via hinge-bending motions. The examples are divided according to the type of hinge-bending involved; namely, motions involving fragments of the protein chains, hinge-bending motions involving protein domains, and hinge-bending motions between the covalently unconnected subunits. We further make a distinction between allosterically and nonallosterically regulated proteins. These transitions are discussed within the general framework of folding and binding funnels. We propose that the conformers manifesting such swiveling motions are not the outcome of "induced fit" binding mechanism; instead, molecules exist in an ensemble of conformations that are in equilibrium in solution. These ensembles, which populate the bottoms of the funnels, a priori contain both the "open" and the "closed" conformational isomers. Furthermore, we argue that there are no fundamental differences among the physical principles behind the folding and binding funnels. Hence, there is no basic difference between funnels depicting ensembles of conformers of single molecules with fragment, or domain motions, as compared to subunits in multimeric quaternary structures, also showing such conformational transitions. The difference relates only to the size and complexity of the system. The larger the system, the more complex its corresponding fused funnel(s). In particular, funnels associated with allosterically regulated proteins are expected to be more complicated, because allostery is frequently involved with movements between subunits, and consequently is often observed in multichain and multimolecular complexes. This review centers on the critical role played by flexibility and conformational fluctuations in enzyme activity. Internal motions that extend over different time scales and with different amplitudes are known to be essential for the catalytic cycle. The conformational change observed in enzyme-substrate complexes as compared to the unbound enzyme state, and in particular the hinge-bending motions observed in enzymes with two domains, have a substantial effect on the enzymatic catalytic activity. The examples we review span the lipolytic enzymes that are particularly interesting, owing to their activation at the water-oil interface; an allosterically controlled dehydrogenase (lactate dehydrogenase); a DNA methyltransferase, with a covalently-bound intermediate; large-scale flexible loop motions in a glycolytic enzyme (TIM); domain motion in PGK, an enzyme which is essential in most cells, both for ATP generation in aerobes and for fermentation in anaerobes; adenylate kinase, showing large conformational changes, owing to their need to shield their catalytic centers from water; a calcium-binding protein (calmodulin), involved in a wide range of cellular calcium-dependent signaling; diphtheria toxin, whose large domain motion has been shown to yield "domain swapping;" the hexameric glutamate dehydrogenase, which has been studied both in a thermophile and in a mesophile; an allosteric enzyme, showing subunit motion between the R and the T states (aspartate transcarbamoylase), and the historically well-studied lac repressor. Nonallosteric subunit transitions are also addressed, with some examples (aspartate receptor and BamHI endonuclease). Hence, using this enzyme-catalysis-centered discussion, we address energy funnel landscapes of large-scale conformational transitions, rather than the faster, quasi-harmonic, thermal fluctuations. PMID:10593256

  18. Conformational Transitions and Convergence of Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Lapelosa, Mauro; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    The Binding Energy Distribution Analysis Method (BEDAM) is employed to compute the standard binding free energies of a series of ligands to a FK506 binding protein (FKBP12) with implicit solvation. Binding free energy estimates are in reasonably good agreement with experimental affinities. The conformations of the complexes identified by the simulations are in good agreement with crystallographic data, which was not used to restrain ligand orientations. The BEDAM method is based on ? -hopping Hamiltonian parallel Replica Exchange (HREM) molecular dynamics conformational sampling, the OPLS-AA/AGBNP2 effective potential, and multi-state free energy estimators (MBAR). Achieving converged and accurate results depends on all of these elements of the calculation. Convergence of the binding free energy is tied to the level of convergence of binding energy distributions at critical intermediate states where bound and unbound states are at equilibrium, and where the rate of binding/unbinding conformational transitions is maximal. This finding mirrors similar observations in the context of order/disorder transitions as for example in protein folding. Insights concerning the physical mechanism of ligand binding and unbinding are obtained. Convergence for the largest FK506 ligand is achieved only after imposing strict conformational restraints, which however require accurate prior structural knowledge of the structure of the complex. The analytical AGBNP2 model is found to underestimate the magnitude of the hydrophobic driving force towards binding in these systems characterized by loosely packed protein-ligand binding interfaces. Rescoring of the binding energies using a numerical surface area model corrects this deficiency. This study illustrates the complex interplay between energy models, exploration of conformational space, and free energy estimators needed to obtain robust estimates from binding free energy calculations. PMID:22368530

  19. Conformational freedom in tight binding enzymatic transition-state analogues.

    PubMed

    Motley, Matthew W; Schramm, Vern L; Schwartz, Steven D

    2013-08-22

    Transition-state analogues of bacterial 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidases (MTANs) disrupt quorum-sensing pathways in Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae, demonstrating the potential to limit pathogenicity without placing bacteria under intense selective pressure that leads to antibiotic resistance. Despite the similarity of the crystal structures of E. coli MTAN (EcMTAN) and V. cholerae MTAN (VcMTAN) bound to DADMe-Immucillin-A transition-state (TS) analogues, EcMTAN demonstrates femtomolar affinity for BuT-DADMe-Immucillin-A (BDIA) whereas VcMTAN possesses only picomolar affinity. Protein dynamic interactions are therefore implicated in this inhibitor affinity difference. We conducted molecular dynamics simulations of both EcMTAN and VcMTAN in complex with BDIA to explore differences in protein dynamic architecture. Simulations revealed that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with BDIA are similar for both enzymes and thus unlikely to account for the difference in inhibitor affinity. The EcMTAN-BDIA complex reveals a greater flexibility and conformational freedom of catalytically important atoms. We propose that conserved motions related to the EcMTAN transition state correlate with the increased affinity of BDIA for EcMTAN. Transition-state analogues permitting protein motion related to formation of the transition state are better mimics of the enzymatic transition state and can bind more tightly than those immobilizing catalytic site dynamics. PMID:23895500

  20. Conformational Transition Pathway in the Activation Process of Allosteric Glucokinase

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ting; Zhao, Yaxue; Chen, Yingyi; Li, Xiaobai; Liu, Xinyi; Huang, Zhimin; Zhang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) is a glycolytic enzyme that plays an important role in regulating blood glucose level, thus acting as a potentially attractive target for drug discovery in the treatment of diabetes of the young type 2 and persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. To characterize the activation mechanism of GK from the super-open state (inactive state) to the closed state (active state), a series of conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and targeted MD (TMD) simulations were performed on this enzyme. Conventional MD simulation showed a specific conformational ensemble of GK when the enzyme is inactive. Seven TMD simulations depicted a reliably conformational transition pathway of GK from the inactive state to the active state, and the components important to the conformational change of GK were identified by analyzing the detailed structures of the TMD trajectories. In combination with the inactivation process, our findings showed that the whole conformational pathway for the activation-inactivation-activation of GK is a one-direction circulation, and the active state is less stable than the inactive state in the circulation. Additionally, glucose was demonstrated to gradually modulate its binding pose with the help of residues in the large domain and connecting region of GK during the activation process. Furthermore, the obtained energy barriers were used to explain the preexisting equilibrium and the slow binding kinetic process of the substrate by GK. The simulated results are in accordance with the recent findings from the mutagenesis experiments and kinetic analyses. Our observations reveal a complicated conformational process in the allosteric protein, resulting in new knowledge about the delicate mechanisms for allosteric biological macromolecules that will be useful in drug design for targeting allosteric proteins. PMID:23409066

  1. Surface Immobilization of antibody on silk fibroin through conformational transition

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hesun; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    In recent studies silk fibroin has been explored as a new material platform for biosensors. Based on these developments a procedure for the immobilization of antibodies on silk fibroin substrates was developed as a route to functionalizing these biosensor systems. By controlling the conformational transition of the silk fibroin, a primary antibody was immobilized and enriched at the surface of silk fibroin substrates under mild reaction conditions to maintain antibody function. Compared to chemical crosslinking, the immobilization efficiency in the present approach was increased significantly. This method, achieving high loading of antibody while retaining function, improves the feasibility of silk fibroin as a platform material for biosensor applications. PMID:21382528

  2. Finding Conformational Transition Pathways from Discrete Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Sfriso, Pedro; Emperador, Agusti; Orellana, Laura; Hospital, Adam; Gelp, Josep Lluis; Orozco, Modesto

    2012-11-13

    We present a new method for estimating pathways for conformational transitions in macromolecules from the use of discrete molecular dynamics and biasing techniques based on a combination of essential dynamics and Maxwell-Demon sampling techniques. The method can work with high efficiency at different levels of resolution, including the atomistic one, and can help to define initial pathways for further exploration by means of more accurate atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The method is implemented in a freely available Web-based application accessible at http://mmb.irbbarcelona.org/MDdMD . PMID:26605625

  3. Broadband transition between microstrip line and conformal surface plasmon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhen; Zhao, Jie; Cao Pan, Bai; Shen, Xiao Peng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-08-01

    We propose a broadband and high-efficiency transition from a microstrip line to a conformal surface plasmon (CSP) waveguide that is made of an ultrathin corrugated metallic strip, to transform the guide wave into a spoof surface plasmon polariton (SPP) in the microwave region. The transition consists of three parts: a convertor which converts the direction of the electric field from perpendicular to parallel to the strip, a matching area with gradient corrugations and a flaring metallic line to match both the momentum and impedance, and a CSP waveguide to support the SPP waves. A back-to-back transition sample is fabricated using the proposed method. Experimental results of S parameters and near-field distributions verify the excellent performance of the sample to transform guided waves to SPPs and transmit SPP waves in a wide band. The sample exhibits low energy loss when the CSP waveguide is bent or even twisted. The proposed transition may have potential applications in integrating conventional microwave devices with the SPP devices.

  4. Conformation transitions of eukaryotic polyribosomes during multi-round translation.

    PubMed

    Afonina, Zhanna A; Myasnikov, Alexander G; Shirokov, Vladimir A; Klaholz, Bruno P; Spirin, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    Using sedimentation and cryo electron tomography techniques, the conformations of eukaryotic polyribosomes formed in a long-term cell-free translation system were analyzed over all the active system lifetime (20-30 translation rounds during 6-8 h in wheat germ extract at 25C). Three distinct types of the conformations were observed: (i) circular polyribosomes, varying from ring-shaped forms to circles collapsed into double rows, (ii) linear polyribosomes, tending to acquire planar zigzag-like forms and (iii) densely packed 3D helices. At the start, during the first two rounds of translation mostly the circular (ring-shaped and double-row) polyribosomes and the linear (free-shaped and zigzag-like) polyribosomes were formed ('juvenile phase'). The progressive loading of the polyribosomes with translating ribosomes induced the opening of the circular polyribosomes and the transformation of a major part of the linear polyribosomes into the dense 3D helices ('transitional phase'). After 2 h from the beginning (about 8-10 rounds of translation) this compact form of polyribosomes became predominant, whereas the circular and linear polyribosome fractions together contained less than half of polysomal ribosomes ('steady-state phase'). The latter proportions did not change for several hours. Functional tests showed a reduced translational activity in the fraction of the 3D helical polyribosomes. PMID:25520190

  5. Conformation transitions of eukaryotic polyribosomes during multi-round translation

    PubMed Central

    Afonina, Zhanna A.; Myasnikov, Alexander G.; Shirokov, Vladimir A.; Klaholz, Bruno P.; Spirin, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Using sedimentation and cryo electron tomography techniques, the conformations of eukaryotic polyribosomes formed in a long-term cell-free translation system were analyzed over all the active system lifetime (2030 translation rounds during 68 h in wheat germ extract at 25C). Three distinct types of the conformations were observed: (i) circular polyribosomes, varying from ring-shaped forms to circles collapsed into double rows, (ii) linear polyribosomes, tending to acquire planar zigzag-like forms and (iii) densely packed 3D helices. At the start, during the first two rounds of translation mostly the circular (ring-shaped and double-row) polyribosomes and the linear (free-shaped and zigzag-like) polyribosomes were formed (juvenile phase). The progressive loading of the polyribosomes with translating ribosomes induced the opening of the circular polyribosomes and the transformation of a major part of the linear polyribosomes into the dense 3D helices (transitional phase). After 2 h from the beginning (about 810 rounds of translation) this compact form of polyribosomes became predominant, whereas the circular and linear polyribosome fractions together contained less than half of polysomal ribosomes (steady-state phase). The latter proportions did not change for several hours. Functional tests showed a reduced translational activity in the fraction of the 3D helical polyribosomes. PMID:25520190

  6. Thermally induced conformational transitions in nascent branched amphiphilic peptide capsules.

    PubMed

    Sukthankar, Pinakin; Whitaker, Susan K; Garcia, Macy; Herrera, Alvaro; Boatwright, Mark; Prakash, Om; Tomich, John M

    2015-03-17

    Branched amphiphilic peptide capsules (BAPCs) are biocompatible, bilayer delimited polycationic nanospheres that spontaneously form at room temperature through the coassembly of two amphiphilic branched peptides: bis(FLIVI)-K-K4 and bis(FLIVIGSII)-K-K4. BAPCs are readily taken up by cells in culture, where they escape and/or evade the endocytic pathway and accumulate in the perinuclear region, persisting there without apparent degradation or extravasation. Drugs, small proteins, and solutes as well as ? particle emitting radionuclides are stably encapsulated for extended periods of time. BAPC formation at room temperature proceeds via a fusogenic process and after 48 h a range of BAPCs sizes are observed, from 50 nm to a few microns in diameter. It was previously reported that cooling BAPCs from 25 to 4 C and then back to 25 C eliminated their fusogenic property. In this report, biophysical techniques reveal that BAPCs undergo thermosensitive conformational transitions as a function of both time and temperature and that the properties of BAPCs vary based on the temperature of assembly. The solvent dissociation properties of BAPCs were studied as well as the contributions of specific amino acid residues to the observed conformations. The roles of the potential stabilizing forces present within the bilayer that bestow the unusal stability of the BAPCs are discussed. Ultimately this study presents revised assembly protocols for preparing BAPCs with discrete sizes and solvent-induced extravasation properties. PMID:25719598

  7. Solvent-dependent gating motions of an extremophilic lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Quentin R; Nellas, Ricky B; Shen, Tongye

    2012-08-01

    Understanding how organic solvent-stable proteins can function in anhydrous and often complex solutions is essential for the study of the interaction of protein and molecular immiscible interfaces and the design of efficient industrial enzymes in nonaqueous solvents. Using an extremophilic lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an example, we investigated the conformational dynamics of an organic solvent-tolerant enzyme in complex solvent milieux. Four 100-ns molecular dynamics simulations of the lipase were performed in solvent systems: water, hexane, and two mixtures of hexane and water, 5% and 95% (w/w) hexane. Our results show a solvent-dependent structural change of the protein, especially in the region that regulates the admission of the substrate. We observed that the lipase is much less flexible in hexane than in aqueous solution or at the immiscible interface. Quantified by the size of the accessible channel, the lipase in water has a closed-gate conformation and no access to the active site, while in the hexane-containing systems, the lipase is at various degrees of open-gate state, with the immiscible interface setup being in the widely open conformation ensembles. The composition of explicit solvents in the access channel showed a significant influence on the conformational dynamics of the protein. Interestingly, the slowest step (bottleneck) of the hexane-induced conformational switch seems to be correlated with the slow dehydration dynamics of the channel. PMID:22830585

  8. Sequence Recognition of DNA by Protein-Induced Conformational Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Derrick; Mohan, Srividya; Koudelka, Gerald B.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2010-11-09

    The binding of proteins to specific sequences of DNA is an important feature of virtually all DNA transactions. Proteins recognize specific DNA sequences using both direct readout (sensing types and positions of DNA functional groups) and indirect readout (sensing DNA conformation and deformability). Previously we showed that the P22 c2 repressor N-terminal domain (P22R NTD) forces the central non-contacted 5{prime}-ATAT-3{prime} sequence of the DNA operator into the B{prime} state, a state known to affect DNA hydration, rigidity and bending. Usually the B{prime} state, with a narrow minor groove and a spine of hydration, is reserved for A-tract DNA (TpA steps disrupt A-tracts). Here, we have co-crystallized P22R NTD with an operator containing a central 5{prime}-ACGT-3{prime} sequence in the non-contacted region. C {center_dot} G base pairs have not previously been observed in the B{prime} state and are thought to prevent it. However, P22R NTD induces a narrow minor groove and a spine of hydration to 5{prime}-ACGT-3{prime}. We observe that C {center_dot} G base pairs have distinctive destabilizing and disordering effects on the spine of hydration. It appears that the reduced stability of the spine results in a higher energy cost for the B to B{prime} transition. The differential effect of DNA sequence on the barrier to this transition allows the protein to sense the non-contacted DNA sequence.

  9. Theoretical study of large conformational transitions in DNA: the B?A conformational change in water and ethanol/water

    PubMed Central

    Noy, Agnes; Prez, Alberto; Laughton, Charles A.; Orozco, Modesto

    2007-01-01

    We explore here the possibility of determining theoretically the free energy change associated with large conformational transitions in DNA, like the solvent-induced B?A conformational change. We find that a combination of targeted molecular dynamics (tMD) and the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) can be used to trace this transition in both water and ethanol/water mixture. The pathway of the transition in the A?B direction mirrors the B?A pathway, and is dominated by two processes that occur somewhat independently: local changes in sugar puckering and global rearrangements (particularly twist and roll) in the structure. The B?A transition is found to be a quasi-harmonic process, which follows closely the first spontaneous deformation mode of B-DNA, showing that a physiologically-relevant deformation is in coded in the flexibility pattern of DNA. PMID:17459891

  10. Conformational transitions of subunit epsilon in ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3.

    PubMed

    Feniouk, Boris A; Kato-Yamada, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Masasuke; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2010-02-01

    Subunit epsilon of bacterial and chloroplast F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase is responsible for inhibition of ATPase activity. In Bacillus PS3 enzyme, subunit epsilon can adopt two conformations. In the "extended", inhibitory conformation, its two C-terminal alpha-helices are stretched along subunit gamma. In the "contracted", noninhibitory conformation, these helices form a hairpin. The transition of subunit epsilon from an extended to a contracted state was studied in ATP synthase incorporated in Bacillus PS3 membranes at 59 degrees C. Fluorescence energy resonance transfer between fluorophores introduced in the C-terminus of subunit epsilon and in the N-terminus of subunit gamma was used to follow the conformational transition in real time. It was found that ATP induced the conformational transition from the extended to the contracted state (half-maximum transition extent at 140 microM ATP). ADP could neither prevent nor reverse the ATP-induced conformational change, but it did slow it down. Acid residues in the DELSEED region of subunit beta were found to stabilize the extended conformation of epsilon. Binding of ATP directly to epsilon was not essential for the ATP-induced conformational change. The ATP concentration necessary for the half-maximal transition (140 microM) suggests that subunit epsilon probably adopts the extended state and strongly inhibits ATP hydrolysis only when the intracellular ATP level drops significantly below the normal value. PMID:20141757

  11. Picosecond conformational transition and equilibration of a cyclic peptide

    PubMed Central

    Bredenbeck, Jens; Helbing, Jan; Sieg, Arne; Schrader, Tobias; Zinth, Wolfgang; Renner, Christian; Behrendt, Raymond; Moroder, Luis; Wachtveitl, Josef; Hamm, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Ultrafast IR spectroscopy is used to monitor the nonequilibrium backbone dynamics of a cyclic peptide in the amide I vibrational range with picosecond time resolution. A conformational change is induced by means of a photoswitch integrated into the peptide backbone. Although the main conformational change of the backbone is completed after only 20 ps, the subsequent equilibration in the new region of conformational space continues for times >16 ns. Relaxation and equilibration processes of the peptide backbone occur on a discrete hierarchy of time scales. Albeit possessing only a few conformational degrees of freedom compared with a protein, the peptide behaves highly nontrivially and provides insights into the complexity of fast protein folding. PMID:12736378

  12. Conformational transitions and subglass relaxation processes in polyethylene: A molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ryan Young

    This dissertation involves the use of long-trajectory molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations in the investigation of various properties of polymeric materials, particularly the conformational transitions and subglass relaxation processes in bulk polyethylene. The volume temperature relation was established via MD runs of constant number, constant pressure, and constant temperature. The volumetric glass transition temperature was determined. Conformational transition rates were monitored and found to remain Arrhenius in nature over a wide temperature range, and the activation energy was found to correspond to a single torsional barrier whereas the relaxation times of the torsional angle autocorrelation functions and fictitious dipolar autocorrelation functions (ACF) were found to display non-Arrhenius Williams-Landel-Ferry Vogel-Fulcher temperature dependence. The disparity between the relaxation time and conformational transition behavior was traced to the increasingly heterogeneous spatial distribution of conformational transitions over the bonds as temperature was decreased. The nature of neighbor-correlated transitions was examined, and 2 next neighbor correlations were found to be common. In addition, it was found that 0 self-correlated transitions became increasingly important and ultimately dominated in the bulk as temperature was lowered. The connection between the relaxation processes and bond rotational barrier jumps or conformational transitions in polyethylene was explored by "bottom-filtered" and "neighbor-filtered" torsional angles and dipolar ACFs. It was found that the relaxation in the polymer chain could be satisfactorily explained by the ACF contributions from the bonds where conformational transitions had occurred and from the immediate neighboring bonds. This suggests that the relaxation process following a conformational transition is a highly localized and cooperative mode. It involves a large angle rotational change associated with a conformational state change, and small angle rotational diffusion of the successive neighboring bonds following the conformational transitions. Such mechanisms are effective in alleviating the displacement accompanying a conformational transition through small-scale distortion of the immediate neighboring bonds. The results from MD simulations, when possible, were compared with available experimental data as well as results from other computer simulations. Good agreement was found between the relaxation times obtained from long trajectory MD simulations and those from experimental dielectric measurement for the gamma subglass processes in polyethylene.

  13. Identification of key residues for protein conformational transition using elastic network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ji Guo; Jin Xu, Xian; Hua Li, Chun; Chen, Wei Zu; Wang, Cun Xin

    2011-11-01

    Proteins usually undergo conformational transitions between structurally disparate states to fulfill their functions. The large-scale allosteric conformational transitions are believed to involve some key residues that mediate the conformational movements between different regions of the protein. In the present work, a thermodynamic method based on the elastic network model is proposed to predict the key residues involved in protein conformational transitions. In our method, the key functional sites are identified as the residues whose perturbations largely influence the free energy difference between the protein states before and after transition. Two proteins, nucleotide binding domain of the heat shock protein 70 and human/rat DNA polymerase ?, are used as case studies to identify the critical residues responsible for their open-closed conformational transitions. The results show that the functionally important residues mainly locate at the following regions for these two proteins: (1) the bridging point at the interface between the subdomains that control the opening and closure of the binding cleft; (2) the hinge region between different subdomains, which mediates the cooperative motions between the corresponding subdomains; and (3) the substrate binding sites. The similarity in the positions of the key residues for these two proteins may indicate a common mechanism in their conformational transitions.

  14. Capturing Transition Paths and Transition States for Conformational Rearrangements in the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Jeffrey K.; Chahine, Jorge; Leite, Vitor B.P.; Whitford, Paul Charles

    2014-01-01

    To reveal the molecular determinants of biological function, one seeks to characterize the interactions that are formed in conformational and chemical transition states. In other words, what interactions govern the molecule’s energy landscape? To accomplish this, it is necessary to determine which degrees of freedom can unambiguously identify each transition state. Here, we perform simulations of large-scale aminoacyl-transfer RNA (aa-tRNA) rearrangements during accommodation on the ribosome and project the dynamics along experimentally accessible atomic distances. From this analysis, we obtain evidence for which coordinates capture the correct number of barrier-crossing events and accurately indicate when the aa-tRNA is on a transition path. Although a commonly used coordinate in single-molecule experiments performs poorly, this study implicates alternative coordinates along which rearrangements are accurately described as diffusive movements across a one-dimensional free-energy profile. From this, we provide the theoretical foundation required for single-molecule techniques to uncover the energy landscape governing aa-tRNA selection by the ribosome. PMID:25517153

  15. Capturing Transition Paths and Transition States for Conformational Rearrangements in the Ribosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Jeffrey; Chahine, Jorge; Leite, Vitor; Whitford, Paul

    2015-03-01

    To reveal the molecular determinants of biological function, one seeks to characterize the interactions that are formed in conformational and chemical transition states. In other words, what interactions govern the molecule's energy landscape? To accomplish this, it is necessary to determine which degrees of freedom can unambiguously identify each transition state. Here, we perform simulations of large-scale aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) rearrangements during accommodation on the ribosome and project the dynamics along experimentally-accessible atomic distances. From this analysis, we obtain evidence for which coordinates capture the correct number of barrier-crossing events and accurately indicate when the aa-tRNA is on a transition path. While a currently-used coordinate in single-molecule experiments performs poorly, this study implicates alternative coordinates along which rearrangements are accurately described as diffusive movements across a one-dimensional free-energy profile. From this, we provide the theoretical foundation required for single-molecule techniques to uncover the energy landscape governing aa-tRNA selection by the ribosome. More details can be found at doi:10.1529/biophysj.106.090944.

  16. Conformational transition in signal transduction: metastable states and transition pathways in the activation of a signaling protein.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rahul; Yan, Honggao; Cukier, Robert I

    2015-06-01

    Signal transduction is of vital importance to the growth and adaptation of living organisms. The key to understand mechanisms of biological signal transduction is elucidation of the conformational dynamics of its signaling proteins, as the activation of a signaling protein is fundamentally a process of conformational transition from an inactive to an active state. A predominant form of signal transduction for bacterial sensing of environmental changes in the wild or inside their hosts is a variety of two-component systems, in which the conformational transition of a response regulator (RR) from an inactive to an active state initiates responses to the environmental changes. Here, RR activation has been investigated using RR468 as a model system by extensive unbiased all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit solvent, starting from snapshots along a targeted MD trajectory that covers the conformational transition. Markov state modeling, transition path theory, and geometric analyses of the wealth of the MD data have provided a comprehensive description of the RR activation. It involves a network of metastable states, with one metastable state essentially the same as the inactive state and another very similar to the active state that are connected via a small set of intermediates. Five major pathways account for >75% of the fluxes of the conformational transition from the inactive to the active-like state. The thermodynamic stability of the states and the activation barriers between states are found, to identify rate-limiting steps. The conformal transition is initiated predominantly by movements of the ?3?3 loop, followed by movements of the ?4?4-loop and neighboring ?4 helix region, and capped by additional movements of the ?3?3 loop. A number of transient hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions are revealed, and they may be important for the conformational transition. PMID:25945797

  17. Solvent-Dependent Pyranopterin Cyclization in Molybdenum Cofactor Model Complexes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Benjamin R; Gisewhite, Douglas; Kalinsky, Anna; Esmail, Alisha; Burgmayer, Sharon J Nieter

    2015-09-01

    The conserved pterin dithiolene ligand that coordinates molybdenum (Mo) in the cofactor (Moco) of mononuclear Mo enzymes can exist in both a tricyclic pyranopterin dithiolene form and as a bicyclic pterin-dithiolene form as observed in protein crystal structures of several bacterial molybdoenzymes. Interconversion between the tricyclic and bicyclic forms via pyran scission and cyclization has been hypothesized to play a role in the catalytic mechanism of Moco. Therefore, understanding the interconversion between the tricyclic and bicyclic forms, a type of ring-chain tautomerism, is an important aspect of study to understand its role in catalysis. In this study, equilibrium constants (K(eq)) as well as enthalpy, entropy, and free energy values are obtained for pyran ring tautomerism exhibited by two Moco model complexes, namely, (Et4N)[Tp*Mo(O)(S2BMOPP)] (1) and (Et4N)[Tp*Mo(O)(S2PEOPP)] (2), as a solvent-dependent equilibrium process. Keq values obtained from (1)H NMR data in seven deuterated solvents show a correlation between solvent polarity and tautomer form, where solvents with higher polarity parameters favor the pyran form. PMID:25942001

  18. Entropic mechanism of allosteric communication in conformational transitions of dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tomoki P; Kimura, Toru; Sasai, Masaki

    2013-10-24

    The mechanism of allosteric conformational transitions of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is investigated theoretically by applying a newly developed coarse-grained model. Functional forms of interaction potentials in the model depend on the local structural environments around those interactions to represent the many-residue effects due to atomic packing in each local region, and hence, this model is called "the chameleon model". The chameleon model consistently describes the free-energy landscape of two conformational transitions in the catalytic cycle of DHFR, which we call conformational transition 1 (CT1) and conformational transition 2 (CT2); CT1 is accompanied by the hydride transfer reaction, and CT2 is accompanied by the product ligand release. The transition state of CT1 is entropically stabilized by the disordering of loops at the peripheral regions of the protein, which enhances the positively correlated fluctuations at the center part of the protein, showing that the allosteric communication between distant regions through the central region is intrinsically associated with the entropic stabilization of the transition state. The transition state of CT2 is entropically stabilized through the mechanism that enhances the breathing motion of two domains, showing that the difference in the distribution of interactions brings about the difference in the transition mechanism between CT1 and CT2. The chameleon model opens a way to consistently describe the dynamical energy landscape of enzymatic reactions. PMID:23705773

  19. Conformational Transitions upon Ligand Binding: Holo-Structure Prediction from Apo Conformations

    PubMed Central

    Seeliger, Daniel; de Groot, Bert L.

    2010-01-01

    Biological function of proteins is frequently associated with the formation of complexes with small-molecule ligands. Experimental structure determination of such complexes at atomic resolution, however, can be time-consuming and costly. Computational methods for structure prediction of protein/ligand complexes, particularly docking, are as yet restricted by their limited consideration of receptor flexibility, rendering them not applicable for predicting protein/ligand complexes if large conformational changes of the receptor upon ligand binding are involved. Accurate receptor models in the ligand-bound state (holo structures), however, are a prerequisite for successful structure-based drug design. Hence, if only an unbound (apo) structure is available distinct from the ligand-bound conformation, structure-based drug design is severely limited. We present a method to predict the structure of protein/ligand complexes based solely on the apo structure, the ligand and the radius of gyration of the holo structure. The method is applied to ten cases in which proteins undergo structural rearrangements of up to 7.1 backbone RMSD upon ligand binding. In all cases, receptor models within 1.6 backbone RMSD to the target were predicted and close-to-native ligand binding poses were obtained for 8 of 10 cases in the top-ranked complex models. A protocol is presented that is expected to enable structure modeling of protein/ligand complexes and structure-based drug design for cases where crystal structures of ligand-bound conformations are not available. PMID:20066034

  20. Mapping the conformational transition in Src activation by cumulating the information from multiple molecular dynamics trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sichun; Banavali, Nilesh K.; Roux, Benoît

    2009-01-01

    The Src-family kinases are allosteric enzymes that play a key role in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. In response to cellular signals, they undergo large conformational changes to switch between distinct inactive and active states. A computational strategy for characterizing the conformational transition pathway is presented to bridge the inactive and active states of the catalytic domain of Hck. The information from a large number (78) of independent all-atom molecular dynamics trajectories with explicit solvent is combined together to assemble a connectivity map of the conformational transition. Two intermediate states along the activation pathways are identified, and their structural features are characterized. A coarse free-energy landscape is built in terms of the collective motions corresponding to the opening of the activation loop (A-loop) and the rotation of the αC helix. This landscape shows that the protein can adopt a multitude of conformations in which the A-loop is partially open, while the αC helix remains in the orientation characteristic of the inactive conformation. The complete transition leading to the active conformation requires a concerted movement involving further opening of the A-loop, the relative alignment of N-lobe and C-lobe, and the rotation of the αC helix needed to recruit the residues necessary for catalysis in the active site. The analysis leads to a dynamic view of the full-length kinase activation, whereby transitions of the catalytic domain to intermediate configurations with a partially open A-loop are permitted, even while the SH2-SH3 clamp remains fully engaged. These transitions would render Y416 available for the transphosphorylation event that ultimately locks down the active state. The results provide a broad framework for picturing the conformational transitions leading to kinase activation. PMID:19225111

  1. Mapping the conformational transition in Src activation by cumulating the information from multiple molecular dynamics trajectories.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sichun; Banavali, Nilesh K; Roux, Benot

    2009-03-10

    The Src-family kinases are allosteric enzymes that play a key role in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. In response to cellular signals, they undergo large conformational changes to switch between distinct inactive and active states. A computational strategy for characterizing the conformational transition pathway is presented to bridge the inactive and active states of the catalytic domain of Hck. The information from a large number (78) of independent all-atom molecular dynamics trajectories with explicit solvent is combined together to assemble a connectivity map of the conformational transition. Two intermediate states along the activation pathways are identified, and their structural features are characterized. A coarse free-energy landscape is built in terms of the collective motions corresponding to the opening of the activation loop (A-loop) and the rotation of the alphaC helix. This landscape shows that the protein can adopt a multitude of conformations in which the A-loop is partially open, while the alphaC helix remains in the orientation characteristic of the inactive conformation. The complete transition leading to the active conformation requires a concerted movement involving further opening of the A-loop, the relative alignment of N-lobe and C-lobe, and the rotation of the alphaC helix needed to recruit the residues necessary for catalysis in the active site. The analysis leads to a dynamic view of the full-length kinase activation, whereby transitions of the catalytic domain to intermediate configurations with a partially open A-loop are permitted, even while the SH2-SH3 clamp remains fully engaged. These transitions would render Y416 available for the transphosphorylation event that ultimately locks down the active state. The results provide a broad framework for picturing the conformational transitions leading to kinase activation. PMID:19225111

  2. Conformational transitions of glycine induced by vibrational excitation of the O-H stretch.

    PubMed

    Shmilovits-Ofir, Michaela; Miller, Yifat; Gerber, R Benny

    2011-05-21

    Vibrational energy flow and conformational transitions following excitation of the OH stretching mode of the most stable conformer of glycine are studied by classical trajectories. "On the fly" simulations with the PM3 semiempirical electronic structure method for the potential surface are used. Initial conditions are selected to correspond to the ?=1 excitation of the OH stretch. The main findings are: (1) An an equilibrium-like ratio is established between the populations of the 3 lowest-lying conformers after about 10 picoseconds. (2) There is a high probability throughout the 150 ps of the simulations for finding the molecule in geometries far from the equilibrium structures of the lowest-energy conformers. (3) Energy from the initial excited OH (?=1) stretch flows preferentially to 5 other vibrational modes, including the bending motion of the H atom. (4) RRK theory yields conformational transition rates that deviate substantially from the classical trajectory results. Possible implication of these results for vibrational energy flow and conformational transitions in small biological molecules are discussed. PMID:20922237

  3. First order electroweak phase transition from (non)conformal extensions of the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannino, Francesco; Virkajärvi, Jussi

    2015-08-01

    We analyze and compare the finite-temperature electroweak phase transition properties of classically (non)conformal extensions of the standard model. In the classically conformal scenarios the breaking of the electroweak symmetry is generated radiatively. The models feature new scalars coupled conformally to the Higgs sector as well as new fermions. We uncover the parameter space leading to a first-order phase transition with(out) the Veltman conditions. We also discuss dark (matter) aspects of some of the models and compare with existing literature when appropriate. We observe that to accommodate both, a first order electroweak phase transition, and a phenomenologically viable dark matter candidate requires to go beyond the simplest extensions of the standard model. Furthermore these extensions must all feature new degrees of freedom that are naturally lighter than a TeV and therefore the associated models are testable at the upcoming Large Hadron Collider run two experiments.

  4. Temperature-Dependent Probabilistic Roadmap Algorithm for Calculating Variationally Optimized Conformational Transition Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haijun; Wu, Hao; Li, Dawei; Han, Li; Huo, Shuanghong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to calculate a temperature-dependent optimized conformational transition pathways. This method is based on the maximization of the flux derived from the Smoluchowski equation and is implemented with a probabilistic roadmap algorithm. We have tested the algorithm on four systems [Formula: see text] the Mller potential, the three-hole potential, alanine dipeptide, and the folding of ?-hairpin. Comparison is made with existing algorithms designed for the calculation of protein conformational transition and folding pathways. The applications demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to isolate a temperature-dependent optimal reaction path with improved sampling and efficiency. PMID:26627147

  5. Investigation of the influence on conformational transition of DNA induced by cationic lipid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheling; Huang, Weimin; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the structural features of DNA-lipid assemblies. In this paper we take nile blue A (NBA) as a probe molecule to study the influence of the conformational transition of DNA induced by didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) cationic vesicles to the interaction between DNA and the probe molecules. We find that upon binding to DNA, a secondary conformational transition of DNA induced by the cationic liposome from the native B-form to the C-form resulted in the change of binding modes of NBA to DNA and different complexes are formed between DNA, DDAB and NBA.

  6. Search for cyclopropylbenzene conformers by studying the S 1 ? S 0 electronic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philis, John G.; Wategaonkar, Sanjay

    2007-05-01

    The resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, (1+1) REMPI and (2+2) REMPI S 1 ? S 0 spectra of cyclopropylbenzene (CPBz) have been measured in supersonic jet expansion under various cooling conditions. Both spectra include the pure electronic transition and one vibrationally induced transition. The vibronic analysis of these spectra revealed the presence of only one conformer. The present experiment cannot give the form of the conformer. The bisected structure, which was found by microwave spectroscopy [Q. Shen, C. Wells, M. Traetteberg, R.K. Bohn, A. Willis, J. Knee, J. Org. Chem., 66 (2001) 5840] is acceptable.

  7. Asymmetric ligand binding facilitates conformational transitions in pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Mowrey, David; Cheng, Mary Hongying; Liu, Lu Tian; Willenbring, Dan; Lu, Xinghua; Wymore, Troy; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei

    2013-02-13

    The anesthetic propofol inhibits the currents of the homopentameric ligand-gated ion channel GLIC, yet the crystal structure of GLIC with five propofol molecules bound symmetrically shows an open-channel conformation. To address this dilemma and determine if the symmetry of propofol binding sites affects the channel conformational transition, we performed a total of 1.5 ?s of molecular dynamics simulations for different GLIC systems with propofol occupancies of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5. GLIC without propofol binding or with five propofol molecules bound symmetrically, showed similar channel conformation and hydration status over multiple replicates of 100-ns simulations. In contrast, asymmetric binding to one, two or three equivalent sites in different subunits accelerated the channel dehydration, increased the conformational heterogeneity of the pore-lining TM2 helices, and shifted the lateral and radial tilting angles of TM2 toward a closed-channel conformation. The results differentiate two groups of systems based on the propofol binding symmetry. The difference between symmetric and asymmetric groups is correlated with the variance in the propofol-binding cavity adjacent to the hydrophobic gate and the force imposed by the bound propofol. Asymmetrically bound propofol produced greater variance in the cavity size that could further elevate the conformation heterogeneity. The force trajectory generated by propofol in each subunit over the course of a simulation exhibits an ellipsoidal shape, which has the larger component tangential to the pore. Asymmetric propofol binding creates an unbalanced force that expedites the channel conformation transitions. The findings from this study not only suggest that asymmetric binding underlies the propofol functional inhibition of GLIC, but also advocate for the role of symmetry breaking in facilitating channel conformational transitions. PMID:23339564

  8. Constrained proper sampling of conformations of transition state ensemble of protein folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Hsiao-Mei; Chen, Rong; Liang, Jie

    2011-02-01

    Characterizing the conformations of protein in the transition state ensemble (TSE) is important for studying protein folding. A promising approach pioneered by Vendruscolo et al. [Nature (London) 409, 641 (2001)] to study TSE is to generate conformations that satisfy all constraints imposed by the experimentally measured ϕ values that provide information about the native likeness of the transition states. Faísca et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 095108 (2008)] generated conformations of TSE based on the criterion that, starting from a TS conformation, the probabilities of folding and unfolding are about equal through Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. In this study, we use the technique of constrained sequential Monte Carlo method [Lin et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 094101 (2008); Zhang et al. Proteins 66, 61 (2007)] to generate TSE conformations of acylphosphatase of 98 residues that satisfy the ϕ-value constraints, as well as the criterion that each conformation has a folding probability of 0.5 by Monte Carlo simulations. We adopt a two stage process and first generate 5000 contact maps satisfying the ϕ-value constraints. Each contact map is then used to generate 1000 properly weighted conformations. After clustering similar conformations, we obtain a set of properly weighted samples of 4185 candidate clusters. Representative conformation of each of these cluster is then selected and 50 runs of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation are carried using a regrowth move set. We then select a subset of 1501 conformations that have equal probabilities to fold and to unfold as the set of TSE. These 1501 samples characterize well the distribution of transition state ensemble conformations of acylphosphatase. Compared with previous studies, our approach can access much wider conformational space and can objectively generate conformations that satisfy the ϕ-value constraints and the criterion of 0.5 folding probability without bias. In contrast to previous studies, our results show that transition state conformations are very diverse and are far from nativelike when measured in cartesian root-mean-square deviation (cRMSD): the average cRMSD between TSE conformations and the native structure is 9.4 Å for this short protein, instead of 6 Å reported in previous studies. In addition, we found that the average fraction of native contacts in the TSE is 0.37, with enrichment in native-like β-sheets and a shortage of long range contacts, suggesting such contacts form at a later stage of folding. We further calculate the first passage time of folding of TSE conformations through calculation of physical time associated with the regrowth moves in MCMC simulation through mapping such moves to a Markovian state model, whose transition time was obtained by Langevin dynamics simulations. Our results indicate that despite the large structural diversity of the TSE, they are characterized by similar folding time. Our approach is general and can be used to study TSE in other macromolecules.

  9. Structural Plasticity and Conformational Transitions of HIV Envelope Glycoprotein gp120

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Anil; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    HIV envelope glycoproteins undergo large-scale conformational changes as they interact with cellular receptors to cause the fusion of viral and cellular membranes that permits viral entry to infect targeted cells. Conformational dynamics in HIV gp120 are also important in masking conserved receptor epitopes from being detected for effective neutralization by the human immune system. Crystal structures of HIV gp120 and its complexes with receptors and antibody fragments provide high-resolution pictures of selected conformational states accessible to gp120. Here we describe systematic computational analyses of HIV gp120 plasticity in such complexes with CD4 binding fragments, CD4 mimetic proteins, and various antibody fragments. We used three computational approaches: an isotropic elastic network analysis of conformational plasticity, a full atomic normal mode analysis, and simulation of conformational transitions with our coarse-grained virtual atom molecular mechanics (VAMM) potential function. We observe collective sub-domain motions about hinge points that coordinate those motions, correlated local fluctuations at the interfacial cavity formed when gp120 binds to CD4, and concerted changes in structural elements that form at the CD4 interface during large-scale conformational transitions to the CD4-bound state from the deformed states of gp120 in certain antibody complexes. PMID:23300605

  10. Dehydration-induced conformational transitions in proteins and their inhibition by stabilizers.

    PubMed Central

    Prestrelski, S J; Tedeschi, N; Arakawa, T; Carpenter, J F

    1993-01-01

    Dehydration of proteins results in significant, measurable conformational changes as observed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and resolution-enhancement techniques. For several proteins these conformational changes are at least partially irreversible, since, upon rehydration, denaturation and aggregation are observed. The presence of certain stabilizers inhibited these dehydration-induced transitions; the native structure was preserved in the dried state and upon reconstitution. Conformational transitions were also observed in a model polypeptide, poly-L-lysine, after lyophilization and were inhibited with the addition of stabilizing cosolutes. The ability of a particular additive to preserve the aqueous structure of dehydrated proteins and poly-L-lysine upon dehydration correlates directly with its ability to preserve the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, a labile enzyme, during drying. PMID:7693001

  11. Transition Networks for the Comprehensive Characterization of Complex Conformational Change in proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Noe, F; Krachtus, D; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2006-03-01

    Functionally relevant transitions between native conformations of a protein can be complex, involving, for example, the reorganization of parts of the backbone fold, and may occur via a multitude of pathways. Such transitions can be characterized by a transition network (TN), in which the experimentally determined end state structures are connected by a dense network of subtransitions via low-energy intermediates. We show here how the computation of a TN can be achieved for a complex protein transition. First, an efficient hierarchical procedure is used to uniformly sample the conformational subspace relevant to the transition. Then, the best path which connects the end states is determined as well as the rate-limiting ridge on the energy surface which separates them. Graph-theoretical algorithms permit this to be achieved by computing the barriers of only a small number out of the many subtransitions in the TN. These barriers are computed using the Conjugate Peak Refinement method. The approach is illustrated on the conformational switch of Ras p21. The best and the 12 next-best transition pathways, having rate-limiting barriers within a range of 10 kcal/mol, were identified. Two main energy ridges, which respectively involve rearrangements of the switch I and switch II loops, show that switch I must rearrange by threading Tyr32 underneath the protein backbone before the rate-limiting switch II rearrangement can occur, while the details of the switch II rearrangement differ significantly among the low-energy pathways.

  12. pH-Driven Ordering Transitions in Liquid Crystal Induced by Conformational Changes of Cardiolipin.

    PubMed

    Sidiq, Sumyra; Verma, Indu; Pal, Santanu Kumar

    2015-04-28

    We report an investigation of interfacial phenomena occurring at aqueous-liquid crystal (LC) interfaces that triggers an orientational ordering transition of the LC in the presence of cardiolipin (CL) by varying pH, salt concentration and valence. In particular, the effects of three different conformational isomeric forms of the CL are observed to cause the response of the LC ordering to vary significantly from one to another at those interfaces. An ordering transition of the LC was observed when the CL is mostly in undissociated (at pH 2) and/or in bicyclic (at pH 4) conformation in which LC shows changes in the optical appearance from bright to dark. By contrast, no change in the optical appearance of the LC was observed when the pH of the system increases to 8 or higher in which the CL mostly exists in the open conformation. Fluorescence microscopy measurements further suggest that pH-dependent conformational forms of the CL have different ability to self-assemble (thus different packing efficiency) at aqueous-LC interfaces leading to dissimilar orientational behavior of the LC. Specifically, we found that change in headgroup-headgroup repulsion of the central phosphatidyl groups of the CL plays a key role in tuning the lipid packing efficiency and thus responses to interfacial phenomena. Orientational ordering transition of the LC was also observed as a function of increasing the ionic strength (buffer capacity) and strongly influenced in the presence of mono and divalent cations. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) measurements provide further insight in modulation of the lipid packing efficiency and alkyl chain conformation of the CL at different pH and ionic conditions. Overall, the results presented in this paper establish that LCs offer a promising approach to differentiate different conformations (label free detection) of the CL through ordering transition of the LC at aqueous-LC interfaces. PMID:25856793

  13. Conformational Transitions in Polymer Gel-Surfactant Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    1996-03-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the interaction of polyelectrolyte gels with the solution of oppositely charged surfactants will be reported. Surfactants are absorbed intensively by the gels due to the ion exchange with surfactant counter ions. Moreover, critical micelle concentration inside the gels is shown to be much lower than in the outside solution. Therefore, micelles are easily formed inside the gels even for very dilute exterior solution of surfactants. Simultaneously, gel undergoes pronounced collapse transition. These theoretical predictions were checked in the experiments with the following gel/surfactant pairs: poly(acrylamide-co-sodium methacrylate)/ cetylpiridinium bromide and poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecyl sulfate. The X-ray scattering analysis of the emerging gel/surfactant complexes shows a surprisingly perfect arrangement of surfactant self-assemblies in the quasicrystalline lattice within the gel. The characteristic period of the lattice roughly corresponds to the width of the surfactant bilayer. Lenear dimensions of the periodic array of micelles include up to twenty units. Therefore, in spite of the fact that polyelectrolyte gel is statistically disordered, it may serve as a suitable medium for the formation of perfect self-assemblies.

  14. The impact of N-terminal phosphorylation on LHCII conformation in state transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jin-Hong; Li, Ning; Wang, Man-Liu; Zhang, Yan; L, Shou-Qin; Long, Mian

    2014-06-01

    State transition is an important protection mechanism of plants for maintaining optimal efficiency through redistributing unbalanced excitation energy between photo-system II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). This process depends on the reversible phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the major light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) and its bi-directional migration between PSII and PSI. But it remains unclear how phosphorylation/dephosphorylation modulates the LHCII conformation and further regulates its reversible migration. Here molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) were employed to elucidate the impact of phosphorylation on LHCII conformation. The results indicated that N-terminal phosphorylation loosened LHCII trimer with decreased hydrogen bond (H-bond) interactions and extended the distances between neighboring monomers, which stemmed from the conformational adjustment of each monomer itself. Global conformational change of LHCII monomer started from its stromal Nterminal (including the phosphorylation sites) by enhancing its interaction to lipid membrane and by adjusting the interaction network with surrounded inter-monomer and intra-monomer transmembrane helixes of B, C, and A, and finally triggered the reorientation of transmembrane helixes and transferred the conformational change to luminal side helixes and loops. These results further our understanding in molecular mechanism of LHCII migration during state transition from the phosphorylation-induced microstructural feature of LHCII.

  15. Finite-Size Conformational Transitions: A Unifying Concept Underlying Chromosome Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, R. Car; Pascal, Carrivain; Thierry, Forn; Jean-Marc, Victor; Annick, Lesne

    2014-10-01

    Investigating average thermodynamic quantities is not sufficient to understand conformational transitions of a finite-size polymer. We propose that such transitions are better described in terms of the probability distribution of some finite-size order parameter, and the evolution of this distribution as a control parameter varies. We demonstrate this claim for the coil-globule transition of a linear polymer and its mapping onto a two-state model. In a biological context, polymer models delineate the physical constraints experienced by the genome at different levels of organization, from DNA to chromatin to chromosome. We apply our finite-size approach to the formation of plectonemes in a DNA segment submitted to an applied torque and the ensuing helix-coil transition that can be numerically observed, with a coexistence of the helix and coil states in a range of parameters. Polymer models are also essential to analyze recent in vivo experiments providing the frequency of pairwise contacts between genomic loci. The probability distribution of these contacts yields quantitative information on the conformational fluctuations of chromosome regions. The changes observed in the shape of the distribution when the cell type or the physiological conditions vary may reveal an epigenetic modulation of the conformational constraints experienced by the chromosomes.

  16. Mechanistic picture for conformational transition of a membrane transporter at atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mahmoud; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2013-11-19

    During their transport cycle, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters undergo large-scale conformational changes between inward- and outward-facing states. Using an approach based on designing system-specific reaction coordinates and using nonequilibrium work relations, we have performed extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in the presence of explicit membrane/solvent to sample a large number of mechanistically distinct pathways for the conformational transition of MsbA, a bacterial ABC exporter whose structure has been solved in multiple functional states. The computational approach developed here is based on (i) extensive exploration of system-specific biasing protocols (e.g., using collective variables designed based on available low-resolution crystal structures) and (ii) using nonequilibrium work relations for comparing the relevance of the transition pathways. The most relevant transition pathway identified using this approach involves several distinct stages reflecting the complex nature of the structural changes associated with the function of the protein. The opening of the cytoplasmic gate during the outward- to inward-facing transition of apo MsbA is found to be disfavored when the periplasmic gate is open and facilitated by a twisting motion of the nucleotide-binding domains that involves a dramatic change in their relative orientation. These results highlight the cooperativity between the transmembrane and the nucleotide-binding domains in the conformational transition of ABC exporters. The approach introduced here provides a framework to study large-scale conformational changes of other membrane transporters whose computational investigation at an atomic resolution may not be currently feasible using conventional methods. PMID:24191018

  17. The kinetics of effector binding to phosphofructokinase. The influence of effectors on the allosteric conformational transition.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, D; Kellett, G L

    1980-01-01

    1. The extent of the allosteric transition from the R into the T conformation of rabbit skeletal muscle phosphofructokinase induced by Mg2+-1,N6-etheno-ATP was determined by stopped-flow fluorimetry from the amplitude of the slow phase of the Mg2+-1,N6-etheno-ATP fluorescence enhancement [Roberts & Kellet (1979) Biochem. J. 183, 349--360]. 2. The amplitude of the slow phase was decreased by low concentrations of the activators cyclic AMP and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, but increased in a complex manner by the inhibitor citrate. 3. Mg2+-1,N6-etheno-ATP and Mg2+-ATP are unable to induce the T conformation to a detectable extent in the presence of saturating cyclic AMP, but can do so readily in the presence of saturating fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. 4. The conformational transitions induced in enzyme alone by different ligands were observed by changes in intrinsic protein fluorescence. In general, an R-type conformation has diminished protein fluorescence compared with a T-type conformation. 5. Mg2+-ATP exerts a complex effect on protein fluorescence; both the enhancement at low concentrations and the quenching at high concentrations of Mg2+-ATP result from the binding of Mg2+-ATP to the inhibitory site and the ensuing allosteric transition. Enhancement reflects the extent of the allosteric transition and involves both tyrosine and tryptophan, probably in the region of the active site; quenching reflects occupation of the inhibitory site and involves tyrosine at the inhibitory site. 6. The mechanism of the allosteric transition from the R into the T conformation induced by Mg2+-1,N6-etheno-ATP at low concentrations occurs predominantly by a 'prior-isomerization' pathway; at higher concentrations a limited contribution from a 'substrate-guided' pathway occurs. 7. The allosteric behaviour of phosphofructokinase with respect to Mg2+-ATP and Mg2+-1,N6-ethenol-ATP binding may be accounted for in terms of the simple, concerted model. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6260084

  18. Multivariate curve resolution: a powerful tool for the analysis of conformational transitions in nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Jaumot, Joaquim; Escaja, Nria; Gargallo, Raimundo; Gonzlez, Carlos; Pedroso, Enrique; Tauler, Rom

    2002-09-01

    A successful application is reported of the multivariate curve resolution alternating least-squares method (MCR-ALS) for the analysis of nucleic acid melting and salt-induced transitions. Under conditions where several structures co-exist in a conformational equilibrium, MCR-ALS analysis of the UV and circular dichroism (CD) spectra at different temperatures, ionic strength and oligonucleotide concentration allows for the resolution of concentration profiles and pure spectra of the different species. The methodology is illustrated by the case of the cyclic oligonucleotide d. The melting transition of this molecule at different oligonucleotide concentrations was studied at 0, 2 and 10 mM MgCl2 by UV and CD spectroscopy. In addition, salt titration experiments were carried out at 21.0 and 54.0 degrees C. The MCR-ALS analysis indicates that three different conformations of this molecule co-exist in solution. In agreement with previous NMR studies, these conformations were assigned to a monomeric dumbbell-like structure, a dimeric four-stranded conformation and a disordered (random coil) structure. The MCR-ALS methodology allows for a detailed analysis of how this equilibrium is affected by temperature, salt and oligonucleotide concentration. PMID:12202780

  19. Deciphering conformational transitions of proteins by small angle X-ray scattering and normal mode analysis.

    PubMed

    Panjkovich, Alejandro; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2016-02-17

    Structural flexibility and conformational rearrangements are often related to important functions of biological macromolecules, but the experimental characterization of such transitions with high-resolution techniques is challenging. At a lower resolution, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can be used to obtain information on biomolecular shapes and transitions in solution. Here, we present SREFLEX, a hybrid modeling approach that uses normal mode analysis (NMA) to explore the conformational space of high-resolution models and refine the structure guided by the agreement with the experimental SAXS data. The method starts from a given conformation of the protein (which does not agree with the SAXS data). The structure is partitioned into pseudo-domains either using structural classification databases or automatically from the protein dynamics as predicted by the NMA. The algorithm proceeds hierarchically employing NMA to first probe large rearrangements and progresses into smaller and more localized movements. At the large rearrangements stage the pseudo-domains stay as rigid bodies allowing one to avoid structural disruptions inherent to the earlier NMA-based algorithms. To validate the approach, we compiled a representative benchmark set of 88 conformational states known experimentally at high resolution. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated in the simulated data on the benchmark set and also in a number of experimental examples. SREFLEX is included into the ATSAS program package freely available to the academic users, both for download and in the on-line mode. PMID:26611321

  20. A transferable coarse-grained model for diphenylalanine: How to represent an environment driven conformational transition

    SciTech Connect

    Dalgicdir, Cahit; Sensoy, Ozge; Sayar, Mehmet; Peter, Christine; Department of Chemistry, University of Konstanz, 78547 Konstanz

    2013-12-21

    One of the major challenges in the development of coarse grained (CG) simulation models that aim at biomolecular structure formation processes is the correct representation of an environment-driven conformational change, for example, a folding/unfolding event upon interaction with an interface or upon aggregation. In the present study, we investigate this transferability challenge for a CG model using the example of diphenylalanine. This dipeptide displays a transition from a trans-like to a cis-like conformation upon aggregation as well as upon transfer from bulk water to the cyclohexane/water interface. Here, we show that one can construct a single CG model that can reproduce both the bulk and interface conformational behavior and the segregation between hydrophobic/hydrophilic medium. While the general strategy to obtain nonbonded interactions in the present CG model is to reproduce solvation free energies of small molecules representing the CG beads in the respective solvents, the success of the model strongly depends on nontrivial decisions one has to make to capture the delicate balance between the bonded and nonbonded interactions. In particular, we found that the peptide's conformational behavior is qualitatively affected by the cyclohexane/water interaction potential, an interaction that does not directly involve the peptide at all but merely influences the properties of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface. Furthermore, we show that a small modification to improve the structural/conformational properties of the CG model could dramatically alter the thermodynamic properties.

  1. Solvent effects on the conformational transition of a model polyalanine peptide

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Marchut, Alexander J.; Hall, Carol K.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the folding of polyalanine by combining discontinuous molecular dynamics simulation with our newly developed off-lattice intermediate-resolution protein model. The thermodynamics of a system containing a single Ac-KA14K-NH2 molecule has been explored by using the replica exchange simulation method to map out the conformational transitions as a function of temperature. We have also explored the influence of solvent type on the folding process by varying the relative strength of the side-chains hydrophobic interactions and backbone hydrogen bonding interactions. The peptide in our simulations tends to mimic real polyalanine in that it can exist in three distinct structural states: ?-helix, ?-structures (including ?-hairpin and ?-sheetlike structures), and random coil, depending upon the solvent conditions. At low values of the hydrophobic interaction strength between nonpolar side-chains, the polyalanine peptide undergoes a relatively sharp transition between an ?-helical conformation at low temperatures and a random-coil conformation at high temperatures. As the hydrophobic interaction strength increases, this transition shifts to higher temperatures. Increasing the hydrophobic interaction strength even further induces a second transition to a ?-hairpin, resulting in an ?-helical conformation at low temperatures, a ?-hairpin at intermediate temperatures, and a random coil at high temperatures. At very high values of the hydrophobic interaction strength, polyalanines become ?-hairpins and ?-sheetlike structures at low temperatures and random coils at high temperatures. This study of the folding of a single polyalanine-based peptide sets the stage for a study of polyalanine aggregation in a forthcoming paper. PMID:15498937

  2. Solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature railgun with non-conforming-to-prejudice bore profile

    SciTech Connect

    Solberg, Jerome Michael

    2012-12-04

    An improved railgun, railgun barrel, railgun projectile, and railgun system for accelerating a solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature projectile using a barrel having a bore that does not conform to a cross-sectional profile of the projectile, to contact and guide the projectile only by the rails in a low pressure bore volume so as to minimize damage, failure, and/or underperformance caused by plasma armatures, insulator ablation, and/or restrikes.

  3. The methanol-induced transition and the expanded helical conformation in hen lysozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Kamatari, Y. O.; Konno, T.; Kataoka, M.; Akasaka, K.

    1998-01-01

    Methanol-induced conformational transitions of hen egg white lysozyme were investigated with a combined use of far- and near-UV CD and NMR spectroscopies, ANS binding and small-angle X-ray scattering. Addition of methanol induced no global change in the native conformation itself, but induced a transition from the native state to the denatured state which was highly cooperative, as shown by the coincidence of transition curves monitored by the far- and near-UV CD spectroscopy, by isodichroic points in the far- and near-UV CD spectra and by the concomitant disappearance of individual 1H NMR signals of the native state. The ANS binding experiments could detect no intermediate conformer similar to the molten globule state in the process of the methanol denaturation. However, at high concentration of methanol, e.g., 60% (v/v) methanol/water, a highly helical state (H) was realized. The H state had a helical content much higher than the native state, monitored by far-UV CD spectroscopy, and had no specific tertiary structure, monitored both by near-UV CD and NMR spectroscopy. The radius of gyration in the H state, 24.9 angstroms, was significantly larger than that in the native state (15.7 angstroms). The Kratky plot for the H state did not show a clear peak and was quite similar to that for the urea-denatured state, indicating a complete lack of globularity. Thus we conclude that the H state has a considerably expanded, flexible broken rod-like conformation which is clearly distinguishable from the "molten globule" state. The stability of both N and H states depends on pH and methanol concentration. Thus a phase diagram involving N and H was constructed. PMID:9541400

  4. The 'order-to-disorder' conformational transition in CD44 protein: an umbrella sampling analysis.

    PubMed

    Plazinski, Wojciech; Knys-Dzieciuch, Agnieszka

    2013-09-01

    The molecule of CD44, a membrane protein being the major cell surface receptor for hyaluronan, is postulated to undergo the conformational rearrangement called the 'order-to-disorder' transition. The experimental studies suggest that the Tyr161 residue is crucial for maintaining the equilibrium between the 'ordered' (O) and 'partially disordered' (PD) forms of CD44. The molecular modeling study based on the umbrella sampling protocol was carried out separately for the wild-type CD44 and Tyr161Ala mutant in order to gain more insight into the molecular mechanism of the O-PD transition and to clarify the role of the Tyr161 amino acid residue. The calculated free energy profiles associated with the initial stages of the O-PD conformational transition allow to identify the crucial steps of this process and their molecular details. The differences between the wild-type CD44 and the Tyr161Ala mutant are very insignificant which allows for speculating that, surprisingly, the role of Tyr161 in the O-PD transition is not connected with disrupting the attractive Glu48-Tyr161 and Leu52-Tyr161 interactions but with other types of (unknown yet) interactions located outside the ?7-?8 loop or with the existence of the PD-like structure in which the terminal lobe remains located under the ?7-?8 loop. PMID:24012974

  5. A pH-dependent conformational transition of Abeta peptide and physicochemical properties of the conformers in the glial cell.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Yoichi; Saito, Nobuhiro; Fujii, Akihiro; Yokotani, Junichi; Takakura, Tadakazu; Nishimura, Tomoaki; Esaki, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Tatsuo

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we identified the epitopes of antibodies against amyloid beta-(1-42)-peptide (Abeta1-42): 4G8 reacted with peptides corresponding to residues 17-21, 6F/3D reacted with peptides corresponding to residues 9-14, and anti 5-10 reacted with peptides corresponding to residues 5-10. The study also yielded some insight into the Abeta1-42 structures resulting from differences in pH. An ELISA study using monoclonal antibodies showed that pH-dependent conformational changes occur in the 6F/3D and 4G8 epitopes modified at pH 4.6, but not in the sequences recognized by anti 1-7 and anti 5-10. This was unique to Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 and did not occur with Abeta1-16 or Abeta17-42. The reactivity profile of 4G8 was not affected by blockage of histidine residues of pH-modified Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 with diethyl pyrocarbonate; however, the mutant [Gln(11)]Abeta1-40 abrogated the unique pH-dependence towards 4G8 observed with Abeta1-40. These findings suggest that these epitopes are cryptic at pH 4.6, and that Glu(11) is responsible for the changes. We suggest that the abnormal folding of 6F/3D epitope affected by pH masked the 4G8 epitope. A study of the binding of metal ions to Abeta1-42 suggested that Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) induced a conformational transition around the 6F/3D region at pH 7.4, but did not affect the region when it was modified at pH 4.6. However, Fe(2+) had no effect, irrespective of pH. Abeta modified at pH 4.6 appeared to be relatively resistant to proteinase K compared with Abetas modified at pH 7.4, and the former might be preferentially internalized and accumulated in a human glial cell. Our findings suggest the importance of microenvironmental changes, such as pH, in the early stage of formation of Abeta aggregates in the glial cell. PMID:11802784

  6. Application of Conformal Invariance to the Investigation of Second Order Surface Phase Transitions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    Using the consequences of conformal invariance of critical correlation functions, the effects of finite size, shape and boundary conditions on scattering functions S(vec{rm K}), susceptibilities, correlation lengths and specific heat correction terms for 2D Ising systems at criticality were investigated (Hentschke, Kleban and Akinci, 1986; Kleban, Akinci, Hentschke and Brownstein, 1986). Very good agreement was found with specific model calculations using Monte Carlo and transfer matrix resutls (Bartelt and Einstein, 1986) for the scattering functions and susceptibilities of fully finite, two dimensional rectangular and circular geometries as well as for the infinite strip with periodic boundary conditions. The decay of S(vec{rm K}) according to the power law 1/k ^{2-eta_{rm app} } with an apparent exponent eta _{rm app} not= eta in the intermediate k-regime is discussed and modeled analytically for the circular geometry (Kleban and Hentschke, 1986). The concepts of conformal invariance are reviewed, and a dynamical LEED (low energy electron diffraction) theory at the critical point is proposed for adsorbates or reconstructing undergoing a second order phase transition. The method employed combines conformal invariance with the standard dynamical LEED theory as found in Pendry (1974). An explicit expression for the scattering intensity at the bulk (infinite system) critical temperature is given for transitions belonging to the Ising universality class. The formulas are evaluated in s-wave approximation using the (1 times 1)Leftrightarrow p(2 times 1) transition on a simple cubic substrate as an example. In addition the extension of this method to other universality classes is discussed in some detail. These results are of interest for several reasons. (i) They are directly applicable to the experiment, allowing a test of some fundamental aspects of the conformal principle. (ii) The predictions are universal, in the sense that they do not depend on the details of the forces responsible for the transition. They are determined by the universality class of the transition, which is generally specified by easily observable symmetry breaking. (iii) The predicted intimate relation between finite size and the detailed dependence of the scattering on experimental parameters (incoming energy, angles, etc.) may prove useful for surface characterization.

  7. Conformation transition of betaA in solution and on surface of lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Liming; Reay, Andrew; Zhu, Qing; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2007-10-01

    Beta amyloid (betaA) is a 39 to 43 residue peptide generated by a proteolytic cleavage of a large transmembrane amyloid precursor protein in neuronal membranes. The misfolding and self-aggregation of betaA, as well as its interactions with neuronal membranes, have been linked to the early onset of pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. The secondary structure conformational transition of betaA from an alpha-helix to beta-sheet in some key regions of the peptide represents an important signature of the complex misfolding behavior of betaA. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, the conformation changes of betaA in solution and on the surface of lipid bilayer containing nanodomains of cholesterol have been studied. Our results indicated that the appearance of beta-sheet structures depends strong on the initial structures of betaA and the arrangement of cholesterol molecules in the lipid bilayer.

  8. Conformational transitions of plasmid ds-DNA on ultrathin films of alkylamines on graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Caroline; Liang, Hua; Severin, Nikolai; Zhuang, Wei; Zauscher, Stefan; Rabe, Jürgen P.

    2015-03-01

    DNA replication is an important process in the human body. Replication of double-stranded (ds)-DNA requires its local melting into two single strands. DNA, when stretched in solution, overwinds and melts. This was argued to give insight onto the replication mechanism. It is difficult, however, to access the direct conformational changes during stretching in solution. Recent work demonstrated that this transition can be imaged with scanning force microscopy on a graphite surface that is coated with an alkylamine layer. ds-DNA can be controlled by an amphiphilic layer, since the DNA conformation depends on the amphiphile concentration. In particular we analyzed different DNA lengths on the same surface, and we found that at a specific concentration of octadecylamine the ds-DNA pUC19 plasmid ring splits into two single strands at one position. We will discuss methods to mark the DNA to determine the exact location at which the plasmid ring splits.

  9. UV Resonance Raman Investigation of Electronic Transitions in α-helical and Polyproline II-like Conformations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bhavya; Bykov, Sergei V.; Asher, Sanford A.

    2010-01-01

    UV resonance Raman (UVRR) excitation profiles and Raman depolarization ratios were measured for a 21-residue predominantly alanine peptide, AAAAA(AAARA)3A (AP), excited between 194 and 218 nm. Excitation within the π→π* electronic transitions of the amide group results in UVRR spectra dominated by amide vibrations. The Raman cross sections and excitation profiles provide information about the nature of the electronic transitions of the α-helix and PPII-like peptide conformations. AP is known to be predominantly α-helical at low temperatures and takes on a polyproline II (PPII) helix-like conformation at high temperatures. The PPII-like and α-helix conformations show distinctly different Raman excitation profiles. The PPII-like conformation cross sections are approximately twice those of the α-helix. This is due to hypochromism that results from excitonic interactions between the NV1 transition of one amide group with the higher energy electronic transitions of other amide groups, which decreases the α-helical NV1 (π→π*) oscillator strengths. Excitation profiles of the α-helix and PPII-like conformations indicate that highest signal-to-noise Raman spectra of α-helix and PPII-like conformations are obtained at excitation wavelengths of 194 and 198 nm, respectively. We also see evidence of at least two electronic transitions underlying the Raman excitation profiles of both the α-helical and PPII-like conformations. In addition to the well known ∼190 nm π→π* transitions, the Raman excitation profiles and Raman depolarization ratio measurements show features between 205-207 nm, which in the α-helix likely results from the parallel excitonic component. The PPII-like helix appears to also undergo excitonic splitting of its π→ π* transition which leads to a 207 nm feature. PMID:18712913

  10. Distinguishing Unfolding and Functional Conformational Transitions of Calmodulin Using Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Eric M.; Balakrishnan, G.; Squier, Thomas C.; Spiro, Thomas

    2014-06-14

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous moderator protein for calcium signaling in all eukaryotic cells. This small calcium-binding protein exhibits a broad range of structural transitions, including domain opening and folding-unfolding, that allow it to recognize a wide variety of binding partners in vivo. While the static structures of CaM associated with its various binding activities are fairly well known, it has been challenging to examine the dynamics of transition between these structures in real-time, due to a lack of suitable spectroscopic probes of CaM structure. In this paper, we examine the potential of ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy for clarifying the nature of structural transitions in CaM. We find that the UVRR spectral change (with 229 nm excitation) due to thermal unfolding of CaM is qualitatively different from that associated with opening of the C-terminal domain in response to Ca2+ binding. This spectral difference is entirely due to differences in teritary contacts at the inter-domain tyrosine residue Tyr138, toward which other spectroscopic methods are not sensitive. We conclude that UVRR is ideally suited to identifying the different types of structural transitions in CaM and other proteins with conformation-sensitive tyrosine residues, opening a path to time-resolved studies of CaM dynamics using Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Effect of ?-electron conjugation length on the solvent-dependent S1 lifetime of peridinin

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Kajikawa, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Shinji; Katsumura, Shigeo; Frank, Harry A.

    2008-01-01

    Peridinin exhibits an anomalous solvent dependence of its S1 excited state lifetime attributed to the presence of an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state. The nature of this state has yet to be elucidated. Ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy has been performed on a synthetic analog, C35-peridinin, having one less conjugated double bond than peridinin. The data reveal the lifetime decreases from 1.5 ns in n-hexane to 9.2 ps in methanol, an order of magnitude larger than peridinin. This is the strongest solvent dependence on the lifetime of an S1 state of a carotenoid yet reported. The data support the view that the S1 and ICT states are strongly coupled. PMID:19777053

  12. Solvent-dependent optical limiting response of platinum nanoparticles stabilized by [60] fullerene derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y. C.; He, C. Y.

    2015-05-01

    The optical limiting performance of platinum nanoparticle protected by C60 derivative in chloroform, ethanol and dimethylformamide (DMF) was measured with 532nm, 8ns duration laser pulses. Experiments showed that the optical limiting is solvent-dependent. The origins and solvent effect of the optical limiting were analyzed. It was proposed that the absorption-induced scattering is the main mechanism causing the optical limiting behavior and solvent effect.

  13. The kinetics of effector binding to phosphofructokinase. The allosteric conformational transition induced by 1,N6-ethenoadenosine triphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, D; Kellett, G L

    1979-01-01

    1. The fluorescent ATP analogue 1,N6-etheno-ATP is a good substrate and an efficient allosteric inhibitor of rabbit skeletal-muscle phosphofructokinase. 2. Fluorescence energy transfer occurs between bound 1,N6-etheno-ATP and phosphofructokinase. 1,N6-Etheno-ATP fluorescence is enhanced, intrinsic protein fluorescence is quenched, and the excitation spectrum of 1,N6-etheno-ATP fluorescence is characteristic of protein absorption. 3. The binding reaction of 1,N6-etheno-ATP observed by stopped-flow fluorimetry is biphasic. The fast phase results from binding to the catalytic site alone. The slow phase results from the allosteric transition of the R conformation into the T conformation induced by the binding of 1,N6-etheno-ATP to the regulatory site. 4. The fluorescence signal that allows the transition of the R conformation into the T conformation to be observed does not arise from 1,N6-etheno-ATP bound to the regulatory site. It arises instead from 1,N6-etheno-ATP bound to the catalytic site as a consequence of changes at the catalytic site caused by the transition of the R conformation into the T conformation. 5. In the presence of excess of Mg2+, the affinity of 1,N6-etheno-ATP for the regulatory site is very much greater in the T state than in the R state. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 8. PMID:160791

  14. pH-induced domain interaction and conformational transitions of lipoxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Sudharshan, E; Srinivasulu, S; Appu Rao, A G

    2000-07-14

    The multidomain structure of soybean LOX1 was examined over the pH range 1-12. Lipoxygenase-1 activity was reversible over broad pH range of 4-10 due to the reversibility of conformational states of the molecule. Below pH 4.0, due to collapse in hydrophobic interactions, the enzyme unfolded to an irreversible conformation with the properties of molten globule state with a mid point of transition at pH 2.4. This intermediate state lost iron irreversibly. In alkaline pH at 11.5, LOX1 underwent partial unfolding with the exposure of cysteine residues with subsequent oxidation of a pair of cysteine residues in the C-terminal domain and this intermediate showed some properties of molten globule state and retained 35% of activity. Beyond pH 12.0, the enzyme was completely inactivated irreversibly due to irreversible conformational changes. The pH-dependent urea-induced unfolding of LOX1 suggested that LOX1 was more stable at pH 7.0 and least stable at pH 9.0. Furthermore, the urea-induced unfolding of LOX1 indicated that the unfolding was biphasic due to pH-dependent domain interactions and involved sequential unfolding of domains. The loss of enzyme activity at pH 4. 0 and 7.0 occurred much earlier to unfolding of the C-domain at all pHs studied. The combination of urea-induced unfolding measurements and limited proteolysis experiments suggested that at pH 4.0, the domains in LOX1 were less interactive and existed as tightly folded units. Furthermore, these results confirmed the contribution of ionic interactions in the interdomain contacts. PMID:11004552

  15. Mapping the structure and conformational movements of proteins with transition metal ion FRET

    PubMed Central

    Taraska, Justin W.; Puljung, Michael C.; Olivier, Nelson B.; Flynn, Galen E.; Zagotta, William N.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Visualizing conformational dynamics in proteins has been difficult, and the atomic-scale motions responsible for the behavior of most allosteric proteins are unknown. Here, we report that FRET between a small fluorescent dye and a nickel ion bound to a di-histidine motif can be used to monitor small structural rearrangements in proteins. This method provides several key advantages over classical FRET including the ability to measure the dynamics of close range interactions, the use of small probes with short linkers, a low orientation dependence, and the ability to add and remove unique tunable acceptors. We used this transition metal ion FRET approach along with x-ray crystallography to determine the structural changes of the gating-ring of the mouse hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channel HCN2. Binding of cAMP to the isolated carboxyl-terminal region of HCN2 caused a structural rearrangement involving a movement of the C-helix towards the ?-roll of the cAMP-binding domain and a movement of the F? helix of the C-linker, along with a stabilization of the secondary structure of the helices. Our results suggest a general model for the conformational switch in the cyclic nucleotide-binding site of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channels. PMID:19525958

  16. Conformational transition of membrane-associated terminally-acylated HIV-1 Nef

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Bulent; Satija, Sushil; Nanda, Hirsh; Pirrone, Gregory F.; Shi, Xiaomeng; Engen, John R.; Kent, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Many proteins are post-translationally modified by acylation targetting them to lipid membranes. While methods such as X-ray crystallography and NMR are available to determine the structure of folded proteins in solution, the precise position of folded domains relative to a membrane remains largely unknown. We used neutron and X-ray reflection methods to measure the displacement of the core domain of HIV Nef from lipid membranes upon insertion of the N-terminal myristate group. Nef is one of several HIV-1 accessory proteins and an essential factor in AIDS progression. Upon insertion of the myristate and residues from the N-terminal arm, Nef transitions from a closed to open conformation that positions the core domain 70 Å from the lipid headgroups. This work rules out speculation that the Nef core remains closely associated with the membrane to optimize interactions with the cytoplasmic domain of MHC-1. PMID:24035710

  17. The conformational transitions in organic solution on the cress seed gum nanoparticles production.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Afsaneh; Razavi, Seyed M A

    2015-09-01

    The seeds of Lepidium sativum (garden cress) were selected as a new hydrocolloid source to fabricate cress seed gum nanoparticles (CSGN) by the desolvation method. The intrinsic viscosity of the CSGN solutions was measured to evaluate the conformational differences of the CSG resulted by the various production conditions. The intrinsic viscosity of CSGN solutions was estimated by using various models, i.e. Huggins, Kraemer, Tanglertpaibul-Rao and Higiro, and then the intrinsic viscosity was an objective function aimed at optimizing the conditions for the solubilization of CSG nanoparticles by the response surface method. The results indicated that among the conditions for the preparation of nanoparticles, acetone and gum concentrations had significant effects on the intrinsic viscosity of nanoparticles. Hereby, CSG served as a source of anionic polyelectrolyte molecules in dilute solutions with acetone-water mixtures. This compound goes on to display a coil-globule transition above a certain threshold of acetone. PMID:26143122

  18. Reversible conformational transitions of a polymer brush containing boronic acid and its interaction with mucin glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexander E; Solodukhina, Nadezda; Wahlgren, Marie; Nilsson, Lars; Vikhrov, Alexander A; Nikitin, Maxim P; Orlov, Alexey V; Nikitin, Petr I; Kuzimenkova, Marina V; Zubov, Vitali P

    2011-02-11

    Reversible changes of the height of a polymer brush containing phenylboronic acid were studied. The polymer brush thickness underwent reversible changes of 0.5-1?nm, in response to the changes in composition of the contacting aqueous phase from deionized water to bicarbonate buffer and vice versa, apparently due to the conformational transition of the weak polyelectrolyte to the more extended electrically charged state. Adsorption of mucin glycoprotein to the polymer brush took place due to boronate/sugar interactions between the glycoprotein and the graft copolymer and resulted in further increase of the brush height by ca. 1.5?nm, as observed by means of spectral correlation spectroscopy and ellipsometry. PMID:21136536

  19. The Transition between the B and Z Conformations of DNA Investigated by Targeted Molecular Dynamics Simulations with Explicit Solvation

    PubMed Central

    Kastenholz, Mika A.; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2006-01-01

    The transition between the B and Z conformations of double-helical deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) belongs to the most complex and elusive conformational changes occurring in biomolecules. Since the accidental discovery of the left-handed Z-DNA form in the late 1970s, research on this DNA morphology has been engaged in resolving questions relative to its stability, occurrence, and function in biological processes. While the occurrence of Z-DNA in vivo is now widely recognized and the major factors influencing its thermodynamical stability are largely understood, the intricate conformational changes that take place during the B-to-Z transition are still unknown at the atomic level. In this article, we report simulations of this transition for the 3′-(CGCGCG)-5′ hexamer duplex using targeted molecular dynamics with the GROMOS96 force field in explicit water under different ionic-strength conditions. The results suggest that for this oligomer length and sequence, the transition mechanism involves: 1), a stretched intermediate conformation, which provides a simple solution to the important sterical constraints involved in this transition; 2), the transient disruption of Watson-Crick hydrogen-bond pairing, partly compensated energetically by an increase in the number of solute-solvent hydrogen bonds; and 3), an asynchronous flipping of the bases compatible with a zipperlike progression mechanism. PMID:16998239

  20. Forbidden Rotational Transitions in the Microwave Spectrum of the Trans-Conformer of the Isopropyl Alcohol Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazimova, S. B.

    2015-05-01

    Forbidden transitions are found in the microwave rotational spectrum of the trans-conformer of the (CH3)2CHOH molecule at frequencies of 25,900-78,060 MHz. Components ?b and ?c of a dipole moment are found in the symmetry plane of this molecule, while the component ?a = 0. In molecules of this type, an induced component of the dipole moment ?a perpendicular to the symmetry plane of the molecule is generated by centrifugal perturbations. This leads to the appearance of rotational transitions that are forbidden in the rigid top model. Forbidden "centrifugal" transitions of the trans-conformer of the (CH3)2CHOH molecule are detected. 70 forbidden ?a-transitions with rotational quantum numbers up to and including J = 35 have been identifi ed.

  1. Synaptotagmin’s Role in Neurotransmitter Release Likely Involves Ca2+-induced Conformational Transition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhe; Schulten, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal exocytosis is mediated by a Ca2+-triggered membrane fusion event that joins synaptic vesicles and presynaptic membrane. In this event, synaptotagmin I plays a key role as a Ca2+ sensor protein that binds to and bends the presynaptic membrane with its C2B domain, and thereby initiates membrane fusion. We report free energy calculations according to which C2B-induced membrane bending is preceded by a Ca2+- and membrane-dependent conformational transition. In this transition C2B attaches to the membrane, moves its C-terminal helix from the orientation seen in the available (but membrane-free) crystal/NMR structures as pointing away from the membrane (helix-up), to an orientation pointing toward the membrane (helix-down). In the C2B helix-down state, lipid tails in the proximal membrane bilayer leaflet interact with the moved helix and become disordered, whereas tails in the distal leaflet, to keep in contact with the proximal leaflet, become stretched and ordered. The difference in lipid tail packing between the two leaflets results in an imbalance of pressure across the membrane, and thereby causes membrane bending. The lipid-disordering monitored in the simulations is well suited to facilitate Ca2+-triggered membrane fusion. PMID:25185551

  2. Functional and conformational transitions of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase from Bacopa monniera.

    PubMed

    Abbassi, Shakeel; Patel, Krunal; Khan, Bashir; Bhosale, Siddharth; Gaikwad, Sushama

    2016-02-01

    Functional and conformational transitions of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD), a key enzyme of mevalonate pathway in isoprenoid biosynthesis, from Bacopa monniera (BmMDD), cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli were studied under thermal, chemical and pH-mediated denaturation conditions using fluorescence and Circular dichroism spectroscopy. Native BmMDD is a helix dominant structure with 45% helix and 11% sheets and possesses seven tryptophan residues with two residues exposed on surface, three residues partially exposed and two situated in the interior of the protein. Thermal denaturation of BmMDD causes rapid structural transitions at and above 40C and transient exposure of hydrophobic residues at 50C, leading to aggregation of the protein. An acid induced molten globule like structure was observed at pH 4, exhibiting altered but compact secondary structure, distorted tertiary structure and exposed hydrophobic residues. The molten globule displayed different response at higher temperature and similar response to chemical denaturation as compared to the native protein. The surface tryptophans have predominantly positively charged amino acids around them, as indicated by higher KSV for KI as compared to that for CsCl. The native enzyme displayed two different lifetimes, ?1 (1.2030.036ns) and ?2 (3.4730.12ns) indicating two populations of tryptophan. PMID:26657583

  3. Gating Mechanisms of Mechanosensitive Channels of Large Conductance, II: Systematic Study of Conformational Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuye; Yoo, Jejoong; Yethiraj, Arun; Cui, Qiang; Chen, Xi

    2008-01-01

    Part II of this study is based on the continuum mechanics-based molecular dynamics-decorated finite element method (MDeFEM) framework established in Part I. In Part II, the gating pathways of Escherichia coli-MscL channels under various basic deformation modes are simulated. Upon equibiaxial tension (which is verified to be the most effective mode for gating), the MDeFEM results agree well with both experiments and all-atom simulations in literature, as well as the analytical continuum models and elastic network models developed in Part I. Different levels of model sophistication and effects of structural motifs are explored in detail, where the importance of mechanical roles of transmembrane helices, cytoplasmic helices, and loops are discussed. The conformation transitions under complex membrane deformations are predicted, including bending, torsion, cooperativity, patch clamp, and indentation. Compared to atom-based molecular dynamics simulations and elastic network models, the MDeFEM framework is unusually well-suited for simulating complex deformations at large length scales. The versatile hierarchical framework can be further applied to simulate the gating transition of other mechanosensitive channels and other biological processes where mechanical perturbation is important. PMID:18390625

  4. Conformational transitions in the glycine-bound GluN1 NMDA receptor LBD via single-molecule FRET.

    PubMed

    Cooper, David R; Dolino, Drew M; Jaurich, Henriette; Shuang, Bo; Ramaswamy, Swarna; Nurik, Caitlin E; Chen, Jixin; Jayaraman, Vasanthi; Landes, Christy F

    2015-07-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a member of the glutamate receptor family of proteins and is responsible for excitatory transmission. Activation of the receptor is thought to be controlled by conformational changes in the ligand binding domain (LBD); however, glutamate receptor LBDs can occupy multiple conformations even in the activated form. This work probes equilibrium transitions among NMDAR LBD conformations by monitoring the distance across the glycine-bound LBD cleft using single-molecule Frster resonance energy transfer (smFRET). Recent improvements in photoprotection solutions allowed us to monitor transitions among the multiple conformations. Also, we applied a recently developed model-free algorithm called "step transition and state identification" to identify the number of states, their smFRET efficiencies, and their interstate kinetics. Reversible interstate conversions, corresponding to transitions among a wide range of cleft widths, were identified in the glycine-bound LBD, on much longer timescales compared to channel opening. These transitions were confirmed to be equilibrium in nature by shifting the distribution reversibly via denaturant. We found that the NMDAR LBD proceeds primarily from one adjacent smFRET state to the next under equilibrium conditions, consistent with a cleft-opening/closing mechanism. Overall, by analyzing the state-to-state transition dynamics and distributions, we achieve insight into specifics of long-lived LBD equilibrium structural dynamics, as well as obtain a more general description of equilibrium folding/unfolding in a conformationally dynamic protein. The relationship between such long-lived LBD dynamics and channel function in the full receptor remains an open and interesting question. PMID:26153703

  5. Ligand-induced conformational transitions and secondary-structure composition of chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    McGurk, Karen S.; Spivey, H. Olin

    1979-01-01

    Apparent conformational transitions induced in chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase by substrates, KHCO3 and MgATP, and the allosteric effector, acetyl-CoA, were studied by using the fluorescent probe, 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid and c.d. Fluorescence measurements were made with both conventional and stopped-flow spectrophotometers. Additions of acetyl-CoA and/or ATP to the enzyme-probe solutions quenched fluorescence of the probe by the following cumulative amounts regardless of the sequence of additions: acetyl-CoA, 1013%; ATP, 2124%; acetyl-CoA plus ATP, about 35%. Additions of KHCO3 had no effect on the fluorescence. The rates of quenching by acetyl-CoA and MgATP (in the presence of acetyl-CoA) were too rapid to measure by stopped-flow kinetic methods, but kinetics of the MgATP effect (in the absence of acetyl-CoA) indicate three unimolecular transitions after the association step. The negligible effect of the probe on enzyme catalytic activity, a preservation of the near-u.v. c.d. effect of MgATP and acetyl-CoA in the presence of the probe and no observable unimolecular transitions after binding of the probe to the enzyme indicate that the probe had no deleterious effect on the enzyme. In contrast with results with 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid, fluorescence of the ?-derivative of acetyl-CoA or ATP [fluorescent analogues; Secrist, Barrio, Leonard & Weber (1972) Biochemistry 11, 34993506] was not changed when either one was added to the enzyme. Secondary-structure composition of chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase estimated from the far-u.v. c.d. spectrum of the enzyme is 27% helix, 7% ?-pleated sheet and 66% other structural types. PMID:435260

  6. Cytochrome c conformations resolved by the photon counting histogram: Watching the alkaline transition with single-molecule sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Bokoch, Michael P.; Zare, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    We apply the photon counting histogram (PCH) model, a fluorescence technique with single-molecule sensitivity, to study pH-induced conformational changes of cytochrome c. PCH is able to distinguish different protein conformations based on the brightness of a fluorophore sensitive to its local environment. We label cytochrome c through its single free cysteine with tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (TMR), a fluorophore with specific brightnesses that we associate with specific protein conformations. Ensemble measurements demonstrate two different fluorescence responses with increasing pH: (i) a decrease in fluorescence intensity caused by the alkaline transition of cytochrome c (pH 7.0–9.5), and (ii) an increase in intensity when the protein unfolds (pH 9.5–10.8). The magnitudes of these two responses depend strongly on the molar ratio of TMR used to label cytochrome c. Using PCH we determine that this effect arises from the proportion of a nonfunctional conformation in the sample, which can be differentiated from the functional conformation. We further determine the causes of each ensemble fluorescence response: (i) during the alkaline transition, the fluorophore enters a dark state and discrete conformations are observed, and (ii) as cytochrome c unfolds, the fluorophore incrementally brightens, but discrete conformations are no longer resolved. Moreover, we also show that functional TMR-cytochrome c undergoes a response of identical magnitude regardless of the proportion of nonfunctional protein in the sample. As expected for a technique with single-molecule sensitivity, we demonstrate that PCH can directly observe the most relevant conformation, unlike ensemble fluorometry. PMID:16314563

  7. Fourier Imaging Correlation Spectroscopy for Studies of Sub-Cellular Dynamics and Biomolecular Conformation Transition Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Novel high signal-to-noise spectroscopic experiments that probe the dynamics of fluorescently labeled macromolecules have the potential to reveal complex intracellular biochemical mechanisms, or the slow relaxations of soft matter systems. Fourier imaging correlation spectroscopy (FICS) is a phase-selective approach to fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy that employs a unique route to elevate signal levels while acquiring detailed information about microscopic coordinate trajectories. In this talk, I will illustrate the broad applicability of this approach by discussing two recent studies. The anomalous sub-diffusive dynamics of mitochondria in budding yeast are characterized using FICS, and provide detailed, length-scale dependent information about the influence of specific cytoskeletal elements on the movements of this organelle. We find that non-equilibrium forces associated with actin polymerization lead to a 1.5-fold enhancement of the long-time mitochondrial diffusion coefficient, and a transient sub-diffusive temporal scaling of the mean-square displacement. These non-equilibrium dynamics are a predominant factor in driving mitochondrial transport. In another set of experiments, polarization-modulated FICS simultaneously captures information about the internal conformation fluctuations and molecular translational dynamics of the fluorescent protein DsRed. By implementing a four-point correlation analysis, we construct two-dimensional spectral densities and joint distribution functions that determine temporal correlations of center-of-mass and anisotropy coordinates over successive time intervals. These four-point functions reveal statistically meaningful transition pathways between different optical conformations of the DsRed protein. The FICS method is well suited to investigate the dynamics of a broad range of heterogeneous systems, which include the molecular motions of glass forming liquids.

  8. Alcohol and temperature induced conformational transitions in ervatamin B: sequential unfolding of domains.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Suman; Sundd, Monica; Jagannadham, Medicherla V

    2002-03-31

    The structural aspects of ervatamin B have been studied in different types of alcohol. This alcohol did not affect the structure or activity of ervatamin B under neutral conditions. At a low pH (3.0), different kinds of alcohol have different effects. Interestingly, at a certain concentration of non-fluorinated, aliphatic, monohydric alcohol, a conformational switch from the predominantly alpha-helical to beta-sheeted state is observed with a complete loss of tertiary structure and proteolytic activity. This is contrary to the observation that alcohol induces mostly the alpha-helical structure in proteins. The O-state of ervatamin B in 50% methanol at pH 3.0 has enhanced the stability towards GuHCl denaturation and shows a biphasic transition. This suggests the presence of two structural parts with different stabilities that unfold in steps. The thermal unfolding of ervatamin B in the O-state is also biphasic, which confirms the presence of two domains in the enzyme structure that unfold sequentially. The differential stabilization of the structural parts may also be a reflection of the differential stabilization of local conformations in methanol. Thermal unfolding of ervatamin B in the absence of alcohol is cooperative, both at neutral and low pH, and can be fitted to a two state model. However, at pH 2.0 the calorimetric profiles show two peaks, which indicates the presence of two structural domains in the enzyme with different thermal stabilities that are denatured more or less independently. With an increase in pH to 3.0 and 4.0, the shape of the DSC profiles change, and the two peaks converge to a predominant single peak. However, the ratio of van't Hoff enthalpy to calorimetric enthalpy is approximated to 2.0, indicating non-cooperativity in thermal unfolding. PMID:12297024

  9. The solvent dependent shift of the amide I band of a fully solvated peptide in methanol/water mixtures as a local probe for the solvent composition in the peptide/solvent interface

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanakaran, S

    2008-01-01

    We determine the shift and line-shape of the amide I band of a model AK-peptide from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the peptide dissolved in methanol/water mixtures with varying composition. The IR-spectra are determined from a transition dipole coupling exciton model. A simplified empirical model Hamiltonian is employed, taking both the effect of hydrogen bonding, as well as intramolecular vibrational coupling into account. We consider a single isolated AK-peptide in a mostly helical conformation, while the solvent is represented by 2600 methanol or water molecules, simulated for a pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 300 K. Over the course of the simulations minor reversible conformational changes at the termini are observed, which are found to only slightly affect the calculated spectral properties. Over the entire composition range, varying from pure water to the pure methanol solvent, a monotonous blue-shift of the IR amide I band of about 8 wavenumbers is observed. The shift is found to be caused by two counter-compensating effects: An intramolecular red-shift of about 1.2 wavenumbers, due to stronger intramolecular hydrogen-bonding in a methanol-rich environment. Dominating, however, is the intermolecular solvent-dependent blue-shift of about 10 wavenumbers, being attributed to the less effective hydrogen bond donor capabilities of methanol compared to water. The importance of solvent-contribution to the IR-shift, as well as the significantly different hydrogen formation capabilities of water and methanol make the amide I band sensitive to composition changes in the local environment close the peptide/solvent interface. This allows, in principle, an experimental determination of the composition of the solvent in close proximity to the peptide surface. For the AK-peptide case they observe at low methanol concentrations a significantly enhanced methanol concentration at the peptide/solvent-interface, supposedly promoted by the partially hydrophobic character of the AK-peptide's solvent accessible surface.

  10. Computation of conformational transitions in proteins by virtual atom molecular mechanics as validated in application to adenylate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Anil; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2009-01-01

    Many proteins function through conformational transitions between structurally disparate states, and there is a need to explore transition pathways between experimentally accessible states by computation. The sizes of systems of interest and the scale of conformational changes are often beyond the scope of full atomic models, but appropriate coarse-grained approaches can capture significant features. We have designed a comprehensive knowledge-based potential function based on a C? representation for proteins that we call the virtual atom molecular mechanics (VAMM) force field. Here, we describe an algorithm for using the VAMM potential to describe conformational transitions, and we validate this algorithm in application to a transition between open and closed states of adenylate kinase (ADK). The VAMM algorithm computes normal modes for each state and iteratively moves each structure toward the other through a series of intermediates. The move from each side at each step is taken along that normal mode showing greatest engagement with the other state. The process continues to convergence of terminal intermediates to within a defined limithere, a root-mean-square deviation of 1 ?. Validations show that the VAMM algorithm is highly effective, and the transition pathways examined for ADK are compatible with other structural and biophysical information. We expect that the VAMM algorithm can address many biological systems. PMID:19706894

  11. Computational Study of the DFG-Flip Conformational Transition in c-Abl and c-Src Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases are crucial to cellular signaling pathways regulating cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, and migration. To maintain normal regulation of cellular signal transductions, the activities of tyrosine kinases are also highly regulated. The conformation of a three-residue motif Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) near the N-terminus of the long activation loop covering the catalytic site is known to have a critical impact on the activity of c-Abl and c-Src tyrosine kinases. A conformational transition of the DFG motif can switch the enzyme from an active (DFG-in) to an inactive (DFG-out) state. In the present study, the string method with swarms-of-trajectories was used to computationally determine the reaction pathway connecting the two end-states, and umbrella sampling calculations were carried out to characterize the thermodynamic factors affecting the conformations of the DFG motif in c-Abl and c-Src kinases. According to the calculated free energy landscapes, the DFG-out conformation is clearly more favorable in the case of c-Abl than that of c-Src. The calculations also show that the protonation state of the aspartate residue in the DFG motif strongly affects the in/out conformational transition in c-Abl, although it has a much smaller impact in the case of c-Src due to local structural differences. PMID:25548962

  12. Identification of the Conformational transition pathway in PIP2 Opening Kir Channels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junwei; Lü, Shouqin; Liu, Yuzhi; Pang, Chunli; Chen, Yafei; Zhang, Suhua; Yu, Hui; Long, Mian; Zhang, Hailin; Logothetis, Diomedes E.; Zhan, Yong; An, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    The gating of Kir channels depends critically on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), but the detailed mechanism by which PIP2 regulates Kir channels remains obscure. Here, we performed a series of Targeted molecular dynamics simulations on the full-length Kir2.1 channel and, for the first time, were able to achieve the transition from the closed to the open state. Our data show that with the upward motion of the cytoplasmic domain (CTD) the structure of the C-Linker changes from a loop to a helix. The twisting of the C-linker triggers the rotation of the CTD, which induces a small downward movement of the CTD and an upward motion of the slide helix toward the membrane that pulls the inner helix gate open. At the same time, the rotation of the CTD breaks the interaction between the CD- and G-loops thus releasing the G-loop. The G-loop then bounces away from the CD-loop, which leads to the opening of the G-loop gate and the full opening of the pore. We identified a series of interaction networks, between the N-terminus, CD loop, C linker and G loop one by one, which exquisitely regulates the global conformational changes during the opening of Kir channels by PIP2. PMID:26063437

  13. Solvent dependent assembly of lanthanide metallacrowns using building blocks with incompatible symmetry preferences.

    PubMed

    Jankolovits, Joseph; Kampf, Jeff W; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2014-07-21

    Solvent dependence in the assembly of coordination driven macrocycles is a poorly understood phenomenon. This work presents the solvent dependent assembly of 8 lanthanide metallacrowns (LnMCs) in solution using picoline hydroxamic acid (picHA), Zn(II), and Ln(III) ions. ESI-MS and single-crystal X-ray crystallography reveal the selective assembly of LnZn4(picHA)4(3+), LnZn5(picHA)5(3+), LnZn8(picHA)8(3+), LnZn12(picHA)12(3+), LnZn16(picHA)16(3+), Ln2Zn3(picHA)4(4+), Ln2Zn7-9(picHA)8-10, and Ln4Zn4-5(picHA)8-9 complexes in five different solvents. The coordination preferences of the hard Ln(III) ion and relatively soft Zn(II) ion dictate the solvent selectivity in this system. The LnMCs assemble with open or closed Zn(II) and/or Ln(III) coordination sites based on the behavior of the solvent as an ancillary ligand. This structural promiscuity is attributed to the symmetry incompatible building blocks, which generate assemblies with substantial geometric strain such that no clear thermodynamic minimum exists between the different LnMCs. These LnMCs assemble from a Zn5(picHA)4(2+) intermediate, which is monitored using (1)H NMR and ESI-MS to assess the stability of the complexes and possible assembly pathways based on kinetic considerations. LnMC assemblies that can be generated through central metal substitution reactions such as the LnZn4(picHA)4(3+), LnZn5(picHA)5(3+), and LnZn8(picHA)8(3+) effectively reach equilibrium after 24 h at room temperature. In contrast, LnMCs that must disrupt the Zn5L4(2+) structure to assemble, such as the LnZn16L16(3+), reach equilibrium after heating for 24 h at 65 C. A pathway for LnMC assembly is presented where the Zn5L4(2+) is the key intermediate based on these reaction data and shared structural motifs in the complexes. These results correlate solvent dependent assembly to the building block geometry, highlighting synthetic approaches for generating novel complexes. PMID:24956137

  14. An allolactose trapped at the lacZ ?-galactosidase active site with its galactosyl moiety in a (4)H3 conformation provides insights into the formation, conformation, and stabilization of the transition state.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Robert W; Huber, Reuben E

    2015-12-01

    When lactose was incubated with G794A-?-galactosidase (a variant with a "closed" active site loop that binds transition state analogs well) an allolactose was trapped with its Gal moiety in a (4)H3 conformation, similar to the oxocarbenium ion-like conformation expected of the transition state. The numerous interactions formed between the (4)H3 structure and ?-galactosidase indicate that this structure is representative of the transition state. This conformation is also very similar to that of d-galactono-1,5-lactone, a good transition state analog. Evidence indicates that substrates take up the (4)H3 conformation during migration from the shallow to the deep mode. Steric forces utilizing His418 and other residues are important for positioning the O1 leaving group into a quasi-axial position. An electrostatic interaction between the O5 of the distorted Gal and Tyr503 as well as C-H-? bonds with Trp568 are also significant. Computational studies of the energy of sugar ring distortion show that the ?-galactosidase reaction itinerary is driven by energetic considerations in utilization of a (4)H3 transition state with a novel (4)C1-(4)H3-(4)C1 conformation itinerary. To our knowledge, this is the first X-ray crystallographic structural demonstration that the transition state of a natural substrate of a glycosidase has a (4)H3 conformation. PMID:26291713

  15. Increasing the sampling efficiency of protein conformational transition using velocity-scaling optimized hybrid explicit/implicit solvent REMD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuqi; Wang, Jinan; Shao, Qiang; Shi, Jiye; Zhu, Weiliang

    2015-03-01

    The application of temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulation on protein motion is limited by its huge requirement of computational resource, particularly when explicit solvent model is implemented. In the previous study, we developed a velocity-scaling optimized hybrid explicit/implicit solvent REMD method with the hope to reduce the temperature (replica) number on the premise of maintaining high sampling efficiency. In this study, we utilized this method to characterize and energetically identify the conformational transition pathway of a protein model, the N-terminal domain of calmodulin. In comparison to the standard explicit solvent REMD simulation, the hybrid REMD is much less computationally expensive but, meanwhile, gives accurate evaluation of the structural and thermodynamic properties of the conformational transition which are in well agreement with the standard REMD simulation. Therefore, the hybrid REMD could highly increase the computational efficiency and thus expand the application of REMD simulation to larger-size protein systems.

  16. Increasing the sampling efficiency of protein conformational transition using velocity-scaling optimized hybrid explicit/implicit solvent REMD simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yuqi; Wang, Jinan; Shao, Qiang E-mail: Jiye.Shi@ucb.com Zhu, Weiliang E-mail: Jiye.Shi@ucb.com; Shi, Jiye E-mail: Jiye.Shi@ucb.com

    2015-03-28

    The application of temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulation on protein motion is limited by its huge requirement of computational resource, particularly when explicit solvent model is implemented. In the previous study, we developed a velocity-scaling optimized hybrid explicit/implicit solvent REMD method with the hope to reduce the temperature (replica) number on the premise of maintaining high sampling efficiency. In this study, we utilized this method to characterize and energetically identify the conformational transition pathway of a protein model, the N-terminal domain of calmodulin. In comparison to the standard explicit solvent REMD simulation, the hybrid REMD is much less computationally expensive but, meanwhile, gives accurate evaluation of the structural and thermodynamic properties of the conformational transition which are in well agreement with the standard REMD simulation. Therefore, the hybrid REMD could highly increase the computational efficiency and thus expand the application of REMD simulation to larger-size protein systems.

  17. Model for the crystal packing and conformational changes of biphenyl in incommensurate phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Dzyabchenko, Alexander; Scheraga, Harold A

    2004-04-01

    Standard atom-atom potentials for hydrocarbons and a torsional potential to account for the pi-electron conjugation energy were used to model the crystal structures and phase transitions of biphenyl. The model describes the high-temperature phase (I) with its planar molecule as a stationary point of the energy hypersurface. Phase I represents a low-energy barrier between the symmetry minima of the ground state (phase III), in which the molecule is twisted with torsion angles of opposite sign. Global-energy minimization was carried out by considering both regular structures, with one or two independent molecules, and quasi-one-dimensional superstructures built of N cells (N up to 16) of the high-temperature structure. The various energy-minimized biphenyl structures demonstrate remarkable similarity in their crystal packing; in particular, there are characteristic rows of cooperatively twisted molecules parallel to the superstructure dimension b. The structures built of centrosymmetric rows (P1, Z = 4 and 8) are almost as low in energy as the basic structure (an N = 2 superstructure, Pa, Z = 4); moreover, one of them is isostructural with the low-temperature p-quaterphenyl structure. With N > 8, structures of lower energy than that of the basic structure (N = 2) were found; their common feature is an M-fold modulation of the twist angle over the supercell period, with M smaller than N and generally not a simple fraction of it. The global minimum was found to conform to the ratio k = M/N = 6/14, which is close to the experimentally observed k = 6/13 in the incommensurate phase III. Enthalpy minimization showed an overall decrease in the magnitude of the twist angle down to tau approximately 0 degrees, as well as the evolution of the modulated structures towards the high-temperature structure with increasing pressure, in agreement with evidence for the high-pressure limit of the incommensurate biphenyl phases. PMID:15017097

  18. Forbidden Transitions in the Microwave Rotational Spectrum of the Tt Conformer of the N-Propanol Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazimova, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    A search for forbidden transitions was made in the microwave rotational spectrum of the Tt conformer of the propanol molecule (n-CH3CH2CH2OH) in the region of 37.0-78.0 GHz. The n-CH3CH2CH2OH molecule has a plane of symmetry containing μb and μa components of the dipole moment (μc = 0). On account of centrifugal distortion an induced component of the dipole moment μa, perpendicular to the symmetry plane of the molecule and leading to the appearance of previously forbidden rotational transitions, appears in such molecules. Forbidden "centrifugal transitions" of this type were found in the microwave rotational spectrum of the Tt conformer of the n-CH3CH2CH2OH molecule. The spectrum was analyzed by means of the Watson A-reduction rotational Hamiltonian. Sixty four forbidden μc transitions with rotational quantum numbers of up to J = 37 inclusive were identified.

  19. Ghrelin receptor conformational dynamics regulate the transition from a preassembled to an active receptor:Gq complex

    PubMed Central

    Damian, Marjorie; Mary, Sophie; Maingot, Mathieu; M'Kadmi, Cline; Gagne, Didier; Leyris, Jean-Philippe; Denoyelle, Sverine; Gaibelet, Grald; Gavara, Laurent; Garcia de Souza Costa, Mauricio; Perahia, David; Trinquet, Eric; Mouillac, Bernard; Galandrin, Sgolne; Gals, Cline; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Floquet, Nicolas; Martinez, Jean; Marie, Jacky; Banres, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    How G protein-coupled receptor conformational dynamics control G protein coupling to trigger signaling is a key but still open question. We addressed this question with a model system composed of the purified ghrelin receptor assembled into lipid discs. Combining receptor labeling through genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids, lanthanide resonance energy transfer, and normal mode analyses, we directly demonstrate the occurrence of two distinct receptor:Gq assemblies with different geometries whose relative populations parallel the activation state of the receptor. The first of these assemblies is a preassembled complex with the receptor in its basal conformation. This complex is specific of Gq and is not observed with Gi. The second one is an active assembly in which the receptor in its active conformation triggers G protein activation. The active complex is present even in the absence of agonist, in a direct relationship with the high constitutive activity of the ghrelin receptor. These data provide direct evidence of a mechanism for ghrelin receptor-mediated Gq signaling in which transition of the receptor from an inactive to an active conformation is accompanied by a rearrangement of a preassembled receptor:G protein complex, ultimately leading to G protein activation and signaling. PMID:25605885

  20. Direct observation of Ca(2+) -induced calmodulin conformational transitions in intact Xenopus laevis oocytes by (19) F?NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yansheng; Liu, Xiaoli; Xu, Guohua; Liu, Maili; Li, Conggang

    2015-04-27

    The Ca(2+) -mediated conformational transition of the protein calmodulin (CaM) is essential to a variety of signal transduction pathways. Whether the transition in living cells is similar to that observed in buffer is not known. Here, we report the direct observation by (19) F?NMR spectroscopy of the transition of the Ca(2+) -free and -bound forms in Xenopus laevis oocytes at different Ca(2+) levels. We find that the Ca(2+) -bound CaM population increased greatly upon binding the target protein myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) at the same Ca(2+) level. Paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy was also exploited for the first time to obtain long-range structural constraints in cells. Our study shows that (19) F?NMR spectroscopy can be used to obtain long-range structural constraints in living eukaryotic cells and paves the way for quantification of protein binding constants. PMID:25753548

  1. Solvent-dependent properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) monolayers at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huie; Matsui, Jun; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2015-03-14

    The present work addresses the solvent-dependent properties of Langmuir films of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and amphiphilic poly(N-dodecylacrylamide) (pDDA) at different mixing ratios. After introducing pDDA nanosheets, PVDF Langmuir films obtain a tremendously enhanced modulus as well as high transfer ratios using the vertical dipping method caused by the support of the pDDA two-dimensional hydrogen bonding network. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) was used to investigate PVDF monolayers at the air-water interface in situ. Spreading from different solvents, the PVDF molecules take completely different aggregation states at the air-water interface. The PVDF molecules aggregate to become large domains when spread from N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). However, the volatile and low-polarity methylethyl ketone (MEK) made the PVDF molecules more dispersive on the water surface. This study also discovers a versatile crystallization control of PVDF homopolymer from complete ? phase (NMP) to complete ? phase (MEK) at the air-water interface, thereby eliciting useful information for further manipulation of film morphologies and film applications. PMID:25622932

  2. Reaction fields and solvent dependence of the EPR parameters of nitroxides: the microenvironment of spin labels.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Derek

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of nitroxide spin-label EPR to the polarity of aprotic environments arises from the reaction field produced by polarisation of the surrounding dielectric by the nitroxide electric dipole moment. The performances of three different reaction fields that have been proposed as improvements on the original Onsager model are compared for representative spin-label nitroxides in a range of apolar and dipolar aprotic solvents. Explicit allowance is made for the polarisability of the nitroxide, which effectively renormalises the reaction field but has been neglected in previous analyses of nitroxide hyperfine couplings when using the improved reaction fields. It is found that the model of Block and Walker, which incorporates an exponential dependence of the dielectric permittivity on inverse radial distance from the nitroxide, gives the best description of the solvent dependence of the isotropic (14)N-hyperfine couplings. These results should be useful not only for calibration of environmental polarity using homogeneous solvents, but also for transferring polarity scales and polarity profiles (e.g., in membranes) between different nitroxide spin labels (e.g., of the TEMPO and DOXYL variety). PMID:17977036

  3. Analytical characterization of the conformational transitions of polynucleotides by means of different molecular spectroscopies and multivariate curve resolution.

    PubMed

    Vives, M; Gargallo, R; Tauler, R

    2001-04-01

    A general procedure for the study of conformational transitions of polynucleotides is described. The equilibria between different conformations induced by salt, ethidium bromide, and temperature of poly(dG-dC). poly(dG-dC) and induced by salt and temperature of poly(A). poly(U) are investigated using molecular absorption, circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopies. Spectral data obtained from experiments are analyzed by means of a factor analysis method, namely, multivariate curve resolution, which allows possible intermediate states to be detected and the pure spectra and the concentration profiles of all species present in the system to be estimated. This work shows the application of this procedure for the analysis of data matrices obtained in individual experiments but also for the analysis of several data matrices simultaneously. PMID:11262150

  4. Effect of graphene oxide on the conformational transitions of amyloid beta peptide: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Lokesh; Balamurugan, Kanagasabai; Subramanian, Venkatesan; Dhawan, Alok

    2015-09-01

    The interactions between nanomaterials (NMs) and amyloid proteins are central to the nanotechnology-based diagnostics and therapy in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Graphene oxide (GO) and its derivatives have shown to modulate the aggregation pattern of disease causing amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide. However, the mechanism is still not well understood. Using molecular dynamics simulations, the effect of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) having carbon:oxygen ratio of 4:1 and 10:1, respectively, on the conformational transitions (alpha-helix to beta-sheet) and the dynamics of the peptide was investigated. GO and rGO decreased the beta-strand propensity of amino acid residues in Aβ. The peptide displayed different modes of adsorption on GO and rGO. The adsorption on GO was dominated by electrostatic interactions, whereas on rGO, both van der Waals and electrostatic interactions contributed in the adsorption of the peptide. Our study revealed that the slight increase in the hydrophobic patches on rGO made it more effective inhibitor of conformational transitions in the peptide. Alpha helix-beta sheet transition in Aβ peptide could be one of the plausible mechanism by which graphene oxide may inhibit amyloid fibrillation. PMID:26275931

  5. Solvent-dependent dual-mode photochromism between T- and P-types in a dipyrrinone derivative.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yoko; Fukushima, Satomi; Akine, Shigehisa; Setsune, Jun-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    A newly synthesized dipyrrinone derivative bearing an ethoxycarbonyl group at the pyrrolic-? position exhibited solvent-dependent dual-mode photochromism between T- and P-types. While this molecule underwent thermally reversible (T-type) photoresponsive reaction in chloroform, it became a thermally irreversible (P-type) system in methanol. PMID:26615770

  6. Distinct conformations of the kinesin Unc104 neck regulate a monomer to dimer motor transition

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bassam, Jawdat; Cui, Yujia; Klopfenstein, Dieter; Carragher, Bridget O.; Vale, Ronald D.; Milligan, Ronald A.

    2003-01-01

    Caenhorhabditis elegans Unc104 kinesin transports synaptic vesicles at rapid velocities. Unc104 is primarily monomeric in solution, but recent motility studies suggest that it may dimerize when concentrated on membranes. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we observe two conformations of microtubule-bound Unc104: a monomeric state in which the two neck helices form an intramolecular, parallel coiled coil; and a dimeric state in which the neck helices form an intermolecular coiled coil. The intramolecular folded conformation is abolished by deletion of a flexible hinge separating the neck helices, indicating that it acts as a spacer to accommodate the parallel coiled-coil configuration. The neck hinge deletion mutation does not alter motor velocity in vitro but produces a severe uncoordinated phenotype in transgenic C. elegans, suggesting that the folded conformation plays an important role in motor regulation. We suggest that the Unc104 neck regulates motility by switching from a self-folded, repressed state to a dimerized conformation that can support fast processive movement. PMID:14638858

  7. Detection of new temperature-dependent conformational transition in lysozyme by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Cozzone, P J; Opella, S J; Jardetzky, O; Berthou, J; Jolls, P

    1975-01-01

    A specific temperature-dependent conformational transition of hen egg-white lysozyme, occurring between 20 degree C and 30 degree C in solution, has been detected by 13-C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Selective changes in the chemical shifts of aromatic residues, together with differences in the chemical shifts, and nuclear Overhauser enhancement in the carbonyl, carboxyl, and alpha-carbon regions of the spectrum point to the vicinity of subsites D and E as the primary locus of the structural change. PMID:1056017

  8. Characterizing rapid, activity-linked conformational transitions in proteins via sub-second hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Resetca, Diana; Wilson, Derek J

    2013-11-01

    This review outlines the application of time-resolved electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TRESI-MS) and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) to study rapid, activity-linked conformational transitions in proteins. The method is implemented on a microfluidic chip which incorporates all sample-handling steps required for a 'bottom-up' HDX workflow: a capillary mixer for sub-second HDX labeling, a static mixer for HDX quenching, a microreactor for rapid protein digestion, and on-chip electrospray. By combining short HDX labeling pulses with rapid digestion, this approach provides a detailed characterization of the structural transitions that occur during protein folding, ligand binding, post-translational modification and catalytic turnover in enzymes. This broad spectrum of applications in areas largely inaccessible to conventional techniques means that microfluidics-enabled TRESI-MS/HDX is a unique and powerful approach for investigating the dynamic basis of protein function. PMID:23663649

  9. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic analysis of the conformational transition of poly(vinyl alcohol) by temperature-dependent FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shan; Luan, Ye-Mei; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2015-03-01

    The conformational change of poly(vinyl alcohol) has been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at various temperatures in the 4000-400 cm-1 region. The molecular motion and the trans/gauche content are sensitive to the Csbnd H, Csbnd C stretching modes. FTIR spectra show that the I2920/I2849 decreases from 1.84 to 1.0 with increasing temperature, companying the decrease in I1047/I1095 from 0.78 to 0.58, implying the conformational transition from trans to gauche in alkyl chain. Based on the van't Hoff relation, the enthalpies and entropies have been calculated in different temperatures, which are 4.61 kJ mol-1 and 15.23 J mol-1 K-1, respectively, in the region of 80-140 °C. From the Cdbnd O stretching mode and Osbnd H band, it can be concluded that the intermolecular hydrogen bonds decrease owing to elevating temperature, which leads to more gauche conformers.

  10. Conformational Transitions and Stop-and-Go Nanopore Transport of Single Stranded DNA on Charged Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Shankla, Manish; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2014-01-01

    Control over interactions with biomolecules holds the key to applications of graphene in biotechnology. One such application is nanopore sequencing, where a DNA molecule is electrophoretically driven through a graphene nanopore. Here, we investigate how interactions of single-stranded DNA and a graphene membrane can be controlled by electrically biasing the membrane. The results of our molecular dynamics simulations suggest that electric charge on graphene can force a DNA homopolymer to adopt a range of strikingly different conformations. The conformational response is sensitive to even very subtle nucleotide modifications, such as DNA methylation. The speed of DNA motion through a graphene nanopore is strongly affected by the graphene charge: a positive charge accelerates the motion whereas a negative charge arrests it. As a possible application of the effect, we demonstrate stop-and-go transport of DNA controlled by the charge of graphene. Such on-demand transport of DNA is essential for realizing nanopore sequencing. PMID:25296960

  11. Modulation of Calmodulin Lobes by Different Targets: An Allosteric Model with Hemiconcerted Conformational Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Massimo; Brun, Denis; Edelstein, Stuart J.; Le Novre, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Calmodulin is a calcium-binding protein ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells, involved in numerous calcium-regulated biological phenomena, such as synaptic plasticity, muscle contraction, cell cycle, and circadian rhythms. It exibits a characteristic dumbell shape, with two globular domains (N- and C-terminal lobe) joined by a linker region. Each lobe can take alternative conformations, affected by the binding of calcium and target proteins. Calmodulin displays considerable functional flexibility due to its capability to bind different targets, often in a tissue-specific fashion. In various specific physiological environments (e.g. skeletal muscle, neuron dendritic spines) several targets compete for the same calmodulin pool, regulating its availability and affinity for calcium. In this work, we sought to understand the general principles underlying calmodulin modulation by different target proteins, and to account for simultaneous effects of multiple competing targets, thus enabling a more realistic simulation of calmodulin-dependent pathways. We built a mechanistic allosteric model of calmodulin, based on an hemiconcerted framework: each calmodulin lobe can exist in two conformations in thermodynamic equilibrium, with different affinities for calcium and different affinities for each target. Each lobe was allowed to switch conformation on its own. The model was parameterised and validated against experimental data from the literature. In spite of its simplicity, a two-state allosteric model was able to satisfactorily represent several sets of experiments, in particular the binding of calcium on intact and truncated calmodulin and the effect of different skMLCK peptides on calmodulins saturation curve. The model can also be readily extended to include multiple targets. We show that some targets stabilise the low calcium affinity T state while others stabilise the high affinity R state. Most of the effects produced by calmodulin targets can be explained as modulation of a pre-existing dynamic equilibrium between different conformations of calmodulins lobes, in agreement with linkage theory and MWC-type models. PMID:25611683

  12. Phosphorylation induces a conformational transition near the lipid-water interface of phospholamban reconstituted with the Ca-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baowei; Bigelow, Diana J

    2002-11-26

    We have measured conformational changes of phospholamban (PLB) induced both by its interaction with the SR Ca-ATPase and by phosphorylation of Ser-16 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) using an engineered PLB having a single cysteine (Cys-24) derivatized with the fluorophore 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (ANSmal). This modified mutant PLB is fully functional when co-reconstituted with the affinity-purified Ca-ATPase in liposomes. ANSmal emission properties and its solvent accessibility indicate that Cys-24 is in an aqueous environment outside the membrane. Fluorescence quenching and time-resolved anisotropy measurements of ANSmal-PLB demonstrate distinct structures for PLB in the free and Ca-ATPase-bound state. Both solvent exposure and probe motions of ANSmal are enhanced upon interaction of PLB with the Ca-ATPase. This conformational transition entails conversion of free PLB in a conformation which is insensitive to one which is sensitive to the phosphorylation state of PLB. Upon phosphorylation of Ca-ATPase-bound PLB, a decreased level of solvent exposure of ANSmal is observed, suggesting that the amino acid sequence of PLB near the lipid-water interface acts as a conformational switch in response to the phosphorylation of PLB. A longer correlation time, resolved by anisotropy measurements, corresponding to polypeptide chain fluctuations, is substantially restricted by interaction of PLB with the Ca-ATPase. This restriction is not reversed by phosphorylation of PLB, indicating that the region around Cys-24 near the lipid-water interface does not undergo dissociation from the Ca-ATPase. These results suggest that the phosphorylation by PKA induces a redistribution of PLB-Ca-ATPase protein contacts to relieve the inhibitory effect of PLB for the activation of calcium transport. PMID:12437353

  13. α-Fluorophosphonates reveal how a phosphomutase conserves transition state conformation over hexose recognition in its two-step reaction

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yi; Bhattasali, Debabrata; Pellegrini, Erika; Forget, Stephanie M.; Baxter, Nicola J.; Cliff, Matthew J.; Bowler, Matthew W.; Jakeman, David L.; Blackburn, G. Michael; Waltho, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    β-Phosphoglucomutase (βPGM) catalyzes isomerization of β-d-glucose 1-phosphate (βG1P) into d-glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) via sequential phosphoryl transfer steps using a β-d-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate (βG16BP) intermediate. Synthetic fluoromethylenephosphonate and methylenephosphonate analogs of βG1P deliver novel step 1 transition state analog (TSA) complexes for βPGM, incorporating trifluoromagnesate and tetrafluoroaluminate surrogates of the phosphoryl group. Within an invariant protein conformation, the β-d-glucopyranose ring in the βG1P TSA complexes (step 1) is flipped over and shifted relative to the G6P TSA complexes (step 2). Its equatorial hydroxyl groups are hydrogen-bonded directly to the enzyme rather than indirectly via water molecules as in step 2. The (C)O–P bond orientation for binding the phosphate in the inert phosphate site differs by ∼30° between steps 1 and 2. By contrast, the orientations for the axial O–Mg–O alignment for the TSA of the phosphoryl group in the catalytic site differ by only ∼5°, and the atoms representing the five phosphorus-bonded oxygens in the two transition states (TSs) are virtually superimposable. The conformation of βG16BP in step 1 does not fit into the same invariant active site for step 2 by simple positional interchange of the phosphates: the TS alignment is achieved by conformational change of the hexose rather than the protein. PMID:25104750

  14. Solvent-dependent on/off valving using selectively permeable barriers in paper microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Salentijn, G Ij; Hamidon, N N; Verpoorte, E

    2016-03-21

    We report on a new way to control solvent flows in paper microfluidic devices, based on the local patterning of paper with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) to form barriers with selective permeability for different solvents. Production of the devices is a two-step process. In the first step, AKD-treated paper (hydrophobic) is exposed to oxygen plasma for re-hydrophilization. 3D-printed masks are employed to shield certain areas of this paper to preserve well-defined hydrophobic patterns. In the second step, concentrated AKD in hexane is selectively deposited onto already hydrophobic regions of the paper to locally increase the degree of hydrophobicity. Hydrophilic areas formed in the previous oxygen plasma step are protected from AKD by wetting them with water first to prevent the AKD hexane solution from entering them (hydrophilic exclusion). Characterization of the patterns after both steps shows that reproducible patterns are obtained with linear dependence on the dimensions of the 3D-printed masks. This two-step methodology leads to differential hydrophobicity on the paper: (i) hydrophilic regions, (ii) low-load AKD gates, and (iii) high-load AKD walls. The gates are impermeable to water, yet can be penetrated by most alcohol/water mixtures; the walls cannot. This concept for solvent-dependent on/off valving is demonstrated in two applications. In the first example, a device was developed for multi-step chemical reactions. Different compounds can be spotted separately (closed gates). Upon elution with an alcohol/water mixture, the gates become permeable and the contents are combined. In the second example, volume-defined sampling is introduced. Aqueous sample is allowed to wick into a device and fill a sample chamber. The contents of this sample chamber are eluted perpendicularly with an alcohol/water mixture through a selectively permeable gate. This system was tested with dye solution, and a linear dependence of magnitude of the signal on the sample chamber size was obtained. PMID:26891781

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Conformational Transition and Frictional Performance Modulation of Densely Packed Self-Assembled Monolayers Based on Electrostatic Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao; Shrotriya, Pranav

    2015-06-23

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) terminated with functional end groups such as polyethylene glycols (PEG) have attracted considerable attention because of their unique and flexible structure that exhibits conformational transition under electrostatic stimulation. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the conformational transition and associated modulation of frictional performance of densely packed PEG-terminated SAMs subjected to electrical field stimulation. Previously reported empirical potentials and atomic charges were used to model the intrachain bonds and electrostatic and interchain interactions. Simulation results indicate that significant conformational transition is generated because of the electrostatic forces. Under positive electrical fields, PEG groups are compressed and twisted into the helical form, "gauche" state, whereas under negative electrical fields, PEG groups are stretched into the straight form, "all-trans" state. Such conformational transition may lead to substantial alteration of frictional response upon SAMs. By shallow penetration and sliding using a repulsive indenter, the SAMs under positive electrical fields exhibit a level of frictional response that is comparatively lower than those under zero and negative potentials, which may be attributed to reduced interchain space for deformation, limited conformational transition, and less energy absorption. The simulation results demonstrate that with appropriate selection of functional end groups attached to SAM backbone chains it is possible to modulate frictional performance of densely packed SAMs via electrostatic stimuli. PMID:26053128

  16. Reversible and irreversible conformational transitions in myoglobin: role of hydrated amino acid ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Kamatchi; Sathyaraj, Gopal; Nair, B U; Dhathathreyan, A

    2012-04-12

    Hydrated phenylalanine ionic liquid (Phe-IL) has been used to solubilize myoglobin (Mb). Structural stability of Mb in Phe-IL analyzed using fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that for low levels of hydration of Phe-IL there is a large red shift in the fluorescence emission wavelength and the protein transforms to complete ? sheet from its native helical conformation. Rehydration or dilution reverses the ? sheet to an ? helix which on aging organizes to micrometer-sized fibrils. At concentrations higher than 200 ?M, the protein changes from ? to a more random coiled structure. Organization of the protein in Phe-IL in a Langmuir film at the air/water interface has been investigated using the surface pressure-molecular area isotherm and shows nearly the same surface tension for both pure Mb and Mb in Phe-IL. Scanning electron microscopy of the films of Mb in Phe-IL transferred using the Langmuir-Blodgett film technique show layered morphology. This study shows that the conformation of Mb is completely reversible going from ? ? helix ? ? sheet up to 200 ?M of Phe-IL. Similar surface tension values for Mb in water and in Phe-IL suggests that direct ion binding interactions with the protein coupled with the change in local viscosity from the IL seems to not only alter the secondary structure of individual proteins but also drives the self-assembly of the protein molecules leading finally to fibril formation. PMID:22444298

  17. Conformation and dynamics of biopharmaceuticals: transition of mass spectrometry-based tools from academe to industry

    PubMed Central

    Kaltashov, Igor A.; Bobst, Cedric E.; Abzalimov, Rinat R.; Berkowitz, Steven A.; Houde, Damian

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometry plays a very visible role in biopharmaceutical industry, although its use in development, characterization and quality control of protein drugs is mostly limited to the analysis of covalent structure (amino acid sequence and post-translational modifications). Despite the centrality of protein conformation to biological activity, stability and safety of biopharmaceutical products, the expanding arsenal of mass spectrometry-based methods that are currently available to probe higher order structure and conformational dynamics of biopolymers did not enjoy until recently much attention in the industry. This is beginning to change as a result of recent work demonstrating the utility of these experimental tools for various aspects of biopharmaceutical product development and manufacturing. In this work we use a paradigmatic protein drug interferon ?-1a as an example to illustrate the utility of mass spectrometry as a powerful tool not only to assess the integrity of higher order structure of a protein drug, but also to predict consequences of its degradation at a variety of levels. PMID:19963397

  18. Conformation of ceramide 6 molecules and chain-flip transitions in the lipid matrix of the outermost layer of mammalian skin, the stratum corneum

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, M. A.

    2007-05-15

    Neutron diffraction from oriented multilamellar model stratum corneum (SC) membranes provides information on the internal nanostructure and hydration of the lipid bilayer. The main distinguishing feature of model SC membranes based on ceramide 6 is the extremely small intermembrane space (1 A). The role of the fully extended (FE) conformation of ceramide 6 molecules in the organization of the nanostructure of the lipid matrix is discussed. The FE conformation gives rise to extremely strong intermembrane attractions (armature reinforcement), which tighten the adjacent bilayers to form steric contacts. Chain-flip transitions in the conformation of ceramide molecules account for structural alterations in native and model SC membranes upon their hydration.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of phosphorylation-induced conformational transitions in the mycobacterium tuberculosis response regulator PrrA

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Guo; Mcmahon, Benjamin H; Tung, Chang - Shung

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorylation-activated modulation of response regulators (RR) is predominantly used by bacteria as a strategy in regulating their two-component signaling (TCS) systems, the underlying molecular mechanisms are however far from fully understood. In this work we have conducted a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the phosphorylation-induced conformational transitions of RRs with the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis PrrA as a particular example. Starting from the full-length inactive structure of PrrA we introduced a local disturbance by phosphorylating the conserved aspartic acid residue, Asp-58, in the regulatory domain. A Go-model-type algorithm packaged with AMBER force fields was then applied to simulate the dynamics upon phosphorylation. The MD simulation shows that the phosphorylation of Asp-58 facilitates PrrA, whose inactive state has a compact conformation with a closed interdomain interface, to open up with its interdomain separation being increased by an average of about 1.5 {angstrom} for a simulation of 20 ns. The trans-activation loop, which is completely buried within the interdomain interface in the inactive PrrA, is found to become more exposed with the phosphorylated structure as well. These results provide more structural details of how the phosphorylation of a local aspartate activates PrrA to undergo a global conformational rearrangement toward its extended active state. This work also indicates that MD simulations can serve as a fast tool to unravel the regulation mechanisms of all RRs, which is especially valuable when the structures of full-length active RRs are currently unavailable.

  20. Ionic liquid-induced all-? to ? + ? conformational transition in cytochrome c with improved peroxidase activity in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Bharmoria, Pankaj; Trivedi, Tushar J; Pabbathi, Ashok; Samanta, Anunay; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-04-21

    Choline dioctylsulfosuccinate [Cho][AOT] (a surface active ionic liquid) has been found to induce all-? to ? + ? conformational transition in the secondary structure of enzyme cytochrome c (Cyt c) with an enhanced peroxidase activity in its aqueous vesicular phase at pH 7.0. [Cho][AOT] interacted with Cyt c distinctly at three critical concentrations (aggregation C1, saturation C2 and vesicular C3) as detected from isothermal titration calorimetric analysis. Oxidation of heme iron was observed from the disappearance of the Q band in the UV-vis spectra of Cyt c upon [Cho][AOT] binding above C3. Circular dichroism analysis (CD) has shown the loss in both the secondary (190-240 nm) and tertiary (250-300 nm) structure of Cyt c in the monomeric regime until C1, followed by their stabilization until the pre-vesicular regime (C1 ? C3). Loss in both the secondary and tertiary structure has been observed in the post-vesicular regime with the change in Cyt c conformation from all-? to ? + ? which is similar to the conformational changes of Cyt c upon binding with mitochondrial membrane (Biochemistry 1998, 37, 6402-6409), thus citing the potential utility of [Cho][AOT] membranes as an artificial analog for in vitro bio-mimicking. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements confirm the unfolding of Cyt c in the vesicular phase. Dynamic light scattering experiments have shown the contraction of [Cho][AOT] vesicles upon Cyt c binding driven by electrostatic interactions observed by charge neutralization from zeta potential measurements. [Cho][AOT] has been found to enhance the peroxidase activity of Cyt c with maximum activity at C3, observed using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt as the substrate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. This result shows the relevance of tuning ionic liquids to surfactants for bio-mimicking of specific membrane protein-lipid interactions. PMID:25798458

  1. Silk fibroin/montmorillonite nanocomposites: effect of pH on the conformational transition and clay dispersion.

    PubMed

    Dang, Qinqin; Lu, Shoudong; Yu, Shen; Sun, Pingchuan; Yuan, Zhi

    2010-07-12

    By adjusting the solution pH value below the isoelectric point (pI) of silk fibroin (SF) protein, the SF was in the cation state and it could interact strongly with unmodified anionic montmorillonite (MMT) surface. In this way, novel SF-MMT nanocomposites with good clay dispersion were successfully obtained, which were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Further 1H CRAMPS and 13C CP/MAS NMR experimental results revealed that beta-sheet content of SF was remarkably enhanced for nanocomposite prepared below the pI of SF (SF-MMTA) due to the strong interaction between MMT and SF. In SF-MMTA nanocomposite, clay layers acting as an efficient nucleator could efficiently enhance the beta-sheet crystallization. On the contrary, SF preserved the native random coil conformation in SF-MMTN nanocomposites due to the weak interaction between MMT and SF. A tentative model was suggested and used to explain the mechanism of clay dispersion and conformational transition of silk protein. PMID:20509688

  2. Ca(2+) ATPase Conformational Transitions in Lipid Bilayers Mapped by Site-directed Ethylation and Solid-State NMR.

    PubMed

    Vostrikov, Vitaly V; Gustavsson, Martin; Gopinath, Tata; Mullen, Dan; Dicke, Alysha A; Truong, Vincent; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2016-02-19

    To transmit signals across cellular compartments, many membrane-embedded enzymes undergo extensive conformational rearrangements. Monitoring these events in lipid bilayers by NMR at atomic resolution has been challenging due to the large size of these systems. It is further exacerbated for large mammalian proteins that are difficult to express and label with NMR-active isotopes. Here, we synthesized and engineered (13)C ethyl groups on native cysteines to map the structural transitions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, a 110 kDa transmembrane enzyme that transports Ca(2+) into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using magic angle spinning NMR, we monitored the chemical shifts of the methylene and methyl groups of the derivatized cysteine residues along the major steps of the enzymatic cycle. The methylene chemical shifts are sensitive to the ATPase conformational changes induced upon nucleotide and Ca(2+) ion binding and are ideal probes for active and inactive states of the enzyme. This new approach is extendable to large mammalian enzymes and signaling proteins with native or engineered cysteine residues in their amino acid sequence. PMID:26650884

  3. Large-Scale Conformational Transitions and Dimerization Are Encoded in the Amino-Acid Sequences of Hsp70 Chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Malinverni, Duccio; Marsili, Simone; Barducci, Alessandro; De Los Rios, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hsp70s are a class of ubiquitous and highly conserved molecular chaperones playing a central role in the regulation of proteostasis in the cell. Hsp70s assist a myriad of cellular processes by binding unfolded or misfolded substrates during a complex biochemical cycle involving large-scale structural rearrangements. Here we show that an analysis of coevolution at the residue level fully captures the characteristic large-scale conformational transitions of this protein family, and predicts an evolutionary conserved–and thus functional–homo-dimeric arrangement. Furthermore, we highlight that the features encoding the Hsp70 dimer are more conserved in bacterial than in eukaryotic sequences, suggesting that the known Hsp70/Hsp110 hetero-dimer is a eukaryotic specialization built on a pre-existing template. PMID:26046683

  4. Conformational dynamics of the SH1-SH2 helix in the transition states of myosin subfragment-1.

    PubMed Central

    Nitao, Lisa K; Yeates, Todd O; Reisler, Emil

    2002-01-01

    The alpha-helix containing the thiols, SH1 (Cys-707) and SH2 (Cys-697), has been proposed to be one of the structural elements responsible for the transduction of conformational changes in the myosin head (subfragment-1 (S1)). Previous studies, using a method that isolated and measured the rate of the SH1-SH2 cross-linking step, showed that this helix undergoes ligand-induced conformational changes. However, because of long incubation times required for the formation of the transition state complexes (S1.ADP.BeF(x), S1.ADP.AlF(4)-, and S1.ADP.V(i)), this method could not be used to determine the cross-linking rate constants for such states. In this study, kinetic data from the SH1-SH2 cross-linking reaction were analyzed by computational methods to extract rate constants for the two-step mechanism. For S1.ADP.BeF(x), the results obtained were similar to those for S1.ATPgammaS. For reactions involving S1.ADP.AlF(4)- and S1.ADP.V(i), the first step (SH1 modification) is rate limiting; consequently, only lower limits could be established for the rate constants of the cross-linking step. Nevertheless, these results show that the cross-linking rate constants in the transition state complexes are increased at least 20-fold for all the reagents, including the shortest one, compared with nucleotide-free S1. Thus, the SH1-SH2 helix appears to be destabilized in the post-hydrolysis state. PMID:12414706

  5. The ?1 72-96 loop controls conformational transitions during reovirus cell entry.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Payel; Danthi, Pranav

    2013-12-01

    The reovirus outer capsid protein ?1 forms a lattice surrounding the viral core. In the native state, ?1 determines the environmental stability of the viral capsid. Additionally, during cell entry, ?1 undergoes structural rearrangements that facilitate delivery of the viral cores across the membrane. To determine how the capsid-stabilizing functions of ?1 impinge on the capacity of ?1 to undergo conformational changes required for cell entry, we characterized viruses with mutations engineered at charged residues within the ?1 loop formed by residues 72 to 96 (72-96 loop). This loop is proposed to stabilize the capsid by mediating interactions between neighboring ?1 trimers and between trimers and the core. We found that mutations at Glu89 (E89) within this loop produced viruses with compromised efficiency for completing their replication cycle. ISVPs of E89 mutants converted to ISVP*s more readily than those of wild-type viruses. The E89 mutants yielded revertants with second-site substitutions within regions that mediate interaction between ?1 trimers at a site distinct from the 72-96 loop. These viruses also contained changes in regions that control interactions within ?1 trimers. Viruses containing these second-site changes displayed restored plaque phenotypes and were capable of undergoing ISVP-to-ISVP* conversion in a regulated manner. These findings highlight regions of ?1 that stabilize the reovirus capsid and demonstrate that an enhanced propensity to form ISVP*s in an unregulated manner compromises viral fitness. PMID:24089575

  6. The ?1 72-96 Loop Controls Conformational Transitions during Reovirus Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Payel

    2013-01-01

    The reovirus outer capsid protein ?1 forms a lattice surrounding the viral core. In the native state, ?1 determines the environmental stability of the viral capsid. Additionally, during cell entry, ?1 undergoes structural rearrangements that facilitate delivery of the viral cores across the membrane. To determine how the capsid-stabilizing functions of ?1 impinge on the capacity of ?1 to undergo conformational changes required for cell entry, we characterized viruses with mutations engineered at charged residues within the ?1 loop formed by residues 72 to 96 (72-96 loop). This loop is proposed to stabilize the capsid by mediating interactions between neighboring ?1 trimers and between trimers and the core. We found that mutations at Glu89 (E89) within this loop produced viruses with compromised efficiency for completing their replication cycle. ISVPs of E89 mutants converted to ISVP*s more readily than those of wild-type viruses. The E89 mutants yielded revertants with second-site substitutions within regions that mediate interaction between ?1 trimers at a site distinct from the 72-96 loop. These viruses also contained changes in regions that control interactions within ?1 trimers. Viruses containing these second-site changes displayed restored plaque phenotypes and were capable of undergoing ISVP-to-ISVP* conversion in a regulated manner. These findings highlight regions of ?1 that stabilize the reovirus capsid and demonstrate that an enhanced propensity to form ISVP*s in an unregulated manner compromises viral fitness. PMID:24089575

  7. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and its prokaryotic homologues: Structure, conformational transitions & allosteric modulation.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Marco; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) play a central role in intercellular communications in the nervous system by converting the binding of a chemical messenger - a neurotransmitter - into an ion flux through the postsynaptic membrane. Here, we present an overview of the most recent advances on the signal transduction mechanism boosted by X-ray crystallography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic homologues of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in conjunction with time-resolved analyses based on single-channel electrophysiology and Molecular Dynamics simulations. The available data consistently point to a global mechanism of gating that involves a large reorganization of the receptor mediated by two distinct quaternary transitions: a global twisting and a radial expansion/contraction of the extracellular domain. These transitions profoundly modify the organization of the interface between subunits, which host several sites for orthosteric and allosteric modulatory ligands. The same mechanism may thus mediate both positive and negative allosteric modulations of pLGICs ligand binding at topographically distinct sites. The emerging picture of signal transduction is expected to pave the way to new pharmacological strategies for the development of allosteric modulators of nAChR and pLGICs in general. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25529272

  8. Multiplex binding modes of toluidine blue with calf thymus DNA and conformational transition of DNA revealed by spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Xiurong

    2009-10-01

    It is noteworthy to understand the details of interactions between antitumor drugs and DNA because the binding modes and affinities affect their antitumor activities. Here, The interaction of toluidine blue (TB), a potential antitumor drug for photodynamic therapy of tumor, with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was explored by UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, UV-melting method and surface-enhance Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The experimental results suggest that TB could bind to ctDNA via both electrostatic interaction and partial intercalation. The fluorescence quenching of TB by ctDNA was static and due to electron transfer from bases to the excited singlet state of TB. At low [TB]/[DNA] ratio, TB mainly partially intercalated into ctDNA resulting in the slight increase of base stacking degree; at high [TB]/[DNA] ratio, excessive TB externally stacked along the helix surface via coupling with partially intercalated ones, thereby inducing B-A transition of ctDNA. The conformational transition of DNA was confirmed by the obvious improvement of the thermal stability of ctDNA. The SERS spectra suggest that TB could partially intercalate into DNA basepairs with its ring C 1NC 1' side buried.

  9. Intrinsic Free Energy of the Conformational Transition of the KcsA Signature Peptide from Conducting to Nonconducting State

    PubMed Central

    Khavrutskii, Ilja V.; Fajer, Mikolai; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We explore a conformational transition of the TATTVGYG signature peptide of the KcsA ion selectivity filter and its GYG to AYA mutant from the conducting ?-strand state into the nonconducting pII-like state using a novel technique for multidimensional optimization of transition path ensembles and free energy calculations. We find that the wild type peptide, unlike the mutant, intrinsically favors the conducting state due to G77 backbone propensities and additional hydrophobic interaction between the V76 and Y78 side chains in water. The molecular mechanical free energy profiles in explicit water are in very good agreement with the corresponding adiabatic energies from the Generalized Born Molecular Volume (GBMV) implicit solvent model. However comparisons of the energies to higher level B3LYP/631G(d) Density Functional Theory calculations with Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) suggest that the nonconducting state might be more favorable than predicted by molecular mechanics simulations. By extrapolating the single peptide results to the tetrameric channel, we propose a novel hypothesis for the ion selectivity mechanism. PMID:20357907

  10. Conformational Transitions that Enable Histidine Kinase Autophosphorylation and Receptor Array Integration.

    PubMed

    Greenswag, Anna R; Muok, Alise; Li, Xiaoxiao; Crane, Brian R

    2015-12-01

    During bacterial chemotaxis, transmembrane chemoreceptor arrays regulate autophosphorylation of the dimeric histidine kinase CheA. The five domains of CheA (P1-P5) each play a specific role in coupling receptor stimulation to CheA activity. Biochemical and X-ray scattering studies of thermostable CheA from Thermotoga maritima determine that the His-containing substrate domain (P1) is sequestered by interactions that depend upon P1 of the adjacent subunit. Non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs (but not ATP or ADP) release P1 from the protein core (domains P3P4P5) and increase its mobility. Detachment of both P1 domains or removal of one within a dimer increases net autophosphorylation substantially at physiological temperature (55C). However, nearly all activity is lost without the dimerization domain (P3). The linker length between P1 and P3 dictates intersubunit (trans) versus intrasubunit (cis) autophosphorylation, with the trans reaction requiring a minimum length of 47 residues. A new crystal structure of the most active dimerization-plus-kinase unit (P3P4) reveals trans directing interactions between the tether connecting P3 to P2-P1 and the adjacent ATP-binding (P4) domain. The orientation of P4 relative to P3 in the P3P4 structure supports a planar CheA conformation that is required by membrane array models, and it suggests that the ATP lid of CheA may be poised to interact with receptors and coupling proteins. Collectively, these data suggest that the P1 domains are restrained in the off-state as a result of cross-subunit interactions. Perturbations at the nucleotide-binding pocket increase P1 mobility and access of the substrate His to P4-bound ATP. PMID:26522934

  11. Network representation of conformational transitions between hidden intermediates of Rd-apocytochrome b562.

    PubMed

    Duan, Mojie; Liu, Hanzhong; Li, Minghai; Huo, Shuanghong

    2015-10-01

    The folding kinetics of Rd-apocytochrome b562 is two-state, but native-state hydrogen exchange experiments show that there are discrete partially unfolded (PUF) structures in equilibrium with the native state. These PUF structures are called hidden intermediates because they are not detected in kinetic experiments and they exist after the rate-limiting step. Structures of the mimics of hidden intermediates of Rd-apocytochrome b562 are resolved by NMR. Based upon their relative stability and structural features, the folding mechanism was proposed to follow a specific pathway (unfolded → rate-limiting transition state → PUF1 → PUF2 → native). Investigating the roles of equilibrium PUF structures in folding kinetics and their interrelationship not only deepens our understanding of the details of folding mechanism but also provides guides in protein design and prevention of misfolding. We performed molecular dynamics simulations starting from a hidden intermediate and the native state of Rd-apocytochrome b562 in explicit solvent, for a total of 37.18 μs mainly with Anton. We validated our simulations by detailed comparison with experimental data and other computations. We have verified that we sampled the post rate-limiting transition state region only. Markov state model was used to analyze the simulation results. We replace the specific pathway model with a network model. Transition-path theory was employed to calculate the net effective flux from the most unfolded state towards the most folded state in the network. The proposed sequential folding pathway via PUF1 then more stable, more native-like PUF2 is one of the routes in our network, but it is not dominant. The dominant path visits PUF2 without going through PUF1. There is also a route from PUF1 directly to the most folded state in the network without visiting PUF2. Our results indicate that the PUF states are not necessarily sequential in the folding. The major routes predicted in our network are testable by future experiments such as single molecule experiment. PMID:26450332

  12. Network representation of conformational transitions between hidden intermediates of Rd-apocytochrome b562

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Mojie; Liu, Hanzhong; Li, Minghai; Huo, Shuanghong

    2015-10-01

    The folding kinetics of Rd-apocytochrome b562 is two-state, but native-state hydrogen exchange experiments show that there are discrete partially unfolded (PUF) structures in equilibrium with the native state. These PUF structures are called hidden intermediates because they are not detected in kinetic experiments and they exist after the rate-limiting step. Structures of the mimics of hidden intermediates of Rd-apocytochrome b562 are resolved by NMR. Based upon their relative stability and structural features, the folding mechanism was proposed to follow a specific pathway (unfolded → rate-limiting transition state → PUF1 → PUF2 → native). Investigating the roles of equilibrium PUF structures in folding kinetics and their interrelationship not only deepens our understanding of the details of folding mechanism but also provides guides in protein design and prevention of misfolding. We performed molecular dynamics simulations starting from a hidden intermediate and the native state of Rd-apocytochrome b562 in explicit solvent, for a total of 37.18 μs mainly with Anton. We validated our simulations by detailed comparison with experimental data and other computations. We have verified that we sampled the post rate-limiting transition state region only. Markov state model was used to analyze the simulation results. We replace the specific pathway model with a network model. Transition-path theory was employed to calculate the net effective flux from the most unfolded state towards the most folded state in the network. The proposed sequential folding pathway via PUF1 then more stable, more native-like PUF2 is one of the routes in our network, but it is not dominant. The dominant path visits PUF2 without going through PUF1. There is also a route from PUF1 directly to the most folded state in the network without visiting PUF2. Our results indicate that the PUF states are not necessarily sequential in the folding. The major routes predicted in our network are testable by future experiments such as single molecule experiment.

  13. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of Chlorophyll a: Solvent Dependent Spectral Evolution.

    PubMed

    Moca, Roberta; Meech, Stephen R; Heisler, Ismael A

    2015-07-01

    The interaction of the monomeric chlorophyll Q-band electronic transition with solvents of differing physical-chemical properties is investigated through two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). Chlorophyll constitutes the key chromophore molecule in light harvesting complexes. It is well-known that the surrounding protein in the light harvesting complex fine-tunes chlorophyll electronic transitions to optimize energy transfer. Therefore, an understanding of the influence of the environment on the monomeric chlorophyll electronic transitions is important. The Q-band 2DES is inhomogeneous at early times, particularly in hydrogen bonding polar solvents, but also in nonpolar solvents like cyclohexane. Interestingly this inhomogeneity persists for long times, even up to the nanosecond time scale in some solvents. The reshaping of the 2DES occurs over multiple time scales and was assigned mainly to spectral diffusion. At early times the reshaping is Gaussian-like, hinting at a strong solvent reorganization effect. The temporal evolution of the 2DES response was analyzed in terms of a Brownian oscillator model. The spectral densities underpinning the Brownian oscillator fitting were recovered for the different solvents. The absorption spectra and Stokes shift were also properly described by this model. The extent and nature of inhomogeneous broadening was a strong function of solvent, being larger in H-bonding and viscous media and smaller in nonpolar solvents. The fastest spectral reshaping components were assigned to solvent dynamics, modified by interactions with the solute. PMID:26087152

  14. Protein conformational transitions at the liquid-gas interface as studied by dilational surface rheology.

    PubMed

    Noskov, Boris A

    2014-04-01

    Experimental results on the dynamic dilational surface elasticity of protein solutions are analyzed and compared. Short reviews of the protein behavior at the liquid-gas interface and the dilational surface rheology precede the main sections of this work. The kinetic dependencies of the surface elasticity differ strongly for the solutions of globular and non-globular proteins. In the latter case these dependencies are similar to those for solutions of non-ionic amphiphilic polymers and have local maxima corresponding to the formation of the distal region of the surface layer (type I). In the former case the dynamic surface elasticity is much higher (>60 mN/m) and the kinetic dependencies are monotonical and similar to the data for aqueous dispersions of solid nanoparticles (type II). The addition of strong denaturants to solutions of bovine serum albumin and ?-lactoglobulin results in an abrupt transition from the type II to type I dependencies if the denaturant concentration exceeds a certain critical value. These results give a strong argument in favor of the preservation of the protein globular structure in the course of adsorption without any denaturants. The addition of cationic surfactants also can lead to the non-monotonical kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity indicating destruction of the protein tertiary and secondary structures. The addition of anionic surfactants gives similar results only for the protein solutions of high ionic strength. The influence of cationic surfactants on the local maxima of the kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity for solutions of a non-globular protein (?-casein) differs from the influence of anionic surfactants due to the heterogeneity of the charge distribution along the protein chain. In this case one can use small admixtures of ionic surfactants as probes of the adsorption mechanism. The effect of polyelectrolytes on the kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity of protein solutions is weaker than the effect of conventional surfactants but exceeds the error limits. PMID:24238394

  15. Conformational transition in the substrate binding domain of ?-secretase exploited by NMA and its implication in inhibitor recognition: BACE1-myricetin a case study.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandipan; Kumar, Sanjay; Basu, Soumalee

    2011-07-01

    BACE1 is a key protease involved in the proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) that generates a toxic peptide amyloid beta (A?), a pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The enzyme is believed to possess an open and a closed conformation that corresponds to its free and inhibitor-bound form respectively. Here, we study the dynamic transition of BACE1 employing normal mode analysis (NMA) using a simplified elastic network model (ENM). Estimation of the catalytic cavity volume on the structures of BACE1 encoded by the lowest frequency normal mode reveals the dynamical transition of the enzyme from the open to the closed conformer. Detailed analysis reveals that concerted movement of different loop segments in the active site of the protein, namely flap regions, 10s loop, A loop and F loop, squeeze the catalytic cavity between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobe of the substrate binding domain of BACE1. We also propose that the NMA encoded multiple receptor conformations (MRC) of BACE1 elucidate the pharmacophoric feature necessary to inhibit the enzyme by a polyphenol, myricetin. van der Waals interaction is found to be the main driving force that guides the ligand induced conformational switching to the closed conformer. We suggest that NMA derived MRC of BACE1 is an efficient way to treat the receptor flexibility in docking and thus can be further applied in virtual screening and structure based drug design. PMID:21354237

  16. Solvent dependence of the N-methylacetamide structure and force field.

    PubMed

    Andrushchenko, Valery; Matejka, Pavel; Anderson, David T; Kaminský, Jakub; Hornícek, Jan; Paulson, Leif O; Bour, Petr

    2009-09-01

    The N-methylacetamide molecule (NMA) is an important model for peptide and protein vibrational spectroscopy as it contains the main amide chromophore. In the past, some observed NMA geometry and spectral features could not be entirely explained at the harmonic level or by a single-conformer model. In particular, the spectra were found to be very dependent on molecular environment. In this work NMA Raman and infrared (IR) spectra in a variety of conditions were remeasured and simulated theoretically to separate the fundamental, dimer, and anharmonic bands. Under vacuum the MP2, MP4, and CCSD(T) wave function methods predicted a broad anharmonic potential energy well or even a double-well for the amide nitrogen out of plane motion, which density functional methods failed to reproduce. However, eventual nonplanar minima cannot support an asymmetric quantum state or explain band splittings observed in some experiments. In polar solvents the potential becomes more harmonic and the amide plane more rigid. On the other hand, solvent polarity enhances other anharmonic phenomena, such as the coupling between the carbonyl stretching (amide I) and lower frequency amide bending modes. The amide I band splitting is commonly observed experimentally. The influence of the CH(3) group rotations modeled by a rigid rotor model was found to be important for explaining some features of the spectra in a solid parahydrogen matrix. At room temperature the methyl rotation contributes to a nonspecific inhomogeneous band broadening. The dependence of the amide group flexibility on the environment polarity may have interesting consequences for peptide and protein folding studies. PMID:19663410

  17. Solvent Dependence of the N-Methylacetamide Structure and Force Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrushchenko, Valery; Pavel, Mat?jka; Anderson, David T.; Kaminsk, Jakub; Horn?ek, Jan; Paulson, Leif O.; Bou?, Petr

    2009-08-01

    The N-methylacetamide molecule (NMA) is an important model for peptide and protein vibrational spectroscopy as it contains the main amide chromophore. In the past, some observed NMA geometry and spectral features could not be entirely explained at the harmonic level or by a single-conformer model. In particular, the spectra were found to be very dependent on molecular environment. In this work NMA Raman and infrared (IR) spectra in a variety of conditions were remeasured and simulated theoretically to separate the fundamental, dimer, and anharmonic bands. Under vacuum the MP2, MP4, and CCSD(T) wave function methods predicted a broad anharmonic potential energy well or even a double-well for the amide nitrogen out of plane motion, which density functional methods failed to reproduce. However, eventual nonplanar minima cannot support an asymmetric quantum state or explain band splittings observed in some experiments. In polar solvents the potential becomes more harmonic and the amide plane more rigid. On the other hand, solvent polarity enhances other anharmonic phenomena, such as the coupling between the carbonyl stretching (amide I) and lower frequency amide bending modes. The amide I band splitting is commonly observed experimentally. The influence of the CH3 group rotations modeled by a rigid rotor model was found to be important for explaining some features of the spectra in a solid parahydrogen matrix. At room temperature the methyl rotation contributes to a nonspecific inhomogeneous band broadening. The dependence of the amide group flexibility on the environment polarity may have interesting consequences for peptide and protein folding studies.

  18. To involvement the conformation of the adenine nucleotide translocase in opening the Tl(+)-induced permeability transition pore in Ca(2+)-loaded rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Sergey M; Konovalova, Svetlana A; Brailovskaya, Irina V; Saris, Nils-Erik L

    2016-04-01

    The conformation of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) has a profound impact in opening the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the inner membrane. Fixing the ANT in 'c' conformation by phenylarsine oxide (PAO), tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP), and carboxyatractyloside as well as the interaction of 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS) with mitochondrial thiols markedly attenuated the ability of ADP to inhibit the MPTP opening. We earlier found (Korotkov and Saris, 2011) that calcium load of rat liver mitochondria in medium containing TlNO3 and KNO3 stimulated the Tl(+)-induced MPTP opening in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The MPTP opening as well as followed increase in swelling, a drop in membrane potential (ΔΨmito), and a decrease in state 3, state 4, and 2,4-dinitrophenol-uncoupled respiration were visibly enhanced in the presence of PAO, tBHP, DIDS, and carboxyatractyloside. However, these effects were markedly inhibited by ADP and membrane-penetrant hydrophobic thiol reagent, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) which fix the ANT in 'm' conformation. Cyclosporine A additionally potentiated these effects of ADP and NEM. Our data suggest that conformational changes of the ANT may be directly involved in the opening of the Tl(+)-induced MPTP in the inner membrane of Ca(2+)-loaded rat liver mitochondria. Using the Tl(+)-induced MPTP model is discussed in terms finding new transition pore inhibitors and inducers among different chemical and natural compounds. PMID:26835787

  19. Polyelectrolyte conformational transition in aqueous solvent mixture influenced by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding effects: PAA-water-ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sappidi, Praveenkumar; Natarajan, Upendra

    2016-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of poly(acrylic acid) PAA chain in water-ethanol mixture were performed for un-ionized and ionized cases at different degree-of-ionization 0%, 80% and 100% of PAA chain by Na(+) counter-ions and co-solvent (ethanol) concentration in the range 0-90vol% ethanol. Aspects of structure and dynamics were investigated via atom pair correlation functions, number and relaxation of hydrogen bonds, nearest-neighbor coordination numbers, and dihedral angle distribution function for back-bone and side-groups of the chain. With increase in ethanol concentration, chain swelling is observed for un-ionized chain (f=0) and on the contrary chain shrinkage is observed for partially and fully ionized cases (i.e., f=0.8 and 1). For un-ionized PAA, with increase in ethanol fraction ?eth the number of PAA-ethanol hydrogen bonds increases while PAA-water decreases. Increase in ?eth leads to PAA chain expansion for un-ionized case and chain shrinkage for ionized case, in agreement with experimental observations on this system. For ionized-PAA case, chain shrinkage is found to be influenced by intermolecular hydrogen bonding with water as well as ethanol. The localization of ethanol molecules near the un-ionized PAA backbone at higher levels of ethanol is facilitated by a displacement of water molecules indicating presence of specific ethanol hydration shell, as confirmed by results of the RDF curves and coordination number calculations. This behavior, controlled by hydrogen bonding provides a significant contribution to such a conformational transition behavior of the polyelectrolyte chain. The interactions between counter-ions and charges on the PAA chain also influence chain collapse. The underlying origins of polyelectrolyte chain collapse in water-alcohol mixtures are brought out for the first time via explicit MD simulations by this study. PMID:26803232

  20. Tight Conformational Coupling between the Domains of the Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Fimbrial Adhesin CfaE Regulates Binding State Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Esser, Lothar; Interlandi, Gianluca; Kisiela, Dagmara I.; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Thomas, Wendy E.; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Xia, Di; Savarino, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    CfaE, the tip adhesin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization factor antigen I fimbriae, initiates binding of this enteropathogen to the small intestine. It comprises stacked ?-sandwich adhesin (AD) and pilin (PD) domains, with the putative receptor-binding pocket at one pole and an equatorial interdomain interface. CfaE binding to erythrocytes is enhanced by application of moderate shear stress. A G168D replacement along the AD facing the CfaE interdomain region was previously shown to decrease the dependence on shear by increasing binding at lower shear forces. To elucidate the structural basis for this functional change, we studied the properties of CfaE G168D (with a self-complemented donor strand) and solved its crystal structure at 2.6 ? resolution. Compared with native CfaE, CfaE G168D showed a downward shift in peak erythrocyte binding under shear stress and greater binding under static conditions. The thermal melting transition of CfaE G168D occurred 10 C below that of CfaE. Compared with CfaE, the atomic structure of CfaE G168D revealed a 36% reduction in the buried surface area at the interdomain interface. Despite the location of this single modification in the AD, CfaE G168D exhibited structural derangements only in the adjoining PD compared with CfaE. In molecular dynamics simulations, the G168D mutation was associated with weakened interdomain interactions under tensile force. Taken together, these findings indicate that the AD and PD of CfaE are conformationally tightly coupled and support the hypothesis that opening of the interface plays a critical modulatory role in the allosteric activation of CfaE. PMID:23393133

  1. Conformality lost

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, David B.; Lee, Jong-Wan; Son, Dam T.; Stephanov, Mikhail A.

    2009-12-15

    We consider zero-temperature transitions from conformal to nonconformal phases in quantum theories. We argue that there are three generic mechanisms for the loss of conformality in any number of dimensions: (i) fixed point goes to zero coupling, (ii) fixed point runs off to infinite coupling, or (iii) an IR fixed point annihilates with a UV fixed point and they both disappear into the complex plane. We give both relativistic and nonrelativistic examples of the last case in various dimensions and show that the critical behavior of the mass gap behaves similarly to the correlation length in the finite temperature Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition in two dimensions, {xi}{approx}exp(c/|T-T{sub c}|{sup 1/2}). We speculate that the chiral phase transition in QCD at large number of fermion flavors belongs to this universality class, and attempt to identify the UV fixed point that annihilates with the Banks-Zaks fixed point at the lower end of the conformal window.

  2. Cyanide Single-Molecule Magnets Exhibiting Solvent Dependent Reversible "On" and "Off" Exchange Bias Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pinkowicz, Dawid; Southerland, Heather I; Avendao, Carolina; Prosvirin, Andrey; Sanders, Codi; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Pedersen, Kasper S; Dreiser, Jan; Clrac, Rodolphe; Nehrkorn, Joscha; Simeoni, Giovanna G; Schnegg, Alexander; Holldack, Karsten; Dunbar, Kim R

    2015-11-18

    The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of four new complex salts, (PPN){[Mn(III)(salphen)(MeOH)]2[M(III)(CN)6]}7MeOH (Mn2M7MeOH) (M = Fe, Ru, Os and Co; PPN(+) = bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium cation; H2salphen = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-diaminobenzene), and a mixed metal Co/Os analogue (PPN){[Mn(III)(salphen)(MeOH)]2[Co(III)0.92Os(III)0.08(CN)6]}7MeOH were undertaken. It was found that all compounds exhibit switchable single-molecule magnet (SMM) and exchange-bias behavior depending on the interstitial methanol content. The pristine (PPN){[Mn(salphen)(MeOH)]2[Os(CN)6]}7MeOH (Mn2Os7MeOH) behaves as an SMM with an effective barrier for the magnetization reversal, (Ueff/kB), of 17.1 K. Upon desolvation, Mn2Os exhibits an increase of Ueff/kB to 42.0 K and an opening of the hysteresis loop observable at 1.8 K. Mn2Os7MeOH shows also exchange-bias behavior with magnetic hysteresis loops exhibiting a shift in the quantum tunneling to 0.25 T from zero-field. The Fe(III) and Ru(III) analogues were prepared as reference compounds for assessing the effect of the 5d versus 4d and 3d metal ions on the SMM properties. These compounds are also SMMs and exhibit similar effects but with lower energy barriers. These findings underscore the importance of introducing heavy transition elements into SMMs to improve their slow relaxation of the magnetization properties. The (PPN){[Mn(III)(salphen)(MeOH)]2[Co(III)(CN)6]}7MeOH (Mn2Co7MeOH) analogue with a diamagnetic Co(III) central atom and the mixed Co/Os (PPN){[Mn(III)(salphen)(MeOH)]2[Co(III)0.92Os(III)0.08(CN)6]}7MeOH (Mn2Co/Os7MeOH) "magnetically diluted" system with a 9:1 Co/Os metal ratio were prepared in order to further probe the nature of the energy barrier increase upon desolvation of Mn2Os. In addition, inelastic neutron scattering and frequency-domain Fourier-transform THz electron paramagnetic resonance spectra obtained on Mn2Os7MeOH and Mn2Os in combination with the magnetic data revealed the presence of anisotropic exchange interactions between Mn(III) and Os(III) ions. PMID:26542645

  3. Accounting for conformational flexibility and torsional anharmonicity in the H + CH3CH2OH hydrogen abstraction reactions: A multi-path variational transition state theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meana-Paeda, Rubn; Fernndez-Ramos, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel.

  4. Accounting for conformational flexibility and torsional anharmonicity in the H + CH3CH2OH hydrogen abstraction reactions: a multi-path variational transition state theory study.

    PubMed

    Meana-Paeda, Rubn; Fernndez-Ramos, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel. PMID:24811637

  5. Conformation transition in silk protein films monitored by time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: effect of potassium ions on Nephila spidroin films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Knight, David P; Shao, Zhengzhong; Vollrath, Fritz

    2002-12-17

    We used time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to follow a conformation transition in Nephila spidroin film from random coil and/or helical structures to beta-sheet induced by the addition of KCl from 0.01 to 1.0 mol/L in D(2)O. Time series difference spectra showed parallel increases in absorption at 1620 and 1691 cm(-)(1), indicating formation of beta-sheet, together with a coincident loss of intensity of approximately 1650 cm(-)(1), indicating decrease of random coil and/or helical structures. Increase in KCl concentration produced an increased rate of the conformation transition that may attributable to weakening of hydrogen bonds within spidroin macromolecules. The conformation transition was a biphasic process with [KCl] > or = 0.3 mol/L but monophasic with [KCl] < or = 0.1 mol/L. This suggests that, at high KCl concentrations, segments of the molecular chain are adjusted first and then the whole molecule undergoes rearrangement. We discuss the possible significance of these findings to an understanding of the way that spiders spin silk. PMID:12475243

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of the Escherichia coli HPPK apo-enzyme reveal a network of conformational transitions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kaifu; He, Hongqing; Yang, Minghui; Yan, Honggao

    2015-11-10

    6-Hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (HPPK) catalyzes the first reaction in the folate biosynthetic pathway. Comparison of its X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance structures suggests that the enzyme undergoes significant conformational change upon binding to its substrates, especially in three catalytic loops. Experimental research has shown that even when confined by crystal contacts, loops 2 and 3 remain rather flexible when the enzyme is in its apo form, raising questions about the putative large-scale induced-fit conformational change of HPPK. To investigate the loop dynamics in a crystal-free environment, we performed conventional molecular dynamics simulations of the apo-enzyme at two different temperatures (300 and 350 K). Our simulations show that the crystallographic B-factors considerably underestimate the loop dynamics; multiple conformations of loops 2 and 3, including the open, semi-open, and closed conformations that an enzyme must adopt throughout its catalytic cycle, are all accessible to the apo-enzyme. These results revise our previous view of the functional mechanism of conformational change upon MgATP binding and offer valuable structural insights into the workings of HPPK. In this paper, conformational network analysis and principal component analysis related to the loops are discussed to support the presented conclusions. PMID:26492157

  7. Coarse-Grained Modeling of Peptide Docking Associated with Large Conformation Transitions of the Binding Protein: Troponin I Fragment-Troponin C System.

    PubMed

    Wabik, Jacek; Kurcinski, Mateusz; Kolinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Most of the current docking procedures are focused on fine conformational adjustments of assembled complexes and fail to reproduce large-scale protein motion. In this paper, we test a new modeling approach developed to address this problem. CABS-dock is a versatile and efficient tool for modeling the structure, dynamics and interactions of protein complexes. The docking protocol employs a coarse-grained representation of proteins, a simplified model of interactions and advanced protocols for conformational sampling. CABS-dock is one of the very few tools that allow unrestrained docking with large conformational freedom of the receptor. In an example application we modeled the process of complex assembly between two proteins: Troponin C (TnC) and the N-terminal helix of Troponin I (TnI N-helix), which occurs in vivo during muscle contraction. Docking simulations illustrated how the TnC molecule undergoes significant conformational transition on complex formation, a phenomenon that can be modeled only when protein flexibility is properly accounted for. This way our procedure opens up a new possibility for studying mechanisms of protein complex assembly, which may be a supporting tool for rational drug design. PMID:26111167

  8. Insights into the potential functionality of single-chain force-induced conformational transitions in polymer networks: Implications for polysaccharide signaling in the plant cell wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, E.; Lundin, L.; Williams, M. A. K.

    2010-11-01

    The behavior of biopolymer networks comprised of clickable polysaccharide chains that can undergo force-induced conformational transitions was investigated during straining using a simulation technique. The simulation was carried out both using an affine deformation field and alternatively using Lees-Edwards boundary conditions as an example of a nonaffine case. In the affine situation the simulated stress-strain curves were found to be consistent with results obtained by evaluating the molecular force-extension curve at a single average extension and calculating the bulk modulus as an average over all possible orientations with respect to the deformation. While in all cases examined the macroscopic mechanical responses of networks of randomly oriented chains, consisting either of simple extensible wormlike chains or their clickable analogs, were found to be indistinguishable, the simulation additionally allowed the number of chains containing sugar rings in different conformational states to be monitored, and this was found to change significantly during straining. This supports the hypothesis that in networks of randomly oriented clickable polysaccharide chains, such conformational transitions could have biological significance as stress switches in signaling processes but that they are unlikely to affect the bulk rheological properties of tissue.

  9. Solvent annealing induced phase separation and dewetting in PMMA/SAN blend film: Film thickness and solvent dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jichun; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Huang, Gang; Shi, Tongfei; Li, Yongjin

    2013-06-01

    The competition between "dewetting" and "phase separation" behaviors in polymer blend films attracts significant attention in the last decade. The simultaneous phase separation and dewetting in PMMA/SAN [poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile)] blend ultrathin films upon solvent annealing have been observed for the first time in our previous work. In this work, film thickness and annealing solvent dependence of phase behaviors in this system has been investigated using atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). On one hand, both vertical phase separation and dewetting take place upon selective solvent vapor annealing, leading to the formation of droplet/mimic-film structures with various sizes (depending on original film thickness). On the other hand, the whole blend film dewets the substrate and produces dispersed droplets on the silicon oxide upon common solvent annealing. GISAXS results demonstrate the phase separation in the big dewetted droplets resulted from the thicker film (39.8 nm). In contrast, no period structure is detected in small droplets from the thinner film (5.1 nm and 9.7 nm). This investigation indicates that dewetting and phase separation in PMMA/SAN blend film upon solvent annealing depend crucially on the film thickness and the atmosphere during annealing.

  10. Chirality-switchable circularly polarized luminescence in solution based on the solvent-dependent helix inversion of poly(quinoxaline-2,3-diyl)s.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuuya; Nishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Suginome, Michinori

    2014-09-01

    Poly(quinoxaline-2,3-diyl)s containing (S)-2-methylbutoxy side chains were found to exhibit blue circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). The handedness of the CPL could be switched by a solvent-dependent helix inversion of the polymer backbone between chloroform (M-helical structure) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (P-helical structure). PMID:25034538

  11. Electronic transitions in conformationally controlled tetrasilanes with a wide range of SiSiSiSi dihedral angles.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Hayato; Fogarty, Heather A; Ehara, Masahiro; Fukuda, Ryoichi; Casher, Deborah L; Tamao, Kohei; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Michl, Josef

    2014-07-21

    Unlike ?-electron chromophores, the peralkylated n-tetrasilane ?-electron chromophore resembles a chameleon in that its electronic spectrum changes dramatically as its silicon backbone is twisted almost effortlessly from the syn to the anti conformation (changing the SiSiSiSi dihedral angle ? from 0 to 180). A combination of UV absorption, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy on conformationally controlled tetrasilanes 1-9, which cover fairly evenly the full range of angles ?, permitted a construction of an experimental correlation diagram for three to four lowest valence electronic states. The free chain tetrasilane n-Si4 Me10 (10), normally present as a mixture of three enantiomeric conformer pairs of widely different angles ?, has also been included in our study. The spectral trends are interpreted in terms of avoided crossings of 1B with 2B and 2A with 3A states, in agreement with SAC-CI calculations on the excited states of 1-7 and conformers of 10. PMID:25043859

  12. Photoinduced charge generation rates in soluble P3HT : PCBM nano-aggregates predict the solvent-dependent film morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Palas; Jha, Ajay; Dasgupta, Jyotishman

    2016-01-01

    The device efficiency of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critically dependent on the nano-morphology of the solution-processed polymer : fullerene blend. Active control on blend morphology can only emanate from a detailed understanding of solution structures during the film casting process. Here we use photoinduced charge transfer (CT) rates to probe the effective length scale of the pre-formed solution structures and their energy disorder arising from a mixture of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in three different organic solvents. The observed solvent-dependent ultrafast biphasic rise of the transient polaron state in solution along with changes detected in the C&z.dbd;C stretching frequency of bound PCBM provides direct evidence for film-like P3HT : PCBM interfaces in solution. Using the diffusive component of the charge transfer rate, we deduce ~3-times larger functional nano-domain size in toluene than in chlorobenzene thereby correctly predicting the relative polymer nanofiber widths observed in annealed films. We thus provide first experimental evidence for the postulated polymer : fullerene : solvent ternary phase that seeds the eventual morphology in spin-cast films. Our work motivates the design of new chemical additives to tune the grain size of the evolving polymer : fullerene domains within the solution phase.The device efficiency of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critically dependent on the nano-morphology of the solution-processed polymer : fullerene blend. Active control on blend morphology can only emanate from a detailed understanding of solution structures during the film casting process. Here we use photoinduced charge transfer (CT) rates to probe the effective length scale of the pre-formed solution structures and their energy disorder arising from a mixture of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in three different organic solvents. The observed solvent-dependent ultrafast biphasic rise of the transient polaron state in solution along with changes detected in the C&z.dbd;C stretching frequency of bound PCBM provides direct evidence for film-like P3HT : PCBM interfaces in solution. Using the diffusive component of the charge transfer rate, we deduce ~3-times larger functional nano-domain size in toluene than in chlorobenzene thereby correctly predicting the relative polymer nanofiber widths observed in annealed films. We thus provide first experimental evidence for the postulated polymer : fullerene : solvent ternary phase that seeds the eventual morphology in spin-cast films. Our work motivates the design of new chemical additives to tune the grain size of the evolving polymer : fullerene domains within the solution phase. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods, Fig. S1-S23 and references. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06445g

  13. Solvent-dependent excited-state hydrogen transfer and intersystem crossing in 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-benzothiazole.

    PubMed

    Aly, Shawkat M; Usman, Anwar; AlZayer, Maytham; Hamdi, Ghada A; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F

    2015-02-12

    The excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole (HBT) has been investigated in a series of nonpolar, polar aprotic, and polar protic solvents. A variety of state-of-the-art experimental methods were employed, including femto- and nanosecond transient absorption and fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy with broadband capabilities. We show that the dynamics and mechanism of ESIHT of the singlet excited HBT are strongly solvent-dependent. In nonpolar solvents, the data demonstrate that HBT molecules adopt a closed form stabilized by O-HN chelated hydrogen bonds with no twisting angle, and the photoinduced H transfer occurs within 120 fs, leading to the formation of a keto tautomer. In polar solvents, owing to dipole-dipole cross talk and hydrogen bonding interactions, the H transfer process is followed by ultrafast nonradiative deactivation channels, including ultrafast internal conversion (IC) and intersystem crossing (ISC). This is likely to be driven by the twisting motion around the C-C bond between the hydroxyphenyl and thiazole moieties, facilitating the IC back to the enol ground state or to the keto triplet state. In addition, our femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence experiments indicate, for the first time, that the lifetime of the enol form in ACN is approximately 280 fs. This observation indicates that the solvent plays a crucial role in breaking the H bond and deactivating the excited state of the HBT. Interestingly, the broadband transient absorption and fluorescence up-conversion data clearly demonstrate that the intermolecular proton transfer from the excited HBT to the DMSO solvent is about 190 fs, forming the HBT anion excited state. PMID:25325788

  14. The Spectral Properties of (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-Gallate (EGCG) Fluorescence in Different Solvents: Dependence on Solvent Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Snitsarev, Vladislav; Young, Michael N.; Miller, Ross M. S.; Rotella, David P.

    2013-01-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) a molecule found in green tea and known for a plethora of bioactive properties is an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a protein of interest as a target for cancer and neuroprotection. Determination of the spectral properties of EGCG fluorescence in environments similar to those of binding sites found in proteins provides an important tool to directly study protein-EGCG interactions. The goal of this study is to examine the spectral properties of EGCG fluorescence in an aqueous buffer (AB) at pH=7.0, acetonitrile (AN) (a polar aprotic solvent), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) (a polar aprotic solvent), and ethanol (EtOH) (a polar protic solvent). We demonstrate that EGCG is a highly fluorescent molecule when excited at approximately 275 nm with emission maxima between 350 and 400 nm depending on solvent. Another smaller excitation peak was found when EGCG is excited at approximately 235 nm with maximum emission between 340 and 400 nm. We found that the fluorescence intensity (FI) of EGCG in AB at pH=7.0 is significantly quenched, and that it is about 85 times higher in an aprotic solvent DMSO. The Stokes shifts of EGCG fluorescence were determined by solvent polarity. In addition, while the emission maxima of EGCG fluorescence in AB, DMSO, and EtOH follow the Lippert-Mataga equation, its fluorescence in AN points to non-specific solvent effects on EGCG fluorescence. We conclude that significant solvent-dependent changes in both fluorescence intensity and fluorescence emission shifts can be effectively used to distinguish EGCG in aqueous solutions from EGCG in environments of different polarity, and, thus, can be used to study specific EGCG binding to protein binding sites where the environment is often different from aqueous in terms of polarity. PMID:24278192

  15. Thermally-induced phase transition of pseudorotaxane crystals: changes in conformation and interaction of the molecules and optical properties of the crystals.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masaki; Suzaki, Yuji; Hashizume, Daisuke; Abe, Tomoko; Wu, Tiendi; Sassa, Takafumi; Hosokai, Takuya; Osakada, Kohtaro

    2012-10-31

    This paper presents a pseudorotaxane that acts as a thermally driven molecular switch in the single-crystal state. Crystals of the cationic pseudorotaxane consisting of dibenzo[24]crown-8 (DB24C8) and N-(xylylammonium)-methylferrocene as the cyclic and axle component molecules, respectively, undergo crystalline-phase transition at 128 C with heating and 116 C with cooling, according to differential-scanning-calorimetry measurements. X-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that the phase transition was accompanied by rotation of the 4-methylphenyl group of the axle component molecule and a simultaneous shift in the position of the PF(6)(-) counteranion. Crystalline phase transition changes the conformation and position of the DB24C8 molecule relative to the ammonium cation partially; the interaction between the cyclic component and the PF(6)(-) anion in the crystal changes to a greater extent. Moreover, there are changes in the vibration angle (?) and birefringence (?n) on the (001) face of the crystal transitionally; ? is rotated by +12, and ?n is decreased from 0.070 to 0.059 upon heating across the phase transition temperature. The phase transition and accompanying change in the optical properties of the crystal occur reversibly and repeatedly upon heating and cooling processes. The switching rotation of the aromatic plane of the molecule induces a change in the optical anisotropy of the crystal, which is regarded as a demonstration of a new type of optical crystal. Partial replacement of the PF(6)(-) anion with the bulkier AsF(6)(-) anion forms crystals with similar crystallographic parameters. An increase in the AsF(6)(-) content decreases the reversible-phase-transition temperature gradually down to 99 C (T(end)) and 68 C (T(exo)) ([AsF(6)(-)]:[PF(6)(-)] = 0.4:0.6). PMID:23039308

  16. Conformational transitions and stop-and-go nanopore transport of single-stranded DNA on charged graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankla, Manish; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2014-10-01

    Control over interactions with biomolecules holds the key to applications of graphene in biotechnology. One such application is nanopore sequencing, where a DNA molecule is electrophoretically driven through a graphene nanopore. Here we investigate how interactions of single-stranded DNA and a graphene membrane can be controlled by electrically biasing the membrane. The results of our molecular dynamics simulations suggest that electric charge on graphene can force a DNA homopolymer to adopt a range of strikingly different conformations. The conformational response is sensitive to even very subtle nucleotide modifications, such as DNA methylation. The speed of DNA motion through a graphene nanopore is strongly affected by the graphene charge: a positive charge accelerates the motion, whereas a negative charge arrests it. As a possible application of the effect, we demonstrate stop-and-go transport of DNA controlled by the charge of graphene. Such on-demand transport of DNA is essential for realizing nanopore sequencing.

  17. A conformational transition in the structure of a 2'-thiomethyl-modified DNA visualized at high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pallan, Pradeep S.; Prakash, Thazha P.; Li, Feng; Eoff, Robert L.; Manoharan, Muthiah; Egli, Martin

    2009-06-17

    Crystal structures of A-form and B-form DNA duplexes containing 2'-S-methyl-uridines reveal that the modified residues adopt a RNA-like C3'-endo pucker, illustrating that the replacement of electronegative oxygen at the 2'-carbon of RNA by sulfur does not appear to fundamentally alter the conformational preference of the sugar in the oligonucleotide context and sterics trump stereoelectronics.

  18. Nucleotide- and substrate-induced conformational transitions in the CBS domain-containing pyrophosphatase of Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Jmsen, Joonas; Baykov, Alexander A; Lahti, Reijo

    2010-02-01

    In contrast to all other known pyrophosphatases, Moorella thermoacetica pyrophosphatase (mtCBS-PPase) contains nucleotide-binding CBS domains and is thus strongly regulated by adenine nucleotides. Stopped-flow measurements using a fluorescent AMP analogue, 2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthranoyl)-AMP (Mant-AMP), reveal that nucleotide binding to mtCBS-PPase involves a three-step increase in Mant-AMP fluorescence with relaxation times from 0.01 to 100 s, implying conformational changes in the complex. This effect is reversed by AMP. Metal cofactors (Co(2+) and Mg(2+)) enhance the fluorescence signal but are not absolutely required, unlike what is seen when the catalytic reaction is examined. The relaxation times and amplitudes of the fluorescence signals depend on Mant-AMP concentration in a manner suggestive of the presence of a second binding site for Mant-AMP on the protein. Equilibrium fluorescence titration experiments additionally support the presence of two types of AMP binding sites with different affinities, whereas equilibrium dialysis and membrane filtration measurements reveal binding of one AMP molecule per enzyme monomer, implying negative cooperativity in nucleotide binding. The substrate (PP(i)) modulates Mant-AMP binding, leading to a further conformational change in the enzyme-Mant-AMP complex, and stimulates mtCBS-PPase in alkaline medium within a time scale of minutes, via conversion to a more active form. This active form initially comprises only a third of the enzyme, as estimated from kinetic titration with ADP. AMP inhibits both enzyme forms but is unable to independently induce interconversion. Our results collectively suggest that nucleotides and the substrate induce multiple conformational changes in mtCBS-PPase occurring over a wide time scale; the changes are distinct and almost independent. PMID:20038140

  19. Effects of poly (ethylene glycol) chains conformational transition on the properties of mixed DMPC/DMPE-PEG thin liquid films and monolayers.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Georgi As; Sarker, Dipak K; Al-Hanbali, Othman; Georgiev, Georgi D; Lalchev, Zdravko

    2007-10-01

    Foam thin liquid films (TLF) and monolayers at the air-water interface formed by DMPC mixed with DMPE-bonded poly (ethylene glycol)s (DMPE-PEG(550), DMPE-PEG(2000) and DMPE-PEG(5000)) were obtained. The influence of both (i) PEG chain size (evaluated in terms of Mw) and mushroom-to-brush conformational transition and (ii) of the liposome/micelle ratio in the film-forming dispersions, on the interfacial properties of mixed DMPC/DMPE-PEG films was compared. Foam film studies demonstrated that DMPE-PEG addition to foam TLFs caused (i) delayed kinetics of film thinning and black spot expansion and (ii) film stabilization. At the mushroom-to-brush transition, due to steric repulsion increased DMPE-PEG films thickness reached 25 nm while pure DMPC films were only 8 nm thick Newton black films. It was possible to differentiate DMPE-PEG(2000/5000) from DMPE-PEG(550) by the ability to change foam TLF formation mechanism, which could be of great importance for "stealth" liposome design. Monolayer studies showed improved formation kinetics and equilibrium surface tension decrease for DMPE-PEG monolayers compared with DMPC pure films. SEM observations revealed "smoothing" and "sealing" of the defects in the solid-supported layer surface by DMPE-PEGs adsorption, which could explain DMPE-PEGs ability to stabilize TLFs and to decrease monolayer surface tension. All effects in monolayers, foam TLFs and solid-supported layers increased with the increase of PEG Mw and DMPE-PEG concentration. However, at the critical DMPE-PEG concentration (where mushroom-to-brush conformational transition occurred) maximal magnitude of the effects was reached, which only slightly changed at further DMPE-PEG content and micelle/liposome ratio increase. PMID:17587556

  20. Push-Pull Type Oligo(N-annulated perylene)quinodimethanes: Chain Length and Solvent-Dependent Ground States and Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zebing; Lee, Sangsu; Son, Minjung; Fukuda, Kotaro; Burrezo, Paula Mayorga; Zhu, Xiaojian; Qi, Qingbiao; Li, Run-Wei; Navarrete, Juan T López; Ding, Jun; Casado, Juan; Nakano, Masayoshi; Kim, Dongho; Wu, Jishan

    2015-07-01

    Research on stable open-shell singlet diradicaloids recently became a hot topic because of their unique optical, electronic, and magnetic properties and promising applications in materials science. So far, most reported singlet diradicaloid molecules have a symmetric structure, while asymmetric diradicaloids with an additional contribution of a dipolar zwitterionic form to the ground state were rarely studied. In this Article, a series of new push-pull type oligo(N-annulated perylene)quinodimethanes were synthesized. Their chain length and solvent-dependent ground states and physical properties were systematically investigated by various experimental methods such as steady-state and transient absorption, two-photon absorption, X-ray crystallographic analysis, electron spin resonance, superconducting quantum interference device, Raman spectroscopy, and electrochemistry. It was found that with extension of the chain length, the diradical character increases while the contribution of the zwitterionic form to the ground state becomes smaller. Because of the intramolecular charge transfer character, the physical properties of this push-pull system showed solvent dependence. In addition, density functional theory calculations on the diradical character and Hirshfeld charge were conducted to understand the chain length and solvent dependence of both symmetric and asymmetric systems. Our studies provided a comprehensive understanding on the fundamental structure- and environment-property relationships in the new asymmetric diradicaloid systems. PMID:26062868

  1. FTIR/PCA study of propanol in argon matrix: The initial stage of clustering and conformational transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, Iryna; Balevicius, Vytautas; Pitsevich, George; Aidas, Kestutis; Sablinskas, Valdas; Pogorelov, Valeriy

    2014-12-01

    FTIR spectra of 1-propanol in an argon matrix were studied in the range 11-30 K. Principal component analysis of dynamic FTIR spectra and nonlinear band shape fitting has been carried out. The peaks of monomer, open dimer, mixed propanol-water dimer and those of higher H-bond clusters have been resolved and analyzed. The attribution of certain FTIR peaks has been supported by proper density functional theory calculations. Analyzing dependences of the integral band intensities of various aggregates on temperature it has been deduced that in the initial stage of clustering monomers and dimers are the basic building blocks forming higher H-bond clusters. The peaks assigned to two conformers of monomers and mixed propanol-water dimers were investigated processing the temperature dependences of their integral intensities in Arrhenius plot. The obtained values of 0.18 kJ.mol-1 for propanol monomer and 0.26 kJ.mol-1 for mixed dimer are well comparable with the energy differences between the global minimum conformation of 1-propanol (Gt) and some other energetically higher structures (Tt or Tg).

  2. Structure Analysis and Conformational Transitions of the Cell Penetrating Peptide Transportan 10 in the Membrane-Bound State

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg, Erik; Verdurmen, Wouter P. R.; Bürck, Jochen; Ehni, Sebastian; Mykhailiuk, Pavel K.; Afonin, Sergii; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Komarov, Igor V.; Brock, Roland; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    Structure analysis of the cell-penetrating peptide transportan 10 (TP10) revealed an exemplary range of different conformations in the membrane-bound state. The bipartite peptide (derived N-terminally from galanin and C-terminally from mastoparan) was found to exhibit prominent characteristics of (i) amphiphilic α-helices, (ii) intrinsically disordered peptides, as well as (iii) β-pleated amyloid fibrils, and these conformational states become interconverted as a function of concentration. We used a complementary approach of solid-state 19F-NMR and circular dichroism in oriented membrane samples to characterize the structural and dynamical behaviour of TP10 in its monomeric and aggregated forms. Nine different positions in the peptide were selectively substituted with either the L- or D-enantiomer of 3-(trifluoromethyl)-bicyclopent-[1.1.1]-1-ylglycine (CF3-Bpg) as a reporter group for 19F-NMR. Using the L-epimeric analogs, a comprehensive three-dimensional structure analysis was carried out in lipid bilayers at low peptide concentration, where TP10 is monomeric. While the N-terminal region is flexible and intrinsically unstructured within the plane of the lipid bilayer, the C-terminal α-helix is embedded in the membrane with an oblique tilt angle of ∼55° and in accordance with its amphiphilic profile. Incorporation of the sterically obstructive D-CF3-Bpg reporter group into the helical region leads to a local unfolding of the membrane-bound peptide. At high concentration, these helix-destabilizing C-terminal substitutions promote aggregation into immobile β-sheets, which resemble amyloid fibrils. On the other hand, the obstructive D-CF3-Bpg substitutions can be accommodated in the flexible N-terminus of TP10 where they do not promote aggregation at high concentration. The cross-talk between the two regions of TP10 thus exerts a delicate balance on its conformational switch, as the presence of the α-helix counteracts the tendency of the unfolded N-terminus to self-assemble into β-pleated fibrils. PMID:24937132

  3. SN2 regioselectivity in the esterification of 5- and 7-membered azacycloalkane quaternary salts: a DFT study to reveal the transition state ring conformation prevailing over the ground state ring strain.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akihiro; Kawauchi, Susumu; Yamamoto, Takuya; Tezuka, Yasuyuki

    2014-09-14

    The nucleophilic esterification of 5- and 7-membered N-phenylcyclic ammonium salts resulted in distinctive regioselectivity, despite their comparable ring strain in the ground states relative to the corresponding cyclopentane and cycloheptane (both 25.9 kJ mol(-1)). The former underwent a selective ring-opening reaction, while the latter predominantly underwent ring-emitting with concurrent ring-opening reactions. A DFT study of the model compounds revealed that the regioselection in the 5- and 7-membered azacycloalkane quaternary salts is plausibly directed by the transition state ring conformation, and not by the ground state ring strain. Remarkably, at the ring-opening transition state, the 5-membered cyclic skeletal structure expands toward the unstrained and thus less frustrated 6-membered cyclohexane conformation. On the other hand, the 7-membered counterpart expands at the ring-opening transition state toward the more frustrated 8-membered cyclooctane conformation to promote the alternative ring-emitting process. PMID:25042715

  4. Specificity Rendering ‘Hot-Spots’ for Aurora Kinase Inhibitor Design: The Role of Non-Covalent Interactions and Conformational Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Badrinarayan, Preethi; Sastry, G. Narahari

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the conformational transitions occurring among the major structural motifs of Aurora kinase (AK) concomitant with the DFG-flip and deciphers the role of non-covalent interactions in rendering specificity. Multiple sequence alignment, docking and structural analysis of a repertoire of 56 crystal structures of AK from Protein Data Bank (PDB) has been carried out. The crystal structures were systematically categorized based on the conformational disposition of the DFG-loop [in (DI) 42, out (DO) 5 and out-up (DOU) 9], G-loop [extended (GE) 53 and folded (GF) 3] and αC-helix [in (CI) 42 and out (CO) 14]. The overlapping subsets on categorization show the inter-dependency among structural motifs. Therefore, the four distinct possibilities a) 2W1C (DI, CI, GE) b) 3E5A (DI, CI, GF) c) 3DJ6 (DI, CO, GF) d) 3UNZ (DOU, CO, GF) along with their co-crystals and apo-forms were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations of 40 ns each to evaluate the variations of individual residues and their impact on forming interactions. The non-covalent interactions formed by the 157 AK co-crystals with different regions of the binding site were initially studied with the docked complexes and structure interaction fingerprints. The frequency of the most prominent interactions was gauged in the AK inhibitors from PDB and the four representative conformations during 40 ns. Based on this study, seven major non-covalent interactions and their complementary sites in AK capable of rendering specificity have been prioritized for the design of different classes of inhibitors. PMID:25485544

  5. Binding kinetics of gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor noncompetitive antagonists: trioxabicyclooctane, dithiane, and cyclodiene insecticide-induced slow transition to blocked chloride channel conformation.

    PubMed

    Hawkinson, J E; Casida, J E

    1992-12-01

    Binding kinetics and affinities are determined for 25 antagonists interacting with the noncompetitive blocker site of the gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor complex present in bovine brain membranes. Four radiolabeled noncompetitive antagonists are 4-tert-butylbicyclophosphoro[35S]thionate ([35S]TBPS), 4-tert-butylbicycloortho[3',4'-3H2]benzoate, 4'-cyano-4-sec-[3,4-3H2]butylbicycloorthobenzoate, and the new 4'-ethynyl-4-n-[2,3-3H2]propylbicycloorthobenzoate. The other 21 antagonists are unlabeled inhibitors of three chemical classes (other trioxabicyclooctane, dithiane, and cyclodiene insecticides). The radioligands bind to a single noninteracting site in the membranes, based on linear Scatchard plots and monophasic association and dissociation kinetics. The kinetics of unlabeled ligands are estimated by their effect on the [35S]TBPS association curve, using the theoretical model of Motulsky and Mahan [Mol. Pharmacol. 25:1-9 (1984)]. The receptor affinities of trioxabicyclooctanes and dithianes correlate with their association rates, whereas those of cyclodienes correlate with their dissociation rates. The low association rate constants for all ligands (< or = 3 x 10(7) M-1 min-1 at 25 degrees) are consistent with a slow transition to a blocked receptor conformation upon binding of these channel blockers. The association rate-controlled affinity for the trioxabicyclooctanes and dithianes is suggestive of an induced-fit model in which binding of the ligand initiates a conformational change in the receptor complex to the blocked state. PMID:1282663

  6. Distinct docking and stabilization steps of the pseudopilus conformational transition path suggest rotational assembly of type IV pilus-like fibers

    PubMed Central

    Nivaskumar, Mangayarkarasi; Bouvier, Guillaume; Campos, Manuel; Nadeau, Nathalie; Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward H.; Nilges, Michael; Francetic, Olivera

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The closely related bacterial type II secretion (T2S) and type IV pilus (T4P) systems are sophisticated machines that assemble dynamic fibers promoting protein transport, motility or adhesion. Despite their essential role in virulence, the molecular mechanisms underlying helical fiber assembly remain unknown. Here we use electron microscopy and flexible modeling to study conformational changes of PulG pili assembled by the Klebsiella oxytoca T2SS. Neural network analysis of 3900 pilus models suggested a transition path towards low-energy conformations driven by progressive increase in fiber helical twist. Detailed predictions of inter-protomer contacts along this path were tested by site-directed mutagenesis, pilus assembly and protein secretion analyses. We demonstrate that electrostatic interactions between adjacent protomers (P-P+1) in the membrane drive pseudopilin docking, while P-P+3 and P-P+4 contacts determine downstream fiber stabilization steps. These results support a new model of a spool-like assembly mechanism for fibers of the T2SS-T4P superfamily. PMID:24685147

  7. Distinct docking and stabilization steps of the Pseudopilus conformational transition path suggest rotational assembly of type IV pilus-like fibers.

    PubMed

    Nivaskumar, Mangayarkarasi; Bouvier, Guillaume; Campos, Manuel; Nadeau, Nathalie; Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward H; Nilges, Michael; Francetic, Olivera

    2014-05-01

    The closely related bacterial type II secretion (T2S) and type IV pilus (T4P) systems are sophisticated machines that assemble dynamic fibers promoting protein transport, motility, or adhesion. Despite their essential role in virulence, the molecular mechanisms underlying helical fiber assembly remain unknown. Here, we use electron microscopy and flexible modeling to study conformational changes of PulG pili assembled by the Klebsiella oxytoca T2SS. Neural network analysis of 3,900 pilus models suggested a transition path toward low-energy conformations driven by progressive increase in fiber helical twist. Detailed predictions of interprotomer contacts along this path were tested by site-directed mutagenesis, pilus assembly, and protein secretion analyses. We demonstrate that electrostatic interactions between adjacent protomers (P-P+1) in the membrane drive pseudopilin docking, while P-P+3 and P-P+4 contacts determine downstream fiber stabilization steps. These results support a model of a spool-like assembly mechanism for fibers of the T2SS-T4P superfamily. PMID:24685147

  8. Cytomegalovirus UL131-128 Products Promote gB Conformational Transition and gB-gH Interaction during Entry into Endothelial Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Patrone, Marco; Secchi, Massimiliano; Bonaparte, Eleonora; Milanesi, Gabriele; Gallina, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Herpesviruses use gB and gH-gL glycoproteins to execute fusion. Other virus-specific glycoproteins are required for receptor binding and fusion activation. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL131-128 proteins are essential for the infection of leukocytes, endothelial cells (ECs), and many epithelial cell lines. Here we show that UL131-128 play a role in a chain of events involving gB and gH during HCMV entry into ECs. An HCMV strain bearing the wild-type (wt) UL131-128 locus exhibited a gB transition from a protease-resistant to protease-sensitive form, a conformational change that was suppressed by a thiourea inhibitor of fusion (WY1768); in contrast, gH was susceptible to proteolysis throughout entry. Moreover, gB and gH transiently interacted, and a lipid mixing assay showed that the wt strain had carried out fusion by 60 min postinfection. However, these events were greatly altered when UL131-128-defective strains were used for infection or when there was an excess of soluble pUL128 during wt infection: the gB conformational change became WY1768 resistant, the gB-gH complex was no longer observed, and fusion was prevented. Both gB and gH in this case showed late protease resistance, related to their endocytic uptake. Our data point to the involvement of UL131-128 proteins in driving gB through a WY1768-sensitive fold transition, thus promoting a short-lived gB-gH complex and fusion; they also suggest that HCMV fuses with the EC plasma membrane and that endocytosis ensues only when the virus cannot trigger UL131-128-dependent steps. PMID:17686875

  9. Phase Transitions of PYR14-TFSI as a Function of Pressure and Temperature: the Competition between Smaller Volume and Lower Energy Conformer.

    PubMed

    Capitani, F; Trequattrini, F; Palumbo, O; Paolone, A; Postorino, P

    2016-03-24

    A detailed Raman study has been carried out on the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14-TFSI) over a wide pressure (0-8 GPa) and temperature (100-300 K) range. The explored thermodynamic region allowed us to study the evolution of the system across different solid and liquid phases. Calculated Raman spectra remarkably helped in the spectral data analysis. In particular, the pressure behavior of the most intense Raman peak and the shape analysis of the ruby fluorescence (used as a local pressure gauge) allowed us to identify a liquid-solid transition around 2.2 GPa at T = 300 K. The low-frequency Raman signal as well as the absence of remarkable spectral shape modifications on crossing the above threshold and the comparison with the spectra of the crystalline phase suggest a glassy nature of the high-pressure phase. A detailed analysis of the pressure dependence of the relative concentration of two conformers of TFSI allowed us to obtain an estimate of the volume variation between trans-TFSI and the smaller cis-TFSI, which is the favored configuration on applying the pressure. Finally, the combined use of both visual inspection and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the peculiar sequence of phase transitions observed as a function of temperature at ambient pressure and the different spectral/morphological characteristics of the two crystalline phases. PMID:26937556

  10. Binding, Conformational Transition and Dimerization of Amyloid-? Peptide on GM1-Containing Ternary Membrane: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Moutusi; Mukhopadhyay, Chaitali

    2013-01-01

    Interactions of amyloid-? (A?) with neuronal membrane are associated with the progression of Alzheimers disease (AD). Ganglioside GM1 has been shown to promote the structural conversion of A? and increase the rate of peptide aggregation; but the exact nature of interaction driving theses processes remains to be explored. In this work, we have carried out atomistic-scale computer simulations (totaling 2.65 s) to investigate the behavior of A? monomer and dimers in GM1-containing raft-like membrane. The oligosaccharide head-group of GM1 was observed to act as scaffold for A?-binding through sugar-specific interactions. Starting from the initial helical peptide conformation, a ?-hairpin motif was formed at the C-terminus of the GM1-bound A?-monomer; that didnt appear in absence of GM1 (both in fluid POPC and liquid-ordered cholesterol/POPC bilayers and also in aqueous medium) within the simulation time span. For A?-dimers, the ?-structure was further enhanced by peptide-peptide interactions, which might influence the propensity of A? to aggregate into higher-ordered structures. The salt-bridges and inter-peptide hydrogen bonds were found to account for dimer stability. We observed spontaneous formation of intra-peptide D23-K28 salt-bridge and a turn at V24GSN27 region - long been accepted as characteristic structural-motifs for amyloid self-assembly. Altogether, our results provide atomistic details of A?-GM1 and A?-A? interactions and demonstrate their importance in the early-stages of GM1-mediated A?-oligomerisation on membrane surface. PMID:23951128

  11. Characterization of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 That Accelerates the Transition into the Latent Conformation*

    PubMed Central

    Fjellstrm, Ola; Deinum, Johanna; Sjgren, Tove; Johansson, Carina; Geschwindner, Stefan; Nerme, Viveca; Legnehed, Anne; McPheat, Jane; Olsson, Karolina; Bodin, Cristian; Paunovic, Amalia; Gustafsson, David

    2013-01-01

    A novel class of small molecule inhibitors for plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), represented by AZ3976, was identified in a high throughput screening campaign. AZ3976 displayed an IC50 value of 26 ?m in an enzymatic chromogenic assay. In a plasma clot lysis assay, the compound was active with an IC50 of 16 ?m. Surprisingly, AZ3976 did not bind to active PAI-1 but bound to latent PAI-1 with a KD of 0.29 ?m at 35 C and a binding stoichiometry of 0.94, as measured by isothermal calorimetry. Reversible binding was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance direct binding experiments. The x-ray structure of AZ3976 in complex with latent PAI-1 was determined at 2.4 ? resolution. The inhibitor was bound in the flexible joint region with the entrance to the cavity located between ?-helix D and ?-strand 2A. A set of surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that AZ3976 inhibited PAI-1 by enhancing the latency transition of active PAI-1. Because AZ3976 only had measurable affinity for latent PAI-1, we propose that its mechanism of inhibition is based on binding to a small fraction in equilibrium with active PAI-1, a latent-like prelatent form, from which latent PAI-1 is then generated more rapidly. This mode of action, with induced accelerated latency transition of active PAI-1 may, together with supporting x-ray data, provide improved opportunities for small molecule drug design in the hunt for therapeutically useful PAI-1 inhibitors. PMID:23155046

  12. Mechanistic Studies of Ce(IV)-Mediated Oxidation of ?-Dicarbonyls: Solvent-Dependent Behavior of Radical Cation Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jingliang; Zhang, Yang; Devery, James J.; Xu, Luna; Deng, Jennifer; Flowers, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The Ce(IV) initiated oxidation of synthetically relevant ?-diketones and ?-keto silyl enol ethers were explored in three solvents: acetonitrile, methylene chloride, and methanol. The studies presented herein show that the rate of reaction between Ce(IV) and the substrates is dependent upon the polarity of the solvent. Thermochemical studies and analysis are interpreted to be consistent with transition state stabilization by solvent being primarily responsible for the rate of substrate oxidation. Kinetic investigation of radical cations obtained from oxidations of ?-diketones reveal that a more ordered transition state for the radical cation decay is achieved through the direct involvement of methanol in the deprotonation of the intermediate. In the case of radical cations derived from ?-keto silyl enol ethers, experimental data supports a mechanism involving unimolecular decay of the intermediate. Remarkably, radical cations derived from ?-diketones and ?-keto silyl enol ethers are surprisingly stable in methylene chloride. PMID:17602587

  13. Solvent dependence of two-photon absorption spectra of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) chromophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Haruko; Tayama, Ryo; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei

    2015-06-01

    Two-photon absorption spectra of 4‧-hydroxybenzylidene-2,3-dimethylimidazolinone, a model chromophore of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), were measured in various solvents. The two-photon absorption band of its anionic form is markedly blue-shifted from the corresponding one-photon absorption band in all solvents. Moreover, the magnitude of the blue shift varies largely depending on the solvent, which does not accord with the assignment of the two-photon absorption band to the transitions to the vibrationally excited S1 state. Our finding is readily rationalized by considering overlapping contributions of the S1 ← S0 and S2 ← S0 transitions, suggesting the involvement of the S2 state also in two-photon fluorescence of eGFP.

  14. Distinct roles of the active-site Mg2+ ligands, Asp882 and Asp705, of DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) during the prechemistry conformational transitions.

    PubMed

    Bermek, Oya; Grindley, Nigel D F; Joyce, Catherine M

    2011-02-01

    DNA polymerases catalyze the incorporation of deoxynucleoside triphosphates into a growing DNA chain using a pair of Mg(2+) ions, coordinated at the active site by two invariant aspartates, whose removal by mutation typically reduces the polymerase activity to barely detectable levels. Using two stopped-flow fluorescence assays that we developed previously, we have investigated the role of the carboxylate ligands, Asp(705) and Asp(882), of DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) in the early prechemistry steps that prepare the active site for catalysis. We find that neither carboxylate is required for an early conformational transition, reported by a 2-aminopurine probe, that takes place in the open ternary complex after binding of the complementary dNTP. However, the subsequent fingers-closing step requires Asp(882); this step converts the open ternary complex into the closed conformation, creating the active-site geometry required for catalysis. Crystal structures indicate that the Asp(882) position changes very little during fingers-closing; this side chain may therefore serve as an anchor point to receive the dNTP-associated metal ion as the nucleotide is delivered into the active site. The Asp(705) carboxylate is not required until after the fingers-closing step, and we suggest that its role is to facilitate the entry of the second Mg(2+) into the active site. The two early prechemistry steps that we have studied take place normally at very low Mg(2+) concentrations, although higher concentrations are needed for covalent nucleotide addition, consistent with the second metal ion entering the ternary complex after fingers-closing. PMID:21084297

  15. A lattice model Monte Carlo study of coil-to-globule and other conformational transitions of polymer, amphiphile, and solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Deirdre E.; Kuznetsov, Yuri A.; Timoshenko, Edward G.; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2000-05-01

    A model of polymer-amphiphile-solvent systems on a cubic lattice is used to investigate the phase diagram of such systems. The polymer is treated within the canonical ensemble (T,V,N) and the amphiphile and solvent are treated within the grand canonical ensemble (T,V,μ). Using a range of Monte Carlo moves the phase diagram of polymer-amphiphile-solvent mixtures, as a function of solvent quality (parametrized by χ) and relative chemical potential, μ, is studied for the dilute polymer limit. The effect of increasing the polymer chain length, N, on the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), and the type of polymer-amphiphile complex formed above the CAC are also examined. For some parameters, it is found that the polymer and amphiphile form a polymer-micelle complex at low amphiphile concentrations, and that the polymer coil-to-globule transition point increases with increasing amphiphile concentration. The resulting collapsed globule has a solvent core and is surrounded by a layer of amphiphile. These results are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results for the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) system. At higher amphiphile concentrations, the polymer and amphiphile form several layered structures depending on the strength of the three-body amphiphilic interactions, l. Finally, the effect of the polymer chain length, N, and the strength of the three-body amphiphilic interactions, l, on the stability of the polymer-amphiphile structures is investigated.

  16. Engineering stabilising beta-sheet interactions into a conformationally flexible region of the folding transition state of ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Bofill, Roger; Searle, Mark S

    2005-10-21

    Protein engineering studies suggest that the transition state for the folding of ubiquitin is highly polarised towards the N-terminal part of the sequence and involves a nucleus of residues within the beta-hairpin (residues 1-17) and main alpha-helix (residues 23-34). In contrast, the observation of small phi-values for residues in the C-terminal portion of the sequence (residues 35-76), coupled with a folding topology that results in a much higher contact order, suggests that fast folding of ubiquitin is dependent upon configurational flexibility in the C-terminal part of the polypeptide chain to ensure passage down a relatively smooth folding funnel to the native state. We show that the introduction of a small mini-hairpin motif as an extension of the native 43-50 hairpin stabilises local interactions in the C-terminal part of the sequence, resulting largely in a deceleration of the unfolding kinetics without perturbing the apparent two-state folding mechanism. However, a single-point Leu-->Phe substitution within the engineered hairpin sequence leads to the premature collapse of the denatured ensemble through the stabilisation of non-native interactions and the population of a compact intermediate. Non-linear effects in the kinetic data at low concentrations of denaturant suggest that the collapsed state, which is further stabilised in the presence of cosmotropic salts, may subsequently fold directly to the native state through a "triangular" reaction scheme involving internal rearrangement rather than unfolding and refolding. PMID:16169558

  17. Protein conformational transitions coupled to binding in molecular recognition of unstructured proteins: hierarchy of structural loss from all-atom Monte Carlo simulations of p27Kip1 unfolding-unbinding and structural determinants of the binding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Verkhivker, Gennady M

    2004-12-01

    Conformational transitions coupled to binding are studied for the p27(Kip1) protein which undergoes a functional disorder-to-order folding transition during tertiary complex formation with the phosphorylated cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) binary complex. Temperature-induced Monte Carlo simulations of p27(Kip1) unfolding-unbinding carried out from the crystal structure of the tertiary complex have revealed a systematic trend in the hierarchy of structural loss for p27(Kip1) and a considerable difference in mobility of p27(Kip1) secondary structure elements. The most persistent interactions of p27(Kip1) at the intermolecular interface during unfolding-unbinding simulations are formed by beta-hairpin and beta-strand that on average maintain their structural integrity considerably longer than other p27(Kip1) elements. We have found that the ensemble of unfolded p27(Kip1) conformations is characterized by transitions between mostly unbound, collapsed conformations and entropically favorable p27(Kip1) conformations, which are weakly bound to the cyclin A side of the binary complex. The results of this study are consistent with the experimental evidence pointing to this region of the intermolecular interface as a potential initiation docking site during binding reaction and may reconcile conflicting experimental hypotheses on the recognition of substrate recruitment motifs. PMID:15468065

  18. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  19. Topical Review: Molecular reaction and solvation visualized by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering: Structure, dynamics, and their solvent dependence

    PubMed Central

    Hwan Kim, Kyung; Kim, Jeongho; Hyuk Lee, Jae; Ihee, Hyotcherl

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved X-ray solution scattering is sensitive to global molecular structure and can track the dynamics of chemical reactions. In this article, we review our recent studies on triiodide ion (I3–) and molecular iodine (I2) in solution. For I3–, we elucidated the excitation wavelength-dependent photochemistry and the solvent-dependent ground-state structure. For I2, by combining time-slicing scheme and deconvolution data analysis, we mapped out the progression of geminate recombination and the associated structural change in the solvent cage. With the aid of X-ray free electron lasers, even clearer observation of ultrafast chemical events will be made possible in the near future. PMID:26798770

  20. Unprecedented Solvent-Dependent Sensitivities in Highly Efficient Detection of Metal Ions and Nitroaromatic Compounds by a Fluorescent Barium Metal-Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongming; Liu, Xiaobin; Huang, Ao; Wang, Wen; Xiao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Liangliang; Dai, Fangna; Sun, Daofeng

    2016-02-15

    The assembly of a fluorescent dicarboxylate ligand with a barium ion resulted in the formation of a 3D metal-organic framework, Ba5(ADDA)5(EtOH)2(H2O)3·5DMF (UPC-17), based on a 1D rod-shaped secondary building unit. The unprecedented solvent-dependent sensitivities of UPC-17 for the detection of Fe(3+)/Al(3+) ions and 4-nitrophenol with high efficiency were observed for the first time. Significantly, UPC-17 exhibits superior "turn-off" detection for the Fe(3+) ion in methanol and acetone emulsions but shows "turn-on" detection in tetrahydrofuran emulsion. Furthermore, the visible color changes in the detection process make them easy to distinguish by the naked eye, which further increases its application potential. PMID:26845287

  1. Solvent Dependency in the Quantum Efficiency of 4-[(4-Aminophenyl)-(4-imino-1-cyclohexa-2, 5- dienylidene) methyl] Aniline Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Pathrose, Bini; Nampoori, V P N; Radhakrishnan, P; Sahira, H; Mujeeb, A

    2015-05-01

    In the present work dual beam thermal lens technique is used for studying the solvent dependency on the quantum efficiency of a novel dye used for biomedical applications. The role of solvent in the absolute fluorescence quantum yield of 4-[(4-Aminophenyl)-(4-imino-1-cyclohexa-2, 5- dienylidene) methyl] aniline hydrochloride is studied using thermal lens technique. It is observed that the variation in solvents and its concentration results considerable variations in the fluorescence quantum yield. These variations are due to the non-radiative relaxation of the absorbed energy and because of the different solvent properties. The highest quantum yield of the dye is observed in the polar protic solvent-water. PMID:25820872

  2. Calcium binding domains and calcium-induced conformational transition of SPARC/BM-40/osteonectin, an extracellular glycoprotein expressed in mineralized and nonmineralized tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.; Taylor, W.; Paulsson, M.; Sage, H.; Hogan, B.

    1987-11-03

    PSARC, BM-40, and osteonectin are identical or very closely related extracellular proteins of apparent M/sub r/ 43,000 (M/sub r/ 33,000 predicted from sequence). They were originally isolated from parietal endoderm cells, basement membrane producing tumors, and bone, respectively, but are rather widely distributed in various tissues. In view of the calcium binding activity reported for osteonectin, the authors analyzed the SPARC sequence and found two putative calcium binding domains. One is an N-terminal acid region with clusters of glutamic acid residues. This region, although neither ..gamma..-carboxylated nor homologous, resembles the ..gamma..-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain of vitamin K dependent proteins of the blood clotting system in charge density, size of negatively charged clusters, and linkage to the rest of the molecule by a cysteine-rich domain. The other region is an EF-hand calcium binding domain located near the C-terminus. A disulfide bond between the E and F helix is predicted from modeling the EF-hand structure with the known coordinates of intestinal calcium binding protein. The disulfide bridge apparently serves to stabilize the isolated calcium loop in the extracellular protein. As observed for cytoplasmic EF-hand-containing proteins and for Gla domain containing proteins, a major conformational transition is induced in BM-40 upon binding of several Ca/sup 2 +/ ions. This is accompanied by a 35% increase in ..cap alpha..-helicity. A pronounced sigmoidicity of the dependence of the circular dichroism signal at 220 nm on calcium concentration indicates that the process is cooperative. In view of its properties, abundance, and wide distribution, it is proposed that SPARC/BM-40/osteonectin has a rather general regulatory function in calcium-dependent processes of the extra-cellular matrix.

  3. Accounting for conformational flexibility and torsional anharmonicity in the H + CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH hydrogen abstraction reactions: A multi-path variational transition state theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2014-05-07

    This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel.

  4. Conformal Infinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauendiener, Jrg

    2004-02-01

    The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einsteins theory of gravity. Today, conformal infinity is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrichs regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  5. Conformal Infinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauendiener, Jrg

    2000-08-01

    The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, ``conformal infinity'' is related with almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this conceptgradually and inevitably evolved out of physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation and how it lends itself very naturally to solve radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  6. Photoinduced charge generation rates in soluble P3HT?:?PCBM nano-aggregates predict the solvent-dependent film morphology.

    PubMed

    Roy, Palas; Jha, Ajay; Dasgupta, Jyotishman

    2016-01-28

    The device efficiency of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critically dependent on the nano-morphology of the solution-processed polymer?:?fullerene blend. Active control on blend morphology can only emanate from a detailed understanding of solution structures during the film casting process. Here we use photoinduced charge transfer (CT) rates to probe the effective length scale of the pre-formed solution structures and their energy disorder arising from a mixture of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in three different organic solvents. The observed solvent-dependent ultrafast biphasic rise of the transient polaron state in solution along with changes detected in the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C stretching frequency of bound PCBM provides direct evidence for film-like P3HT?:?PCBM interfaces in solution. Using the diffusive component of the charge transfer rate, we deduce ?3-times larger functional nano-domain size in toluene than in chlorobenzene thereby correctly predicting the relative polymer nanofiber widths observed in annealed films. We thus provide first experimental evidence for the postulated polymer?:?fullerene?:?solvent ternary phase that seeds the eventual morphology in spin-cast films. Our work motivates the design of new chemical additives to tune the grain size of the evolving polymer?:?fullerene domains within the solution phase. PMID:26763690

  7. Conformational changes at the highly reactive cystein and lysine regions of skeletal muscle myosin induced by formation of transition state analogues.

    PubMed

    Maruta, S; Homma, K; Ohki, T

    1998-09-01

    Myosin forms stable ternary complexes with Mg2+-ADP and phosphate analogues of aluminum fluoride (AlF4-), beryllium fluoride (BeFn), and scandium fluoride (ScFn). These complexes are distinct from each other and may mimic different transient states in the ATPase cycle [Maruta et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 7093-7100]. Regions of skeletal muscle myosin containing the highly reactive residues Cys 707 (SH1), Cys 697 (SH2), and lysine 83 (RLR) dramatically alter their local conformation when myosin hydrolyzes ATP, and these changes may reflect formation of a series of transient intermediates during ATP hydrolysis. We used the fluorescent probes 4-fluoro-7-sulfamoylbezofurazan, 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, and trinitrobenzene-sulfonate, which bind to SH1, SH2, and RLR, respectively, to examine differences in local conformations within myosin.ADP.phosphate analogue (BeFn, Vi, AlF4-, and ScFn) complexes. It was observed that the ternary complexes had SH1 conformations similar to those seen on S-1 in the presence of ATP. In contrast, local conformations in the SH2 and RLR regions of S-1.ADP.BeFn were different from those in corresponding regions of S-1.ADP.AlF4- or ScFn. These results suggest that SH1 and SH2 move distinctly during ATP hydrolysis and that the local conformations of the SH2 and RLR regions more sensitively reflect different transient states. PMID:9722668

  8. Redox-dependent conformational transition of catalytic domain of protein disulfide isomerase indicated by crystal structure-based molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Koya; Satoh, Tadashi; Itoh, Satoru G.; Okumura, Hisashi; Kato, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is a multidomain protein operating as an essential folding catalyst. The b? and a? domains of this enzyme exhibit a domain rearrangement depending on the redox states of the a? domain, which is coupled with an open-closed conformational change of substrate-binding hydrophobic surface. Here we performed crystallographic analysis along with molecular dynamics simulations to study the structural mechanisms underlying this domain rearrangement. Based on our data, we propose that oxidization of the a? active site induces conformational changes in its b?-interacting segments, which is concealed by crystal packing, resulting in segregation of these two domains.

  9. Slow conformational changes in MutS and DNA direct ordered transitions between mismatch search, recognition and signaling of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anushi; Doucette, Christopher; Biro, F Noah; Hingorani, Manju M

    2013-11-15

    MutS functions in mismatch repair (MMR) to scan DNA for errors, identify a target site and trigger subsequent events in the pathway leading to error removal and DNA re-synthesis. These actions, enabled by the ATPase activity of MutS, are now beginning to be analyzed from the perspective of the protein itself. This study provides the first ensemble transient kinetic data on MutS conformational dynamics as it works with DNA and ATP in MMR. Using a combination of fluorescence probes (on Thermus aquaticus MutS and DNA) and signals (intensity, anisotropy and resonance energy transfer), we have monitored the timing of key conformational changes in MutS that are coupled to mismatch binding and recognition, ATP binding and hydrolysis, as well as sliding clamp formation and signaling of repair. Significant findings include (a) a slow step that follows weak initial interaction between MutS and DNA, in which concerted conformational changes in both macromolecules control mismatch recognition, and (b) rapid, binary switching of MutS conformations that is concerted with ATP binding and hydrolysis and (c) is stalled after mismatch recognition to control formation of the ATP-bound MutS sliding clamp. These rate-limiting pre- and post-mismatch recognition events outline the mechanism of action of MutS on DNA during initiation of MMR. PMID:23973435

  10. Conformable seal

    DOEpatents

    Neef, W.S.; Lambert, D.R.

    1982-08-10

    Sealing apparatus and method, comprising first and second surfaces or membranes, at least one of which surfaces is deformable, placed in proximity to one another. Urging means cause these surfaces to contact one another in a manner such that the deformable surface deforms to conform to the geometry of the other surface, thereby creating a seal. The seal is capable of undergoing multiple cycles of sealing and unsealing.

  11. Effect of pH and copper(II) on the conformation transitions of silk fibroin based on EPR, NMR, and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zong, Xiao-Hong; Zhou, Ping; Shao, Zheng-Zhong; Chen, Shi-Ming; Chen, Xin; Hu, Bing-Wen; Deng, Feng; Yao, Wen-Hua

    2004-09-28

    Much attention has been paid to the natural mechanism of silkworm spinning due to the impressive mechanical properties of the natural fibers. Our results in the present work show that the fractional changes of the conformational components in regenerated silk fibroin (SF) extracted from Bombyx mori fibers is remarkably pH- and Cu(II)-dependent as demonstrated by Cu(II) EPR, (13)C NMR, and Raman spectroscopy. Cu(II) coordination atoms in SF are changed from four nitrogens to two nitrogens and two oxygens as well as to one nitrogen and three oxygens when the pH is lowered from 8.0 to 4.0. The addition of a given amount of Cu(II) into a SF solution could induce efficiently the SF conformational fractional change from silk I, a soluble helical conformation, to silk II, an insoluble beta-sheet conformation. This behavior is strikingly similar to that seen in prion protein and amyloid beta-peptide. On the basis of the similarity in the relevant sequence in SF to the octapeptide PHGGGWGQ in PrP, we suggest that at basic and neutral pH polypeptide AHGGYSGY in SF may form a 1:1 complex with Cu(II) by coordination of imidazole N(pi) of His together with two deprotonated main-chain nitrogens from two glycine residues and one nitrogen or oxygen from serine. Such a type of coordination may make the interaction between two adjacent beta-form polypeptide chains more difficult, thereby leading to an amorphous structure. Under weakly acidic conditions, however, Cu(II)-amide linkages may be broken and Cu(II) may switch to bind two N(tau) from two histidines in adjacent peptide chains, forming an intermolecular His(N(tau))-Cu(II)-His(N(tau)) bridge. This type of coordination may induce beta-sheet formation and aggregation, leading to a crystalline structure. PMID:15379533

  12. Self-assembly in a near-frictionless granular material: conformational structures and transitions in uniaxial cyclic compression of hydrogel spheres.

    PubMed

    Walker, David M; Tordesillas, Antoinette; Brodu, Nicolas; Dijksman, Joshua A; Behringer, Robert P; Froyland, Gary

    2015-03-21

    We use a Markov transition matrix-based analysis to explore the structures and structural transitions in a three-dimensional assembly of hydrogel spheres under cyclic uniaxial compression. We apply these methods on experimental data obtained from a packing of nearly frictionless hydrogel balls. This allows an exploration of the emergence and evolution of mesoscale internal structures - a key micromechanical property that governs self-assembly and self-organization in dense granular media. To probe the mesoscopic force network structure, we consider two structural state spaces: (i) a particle and its contacting neighbours, and (ii) a particle's local minimal cycle topology summarized by a cycle vector. In both spaces, our analysis of the transition dynamics reveals which structures and which sets of structures are most prevalent and most likely to transform into each other during the compression/decompression of the material. In compressed states, structures rich in 3-cycle or triangle topologies form in abundance. In contrast, in uncompressed states, transitions comprising poorly connected structures are dominant. An almost-invariant transition set within the cycle vector space is discovered that identifies an intermediate set of structures crucial to the material's transition from weakly jammed to strongly jammed, and vice versa. Preferred transition pathways are also highlighted and discussed with respect to thermo-micro-mechanical constitutive formulations. PMID:25634109

  13. Modeling conformational changes in cyclosporin A.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donohue, M. F.; Burgess, A. W.; Walkinshaw, M. D.; Treutlein, H. R.

    1995-01-01

    NMR and X-ray structures for the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) reveal a remarkable difference between the unbound (free) conformation in organic solvents and the conformation bound to cyclophilin. We have performed computer simulations of the molecular dynamics of CsA under a variety of conditions and confirmed the stability of these two conformations at room temperature in water and in vacuum. However, when the free conformation was modeled in vacuum at 600 K, a transition pathway leading to the bound conformation was observed. This involved a change in the cis MeLeu-9 peptide bond to a trans conformation and the movement of the side chains forming the dominant hydrophobic cluster (residues MeBmt-1, MeLeu-4, MeLeu-6, and MeLeu-10) to the opposite side of the plane formed by the backbone atoms in the molecular ring. The final conformation had a backbone RMS deviation from the bound conformation of 0.53 A and was as stable in dynamics simulations as the bound conformation. Our calculations allowed us to make a detailed analysis of a transition pathway between the free and the bound conformations of CsA and to identify two distinct regions of coordinated movement in CsA, both of which underwent transitions independently. PMID:8535256

  14. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5 promotes the accuracy of start codon recognition by regulating Pi release and conformational transitions of the preinitiation complex.

    PubMed

    Saini, Adesh K; Nanda, Jagpreet S; Martin-Marcos, Pilar; Dong, Jinsheng; Zhang, Fan; Bhardwaj, Monika; Lorsch, Jon R; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2014-09-01

    eIF5 is the GTPase activating protein (GAP) for the eIF2 · GTP · Met-tRNAi (Met) ternary complex with a critical role in initiation codon selection. Previous work suggested that the eIF5 mutation G31R/SUI5 elevates initiation at UUG codons by increasing GAP function. Subsequent work implicated eIF5 in rearrangement of the preinitiation complex (PIC) from an open, scanning conformation to a closed state at AUG codons, from which Pi is released from eIF2 · GDP · Pi. To identify eIF5 functions crucial for accurate initiation, we investigated the consequences of G31R on GTP hydrolysis and Pi release, and the effects of intragenic G31R suppressors on these reactions, and on the partitioning of PICs between open and closed states. eIF5-G31R altered regulation of Pi release, accelerating it at UUG while decreasing it at AUG codons, consistent with its ability to stabilize the closed complex at UUG. Suppressor G62S mitigates both defects of G31R, accounting for its efficient suppression of UUG initiation in G31R,G62S cells; however suppressor M18V impairs GTP hydrolysis with little effect on PIC conformation. The strong defect in GTP hydrolysis conferred by M18V likely explains its broad suppression of Sui(-) mutations in numerous factors. We conclude that both of eIF5's functions, regulating Pi release and stabilizing the closed PIC conformation, contribute to stringent AUG selection in vivo. PMID:25114053

  15. Combined Use of Residual Dipolar Couplings and Solution X-ray Scattering To Rapidly Probe Rigid-Body Conformational Transitions in a Non-phosphorylatable Active-Site Mutant of the 128 kDa Enzyme I Dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Takayama, Yuki; Schwieters, Charles D.; Grishaev, Alexander; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Clore, G. Marius

    2012-10-23

    The first component of the bacterial phosphotransferase system, enzyme I (EI), is a multidomain 128 kDa dimer that undergoes large rigid-body conformational transitions during the course of its catalytic cycle. Here we investigate the solution structure of a non-phosphorylatable active-site mutant in which the active-site histidine is substituted by glutamine. We show that perturbations in the relative orientations and positions of the domains and subdomains can be rapidly and reliably determined by conjoined rigid-body/torsion angle/Cartesian simulated annealing calculations driven by orientational restraints from residual dipolar couplings and shape and translation information afforded by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Although histidine and glutamine are isosteric, the conformational space available to a Gln side chain is larger than that for the imidazole ring of His. An additional hydrogen bond between the side chain of Gln189 located on the EIN{sup {alpha}/{beta}} subdomain and an aspartate (Asp129) on the EIN{sup {alpha}} subdomain results in a small ({approx}9{sup o}) reorientation of the EIN{sup {alpha}} and EIN{sup {alpha}/{beta}} subdomains that is in turn propagated to a larger reorientation ({approx}26{sup o}) of the EIN domain relative to the EIC dimerization domain, illustrating the positional sensitivity of the EIN domain and its constituent subdomains to small structural perturbations.

  16. New insights into the geometry of resorc[4]arenes: solvent-mediated supramolecular conformational and chiroptical control.

    PubMed

    Schiel, Christian; Hembury, Guy A; Borovkov, Victor V; Klaes, Michael; Agena, Ceno; Wada, Takehiko; Grimme, Stefan; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Mattay, Jochen

    2006-02-01

    The conformations of inherently chiral resorc[4]arenes were studied by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Whereas in aprotic solvents the crown conformation (C4) is preferred, protic solvents favor the boat conformation (C2). As a result of electronic coupling of the lowest L(b) state of the resorcinol unit in the resorc[4]arene, the CD spectra show a strong dependence on the conformation of the macrocycle. For the first time the solvent dependence of the CD spectra was qualitatively analyzed and simulated by using theoretical methods. We have thus demonstrated not only that the conformation of the calixarene is dramatically manipulated by the solvent but also that the joint use of chiroptical measurements and theoretical calculations is a powerful and versatile tool for elucidating structural variations in supramolecular chemistry. PMID:16438509

  17. Theoretical modeling of UV-Vis absorption and emission spectra in liquid state systems including vibrational and conformational effects: Explicit treatment of the vibronic transitions

    SciTech Connect

    D’Abramo, Marco; Dipartimento di Chimica, Universitá Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome ; Aschi, Massimiliano; Amadei, Andrea

    2014-04-28

    Here, we extend a recently introduced theoretical-computational procedure [M. D’Alessandro, M. Aschi, C. Mazzuca, A. Palleschi, and A. Amadei, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 114102 (2013)] to include quantum vibrational transitions in modelling electronic spectra of atomic molecular systems in condensed phase. The method is based on the combination of Molecular Dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations within the Perturbed Matrix Method approach. The main aim of the presented approach is to reproduce as much as possible the spectral line shape which results from a subtle combination of environmental and intrinsic (chromophore) mechanical-dynamical features. As a case study, we were able to model the low energy UV-vis transitions of pyrene in liquid acetonitrile in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Intramolecular interactions in the polar headgroup of sphingosine: serinol† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Ab initio parameters for serinol conformers within 1000 cm–1, measured transition frequencies, typical a-type transition for conformer aa1, interconversion barriers and possible tunnelling pathways. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc09423b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Loru, Donatella; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The intramolecular interactions in the lipid sphingosine have been elucidated through the investigation of the amino alcohol serinol which mimics its polar headgroup. Intricate networks of intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl groups and the amino group contribute to the stabilisation of five different conformations observed in the broadband rotational spectrum. PMID:26727395

  19. Attitudinal Conformity and Anonymity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Herbert; Kaplowitz, Stan

    1977-01-01

    Tested college students for conformity when conditions contributing to conformity were absent. Found that social pressures (responding in public, being surveyed by fellow group members) are necessary to produce conformity. (RL)

  20. Conformation and conformational exchange of Olopatadine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Lian-di; Zhu, Chuan-jun; Yang, Chun-hui; Cui, Yu-xin

    2008-12-01

    Besides the assignments of the 13C and 1H shifts by 1D and 2D NMR, the experiment 1H spectra of Olopatadine hydrochloride were recorded at temperature range 228-338 K. The variable-temperature spectra revealed a dynamic NMR effect which is attributed to conformational interconversion of the drug. At low temperature, the solution was shown to contain two conformers and the ration of them was 1:1. A conformational process with a free energy of activation of 56.7 kJ mol -1, coalescence temperature 298 K, was interpreted as geminal 1H exchange. Using molecule simulation, conformational candidates for two conformers are proposed.

  1. Viscoelasticity, Conformational Transition and Ultrastructure of Kappa-Carrageenan in the Presence of Potassium Ion around the Critical Total Ion Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nez-Santiago, Mara C.; Tecante, Alberto; Durand, Sylvie; Garnier, Catherine; Doublier, Jean L.

    2008-07-01

    Rheology, microDSC, and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study the effect of potassium ion on the viscoelastic behavior, disorder-order transition and the ultrastructure, respectively, of kappa-carrageenan in aqueous medium in the vicinity of the critical total ionic concentration (C*). The rheological tests showed a "weak" gel behavior, with G'>G? and both moduli dependent on frequency. However, during heating, microDSC showed two zones: one attributed to the presence of ordered double helices without aggregation, and another to the fusion of aggregated double helices. Microscopy showed a three-dimensional network whose continuity depends of the concentration of added potassium ions. For a gel to be formed, a sufficient amount of potassium ion is necessary to promote complete aggregation of double helices so they can form a continuous three-dimensional network.

  2. Solution conformation of a nitrobenzoxadiazole derivative of the polyene antibiotic nystatin: a FRET study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Liana; Coutinho, Ana; Fedorov, Alexander; Prieto, Manuel

    2003-12-01

    Nystatin is a polyene antibiotic frequently applied in the treatment of topical fungal infections. In this work, a 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) hexanoyl amide derivative of nystatin was synthesized and its detailed photophysical characterization is presented. The average conformation of the labelled antibiotic in tetrahydrofuran, ethanol and methanol was determined by intramolecular (tetraene to NBD) fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements. At variance with the literature [Can. J. Chem. 63 (1985) 77-85], it was concluded that there is no need to invoke a solvent-dependent conformational equilibrium between extended and closed conformers of the antibiotic, because the mean tetraene-to-NBD separating distance was found to remain constant (approximately 18 A) in all the solvents studied. In addition, the large solvent dependence of the fluorescence anisotropy observed for the non-derivatized nystatin, was rationalized on the basis of the prolate ellipsoidal geometry of the molecule. It was concluded that the rod shaped and amphipathic antibiotic remains monomeric in different solvents within the concentration range studied (2-20 microM). PMID:14644562

  3. Kinetics of the Hydrogen Abstraction from Carbon-3 of 1-Butanol by Hydroperoxyl Radical: Multi-Structural Variational Transition-State Calculations of a Reaction with 262 Conformations of the Transition State.

    PubMed

    Seal, Prasenjit; Papajak, Ewa; Truhlar, Donald G

    2012-01-19

    We estimated rate constants for the hydrogen abstraction from carbon-3 of 1-butanol by hydroperoxyl radical, a critically important reaction in the combustion of biofuel. We employed the recently developed multi-structural variational transition-state theory (MS-VTST), which utilizes a multifaceted dividing surface that allows us to include the contributions of multiple structures for reacting species and transition states. First, multiconfigurational Shepard interpolation-based on molecular-mechanics-guided interpolation of electronic-structure Hessian data obtained by the M08 HX/jun-cc-pVTZ electronic model chemistry-was used to obtain the portion of the potential energy surface needed for single-structure variational transition-state theory rate constants including multidimensional tunneling; then, the M08-HX/MG3S electronic model chemistry was used to calculate multi-structural torsional anharmonicity factors to complete the MS-VTST rate constant calculations. The lowest-energy structures of the transition state have strongly bent hydrogen bonds. Our results indicate that neglect of multi-structural anharmonicity would lead to errors of factors of 0.3, 46, and 171 at 200, 1000, and 2400 K for this reaction. PMID:26698116

  4. Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2009-11-01

    We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.

  5. Solvent-dependent switch of helical main-chain chirality in sergeants-and-soldiers-type poly(quinoxaline-2,3-diyl)s: effect of the position and structures of the "sergeant" chiral units on the screw-sense induction.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuuya; Yamada, Tetsuya; Adachi, Takumi; Akai, Yuto; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Suginome, Michinori

    2013-07-10

    Poly(quinoxaline-2,3-diyl) copolymers bearing various "sergeant" chiral units with common "soldier" achiral units have been synthesized to investigate the efficiency of screw-sense induction and its dependence on the nature of the solvents. Optically active 2-alkoxymethyl side chains located at the 6- and 7-positions of the quinoxaline ring induced a single-handed helical conformation more efficiently than 3-methylpentyl or 2-methylbutoxy chiral side chains. Among the 2-alkoxymethyl side chains, those bearing higher 2-alkoxy groups induced a single-handed screw sense more efficiently. For instance, a monomer unit bearing (R)-2-octyloxymethyl groups stabilized the P-helix by 1.01 kJ/mol, whereas the monomer bearing (S)-2-butoxymethyl groups stabilized the M-helix by 0.59 kJ/mol. The effect of the position of the sergeant units in the polymer main chain on the screw-sense induction was also investigated using copolymers in which the positions of the sergeant units were carefully controlled by their synthesis via living polymerization. Chiral units placed sparsely could induce single-handed helical structure efficiently. Chiral units bearing 2-alkoxymethyl, 3-methylpentyl, and 2-methylbutoxy groups showed solvent-dependent helix inversion in CHCl3 and 1,1,2-trichloroethane. No helix inversion was observed in those solvents with chiral units bearing 2-butoxy or (2-methylbutoxy)methyl side chains. The 40-mer of the (R)-2-octyloxymethyl units showed P-helical structures in THF, t-BuOMe, and c-C5H11OMe, toluene, pyridine, Et3N, 1-BuOH, CHCl3, CH2Cl2, 1,4-dichlorobutane, 1,1,-dichloroethane, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, whereas M-helical structures were induced in 1-BuCN, 1-PrCN, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-dichloropropane, and 2-BuOH. PMID:23773002

  6. Evolutionary Conserved Positions Define Protein Conformational Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Saldaño, Tadeo E.; Monzon, Alexander M.; Parisi, Gustavo; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Conformational diversity of the native state plays a central role in modulating protein function. The selection paradigm sustains that different ligands shift the conformational equilibrium through their binding to highest-affinity conformers. Intramolecular vibrational dynamics associated to each conformation should guarantee conformational transitions, which due to its importance, could possibly be associated with evolutionary conserved traits. Normal mode analysis, based on a coarse-grained model of the protein, can provide the required information to explore these features. Herein, we present a novel procedure to identify key positions sustaining the conformational diversity associated to ligand binding. The method is applied to an adequate refined dataset of 188 paired protein structures in their bound and unbound forms. Firstly, normal modes most involved in the conformational change are selected according to their corresponding overlap with structural distortions introduced by ligand binding. The subspace defined by these modes is used to analyze the effect of simulated point mutations on preserving the conformational diversity of the protein. We find a negative correlation between the effects of mutations on these normal mode subspaces associated to ligand-binding and position-specific evolutionary conservations obtained from multiple sequence-structure alignments. Positions whose mutations are found to alter the most these subspaces are defined as key positions, that is, dynamically important residues that mediate the ligand-binding conformational change. These positions are shown to be evolutionary conserved, mostly buried aliphatic residues localized in regular structural regions of the protein like β-sheets and α-helix. PMID:27008419

  7. Conformational Interconversions of Amino Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kaminský, Jakub; Jensen, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Exhaustive conformational interconversions including transition structure analyses of N-acetyl-l-glycine-N-methylamide as well as its alanine, serine, and cysteine analogues have been investigated at the MP2/6-31G** level, yielding a total of 142 transition states. Improved estimates of relative energies were obtained by separately extrapolating the Hartree-Fock and MP2 energies to the basis set limit and adding the difference between CCSD(T) and MP2 results with the cc-pVDZ basis set to the extrapolated MP2 results. The performance of eight empirical force fields (AMBER94, AMBER14SB, MM2, MM3, MMFFs, CHARMM22_CMAP, OPLS_2005, and AMOEBAPRO13) in reproducing ab initio energies of transition states was tested. Our results indicate that commonly used class I force fields employing a fixed partial charge model for the electrostatic interaction provide mean errors in the ∼10 kJ/mol range for energies of conformational transition states for amino acid conformers. Modern reparametrized versions, such as CHARMM22_CMAP, and polarizable force fields, such as AMOEBAPRO13, have slightly lower mean errors, but maximal errors are still in the 35 kJ/mol range. There are differences between the force fields in their ability for reproducing conformational transitions classified according to backbone/side-chain or regions in the Ramachandran angles, but the data set is likely too small to draw any general conclusions. Errors in conformational interconversion barriers by ∼10 kJ/mol suggest that the commonly used force field may bias certain types of transitions by several orders of magnitude in rate and thus lead to incorrect dynamics in simulations. It is therefore suggested that information for conformational transition states should be included in parametrizations of new force fields. PMID:26691979

  8. Fake conformal symmetry in conformal cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackiw, R.; Pi, So-Young

    2015-03-01

    We examine the local conformal invariance (Weyl invariance) in tensor-scalar theories used in recently proposed conformal cosmological models. We show that the Noether currents associated with Weyl invariance in these theories vanish. We assert that the corresponding Weyl symmetry does not have any dynamical role.

  9. Conformational mechanics of stimulus-responsive polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiaev, Alexei; Clark, Robert L.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Zauscher, Stefan

    2003-08-01

    Stimulus-responsive polymers and polypeptides (SRPs) experience a significant entropic response when exposed to an environemental stimulus, such as a change in temperature. This phase transition directly affects polymer conformation and can potentially be harnessed for force generation in actuation devices on nano- and micro-scales. While interfacial applications of SRPs have been prototypically demonstrated, a systematic investigation of the phase transition behavior at the solid-liquid interface and on the single-molecule level is lacking. In this paper we present results from force-spectroscopy measurements probing the force-extension and conformational behavior of one SRP, elastin-like polypeptides (ELP), below and above their transition temperature. The results indicate that there is no signficant difference in the force extension behavior at intermediate and large extensions, but the behavior is dramatically different at small extensions. Results also demonstrated that above the phase transition temperature large, unspecific adhesion forces often gave way to constant force steps upon extension, indicating a collapsed, potentially entangled, hydrophobic state of the ELP. The extension behavior below the phase transition temperature, however, closely followed that of random polymer coil, without any significant unspecific adhesion forces. The excellent fit of a simple extended freely jointed chain model to the data at intermediate and large extension suggests that the ELP is in a random conformational state without significant secondary structure. Forces associated with a phase transition therefore arise likely from entropic conformational changes associated with a hydrophobic collapse.

  10. Solvent dependent branching between C-I and C-Br bond cleavage following 266 nm excitation of CH2BrI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Christopher P.; Spears, Kenneth G.; Wilson, Kaitlynn R.; Sension, Roseanne J.

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that ultraviolet photoexcitation of halomethanes results in halogen-carbon bond cleavage. Each halogen-carbon bond has a dominant ultraviolet (UV) absorption that promotes an electron from a nonbonding halogen orbital (nX) to a carbon-halogen antibonding orbital (?*C-X). UV absorption into specific transitions in the gas phase results primarily in selective cleavage of the corresponding carbon-halogen bond. In the present work, broadband ultrafast UV-visible transient absorption studies of CH2BrI reveal a more complex photochemistry in solution. Transient absorption spectra are reported spanning the range from 275 nm to 750 nm and 300 fs to 3 ns following excitation of CH2BrI at 266 nm in acetonitrile, 2-butanol, and cyclohexane. Channels involving formation of CH2Br + I radical pairs, iso-CH2Br-I, and iso-CH2I-Br are identified. The solvent environment has a significant influence on the branching ratios, and on the formation and stability of iso-CH2Br-I. Both iso-CH2Br-I and iso-CH2I-Br are observed in cyclohexane with a ratio of 2.8:1. In acetonitrile this ratio is 7:1 or larger. The observation of formation of iso-CH2I-Br photoproduct as well as iso-CH2Br-I following 266 nm excitation is a novel result that suggests complexity in the dissociation mechanism. We also report a solvent and concentration dependent lifetime of iso-CH2Br-I. At low concentrations the lifetime is >4 ns in acetonitrile, 1.9 ns in 2-butanol and 1.4 ns in cyclohexane. These lifetimes decrease with higher initial concentrations of CH2BrI. The concentration dependence highlights the role that intermolecular interactions can play in the quenching of unstable isomers of dihalomethanes.

  11. Solvent dependent switching of 3MLLCT and 1IL luminescent states in [ClRe(CO)3(bathocuproinedisulfonate)]2-: spectroscopic and computational study.

    PubMed

    Martinez Saavedra, Hector H; Ragone, Fabricio; Ruiz, Gustavo T; Gara, Pedro M David; Wolcan, Ezequiel

    2014-10-16

    Steady state and time-resolved luminescence experiments and calorimetric studies, as well as time-dependent density functional theory calculations performed on [ClRe(CO)(3)(Bathocuproinedisulfonate)](2-), show that the photophysical properties of the Re(I) anionic complex are determined by the balance between intraligand ((1)IL) and metal-ligand-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLLCT) excited states. In organic solvents, (3)MLLCT states prevail and the usual expected behavior is observed: bathochromic shift of the emission maximum, a reduced luminescence quantum yield and the shortening of the excited-state lifetime upon increasing the polarity of the solvent. In addition, singlet oxygen ((1)O2) is generated with high quantum yields (Φ(Δ) ≈ 0.5 in CH(3)CN) due to the quenching of the (3)MLLCT luminescence by (3)O2. The total quenching rate constant of triplet state by oxygen, k(q), reach values between 2.2 and 2.4 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) for the organic solvents studied. In CH(3)CN, the fraction of triplet states quenched by O2 which yield (1)O2, f(O2)T, is nearly unity. In aqueous solution, where no singlet oxygen is generated, the luminescence of the Re(I) complex is of (1)IL character with a emission quantum yield (Φ(em)) strongly pH dependent: Φ(em,(pH=2))/Φ(em,(pH=10)) ≈ 5.6. The variation of the pH of the solution tunes the photophysical properties of the Re(I) complex by changing the relative amount of the different species existing in aqueous solutions: [ClRe(CO)3(BCS)](2-), [(OH)Re(CO)3(BCS)](2-) and [(H2O)Re(CO)3(BCS)](−). TD-DFT calculations show that the percentage of charge transfer character of the electronic transitions is substantially higher in the organic solvents than in aqueous solutions, in agreement with the increase of (1)IL character of HOMO in [(H2O)Re(CO)3(BCS)](−) relative to [ClRe(CO)3(BCS)](2-). PMID:25233269

  12. Conformers of gaseous proline.

    PubMed

    Czinki, Eszter; Csszr, Attila G

    2003-02-17

    Accurate geometries, relative energies, rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants, dipole moments, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities were determined from ab initio electronic structure calculations for eighteen conformers of the neutral form of the amino acid L-proline. Only four conformers have notable population at low and moderate temperature. The second most stable conformer is only 2+/-2 kJ mol(-1) above the global minimum, while the third and fourth conformers are nearly degenerate and have an excess energy of 7+/-2 kJ mol(-1) relative to the global minimum. All four conformers have one hydrogen bond: N.HO in the lower energy pair of conformers, and NH.O in the higher energy pair of conformers. The conformer pairs differ only in their ring puckering. The relative energies of the conformers include corrections for valence electron correlation, extrapolated to the complete basis set limit, as well as core correlation and relativistic effects. Structural features of the pyrrolidine ring of proline are discussed by using the concept of pseudorotation. The accurate rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants as well as the vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities should aid identification and characterization of the conformers of L-proline by rotational and vibrational spectroscopy, respectively. Bonding features of L-proline, especially intramolecular hydrogen bonds, were investigated by the atoms-in-molecules (AIM) technique. PMID:12584718

  13. Toward TeV Conformality

    SciTech Connect

    Appelquist, T; Avakian, A; Babich, R; Brower, R C; Cheng, M; Clark, M A; Cohen, S D; Fleming, G T; Kiskis, J; Neil, E T; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C; Schaich, D; Soltz, R; Vranas, P

    2009-11-30

    We study the chiral condensate <{bar {psi}}{psi}> for an SU(3) gauge theory with N{sub f} massless Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation when N{sub f} is increased from 2 to 6. For N{sub f} = 2, our lattice simulations of <{bar {psi}}{psi}>/F{sup 3}, where F is the Nambu-Goldstone-boson decay constant, agree with the measured QCD value. For N{sub f} = 6, this ratio shows significant enhancement, presaging an even larger enhancement anticipated as N{sub f} increases further, toward the critical value for transition from confinement to infrared conformality.

  14. Toward TeV Conformality

    SciTech Connect

    Appelquist, T.; Fleming, G. T.; Neil, E. T.; Avakian, A.; Babich, R.; Brower, R. C.; Cohen, S. D.; Rebbi, C.; Schaich, D.; Cheng, M.; Vranas, P.; Clark, M. A.; Kiskis, J.; Osborn, J. C.

    2010-02-19

    We study the chiral properties of an SU(3) gauge theory with N{sub f} massless Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation when N{sub f} is increased from 2 to 6. For N{sub f}=2, our lattice simulations lead to a value of /F{sup 3}, where F is the Nambu-Goldstone-boson decay constant and is the chiral condensate, which agrees with the measured QCD value. For N{sub f}=6, this ratio shows significant enhancement, presaging an even larger enhancement anticipated as N{sub f} increases further, toward the critical value for transition from confinement to infrared conformality.

  15. Conformational properties of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Namkyoung

    In this thesis, I study the conformational properties of polymers in non-stationary and stationary states. In the first part of my thesis, I study the conformations of polymers in non-stationary state. I consider two cases: (1) the motion of a polymer penetrating a membrane and (2) the dynamics of DNA molecules in a gel. In the first case, I assume that a polymer crosses a membrane several times during the process of penetration. The polymer reptates along its own contour. The mobility of the polymer chain is related to its configurations which are characterized by the number of crossings with the membrane. I find the configurations which give the main contribution to the transport and calculate the overall permeability in the case of both Zimm and Rouse dynamics. As a second system, I consider the motion of a long DNA molecule confined in a gel. When a strong electric field is applied, the electric field forces the DNA into a tree-like structure. The dynamics of large segments of DNA is almost deterministic and can be described by a set of simple mechanical equations. This allows the numerical study of gel electrophoresis of DNA. I confirm the hypothesis of the statistical self-similarity of a moving polymer. In the second part of the thesis, there are three major sections all dealing with configurational properties of a single isolated charged polymer. (1) I study the configurational statistics of a ring polyampholyte chain. In addition to the cascade like transitions similar to that in a linear chain, I found that a ring polyampholyte has a metastable phase where the configurations are controlled by the randomness in the charge distribution. (2) I study new exact solution of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation describing counterion condensation on a strongly charged polymer in the dilute regime. The counterion has to be brought from three-dimensional space and the entropy loss is 3/2 times larger than in the picture of Manning. The condensation occurs at a critical line charge density lambda=3/2, which is 3/2 times larger than in Manning's theory. (3) I study the rigidity of the charged polymer in the presence of counterion condensation. I show that the condensation of counterions changes the local structure of the charged polymer more than in the Debye-Huckel approximation. By solving the Poisson Boltzmann equation in cylindrical coordinates in the vicinity of charged polymer, I show that the persistence length lsb{p} of a strongly charged polymer is proportional to the Debye radius lsb{p} Rsb{d}.

  16. Conformational Dynamics in DNA Replication Selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brieba, Luis G.

    2007-11-01

    Replicative DNA polymerases are remarkable molecular machines that carry out DNA synthesis accordingly to the Watson and Crick rules (Guanine pairs with Cytosine and Adenine with Thymidine) with high specificity or fidelity. The biochemical mechanism that dictates polymerase fidelity has its fundaments in the tight active site of replicative polymerases and the shape and size of the Watson-Crick base pairs. Pre-steady state kinetic analysis have shown that during polymerase nucleotide addition, the chemical reaction is not the rate limiting step and it was postulated that DNA polymerases suffer a conformational change from an "open" to a "closed" conformation before chemistry which is also the step responsible for their high fidelity. Crystal structures of replicative DNA polymerases demonstrated that the fingers subdomain suffers a large conformational change during catalysis and that this conformational transition aligns the polymerase active site in a proper conformation for catalysis. Recent studies using single molecule techniques and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer analysis also shown that at least in the case of T7 DNA polymerase, the closure of the fingers subdomain is in part the rate limiting step associated with the high fidelity of DNA polymerases, although the overall fidelity of the reaction maybe involves an assemble of chemical steps and several conformational changes. Our current knowledge indicates that the mechanisms of enzyme specificity in DNA replication involve several energy landscapes that maybe correlated with conformational changes and active site assemblies.

  17. Solvent dependence of 7-azaindole dimerization.

    PubMed

    Shirota, Hideaki; Fukuda, Takao; Kato, Tatsuya

    2013-12-19

    We have investigated 7-azaindole (AI) in a variety of solvents including CCl4, CHCl3, CH2Cl2, acetone, CH3CN, and DMSO by femtosecond Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy. In differential low-frequency Kerr spectra between the solutions and the respective neat solvents, vibrational bands of the AI hydrogen-bonding (HB) dimer have been observed at ca. 90 and 105 cm(-1) in CHCl3 and CH2Cl2, as well as CCl4: the standard solvent for the AI dimer. In contrast, a broad monomodal band at ca. 80 cm(-1) characterizes an HB mode between the AI monomer and solvent in acetone, CH3CN, and DMSO. The overdamped Kerr transients in the picosecond region show evidence of both the AI monomer and dimer reorientations in CHCl3, CH2Cl2, acetone, and CH3CN, but only the monomer reorientation has been confirmed in DMSO. The clear intermolecular HB bands have not been observed in acetone, CH3CN, and DMSO because these solvents are sufficiently strong HB acceptors, which form HB AI-solvent complexes, thus preventing quantitative AI dimerization. In addition, it is plausible that the HB band of between AI and solvent obscures the intermolecular bands of the AI dimer when the concentration of the AI dimer is much lower than the AI monomer. For comparison, we have employed NMR to study the concentration-dependent chemical shift of the proton attached to the N at the 7-position of AI and to estimate the dimerization constant: 356, 13.3, 14.7, 0.727, and 0.910 M(-1) in CCl4, CHCl3, CH2Cl2, acetone, and CH3CN, respectively. The femtosecond Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy and NMR results are in good agreement. PMID:24191715

  18. Solvent dependent photophysical properties of dimethoxy curcumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, Atanu; Indira Priyadarsini, K.

    2013-03-01

    Dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) is a methylated derivative of curcumin. In order to know the effect of ring substitution on photophysical properties of curcumin, steady state absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC were recorded in organic solvents with different polarity and compared with those of curcumin. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC, like curcumin, are strongly dependent on solvent polarity and the maxima of DMC showed red shift with increase in solvent polarity function (?f), but the above effect is prominently observed in case of fluorescence maxima. From the dependence of Stokes' shift on solvent polarity function the difference between the excited state and ground state dipole moment was estimated as 4.9 D. Fluorescence quantum yield (?f) and fluorescence lifetime (?f) of DMC were also measured in different solvents at room temperature. The results indicated that with increasing solvent polarity, ?f increased linearly, which has been accounted for the decrease in non-radiative rate by intersystem crossing (ISC) processes.

  19. Galilean conformal electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Mehra, Aditya

    2014-11-01

    Maxwell's Electrodynamics admits two distinct Galilean limits called the Electric and Magnetic limits. We show that the equations of motion in both these limits are invariant under the Galilean Conformal Algebra in D = 4, thereby exhibiting non-relativistic conformal symmetries. Remarkably, the symmetries are infinite dimensional and thus Galilean Electrodynamics give us the first example of an infinitely extended Galilean Conformal Field Theory in D > 2. We examine details of the theory by looking at purely non-relativistic conformal methods and also use input from the limit of the relativistic theory.

  20. Barbituric and thiobarbituric acids: a conformational and spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, Felice; Buemi, Giuseppe; Gandolfo, Concetta; Contino, Annalinda

    2003-01-01

    A conformational study on Barbituric (BA) and Thiobarbituric (TBA) acids was performed at ab initio MP2/6-31G** level on the neutral, protonated, mono- and di-anionic forms. Acid-base equilibria were studied by comparing the electronic transitions evaluated for the most stable conformations and the experimental spectra at different pH values. The electronic transitions were obtained through the ZINDO approach.

  1. Conformations of Substituted Ethanes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Charles A.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews state-of-the-art of conformational analysis and factors which affect it. Emphasizes sp-3 hybridized acrylic molecules. Provides examples on the importance of certain factors in determining conformation. Purpose, is to provide examples for examination questions. (Author/SA)

  2. Conformity index: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Feuvret, Loic . E-mail: loic.feuvret@cpo.curie.net; Noel, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre

    2006-02-01

    We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear.

  3. Unitarity of conformal supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binegar, B.

    1985-05-01

    The possibility of unitarizing the conformal supergravity of Kaku, Townsend, and van Nieuwenhuizen is investigated by examining the representation content of its linearized equations. Conformal (Weyl) gravitons are seen to correspond to a pair of helicity-conjugate, irreducible, and nonunitary representations of so(4,2). The solutions of the linearized gravitino field equation are seen to carry both unitary and nonunitary representations of so(4,2). The linearized constraint equation of Kaku et al., however, removes the unitary content from the gravitino field equation. The solution space of the linearized constraint and field equations of conformal supergravity is seen to carry a direct sum of two nonunitary and irreducible representations of the superalgebra su(2,2/1). These results imply that current models of conformal supergravity cannot be unitarized without breaking both su(2,2/1) and so(4,2) symmetries. A suggestion as to how one might construct a unitary model of conformal supergravity is made.

  4. Unitarity of conformal supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Binegar, B.

    1985-05-15

    The possibility of unitarizing the conformal supergravity of Kaku, Townsend, and van Nieuwenhuizen is investigated by examining the representation content of its linearized equations. Conformal (Weyl) gravitons are seen to correspond to a pair of helicity-conjugate, irreducible, and nonunitary representations of so(4,2). The solutions of the linearized gravitino field equation are seen to carry both unitary and nonunitary representations of so(4,2). The linearized constraint equation of Kaku et al., however, removes the unitary content from the gravitino field equation. The solution space of the linearized constraint and field equations of conformal supergravity is seen to carry a direct sum of two nonunitary and irreducible representations of the superalgebra su(2,2/1). These results imply that current models of conformal supergravity cannot be unitarized without breaking both su(2,2/1) and so(4,2) symmetries. A suggestion as to how one might construct a unitary model of conformal supergravity is made.

  5. Dynamics and Conformational Energetics of a Peptide Hormone: Vasopressin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagler, A. T.; Osguthorpe, D. J.; Dauber-Osguthorpe, P.; Hempel, J. C.

    1985-03-01

    A theoretical methodology for use in conjunction with experiment was applied to the neurohypophyseal hormone lysine vasopressin for elucidation of its accessible molecular conformations and associated flexibility, conformational transitions, and dynamics. Molecular dynamics and energy minimization techniques make possible a description of the conformational properties of a peptide in terms of the precise positions of atoms, their fluctuations in time, and the interatomic forces acting on them. Analysis of the dynamic trajectory of lysine vasopressin shows the ability of a flexible peptide hormone to undergo spontaneous conformational transitions. The excursions of an individual phenylalanine residue exemplify the dynamic flexibility and multiple conformational states available to small peptide hormones and their component residues, even within constraints imposed by a cyclic hexapeptide ring.

  6. Discovering conformational sub-states relevant to protein function

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Pratul K; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Internal motions enable proteins to explore a range of conformations, even in the vicinity of native state. The role of conformational fluctuations in the designated function of a protein is widely debated. Emerging evidence suggests that sub-groups within the range of conformations (or sub-states) contain properties that may be functionally relevant. However, low populations in these sub-states and the transient nature of conformational transitions between these sub-states present significant challenges for their identification and characterization. To overcome these challenges we have developed a new computational technique, quasi-anharmonic analysis (QAA). QAA utilizes higher-order statistics of protein motions to identify sub-states in the conformational landscape. Further, the focus on anharmonicity allows identification of conformational fluctuations that enable transitions between sub-states. QAA applied to equilibrium simulations of human ubiquitin and T4 lysozyme reveals functionally relevant sub-states and protein motions involved in molecular recognition. In combination with a reaction pathway sampling method, QAA characterizes conformational sub-states associated with cis/trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerization catalyzed by the enzyme cyclophilin A. In these three proteins, QAA allows identification of conformational sub-states, with critical structural and dynamical features relevant to protein function. Overall, QAA provides a novel framework to intuitively understand the biophysical basis of conformational diversity and its relevance to protein function.

  7. Assemblies of Conformal Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Assemblies of tanks having shapes that conform to each other and/or conform to other proximate objects have been investigated for use in storing fuels and oxidizers in small available spaces in upper stages of spacecraft. Such assemblies might also prove useful in aircraft, automobiles, boats, and other terrestrial vehicles in which space available for tanks is limited. The basic concept of using conformal tanks to maximize the utilization of limited space is not new in itself: for example, conformal tanks are used in some automobiles to store windshield -washer liquid and coolant that overflows from radiators. The novelty of the present development lies in the concept of an assembly of smaller conformal tanks, as distinguished from a single larger conformal tank. In an assembly of smaller tanks, it would be possible to store different liquids in different tanks. Even if the same liquid were stored in all the tanks, the assembly would offer an advantage by reducing the mechanical disturbance caused by sloshing of fuel in a single larger tank: indeed, the requirement to reduce sloshing is critical in some applications. The figure shows a prototype assembly of conformal tanks. Each tank was fabricated by (1) copper plating a wax tank mandrel to form a liner and (2) wrapping and curing layers of graphite/epoxy composite to form a shell supporting the liner. In this case, the conformal tank surfaces are flat ones where they come in contact with the adjacent tanks. A band of fibers around the outside binds the tanks together tightly in the assembly, which has a quasi-toroidal shape. For proper functioning, it would be necessary to maintain equal pressure in all the tanks.

  8. Conformal Collineations in String Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysal, Hsn; Camci, U.?ur; Tarhan, ?smail; Yilmaz, ?hsan; Yavuz, ?lhami; Dolgov, A.

    In this paper, we study the consequences of the existence of conformal collineations (CC) for string cloud in the context of general relativity. Especially, we interest in special conformal collineation (SCC), generated by a special affine conformal collineation (SACC) in the string cloud. Some results on the restrictions imposed by a conformal collineation symmetry in the string cloud are obtained.

  9. Conformational kinetics reveals affinities of protein conformational states

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Kyle G.; Suo, Yang; Oas, Terrence G.

    2015-01-01

    Most biological reactions rely on interplay between binding and changes in both macromolecular structure and dynamics. Practical understanding of this interplay requires detection of critical intermediates and determination of their binding and conformational characteristics. However, many of these species are only transiently present and they have often been overlooked in mechanistic studies of reactions that couple binding to conformational change. We monitored the kinetics of ligand-induced conformational changes in a small protein using six different ligands. We analyzed the kinetic data to simultaneously determine both binding affinities for the conformational states and the rate constants of conformational change. The approach we used is sufficiently robust to determine the affinities of three conformational states and detect even modest differences in the protein’s affinities for relatively similar ligands. Ligand binding favors higher-affinity conformational states by increasing forward conformational rate constants and/or decreasing reverse conformational rate constants. The amounts by which forward rate constants increase and reverse rate constants decrease are proportional to the ratio of affinities of the conformational states. We also show that both the affinity ratio and another parameter, which quantifies the changes in conformational rate constants upon ligand binding, are strong determinants of the mechanism (conformational selection and/or induced fit) of molecular recognition. Our results highlight the utility of analyzing the kinetics of conformational changes to determine affinities that cannot be determined from equilibrium experiments. Most importantly, they demonstrate an inextricable link between conformational dynamics and the binding affinities of conformational states. PMID:26162682

  10. Solvent dependence of the kinetic isotope effect in the reaction of ascorbate with the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical: tunnelling in a small molecule reaction.

    PubMed

    Sajenko, Ivana; Pilepi?, Viktor; Brala, Cvijeta Jakobusi?; Ursi?, Stanko

    2010-03-18

    The oxidation of ascorbate with the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) radical in water and water-dioxane mixed solvent has been demonstrated to be a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) process, involving hydrogen tunnelling at room temperature. The magnitude of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) k(H)/k(D) in the reaction increases with decrease of the solvent polarity. The evidence comprise: (a) the spectroscopic and kinetic evidence for the interaction of ascorbate and TEMPO; (b) the observation of KIEs k(H)/k(D) of 24.2(0.6) in water and 31.1(1.1) in 1:1 v/v water-diox. (diox = dioxane), at 298 K; (c) the observation of isotope effect on the Arrhenius prefactor, A(H)/A(D) of 0.6(0.2) in the reaction in water and 1.2(0.2) in 1:1 v/v water-diox solvent; (d) the observation of isotope differences in the enthalpies of activation in water and D(2)O, Delta(r)H(double dagger) (in H(2)O) = 31.0(0.4) kJ/mol, Delta(r)H(double dagger) (in D(2)O) = 40.0 (0.5) kJ/mol; in 1:1 v/v water-diox and 1:1 v/v D(2)O-diox, Delta(r)H(double dagger) (in H(2)O/diox) = 23.9(0.2) kJ/mol, Delta(r)H(double dagger) (in D(2)O/diox) = 32.1(0.3) kJ/mol; (e) the temperature dependence of the KIEs in water and 1:1 v/v water-dioxane; these KIEs range from 27.3 at 285.4 K to 19.1 at 317.4 K in water and from 34.3 to 24.6 at the corresponding temperatures in 1:1 v/v water-diox, respectively; (f) the observation of an increase of the KIE in 10-40% v/v dioxane-water solvents relative to the KIE in water alone. There is a weak solvent dependence of the rate constant on going from water to 1:1 v/v water-diox. solvent, from 2.20(0.03) mol(-1) dm(3) s(-1) to 5.50(0.14) mol(-1) dm(3) s(-1), respectively, which originates from the mutual compensation of the enthalpy and entropy of activation. PMID:20151699

  11. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-01

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spinc-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ?5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  12. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-15

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spin{sup c}-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  13. Conformal cloak for waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Huanyang; Leonhardt, Ulf; Tyc, Tomas

    2011-05-15

    Conformal invisibility devices are only supposed to work within the valid range of geometrical optics. Here, we show by numerical simulations and analytical arguments that for certain quantized frequencies, they are nearly perfect even in a regime that clearly violates geometrical optics. The quantization condition follows from the analogy between the Helmholtz equation and the stationary Schroedinger equation.

  14. PERSONALITY AND CONFORMITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAROCAS, RALPH; GORLOW, LEON

    AN INVESTIGATION WAS MADE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY FACTORS AND CONFORMITY. THE SUBJECTS WERE 243 RANDOMLY SELECTED STUDENTS ENROLLED IN COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY COURSES WHO WERE DIVIDED INTO GROUPS OF 97, 96, AND 50 SUBJECTS. A PERSONALITY FACTOR INVENTORY WAS OBTAINED FROM RESPONSES TO A LARGE LIST OF TRUE-FALSE PERSONALITY ITEM…

  15. Characterizing excited conformational states of RNA by NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Conformational dynamics is a hallmark of diverse non-coding RNA functions. During these functional processes, RNA molecules almost ubiquitously undergo conformational transitions that are tuned to meet distinct structural and kinetic requirements for proper function. A complete mechanistic understanding of RNA function requires comprehensive structural and dynamic knowledge of these complex transitions, which often involve alternative higher-energy conformational states that pose a major challenge for high-resolution structural study by conventional methods. In this review, we describe recent progress in RNA NMR that has started to unveil detailed structural, thermodynamic and kinetic insights into some of these excited conformational states of RNA and their functional roles in biology. PMID:25765780

  16. A Physical Picture of Protein Dynamics and Conformational Changes

    PubMed Central

    Achterhold, Klaus; Croci, Simonetta; Schmidt, Marius

    2008-01-01

    A physical model is reviewed which explains different aspects of protein dynamics consistently. At low temperatures, the molecules are frozen in conformational substates. Their average energy is 3/2RT. Solid-state vibrations occur on a time scale of femtoseconds to nanoseconds. Above a characteristic temperature, often called the dynamical transition temperature, slow modes of motions can be observed occurring on a time scale between about 140 and 1ns. These motions are overdamped, quasidiffusive, and involve collective motions of segments of the size of an ?-helix. Molecules performing these types of motion are in the flexible state. This state is reached by thermal activation. It is shown that these motions are essential for conformational relaxation. Based on this picture, a new approach is proposed to understand conformational changes. It connects structural fluctuations and conformational transitions. PMID:19669525

  17. Quantum conformal superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Arthur E.; Moncrief, Vincent

    1996-02-01

    For a compact connected orientablen-manifold M, n ≥ 3, we study the structure ofclassical superspace {S} equiv {{M} {/ {{M} {D}}} } {D}}, quantum superspace {S}_0 equiv {{M} {/ {{M} {{D}_0 }}} } {{D}_0}}, classical conformal superspace {C} equiv {{( {{{M} {/ {M} {P}}} {P}}} )} {/ {{( {{{M} {left/ {M} {P}}} } {P}}} )} {D}}} } {D}}, and quantum conformal superspace {C}_0 equiv {{( {{{M} {/ {M} {P}}} } {P}}} )} {/ {{( {{{M} {/ {M} {P}}} {P}}} )} {{D}_0 }}} {D}_0 }}. The study of the structure of these spaces is motivated by questions involving reduction of the usual canonical Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity to a non-degenerate Hamiltonian formulation, and to questions involving the quantization of the gravitational field. We show that if the degree of symmetry ofM is zero, thenS,S 0,C, andC 0 are ilh orbifolds. The case of most importance for general relativity is dimension n=3. In this case, assuming that the extended Poincaré conjecture is true, we show that quantum superspaceS 0 and quantum conformal superspace C 0 are in fact ilh-manifolds. If, moreover, M is a Haken manifold, then quantum superspace and quantum conformal superspace arecontractible ilh-manifolds. In this case, there are no Gribov ambiguities for the configuration spacesS 0 andC 0. Our results are applicable to questions involving the problem of thereduction of Einstein's vacuum equations and to problems involving quantization of the gravitational field. For the problem of reduction, one searches for a way to reduce the canonical Hamiltonian formulation together with its constraint equations to an unconstrained Hamiltonian system on a reduced phase space. For the problem of quantum gravity, the spaceC 0 will play a natural role in any quantization procedure based on the use of conformal methods and the reduced Hamiltonian formulation.

  18. Galilean conformal and superconformal symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Lukierski, J.

    2012-10-15

    Firstly we discuss briefly three different algebras named as nonrelativistic (NR) conformal: Schroedinger, Galilean conformal, and infinite algebra of local NR conformal isometries. Further we shall consider in some detail Galilean conformal algebra (GCA) obtained in the limit c{yields}{infinity} from relativistic conformal algebraO(d+1, 2) (d-number of space dimensions). Two different contraction limits providing GCA and some recently considered realizations will be briefly discussed. Finally by considering NR contraction of D = 4 superconformal algebra the Galilei conformal superalgebra (GCSA) is obtained, in the formulation using complexWeyl supercharges.

  19. Logarithmic conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more complicated non-rational theories. Examples include critical percolation, supersymmetric string backgrounds, disordered electronic systems, sandpile models describing avalanche processes, and so on. In each case, the non-rationality and non-unitarity of the CFT suggested that a more general theoretical framework was needed. Driven by the desire to better understand these applications, the mid-1990s saw significant theoretical advances aiming to generalise the constructs of rational CFT to a more general class. In 1994, Nahm introduced an algorithm for computing the fusion product of representations which was significantly generalised two years later by Gaberdiel and Kausch who applied it to explicitly construct (chiral) representations upon which the energy operator acts non-diagonalisably. Their work made it clear that underlying the physically relevant correlation functions are classes of reducible but indecomposable representations that can be investigated mathematically to the benefit of applications. In another direction, Flohr had meanwhile initiated the study of modular properties of the characters of logarithmic CFTs, a topic which had already evoked much mathematical interest in the rational case. Since these seminal theoretical papers appeared, the field has undergone rapid development, both theoretically and with regard to applications. Logarithmic CFTs are now known to describe non-local observables in the scaling limit of critical lattice models, for example percolation and polymers, and are an integral part of our understanding of quantum strings propagating on supermanifolds. They are also believed to arise as duals of three-dimensional chiral gravity models, fill out hidden sectors in non-rational theories with non-compact target spaces, and describe certain transitions in various incarnations of the quantum Hall effect. Other physical applications range from two-dimensional turbulence and non-equilibrium systems to aspects of the AdS/CFT correspondence and describing supersymmetric sigma models beyond the topological sector. We refer the reader to the reviews in this collection for further applications and details. More recently, our understanding of logarithmic CFT has improved dramatically thanks largely to a better understanding of the underlying mathematical structures. This includes those associated to the vertex operator algebras themselves (representations, characters, modular transformations, fusion, braiding) as well as structures associated with applications to two-dimensional statistical models (diagram algebras, eg. Temperley-Lieb quantum groups). Not only are we getting to the point where we understand how these structures differ from standard (rational) theories, but we are starting to tackle applications both in the boundary and bulk settings. It is now clear that the logarithmic case is generic, so it is this case that one should expect to encounter in applications. We therefore feel that it is timely to review what has been accomplished in order to disseminate this improved understanding and motivate further applications. We now give a quick overview of the articles that constitute this special issue. Adamović and Milas provide a detailed summary of their rigorous results pertaining to logarithmic vertex operator (super)algebras constructed from lattices. This survey discusses the C2-cofiniteness of the (p, p') triplet models (this is the generalisation of rationality to the logarithmic setting), describes Zhu's algebra for (some of) these theories and outlines the difficulties involved in explicitly constructing the modules responsible for their logarithmic nature. Cardy gives an account of a popular approach to logarithmic theories that regards them, heuristically at least, as limits of ordinary (but non-rational) CFTs. More precisely, it seems that any given correlator may be computed as a limit of standard (non-logarithmic) correlators, any logarithmic singularities that arise do so because of a degeneration when taking the limit. He then illustrates this phenomenon in several theories describing statistical lattice models including the n → 0 limit of the O(n ) model and the Q → 1 limit of the Q-state Potts model. Creutzig and Ridout review the continuum approach to logarithmic CFT, using the percolation (boundary) CFT to detail the connection between module structure and logarithmic singularities in correlators before describing their proposed solution to the thorny issue of generalising modular data and Verlinde formulae to the logarithmic setting. They illustrate this proposal using the three best-understood examples of logarithmic CFTs: the (1, 2) models, related to symplectic fermions; the fractional level WZW model on , related to the beta gamma ghosts; and the WZW model on GL(1|1). The analysis in each case requires that the spectrum be continuous; C2-cofinite models are only recovered as orbifolds. Flohr and Koehn consider the characters of the irreducible modules in the spectrum of a CFT and discuss why these only span a proper subspace of the space of torus vacuum amplitudes in the logarithmic case. This is illustrated explicitly for the (1, 2) triplet model and conclusions are drawn for the action of the modular group. They then note that the irreducible characters of this model also admit fermionic sum forms which seem to fit well into Nahmrsquo;s well-known conjecture for rational theories. Quasi-particle interpretations are also introduced, leading to the conclusion that logarithmic C2-cofinite theories are not so terribly different to rational theories, at least in some respects. Fuchs, Schweigert and Stigner address the problem of constructing local logarithmic CFTs starting from the chiral theory. They first review the construction of the local theory in the non-logarithmic setting from an angle that will then generalise to logarithmic theories. In particular, they observe that the bulk space can be understood as a certain coend. The authors then show how to carry out the construction of the bulk space in the category of modules over a factorisable ribbon Hopf algebra, which shares many properties with the braided categories arising from logarithmic chiral theories. The authors proceed to construct the analogue of all-genus correlators in their setting and establish invariance under the mapping class group, i.e. locality of the correlators. Gainutdinov, Jacobsen, Read, Saleur and Vasseur review their approach based on the assumption that certain classes of logarithmic CFTs admit lattice regularisations with local degrees of freedom, for example quantum spin chains (with local interactions). They therefore study the finite-dimensional algebras generated by the hamiltonian densities (typically the Temperley-Lieb algebras and their extensions) that describe the dynamics of these lattice models. The authors then argue that the lattice algebras exhibit, in finite size, mathematical properties that are in correspondence with those of their continuum limits, allowing one to predict continuum structures directly from the lattice. Moreover, the lattice models considered admit quantum group symmetries that play a central role in the algebraic analysis (representation structure and fusion). Grumiller, Riedler, Rosseel and Zojer review the role that logarithmic CFTs may play in certain versions of the AdS/CFT correspondence, particularly for what is known as topologically massive gravity (TMG). This has been a very active subject over the last five years and the article takes great care to disentangle the contributions from the many groups that have participated. They begin with some general remarks on logarithmic behaviour, much in the spirit of Cardyrsquo;s review, before detailing the distinction between the chiral (no logs) and logarithmic proposals for critical TMG. The latter is then subjected to various consistency checks before discussing evidence for logarithmic behaviour in more general classes of gravity theories including those with boundaries, supersymmetry and galilean relativity. Gurarie has written an historical overview of his seminal contributions to this field, putting his results (and those of his collaborators) in the context of understanding applications to condensed matter physics. This includes the link between the non-diagonalisability of L0 and logarithmic singularities, a study of the c → 0 catastrophe, and a proposed resolution involving supersymmetric partners for the stress-energy tensor and its logarithmic partner field. Henkel and Rouhani describe a direction in which logarithmic singularities are observed in correlators of non-relativistic field theories. Their review covers the appropriate modifications of conformal invariance that are appropriate to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, strongly anisotropic critical points and certain variants of TMG. The main variation away from the standard relativistic idea of conformal invariance is that time is explicitly distinguished from space when considering dilations and this leads to a variety of algebraic structures to explore. In this review, the link between non-diagonalisable representations and logarithmic singularities in correlators is generalised to these algebras, before two applications of the theory are discussed. Huang and Lepowsky give a non-technical overview of their work on braided tensor structures on suitable categories of representations of vertex operator algebras. They also place their work in historic context and compare it to related approaches. The authors sketch their construction of the so-called P(z)-tensor product of modules of a vertex operator algebra, and the construction of the associativity isomorphisms for this tensor product. They proceed to give a guide to their works leading to the first authorrsquo;s proof of modularity for a class of vertex operator algebras, and to their works, joint with Zhang, on logarithmic intertwining operators and the resulting tensor product theory. Morin-Duchesne and Saint-Aubin have contributed a research article describing their recent characterisation of when the transfer matrix of a periodic loop model fails to be diagonalisable. This generalises their recent result for non-periodic loop models and provides rigorous methods to justify what has often been assumed in the lattice approach to logarithmic CFT. The philosophy here is one of analysing lattice models with finite size, aiming to demonstrate that non-diagonalisability survives the scaling limit. This is extremely difficult in general (see also the review by Gainutdinov et al ), so it is remarkable that it is even possible to demonstrate this at any level of generality. Quella and Schomerus have prepared an extensive review covering their longstanding collaboration on the logarithmic nature of conformal sigma models on Lie supergroups and their cosets with applications to string theory and AdS/CFT. Beginning with a very welcome overview of Lie superalgebras and their representations, harmonic analysis and cohomological reduction, they then apply these mathematical tools to WZW models on type I Lie supergroups and their homogeneous subspaces. Along the way, deformations are discussed and potential dualities in the corresponding string theories are described. Ruelle provides an exhaustive account of his substantial contributions to the study of the abelian sandpile model. This is a statistical model which has the surprising feature that many correlation functions can be computed exactly, in the bulk and on the boundary, even though the spectrum of conformal weights is largely unknown. Nevertheless, there is much evidence suggesting that its scaling limit is described by an, as yet unknown, c = -2 logarithmic CFT. Semikhatov and Tipunin present their very recent results regarding the construction of logarithmic chiral W-algebra extensions of a fractional level algebra. The idea is that these algebras are the centralisers of a rank-two Nichols algebra which possesses at least one fermionic generator. In turn, these Nichols algebra generators are represented by screening operators which naturally appear in CFT bosonisation. The major advantage of using these generators is that they give strong hints about the representation theory and fusion rules of the chiral algebra. Simmons has contributed an article describing the calculation of various correlation functions in the logarithmic CFT that describes critical percolation. These calculations are interpreted geometrically in a manner that should be familiar to mathematicians studying Schramm-Loewner evolutions and point towards a (largely unexplored) bridge connecting logarithmic CFT with this branch of mathematics. Of course, the field of logarithmic CFT has benefited greatly from the work of many of researchers who are not represented in this special issue. The interested reader will find many links to their work in the bibliographies of the special issue articles and reviews. In summary, logarithmic CFT describes an extension of the incredibly successful methods of rational CFT to a more general setting. This extension is necessary to properly describe many different fundamental phenomena of physical interest. The formalism is moreover highly non-trivial from a mathematical point of view and so logarithmic theories are of significant interest to both physicists and mathematicians. We hope that the collection of articles that follows will serve as an inspiration, and a valuable resource, for both of these communities.

  20. Protein Conformational Populations and Functionally Relevant Sub-states

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Pratul K; Burger, Virginia; Savol, Andrej; Ramanathan, Arvind; Chennubhotla, Chakra

    2013-01-01

    Functioning proteins do not remain fixed in a unique structure, but instead they sample a range of conformations facilitated by motions within the protein. Even in the native state, a protein exists as a collection of interconverting conformations driven by thermodynamic fluctuations. Motions on the fast time scale allow a protein to sample conformations in the nearby area of its conformational landscape, while motions on slower time scales give it access to conformations in distal areas of the landscape. Emerging evidence indicates that protein landscapes contain conformational substates with dynamic and structural features that support the designated function of the protein. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments provide information about conformational ensembles of proteins. X-ray crystallography allows researchers to identify the most populated states along the landscape, and computational simulations give atom-level information about the conformational substates of different proteins. This ability to characterize and obtain quantitative information about the conformational substates and the populations of proteins within them is allowing researchers to better understand the relationship between protein structure and dynamics and the mechanisms of protein function. In this Account, we discuss recent developments and challenges in the characterization of functionally relevant conformational populations and substates of proteins. In some enzymes, the sampling of functionally relevant conformational substates is connected to promoting the overall mechanism of catalysis. For example, the conformational landscape of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase has multiple substates, which facilitate the binding and the release of the cofactor and substrate and catalyze the hydride transfer. For the enzyme cyclophilin A, computational simulations reveal that the long time scale conformational fluctuations enable the enzyme to access conformational substates that allow it to attain the transition state, therefore promoting the reaction mechanism. In the long term, this emerging view of proteins with conformational substates has broad implications for improving our understanding of enzymes, enzyme engineering, and better drug design. Researchers have already used photoactivation to modulate protein conformations as a strategy to develop a hypercatalytic enzyme. In addition, the alteration of the conformational substates through binding of ligands at locations other than the active site provides the basis for the design of new medicines through allosteric modulation.

  1. Characterization of DNA conformation inside bacterial viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Anton S.; Locker, C. Rebecca; Harvey, Stephen C.

    2009-08-01

    In this study we develop a formalism to describe the organization of DNA inside bacteriophage capsids during genome packaging. We have previously shown that DNA inside bacteriophage phi29 (?29) is organized into folded toroids [A. S. Petrov and S. C. Harvey, Structure 15, 21 (2007)], whereas epsilon15 (?15) reveals the coaxial organization of the genetic material [A. S. Petrov, K. Lim-Hing, and S. C. Harvey, Structure 15, 807 (2007)]. We now show that each system undergoes two consecutive transitions. The first transition corresponds to the formation of global conformations and is analogous to a disorder-order conformational transition. The second transition is characterized by a significant loss of DNA mobility at the local level leading to glasslike dynamic behavior. Packing genetic material inside bacteriophages can be used as a general model to study the behavior of semiflexible chains inside confined spaces, and the proposed formalism developed here can be used to study other systems of linear polymer chains confined to closed spaces.

  2. Conformal gripping device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a conformal gripping device. In an embodiment of the present invention a conformal gripper device may be disclosed comprising a frame that includes an array of movable pins. The device may also include a roller locking and unlocking system within the frame. The system may comprise a pair of locking rollers for each row of gripper pins to facilitate locking and unlocking the array of gripper pins on a column-by-column basis. The system may also include a striker element that may force the locking rollers to roll along an angled roll surface to facilitate unlocking of the array of pins on a column-by-column basis. The system may further include an electromagnetic actuator or solenoid and permanent magnets to facilitate movement of the striker element and the locking rollers.

  3. Conformal superspace ?-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitev, Vladimir; Quella, Thomas; Schomerus, Volker

    2011-09-01

    We review recent developments in the context of two-dimensional conformally invariant ?-models. These quantum field theories play a prominent role in the covariant superstring quantization in flux backgrounds and in the analysis of disordered systems. We present supergroup WZW models as primary examples of logarithmic conformal field theories, whose structure is almost entirely determined by the underlying supergeometry. In particular, we discuss the harmonic analysis on supergroups and supercosets and point out the subtleties of Lie superalgebra representation theory that are responsible for the emergence of logarithmic representations. Furthermore, special types of marginal deformations of supergroup WZW models are studied which only exist if the Killing form is vanishing. We show how exact expressions for anomalous dimensions of boundary fields can be derived using quasi-abelian perturbation theory. Finally, the knowledge of the exact spectrum is used to motivate a duality between the OSP(4|2) symmetric Gross-Neveu model and the S supersphere ?-model.

  4. Conformal ALON® windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Smith, Mark; Nag, Nagendra; Foti, Robyn; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri

    2014-05-01

    Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON® Optical Ceramic) combines broadband transparency with excellent mechanical properties. ALON's cubic structure means that it is transparent in its polycrystalline form, allowing it to be manufactured by conventional powder processing techniques. Surmet controls every aspect of the manufacturing process, beginning with synthesis of ALON® powder, continuing through forming/heat treatment of blanks, ending with optical fabrication of ALON® windows. Surmet has made significant progress in its production capability in recent years. Additional scale up of Surmet's manufacturing capability, for complex geometries, larger sizes and higher quantities, is underway. The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the ability to produce windows in complex geometries currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows. Surmet's ability to produce large curved ALON® blanks is an important step in the development of conformal windows for future aircraft applications.

  5. Conformal complementarity maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbn, Jos L. F.; Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2013-12-01

    We study quantum cosmological models for certain classes of bang/crunch singularities, using the duality between expanding bubbles in AdS with a FRW interior cosmology and perturbed CFTs on de Sitter space-time. It is pointed out that horizon complementarity in the AdS bulk geometries is realized as a conformal transformation in the dual deformed CFT. The quantum version of this map is described in full detail in a toy model involving conformal quantum mechanics. In this system the complementarity map acts as an exact duality between eternal and apocalyptic Hamiltonian evolutions. We calculate the commutation relation between the Hamiltonians corresponding to the different frames. It vanishes only on scale invariant states.

  6. [Glossary of conformal radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Dubray, B; Giraud, P; Beaudr, A

    1999-01-01

    Most of the concepts and terms related to conformal radiotherapy were produced by English-speaking authors and eventually validated by international groups of experts, whose working language was also English. Therefore, a significant part of this literature is poorly accessible to the French-speaking radiation oncology community. The present paper gathers the 'official' definitions already published in French, along with propositions for the remaining terms which should be submitted to a more formal and representative validation process. PMID:10572506

  7. Conformal scalar field wormholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, Jonathan J.; Laflamme, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    The Euclidian Einstein equations with a cosmological constant and a conformally coupled scalar field are solved, taking the metric to be of the Robertson-Walker type. In the case Lambda = 0, solutions are found which represent a wormhole connecting two asymptotically flat Euclidian regions. In the case Lambda greater than 0, the solutions represent tunneling from a small Tolman-like universe to a large Robertson-Walker universe.

  8. Conformations of Organophosphine Oxides.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P; Gordon, Mark S; Windus, Theresa L

    2015-08-13

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P-C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 force field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes-an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. The predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3. PMID:26186383

  9. Conformations of organophosphine oxides

    DOE PAGESBeta

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2015-07-17

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 forcemore » field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. As a result, the predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.« less

  10. Conformations of organophosphine oxides

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2015-07-17

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 force field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. As a result, the predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.

  11. On Conformally Invariant CLE Explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Wendelin; Wu, Hao

    2013-06-01

    We study some conformally invariant dynamic ways to construct the Conformal Loop Ensembles with simple loops introduced in earlier papers by Sheffield, and by Sheffield and Werner. One outcome is a conformally invariant way to measure a distance of a CLE4 loop to the boundary "within" the CLE4, when one identifies all points of each loop.

  12. Low-Mode Conformational Search Method with Semiempirical Quantum Mechanical Calculations: Application to Enantioselective Organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Kamachi, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2016-02-22

    A conformational search program for finding low-energy conformations of large noncovalent complexes has been developed. A quantitatively reliable semiempirical quantum mechanical PM6-DH+ method, which is able to accurately describe noncovalent interactions at a low computational cost, was employed in contrast to conventional conformational search programs in which molecular mechanical methods are usually adopted. Our approach is based on the low-mode method whereby an initial structure is perturbed along one of its low-mode eigenvectors to generate new conformations. This method was applied to determine the most stable conformation of transition state for enantioselective alkylation by the Maruoka and cinchona alkaloid catalysts and Hantzsch ester hydrogenation of imines by chiral phosphoric acid. Besides successfully reproducing the previously reported most stable DFT conformations, the conformational search with the semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations newly discovered a more stable conformation at a low computational cost. PMID:26815336

  13. Sequential conformational rearrangements in flavivirus membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Chao, Luke H; Klein, Daryl E; Schmidt, Aaron G; Pea, Jennifer M; Harrison, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    The West Nile Virus (WNV) envelope protein, E, promotes membrane fusion during viral cell entry by undergoing a low-pH triggered conformational reorganization. We have examined the mechanism of WNV fusion and sought evidence for potential intermediates during the conformational transition by following hemifusion of WNV virus-like particles (VLPs) in a single particle format. We have introduced specific mutations into E, to relate their influence on fusion kinetics to structural features of the protein. At the level of individual E subunits, trimer formation and membrane engagement of the threefold clustered fusion loops are rate-limiting. Hemifusion requires at least two adjacent trimers. Simulation of the kinetics indicates that availability of competent monomers within the contact zone between virus and target membrane makes trimerization a bottleneck in hemifusion. We discuss the implications of the model we have derived for mechanisms of membrane fusion in other contexts. PMID:25479384

  14. Simple, yet powerful methodologies for conformational sampling of proteins.

    PubMed

    Harada, Ryuhei; Takano, Yu; Baba, Takeshi; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2015-03-01

    Several biological functions, such as molecular recognition, enzyme catalysis, signal transduction, allosteric regulation, and protein folding, are strongly related to conformational transitions of proteins. These conformational transitions are generally induced as slow dynamics upon collective motions, including biologically relevant large-amplitude fluctuations of proteins. Although molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has become a powerful tool for extracting conformational transitions of proteins, it might still be difficult to reach time scales of the biological functions because the accessible time scales of MD simulations are far from biological time scales, even if straightforward conventional MD (CMD) simulations using massively parallel computers are employed. Thus, it is desirable to develop efficient methods to achieve canonical ensembles with low computational costs. From this perspective, we review several enhanced conformational sampling techniques of biomolecules developed by us. In our methods, multiple independent short-time MD simulations are employed instead of single straightforward long-time CMD simulations. Our basic strategy is as follows: (i) selection of initial seeds (initial structures) for the conformational sampling in restarting MD simulations. Here, the seeds should be selected as candidates with high potential to transit. (ii) Resampling from the selected seeds by initializing velocities in restarting short-time MD simulations. A cycle of these simple protocols might drastically promote the conformational transitions of biomolecules. (iii) Once reactive trajectories extracted from the cycles of short-time MD simulations are obtained, a free energy profile is evaluated by means of umbrella sampling (US) techniques with the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) as a post-processing technique. For the selection of the initial seeds, we proposed four different choices: (1) Parallel CaScade molecular dynamics (PaCS-MD), (2) Fluctuation Flooding Method (FFM), (3) Outlier FLOODing (OFLOOD) method, and (4) TaBoo SeArch (TBSA) method. We demonstrate applications of our methods to several biological systems, such as domain motions of proteins with large-amplitude fluctuations, conformational transitions upon ligand binding, and protein folding/refolding to native structures of proteins. Finally, we show the conformational sampling efficiencies of our methods compared with those by CMD simulations and other previously developed enhanced conformational sampling methods. PMID:25659594

  15. Conformal superalgebras via tractor calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-01

    We use the manifestly conformally invariant description of a Lorentzian conformal structure in terms of a parabolic Cartan geometry in order to introduce a superalgebra structure on the space of twistor spinors and normal conformal vector fields formulated in purely algebraic terms on parallel sections in tractor bundles. Via a fixed metric in the conformal class, one reproduces a conformal superalgebra structure that has been considered in the literature before. The tractor approach, however, makes clear that the failure of this object to be a Lie superalgebra in certain cases is due to purely algebraic identities on the spinor module and to special properties of the conformal holonomy representation. Moreover, it naturally generalizes to higher signatures. This yields new formulas for constructing new twistor spinors and higher order normal conformal Killing forms out of existing ones, generalizing the well-known spinorial Lie derivative. Moreover, we derive restrictions on the possible dimension of the space of twistor spinors in any metric signature.

  16. Conformal optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, David James

    Optics with external surfaces that deviate from conventional forms to better satisfy the needs of host platform are known as conformal optics. These external surfaces generate significant amounts of aberration that may be compensated with additional corrector elements. This dissertation introduces a new tool for the design of correctors for non-rotationally symmetric optical systems. This is accomplished through the derivation of two new differential equations using an approach similar to that of Wassermann and Wolf. The new aspheric design equations are derived without the assumption of axial symmetry and may be used to precisely control a ray bundle. Solving the new design equations produces the surface profiles of two aspheric optical surfaces which make a non-rotationally symmetric system aplanatic. The aplanatic system may contain tilted and decentered elements, or optical elements without rotational symmetry before and after the two aspheric surfaces. As coma and spherical aberration can be significant in conformal windows, these equations are powerful for producing starting points and developing a design. To validate the new equations, they were implemented in a Code V RTM macro called the Generalized Aspheric design Program (GAP). This macro is used in the design of a variety of non-rotationally symmetric optical systems to create a diffraction limited field of view. These include a system with an elliptical dome with a decentered inside surface, a system containing cylindrical elements, and a system with a toroidal conformal window. In all cases, GAP is able to directly generate corrector surfaces. For comparison, the classical Wassermann-Wolf equations were also implemented in a Code V macro for the design of rotationally symmetric systems.

  17. [Possible DNA conformations].

    PubMed

    Ne?fakh, Iu A; Tumanian, V G

    1979-01-01

    The complete analysis of possible DNA structures has been undertaken in the space of dihedral angles. The structural sets obtained join energetically and geometrically possible conformations. Thus, the necessary condtions of existence are fulfilled for these structural forms. The half of our structural families includes all structures and structural sets proposed by other authors [10, 24]. Other six families have not been presented elsewhere. The results of the energy optimization suggest the left handed forms are unfavourable energetically, because main chain torsional term and the energy of nucleotide moiety. At the same time there is a great number of various lefthanded forms. PMID:465564

  18. Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Lapine, Mikhail; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2011-01-01

    Within a decade of fruitful development, metamaterials became a prominent area of research, bridging theoretical and applied electrodynamics, electrical engineering and material science. Being man-made structures, metamaterials offer a particularly useful playground to develop interdisciplinary concepts. Here we demonstrate a novel principle in metamaterial assembly which integrates electromagnetic, mechanical, and thermal responses within their elements. Through these mechanisms, the conformation of the meta-molecules changes, providing a dual mechanism for nonlinearity and offering nonlinear chirality. Our proposal opens a wide road towards further developments of nonlinear metamaterials and photonic structures, adding extra flexibility to their design and control. PMID:22355655

  19. Movement of Elongation Factor G between Compact and Extended Conformations

    PubMed Central

    Salsi, Enea; Farah, Elie; Netter, Zoe; Dann, Jillian; Ermolenko, Dmitri N.

    2014-01-01

    Previous structural studies suggested that ribosomal translocation is accompanied by large interdomain rearrangements of elongation factor G (EF-G). Here, we follow the movement of domain IV of EF-G relative to domain II of EF-G using ensemble and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET). Our results indicate that ribosome-free EF-G predominantly adopts a compact conformation that can also, albeit infrequently, transition into a more extended conformation in which domain IV moves away from domain II. By contrast, ribosome-bound EF-G predominantly adopts an extended conformation regardless of whether it is interacting with pre- or posttranslocation ribosomes. Our data suggest that ribosome-bound EF-G may also occasionally sample at least one more compact conformation. GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by EF-G does not affect the relative stability of the observed conformations in ribosome-free and ribosome-bound EF-G. Our data support a model suggesting that, upon binding to a pretranslocation ribosome, EF-G moves from a compact to a more extended conformation. This transition is not coupled to, but likely precedes both GTP hydrolysis and mRNA/tRNA translocation. PMID:25463439

  20. Targeting Inactive Enzyme Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sijiu; Zeng, Li-Fan; Wu, Li; Yu, Xiao; Xue, Ting; Gunawan, Andrea M.; Ya-Qiu, Long; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2009-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a therapeutic target for diabetes, obesity, as well as cancer. Identifying inhibitory compounds with good bioavailability is a major challenge of drug discovery programs targeted toward PTPs. Most current PTP active site-directed pharmacophores are negatively charged pTyr mimetics which cannot readily enter the cell. This lack of cell permeability limits the utility of such compounds in signaling studies and further therapeutic development. We identify aryl diketoacids as novel pTyr surrogates and show that neutral amide-linked aryl diketoacid dimers also exhibit excellent PTP inhibitory activity. Kinetic studies establish that these aryl diketoacid derivatives act as noncompetitive inhibitors of PTP1B. Crystal structures of ligand-bound PTP1B reveal that both the aryl diketoacid and its dimeric derivative bind PTP1B at the active site, albeit with distinct modes of interaction, in the catalytically inactive, WPD loop open conformation. Furthermore, dimeric aryl diketoacids are cell permeable and enhance insulin signaling in hepatoma cells, suggesting that targeting the inactive conformation may provide a unique opportunity for creating active site-directed PTP1B inhibitors with improved pharmacological properties. PMID:19012396

  1. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  2. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  3. Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-10-15

    Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced.

  4. Dissecting conformational contributions to glycosidase catalysis and inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Speciale, Gaetano; Thompson, Andrew J; Davies, Gideon J; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are classified into >100 sequence-based families. These enzymes process a wide variety of complex carbohydrates with varying stereochemistry at the anomeric and other ring positions. The shapes that these sugars adopt upon binding to their cognate GHs, and the conformational changes that occur along the catalysis reaction coordinate is termed the conformational itinerary. Efforts to define the conformational itineraries of GHs have focussed upon the critical points of the reaction: substrate-bound (Michaelis), transition state, intermediate (if relevant) and product-bound. Recent approaches to defining conformational itineraries that marry X-ray crystallography of enzymes bound to ligands that mimic the critical points, along with advanced computational methods and kinetic isotope effects are discussed. PMID:25016573

  5. An Expression of Periodic Phenomena of Fashion on Sexual Selection Model with Conformity Genes and Memes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutoh, Atsuko; Tokuhara, Shinya; Kanoh, Masayoshi; Oboshi, Tamon; Kato, Shohei; Itoh, Hidenori

    It is generally thought that living things have trends in their preferences. The mechanism of occurrence of another trends in successive periods is concerned in their conformity. According to social impact theory, the minority is always exists in the group. There is a possibility that the minority make the transition to the majority by conforming agents. Because of agent's promotion of their conform actions, the majority can make the transition. We proposed an evolutionary model with both genes and memes, and elucidated the interaction between genes and memes on sexual selection. In this paper, we propose an agent model for sexual selection imported the concept of conformity. Using this model we try an environment where male agents and female agents are existed, we find that periodic phenomena of fashion are expressed. And we report the influence of conformity and differentiation on the transition of their preferences.

  6. Conformal profiles in the Hilhorst-van Leeuwen model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karevski, D.; Turban, L.; Igli, F.

    2000-04-01

    We study the critical energy and magnetization profiles for the Ising quantum chain with a marginal extended surface perturbation of the form A /y , y being the distance from the surface (Hilhorst-van Leeuwen model). For weak local couplings, A transition with A -dependent exponents, whereas, for A >A c , there is surface order at the bulk critical point. If conformal invariance is assumed to hold with such marginal perturbations, it predicts conformal profiles with the same scaling form as for the unperturbed quantum chain, with marginal surface exponents replacing the unperturbed ones. The results of direct analytical and numerical calculations of the profiles confirm the validity of the conformal expressions in the regimes of second- and first-order surface transitions.

  7. Conformations of Low-Molecular-Weight Lignin Polymers in Water.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Loukas; Smith, Jeremy C

    2016-02-01

    Low-molecular-weight lignin binds to cellulose during the thermochemical pretreatment of biomass for biofuel production, which prevents the efficient hydrolysis of the cellulose to sugars. The binding properties of lignin are influenced strongly by the conformations it adopts. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations in aqueous solution to investigate the dependence of the shape of lignin polymers on chain length and temperature. Lignin is found to adopt collapsed conformations in water at 300 and 500 K. However, at 300 K, a discontinuous transition is found in the shape of the polymer as a function of the chain length. Below a critical degree of polymerization, Nc =15, the polymer adopts less spherical conformations than above Nc . The transition disappears at high temperatures (500 K) at which only spherical shapes are adopted. An implication relevant to cellulosic biofuel production is that lignin will self-aggregate even at high pretreatment temperatures. PMID:26763657

  8. Backbone conformational preferences of an intrinsically disordered protein in solution.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Ilizaliturri-Flores, Ian; Correa-Basurto, Jos

    2012-06-01

    We have performed a 4-?s molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the native conformational preferences of the intrinsically disordered kinase-inducible domain (KID) of the transcription factor CREB in solution. There is solid experimental evidence showing that KID does not possess a bound-like structure in solution; however, it has been proposed that coil-to-helix transitions upon binding to its binding partner (CBP) are template-driven. While these studies indicate that IDPs possess a bias towards the bound structure, they do not provide direct evidence on the time-dependent conformational preferences of IDPs in atomic detail. Our simulation captured intrinsic conformational characteristics of KID that are in good agreement with experimental data such as a very small percentage of helical structure in its segment ?(B) and structural disorder in solution. We used dihedral principal component analysis dPCA to map the conformations of KID in the microsecond timescale. By using principal components as reaction coordinates, we further constructed dPCA-based free energy landscapes of KID. Analysis of the free energy landscapes showed that KID is best characterized as a conformational ensemble of rapidly interconverting conformations. Interestingly, we found that despite the conformational heterogeneity of the backbone and the absence of substantial secondary structure, KID does not randomly sample the conformational space in solution: analysis of the (?, ?) dihedral angles showed that several individual residues of KID possess a strong bias toward the helical region of the Ramachandran plot. We suggest that the intrinsic conformational preferences of KID provide a bias toward the folded state without having to populate bound-like conformations before binding. Furthermore, we argue that these conformational preferences do not represent actual structural constraints which drive binding through a single pathway, which allows for specific interactions with multiple binding partners. Based on this evidence, we propose that the backbone conformational preferences of KID provide a thermodynamic advantage for folding and binding without negatively affecting the kinetics of binding. We further discuss the relation of our results to previous studies to rationalize the functional implications of the conformational preferences of IDPs, such as the optimization of structural disorder in protein-protein interactions. This study illustrates the importance in obtaining atomistic information of intrinsically disordered proteins in real time to reveal functional features arising from their complex conformational space. PMID:22506277

  9. Conformal anomaly of some 2-d Z (n) models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William, Peter

    1991-01-01

    We describe a numerical calculation of the conformal anomaly in the case of some two-dimensional statistical models undergoing a second-order phase transition, utilizing a recently developed method to compute the partition function exactly. This computation is carried out on a massively parallel CM2 machine, using the finite size scaling behaviour of the free energy.

  10. Native conformational dynamics of the spliceosomal U1A protein.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Irisbel; Ghaemi, Zhaleh; Baranger, Anne; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida; Gruebele, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The complex of spliceosomal U1A protein and its cognate SL2 RNA is a prototype system for protein-RNA binding studies. A major question is whether U1A protein alone is capable of undergoing conformational dynamics similar to structural rearrangements upon RNA binding. Using a fast temperature jump and tryptophan fluorescence detection, we uncover a ?20 ?s conformational transition for the Lys22Gln/Phe56Trp-only mutant of U1A, yet a Phe56Trp-only control mutant does not show the transition. To explain this observation, we performed extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The simulations explain why only the Lys22Gln/Phe56Trp-only mutant shows a fluorescence signal: in the other mutant, the tryptophan probe is not quenched upon structural rearrangement. The simulations support helix C movement as the underlying structural rearrangement, although the simulated time scale is faster than experimentally detected. On the basis of our MD results, we propose a reversible two-pathway three-state transition for the helix C movement and assign T-jump kinetics to a closed to semi-closed transition of the helix. Our result provides a specific example of how alternative protein conformations on the native side of the folding barrier can be functionally important, for example in conformational selection by a binding partner. PMID:25659967

  11. Conformal carpet and grating cloaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmied, Roman; Halimeh, Jad C.; Wegener, Martin

    2010-11-01

    We introduce a class of conformal versions of the previously introduced quasi-conformal carpet cloak, and show how to construct such conformal cloaks for different cloak shapes. Our method provides exact refractive-index profiles in closed mathematical form for the usual carpet cloak as well as for other shapes. By analyzing their asymptotic behavior, we find that the performance of finite-size cloaks becomes much better for metal shapes with zero average value, e.g., for gratings.

  12. Electronically Rich N-Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinoline 3-Carboxylic Acid Esters: Concise Synthesis and Conformational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Horani, Rami A.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work in our laboratory has shown that the highly substituted, electronically rich 1,2,3,4tetrahydroisoquinoline3carboxylic acid (THIQ3CA) scaffold is a key building block for a novel class of promising anticoagulants (Al-Horani et al. J. Med. Chem. 2011, 54, 61256138). The synthesis of THIQ3CA analogs, especially containing specific, electronically rich substituents, has been a challenge and essentially no efficient methods have been reported in the literature. We describe three complementary, glycine donor-based strategies for high yielding synthesis of highly substituted, electronically rich THIQ3CA esters. Three glycine donors studied herein include hydantoin 1, ()-Boc-?-phosphonoglycine trimethyl ester 2 and ()-Z-?-phosphonoglycine trimethyl ester 3. Although the synthesis of THIQ3CA analogs could be achieved using either of the three, an optimal, high yielding approach for the desired THIQ3CA esters was best achieved using 3 in three mild, efficient steps. Using this approach, a focused library of advanced N-arylacyl, N-arylalkyl, and bis-THIQ3CA analogs was synthesized. Variable temperature and solvent-dependent NMR chemical shift studies indicated the presence of two major conformational rotamers in 3:1 proportion for NarylacylTHIQ3CA analogs, which were separated by a high kinetic barrier of ~17 kcal/mol. In contrast, Narylalkyl and bisTHIQ3CA variants displayed no rotamerism, which implicates restricted rotation around the amide bond as the origin for high-barrier conformational interconversion. This phenomenon is of major significance because structure-based drug design typically utilizes only one conformation. Overall, the work presents fundamental studies on the synthesis and conformational properties of highly substituted, electronically rich THIQ3CA analogs. PMID:22665943

  13. Loop Virasoro Lie conformal algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Henan Chen, Qiufan; Yue, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-15

    The Lie conformal algebra of loop Virasoro algebra, denoted by CW, is introduced in this paper. Explicitly, CW is a Lie conformal algebra with C[∂]-basis (L{sub i} | i∈Z) and λ-brackets [L{sub i} {sub λ} L{sub j}] = (−∂−2λ)L{sub i+j}. Then conformal derivations of CW are determined. Finally, rank one conformal modules and Z-graded free intermediate series modules over CW are classified.

  14. Synthesis, molecular conformation, vibrational and electronic transition, isometric chemical shift, polarizability and hyperpolarizability analysis of 3-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-acrylonitrile: a combined experimental and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Asiri, Abdullah Mohamed; Karabacak, Mehmet; Kurt, Mustafa; Alamry, Khalid A

    2011-11-01

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel compound, 3-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-acrylonitrile (abbreviated as 3-(4MP)-2-(4-NP)-AN, C(16)H(12)N(2)O(3)). The spectroscopic properties of the compound were examined by FT-IR, UV-vis and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) techniques. FT-IR spectrum in solid state was observed in the region 4000-400 cm(-1). The UV-vis absorption spectrum of the compound which dissolved in chloroform was recorded in the range of 200-800 nm. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded in CDCl(3) solution. To determine lowest-energy molecular conformation of the title molecule, the selected torsion angle is varied every 10 and molecular energy profile is calculated from 0 to 360. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set. The dipole moment, linear polarizability and first hyperpolarizability values were also computed using the same basis set. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The HOMO and LUMO analysis were used to elucidate information regarding charge transfer within the molecule. The vibrational wavenumbers were calculated and scaled values were compared with experimental FT-IR spectrum. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the experimental results and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. Isotropic chemical shifts were calculated using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Comparison of the calculated frequencies, NMR chemical shifts, absorption wavelengths with the experimental values revealed that DFT and TD-DFT method produce good results. The linear polarizabilities and first hyperpolarizabilities of the studied molecule indicate that the title compound can be used as a good nonlinear optical material. The thermodynamic properties of the studied compound at different temperatures were calculated, revealing the correlations between standard heat capacity, standard entropy, standard enthalpy changes and temperatures. PMID:21856218

  15. Thermal insulating conformal blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Andrea (Inventor); Whittington, Charles A (Inventor); Eilertson, Bryan (Inventor); Siminski, Zenon (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The conformal thermal insulating blanket may have generally rigid batting material covered by an outer insulating layer formed of a high temperature resistant woven ceramic material and an inner insulating layer formed of a woven ceramic fiber material. The batting and insulating layers may be fastened together by sewing or stitching using an outer mold layer thread fabricated of a high temperature resistant material and an inner mold layer thread of a ceramic fiber material. The batting may be formed to a composite structure that may have a firmness factor sufficient to inhibit a pillowing effect after the stitching to not more than 0.03 inch. The outer insulating layer and an upper portion of the batting adjacent the outer insulating layer may be impregnated with a ceramic coating material.

  16. Capturing Chromosome Conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Job; Rippe, Karsten; Dekker, Martijn; Kleckner, Nancy

    2002-02-01

    We describe an approach to detect the frequency of interaction between any two genomic loci. Generation of a matrix of interaction frequencies between sites on the same or different chromosomes reveals their relative spatial disposition and provides information about the physical properties of the chromatin fiber. This methodology can be applied to the spatial organization of entire genomes in organisms from bacteria to human. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis. We also analyzed yeast chromosome III at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. We found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout. Furthermore, functionally distinct AT- and GC-rich domains were found to exhibit different conformations, and a population-average 3D model of chromosome III could be determined. Chromosome III emerges as a contorted ring.

  17. Comparison of Replica Exchange Simulations of a Kinetically Trapped Protein Conformational State and its Native Form.

    PubMed

    Olson, Mark A; Legler, Patricia M; Goldman, Ellen R

    2016-03-10

    Recently an X-ray crystallographic structure of a single-domain antibody was reported with the protein chain trapped in a rare homodimeric form. One of the conformers appears to exhibit a misfolded region, and thus presumably the configurational stability is less favorable. To investigate whether simulation methods can detect any difference between the conformers and buttress the notion that one conformation is trapped on a pathway that incurs lower activation energy to unfold, adaptive temperature-based replica exchange simulations were applied to each chain to model conformational transitions. Simulation results found that the observed crystallographic difference between the two chains in the complementarity determining region CDR2 induces a stark distinction in conformational populations on the energy landscape. An appraisal of the energetic difference between the CDR2 conformations at 300 K revealed a localized order-disorder free-energy transition of roughly equivalent to two peptide hydrogen bonds in solution. It was also found that interconversion between the conformers is slower than the rate to unfold and that near an unfolding transition temperature one conformer retained a greater fraction of native-like contacts and energy over a longer time span before fully populating the denatured state, thus verifying the coexistence of a metastable conformation in the crystallographic assembly. PMID:26886055

  18. I. Conformational Dynamics of Biological Macromolecules by Polarization-Modulated Fourier Imaging Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Geoffrey A.; Senning, Eric N.; Fink, Michael C.; Marcus, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments that optically probe the translational motions and internal conformational transitions of biological macromolecules have the potential to enable mechanistic studies of biochemical processes in living cells. This work presents a novel `phase-selective' approach to fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy that simultaneously monitors protein conformational transitions and nanometer center-of-mass displacements. Polarization- and intensity-modulated photo-excitation is combined with phase-sensitive signal detection to monitor the collective coordinate fluctuations from a large population of fluorescent molecules (N ~ 106). Test experiments are performed on DsRed, a tetrameric complex of fluorescent protein subunits. Thermally induced conformational transitions of the complex lead to fluctuations in the optical dipolar coupling between adjacent chromophore sites. Polarization-resolved equilibrium fluctuation trajectories provide the raw data necessary to determine time-correlation functions and probability distributions of coordinate displacements, which characterize conformational transitions of the DsRed complex. PMID:19368366

  19. Conformational dynamics data bank: a database for conformational dynamics of proteins and supramolecular protein assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Nyun; Altschuler, Josiah; Strong, Campbell; McGill, Gal; Bathe, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The conformational dynamics data bank (CDDB, http://www.cdyn.org) is a database that aims to provide comprehensive results on the conformational dynamics of high molecular weight proteins and protein assemblies. Analysis is performed using a recently introduced coarse-grained computational approach that is applied to the majority of structures present in the electron microscopy data bank (EMDB). Results include equilibrium thermal fluctuations and elastic strain energy distributions that identify rigid versus flexible protein domains generally, as well as those associated with specific functional transitions, and correlations in molecular motions that identify molecular regions that are highly coupled dynamically, with implications for allosteric mechanisms. A practical web-based search interface enables users to easily collect conformational dynamics data in various formats. The data bank is maintained and updated automatically to include conformational dynamics results for new structural entries as they become available in the EMDB. The CDDB complements static structural information to facilitate the investigation and interpretation of the biological function of proteins and protein assemblies essential to cell function. PMID:21051356

  20. The Principle of Maximum Conformality

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J; Giustino, Di; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    A key problem in making precise perturbative QCD predictions is the uncertainty in determining the renormalization scale of the running coupling {alpha}{sub s}({mu}{sup 2}). It is common practice to guess a physical scale {mu} = Q which is of order of a typical momentum transfer Q in the process, and then vary the scale over a range Q/2 and 2Q. This procedure is clearly problematic since the resulting fixed-order pQCD prediction will depend on the renormalization scheme, and it can even predict negative QCD cross sections at next-to-leading-order. Other heuristic methods to set the renormalization scale, such as the 'principle of minimal sensitivity', give unphysical results for jet physics, sum physics into the running coupling not associated with renormalization, and violate the transitivity property of the renormalization group. Such scale-setting methods also give incorrect results when applied to Abelian QED. Note that the factorization scale in QCD is introduced to match nonperturbative and perturbative aspects of the parton distributions in hadrons; it is present even in conformal theory and thus is a completely separate issue from renormalization scale setting. The PMC provides a consistent method for determining the renormalization scale in pQCD. The PMC scale-fixed prediction is independent of the choice of renormalization scheme, a key requirement of renormalization group invariance. The results avoid renormalon resummation and agree with QED scale-setting in the Abelian limit. The PMC global scale can be derived efficiently at NLO from basic properties of the PQCD cross section. The elimination of the renormalization scheme ambiguity using the PMC will not only increases the precision of QCD tests, but it will also increase the sensitivity of colliders to new physics beyond the Standard Model.

  1. Study on collapse and folding transitions of a lattice protein using exact enumeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, Seung-Yeon; Lee, Julian

    2015-12-01

    We study the conformational transitions of proteins by using the hydrophobic-polar (HP) model on a square lattice. In contrast with previous studies that relied on sampling techniques, we conducted an exhaustive enumeration of all possible conformations to obtain the density of states so that exact physical quantities could be computed. We study the conformational transitions of three sequences with varying lengths and observe both the collapse and folding transitions. The transitions exhibit distinct characteristics that depend on the sequence.

  2. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  3. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  4. Methods to differentiate protein conformers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discrimination and quantitation of protein conformers is an unsolved scientific problem. Many proteins are known to exist in two or more conformations (e.g. PrPc and PrPsc in CJD, CWD, BSE, TME, scrapies; sup35 and ure2p in yeast; CPEB in long term memory formation; huntington and A-beta in neurolog...

  5. Conformation of Oligo(Ethylene Glycol) grafted Poly(Norbornene) in solutions: A Small Angle Neutron Scattering Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Gang; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Hua, Fengjun; Hong, Kunlun; Wignall, George D; Hammouda, B.; Mays, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    The structure of thermo sensitive poly(methoxyoligo(ethylene glycol) norbornenyl esters) homopolymers in dilute solution was investigated by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). The homopolymers consist of a polynorbornene (PNB) backbone with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 50, and each backbone monomer has a grafted Ethylene Glycol (EG) side chain with an average DP of 6.6. The hydrophobic backbone and hydrophilic side chains interact differently with solvents depending on their polarity, which makes the conformation very sensitive to the solvent quality. The polymer conformation was studied in two solvents, d-toluene and D2O, with the aim of understanding the influence of solvent/polymer interactions on the resulting structures. It was found that in a 0.5 wt. % solution in d-toluene the polymers assume wormlike chains and gradually contract with increasing polymer concentration. In a 0.5 wt. % solution in D2O, the polymers are partially contracted at room temperature and their conformation can be described by the form factor of a rigid cylinder. The volume of the cylinder shows no concentration dependence. Furthermore, the polymers in D2O collapse at higher temperatures due to decreasing solubility of the side chains in water.

  6. Conformational stability of dimeric proteins: quantitative studies by equilibrium denaturation.

    PubMed

    Neet, K E; Timm, D E

    1994-12-01

    The conformational stability of dimeric globular proteins can be measured by equilibrium denaturation studies in solvents such as guanidine hydrochloride or urea. Many dimeric proteins denature with a 2-state equilibrium transition, whereas others have stable intermediates in the process. For those proteins showing a single transition of native dimer to denatured monomer, the conformational stabilities, delta Gu (H2O), range from 10 to 27 kcal/mol, which is significantly greater than the conformational stability found for monomeric proteins. The relative contribution of quaternary interactions to the overall stability of the dimer can be estimated by comparing delta Gu (H2O) from equilibrium denaturation studies to the free energy associated with simple dissociation in the absence of denaturant. In many cases the large stabilization energy of dimers is primarily due to the intersubunit interactions and thus gives a rationale for the formation of oligomers. The magnitude of the conformational stability is related to the size of the polypeptide in the subunit and depends upon the type of structure in the subunit interface. The practical use, interpretation, and utility of estimation of conformational stability of dimers by equilibrium denaturation methods are discussed. PMID:7756976

  7. Multiscale enhanced sampling of intrinsically disordered protein conformations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo Hao; Chen, Jianhan

    2016-03-01

    In a recently developed multiscale enhanced sampling (MSES) technique, topology-based coarse-grained (CG) models are coupled to atomistic force fields to enhance the sampling of atomistic protein conformations. Here, the MSES protocol is refined by designing more sophisticated Hamiltonian/temperature replica exchange schemes that involve additional parameters in the MSES coupling restraint potential, to more carefully control how conformations are coupled between the atomistic and CG models. A specific focus is to derive an optimal MSES protocol for simulating conformational ensembles of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). The efficacy of the refined protocols, referred to as MSES-soft asymptote (SA), was evaluated using two model peptides with various levels of residual helicities. The results show that MSES-SA generates more reversible helix-coil transitions and leads to improved convergence on various ensemble conformational properties. This study further suggests that more detailed CG models are likely necessary for more effective sampling of local conformational transition of IDPs. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26052838

  8. Conformational dynamics of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I during catalysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cuiling; Maxwell, Brian A; Suo, Zucai

    2014-08-12

    Despite the fact that DNA polymerases have been investigated for many years and are commonly used as tools in a number of molecular biology assays, many details of the kinetic mechanism they use to catalyze DNA synthesis remain unclear. Structural and kinetic studies have characterized a rapid, pre-catalytic open-to-close conformational change of the Finger domain during nucleotide binding for many DNA polymerases including Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I (Taq Pol), a thermostable enzyme commonly used for DNA amplification in PCR. However, little has been performed to characterize the motions of other structural domains of Taq Pol or any other DNA polymerase during catalysis. Here, we used stopped-flow Frster resonance energy transfer to investigate the conformational dynamics of all five structural domains of the full-length Taq Pol relative to the DNA substrate during nucleotide binding and incorporation. Our study provides evidence for a rapid conformational change step induced by dNTP binding and a subsequent global conformational transition involving all domains of Taq Pol during catalysis. Additionally, our study shows that the rate of the global transition was greatly increased with the truncated form of Taq Pol lacking the N-terminal domain. Finally, we utilized a mutant of Taq Pol containing a de novo disulfide bond to demonstrate that limiting protein conformational flexibility greatly reduced the polymerization activity of Taq Pol. PMID:24931550

  9. Conformal Fermi Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liang; Pajer, Enrico; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-11-01

    Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC) are a useful frame for isolating the locally observable, physical effects of a long-wavelength spacetime perturbation. Their cosmological application, however, is hampered by the fact that they are only valid on scales much smaller than the horizon. We introduce a generalization that we call Conformal Fermi Coordinates (CFC). CFC preserve all the advantages of FNC, but in addition are valid outside the horizon. They allow us to calculate the coupling of long- and short-wavelength modes on all scales larger than the sound horizon of the cosmological fluid, starting from the epoch of inflation until today, by removing the complications of the second order Einstein equations to a large extent, and eliminating all gauge ambiguities. As an application, we present a calculation of the effect of long-wavelength tensor modes on small scale density fluctuations. We recover previous results, but clarify the physical content of the individual contributions in terms of locally measurable effects and ``projection'' terms.

  10. Conformational substates in azurin.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenstein, D; Nienhaus, G U

    1992-01-01

    Azurin is a small blue copper protein in the electron transfer chain of denitrifying bacteria. It forms a photolabile complex with nitric oxide (NO) at low temperatures. We studied the temperature dependence of the ligand binding equilibrium and the kinetics of the association reaction after photodissociation over a wide range of temperature (80-280 K) and time (10(-6)-10(2) s). The nonexponential rebinding below 200 K is independent of the NO concentration and is interpreted as internal recombination. The rebinding can be modeled with the Arrhenius law by using a single preexponential factor of 6.3 x 10(8) s-1 and a Gaussian distribution of enthalpy barriers centered at 23 kJ/mol with a width of 11 kJ/mol. Above 200 K, a slower, exponential rebinding process appears. The dependence of the kinetics on the NO concentration characterizes this reaction as bimolecular rebinding. The binding kinetics of NO to azurin show impressive analogies to the binding of carbon monoxide to myoglobin. We conclude that conformational substates occur not only in heme proteins but also in proteins with different active sites and secondary structures. PMID:1409682

  11. Dynamics of protein conformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Maria

    2010-10-01

    A novel theoretical methodology is introduced to identify dynamic structural domains and analyze local flexibility in proteins. The methodology employs a multiscale approach combining identification of essential collective coordinates based on the covariance analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories, construction of the Mori projection operator with these essential coordinates, and analysis of the corresponding generalized Langevin equations [M.Stepanova, Phys.Rev.E 76(2007)051918]. Because the approach employs a rigorous theory, the outcomes are physically transparent: the dynamic domains are associated with regions of relative rigidity in the protein, whereas off-domain regions are relatively soft. This also allows scoring the flexibility in the macromolecule with atomic-level resolution [N.Blinov, M.Berjanskii, D.S.Wishart, and M.Stepanova, Biochemistry, 48(2009)1488]. The applications include the domain coarse-graining and characterization of conformational stability in protein G and prion proteins. The results are compared with published NMR experiments. Potential applications for structural biology, bioinformatics, and drug design are discussed.

  12. Conformational Dynamics of Insulin

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Qing-Xin; Jia, Wenhua; Weiss, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We have exploited a prandial insulin analog to elucidate the underlying structure and dynamics of insulin as a monomer in solution. A model was provided by insulin lispro (the active component of Humalog®; Eli Lilly and Co.). Whereas NMR-based modeling recapitulated structural relationships of insulin crystals (T-state protomers), dynamic anomalies were revealed by amide-proton exchange kinetics in D2O. Surprisingly, the majority of hydrogen bonds observed in crystal structures are only transiently maintained in solution, including key T-state-specific inter-chain contacts. Long-lived hydrogen bonds (as defined by global exchange kinetics) exist only at a subset of four α-helical sites (two per chain) flanking an internal disulfide bridge (cystine A20–B19); these sites map within the proposed folding nucleus of proinsulin. The anomalous flexibility of insulin otherwise spans its active surface and may facilitate receptor binding. Because conformational fluctuations promote the degradation of pharmaceutical formulations, we envisage that “dynamic re-engineering” of insulin may enable design of ultra-stable formulations for humanitarian use in the developing world. PMID:22649374

  13. Holographic dual of a boundary conformal field theory.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2011-09-01

    We propose a holographic dual of a conformal field theory defined on a manifold with boundaries, i.e., boundary conformal field theory (BCFT). Our new holography, which may be called anti-deSitter BCFT, successfully calculates the boundary entropy or g function in two-dimensional BCFTs and it agrees with the finite part of the holographic entanglement entropy. Moreover, we can naturally derive a holographic g theorem. We also analyze the holographic dual of an interval at finite temperature and show that there is a first order phase transition. PMID:21981491

  14. Holographic Dual of a Boundary Conformal Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2011-09-02

    We propose a holographic dual of a conformal field theory defined on a manifold with boundaries, i.e., boundary conformal field theory (BCFT). Our new holography, which may be called anti-de Sitter BCFT, successfully calculates the boundary entropy or g function in two-dimensional BCFTs and it agrees with the finite part of the holographic entanglement entropy. Moreover, we can naturally derive a holographic g theorem. We also analyze the holographic dual of an interval at finite temperature and show that there is a first order phase transition.

  15. Conformational analysis and circular dichroism of bilirubin, the yellow pigment of jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightner, David A.; Person, Richard; Peterson, Blake; Puzicha, Gisbert; Pu, Yu-Ming; Bojadziev, Stefan

    1991-06-01

    Conformational analysis of (4Z, 15Z)-bilirubin-IX(alpha) by molecular mechanics computations reveals a global energy minimum folded conformation. Powerful added stabilization is achieved through intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Theoretical treatment of bilirubin as a molecular exciton predicts an intense bisignate circular dichroism spectrum for the folded conformation: (Delta) (epsilon) is congruent to 270 L (DOT) mole-1 (DOT) cm-1 for the $OM450 nm electronic transition(s). Synthesis of bilirubin analogs with propionic acid groups methylated at the (alpha) or (beta) position introduces an allosteric effect that allows for an optical resolution of the pigments, with enantiomers exhibiting the theoretically predicted circular dichroism.

  16. Residues Coevolution Guides the Systematic Identification of Alternative Functional Conformations in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sfriso, Pedro; Duran-Frigola, Miquel; Mosca, Roberto; Emperador, Agust; Aloy, Patrick; Orozco, Modesto

    2016-01-01

    We present here a new approach for the systematic identification of functionally relevant conformations in proteins. Our fully automated pipeline, based on discrete molecular dynamics enriched with coevolutionary information, is able to capture alternative conformational states in 76% of the proteins studied, providing key atomic details for understanding their function and mechanism of action. We also demonstrate that, given its sampling speed, our method is well suited to explore structural transitions in a high-throughput manner, and can be used to determine functional conformational transitions at the entire proteome level. PMID:26688214

  17. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2002-02-28

    This technical progress report describes work performed from June 20 through December 19, 2001, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels''. Interest has increased in some new polymeric products that purport to substantially reduce permeability to water while causing minimum permeability reduction to oil. In view of this interest, we are currently studying BJ's Aqua Con. Results from six corefloods revealed that the Aqua Con gelant consistently reduced permeability to water more than that to oil. However, the magnitude of the disproportionate permeability reduction varied significantly for the various experiments. Thus, as with most materials tested to date, the issue of reproducibility and control of the disproportionate permeability remains to be resolved. Concern exists about the ability of gels to resist washout after placement in fractures. We examined whether a width constriction in the middle of a fracture would cause different gel washout behavior upstream versus downstream of the constriction. Tests were performed using a formed Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel in a 48-in.-long fracture with three sections of equal length, but with widths of 0.08-, 0.02-, and 0.08-in., respectively. The pressure gradients during gel extrusion (i.e., placement) were similar in the two 0.08-in.-wide fracture sections, even though they were separated by a 0.02-in.-wide fracture section. The constriction associated with the middle fracture section may have inhibited gel washout during the first pulse of brine injection after gel placement. However, during subsequent phases of brine injection, the constriction did not inhibit washout in the upstream fracture section any more than in the downstream section.

  18. Dark matter from conformal sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Durmuş Ali; Frank, Mariana; Korutlu, Beste

    2014-01-01

    We show that a conformal-invariant dark sector, interacting conformally with the Standard Model (SM) fields through the Higgs portal, provides a viable framework where cold dark matter (CDM) and invisible Higgs decays can be addressed concurrently. Conformal symmetry naturally subsumes the Z2 symmetry needed for stability of the CDM. It also guarantees that the weaker the couplings of the dark sector fields to the SM Higgs field, the smaller the masses they acquire through electroweak breaking. The model comfortably satisfies the bounds from Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Planck Space Telescope (PLANCK 2013).

  19. Polyproline II conformation is one of many local conformational states and is not an overall conformation of unfolded peptides and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Makowska, Joanna; Rodziewicz-Motowid?o, Sylwia; Bagi?ska, Katarzyna; Vila, Jorge A.; Liwo, Adam; Chmurzy?ski, Lech; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2006-01-01

    The alanine-based peptide Ac-XX(A)7OO-NH2, referred to as XAO (where X, A, and O denote diaminobutyric acid, alanine, and ornithine, respectively), has recently been proposed to possess a well defined polyproline II (PII) conformation at low temperatures. Based on the results of extensive NMR and CD investigations combined with theoretical calculations, reported here, we present evidence that, on the contrary, this peptide does not have any significant amount of organized PII structure but exists in an ensemble of conformations with a distorted bend in the N- and C-terminal regions. The conformational ensemble was obtained by molecular dynamics/simulated annealing calculations using the amber suite of programs with time-averaged distance and dihedral-angle restraints obtained from rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser effect (ROE) volumes and vicinal coupling constants 3JHN??, respectively. The computed ensemble-averaged radius of gyration Rg (7.4 1.0) is in excellent agreement with that measured by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) whereas, if the XAO peptide were in the PII conformation, Rg would be 11.6 . Depending on the pH, peptide concentration, and temperature, the CD spectra of XAO do or do not possess the maximum with positive ellipticity in the 217-nm region, which is characteristic of the PII structure, reflecting a shifting conformational equilibrium rather than an all-or-none transition. The PII conformation should, therefore, be considered as one of the accessible conformational states of individual amino acid residues in peptides and proteins rather than as a structure of most of the chain in the early stage of folding. PMID:16446433

  20. Conformational Landscape of Nicotinoids: Solving the "conformational - Rity" of Anabasine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesarri, Alberto; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Evangelisti, Luca; Suenram, Richard D.; Caminati, Walther; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2010-06-01

    The conformational landscape of the alkaloid anabasine (neonicotine) has been investigated using rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The results allow a detailed comparison of the structural properties of the prototype piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nicotinoids (anabasine vs. nicotine). Anabasine adopts two most stable conformations in isolation conditions, for which we determined accurate rotational and nuclear quadrupole coupling parameters. The preferred conformations are characterized by an equatorial pyridine moiety and additional N-H equatorial stereochemistry at the piperidine ring (Eq-Eq). The two rings of anabasine are close to a bisecting arrangement, with the observed conformations differing in a ca. 180° rotation of the pyridine subunit, denoted either Syn or Anti. The preference of anabasine for the Eq-Eq-Syn conformation has been established by relative intensity measurements (Syn/Anti˜5(2)). The conformational preferences of free anabasine are directed by a N\\cdot\\cdot\\cdotH-C weak hydrogen bond interaction between the nitrogen lone pair at piperidine and the closest hydrogen bond in pyridine, with N\\cdot\\cdot\\cdotN distances ranging from 4.750 Å (Syn) to 4.233 Å (Anti). R. J. Lavrich, R. D. Suenram, D. F. Plusquellic and S. Davis, 58^th OSU Int. Symp. on Mol. Spectrosc., Columbus, OH, 2003, Comm. RH13.

  1. Molecular insight into conformational transmission of human P-glycoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shan-Yan; Liu, Fu-Feng; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2013-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a kind of ATP-binding cassette transporter, can export candidates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Considerable evidence has indicated that human P-gp undergoes large-scale conformational changes to export a wide variety of anti-cancer drugs out of the cancer cells. However, molecular mechanism of the conformational transmission of human P-gp from the NBDs to the TMDs is still unclear. Herein, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the atomic detail of the conformational transmission of human P-gp. It is confirmed that the conformational transition from the inward- to outward-facing is initiated by the movement of the NBDs. It is found that the two NBDs move both on the two directions (x and y). The movement on the x direction leads to the closure of the NBDs, while the movement on the y direction adjusts the conformations of the NBDs to form the correct ATP binding pockets. Six key segments (KSs) protruding from the TMDs to interact with the NBDs are identified. The relative movement of the KSs along the y axis driven by the NBDs can be transmitted through ?-helices to the rest of the TMDs, rendering the TMDs to open towards periplasm in the outward-facing conformation. Twenty eight key residue pairs are identified to participate in the interaction network that contributes to the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs of human P-gp. In addition, 9 key residues in each NBD are also identified. The studies have thus provided clear insight into the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs in human P-gp.

  2. Molecular insight into conformational transmission of human P-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shan-Yan; Liu, Fu-Feng E-mail: ysun@tju.edu.cn; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan E-mail: ysun@tju.edu.cn; Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering , Tianjin 300072

    2013-12-14

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a kind of ATP-binding cassette transporter, can export candidates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Considerable evidence has indicated that human P-gp undergoes large-scale conformational changes to export a wide variety of anti-cancer drugs out of the cancer cells. However, molecular mechanism of the conformational transmission of human P-gp from the NBDs to the TMDs is still unclear. Herein, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the atomic detail of the conformational transmission of human P-gp. It is confirmed that the conformational transition from the inward- to outward-facing is initiated by the movement of the NBDs. It is found that the two NBDs move both on the two directions (x and y). The movement on the x direction leads to the closure of the NBDs, while the movement on the y direction adjusts the conformations of the NBDs to form the correct ATP binding pockets. Six key segments (KSs) protruding from the TMDs to interact with the NBDs are identified. The relative movement of the KSs along the y axis driven by the NBDs can be transmitted through α-helices to the rest of the TMDs, rendering the TMDs to open towards periplasm in the outward-facing conformation. Twenty eight key residue pairs are identified to participate in the interaction network that contributes to the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs of human P-gp. In addition, 9 key residues in each NBD are also identified. The studies have thus provided clear insight into the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs in human P-gp.

  3. Transition States and transition state analogue interactions with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Vern L

    2015-04-21

    Enzymatic transition states have lifetimes of a few femtoseconds (fs). Computational analysis of enzyme motions leading to transition state formation suggests that local catalytic site motions on the fs time scale provide the mechanism to locate transition states. An experimental test of protein fs motion and its relation to transition state formation can be provided by isotopically heavy proteins. Heavy enzymes have predictable mass-altered bond vibration states without altered electrostatic properties, according to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. On-enzyme chemistry is slowed in most heavy proteins, consistent with altered protein bond frequencies slowing the search for the transition state. In other heavy enzymes, structural changes involved in reactant binding and release are also influenced. Slow protein motions associated with substrate binding and catalytic site preorganization are essential to allow the subsequent fs motions to locate the transition state and to facilitate the efficient release of products. In the catalytically competent geometry, local groups move in stochastic atomic motion on the fs time scale, within transition state-accessible conformations created by slower protein motions. The fs time scale for the transition state motions does not permit thermodynamic equilibrium between the transition state and stable enzyme states. Isotopically heavy enzymes provide a diagnostic tool for fast coupled protein motions to transition state formation and mass-dependent conformational changes. The binding of transition state analogue inhibitors is the opposite in catalytic time scale to formation of the transition state but is related by similar geometries of the enzyme-transition state and enzyme-inhibitor interactions. While enzymatic transition states have lifetimes as short as 10(-15) s, transition state analogues can bind tightly to enzymes with release rates greater than 10(3) s. Tight-binding transition state analogues stabilize the rare but evolved enzymatic geometry to form the transition state. Evolution to efficient catalysis optimized this geometry and its stabilization by a transition state mimic results in tight binding. Release rates of transition state analogues are orders of magnitude slower than product release in normal catalytic function. During catalysis, product release is facilitated by altered chemistry. Compared to the weak associations found in Michaelis complexes, transition state analogues involve strong interactions related to those in the transition state. Optimum binding of transition state analogues occurs when the complex retains the system motions intrinsic to transition state formation. Conserved dynamic motion retains the entropic components of inhibitor complexes, improving the thermodynamics of analogue binding. PMID:25848811

  4. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    SciTech Connect

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A

    2011-09-01

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that it does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.

  5. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A

    2011-09-01

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that itmore » does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.« less

  6. Conformal mapping of rectangular heptagons

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatyrev, Andrei B

    2012-12-31

    A new effective approach to calculating the direct and inverse conformal mapping of rectangular polygons onto a half-plane is put forward; it is based on the use of Riemann theta functions. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  7. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-03-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from September 1, 2003, through February 29, 2004, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' We examined the properties of several ''partially formed'' gels that were formulated with a combination of high and low molecular weight HPAM polymers. After placement in 4-mm-wide fractures, these gels required about 25 psi/ft for brine to breach the gel (the best performance to date in fractures this wide). After this breach, stabilized residual resistance factors decreased significantly with increased flow rate. Also, residual resistance factors were up to 9 times greater for water than for oil. Nevertheless, permeability reduction factors were substantial for both water and oil flow. Gel with 2.5% chopped fiberglass effectively plugged 4-mm-wide fractures if a 0.5-mm-wide constriction was present. The ability to screen-out at a constriction appears crucial for particulate incorporation to be useful in plugging fractures. In addition to fiberglass, we examined incorporation of polypropylene fibers into gels. Once dispersed in brine or gelant, the polypropylene fibers exhibited the least gravity segregation of any particulate that we have tested to date. In fractures with widths of at least 2 mm, 24-hr-old gels (0.5% high molecular weight HPAM) with 0.5% fiber did not exhibit progressive plugging during placement and showed extrusion pressure gradients similar to those of gels without the fiber. The presence of the fiber roughly doubled the gel's resistance to first breach by brine flow. The breaching pressure gradients were not as large as for gels made with high and low molecular weight polymers (mentioned above). However, their material requirements and costs (i.e., polymer and/or particulate concentrations) were substantially lower than for those gels. A partially formed gel made with 0.5% HPAM did not enter a 0.052-mm-wide fracture when applying a pressure gradient of 65 psi/ft. This result suggests a lower limit of fracture width for entry of formed or partially formed gels (when reasonable pressure gradients are applied). In unfractured porous rock, we investigated the time dependence of oil and water permeabilities during various cycles of oil and water injection after placement of a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel. Permeability to water stabilized rapidly (within 1 pore volume, PV), while permeability to oil stabilized gradually over the course of 100 PV. The behavior was surprisingly insensitive to core material (strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene), core permeability (740 to 10,000 md), and applied pressure gradient (10 to 100 psi/ft).

  8. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate, (3) using partially formed gels, (4) using combinations of high and low molecular weight (Mw) polymers, (5) using secondary crosslinking reactions, (6) injecting un-hydrated polymer particles, and (7) incorporating particulates. All of these methods showed promise in some aspects, but required performance improvements in other aspects. All materials investigated to date showed significant performance variations with fracture width. High pressure gradients and limited distance of penetration are common problems in tight fractures. Gravity segregation and low resistance to breaching are common problems in wide fractures. These will be key issues to address in future work. Although gels can exhibit disproportionate permeability reduction in fractures, the levels of permeability reduction for oil flow are too high to allow practical exploitation in most circumstances. In contrast, disproportionate permeability reduction provided by gels that form in porous rock (adjacent to the fractures) has considerable potential in fractured systems.

  9. Sewing conformal field theories I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, Hidenori

    1988-12-01

    There is a well-defined prescription for sewing two Riemann surfaces. When a conformal field theory is defined on the original surfaces, how to extend the theory to the sewn surface becomes a problem. In this paper we treat the problem field theoretically, present a prescription for sewing, and check its consistency. We also show that any conformal field theory admits an operator formulation.

  10. Scale invariance vs conformal invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this review article, we discuss the distinction and possible equivalence between scale invariance and conformal invariance in relativistic quantum field theories. Under some technical assumptions, we can prove that scale invariant quantum field theories in d = 2 space-time dimensions necessarily possess the enhanced conformal symmetry. The use of the conformal symmetry is well appreciated in the literature, but the fact that all the scale invariant phenomena in d = 2 space-time dimensions enjoy the conformal property relies on the deep structure of the renormalization group. The outstanding question is whether this feature is specific to d = 2 space-time dimensions or it holds in higher dimensions, too. As of January 2014, our consensus is that there is no known example of scale invariant but non-conformal field theories in d = 4 space-time dimensions under the assumptions of (1) unitarity, (2) Poincar invariance (causality), (3) discrete spectrum in scaling dimensions, (4) existence of scale current and (5) unbroken scale invariance in the vacuum. We have a perturbative proof of the enhancement of conformal invariance from scale invariance based on the higher dimensional analogue of Zamolodchikov's c-theorem, but the non-perturbative proof is yet to come. As a reference we have tried to collect as many interesting examples of scale invariance in relativistic quantum field theories as possible in this article. We give a complementary holographic argument based on the energy-condition of the gravitational system and the space-time diffeomorphism in order to support the claim of the symmetry enhancement. We believe that the possible enhancement of conformal invariance from scale invariance reveals the sublime nature of the renormalization group and space-time with holography. This review is based on a lecture note on scale invariance vs conformal invariance, on which the author gave lectures at Taiwan Central University for the 5th Taiwan School on Strings and Fields.

  11. Conformational mobility in cyclic oligopeptides.

    PubMed

    Kopple, K D; Bean, J W; Bhandary, K K; Briand, J; D'Ambrosio, C A; Peishoff, C E

    1993-07-01

    Analysis of two isomeric cyclic hexapeptides of composition (Asp, Arg, Gly2, Pro, D-Pro) by a nuclear Overhauser effect constrained distance geometry conformation search yielded a narrowly defined backbone conformation for one and considerable ambiguity about the conformation in part of the other. Preliminary 13C relaxation studies of these peptides suggest that it is possible that this difference may correspond to a physical difference in internal mobility. In connection with this observation, other experimental evidence bearing on the backbone conformational mobility of cyclic oligopeptides with 4-10 residues, frequently considered to have well-defined backbones, is reviewed. Conformational heterogeneity involving rotation of a peptide bond plane relative to the overall ring plane is identified as a common phenomenon. Nuclear magnetic resonance line-shape studies at temperatures down to 200 K can detect backbone motions with activation free energy barriers down to about 10 kcal/mole, but conformational exchange with lower barriers, though detectable in other ways, will not be obvious from nmr spectra alone. PMID:8102073

  12. Differential equations and conformal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurowski, Paweł

    2005-09-01

    We provide five examples of conformal geometries which are naturally associated with ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The first example describes a one-to-one correspondence between the Wuenschmann class of third order ODEs considered modulo contact transformations of variables and (local) three-dimensional conformal Lorentzian geometries. The second example shows that every point equivalent class of third order ODEs satisfying the Wuenschmann and the Cartan conditions define a three-dimensional Lorentzian-Einstein-Weyl geometry. The third example associates to each point equivalence class of third order ODEs a six-dimensional conformal geometry of neutral signature. The fourth example exhibits the one-to-one correspondence between point equivalent classes of second order ODEs and four-dimensional conformal Fefferman-like metrics of neutral signature. The fifth example shows the correspondence between undetermined ODEs of the Monge type and conformal geometries of signature (3, 2). The Cartan normal conformal connection for these geometries is reducible to the Cartan connection with values in the Lie algebra of the noncompact form of the exceptional group G2. All the examples are deeply rooted in Elie Cartan's works on exterior differential systems.

  13. Probing biopolymer conformation by metallization with noble metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ning; Zinchenko, Anatoly A.; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2006-10-01

    We propose a novel method for the simple visual (colorimetric) and spectroscopic monitoring of the conformational state of a biopolymer. We present an experimental example of the detection of the change in the conformation of a giant DNA molecule. This methodology is based on the difference in the manner of metallization with noble metals on a polymer scaffold depending on its conformation. Spectroscopic analysis of the metallization of DNA by metallic silver or gold provides information on the critical concentration of DNA binder, at which the folding transition from the elongated into the compact state occurs, together with the dimension and morphology of a compact DNA condensate. This method may be suitable for use in a rapid screening procedure for the high-throughput analysis of large chemical libraries to evaluate their ability to induce DNA compaction, protein folding and similar important processes.

  14. Computational Investigation of Conformational Changes in Proteins upon Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumit; Anand, Gaurav; Belfort, Georges; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2009-03-01

    Amyloidogenic diseases, such as, Alzheimer's, are caused by adsorption and aggregation of partially unfolded proteins. Protein adsorption is often accompanied by conformational rearrangements, which are thought to affect many properties such as their adhesion strength to the surface, biological activity, and aggregation tendency. Experiments have shown that many proteins, upon adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces, undergo a helix to sheet or random coil secondary structural rearrangement. To better understand the equilibrium structural complexities of this phenomenon, we have performed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and Single Chain Mean Field calculations of adsorption of different proteins, modeled as lattice chains, to study the adsorption behavior and equilibrium protein conformations at different temperatures, protein concentration and surface hydrophobicity. Free energy and entropic effects on adsorption have been studied by determining density of states using Weighted Histogram Analysis Method. Conformational transitions of proteins on surfaces will be discussed as a function of surface hydrophobicity.

  15. The Influence of Two-Dimensional Organization on Peptide Conformation**

    PubMed Central

    White, Simon J; Johnson, Steven D; Sellick, Mark A; Bronowska, Agnieszka; Stockley, Peter G; Wälti, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Molecular crowding plays a significant role in regulating molecular conformation in cellular environments. It is also likely to be important wherever high molecular densities are required, for example in surface-phase studies, in which molecular densities generally far exceed those observed in solution. Using on-surface circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, we have investigated the structure of a synthetic peptide assembled into a highly packed monolayer. The immobilized peptide undergoes a structural transition between α-helical and random coil conformation upon changes in pH and ionic concentration, but critically the threshold for conformational change is altered dramatically by molecular crowding within the peptide monolayer. This study highlights the often overlooked role molecular crowding plays in regulating molecular structure and function in surface-phase studies of biological molecules. PMID:25413024

  16. Conformational activation of visual rhodopsin in native disc membranes.

    PubMed

    Malmerberg, Erik; M Bovee-Geurts, Petra H; Katona, Gergely; Deupi, Xavier; Arnlund, David; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Johansson, Linda C; Westenhoff, Sebastian; Nazarenko, Elena; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Menzel, Andreas; de Grip, Willem J; Neutze, Richard

    2015-03-10

    Rhodopsin is the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that serves as a dim-light receptor for vision in vertebrates. We probed light-induced conformational changes in rhodopsin in its native membrane environment at room temperature using time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering. We observed a rapid conformational transition that is consistent with an outward tilt of the cytoplasmic portion of transmembrane helix 6 concomitant with an inward movement of the cytoplasmic portion of transmembrane helix 5. These movements were considerably larger than those reported from the basis of crystal structures of activated rhodopsin, implying that light activation of rhodopsin involves a more extended conformational change than was previously suggested. PMID:25759477

  17. Conformal Magnifier: A Focus+Context Technique with Minimal Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Zeng, Wei; Gu, Xianfeng; Kaufman, Arie; Xu, Wei; Mueller, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We present the conformal magnifier, a novel interactive Focus+Context visualization technique to magnify a region of interest (ROI) using conformal mapping. Our framework allows the user to design an arbitrary magnifier to enlarge the features of interest while deforming part of the remaining areas without any cropping. By using conformal mapping, the ROI is magnified with minimal distortion, while the transition region is a smooth and continuous deformation between the focus and context regions. An interactive interface is designed for the user to select important features, design focus models of arbitrary shape and set deformation constraints to satisfy his/her specified requirements. We demonstrate the effectiveness, robustness and efficiency of our method using several applications: texts, maps, geographic images, data structures and multi-media visualization. PMID:26279613

  18. Conformational fluctuations of the AXH monomer of Ataxin-1.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Gianvito; Deriu, Marco A; Tuszynski, Jack A; Gallo, Diego; Morbiducci, Umberto; Danani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of AXH monomer of Ataxin-1. The AXH domain plays a crucial role in Ataxin-1 aggregation, which accompanies the initiation and progression of Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. Our simulations involving both classical and replica exchange molecular dynamics, followed by principal component analysis of the trajectories obtained, reveal substantial conformational fluctuations of the protein structure, especially in the N-terminal region. We show that these fluctuations can be generated by thermal noise since the free energy barriers between conformations are small enough for thermally stimulated transitions. In agreement with the previous experimental findings, our results can be considered as a basis for a future design of ataxin aggregation inhibitors that will require several key conformations identified in the present study as molecular targets for ligand binding. Proteins 2016; 84:52-59. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26522012

  19. Conformation of viroids.

    PubMed Central

    Henco, K; Riesner, D; Sanger, H L

    1977-01-01

    Viroids are uncoated infectious RNA molecules (MW 107 000-127 000) known as pathogens of certain higher plants. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies were carried out on highly purified viroid preparations by applying UV-absorption melting analysis and temperature jump methods. The thermal denaturation of viroids is characterized by high thermal stability, high cooperativity and a high degree of base pairing. Two relaxation processes could be resolved; a process in the sec range could be evaluated as an independent all-or-none-transition with the following properties: reaction enthalpy= 550 kcal/mol, activation enthalpy of the dissociation = 470 kcal/mol; G : C content = 72 %. These data indicate the existence of an uninterrupted double helix of 52 base pairs. A process in the msec range involves 15 - 25 base pairs which are most probably distributed over several short double helical stretches. A tentative model for the secondary structure of viroids isproposed and the possible functional implications of their physicochemical properties are discussed. PMID:866174

  20. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the flow capacity of fractures (with widths from 1 to 4 mm) during brine and oil flow after placement. Regardless of gel age before placement, very little gel washed out from the fractures during brine or oil flow. However, increased brine or oil flow rate and cyclic injection of oil and water significantly decreased the level of permeability reduction. A particular need exists for gels that can plug large apertures (e.g., wide fractures and vugs). Improved mechanical strength and stability were demonstrated (in 1- to 4-mm-wide fractures) for a gel that contained a combination of high- and low-molecular weight polymers. This gel reduced the flow capacity of 2- and 4-mm-wide fractures by 260,000. In a 1-mm-wide fracture, it withstood 26 psi/ft without allowing any brine flow through the fracture. Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gels exhibited disproportionate permeability reduction in fractures. The effect was most pronounced when the gel was placed as gelant or partially formed gels. The effect occurred to a modest extent with concentrated gels and with gels that were ''fully formed'' when placed. The effect was not evident in tubes. We explored swelling polymers for plugging fractures. Polymer suspensions were quickly prepared and injected. In concept, the partially dissolved polymer would lodge and swell to plug the fracture. For three types of swelling polymers, behavior was promising. However, additional development is needed before their performance will be superior to that of conventional gels.

  1. Microwave spectrum, conformation, and low frequency vibrational spectrum of cyclopropylisothiocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durig, J. R.; Nease, A. B.; Berry, R. J.; Sullivan, J. F.; Li, Y. S.; Wurrey, C. J.

    1986-04-01

    The microwave spectrum of cyclopropylisothiocyanate, c-C3H5NCS, has been investigated in the region from 12.5 to 40.0 GHz. Two sets of a-type R-branch transitions were observed and assigned, on the basis of the rigid rotor model, to the trans and cis conformers. One excited vibrational state for each conformer was also identified and tentatively assigned as the asymmetric NCS torsion. The B and C rotational constants in the ground vibrational state for the trans and cis conformers of c-C3H5NCS were found to be: B=1122.6890.002, C=1095.6190.002 MHz, and B=1346.8590.003, C=1309.1660.002 MHz, respectively. The values of the A rotational constants for both conformers were not well determined because the measured transitions are not very sensitive to these constants. The dipole moment components were determined for the trans conformer from the Stark effect to be ??a?=3.110.02, ??c?=0.620.01, and ??t?=3.170.01 D and for the cis conformer to be ??a?=3.340.01, ??b?=0.270.07, and ??t?=3.350.01 D. With reasonably assumed structural parameters for the cyclopropyl moiety and bond distances for the isothiocyanate group, the other structural parameters were calculated from the rotational constants by the diagnostic least squares method to be: r(C-N)=1.3900.016 ,?CNC=143.84.2 , and ?CCN=118.70.1 for the trans conformer and r(C-N)=1.4140.017 , ?CNC=144.41.1, and ?CCN=118.62.3 for the cis conformer. The far infrared spectrum of the vapor was also recorded and the C-N=C bend was observed at 104 cm-1 but little evidence could be found for the second conformer in the vibrational spectrum. These results are compared to the corresponding ones in some related molecules.

  2. Extensive Conformational Heterogeneity within Protein Cores

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Basic principles of statistical mechanics require that proteins sample an ensemble of conformations at any nonzero temperature. However, it is still common to treat the crystallographic structure of a protein as the structure of its native state, largely because high-resolution structural characterization of protein flexibility remains a profound challenge. To assess the typical degree of conformational heterogeneity within folded proteins, we construct Markov state models describing the thermodynamics and kinetics of proteins ranging from 72 to 263 residues in length. Each of these models is built from hundreds of microseconds of atomically detailed molecular dynamics simulations. Examination of the side-chain degrees of freedom reveals that almost every residue visits at least two rotameric states over this time frame, with rotamer transition rates spanning a wide range of time scales (from nanoseconds to tens of microseconds). We also report substantial backbone dynamics on time scales longer than are typically addressed by experimental measures of protein flexibility, such as NMR order parameters. Finally, we demonstrate that these extensive rearrangements are consistent with NMR and crystallographic data, which supports the validity of our models. Altogether, these results depict the interior of proteins not as well-ordered solids, as is often imagined, but instead as dense fluids, which undergo substantial structural fluctuations despite their high packing fraction. PMID:24564338

  3. To conform or not to conform: spontaneous conformity diminishes the sensitivity to monetary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjun; Sun, Sai

    2013-01-01

    When people have different opinions in a group, they often adjust their own attitudes and behaviors to match the group opinion, known as social conformity. The affiliation account of normative conformity states that people conform to norms in order to 'fit in', whereas the accuracy account of informative conformity posits that the motive to learn from others produces herding. Here, we test another possibility that following the crowd reduces the experienced negative emotion when the group decision turns out to be a bad one. Using event related potential (ERP) combined with a novel group gambling task, we found that participants were more likely to choose the option that was predominately chosen by other players in previous trials, although there was little explicit normative pressure at the decision stage and group choices were not informative. When individuals' choices were different from others, the feedback related negativity (FRN), an ERP component sensitive to losses and errors, was enhanced, suggesting that being independent is aversive. At the outcome stage, the losses minus wins FRN effect was significantly reduced following conformity choices than following independent choices. Analyses of the P300 revealed similar patterns both in the response and outcome period. Our study suggests that social conformity serves as an emotional buffer that protects individuals from experiencing strong negative emotion when the outcomes are bad. PMID:23691242

  4. Analysis of the stability of looped-out and stacked-in conformations of an adenine bulge in DNA using a continuum model for solvent and ions.

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, M; Sklenar, H

    1997-01-01

    A combination of conformational search, energy minimization, and energetic evaluation using a continuum solvent treatment has been employed to study the stability of various conformations of the DNA fragment d(CGCAGAA)/d(TTCGCG) containing a single adenine bulge. The extra-helical (looped-out) bulge conformation derived from a published x-ray structure and intra-helical (stacked bulge base) model structures partially based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data were used as start structures for the conformational search. Solvent-dependent contributions to the stability of the conformations were calculated from the solvent exposed molecular surface area and by using the finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann approach. Three classes (I-III) of bulge conformations with calculated low energies can be distinguished. The lowest-energy conformations were found in class I, corresponding to structures with the bulge base stacked between flanking helices, and class II, composed of structures forming a triplet of the bulge base and a flanking base pair. All extra-helical bulge structures, forming class III, were found to be less stable compared with the lowest energy structures of class I and II. The results are consistent with NMR data on an adenine bulge in the same sequence context indicating an intra-helical or triplet bulge conformation in solution. Although the total energies and total electrostatic energies of the low-energy conformations show only relatively modest variations, the energetic contributions to the stability were found to vary significantly among the classes of bulge structures. All intra-helical bulge structures are stabilized by a more favorable Coulomb charge-charge interaction but destabilized by a larger electrostatic reaction field contribution compared with all extra-helical and most triplet bulge structures. Van der Waals packing interactions and nonpolar surface-area-dependent contributions appear to favor triplet class II structures and to a lesser degree also the intra-helical stacked bulge conformations. The large conformational variation found for class III conformers might add a favorable entropic contribution to the stability of the extra-helical bulge form. PMID:9414214

  5. 40 CFR 93.154 - Conformity analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 93.154 Section 93...) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 93.154 Conformity analysis. Any...

  6. Conformal map modeling of the pinning transition in Laplacian growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, H. G.; Popescu, M. N.; Family, F.

    2002-03-01

    In Laplacian growth processes pinning may be expected due to a nonlinear response of a material during dielectric breakdown, or due to stick-slip boundary conditions in two-fluid flow in a porous medium, while thermal noise will lead to depinning. Using a method recently proposed by Hastings and Levitov, the size Rmax~E-αc of the pinned pattern is shown to scale with the critical field Ec (electric field for dielectric breakdown, pressure gradient for fluid flow). These pinned patterns have a lower effective fractal dimension df than diffusion-limited aggregation due to the enhancement of growth at the hot tips of the developing pattern. At finite temperature, thermal noise leads to depinning and growth of patterns with a shape and dimensionality dependent on both Ec and the thermal noise. Using multifractal analysis, scaling expressions are established for this dependency.

  7. Solvation and conformational dynamics of dicarboxylic suberic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, J. Arvid; Laaksonen, A.; Eriksson, Leif A.

    1998-08-01

    Solvation structure and conformational preferences of the dicarboxylic suberic acid, HOOC(CH2)6COOH, both neutral and protolyzed in water and neutral in methanol have been studied using molecular-dynamics (MO) computer simulations. According to results from MD simulations in water solution, the backbone hydrocarbon chain shows a very clear tendency to curl up into a helical structure, forming either a tgggt or a tg'g'g't conformation. The carboxylic head groups are strongly hydrated in the water solution, while the hydrophobic hydrocarbon skeleton is surrounded by water molecules in a packed structure. In the helical conformation, the surface area of the nonpolar part of the fatty acid is minimized against water phase. Transitions between the right and the left-handed helices are observed in neutral and mono-anionic forms of suberic acid in water solution. Suberic acid dissolved in methanol does not show any conformational preferences. Along the hydrocarbon chain, g, g', and t conformers are equally populated. The head group torsional angles, however, strongly prefer trans conformation due to dipolar interactions between the carboxyl groups and the solvent hydroxyl groups. In addition to MD simulations, corresponding water and methanol solutions are prepared and 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) chemical shifts are measured in both solutions. Using a time-averaged geometry for suberic acid from MD simulations in water, chemical shielding constants are calculated quantum chemically. Agreement between the theoretical and the experimental chemical shifts is good, and gives indirect support to the simulated conformations of suberic acid in the investigated solutions. The simulation results are also consistent with recent Raman investigations of suberic acid in both water and methanol solutions.

  8. From residue coevolution to protein conformational ensembles and functional dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sutto, Ludovico; Marsili, Simone; Valencia, Alfonso; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of evolutionary amino acid correlations has recently attracted a surge of renewed interest, also due to their successful use in de novo protein native structure prediction. However, many aspects of protein function, such as substrate binding and product release in enzymatic activity, can be fully understood only in terms of an equilibrium ensemble of alternative structures, rather than a single static structure. In this paper we combine coevolutionary data and molecular dynamics simulations to study protein conformational heterogeneity. To that end, we adapt the Boltzmann-learning algorithm to the analysis of homologous protein sequences and develop a coarse-grained protein model specifically tailored to convert the resulting contact predictions to a protein structural ensemble. By means of exhaustive sampling simulations, we analyze the set of conformations that are consistent with the observed residue correlations for a set of representative protein domains, showing that (i) the most representative structure is consistent with the experimental fold and (ii) the various regions of the sequence display different stability, related to multiple biologically relevant conformations and to the cooperativity of the coevolving pairs. Moreover, we show that the proposed protocol is able to reproduce the essential features of a protein folding mechanism as well as to account for regions involved in conformational transitions through the correct sampling of the involved conformers. PMID:26487681

  9. Josephin Domain Structural Conformations Explored by Metadynamics in Essential Coordinates

    PubMed Central

    Tuszynski, Jack A.; Gallo, Diego; Morbiducci, Umberto; Danani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The Josephin Domain (JD), i.e. the N-terminal domain of Ataxin 3 (At3) protein, is an interesting example of competition between physiological function and aggregation risk. In fact, the fibrillogenesis of Ataxin 3, responsible for the spinocerebbellar ataxia 3, is strictly related to the JD thermodynamic stability. Whereas recent NMR studies have demonstrated that different JD conformations exist, the likelihood of JD achievable conformational states in solution is still an open issue. Marked differences in the available NMR models are located in the hairpin region, supporting the idea that JD has a flexible hairpin in dynamic equilibrium between open and closed states. In this work we have carried out an investigation on the JD conformational arrangement by means of both classical molecular dynamics (MD) and Metadynamics employing essential coordinates as collective variables. We provide a representation of the free energy landscape characterizing the transition pathway from a JD open-like structure to a closed-like conformation. Findings of our in silico study strongly point to the closed-like conformation as the most likely for a Josephin Domain in water. PMID:26745628

  10. Josephin Domain Structural Conformations Explored by Metadynamics in Essential Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Deriu, Marco A; Grasso, Gianvito; Tuszynski, Jack A; Gallo, Diego; Morbiducci, Umberto; Danani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The Josephin Domain (JD), i.e. the N-terminal domain of Ataxin 3 (At3) protein, is an interesting example of competition between physiological function and aggregation risk. In fact, the fibrillogenesis of Ataxin 3, responsible for the spinocerebbellar ataxia 3, is strictly related to the JD thermodynamic stability. Whereas recent NMR studies have demonstrated that different JD conformations exist, the likelihood of JD achievable conformational states in solution is still an open issue. Marked differences in the available NMR models are located in the hairpin region, supporting the idea that JD has a flexible hairpin in dynamic equilibrium between open and closed states. In this work we have carried out an investigation on the JD conformational arrangement by means of both classical molecular dynamics (MD) and Metadynamics employing essential coordinates as collective variables. We provide a representation of the free energy landscape characterizing the transition pathway from a JD open-like structure to a closed-like conformation. Findings of our in silico study strongly point to the closed-like conformation as the most likely for a Josephin Domain in water. PMID:26745628

  11. A threaded loop conformation adopted by a family of peptoid nonamers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai; Wu, Cindy W; Sanborn, Tracy J; Patch, James A; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Zuckermann, Ronald N; Barron, Annelise E; Radhakrishnan, Ishwar

    2006-02-01

    Non-natural polymers with well-defined three-dimensional folds offer considerable potential for engineering novel functions that are outside the scope of biological polymers. Here we describe a family of N-substituted glycine or "peptoid" nonamers that folds into an unusual "threaded loop" structure of exceptional thermal stability and conformational homogeneity in acetonitrile. The structure is chain-length-specific and relies on bulky, chiral side chains and chain-terminating functional groups for stability. Notable elements of the structure include the engagement of the positively charged amino terminus by carbonyl groups of the backbone through hydrogen bonding interactions and shielding of polar groups from and near-complete exposure of hydrophobic groups to solvent, in a manner resembling a folded polypeptide globular domain turned inside-out. The structure is stable in a variety of organic solvents but is readily denatured in any solvent/cosolvent milieu with hydrogen bonding potential. The structure could serve as a scaffold for the elaboration of novel functions and could be used to test methodologies for predicting solvent-dependent polymer folding. PMID:16448149

  12. Hierarchical Conformational Analysis of Native Lysozyme Based on Sub-Millisecond Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical organization of free energy landscape (FEL) for native globular proteins has been widely accepted by the biophysics community. However, FEL of native proteins is usually projected onto one or a few dimensions. Here we generated collectively 0.2 milli-second molecular dynamics simulation trajectories in explicit solvent for hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), and carried out detailed conformational analysis based on backbone torsional degrees of freedom (DOF). Our results demonstrated that at micro-second and coarser temporal resolutions, FEL of HEWL exhibits hub-like topology with crystal structures occupying the dominant structural ensemble that serves as the hub of conformational transitions. However, at 100ns and finer temporal resolutions, conformational substates of HEWL exhibit network-like topology, crystal structures are associated with kinetic traps that are important but not dominant ensembles. Backbone torsional state transitions on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to beyond microseconds were found to be associated with various types of molecular interactions. Even at nanoseconds temporal resolution, the number of conformational substates that are of statistical significance is quite limited. These observations suggest that detailed analysis of conformational substates at multiple temporal resolutions is both important and feasible. Transition state ensembles among various conformational substates at microsecond temporal resolution were observed to be considerably disordered. Life times of these transition state ensembles are found to be nearly independent of the time scales of the participating torsional DOFs. PMID:26057625

  13. Deconstructing conformal blocks in 4D CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Elkhidir, Emtinan; Karateev, Denis; Serone, Marco

    2015-08-01

    We show how conformal partial waves (or conformal blocks) of spinor/tensor correlators can be related to each other by means of differential operators in four dimensional conformal field theories. We explicitly construct such differential operators for all possible conformal partial waves associated to four-point functions of arbitrary traceless symmetric operators. Our method allows any conformal partial wave to be extracted from a few "seed" correlators, simplifying dramatically the computation needed to bootstrap tensor correlators.

  14. Universality class in conformal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu

    2013-07-01

    We develop a new class of chaotic inflation models with spontaneously broken conformal invariance. Observational consequences of a broad class of such models are stable with respect to strong deformations of the scalar potential. This universality is a critical phenomenon near the point of enhanced symmetry, SO(1,1), in case of conformal inflation. It appears because of the exponential stretching of the moduli space and the resulting exponential flattening of scalar potentials upon switching from the Jordan frame to the Einstein frame in this class of models. This result resembles stretching and flattening of inhomogeneities during inflationary expansion. It has a simple interpretation in terms of velocity versus rapidity near the Khler cone in the moduli space, similar to the light cone of special theory of relativity. This effect makes inflation possible even in the models with very steep potentials. We describe conformal and superconformal versions of this cosmological attractor mechanism.

  15. Quantum cosmology and conformal invariance.

    PubMed

    Pioline, B; Waldron, A

    2003-01-24

    According to Belinsky, Khalatnikov, and Lifshitz, gravity near a spacelike singularity reduces to a set of decoupled one-dimensional mechanical models at each point in space. We point out that these models fall into a class of conformal mechanical models first introduced by de Alfaro, Fubini, and Furlan (DFF). The deformation used by DFF to render the spectrum discrete corresponds to a negative cosmological constant. The wave function of the Universe is the zero-energy eigenmode of the Hamiltonian, or the spherical vector of the representation of the conformal group SO(1,2). A new class of conformal quantum mechanical models with enhanced ADE symmetry is constructed, based on the quantization of nilpotent coadjoint orbits. PMID:12570480

  16. Identification of Serine Conformers by Matrix-Isolation IR Spectroscopy Aided by Near-Infrared Laser-Induced Conformational Change, 2D Correlation Analysis, and Quantum Mechanical Anharmonic Computations.

    PubMed

    Najbauer, Eszter E; Bazs, Gbor; Apstolo, Rui; Fausto, Rui; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo; Tarczay, Gyrgy

    2015-08-20

    The conformers of ?-serine were investigated by matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy combined with NIR laser irradiation. This method, aided by 2D correlation analysis, enabled unambiguously grouping the spectral lines to individual conformers. On the basis of comparison of at least nine experimentally observed vibrational transitions of each conformer with empirically scaled (SQM) and anharmonic (GVPT2) computed IR spectra, six conformers were identified. In addition, the presence of at least one more conformer in Ar matrix was proved, and a short-lived conformer with a half-life of (3.7 0.5) 10(3) s in N2 matrix was generated by NIR irradiation. The analysis of the NIR laser-induced conversions revealed that the excitation of the stretching overtone of both the side chain and the carboxylic OH groups can effectively promote conformational changes, but remarkably different paths were observed for the two kinds of excitations. PMID:26201050

  17. NIR Laser Radiation Induced Conformational Changes and Tunneling Lifetimes of High-Energy Conformers of Amino Acids in Low-Temperature Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazso, Gabor; Najbauer, Eszter E.; Magyarfalvi, Gabor; Tarczay, Gyorgy

    2013-06-01

    We review our recent results on combined matrix isolation FT-IR and NIR laser irradiation studies on glycine alanine, and cysteine. The OH and the NH stretching overtones of the low-energy conformers of these amino acids deposited in Ar, Kr, Xe, and N_{2} matrices were irradiated. At the expense of the irradiated conformer, other conformers were enriched and new, high-energy, formerly unobserved conformers were formed in the matrices. This enabled the separation and unambiguous assignment of the vibrational transitions of the different conformers. The main conversion paths and their efficiencies are described qualitatively showing that there are significant differences in different matrices. It was shown that the high-energy conformer decays in the matrix by H-atom tunneling. The lifetimes of the high-energy conformers in different matrices were measured. Based on our results we conclude that some theoretically predicted low-energy conformers of amino acids are likely even absent in low-energy matrices due to fast H-atom tunneling. G. Bazso, G. Magyarfalvi, G. Tarczay J. Mol. Struct. 1025 (Light-Induced Processes in Cryogenic Matrices Special Issue) 33-42 (2012). G. Bazso, G. Magyarfalvi, G. Tarczay J. Phys. Chem. A 116 (43) 10539-10547 (2012). G. Bazso, E. E. Najbauer, G. Magyarfalvi, G. Tarczay J. Phys. Chem. A in press, DOI: 10.1021/jp400196b. E. E. Najbauer, G. Bazso, G. Magyarfalvi, G. Tarczay in preparation.

  18. Patterns and conformations in molecularly thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basnet, Prem B.

    Molecularly thin films have been a subject of great interest for the last several years because of their large variety of industrial applications ranging from micro-electronics to bio-medicine. Additionally, molecularly thin films can be used as good models for biomembrane and other systems where surfaces are critical. Many different kinds of molecules can make stable films. My research has considered three such molecules: a polymerizable phospholipid, a bent-core molecules, and a polymer. One common theme of these three molecules is chirality. The phospolipid molecules studied here are strongly chiral, which can be due to intrinsically chiral centers on the molecules and also due to chiral conformations. We find that these molecules give rise to chiral patterns. Bent-core molecules are not intrinsically chiral, but individual molecules and groups of molecules can show chiral structures, which can be changed by surface interactions. One major, unconfirmed hypothesis for the polymer conformation at surface is that it forms helices, which would be chiral. Most experiments were carried out at the air/water interface, in what are called Langmuir films. Our major tools for studying these films are Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) coupled with the thermodynamic information that can be deduced from surface pressure isotherms. Phospholipids are one of the important constituents of liposomes -- a spherical vesicle com-posed of a bilayer membrane, typically composed of a phospholipid and cholesterol bilayer. The application of liposomes in drug delivery is well-known. Crumpling of vesicles of polymerizable phospholipids has been observed. With BAM, on Langmuir films of such phospholipids, we see novel spiral/target patterns during compression. We have found that both the patterns and the critical pressure at which they formed depend on temperature (below the transition to a i¬‘uid layer). Bent-core liquid crystals, sometimes knows as banana liquid crystals, have drawn increasing attention because of the richness in phases that they exhibit. Due to the unique coupling between dipole properties and the packing constraints placed by the bent shape, these molecules are emerging as strong candidates in electromechanical devices. However, most applications require that the molecules be aligned, which has proved difficult. Our group has tested such molecules both as Langmuir layers and, when transferred to a solid, as alignment layers with some limited success. However, these molecules do not behave well with the surfaces and the domains at the air/water interface tend to form ill-controlled multilayer structures since attraction with the surfaces is relatively weak. New bent-core molecules obtained from Prof. Dr. C. Tsehiemke from Department of Chemistry Institute of Organic Chemistry, Martin-Luther-University, Germany, have a hydrophilic group at one end. We expect this molecule to behave better on the surface because of the stronger attraction of the hydrophilic group towards the surface than for the bent-core molecules without the hydrophilic group. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a polymer which finds many applications in modifying surface properties. It is used in manufacturing lubricants, protective coatings, hair conditioner and glass-coating. However its properties are not well understood. This polymer has been proposed to follow either helical or caterpillar conformations on a surface. The orientational order of CH3 side groups can test for these conformations (they would be predominantly up/down for the caterpillar conformation, but rotating through the entire 360 degree for the helical one). Thus previous work on the Langmuir polymer films at the air/water interface were complemented by deuterium NMR studies to probe their conformations at a surface. These experiments were performed using humid porous solids, in order to provide sufficient surface area for the technique. Previous tests in this group at room temperature were suggestive but inconclusive because of the rapid averaging motion of the molecules. Here, we attempt to freeze the molecules on the surface.

  19. Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statfeld, Jenna L.

    2011-01-01

    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  20. Polyethylene glycol binding alters human telomere G-quadruplex structure by conformational selection

    PubMed Central

    Buscaglia, Robert; Miller, M. Clarke; Dean, William L.; Gray, Robert D.; Lane, Andrew N.; Trent, John O.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are widely used to perturb the conformations of nucleic acids, including G-quadruplexes. The mechanism by which PEG alters G-quadruplex conformation is poorly understood. We describe here studies designed to determine how PEG and other co-solutes affect the conformation of the human telomeric quadruplex. Osmotic stress studies using acetonitrile and ethylene glycol show that conversion of the hybrid conformation to an all-parallel propeller conformation is accompanied by the release of about 17 water molecules per quadruplex and is energetically unfavorable in pure aqueous solutions. Sedimentation velocity experiments show that the propeller form is hydrodynamically larger than hybrid forms, ruling out a crowding mechanism for the conversion by PEG. PEGs do not alter water activity sufficiently to perturb quadruplex hydration by osmotic stress. PEG titration experiments are most consistent with a conformational selection mechanism in which PEG binds more strongly to the propeller conformation, and binding is coupled to the conformational transition between forms. Molecular dynamics simulations show that PEG binding to the propeller form is sterically feasible and energetically favorable. We conclude that PEG does not act by crowding and is a poor mimic of the intranuclear environment, keeping open the question of the physiologically relevant quadruplex conformation. PMID:23804761

  1. The conformational analysis of 2-halocyclooctanones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozada, Thiago C.; Gauze, Gisele F.; Rosa, Fernanda A.; Favaro, Denize C.; Rittner, Roberto; Pontes, Rodrigo M.; Basso, Ernani A.

    2015-02-01

    The establishment of the most stable structures of eight membered rings is a challenging task to the field of conformational analysis. In this work, a series of 2-halocyclooctanones were synthesized (including fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine derivatives) and submitted to conformational studies using a combination of theoretical calculation and infrared spectroscopy. For each compound, four conformations were identified as the most important ones. These conformations are derived from the chair-boat conformation of cyclooctanone. The pseudo-equatorial (with respect to the halogen) conformer is preferred in vacuum and in low polarity solvents for chlorine, bromine and iodine derivatives. For 2-fluorocyclooctanone, the preferred conformation in vacuum is pseudo-axial. In acetonitrile, the pseudo-axial conformer becomes the most stable for the chlorine derivative. According to NBO calculations, the conformational preference is not dictated by electron delocalization, but by classical electrostatic repulsions.

  2. Molecular mechanics conformational analysis of tylosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Petko M.

    1998-01-01

    The conformations of the 16-membered macrolide antibiotic tylosin were studied with molecular mechanics (AMBER? force field) including modelling of the effect of the solvent on the conformational preferences (GB/SA). A Monte Carlo conformational search procedure was used for finding the most probable low-energy conformations. The present study provides complementary data to recently reported analysis of the conformations of tylosin based on NMR techniques. A search for the low-energy conformations of protynolide, a 16-membered lactone containing the same aglycone as tylosin, was also carried out, and the results were compared with the observed conformation in the crystal as well as with the most probable conformations of the macrocyclic ring of tylosin. The dependence of the results on force field was also studied by utilizing the MM3 force field. Some particular conformations were computed with the semiempirical molecular orbital methods AM1 and PM3.

  3. Quasilocal rotating conformal Killing horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Ayan; Ghosh, Avirup

    2015-08-01

    The formulation of quasilocal conformal Killing horizons (CKH) is extended to include rotation. This necessitates that the horizon be foliated by 2-spheres which may be distorted. Matter degrees of freedom which fall through the horizon are represented by a real scalar field. We show that these rotating CKHs also admit a first law in differential form.

  4. Conformal coating using parylene polymers.

    PubMed

    Noordegraaf, J

    1997-01-01

    Parylene, a conformal polymer film, is being used increasingly in Europe to provide environmental and dielectric isolation. Application areas include electronic circuitry, sensors, and medical substrates. This article describes the variants of parylene and their characteristics, together with the process and applications of parylene coating. PMID:10167681

  5. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  6. Precision conformal optics technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotta, Patrick A.

    2001-09-01

    Conformal optics are defined as optics that deviate from conventional form to best satisfy the contour and shape needs of system platforms. Precision Conformal Optics Technology (PCOT), a comprehensive 48 month program funded by the Defense Advanced Research Program Agency (DARPA) and the U. S. Army Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC), assessed the potential benefits achieved by use of conformal optics on a variety of U.S. weapon systems. Also addressed were all barriers impeding conformal optics use. The PCOT program was executed by a consortium of organizations ranging from major U.S. defense prime contractors, to small businesses, and academia. The diversity of organizations encouraged synergy across a broad array of skills and perspectives. Smooth team interaction was made possible by the 845 contractual structure of the program. Benefits identified by the PCOT consortium included major reductions in aerodynamic drag (by as much as 50%), reduced time-to-targets (by as much as 60%), and reduced weapon signatures. Impediments addressed included inadequacies in optical design tools, optical manufacturing methods and equipment, optical testing, and system integration. The PCOT program was successfully completed with a demonstration of a highly contoured missile dome, which reduced overall missile drag by 25%, and led to a predicted twofold increase in missile range.

  7. Correct Representation of Conformational Equilibria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulop, F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In representing conformational equilibria of compounds having only one chiral center, erroneous formulas showing different antipodes on the two sides of the equilibrium are rare. In contrast, with compounds having two or more chiral centers especially with saturated heterocycles, this erroneous representation occurs frequently in the chemical

  8. Combined inhibitor free-energy landscape and structural analysis reports on the mannosidase conformational coordinate.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rohan J; Iglesias-Fernndez, Javier; Stepper, Judith; Jackson, Adam; Thompson, Andrew J; Lowe, Elisabeth C; White, Jonathan M; Gilbert, Harry J; Rovira, Carme; Davies, Gideon J; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-01-20

    Mannosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of a diverse range of polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, and the various sequence-based mannosidase families have evolved ingenious strategies to overcome the stereoelectronic challenges of mannoside chemistry. Using a combination of computational chemistry, inhibitor design and synthesis, and X-ray crystallography of inhibitor/enzyme complexes, it is demonstrated that mannoimidazole-type inhibitors are energetically poised to report faithfully on mannosidase transition-state conformation, and provide direct evidence for the conformational itinerary used by diverse mannosidases, including ?-mannanases from families GH26 and GH113. Isofagomine-type inhibitors are poor mimics of transition-state conformation, owing to the high energy barriers that must be crossed to attain mechanistically relevant conformations, however, these sugar-shaped heterocycles allow the acquisition of ternary complexes that span the active site, thus providing valuable insight into active-site residues involved in substrate recognition. PMID:24339341

  9. Conformational dynamics of single pre–mRNA molecules during in vitro splicing

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, John; Blanco, Mario; Ditzler, Mark A.; Fuller, Franklin; Aravamudhan, Pavithra; Wood, Mona; Villa, Tommaso; Ryan, Daniel E.; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.; Maeder, Corina; Guthrie, Christine; Walter, Nils G.

    2010-01-01

    The spliceosome is a complex small nuclear (sn)RNA–protein machine that removes introns from pre–mRNAs via two successive phosphoryl transfer reactions. The chemical steps are isoenergetic, yet splicing requires at least eight RNA–dependent ATPases responsible for substantial conformational rearrangements. To comprehensively monitor pre–mRNA conformational dynamics, we developed a strategy for single molecule FRET (smFRET) that utilizes a small, efficiently spliced yeast pre–mRNA, Ubc4, in which donor and acceptor fluorophores are placed in the exons adjacent to the 5′ and 3′ splice sites. During splicing in vitro we observe a multitude of generally reversible, time– and ATP–dependent conformational transitions of individual pre–mRNAs. The conformational dynamics of branchpoint and 3′ splice site mutants differ from one another and from wild–type. Because all transitions are reversible, spliceosome assembly appears to be occurring close to thermal equilibrium. PMID:20305654

  10. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    PubMed

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 ? g/ml to 2500 ? gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. PMID:23455215

  11. Catalytic Site Conformations in Human PNP by 19F-NMR and Crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Javier; Haapalainen, Antti M.; Cahill, Sean M.; Ho, Joseph; Yan, Funing; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for leukemia, gout and autoimmune disorders. Dynamic motion of catalytic site loops has been implicated in catalysis, but experimental evidence was lacking. We replaced catalytic site groups His257 or His64 with 6-fluoro-tryptophan (6FW) as site-specific NMR probes. Conformational adjustments in the 6FW-His257-helical and His64-6FW-loop regions were characterized in PNP phosphate bound enzyme and in complexes with catalytic site ligands, including transition state analogues. Chemical shift and line-shape changes associated with these complexes revealed dynamic coexistence of several conformational states in these regions in phosphate bound enzyme and altered or single conformations in other complexes. These conformations were also characterized by X-ray crystallography. Specific 19F-Trp labels and X-ray crystallography provide multidimensional characterization of conformational states for free, catalytic and inhibited complexes of human PNP. PMID:23438750

  12. Second Order Symmetries of the Conformal Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Jean-Philippe; Radoux, Fabian; ilhan, Josef

    2014-02-01

    Let (M,g) be an arbitrary pseudo-Riemannian manifold of dimension at least 3. We determine the form of all the conformal symmetries of the conformal (or Yamabe) Laplacian on (M,g), which are given by differential operators of second order. They are constructed from conformal Killing 2-tensors satisfying a natural and conformally invariant condition. As a consequence, we get also the classification of the second order symmetries of the conformal Laplacian. Our results generalize the ones of Eastwood and Carter, which hold on conformally flat and Einstein manifolds respectively. We illustrate our results on two families of examples in dimension three.

  13. The conformational potential energy surface of IOONO and the isomerization and decomposition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayannis, Demetrios K.; Kosmas, Agnie M.

    2005-08-01

    The conformational potential energy surface of iodine peroxy nitrite was investigated using high levels of electronic structure theory. Two minimum energy conformers and five energy maxima have been determined. The comparison with other peroxy nitrites shows interesting correlations with the internal rotational barriers of the Cl, Br analogues and with peroxynitrous acid. Distinct transition states for the isomerization to iodine nitrate and the scission of the peroxy bond have been calculated. Finally, the thermochemistry of IOONO and IONO 2 has been reconsidered.

  14. Stochastic ensembles, conformationally adaptive teamwork, and enzymatic detoxification.

    PubMed

    Atkins, William M; Qian, Hong

    2011-05-17

    It has been appreciated for a long time that enzymes exist as conformational ensembles throughout multiple stages of the reactions they catalyze, but there is renewed interest in the functional implications. The energy landscape that results from conformationlly diverse poteins is a complex surface with an energetic topography in multiple dimensions, even at the transition state(s) leading to product formation, and this represents a new paradigm. At the same time there has been renewed interest in conformational ensembles, a new paradigm concerning enzyme function has emerged, wherein catalytic promiscuity has clear biological advantages in some cases. "Useful", or biologically functional, promiscuity or the related behavior of "multifunctionality" can be found in the immune system, enzymatic detoxification, signal transduction, and the evolution of new function from an existing pool of folded protein scaffolds. Experimental evidence supports the widely held assumption that conformational heterogeneity promotes functional promiscuity. The common link between these coevolving paradigms is the inherent structural plasticity and conformational dynamics of proteins that, on one hand, lead to complex but evolutionarily selected energy landscapes and, on the other hand, promote functional promiscuity. Here we consider a logical extension of the overlap between these two nascent paradigms: functionally promiscuous and multifunctional enzymes such as detoxification enzymes are expected to have an ensemble landscape with more states accessible on multiple time scales than substrate specific enzymes. Two attributes of detoxification enzymes become important in the context of conformational ensembles: these enzymes metabolize multiple substrates, often in substrate mixtures, and they can form multiple products from a single substrate. These properties, combined with complex conformational landscapes, lead to the possibility of interesting time-dependent, or emergent, properties. Here we demonstrate these properties with kinetic simulations of nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) behavior resulting from energy landscapes expected for detoxification enzymes. Analogous scenarios with other promiscuous enzymes may be worthy of consideration. PMID:21473615

  15. Theoretical Study of the Conformation and Energy of Supercoiled DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Nathaniel George

    The two sugar-phosphate backbones of the DNA molecule wind about each other in helical paths. For circular DNA molecules (plasmids), or for linear pieces of DNA with the ends anchored, the two strands have a well-defined linking number, Lk. If Lk differs from the equilibrium linking number Lk_0, the molecule is supercoiled. The linking difference Delta Lk = Lk - Lk_0 is partitioned between torsional deformation of the DNA, or twist (DeltaTw), and a winding of the DNA axis about itself known as writhe (Wr). In this dissertation, the conformation and energy of supercoiled DNA are examined by treating DNA as an elastic cylinder. Finite-length and entropic effects are ignored, and all extensive quantities (e.g. writhe, bend energy) are treated as linear densities (writhe per unit length, bend energy per unit length). Two classes of conformation are considered: the plectonemic or interwound form, in which the axis of the DNA double helix winds about itself in a double superhelix, and the toroidal shape in which the axis is wrapped around a torus. Minimum energy conformations are found. For biologically relevant values of specific linking difference, the plectonemic conformation is energetically favored over toroidal conformations. For plectonemic DNA, the superhelical pitch angle alpha is in the range 45^circ < alpha <= 90^circ . For low values of specific linking difference |sigma| ( sigma = DeltaLk/Lk _0), most linking difference is in writhe. As |sigma| increases, a greater proportion of linking difference is in twist. Interaction between DNA strands is treated first as a hard-body excluded volume and then as a screened electrostatic repulsion. Ionic strength is found to have a large effect, resulting in significantly greater torsional stress in supercoiled DNA at low ionic strength. Results are compared with electron microscopy data and measurements of supercoiling-induced DNA conformational transitions. Good agreement with experimental results is found for DNA in monovalent salt solutions.

  16. Stochastic Ensembles, Conformationally Adaptive Teamwork and Enzymatic Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, William M.; Qian, Hong

    2011-01-01

    It has been appreciated for a long time that enzymes exist as conformational ensembles throughout multiple stages of the reactions they catalyze, but there is renewed interest in the functional implications. The energy landscape that results from conformationlly diverse poteins is a complex surface with an energetic topography in multiple dimensions, even at the transition state(s) leading to product formation, and this represents a new paradigm. Nearly simultaneous with the renewed interest in conformational ensembles, a new paradigm concerning enzyme function has grown, wherein catalytic promiscuity has clear biological advantages in some cases. Useful, or biologically functional, promiscuity or the related behavior of multifunctionality, can be found in the immune system, enzymatic detoxification, signal transduction, and in the evolution of new function from an existing pool of folded protein scaffolds. Experimental evidence supports the widely held assumption that conformational heterogeneity promotes functional promiscuity. The common link between these co-evolving paradigms is the inherent structural plasticity and conformational dynamics of proteins that, on one hand, leads to complex but evolutionarily selected energy landscapes, and on the other hand promotes functional promiscuity. Here we consider a logical extension of the overlap between these two nascent paradigms: functionally promiscuous and multifunctional enzymes such as detoxification enzymes are expected to have an ensemble landscape with a greater number of states accessible on multiple time scales than substrate specific enzymes. Two attributes of detoxification enzymes become important in the context of conformational ensembles: these enzymes metabolize multiple substrates, often in substrate mixtures, and they can form multiple products from a single substrate. These properties, combined with complex conformational landscapes, lead to the possibility of interesting time-dependent, or emergent, properties. Here we demonstrate these properties with kinetic simulations of non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) behavior resulting from energy landscapes expected for detoxification enzymes. Analogous scenarios with other promiscuous enzymes may be worthy of consideration. PMID:21473615

  17. Conformal Gravity Rotation Curves with a Conformal Higgs Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Keith

    2016-03-01

    We discuss the effect of a conformally coupled Higgs field on Conformal Gravity (CG) predictions for the rotation curves of galaxies. The Mannheim-Kazanas (MK) metric is a valid vacuum solution of CG's 4-th order Poisson equation if and only if the Higgs field has a particular radial profile, S(r) = S0 a/(r + a), decreasing from S0 at r = 0 with radial scale length a. Since particle rest masses scale with S(r)/S0, their world lines do not follow time-like geodesics of the MK metric gμν, as previously assumed, but rather those of the Higgs-frame MK metric tilde{g}_{μ ν }=Ω ^2 g_{μ ν }, with the conformal factor Ω(r) = S(r)/S0. We show that the required stretching of the MK metric exactly cancels the linear potential that has been invoked to fit galaxy rotation curves without dark matter. We also formulate, for spherical structures with a Higgs halo S(r), the CG equations that must be solved for viable astrophysical tests of CG using galaxy and cluster dynamics and lensing.

  18. Conformational changes in acetylcholine binding protein investigated by temperature accelerated molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Hosseini Naveh, Zeynab; Malliavin, Therese E; Maragliano, Luca; Cottone, Grazia; Ciccotti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies available on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a complete account of the mechanistic aspects of their gating transition in response to ligand binding still remains elusive. As a first step toward dissecting the transition mechanism by accelerated sampling techniques, we study the ligand-induced conformational changes of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a widely accepted model for the full receptor extracellular domain. Using unbiased Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Temperature Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (TAMD) simulations we investigate the AChBP transition between the apo and the agonist-bound state. In long standard MD simulations, both conformations of the native protein are stable, while the agonist-bound structure evolves toward the apo one if the orientation of few key sidechains in the orthosteric cavity is modified. Conversely, TAMD simulations initiated from the native conformations are able to produce the spontaneous transition. With respect to the modified conformations, TAMD accelerates the transition by at least a factor 10. The analysis of some specific residue-residue interactions points out that the transition mechanism is based on the disruption/formation of few key hydrogen bonds. Finally, while early events of ligand dissociation are observed already in standard MD, TAMD accelerates the ligand detachment and, at the highest TAMD effective temperature, it is able to produce a complete dissociation path in one AChBP subunit. PMID:24551117

  19. Conformational Changes in Acetylcholine Binding Protein Investigated by Temperature Accelerated Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad Hosseini Naveh, Zeynab; Malliavin, Therese E.; Maragliano, Luca; Cottone, Grazia; Ciccotti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies available on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a complete account of the mechanistic aspects of their gating transition in response to ligand binding still remains elusive. As a first step toward dissecting the transition mechanism by accelerated sampling techniques, we study the ligand-induced conformational changes of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a widely accepted model for the full receptor extracellular domain. Using unbiased Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Temperature Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (TAMD) simulations we investigate the AChBP transition between the apo and the agonist-bound state. In long standard MD simulations, both conformations of the native protein are stable, while the agonist-bound structure evolves toward the apo one if the orientation of few key sidechains in the orthosteric cavity is modified. Conversely, TAMD simulations initiated from the native conformations are able to produce the spontaneous transition. With respect to the modified conformations, TAMD accelerates the transition by at least a factor 10. The analysis of some specific residue-residue interactions points out that the transition mechanism is based on the disruption/formation of few key hydrogen bonds. Finally, while early events of ligand dissociation are observed already in standard MD, TAMD accelerates the ligand detachment and, at the highest TAMD effective temperature, it is able to produce a complete dissociation path in one AChBP subunit. PMID:24551117

  20. Synthesis of a new quaternary phosphonium salt: NMR study of the conformational structure and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Aganova, Oksana V; Galiullina, Leysan F; Aganov, Albert V; Shtyrlin, Nikita V; Pugachev, Mikhail V; Strel'nik, Alexey D; Koshkin, Sergey A; Shtyrlin, Yurii G; Klochkov, Vladimir V

    2016-04-01

    A novel phosphonium salt based on pyridoxine was synthesized. Conformational analysis of the compound in solution was performed using dynamic NMR experiments and calculations. The obtained results revealed some differences in the conformational transitions and the energy parameters of the conformational exchange of the studied compound in comparison to previously reported data for other phosphorus-containing pyridoxine derivatives. It was shown that increasing the substituent at the C-11 carbon leads to greater differences in the populations of stable states and the corresponding equilibrium energies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26661926

  1. Double resonance spectroscopy of different conformers of the neurotransmitter amphetamine and its clusters with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brause, R.; Fricke, H.; Gerhards, M.; Weinkauf, R.; Kleinermanns, K.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper the conformational landscape of amphetamine in the neutral ground state is examined by both spectroscopy and theory. Several spectroscopic methods are used: laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization (R2PI), dispersed fluorescence and IR/R2PI hole burning spectroscopy. The latter two methods provide for the first time vibrationally resolved spectra of the neutral ground state of dl-amphetamine and the amphetamine-(H 2O) 1,2 complexes. Nine stable conformers of the monomer were found by DFT (B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)) and ab initio (MP2/6-311++G(d,p)) calculations. For conformer analysis the vibrations observed in the IR/R2PI hole burning and dispersed fluorescence spectra obtained from single vibronic levels (SVLF) of a selected conformer were compared with the results of an ab initio normal mode analysis. By this procedure three S 0 ? S 1 transitions in the R2PI spectrum were assigned to three different conformer structures. Another weak transition earlier attributed to another conformer could be assigned to a vibronic band of one of the three conformers. Furthermore spectra of amphetamine-(H 2O) 1,2 are tentatively assigned.

  2. Laser spectroscopy of a chiral drug in a supersonic beam: conformation and complexation of S-(+)- Naproxen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmani, Franoise; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Seurre, Nathalie; Zehnacker-Rentien, Anne

    2003-07-01

    The S 0-S 1 electronic transition of jet-cooled Naproxen has been investigated by laser-induced fluorescence excitation and emission spectroscopy. Two electronic transitions separated by 102 cm -1 have been evidenced and attributed to the presence of two conformers. With the help of DFT calculations, the structure of these conformers has been shown to correspond to a rotation by 180 of the chiral substituent with respect to the aromatic plane. When associated with alcohols, both conformers of the chromophore form complexes which give rise to different microscopic solvent shifts of the S 0-S 1 transition. In the case of complexation with R- or S-2-butanol, the hetero- and homo-chiral pairs are characterised by different spectroscopic patterns, which allow a clear discrimination between them.

  3. Gauge natural formulation of conformal gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Campigotto, M.; Fatibene, L.

    2015-03-15

    We consider conformal gravity as a gauge natural theory. We study its conservation laws and superpotentials. We also consider the Mannheim and Kazanas spherically symmetric vacuum solution and discuss conserved quantities associated to conformal and diffeomorphism symmetries.

  4. Impact of mutations on the allosteric conformational equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Weinkam, Patrick; Chen, Yao Chi; Pons, Jaume; Sali, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    Allostery in a protein involves effector binding at an allosteric site that changes the structure and/or dynamics at a distant, functional site. In addition to the chemical equilibrium of ligand binding, allostery involves a conformational equilibrium between one protein substate that binds the effector and a second substate that less strongly binds the effector. We run molecular dynamics simulations using simple, smooth energy landscapes to sample specific ligand-induced conformational transitions, as defined by the effector-bound and unbound protein structures. These simulations can be performed using our web server: http://salilab.org/allosmod/. We then develop a set of features to analyze the simulations and capture the relevant thermodynamic properties of the allosteric conformational equilibrium. These features are based on molecular mechanics energy functions, stereochemical effects, and structural/dynamic coupling between sites. Using a machine-learning algorithm on a dataset of 10 proteins and 179 mutations, we predict both the magnitude and sign of the allosteric conformational equilibrium shift by the mutation; the impact of a large identifiable fraction of the mutations can be predicted with an average unsigned error of 1 kBT. With similar accuracy, we predict the mutation effects for an 11th protein that was omitted from the initial training and testing of the machine-learning algorithm. We also assess which calculated thermodynamic properties contribute most to the accuracy of the prediction. PMID:23228330

  5. Alternative Conformations of Cytochrome c: Structure, Function, and Detection.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Luciana; Tomasina, Florencia; Capdevila, Daiana A; Demicheli, Vernica; Trtora, Vernica; Alvarez-Paggi, Damin; Jemmerson, Ronald; Murgida, Daniel H; Radi, Rafael

    2016-01-26

    Cytochrome c (cyt c) is a cationic hemoprotein of ?100 amino acid residues that exhibits exceptional functional versatility. While its primary function is electron transfer in the respiratory chain, cyt c is also recognized as a key component of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, the mitochondrial oxidative protein folding machinery, and presumably as a redox sensor in the cytosol, along with other reported functions. Transition to alternative conformations and gain-of-peroxidase activity are thought to further enable the multiple functions of cyt c and its translocation across cellular compartments. In vitro, direct interactions of cyt c with cardiolipin, post-translational modifications such as tyrosine nitration, phosphorylation, methionine sulfoxidation, mutations, and even fine changes in electrical fields lead to a variety of conformational states that may be of biological relevance. The identification of these alternative conformations and the elucidation of their functions in vivo continue to be a major challenge. Here, we unify the knowledge of the structural flexibility of cyt c that supports functional moonlighting and review biochemical and immunochemical evidence confirming that cyt c undergoes conformational changes during normal and altered cellular homeostasis. PMID:26720007

  6. Guiding light with conformal transformations.

    PubMed

    Landy, Nathan I; Padilla, Willie J

    2009-08-17

    The past decade has seen a revolution in electromagnetics due to the development of metamaterials. These artificial composites have been fashioned to exhibit exotic effects such as a negative index of refraction. However, the full potential of metamaterial devices has only been hinted at. By combining metamaterials with transformation optics (TO), researchers have demonstrated an invisibility cloak. Subsequently, quasi-conformal mapping was used to create a device that exhibited a broadband cloaking effect. Here we extend this latter approach to a strictly conformal mapping to create reflection less, inherently isotropic, and broadband photonic devices. Our method combines the novel effects of TO with the practicality of all-dielectric construction. We show that our structures are capable of guiding light in an almost arbitrary fashion over an unprecedented range of frequencies. PMID:19687966

  7. Boundary terms of conformal anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the structure of the boundary terms in the conformal anomaly integrated over a manifold with boundaries. We suggest that the anomalies of type B, polynomial in the Weyl tensor, are accompanied with the respective boundary terms of the Gibbons-Hawking type. Their form is dictated by the requirement that they produce a variation which compensates the normal derivatives of the metric variation on the boundary in order to have a well-defined variational procedure. This suggestion agrees with recent findings in four dimensions for free fields of various spins. We generalize this consideration to six dimensions and derive explicitly the respective boundary terms. We point out that the integrated conformal anomaly in odd dimensions is non-vanishing due to the boundary terms. These terms are specified in three and five dimensions.

  8. The Conformational Behaviour of Glucosamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pea, Isabel; Kolesnikov, Lucie; Cabezas, Carlos; Bermdez, Celina; Berdakin, Matas; Simao, Alcides; Alonso, Jos L.

    2014-06-01

    A laser ablation method has been successfully used to vaporize the bioactive amino monosaccharide D-glucosamine. Three cyclic ?-4C1 pyranose forms have been identified using a combination of CP-FTMW and LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy. Stereoelectronic hyperconjugative factors, like those associated with anomeric or gauche effects, as well as the cooperative OH\\cdotsO, OH\\cdotsN and NH\\cdotsO chains, extended along the entire molecule, are the main factors driving the conformational behavior. All observed conformers exhibit a counter-clockwise arrangement (cc) of the network of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The results are compared with those recently obtained for D-glucose. J. L. Alonso, M. A. Lozoya, I. Pea, J. C. Lpez, C. Cabezas, S. Mata, S. Blanco, Chem. Sci. 2014, 5, 515.

  9. On the Roles of Substrate Binding and Hinge Unfolding in Conformational Changes of Adenylate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Brokaw, Jason B.; Chu, Jhih-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We characterized the conformational change of adenylate kinase (AK) between open and closed forms by conducting five all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations, each of 100 ns duration. Different initial structures and substrate binding configurations were used to probe the pathways of AK conformational change in explicit solvent, and no bias potential was applied. A complete closed-to-open and a partial open-to-closed transition were observed, demonstrating the direct impact of substrate-mediated interactions on shifting protein conformation. The sampled configurations suggest two possible pathways for connecting the open and closed structures of AK, affirming the prediction made based on available x-ray structures and earlier works of coarse-grained modeling. The trajectories of the all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations revealed the complexity of protein dynamics and the coupling between different domains during conformational change. Calculations of solvent density and density fluctuations surrounding AK did not show prominent variation during the transition between closed and open forms. Finally, we characterized the effects of local unfolding of an important hinge near Pro177 on the closed-to-open transition of AK and identified a novel mechanism by which hinge unfolding modulates protein conformational change. The local unfolding of Pro177 hinge induces alternative tertiary contacts that stabilize the closed structure and prevent the opening transition. PMID:21081091

  10. On the Roles of Substrate Binding and Hinge Unfolding in Conformational Changes of Adenylate Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Brokaw, Jason B.; Chu, Jhih-wei

    2010-11-17

    We characterized the conformational change of adenylate kinase (AK) between open and closed forms by conducting five all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations, each of 100 ns duration. Different initial structures and substrate binding configurations were used to probe the pathways of AK conformational change in explicit solvent, and no bias potential was applied. A complete closed-to-open and a partial open-to-closed transition were observed, demonstrating the direct impact of substrate-mediated interactions on shifting protein conformation. The sampled configurations suggest two possible pathways for connecting the open and closed structures of AK, affirming the prediction made based on available x-ray structures and earlier works of coarse-grained modeling. The trajectories of the all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations revealed the complexity of protein dynamics and the coupling between different domains during conformational change. Calculations of solvent density and density fluctuations surrounding AK did not show prominent variation during the transition between closed and open forms. Finally, we characterized the effects of local unfolding of an important hinge near Pro177 on the closed-to-open transition of AK and identified a novel mechanism by which hinge unfolding modulates protein conformational change. The local unfolding of Pro177 hinge induces alternative tertiary contacts that stabilize the closed structure and prevent the opening transition.

  11. Electrochemical evidence on the molten globule conformation of cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Pineda, T; Sevilla, J M; Romn, A J; Blzquez, M

    1997-12-01

    To explore a new approach for characterizing the molten globule conformation, cyclic voltammetric studies of salt induced transitions at acidic pH of cyt c have been carried out. The use of modified electrodes has made the observation of direct electrochemistry in native cyt c possible. However, most of these electrodes do not show reversible responses at acidic pH, due to the fact that, for this system, a deprotonated electrode surface is needed. In these studies, we have used a 6-mercaptopurine and cysteine-modified gold electrodes which are effective for direct rapid electron transfer to cyt c, even in acid solutions. The change in the absorption bands of cyt c are used to monitor the conformational states and, hence, to compare the voltammetric results. Under the experimental conditions where the A state of cyt c is obtained, a reversible voltammetric signal is observed. The midpoint peak potentials are found to be very close to the formal potential of native cyt c. Results are discussed in terms of a cooperative two-state transition between the acid unfolded and the globular acidic states of cyt c. This finding establishes, for the first time, the similarity of both the native and the molten globule-like conformations in terms of its redox properties. PMID:9434113

  12. Stabilizing the boat conformation of cyclohexane rings

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, S.; Goddard, W.A. III; Moldowan, J.M.; Carlson, R.M.K.; Goddard, W.A. III.

    1995-06-21

    In calculating the energetics for various conformers of the A, B, and C series of hopanoid hydrocarbons present in mature oil reservoirs, we find that the B series prefers the boat conformation (by 1.3-2.5 kcal/mol) for the D cyclohexane ring. We analyze the structural elements responsible for stabilizing this boat conformation, identify the key features, and illustrate how one might stabilize boat conformations of other systems. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Conformal holonomy of bi-invariant metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Felipe

    We discuss in this paper the conformal geometry of bi-invariant metrics on compact semisimple Lie groups. For this purpose, we develop an invariant Cartan calculus. Our main goal is to derive an iterative formula for the holonomy algebra of the normal conformal Cartan connection of a bi-invariant metric. As an example, we demonstrate the application of our invariant calculus to the computation of the conformal holonomy of SO(4) . Its conformal holonomy algebra is so(7) .

  14. New potentials for conformal mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, G.

    2013-04-01

    We find under some mild assumptions that the most general potential of one-dimensional conformal systems with time-independent couplings is expressed as V = V0 + V1, where V0 is a homogeneous function with respect to a homothetic motion in configuration space and V1 is determined from an equation with source a homothetic potential. Such systems admit at most an SL(2,{R}) conformal symmetry which, depending on the couplings, is embedded in {Diff}({R}) in three different ways. In one case, SL(2,{R}) is also embedded in Diff(S1). Examples of such models include those with potential V = ?x2 + ?x-2 for arbitrary couplings ? and ?, the Calogero models with harmonic oscillator couplings and nonlinear models with suitable metrics and potentials. In addition, we give the conditions on the couplings for a class of gauge theories to admit a SL(2,{R}) conformal symmetry. We present examples of such systems with general gauge groups and global symmetries that include the isometries of AdS2 S3 and AdS2 S3 S3 which arise as backgrounds in AdS2/CFT1.

  15. Conformal Invariance of Graphene Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Giordanelli, I.; Posé, N.; Mendoza, M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Suspended graphene sheets exhibit correlated random deformations that can be studied under the framework of rough surfaces with a Hurst (roughness) exponent 0.72 ± 0.01. Here, we show that, independent of the temperature, the iso-height lines at the percolation threshold have a well-defined fractal dimension and are conformally invariant, sharing the same statistical properties as Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLEκ) curves with κ = 2.24 ± 0.07. Interestingly, iso-height lines of other rough surfaces are not necessarily conformally invariant even if they have the same Hurst exponent, e.g. random Gaussian surfaces. We have found that the distribution of the modulus of the Fourier coefficients plays an important role on this property. Our results not only introduce a new universality class and place the study of suspended graphene membranes within the theory of critical phenomena, but also provide hints on the long-standing question about the origin of conformal invariance in iso-height lines of rough surfaces. PMID:26961723

  16. Conformal Invariance of Graphene Sheets.

    PubMed

    Giordanelli, I; Posé, N; Mendoza, M; Herrmann, H J

    2016-01-01

    Suspended graphene sheets exhibit correlated random deformations that can be studied under the framework of rough surfaces with a Hurst (roughness) exponent 0.72 ± 0.01. Here, we show that, independent of the temperature, the iso-height lines at the percolation threshold have a well-defined fractal dimension and are conformally invariant, sharing the same statistical properties as Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLEκ) curves with κ = 2.24 ± 0.07. Interestingly, iso-height lines of other rough surfaces are not necessarily conformally invariant even if they have the same Hurst exponent, e.g. random Gaussian surfaces. We have found that the distribution of the modulus of the Fourier coefficients plays an important role on this property. Our results not only introduce a new universality class and place the study of suspended graphene membranes within the theory of critical phenomena, but also provide hints on the long-standing question about the origin of conformal invariance in iso-height lines of rough surfaces. PMID:26961723

  17. Methods for Numerical Conformal Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menikoff, Ralph; Zemach, Charles

    1980-07-01

    Nonlinear integral equations for the boundary functions which determine conformal transformations in two dimensions are developed and analyzed. One of these equations has a nonsingular logarithmic kernel and is especially well suited for numerical computations of conformal maps including those which deal with regions having highly distorted boundaries. Numerical procedures based on interspersed Gaussian quadrature for approximating the integrals and a Newton-Raphson technique to solve the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are described. The Newton-Raphson iteration converges reliably with very crude initial approximations. Numerical examples are given for the mapping of a half-infinite region with periodic boundary onto a half plane, with up to nine-figure accuracy for values of the map function on the boundary and for its first derivatives. The examples include regions bounded by "spike" curves characteristic of Rayleigh-Taylor instability phenomena. A differential equation is derived which relates changes in the map function to changes of the boundary. This is relevant to potential problems for regions with time-dependent boundaries. Further nonsingular integral formulas are derived for conformal mapping in a variety of geometries and for application to the boundary-value problems of potential theory.

  18. The Conformational Landscape of Serinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia; Loru, Donatella; Pea, Isabel; Alonso, Jos L.

    2014-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of the amino alcohol serinol CH_2OH--CH(NH_2)--CH_2OH, which constitutes the hydrophilic head of the lipid sphingosine, has been investigated using chirped-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in combination with laser ablation Five different forms of serinol have been observed and conclusively identified by the comparison between the experimental values of their rotational and 14N quadrupole coupling constants and those predicted by ab initio calculations. In all observed conformers several hydrogen bonds are established between the two hydroxyl groups and the amino groups in a chain or circular arrangement. The most abundant conformer is stabilised by O--HN and N--HO hydrogen bonds forming a chain rather than a cycle. One of the detected conformers presents a tunnelling motion of the hydrogen atoms of the functional groups similar to that observed in glycerol. S. Mata, I. Pea, C. Cabezas, J. C. Lpez, J. L. Alonso, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2012, 280, 91 V. V. Ilyushin, R. A. Motiyenko, F. J. Lovas, D. F. Plusquellic, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2008, 251, 129.

  19. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Hsin, Po-Shen; Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam; Seiberg, Nathan; Theisen, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space {M} is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail {N}=(2,2) and {N}=(0,2) supersymmetric theories in d = 2 and {N}=2 supersymmetric theories in d = 4. This reasoning leads to new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is Kähler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing Kähler class. For {N}=(2,2) theories in d = 2 and {N}=2 theories in d = 4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the Kähler potential of {M} follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.

  20. 40 CFR 52.799 - Transportation conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation conformity. 52.799... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.799 Transportation conformity. On June 4, 2010, Indiana submitted the Transportation Conformity Consultation SIP consisting...

  1. 40 CFR 52.799 - Transportation conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation conformity. 52.799... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.799 Transportation conformity. On June 4, 2010, Indiana submitted the Transportation Conformity Consultation SIP consisting...

  2. 40 CFR 52.799 - Transportation conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation conformity. 52.799... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.799 Transportation conformity. On June 4, 2010, Indiana submitted the Transportation Conformity Consultation SIP consisting...

  3. 40 CFR 51.854 - Conformity analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 51.854 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.854 Conformity analysis. Link to...

  4. Breaking of conformal symmetry in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzova, A. B.; Pervushina, V. N.; Nazmitdinova, R. G.; Zakharova, A. F.

    Spontaneous breaking of the conformal symmetry via quantum anomalies both in the General Relativity and the Standard Model is introduced. Dynamics of a conformal cosmological model is considered at the initial moment of the Universe evolution. It is shown that the relation between the Planck mass and the electroweak energy scale is provided by the conformal weights of these quantities.

  5. 21 CFR 886.3130 - Ophthalmic conformer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic conformer. 886.3130 Section 886.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3130 Ophthalmic conformer. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic conformer is a device usually...

  6. 40 CFR 52.799 - Transportation conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation conformity. 52.799... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.799 Transportation conformity. On June 4, 2010, Indiana submitted the Transportation Conformity Consultation SIP consisting...

  7. Conformational Changes in Two Inter-Helical Loops of Mhp1 Membrane Transporter.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Deok; Zhu, Fangqiang

    2015-01-01

    Mhp1 is a bacterial secondary transporter with high-resolution crystal structures available for both the outward- and inward-facing conformations. Through molecular dynamics simulations of the ligand-free Mhp1 as well as analysis of its crystal structures, here we show that two inter-helical loops, respectively located at the extra- and intracellular ends of the "hash motif" in the protein, play important roles in the conformational transition. In the outward- and inward-facing states of the protein, the loops adopt different secondary structures, either wrapped to the end of an alpha-helix, or unwrapped to extended conformations. In equilibrium simulations of 100 ns with Mhp1 in explicit lipids and water, the loop conformations remain largely stable. In targeted molecular dynamics simulations with the protein structure driven from one state to the other, the loops exhibit resistance and only undergo abrupt changes when other parts of the protein already approach the target conformation. Free energy calculations on the isolated loops further confirm that the wrapping/unwrapping transitions are associated with substantial energetic barriers, and consist of multiple sequential steps involving the rotation of certain backbone torsion angles. Furthermore, in simulations with the loops driven from one state to the other, a large part of the protein follows the loops to the target conformation. Taken together, our simulations suggest that changes of the loop secondary structures would be among the slow degrees of freedom in the conformational transition of the entire protein. Incorporation of detailed loop structures into the reaction coordinate, therefore, should improve the convergence and relevance of the resulting conformational free energy. PMID:26186341

  8. Conformational Changes in Two Inter-Helical Loops of Mhp1 Membrane Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Deok; Zhu, Fangqiang

    2015-01-01

    Mhp1 is a bacterial secondary transporter with high-resolution crystal structures available for both the outward- and inward-facing conformations. Through molecular dynamics simulations of the ligand-free Mhp1 as well as analysis of its crystal structures, here we show that two inter-helical loops, respectively located at the extra- and intracellular ends of the hash motif in the protein, play important roles in the conformational transition. In the outward- and inward-facing states of the protein, the loops adopt different secondary structures, either wrapped to the end of an alpha-helix, or unwrapped to extended conformations. In equilibrium simulations of 100 ns with Mhp1 in explicit lipids and water, the loop conformations remain largely stable. In targeted molecular dynamics simulations with the protein structure driven from one state to the other, the loops exhibit resistance and only undergo abrupt changes when other parts of the protein already approach the target conformation. Free energy calculations on the isolated loops further confirm that the wrapping/unwrapping transitions are associated with substantial energetic barriers, and consist of multiple sequential steps involving the rotation of certain backbone torsion angles. Furthermore, in simulations with the loops driven from one state to the other, a large part of the protein follows the loops to the target conformation. Taken together, our simulations suggest that changes of the loop secondary structures would be among the slow degrees of freedom in the conformational transition of the entire protein. Incorporation of detailed loop structures into the reaction coordinate, therefore, should improve the convergence and relevance of the resulting conformational free energy. PMID:26186341

  9. Conformation and chirality in liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, John L.; Zhao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    High helical twisting powerchiral additives are required for an expanding variety of liquid crystal displays and devices. Molecular conformation plays a critical role in determining the helical twisting power, HTP, of chiral additives. We studied additives based on an isosorbide benzoate ester core. Molecular modeling revealed two low energy states with very different conformations for this core The ultra-violet absorption and NMR spectra show two stable isosorbide conformers These spectra reveal how the relative populations of these two conformations change with temperature and how this is related to the helical twisting power. Conformation changes can explain many of the observed anomalous responses of HPT to temperature.

  10. Targeted Conformational Search with Map-Restrained Self-Guided Langevin Dynamics: Application to Flexible Fitting of Electron Microscopy Images

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiongwu; Subramaniam, Sriram; Case, David A.; Wu, Katherine W.; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a map-restrained self-guided Langevin dynamics (MapSGLD) simulation method for efficient targeted conformational search. The targeted conformational search represents simulations under restraints defined by experimental observations and/or by user specified structural requirements. Through map-restraints, this method provides an efficient way to maintain substructures and to set structure targets during conformational searching. With an enhanced conformational searching ability of self-guided Langevin dynamics, this approach is suitable for simulating large-scale conformational changes, such as the formation of macromolecular assemblies and transitions between different conformational states. Using several examples, we illustrate the application of this method in flexible fitting of atomic structures into density maps from cryo-electron microscopy. PMID:23876978

  11. Myosin and tropomyosin stabilize the conformation of formin-nucleated actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Ujfalusi, Zoltn; Kovcs, Mihly; Nagy, Nikolett T; Bark, Szilvia; Hild, Gbor; Lukcs, Andrs; Nyitrai, Mikls; Bugyi, Beta

    2012-09-14

    The conformational elasticity of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for its versatile biological functions. Increasing evidence supports that the interplay between the structural and functional properties of actin filaments is finely regulated by actin-binding proteins; however, the underlying mechanisms and biological consequences are not completely understood. Previous studies showed that the binding of formins to the barbed end induces conformational transitions in actin filaments by making them more flexible through long range allosteric interactions. These conformational changes are accompanied by altered functional properties of the filaments. To get insight into the conformational regulation of formin-nucleated actin structures, in the present work we investigated in detail how binding partners of formin-generated actin structures, myosin and tropomyosin, affect the conformation of the formin-nucleated actin filaments using fluorescence spectroscopic approaches. Time-dependent fluorescence anisotropy and temperature-dependent Frster-type resonance energy transfer measurements revealed that heavy meromyosin, similarly to tropomyosin, restores the formin-induced effects and stabilizes the conformation of actin filaments. The stabilizing effect of heavy meromyosin is cooperative. The kinetic analysis revealed that despite the qualitatively similar effects of heavy meromyosin and tropomyosin on the conformational dynamics of actin filaments the mechanisms of the conformational transition are different for the two proteins. Heavy meromyosin stabilizes the formin-nucleated actin filaments in an apparently single step reaction upon binding, whereas the stabilization by tropomyosin occurs after complex formation. These observations support the idea that actin-binding proteins are key elements of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the conformational and functional diversity of actin filaments in living cells. PMID:22753415

  12. Myosin and Tropomyosin Stabilize the Conformation of Formin-nucleated Actin Filaments*

    PubMed Central

    Ujfalusi, Zoltn; Kovcs, Mihly; Nagy, Nikolett T.; Bark, Szilvia; Hild, Gbor; Lukcs, Andrs; Nyitrai, Mikls; Bugyi, Beta

    2012-01-01

    The conformational elasticity of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for its versatile biological functions. Increasing evidence supports that the interplay between the structural and functional properties of actin filaments is finely regulated by actin-binding proteins; however, the underlying mechanisms and biological consequences are not completely understood. Previous studies showed that the binding of formins to the barbed end induces conformational transitions in actin filaments by making them more flexible through long range allosteric interactions. These conformational changes are accompanied by altered functional properties of the filaments. To get insight into the conformational regulation of formin-nucleated actin structures, in the present work we investigated in detail how binding partners of formin-generated actin structures, myosin and tropomyosin, affect the conformation of the formin-nucleated actin filaments using fluorescence spectroscopic approaches. Time-dependent fluorescence anisotropy and temperature-dependent Frster-type resonance energy transfer measurements revealed that heavy meromyosin, similarly to tropomyosin, restores the formin-induced effects and stabilizes the conformation of actin filaments. The stabilizing effect of heavy meromyosin is cooperative. The kinetic analysis revealed that despite the qualitatively similar effects of heavy meromyosin and tropomyosin on the conformational dynamics of actin filaments the mechanisms of the conformational transition are different for the two proteins. Heavy meromyosin stabilizes the formin-nucleated actin filaments in an apparently single step reaction upon binding, whereas the stabilization by tropomyosin occurs after complex formation. These observations support the idea that actin-binding proteins are key elements of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the conformational and functional diversity of actin filaments in living cells. PMID:22753415

  13. Nonadiabatic effects on peptide vibrational dynamics induced by conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Antony, Jens; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schtte, Christof

    2005-01-01

    Quantum dynamical simulations of vibrational spectroscopy have been carried out for glycine dipeptide (CH(3)-CO-NH-CH(2)-CO-NH-CH(3)). Conformational structure and dynamics are modeled in terms of the two Ramachandran dihedral angles of the molecular backbone. Potential energy surfaces and harmonic frequencies are obtained from electronic structure calculations at the density functional theory (DFT) [B3LYP/6-31+G(d)] level. The ordering of the energetically most stable isomers (C(7) and C(5)) is reversed upon inclusion of the quantum mechanical zero point vibrational energy. Vibrational spectra of various isomers show distinct differences, mainly in the region of the amide modes, thereby relating conformational structures and vibrational spectra. Conformational dynamics is modeled by propagation of quantum mechanical wave packets. Assuming a directed energy transfer to the torsional degrees of freedom, transitions between the C(7) and C(5) minimum energy structures occur on a sub-picosecond time scale (700...800 fs). Vibrationally nonadiabatic effects are investigated for the case of the coupled, fundamentally excited amide I states. Using a two state-two mode model, the resulting wave packet dynamics is found to be strongly nonadiabatic due to the presence of a seam of the two potential energy surfaces. Initially prepared adiabatic vibrational states decay upon conformational change on a time scale of 200...500 fs with population transfer of more than 50% between the coupled amide I states. Also the vibrational energy transport between localized (excitonic) amide I vibrational states is strongly influenced by torsional dynamics of the molecular backbone where both enhanced and reduced decay rates are found. All these observations should allow the detection of conformational changes by means of time-dependent vibrational spectroscopy. PMID:15638661

  14. Conformation and intramolecular relaxation dynamics of semiflexible randomly hyperbranched polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Rai, Gobind Ji; Biswas, Parbati

    2013-03-01

    The conformational and dynamic properties of semiflexible randomly hyperbranched polymers are investigated in dilute solutions within the framework of optimized Rouse-Zimm formalism. Semiflexibility is incorporated by restricting the directions and orientations of the respective bond vectors, while hydrodynamic interactions are modeled through the preaveraged Oseen tensor. The effect of semiflexibility is typically reflected in the intermediate frequency regime of the viscoelastic relaxation moduli where the bond orientation angle restores the characteristic power-law scaling in fractal structures, as in randomly hyperbranched polymers. Despite the absence of this power-law scaling regime in flexible randomly hyperbranched polymers and in earlier models of semiflexible randomly branched polymers due to weak disorder [C. von Ferber and A. Blumen, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8616 (2002)], 10.1063/1.1470198, this power-law behavior may be reinstated by explicitly modeling hyperbranched polymers as a Vicsek fractals. The length of this power-law zone in the intermediate frequency region is a combined function of the number of monomers and the degree of semiflexibility. A clear conformational transition from compact to open structures is facilitated by changing the bond orientation angle, where the compressed conformations are compact, while the expanded ones are relatively non-compact. The extent of compactness in the compressed conformations are much less compared to the semiflexible dendrimers, which resemble hard spheres. The fractal dimensions of the compressed and expanded conformations calculated from the Porod's scaling law vary as a function of the bond orientation angle, spanning the entire range of three distinct scaling regimes of linear polymers in three-dimensions. The results confirm that semiflexibility exactly accounts for the excluded volume interactions which are expected to be significant for such polymers with complex topologies.

  15. Conformational stability of adrenodoxin mutant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Burova, T. V.; Beckert, V.; Uhlmann, H.; Ristau, O.; Bernhardt, R.; Pfeil, W.

    1996-01-01

    Adrenodoxin and the mutants at the positions T54, H56, D76, Y82, and C95, as well as the deletion mutants 4-114 and 4-108, were studied by high-sensitivity scanning microcalorimetry, limited proteolysis, and absorption spectroscopy. The mutants show thermal transition temperatures ranging from 46 to 56 degrees C, enthalpy changes from 250 to 370 kJ/mol, and heat capacity change delta Cp = 7.28 +/- 0.67 kJ/mol/K, except H56R. The amino acid replacement H56R produces substantial local changes in the region around positions 56 and Y82, as indicated by reduced heat capacity change (delta Cp = 4.29 +/- 0.37 kJ/mol/K) and enhanced fluorescence. Deletion mutant 4-108 is apparently more stable than the wild type, as judged by higher specific denaturation enthalpy and resistance toward proteolytic degradation. No simple correlation between conformational stability and functional properties could be found. PMID:8880913

  16. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement decisions rules.

  17. Transitions of tethered chain molecules under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta; Binder, Kurt

    2014-09-01

    An applied tension force changes the equilibrium conformations of a polymer chain tethered to a planar substrate and thus affects the adsorption transition as well as the coil-globule and crystallization transitions. Conversely, solvent quality and surface attraction are reflected in equilibrium force-extension curves that can be measured in experiments. To investigate these effects theoretically, we study tethered chains under tension with Wang-Landau simulations of a bond-fluctuation lattice model. Applying our model to pulling experiments on biological molecules we obtain a good description of experimental data in the intermediate force range, where universal features dominate and finite size effects are small. For tethered chains in poor solvent, we observe the predicted two-phase coexistence at transitions from the globule to stretched conformations and also discover direct transitions from crystalline to stretched conformations. A phase portrait for finite chains constructed by evaluating the density of states for a broad range of solvent conditions and tensions shows how increasing tension leads to a disappearance of the globular phase. For chains in good solvents tethered to hard and attractive surfaces we find the predicted scaling with the chain length in the low-force regime and show that our results are well described by an analytical, independent-bond approximation for the bond-fluctuation model for the highest tensions. Finally, for a hard or slightly attractive surface the stretching of a tethered chain is a conformational change that does not correspond to a phase transition. However, when the surface attraction is sufficient to adsorb a chain it will undergo a desorption transition at a critical value of the applied force. Our results for force-induced desorption show the transition to be discontinuous with partially desorbed conformations in the coexistence region.

  18. Conformance Verification of Privacy Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiang

    Web applications are both the consumers and providers of information. To increase customer confidence, many websites choose to publish their privacy protection policies. However, policy conformance is often neglected. We propose a logic based framework for formally specifying and reasoning about the implementation of privacy protection by a web application. A first order extension of computation tree logic is used to specify a policy. A verification paradigm, built upon a static control/data flow analysis, is presented to verify if a policy is satisfied.

  19. Conformal Maps and Integrable Hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegmann, P. B.; Zabrodin, A.

    We show that conformal maps of simply connected domains with an analytic boundary to a unit disk have an intimate relation to the dispersionless 2D Toda integrable hierarchy. The maps are determined by a particular solution to the hierarchy singled out by the conditions known as ``string equations''. The same hierarchy locally solves the 2D inverse potential problem, i.e., reconstruction of the domain out of a set of its harmonic moments. This is the same solution which is known to describe 2D gravity coupled to c= matter. We also introduce a concept of the ?-function for analytic curves.

  20. Conformational mobility of small molecules in glass-forming solutions studied by FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, A. I.; Noskov, A. I.; Stolov, A. A.

    2012-06-01

    Small molecules with two or more stable conformations when embedded in a glass-forming liquid (matrix) serve the role of "conformational probes", i.e., their conformational transitions are used to follow local mobility in the matrix. In the present study, conformational probes were embedded in low-molecular-weight glass-forming liquids, and the molecular mobility was studied in a broad temperature range including the glass transition temperature (Tg). Paraffin oil, dibutylphthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and isopropylbenzene were used as glass-forming liquids while 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-diphenylethane, chlorocyclohexane and bromocyclohexane were used as conformational probes. For some of the matrix/probe systems, the conformational mobility was found to freeze-in at Tg, while for the others it froze-in at certain temperatures Tf < Tg. In the latter case, it was possible to evaluate the activation energies related to mobility of free volume entities in the glassy matrices. In addition, it was possible to estimate the volumes of sub-molecular groups of the matrix that freeze-in at Tf.

  1. Nontargeted Parallel Cascade Selection Molecular Dynamics for Enhancing the Conformational Sampling of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Harada, Ryuhei; Kitao, Akio

    2015-11-10

    Nontargeted parallel cascade selection molecular dynamics (nt-PaCS-MD) is proposed as an efficient conformational sampling method to enhance the conformational transitions of proteins, which is an extension of the original targeted PaCS-MD (t-PaCS-MD). The original PaCS-MD comprises cycles of (i) selection of initial structures for multiple independent MD simulations toward a predetermined target and (ii) conformational sampling by the independent MDs. In nt-PaCS-MD, structures that significantly deviate from an average are regarded as candidates that have high potential to address other metastable states and are chosen as the initial structures in the selection. To select significantly deviated structures, we examine the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of snapshots generated from the average structure based on Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. nt-PaCS-MD was applied to the folding of the mini-protein chignolin in implicit solvent and to the open-closed conformational transitions of T4 lysozyme (T4L) and glutamine binding protein (QBP) in explicit solvent. We show that nt-PaCS-MD can reach chignolin's native state and can also cause the open-closed transition of T4L and QBP on a nanosecond time scale, which are very efficient in terms of conformational sampling and comparable to that with t-PaCS-MD. PMID:26574337

  2. Optimization of brain conformal mapping with landmarks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalin; Lui, Lok Ming; Chan, Tony F; Thompson, Paul M

    2005-01-01

    To compare and integrate brain data, data from multiple subjects are typically mapped into a canonical space. One method to do this is to conformally map cortical surfaces to the sphere. It is well known that any genus zero Riemann surface can be conformally mapped to a sphere. Therefore, conformal mapping offers a convenient method to parameterize cortical surfaces without angular distortion, generating an orthogonal grid on the cortex that locally preserves the metric. To compare cortical surfaces more effectively, it is advantageous to adjust the conformal parameterizations to match consistent anatomical features across subjects. This matching of cortical patterns improves the alignment of data across subjects, although it is more challenging to create a consistent conformal (orthogonal) parameterization of anatomy across subjects when landmarks are constrained to lie at specific locations in the spherical parameter space. Here we propose a new method, based on a new energy functional, to optimize the conformal parameterization of cortical surfaces by using landmarks. Experimental results on a dataset of 40 brain hemispheres showed that the landmark mismatch energy can be greatly reduced while effectively preserving conformality. The key advantage of this conformal parameterization approach is that any local adjustments of the mapping to match landmarks do not affect the conformality of the mapping significantly. We also examined how the parameterization changes with different weighting factors. As expected, the landmark matching error can be reduced if it is more heavily penalized, but conformality is progressively reduced. PMID:16686018

  3. China's urban transition.

    PubMed

    Pannell, C

    1995-01-01

    This article describes recent changes in urban patterns in Shanghai-Nanjing, Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan, Canton-Hong Kong, and Dalian-Shenyang. The urban patterns in these metropolitan areas are viewed as part of an urban transition that is responding to population growth, a structural shift in employment, relaxed rules on migration and household registration, and foreign investment and trade. It is argued that these metropolitan coastal areas will form the key growth centers and will lead China's economic development. Urban transition is defined as the shift from rural to urban and from agricultural employment to industrial, commercial, or service employment. China's large cities always dominated as important centers of politics and trade. The recent shift is from interior to coastal cities due to a new world view and a movement away from the isolationism of prior centuries. It is assumed that cities are formed to take advantage of economies of scale in production, consumption, and distribution and to conform to regional specialization. Governments can intervene in growth processes. China's development of cities reflects state controls and market forces. The size and scale of China's population influenced the development process, which resulted in differences in the shape and process of the urban transition. It was under Chinese communism that cities became more than a set of discrete regional urban systems. Reference is made to Oshima's model of change that is specific to monsoon countries. Oshima argues that monsoon agricultural conditions require a distinct strategy based on full employment in order to achieve industrial transition. Rice cultivation requires a large and disciplined labor force. The discussion focuses on other models as well, such as the McGee's model of the extended metropolis and its extension by Zhou Yixing to China. China's changes may not follow Skeldon's models of urbanization in developing countries, because of state control of migration. However, the longer migrants remain in cities the more likely Skeldon's models of early European transitions apply to China's urban transition. PMID:12178548

  4. Conformational gating of DNA conductance.

    PubMed

    Arts, Juan Manuel; Li, Yuanhui; Qi, Jianqing; Anantram, M P; Hihath, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    DNA is a promising molecule for applications in molecular electronics because of its unique electronic and self-assembly properties. Here we report that the conductance of DNA duplexes increases by approximately one order of magnitude when its conformation is changed from the B-form to the A-form. This large conductance increase is fully reversible, and by controlling the chemical environment, the conductance can be repeatedly switched between the two values. The conductance of the two conformations displays weak length dependencies, as is expected for guanine-rich sequences, and can be fit with a coherence-corrected hopping model. These results are supported by ab initio electronic structure calculations that indicate that the highest occupied molecular orbital is more disperse in the A-form DNA case. These results demonstrate that DNA can behave as a promising molecular switch for molecular electronics applications and also provide additional insights into the huge dispersion of DNA conductance values found in the literature. PMID:26648400

  5. Conformal inflation coupled to matter

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    We formulate new conformal models of inflation and dark energy which generalise the Higgs-Dilaton scenario. We embed these models in unimodular gravity whose effect is to break scale invariance in the late time Universe. In the early Universe, inflation occurs close to a maximum of both the scalar potential and the scalar coupling to the Ricci scalar in the Jordan frame. At late times, the dilaton, which decouples from the dynamics during inflation, receives a potential term from unimodular gravity and leads to the acceleration of the Universe. We address two central issues in this scenario. First we show that the Damour-Polyalov mechanism, when non-relativistic matter is present prior to the start of inflation, sets the initial conditions for inflation at the maximum of the scalar potential. We then show that conformal invariance implies that matter particles are not coupled to the dilaton in the late Universe at the classical level. When fermions acquire masses at low energy, scale invariance is broken and quantum corrections induce a coupling between the dilaton and matter which is still small enough to evade the gravitational constraints in the solar system.

  6. Conformational gating of DNA conductance

    PubMed Central

    Artés, Juan Manuel; Li, Yuanhui; Qi, Jianqing; Anantram, M. P.; Hihath, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    DNA is a promising molecule for applications in molecular electronics because of its unique electronic and self-assembly properties. Here we report that the conductance of DNA duplexes increases by approximately one order of magnitude when its conformation is changed from the B-form to the A-form. This large conductance increase is fully reversible, and by controlling the chemical environment, the conductance can be repeatedly switched between the two values. The conductance of the two conformations displays weak length dependencies, as is expected for guanine-rich sequences, and can be fit with a coherence-corrected hopping model. These results are supported by ab initio electronic structure calculations that indicate that the highest occupied molecular orbital is more disperse in the A-form DNA case. These results demonstrate that DNA can behave as a promising molecular switch for molecular electronics applications and also provide additional insights into the huge dispersion of DNA conductance values found in the literature. PMID:26648400

  7. Metrics with Galilean conformal isometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, Arjun; Kundu, Arnab

    2011-03-15

    The Galilean conformal algebra (GCA) arises in taking the nonrelativistic limit of the symmetries of a relativistic conformal field theory in any dimensions. It is known to be infinite dimensional in all spacetime dimensions. In particular, the 2d GCA emerges out of a scaling limit of linear combinations of two copies of the Virasoro algebra. In this paper, we find metrics in dimensions greater than 2 which realize the finite 2d GCA (the global part of the infinite algebra) as their isometry by systematically looking at a construction in terms of cosets of this finite algebra. We list all possible subalgebras consistent with some physical considerations motivated by earlier work in this direction and construct all possible higher-dimensional nondegenerate metrics. We briefly study the properties of the metrics obtained. In the standard one higher-dimensional ''holographic'' setting, we find that the only nondegenerate metric is Minkowskian. In four and five dimensions, we find families of nontrivial metrics with a rather exotic signature. A curious feature of these metrics is that all but one of them are Ricci-scalar flat.

  8. Generative Models of Conformational Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Langmead, Christopher James

    2014-01-01

    Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter is to review both traditional and emerging methods for learning generative models from atomistic simulation data. Here, the term ‘generative’ refers to a model of the joint probability distribution over the behaviors of the constituent atoms. In the context of molecular modeling, generative models reveal the correlation structure between the atoms, and may be used to predict how the system will respond to structural perturbations. We begin by discussing traditional methods, which produce multivariate Gaussian models. We then discuss GAMELAN (GrAphical Models of Energy LANdscapes), which produces generative models of complex, non-Gaussian conformational dynamics (e.g., allostery, binding, folding, etc) from long timescale simulation data. PMID:24446358

  9. Conformational gating of DNA conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artés, Juan Manuel; Li, Yuanhui; Qi, Jianqing; Anantram, M. P.; Hihath, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    DNA is a promising molecule for applications in molecular electronics because of its unique electronic and self-assembly properties. Here we report that the conductance of DNA duplexes increases by approximately one order of magnitude when its conformation is changed from the B-form to the A-form. This large conductance increase is fully reversible, and by controlling the chemical environment, the conductance can be repeatedly switched between the two values. The conductance of the two conformations displays weak length dependencies, as is expected for guanine-rich sequences, and can be fit with a coherence-corrected hopping model. These results are supported by ab initio electronic structure calculations that indicate that the highest occupied molecular orbital is more disperse in the A-form DNA case. These results demonstrate that DNA can behave as a promising molecular switch for molecular electronics applications and also provide additional insights into the huge dispersion of DNA conductance values found in the literature.

  10. Phase transition in the Sznajd model with independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sznajd-Weron, K.; Tabiszewski, M.; Timpanaro, A. M.

    2011-11-01

    We propose a model of opinion dynamics which describes two major types of social influence —conformity and independence. Conformity in our model is described by the so-called outflow dynamics (known as Sznajd model). According to sociologists' suggestions, we introduce also a second type of social influence, known in social psychology as independence. Various social experiments have shown that the level of conformity depends on the society. We introduce this level as a parameter of the model and show that there is a continuous phase transition between conformity and independence.

  11. Mg2+-induced conformational changes in the btuB riboswitch from E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Pallavi K.; Sigel, Roland K.O.

    2014-01-01

    Mg2+ has been shown to modulate the function of riboswitches by facilitating the ligand-riboswitch interactions. The btuB riboswitch from Escherichia coli undergoes a conformational change upon binding to its ligand, coenzyme B12 (adenosyl-cobalamine, AdoCbl), and down-regulates the expression of the B12 transporter protein BtuB in order to control the cellular levels of AdoCbl. Here, we discuss the structural folding attained by the btuB riboswitch from E. coli in response to Mg2+ and how it affects the ligand binding competent conformation of the RNA. The btuB riboswitch notably adopts different conformational states depending upon the concentration of Mg2+. With the help of in-line probing, we show the existence of at least two specific conformations, one being achieved in the complete absence of Mg2+ (or low Mg2+ concentration) and the other appearing above ?0.5 mM Mg2+. Distinct regions of the riboswitch exhibit different dissociation constants toward Mg2+, indicating a stepwise folding of the btuB RNA. Increasing the Mg2+ concentration drives the transition from one conformation toward the other. The conformational state existing above 0.5 mM Mg2+ defines the binding competent conformation of the btuB riboswitch which can productively interact with the ligand, coenzyme B12, and switch the RNA conformation. Moreover, raising the Mg2+ concentration enhances the ratio of switched RNA in the presence of AdoCbl. The lack of a AdoCbl-induced conformational switch experienced by the btuB riboswitch in the absence of Mg2+ indicates a crucial role played by Mg2+ for defining an active conformation of the riboswitch. PMID:24243114

  12. Intrinsic time in Wheeler-DeWitt conformal superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. E.; Pervushin, V. N.

    In Geometrodynamics, the York's extrinsic time, constructed of the tensor of extrinsic curvature and the Misner's intrinsic time, built of the spatial metric tensor, coexist. In our paper, we prove the preference of selecting the internal time. To extract the intrinsic time, we generalize the Dirac's mapping of transition to conformal variables. In Friedmann cosmology, the many-fingered intrinsic time obtains a sense of a global time of the Universe. An accounting of metric scalar linear perturbations leads to adding some corrections not dominated to the effective energy density in the Hubble law. The metric vector and tensor perturbations do not influence the internal time in linear approximation.

  13. Parity Doubling and the S Parameter Below the Conformal Window

    SciTech Connect

    Appelquist, T; Babich, R; Brower, R C; Cheng, M; Clark, M A; Cohen, S D; Fleming, G T; Kiskis, J; Lin, M F; Neil, E T; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C; Schaich, D; Vranas, P M

    2011-10-21

    We describe a lattice simulation of the masses and decay constants of the lowest-lying vector and axial resonances, and the electroweak S parameter, in an SU(3) gauge theory with N{sub f} = 2 and 6 fermions in the fundamental representation. The spectrum becomes more parity doubled and the S parameter per electroweak doublet decreases when N{sub f} is increased from 2 to 6, motivating study of these trends as N{sub f} is increased further, toward the critical value for transition from confinement to infrared conformality.

  14. Probing messenger RNA conformational heterogeneity using single-molecule fluorescence anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Deepak; Sastry, Srikanth; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2006-03-01

    In this letter we describe a method to probe biomolecular conformations and their dynamics at the single molecule level. We show, using fluorescence anisotropy based methods, that the hydrodynamic volume of biomolecules captures the intrinsic heterogeneity within a population. Population distributions of conformations and their dynamics are studied by making anisotropy measurements on one molecule at a time within a confocal volume. The mean anisotropy of mRNA is lowered on addition of salt while the spread remains the same. The intrinsic heterogeneity is revealed when conformational transitions are frozen, resulting in a drastic increase in the spread of the anisotropy. These studies reveal that mRNA samples a broad range of conformations.

  15. Conformational Substates of Myoglobin Intermediate Resolved by Picosecond X-ray Solution Scattering.

    PubMed

    Oang, Key Young; Kim, Jong Goo; Yang, Cheolhee; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Youngmin; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl

    2014-03-01

    Conformational substates of proteins are generally considered to play important roles in regulating protein functions, but an understanding of how they influence the structural dynamics and functions of the proteins has been elusive. Here, we investigate the structural dynamics of sperm whale myoglobin associated with the conformational substates using picosecond X-ray solution scattering. By applying kinetic analysis considering all of the plausible candidate models, we establish a kinetic model for the entire cycle of the protein transition in a wide time range from 100 ps to 10 ms. Four structurally distinct intermediates are formed during the cycle, and most importantly, the transition from the first intermediate to the second one (B → C) occurs biphasically. We attribute the biphasic kinetics to the involvement of two conformational substates of the first intermediate, which are generated by the interplay between the distal histidine and the photodissociated CO. PMID:24761190

  16. Measuring the mechanical properties of molecular conformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, S. P.; Taylor, S.; Baran, J. D.; Champness, N. R.; Larsson, J. A.; Moriarty, P.

    2015-09-01

    Scanning probe-actuated single molecule manipulation has proven to be an exceptionally powerful tool for the systematic atomic-scale interrogation of molecular adsorbates. To date, however, the extent to which molecular conformation affects the force required to push or pull a single molecule has not been explored. Here we probe the mechanochemical response of two tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin conformers using non-contact atomic force microscopy where we find a large difference between the lateral forces required for manipulation. Remarkably, despite sharing very similar adsorption characteristics, variations in the potential energy surface are capable of prohibiting probe-induced positioning of one conformer, while simultaneously permitting manipulation of the alternative conformational form. Our results are interpreted in the context of dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations which reveal significant differences in the diffusion barriers for each conformer. These results demonstrate that conformational variation significantly modifies the mechanical response of even simple porpyhrins, potentially affecting many other flexible molecules.

  17. 76 FR 63575 - Transportation Conformity Rule: MOVES Regional Grace Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... period was necessary to apply MOVES2010a for hot-spot analyses (75 FR 79370). However, the transition to... promulgated the conformity rule on November 24, 1993 (58 FR 62188) and subsequently published several other... announced the release of MOVES2010 in the Federal Register on March 2, 2010 (75 FR 9411) and...

  18. Test of conformal gravity with astrophysical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rongjia; Chen, Bohai; Zhao, Haijun; Li, Jun; Liu, Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Since it can describe the rotation curves of galaxies without dark matter and can give rise to accelerated expansion, conformal gravity attracts much attention recently. As a theory of modified gravity, it is important to test conformal gravity with astrophysical observations. Here we constrain conformal gravity with SNIa and Hubble parameter data and investigate whether it suffers from an age problem with the age of APM 08279+5255. We find conformal gravity can accommodate the age of APM 08279+5255 at 3? deviation, unlike most of dark energy models which suffer from an age problem.

  19. Rotational Spectroscopy Unveils Eleven Conformers of Adrenaline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, C.; Cortijo, V.; Mata, S.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    Recent improvements in our LA-MB-FTMW instrumentation have allowed the characterization of eleven and eight conformers for the neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline respectively. The observation of this rich conformational behavior is in accordance with the recent observation of seven conformers for dopamine and in sharp contrast with the conformational reduction proposed for catecholamines. C. Cabezas, I. Pea, J. C. Lpez, J. L. Alonso J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013, 4, 486. H. Mitsuda, M. Miyazaki, I. B. Nielsen, P. Carcabal,C. Dedonder, C. Jouvet, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1130.

  20. Electromagnetic characterization of conformal antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.; Kempel, Leo C.; Alexanian, Angelos; Jin, J. M.; Yu, C. L.; Woo, Alex C.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this project is to develop a new technique which permits an accurate simulation of microstrip patch antennas or arrays with various feed, superstrate and/or substrate configurations residing in a recessed cavity whose aperture is planar, cylindrical or otherwise conformed to the substructure. The technique combines the finite element and boundary integral methods to formulate a system suitable for solution via the conjugate gradient method in conjunction with the fast Fourier transform. The final code is intended to compute both scattering and radiation patterns of the structure with an affordable memory demand. With upgraded capabilities, the four included papers examined the radar cross section (RCS), input impedance, gain, and resonant frequency of several rectangular configurations using different loading and substrate/superstrate configurations.

  1. Conformable eddy current array delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.

  2. Electrostatic imaging via conformal mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akduman, Ibrahim; Kress, Rainer

    2002-12-01

    We present the solution of an inverse boundary value problem for harmonic functions arising in electrostatic imaging through conformal mapping techniques. The numerical method consists of two parts. In a first step, by successive approximations a nonlinear equation is solved to determine the boundary values of a holomorphic function on the outer boundary circle of an annulus. Then in a second step an ill-posed Cauchy problem is solved to determine the holomorphic function in the annulus. The method extends and modifies an earlier analysis of Idemen and Akduman (Idemen M and Akduman I 1988 SIAM J. Appl. Math. 48 703-18). We establish a convergence result for the iteration procedure and through numerical examples we illustrate the feasibility of the method.

  3. Approaching Conformality with Ten Flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Appelquist, Thomas; Brower, Richard C.; Buchoff, Michael I.; Cheng, Michael; Cohen, Saul D.; Fleming, George T.; Kiskis, Joe; Lin, Meifeng; Na, Heechang; Neil, Ethan T.; Osborn, James C.

    2012-04-01

    We present first results for lattice simulations, on a single volume, of the low-lying spectrum of an SU(3) Yang-Mills gauge theory with N{sub f} = 10 light fermions in the fundamental representation. Fits to the fermion mass dependence of various observables are found to be globally consistent with the hypothesis that this theory is within or just outside the strongly-coupled edge of the conformal window, with mass anomalous dimension {gamma}* {approx} 1 over the range of scales simulated. We stress that we cannot rule out the possibility of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking at scales well below our infrared cutoff. We discuss important systematic effects, including finite-volume corrections, and consider directions for future improvement.

  4. En route Descent Advisor Concept for Efficient Arrival Metering Conformance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven; Vivona, Robert; Coppenbarger, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The En-route Descent Advisor (EDA) is a suite of decision support tool (DST) capabilities for en route sector subject to metering restrictions such as those generated by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) Traffic Management Advisor. EDA assists controllers with high-density arrival metering by providing fuel-efficient metering-conformance advisories, integrated with conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) capabilities, to minimize deviations from the user s preferred trajectory. These DST capabilities will enable controllers to change their procedures from ones that are oriented towards sector management to procedures oriented towards trajectory management. Although adaptable to current procedures and airspace structure, EDA is intended as a tool for transitioning traffic from a Free Flight environment to an efficiently organized flow into terminal airspace. This paper describes the transition airspace problem and EDA concept, defines the key benefit mechanisms that will be enabled by EDA capabilities, and presents a traffic scenario to illustrate the use of the tool.

  5. Structural Heterogeneity and Conformational Relaxation in Heme Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Kelvin

    The influence of cooling rate upon the structural heterogeneity of sperm whale myoglobin solutions at cryogenic temperatures was studied. Sample cooling rates were varied by almost four orders of magnitude. FTIR spectra of the CO stretch frequency region reveal that the population of the A states is highly sensitive to the glass transition temperature T_{rm g} of the solvent, which is in turn sensitive to the cooling rate. The structural heterogeneity within each substate was assessed by temperature-derivative spectroscopy (TDS); no significant changes of barrier distributions were found. We conclude that cooling rate plays a negligible role in the structural heterogeneity of protein solutions, and that conformational substates are an intrinsic part of protein systems. Flash photolysis experiments using both O _2 and CO adducts of sperm whale and horse myoglobin reveal an intermediate process that separates geminate and solvent rebinding. This process, named process II, is caused by thermally-induced relaxation (TIR) of the protein from the photoproduct (Mb*) to the deoxy (Mb) configuration. The conformational change Mb* --> Mb was originally modelled as a smooth shift of the rebinding barrier distribution towards higher enthalpies by extrapolation of the spectral position of band III and rebinding enthalpy. Data from light-induced relaxation (LIR) experiments suggest that the relaxation proceeds in discrete steps. A four-well sequential model is proposed in which a conformational change separates the inner two wells.

  6. Serpin latency transition at atomic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cazzolli, Giorgia; Wang, Fang; a Beccara, Silvio; Gershenson, Anne; Faccioli, Pietro; Wintrode, Patrick L.

    2014-01-01

    Protease inhibition by serpins requires a large conformational transition from an active, metastable state to an inactive, stable state. Similar reactions can also occur in the absence of proteases, and these latency transitions take hours, making their time scales many orders of magnitude larger than are currently accessible using conventional molecular dynamics simulations. Using a variational path sampling algorithm, we simulated the entire serpin active-to-latent transition in all-atom detail with a physically realistic force field using a standard computing cluster. These simulations provide a unifying picture explaining existing experimental data for the latency transition of the serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). They predict a long-lived intermediate that resembles a previously proposed, partially loop-inserted, prelatent state; correctly predict the effects of PAI-1 mutations on the kinetics; and provide a potential means to identify ligands able to accelerate the latency transition. Interestingly, although all of the simulated PAI-1 variants readily access the prelatent intermediate, this conformation is not populated in the active-to-latent transition of another serpin, α1-antitrypsin, which does not readily go latent. Thus, these simulations also help elucidate why some inhibitory serpin families are more conformationally labile than others. PMID:25313058

  7. Conformations and Conformational Processes of Hexahydrobenzazocines by NMR and DFT Studies.

    PubMed

    Musielak, Bogdan; Holak, Tad A; Rys, Barbara

    2015-09-18

    Conformational processes that occur in hexahydrobenzazocines have been studied with the (1)H and (13)C dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR) spectroscopy. The coalescence effects are assigned to two different conformational processes: the ring-inversion of the ground-state conformations and the interconversion between two different conformers. The barriers for these processes are in the range of 42-52 and 42-43 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Molecular modeling on the density functional theory (DFT) level and the gauge invariant atomic orbitals (GIAO)-DFT calculations of isotropic shieldings and coupling constants for the set of low-energy conformations were compared with the experimental NMR data. The ground-state of all compounds in solution is the boat-chair (BC) conformation. The BC form adopts two different conformations because the nitrogen atom can be in the boat or chair parts of the BC structure. These two conformers are engaged in the interconversion process. PMID:26317238

  8. More transition amplitudes on the Riemann sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Dimock, J.

    2008-06-15

    We consider a conformal field theory for bosons on the Riemann sphere. Correlation functions are defined as singular limits of functional integrals. The main result is that these amplitudes define transition amplitudes, that is multilinear Hilbert-Schmidt functionals on a fixed Hilbert space.

  9. Conformation of 2-aminofluorene-modified DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Hingerty, B.

    1983-01-01

    Minimized potential-energy calculations were performed to determine the conformation of the 2-aminofluorene (AF) adduct to dCpdG at guanine C-8. The AF adduct has many low-energy conformers in both the anti and the syn domains of the guanine. This is in contrast with the acetylated adduct, (AAF), which greatly prefers the syn domain. Two types of low-energy guanine anti-conformations were obtained: (1) conformers that preserve guanine-cytidine stacking and (2) conformers with fluorene-cytidine stacking. Of special importance are conformers with omega,omega,phi = g/sup -/,g/sup -/,g/sup +/, characteristic of normal A- or B-helices, which are found in both groups. No conformers of this type were obtained for the acetylated AAF adduct. The guanine-cytidine stacked form with this conformation can be incorporated in the B-helix without any distortion, with the carcinogen situated at the helix exterior. The fluorene in this model can slide into the helix to yield a fluorene-cytidine stacked minimum-energy conformation. This requires no denaturation, although one base pair is unstacked and the helix axis is bent. Low-energy syn-conformations, similar to those obtained for the AAF adduct, were also computed. These were either guanine-cytidine stacked or fluorene-cytidine stacked. The syn forms are less likely to be observed in larger DNA polymers of the AF adduct, since they cause more distortion than the anti-conformations. However, they might well be observed in crystals of small subunits, and they should contribute significantly to the population in solution. 56 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Conformational Diversity of the Helix 12 of the Ligand Binding Domain of PPAR? and Functional Implications.

    PubMed

    Batista, Mariana R B; Martnez, Leandro

    2015-12-17

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NR) are transcription factors that activate gene expression in response to ligands. Structural and functional studies of the ligand binding domains (LBD) of NRs revealed that the dynamics of their C-terminal helix (H12) is fundamental for NR activity. H12 is rigid and facilitates binding of coactivator proteins in the agonist-bound LBD. In the absence of ligand, H12 exhibits increased flexibility. To provide a comprehensive picture of the H12 conformational equilibrium, extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the LBD of the PPAR? receptor in the presence or absence of ligand, and of coactivators and corepressor peptides, were performed. Free-energy profiles of the conformational variability of the H12 were obtained from more than four microseconds of simulations using adaptive biasing-force calculations. Our results demonstrate that, without ligand, multiple conformations of the H12 are accessible, including agonist-like conformations. We also confirm that extended H12 conformations are not accessible at ordinary temperatures. Ligand binding stabilizes the agonist H12 conformation relative to other structures, promoting a conformational selection. Similar effects are observed with coactivator association. The presence of corepressor peptides stabilizes conformations not allowed in the ligand-free, Rosiglitazone-bound or coactivator-bound LBDs. Corepressor binding, therefore, induces a conformational transition in the protein. Nevertheless, initial stages of corepressor dissociation could be induced by the ligand as it stabilizes the H12 in agonist form. Therefore, the present results provide a comprehensive picture of the H12 motions and their functional implications, with molecular resolution. PMID:26598113

  11. Regulatory Conformance Checking: Logic and Logical Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinesh, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is…

  12. CCProf: exploring conformational change profile of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Che-Wei; Chou, Chai-Wei; Chang, Darby Tien-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In many biological processes, proteins have important interactions with various molecules such as proteins, ions or ligands. Many proteins undergo conformational changes upon these interactions, where regions with large conformational changes are critical to the interactions. This work presents the CCProf platform, which provides conformational changes of entire proteins, named conformational change profile (CCP) in the context. CCProf aims to be a platform where users can study potential causes of novel conformational changes. It provides 10 biological features, including conformational change, potential binding target site, secondary structure, conservation, disorder propensity, hydropathy propensity, sequence domain, structural domain, phosphorylation site and catalytic site. All these information are integrated into a well-aligned view, so that researchers can capture important relevance between different biological features visually. The CCProf contains 986 187 protein structure pairs for 3123 proteins. In addition, CCProf provides a 3D view in which users can see the protein structures before and after conformational changes as well as binding targets that induce conformational changes. All information (e.g. CCP, binding targets and protein structures) shown in CCProf, including intermediate data are available for download to expedite further analyses. Database URL: http://zoro.ee.ncku.edu.tw/ccprof/ PMID:27016699

  13. Conformational analysis of thiophene analogs of propranolol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral, Carlos; Donoso, Rosa; Elguero, Jose; Goya, Pilar; Lissavetzky, Jaime; Rozas, Isabel

    1990-10-01

    Conformation of 3-tert-butylamino-1-thienyloxy-2-propanol, a thiophene analogue of propanolol, have been theoretically investigated by molecular mechanics and semiempirical calculations. The conformational minima obtained have been compared with those reported for propranolol using molecular graphics. The good "fit" obtained can account for the similar biological activity of these compounds.

  14. 40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The Commonwealth of Kentucky incorporated by reference regulations 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The Commonwealth of Kentucky incorporated by reference regulations 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The Commonwealth of Kentucky incorporated by reference regulations 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The Commonwealth of Kentucky incorporated by reference regulations 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The Commonwealth of Kentucky incorporated by reference regulations 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.138 - Conformity procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conformity procedures. 52.138 Section 52.138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.138 Conformity procedures. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this regulation is to...

  20. 21 CFR 886.3130 - Ophthalmic conformer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic conformer. 886.3130 Section 886.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3130 Ophthalmic conformer. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 886.3130 - Ophthalmic conformer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic conformer. 886.3130 Section 886.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3130 Ophthalmic conformer. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 886.3130 - Ophthalmic conformer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic conformer. 886.3130 Section 886.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3130 Ophthalmic conformer. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 886.3130 - Ophthalmic conformer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic conformer. 886.3130 Section 886.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3130 Ophthalmic conformer. (a)...

  4. Regulatory Conformance Checking: Logic and Logical Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinesh, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is

  5. Conformational readout of RNA by small ligands.

    PubMed

    Kligun, Efrat; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2013-06-01

    RNA molecules have highly versatile structures that can fold into myriad conformations, providing many potential pockets for binding small molecules. The increasing number of available RNA structures, in complex with proteins, small ligands and in free form, enables the design of new therapeutically useful RNA-binding ligands. Here we studied RNA ligand complexes from 10 RNA groups extracted from the protein data bank (PDB), including adaptive and non-adaptive complexes. We analyzed the chemical, physical, structural and conformational properties of binding pockets around the ligand. Comparing the properties of ligand-binding pockets to the properties of computed pockets extracted from all available RNA structures and RNA-protein interfaces, revealed that ligand-binding pockets, mainly the adaptive pockets, are characterized by unique properties, specifically enriched in rare conformations of the nucleobase and the sugar pucker. Further, we demonstrate that nucleotides possessing the rare conformations are preferentially involved in direct interactions with the ligand. Overall, based on our comprehensive analysis of RNA-ligand complexes, we suggest that the unique conformations adopted by RNA nucleotides play an important role in RNA recognition by small ligands. We term the recognition of a binding site by a ligand via the unique RNA conformations "RNA conformational readout." We propose that "conformational readout" is a general way by which RNA binding pockets are recognized and selected from an ensemble of different RNA states. PMID:23618839

  6. Conformational Sampling of Peptides in Cellular Environments?

    PubMed Central

    Tanizaki, Seiichiro; Clifford, Jacob; Connelly, Brian D.; Feig, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Biological systems provide a complex environment that can be understood in terms of its dielectric properties. High concentrations of macromolecules and cosolvents effectively reduce the dielectric constant of cellular environments, thereby affecting the conformational sampling of biomolecules. To examine this effect in more detail, the conformational preference of alanine dipeptide, poly-alanine, and melittin in different dielectric environments is studied with computer simulations based on recently developed generalized Born methodology. Results from these simulations suggest that extended conformations are favored over ?-helical conformations at the dipeptide level at and below dielectric constants of 510. Furthermore, lower-dielectric environments begin to significantly stabilize helical structures in poly-alanine at ?=20. In the more complex peptide melittin, different dielectric environments shift the equilibrium between two main conformations: a nearly fully extended helix that is most stable in low dielectrics and a compact, V-shaped conformation consisting of two helices that is preferred in higher dielectric environments. An additional conformation is only found to be significantly populated at intermediate dielectric constants. Good agreement with previous studies of different peptides in specific, less-polar solvent environments, suggest that helix stabilization and shifts in conformational preferences in such environments are primarily due to a reduced dielectric environment rather than specific molecular details. The findings presented here make predictions of how peptide sampling may be altered in dense cellular environments with reduced dielectric response. PMID:17905846

  7. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  8. Technidilaton at the conformal edge

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Michio; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Technidilaton (TD) was proposed long ago in the technicolor near criticality/conformality. To reveal the critical behavior of TD, we explicitly compute the nonperturbative contributions to the scale anomaly <{theta}{sub {mu}}{sup {mu}>} and to the technigluon condensate <{alpha}G{sub {mu}{nu}}{sup 2}>, which are generated by the dynamical mass m of the technifermions. Our computation is based on the (improved) ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation, with the gauge coupling {alpha} replaced by the two-loop running coupling {alpha}({mu}) having the Caswell-Banks-Zaks infrared fixed point {alpha}{sub *}: {alpha}({mu}){approx_equal}{alpha}={alpha}{sub *} for the infrared region m<{mu}<{Lambda}{sub TC}, where {Lambda}{sub TC} is the intrinsic scale (analogue of {Lambda}{sub QCD} of QCD) relevant to the perturbative scale anomaly. We find that -<{theta}{sub {mu}}{sup {mu}}>/m{sup 4}{yields}const{ne}0 and <{alpha}G{sub {mu}}{nu}{sup 2}>/m{sup 4}{yields}({alpha}/{alpha}{sub cr}-1){sup -3/2}{yields}{infinity} in the criticality limit m/{Lambda}{sub TC}{approx}exp(-{pi}/({alpha}/{alpha}{sub cr}-1){sup 1/2}){yields}0 ({alpha}={alpha}{sub *}=>{alpha}{sub cr}, or N{sub f} approaches N{sub f}{sup cr}) ('conformal edge'). Our result precisely reproduces the formal identity <{theta}{sub {mu}}{sup {mu}>}=({beta}({alpha})/4{alpha}{sup 2})<{alpha}G{sub {mu}{nu}}{sup 2}>, where {beta}({alpha})={Lambda}{sub TC}({partial_derivative}{alpha}/{partial_derivative}{Lambda}{sub TC})=-(2{alpha}{sub cr}/{pi}){center_dot}({alpha}/{alpha}{sub cr}-1){sup 3/2} is the nonperturbative beta function corresponding to the above essential singularity scaling of m/{Lambda}{sub TC}. Accordingly, the partially conserved dilatation current implies (M{sub TD}/m){sup 2}(F{sub TD}/m){sup 2}=-4<{theta}{sub {mu}}{sup {mu}}>/m{sup 4}{yields}const{ne}0 at criticality limit, where M{sub TD} is the mass of TD and F{sub TD} the decay constant of TD. We thus conclude that at criticality limit the TD could become a ''true (massless) Nambu-Goldstone boson'' M{sub TD}/m{yields}0, only when m/F{sub TD}{yields}0, namely, getting decoupled, as was the case of ''holographic technidilaton'' of Haba-Matsuzaki-Yamawaki. The decoupled TD can be a candidate of dark matter.

  9. Gas-phase conformational distributions for the 2-alkylalcohols 2-pentanol and 2-hexanol from microwave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubergen, Michael J.; Conrad, Andrew R.; Chavez, Roberto E.; Hwang, Injung; Suenram, Richard D.; Pajski, Jason J.; Pate, Brooks H.

    2008-09-01

    Chirped-pulse and cavity Fourier-transform microwave spectrometers were used to record rotational spectra arising from four conformational structures of 2-pentanol and 14 conformations of 2-hexanol. Each conformer's rotational spectrum consists of 10-89 transitions, making the microwave spectra of the alkylalcohols very congested. Assignments of the spectra to conformational structures were made by comparison of the experimental moments of inertia and dipole-selection-rule intensities to predictions from ab initio (MP2/6-311++G ??) model structures. The all-anti configurations of 2-pentanol and 2-hexanol were calculated to have the lowest energies and gave rise to the strongest signals. Spectra were observed from conformers up to 4 kJ mol -1 above these minimum energy structures.

  10. The interconversion of conformers of phenylalanyl-tRNA with different affinity to 70S ribosomes of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kirillov, S V; Odinzov, V B

    1978-01-01

    Earlier the existence of two conformers of Phe-tRNAPhe of E. coli was demonstrated because one of them yields complexes with 70S-poly(U) of extremely high affinity and the other with at least a 105 lower binding constant. We denote the first conformer as HAC (high affinity conformer) and the second as LAC (low affinity conformer). This high difference in binding constants was used for studying the process of reversible interconversion of conformers of Phe-tRNAPhe. The transition kinetics of LAC to HAC in conditions when the latter is stable (in the presence of magnesium ions) was studied and a high value of activation energy (35 kcal/mole) found. The interconversion is the first order reaction and equilibrium does not depend of overall Phe-tRNA concentration. PMID:351562

  11. Conformational implications of asparagine-linked glycosylation.

    PubMed Central

    Imperiali, B; Rickert, K W

    1995-01-01

    The effects of cotranslational protein modification on the process of protein folding are poorly understood. Time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer has been used to assess the impact of glycosylation on the conformational dynamics of flexible oligopeptides. The peptide sequences examined are selected from glycoproteins of known three-dimensional structure. The energy transfer modulation associated with N-linked glycosylation is consistent with the glycopeptides sampling different conformational profiles in water. Results show that glycosylation causes the modified peptides to adopt a different ensemble of conformations, and for some peptides this change may lead to conformations that are more compact and better approximate the conformation of these peptides in the final folded protein. This result further implies that cotranslational glycosylation can trigger the timely formation of structural nucleation elements and thus assist in the complex process of protein folding. PMID:7816856

  12. Conformational analysis of morphiceptin by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Castiglione-Morelli, M A; Hartrodt, B; Neubert, K; Temussi, P A; Trivellone, E

    1988-04-29

    Three exorphins, beta-casomorphin-5, morphiceptin and its D-Pro4 analog, were studied in DMSO by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, with the aim of detecting conformational features of potential biological significance for the mu opioid activity since the presence of two Pro residues restricts the accessible conformational space more than in all other peptides. It is found that the conformational mixtures present in solution contain relevant fractions of folded conformers, a feature that assures the observation of four different Tyr OH signals in the 500 MHz spectrum of morphiceptin. The conformer distribution of (very active) (D-Pro4)-morphiceptin is different from those of its (less active) congeners. PMID:3365236

  13. Transitional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  14. Transitions Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Describes the changes the Douglass school district (Kansas) underwent as they began to implement "Transitions," a school improvement model that is based on individual student accountability. Provides insight into the capacities that need to be developed within a system before Transitions can be implemented successfully. Includes a sample

  15. Magnetically-conformed, Variable Area Discharge Chamber for Hall Thruster, and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofer, Richard R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The invention is a Hall thruster that incorporates a discharge chamber having a variable area channel including an ionization zone, a transition region, and an acceleration zone. The variable area channel is wider through the acceleration zone than through the ionization zone. An anode is located in a vicinity of the ionization zone and a cathode is located in a vicinity of the acceleration zone. The Hall thruster includes a magnetic circuit which is capable of forming a local magnetic field having a curvature within the transition region of the variable area channel whereby the transition region conforms to the curvature of the local magnetic field. The Hall thruster optimizes the ionization and acceleration efficiencies by the combined effects of the variable area channel and magnetic conformity.

  16. The catalytic transition state in ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Senior, A E; Weber, J; Nadanaciva, S

    2000-10-01

    The catalytic transition state of ATP synthase has been characterized and modeled by combined use of (1) Mg-ADP-fluoroaluminate, Mg-ADP-fluoroscandium, and corresponding Mg-IDP-fluorometals as transition-state analogs; (2) fluorescence signals of beta-Trp331 and beta-Trp148 as optical probes to assess formation of the transition state; (3) mutations of critical catalytic residues to determine side-chain ligands required to stabilize the transition state. Rate acceleration by positive catalytic site cooperativity is explained as due to mobility of alpha-Arg376, acting as an "arginine finger" residue, which interacts with nucleotide specifically at the transition state step of catalysis, not with Mg-ATP- or Mg-ADP-bound ground states. We speculate that formation and collapse of the transition state may engender catalytic site alpha/beta subunit-interface conformational movement, which is linked to gamma-subunit rotation. PMID:15254388

  17. Newborn transition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara W; Haley, Mary Mumford

    2013-01-01

    The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life is a complex adaptation. Although, in a sense, the entire time in utero is in preparation for this transition, there are many specific anatomic and physiologic changes that take place in the weeks and days leading up to labor that facilitate a healthy transition. Some, including increasing pulmonary vasculature and blood flow, are part of an ongoing process of maturation. Others, such as a reversal in the lung from secreting fluid to absorbing fluid and the secretion of pulmonary surfactant, are associated with the hormonal milieu that occurs when spontaneous labor is impending. Interventions such as elective cesarean birth or induction of labor may interfere with this preparation for birth. Postnatal interventions such as immediate clamping of the umbilical cord and oropharyngeal suction may also compromise the normal process of newborn transition. This article reviews the physiology of the fetal to newborn transition and explores interventions that may facilitate or hinder the optimal process. PMID:24103003

  18. Conformational flexibility in biochemical regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.

    1993-09-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering have proven extremely useful for studying the evolutionarily related dumbbell-shaped Ca {sup 2+} -binding proteins calmodulin and troponin C and their interactions with the target proteins whose activity they regulate. Calmodulin contracts about target enzyme binding domains with the common characteristic of having a high propensity for forming a basic, amphipathic a-helix. The contraction is achieved via flexibility in the interconnecting helix region of the molecule that links its two globular domains. This flexibility allows calmodulin to optimize its binding to different arrangements of hydrophobic and charged residues important in forming these complexes. In contrast calmodulin remains extended in its interaction with the catalytic subunit of phosphorylase kinase. There are structural and functional similarities between this interaction and that of troponin C and troponin I. Our most recent neutron scattering experiments confirm our prediction that troponin C also remains extended in this complex. The ability of the dumbbell-shaped Ca {sup 2+} -binding proteins to modulate their conformations via flexibility in the interconnecting helix region in order to accommodate different target binding domains is a remarkable example nature building functional diversity as well as specificity into a compact and unusual shape.

  19. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072... Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration of Conformity signifies that...'s rules. (b) A Declaration of Conformity by the responsible party is effective until a...

  20. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072... Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration of Conformity signifies that...'s rules. (b) A Declaration of Conformity by the responsible party is effective until a...

  1. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072... Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration of Conformity signifies that...'s rules. (b) A Declaration of Conformity by the responsible party is effective until a...

  2. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072... Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration of Conformity signifies that...'s rules. (b) A Declaration of Conformity by the responsible party is effective until a...

  3. Equilibrium conformational dynamics in an RNA tetraloop from massively parallel molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    DePaul, Allison J.; Thompson, Erik J.; Patel, Sarav S.; Haldeman, Kristin; Sorin, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Conformational equilibrium within the ubiquitous GNRA tetraloop motif was simulated at the ensemble level, including 10 000 independent all-atom molecular dynamics trajectories totaling over 110 µs of simulation time. This robust sampling reveals a highly dynamic structure comprised of 15 conformational microstates. We assemble a Markov model that includes transitions ranging from the nanosecond to microsecond timescales and is dominated by six key loop conformations that contribute to fluctuations around the native state. Mining of the Protein Data Bank provides an abundance of structures in which GNRA tetraloops participate in tertiary contact formation. Most predominantly observed in the experimental data are interactions of the native loop structure within the minor groove of adjacent helical regions. Additionally, a second trend is observed in which the tetraloop assumes non-native conformations while participating in multiple tertiary contacts, in some cases involving multiple possible loop conformations. This tetraloop flexibility can act to counterbalance the energetic penalty associated with assuming non-native loop structures in forming tertiary contacts. The GNRA motif has thus evolved not only to readily participate in simple tertiary interactions involving native loop structure, but also to easily adapt tetraloop secondary conformation in order to participate in larger, more complex tertiary interactions. PMID:20223768

  4. Reversible stages of the low-pH-triggered conformational change in influenza virus hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Leikina, Eugenia; Ramos, Corinne; Markovic, Ingrid; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Chernomordik, Leonid V.

    2002-01-01

    The refolding of the prototypic fusogenic protein hemagglutinin (HA) at the pH of fusion is considered to be a concerted and irreversible discharge of a loaded spring, with no distinct intermediates between the initial and final conformations. Here, we show that HA refolding involves reversible conformations with a lifetime of minutes. After reneutralization, low pH-activated HA returns from the conformations wherein both the fusion peptide and the kinked loop of the HA2 subunit are exposed, but the HA1 subunits have not yet dissociated, to a structure indistinguishable from the initial one in functional, biochemical and immunological characteristics. The rate of the transition from reversible conformations to irreversible refolding depends on the pH and on the presence of target membrane. Importantly, recovery of the initial conformation is blocked by the interactions between adjacent HA trimers. The existence of the identified reversible stage of refolding can be crucial for allowing multiple copies of HA to synchronize their release of conformational energy, as required for fusion. PMID:12411488

  5. Lipid regulated conformational dynamics of the longin SNARE protein Ykt6 revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jingwei; Yang, Yanhong; Wang, Wenning

    2015-03-01

    The conformation and subcellular localization of R-SNARE protein Ykt6 are regulated by the lipidation state of its C-terminal CCAIM motif. Biochemical and crystallography studies showed that lipid molecules binding at a hydrophobic pocket at the interface between the longin domain and the SNARE core can lock Ykt6 at a closed conformation and mimic the farnesylated state of Ykt6. In this study, we performed in silico farnesylation of Ykt6 and explored the conformational dynamics of Ykt6 using conventional and steered MD simulations. We found that the farnesylated Ykt6 model structure is stable during the 2 ?s simulation and the farnesyl group adopts conformations similar to those of the DPC molecule bound to Ykt6. Both DPC binding and farnesylation were found to reduce the conformational flexibility of Ykt6 and hinder the dissociation of SNARE core from the longin domain. The dissociation of the ?F-?G segment is the rate-limiting step during the putative closed-to-open conformational transition of Ykt6, and the key residues involved in this process are consistent with the experimental mutagenesis study. PMID:25268560

  6. The dynamic conformational landscape of ?-secretase

    PubMed Central

    Elad, Nadav; De Strooper, Bart; Lismont, Sam; Hagen, Wim; Veugelen, Sarah; Arimon, Muriel; Horr, Katrien; Berezovska, Oksana; Sachse, Carsten; Chvez-Gutirrez, Luca

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The structure and function of the ?-secretase proteases are of great interest because of their crucial roles in cellular and disease processes. We established a novel purification protocol for the ?-secretase complex that involves a conformation- and complex-specific nanobody, yielding highly pure and active enzyme. Using single particle electron microscopy, we analyzed the ?-secretase structure and its conformational variability. Under steady-state conditions, the complex adopts three major conformations, which differ in overall compactness and relative position of the nicastrin ectodomain. Occupancy of the active or substrate-binding sites by inhibitors differentially stabilizes subpopulations of particles with compact conformations, whereas a mutation linked to familial Alzheimer disease results in enrichment of extended-conformation complexes with increased flexibility. Our study presents the ?-secretase complex as a dynamic population of interconverting conformations, involving rearrangements at the nanometer scale and a high level of structural interdependence between subunits. The fact that protease inhibition or clinical mutations, which affect amyloid ? (A?) generation, enrich for particular subpopulations of conformers indicates the functional relevance of the observed dynamic changes, which are likely to be instrumental for highly allosteric behavior of the enzyme. PMID:25501811

  7. A search for the lowest-energy conformer of interstellar glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Snyder, L. E.; Suenram, R. D.; Lovas, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The first search for the lowest-energy conformation of interstellar glycine has been carried out. An emission line has been detected in Sgr B2 which is coincident in frequency with the J(K-K+) = 14(1, 14)-13(1, 13) transition of conformer I glycine; while the carrier of the observed line is uncertain, no other frequency-coincident species are known, and hence glycine cannot be ruled out. Several previously unidentified lines have been identified as methyl formate. Evidence for the existence of the elusive interstellar ethylene oxide, the only reported interstellar ring-structure molecule, is discussed.

  8. Using Solutes and Kinetics to Probe Large Conformational Changes in the Steps of Transcription Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Emily; Kontur, Wayne S.; Record, M. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Small solutes are useful probes of large conformational changes in RNA polymerase (RNAP)-promoter interactions and other biopolymer processes. In general, a large effect of a solute on an equilibrium constant (or rate constant) indicates a large change in water-accessible biopolymer surface area in the corresponding step (or transition state), resulting from conformational changes, interface formation, or both. Here, we describe nitrocellulose filter binding assays from series used to determine the urea dependence of open complex formation and dissociation with Escherichia coli RNAP and ?PR promoter DNA. Then, we describe the subsequent data analysis and interpretation of these solute effects. PMID:25665568

  9. Global structure of conformal theories in the SU(3) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, K.-I.; Iwasaki, Y.; Nakayama, Yu; Yoshie, T.

    2014-06-01

    We investigate SU(3) gauge theories in four dimensions with Nf fundamental fermions on a lattice using the Wilson fermion. Clarifying the vacuum structure in terms of Polyakov loops in spatial directions and properties of temporal propagators using a new method that we call "local analysis," we conjecture that the "conformal region" exists together with the confining region and the deconfining region in the phase structure parametrized by β and K, both in the cases of the large Nf QCD within the conformal window (referred as conformal QCD) with an IR cutoff and small Nf QCD at T/Tc>1 with Tc being the chiral transition temperature (referred to as high-temperature QCD). Our numerical simulation on a lattice of the size 163×64 shows the following evidence of the conjecture. In the conformal region, we find that the vacuum is the nontrivial Z(3) twisted vacuum modified by nonperturbative effects and that temporal propagators of mesons behave at large t as a power-law-corrected Yukawa-type decaying form. The transition from the conformal region to the deconfining region or the confining region is a sharp transition between different vacua, and therefore, it suggests a first-order transition both in conformal QCD and high-temperature QCD. To confirm the conjecture and distinguish it from the possibility of crossover phenomena, we need to take the continuum/thermodynamic limit, which we do not attempt in this work. Within our fixed-lattice simulation, we find that there is a precise correspondence between conformal QCD and high-temperature QCD in the temporal propagators under the change of the parameters Nf and T/Tc, respectively: one boundary is close to meson states, and the other is close to free quark states. In particular, conformal QCD with Nf=7 corresponds to high-temperature QCD with Nf=2 at T˜2Tc, both of which are in close relation to a meson unparticle model. From this, we estimate the anomalous mass dimension γ*=1.2(1) for Nf=7. We also show that the asymptotic state in the limit T/Tc→∞ is a free quark state in the Z(3) twisted vacuum. The approach to a free quark state is very slow; even at T/Tc˜105, the state is affected by nonperturbative effects. This is possibly connected with the slow approach of the free energy to the Stefan-Boltzmann ideal gas limit.

  10. Conformational dynamics of single HIV-1 envelope trimers on the surface of native virions

    PubMed Central

    Munro, James B.; Gorman, Jason; Ma, Xiaochu; Zhou, Zhou; Arthos, James; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Courter, Joel R.; Smith, Amos B.; Kwong, Peter D.; Blanchard, Scott C.; Mothes, Walther

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope (Env) mediates viral entry into host cells. To enable the direct imaging of conformational dynamics within Env, we introduced fluorophores into variable regions of the glycoprotein gp120 subunit and measured single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer within the context of native trimers on the surface of HIV-1 virions. Our observations revealed unliganded HIV-1 Env to be intrinsically dynamic, transitioning between three distinct prefusion conformations, whose relative occupancies were remodeled by receptor CD4 and antibody binding. The distinct properties of neutralization-sensitive and neutralization-resistant HIV-1 isolates support a dynamics-based mechanism of immune evasion and ligand recognition. PMID:25298114

  11. Conformational dynamics of single HIV-1 envelope trimers on the surface of native virions.

    PubMed

    Munro, James B; Gorman, Jason; Ma, Xiaochu; Zhou, Zhou; Arthos, James; Burton, Dennis R; Koff, Wayne C; Courter, Joel R; Smith, Amos B; Kwong, Peter D; Blanchard, Scott C; Mothes, Walther

    2014-11-01

    The HIV-1 envelope (Env) mediates viral entry into host cells. To enable the direct imaging of conformational dynamics within Env, we introduced fluorophores into variable regions of the glycoprotein gp120 subunit and measured single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer within the context of native trimers on the surface of HIV-1 virions. Our observations revealed unliganded HIV-1 Env to be intrinsically dynamic, transitioning between three distinct prefusion conformations, whose relative occupancies were remodeled by receptor CD4 and antibody binding. The distinct properties of neutralization-sensitive and neutralization-resistant HIV-1 isolates support a dynamics-based mechanism of immune evasion and ligand recognition. PMID:25298114

  12. Rotational spectra, nuclear quadrupole hyperfine tensors, and conformational structures of the mustard gas simulent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubergen, M. J.; Lesarri, A.; Suenram, R. D.; Samuels, A. C.; Jensen, J. O.; Ellzy, M. W.; Lochner, J. M.

    2005-10-01

    Rotational spectra have been recorded for both the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopic forms of two structural conformations of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The rotational constants of the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopomers were used to identify the conformational isomers. A total of 236 hyperfine transitions have been assigned for 47 rotational transitions of the 35Cl isotope of a GGT conformer, and 146 hyperfine have been assigned for 37 rotational transitions of the 37Cl isotopomer. For the second conformer, a total of 128 (110) hyperfine and 30 (28) rotational transitions have also been assigned to the 35Cl ( 37Cl) isotopes of a TGT conformation. The extensive hyperfine splitting data, measured to high resolution with a compact Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, were used to determine both the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the 35Cl and 37Cl nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors in the inertial tensor principal axis system. The experimental rotational constant data, as well as the 35Cl and 37Cl nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors, were compared to the results from 27 optimized ab initio (HF/6-311++G ?? and MP2/6-311++G ??) model structures.

  13. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskild, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03235c

  14. Conformal dynamical equivalence and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyrou, N. K.

    2011-02-01

    The "Conformal Dynamical Equivalence" (CDE) approach is briefly reviewed, and some of its applications, at various astrophysical levels (Sun, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Clusters of Galaxies, Universe as a whole), are presented. According to the CDE approach, in both the Newtonian and general-relativistic theories of gravity, the isentropic hydrodynamic flows in the interior of a bounded gravitating perfect-fluid source are dynamically equivalent to geodesic motions in a virtual, fully defined fluid source. Equivalently, the equations of hydrodynamic motion in the former source are functionally similar to those of the geodesic motions in the latter, physically, fully defined source. The CDE approach is followed for the dynamical description of the motions in the fluid source. After an observational introduction, taking into account all the internal physical characteristics of the corresponding perfect-fluid source, and based on the property of the isentropic hydrodynamic flows (quite reasonable for an isolated physical system), we examine a number of issues, namely, (i) the classical Newtonian explanation of the celebrated Pioneer-Anomaly effect in the Solar System, (ii) the possibility of both the attractive gravity and the repulsive gravity in a non-quantum Newtonian framework, (iii) the evaluation of the masses - theoretical, dynamical, and missing - and of the linear dimensions of non-magnetized and magnetized large-scale cosmological structures, (iv) the explanation of the flat-rotation curves of disc galaxies, (v) possible formation mechanisms of winds and jets, and (vi) a brief presentation of a conventional approach - toy model to the dynamics of the Universe, characterized by the dominant collisional dark matter (with its subdominant luminous baryonic "contamination"), correctly interpreting the cosmological observational data without the need of the notions dark energy, cosmological constant, and universal accelerating expansion.

  15. On conformal conic mappings of spherical domains.

    PubMed

    Bourchtein, Andrei; Bourchtein, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    The problem of the generation of homogeneous grids for spherical domains is considered in the class of conformal conic mappings. The equivalence between secant and tangent projections is shown and splitting the set of conformal conic mappings into equivalence classes is presented. The problem of minimization of the mapping factor variation is solved in the class of conformal conic mappings. Obtained results can be used in applied sciences, such as geophysical fluid dynamics and cartography, where the flattening of the Earth surface is required. PMID:24558337

  16. Novel Approach to Conformal FINFET Extension Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Zschaetzsch, G.; Vandervorst, W.; Hoffmann, T. Y.; Horiguchi, N.; Hautala, J.; Shao, Y.

    2011-01-07

    This paper presents a novel strategy to achieve conformal FINFET extension doping with low tilt-angle beam-line ion implantation. The process relies on the self-aligned cap layer formation exclusively on top of the FIN to tune doping levels in this particular area by partial dopant trapping. The conformality itself is evaluated for n- and p-type dopants by a novel extraction method applied to FIN resistor test structures. Furthermore, the process was integrated into a full NMOS device flow and compared to a highly tilted and more conformal As implant condition.

  17. Structure, Intent and Conformance Monitoring in ATC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Tom G.; Histon, Jonathan M.; Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John

    2004-01-01

    Infield studies of current Air Traffic Control operations it is found that controllers rely on underlying airspace structure to reduce the complexity of the planning and conformance monitoring tasks. The structure appears to influence the controller's working mental model through abstractions that reduce the apparent cognitive complexity. These structure-based abstractions are useful for the controller's key tasks of planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating tactical situations. In addition, the structure-based abstractions appear to be important in the maintenance of Situation Awareness. The process of conformance monitoring is analyzed in more detail and an approach to conformance monitoring which utilizes both the structure-based abstractions and intent is presented.

  18. Interferometric tomography metrology of conformal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutin, Mikhail; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Ehlinger, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Conformal windows and domes improve aerodynamic quality of missiles and aircraft but introduce significant optical aberrations. These aberrations can be compensated, provided both window and corrective optics are fabricated to high tolerances. Highly accurate measurement of conformal optics is required for success of the fabrication process. This paper describes the development of the Interferometric Tomography - a new tool for metrology of conformal aspheric optics, including optics with very high aberrations. The metrology system is designed to measure wavefront aberrations as well as the optical figure of both surfaces.

  19. A new supersymmetric extension of conformal mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deotto, E.; Furlan, G.; Gozzi, E.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper a new supersymmetric extension of conformal mechanics is put forward. The beauty of this extension is that all variables have a clear geometrical meaning and the super-Hamiltonian turns out to be the Lie-derivative of the Hamiltonian flow of standard conformal mechanics. In this paper we also provide a supersymmetric extension of the other conformal generators of the theory and find their ``square-roots''. The whole superalgebra of these charges is then analyzed in details. We conclude the paper by showing that, using superfields, a constraint can be built which provides the exact solution of the system.

  20. Conformation sensitive charge transport in conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mattias Andersson, L.; Hedstrm, Svante; Persson, Petter

    2013-11-18

    Temperature dependent charge carrier mobility measurements using field effect transistors and density functional theory calculations are combined to show how the conformation dependent frontier orbital delocalization influences the hole- and electron mobilities in a donor-acceptor based polymer. A conformationally sensitive lowest unoccupied molecular orbital results in an electron mobility that decreases with increasing temperature above room temperature, while a conformationally stable highest occupied molecular orbital is consistent with a conventional hole mobility behavior and also proposed to be one of the reasons for why the material works well as a hole transporter in amorphous bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  1. On Conformal Conic Mappings of Spherical Domains

    PubMed Central

    Bourchtein, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    The problem of the generation of homogeneous grids for spherical domains is considered in the class of conformal conic mappings. The equivalence between secant and tangent projections is shown and splitting the set of conformal conic mappings into equivalence classes is presented. The problem of minimization of the mapping factor variation is solved in the class of conformal conic mappings. Obtained results can be used in applied sciences, such as geophysical fluid dynamics and cartography, where the flattening of the Earth surface is required. PMID:24558337

  2. Twisted conformal algebra related to ? -Minkowski space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meljanac, Stjepan; Pacho?, Anna; Pikuti?, Danijel

    2015-11-01

    Twisted deformations of the conformal symmetry in the Hopf algebraic framework are constructed. The first one is obtained by a Jordanian twist built up from dilatation and momenta generators. The second is the lightlike ? -deformation of the Poincar algebra extended to the conformal algebra, obtained by a twist corresponding to the extended Jordanian r -matrix. The ? -Minkowski spacetime is covariant quantum space under both of these deformations. The extension of the conformal algebra by the noncommutative coordinates is presented in two cases. The differential realizations for ? -Minkowski coordinates, as well as their left-right dual counterparts, are also included.

  3. Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Linda C.; Wallender, Janis

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses how by helping students through life transitions--such as a new home, new sibling, or divorcing parents--school counselors can ensure that students are truly prepared academically and emotionally for life. (GCP)

  4. Large-scale conformational sampling of proteins using temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Cameron F; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2010-03-16

    We show how to apply the method of temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics (TAMD) in collective variables [Maragliano L, Vanden-Eijnden E (2006) Chem Phys Lett 426:168-175] to sample the conformational space of multidomain proteins in all-atom, explicitly solvated molecular dynamics simulations. The method allows the system to hyperthermally explore the free-energy surface in a set of collective variables computed at the physical temperature. As collective variables, we pick Cartesian coordinates of centers of contiguous subdomains. The method is applied to the GroEL subunit, a 55-kDa, three-domain protein, and HIV-1 gp120. For GroEL, the method induces in about 40 ns conformational changes that recapitulate the t --> r('') transition and are not observed in unaccelerated molecular dynamics: The apical domain is displaced by 30 A, with a twist of 90 degrees relative to the equatorial domain, and the root-mean-squared deviation relative to the r('') conformer is reduced from 13 to 5 A, representing fairly high predictive capability. For gp120, the method predicts both counterrotation of inner and outer domains and disruption of the so-called bridging sheet. In particular, TAMD on gp120 initially in the CD4-bound conformation visits conformations that deviate by 3.6 A from the gp120 conformer in complex with antibody F105, again reflecting good predictive capability. TAMD generates plausible all-atom models of the so-far structurally uncharacterized unliganded conformation of HIV-1 gp120, which may prove useful in the development of inhibitors and immunogens. The fictitious temperature employed also gives a rough estimate of 10 kcal/mol for the free-energy barrier between conformers in both cases. PMID:20194785

  5. Large-scale conformational sampling of proteins using temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Cameron F.; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2010-01-01

    We show how to apply the method of temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics (TAMD) in collective variables [Maragliano L, Vanden-Eijnden E (2006) Chem Phys Lett 426:168175] to sample the conformational space of multidomain proteins in all-atom, explicitly solvated molecular dynamics simulations. The method allows the system to hyperthermally explore the free-energy surface in a set of collective variables computed at the physical temperature. As collective variables, we pick Cartesian coordinates of centers of contiguous subdomains. The method is applied to the GroEL subunit, a 55-kDa, three-domain protein, and HIV-1 gp120. For GroEL, the method induces in about 40ns conformational changes that recapitulate the t?r?? transition and are not observed in unaccelerated molecular dynamics: The apical domain is displaced by 30?, with a twist of 90 relative to the equatorial domain, and the root-mean-squared deviation relative to the r?? conformer is reduced from 13 to 5?, representing fairly high predictive capability. For gp120, the method predicts both counterrotation of inner and outer domains and disruption of the so-called bridging sheet. In particular, TAMD on gp120 initially in the CD4-bound conformation visits conformations that deviate by 3.6? from the gp120 conformer in complex with antibody F105, again reflecting good predictive capability. TAMD generates plausible all-atom models of the so-far structurally uncharacterized unliganded conformation of HIV-1 gp120, which may prove useful in the development of inhibitors and immunogens. The fictitious temperature employed also gives a rough estimate of 10kcal/mol for the free-energy barrier between conformers in both cases. PMID:20194785

  6. Conformational influence of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl group: crystal structures of DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egli, M.; Usman, N.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have crystallized three double-helical DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes and determined their structures by X-ray crystallography at resolutions between 2 and 2.25 A. The two self-complementary duplexes [r(G)d(CGTATACGC)]2 and [d(GCGT)r(A)d(TACGC)]2, as well as the Okazaki fragment d(GGGTATACGC).r(GCG)d(TATACCC), were found to adopt A-type conformations. The crystal structures are non-isomorphous, and the crystallographic environments for the three chimeras are different. A number of intramolecular interactions of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl groups contribute to the stabilization of the A-conformation. Hydrogen bonds between 2'-hydroxyls and 5'-oxygens or phosphate oxygens, in addition to the previously observed hydrogen bonds to 1'-oxygens of adjacent riboses and deoxyriboses, are observed in the DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes. The crystalline chimeric duplexes do not show a transition between the DNA A- and B-conformations. CD spectra suggest that the Okazaki fragment assumes an A-conformation in solution as well. In this molecule the three RNA residues may therefore lock the complete decamer in the A-conformation. Crystals of an all-DNA strand with the same sequence as the self-complementary chimeras show a morphology which is different from those of the chimera crystals. Moreover, the oligonucleotide does not match any of the sequence characteristics of DNAs usually adopting the A-conformation in the crystalline state (e.g., octamers with short alternating stretches of purines and pyrimidines). In DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes, it is therefore possible that a single RNA residue can drive the conformational equilibrium toward the A-conformation.

  7. HF, MP2 and DFT calculations and spectroscopic study of the vibrational and conformational properties of N-diethylendiamine.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, S; Feki, H; Abid, Y

    2007-11-01

    The conformational stability and vibrational modes of the N-diethylendiamine organic cation (N-DD(2+)) were studied by experimental (Raman) spectroscopy combined with theoretical calculations. Various ab initio theories were used: Hartree-Fock (HF) theory, Mller-Plesset second-order perturbation (MP2) theory and density functional theory (DFT). Three stable conformers of N-DD(2+), trans-trans, gauche-gauche and gauche-trans were calculated. A comparison between the computed structural parameters of the conformers at both levels of theory and the X-ray data was made. It is demonstrated that the N-DD(2+) cation adopts more probably the gauche-gauche conformation at room temperature. In order to make a more detailed interpretation of the low temperature phase transition of N-DDHP, the Raman spectra of N-DDHP were recorded at room and low temperature in the 200-3400 cm(-1) region. The vibrational frequencies of the different conformers of N-DD(2+) were also calculated using the DFT/B3LYP (6-31G(d)) level of theory. By comparison between the experimental and theoretical results, the conformational dynamic of the N-DD(2+) organic cation was confirmed. It is shown that the N-DD(2+) cation configuration changes from gauche-gauche conformer to gauche-trans conformer when decreasing the temperature. PMID:17317286

  8. Stabilization of Helivcal Order in the Thick Filaments by Blebbistatin: Further Evidence of Coexisting Multiple Conformations of Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; White, H; Offer, G; Yu, L

    2009-01-01

    The degree of helical order of the thick filament of mammalian skeletal muscle is highly dependent on temperature and the nature of the ligand. Previously, we showed that there was a close correlation between the conformation of the myosin heads on the surface of the thick filaments and the extent of their helical order. Helical order required the heads to be in the closed conformation. In addition, we showed that, with the same ligand bound at the active site, three conformations of myosin coexisted in equilibrium. Hitherto, however, there was no detectable helical order as measured by x-ray diffraction under the temperatures studied for myosin with MgADP and the nucleotide-free myosin, raising the possibility that the concept of multiple conformations has limited validity. In this study, blebbistatin was used to stabilize the closed conformation of myosin. The degree of helical order is substantially improved with MgATP at low temperature or with MgADP or in the absence of nucleotide. The thermodynamic parameters of the disorder?order transition and the characteristics of the ordered array were not significantly altered by binding blebbistatin. The simplest explanation is that the binding of blebbistatin increases the proportion of myosin in the closed conformation from being negligible to substantial. These results provide further evidence for the coexistence of multiple conformations of myosin under a wide range of conditions and for the closed conformation being directly coupled to helical order.

  9. On the analysis and comparison of conformer-specific essential dynamics upon ligand binding to a protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, Marcos; Kalstein, Adrian; Parisi, Gustavo; Roitberg, Adrian E.; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    The native state of a protein consists of an equilibrium of conformational states on an energy landscape rather than existing as a single static state. The co-existence of conformers with different ligand-affinities in a dynamical equilibrium is the basis for the conformational selection model for ligand binding. In this context, the development of theoretical methods that allow us to analyze not only the structural changes but also changes in the fluctuation patterns between conformers will contribute to elucidate the differential properties acquired upon ligand binding. Molecular dynamics simulations can provide the required information to explore these features. Its use in combination with subsequent essential dynamics analysis allows separating large concerted conformational rearrangements from irrelevant fluctuations. We present a novel procedure to define the size and composition of essential dynamics subspaces associated with ligand-bound and ligand-free conformations. These definitions allow us to compare essential dynamics subspaces between different conformers. Our procedure attempts to emphasize the main similarities and differences between the different essential dynamics in an unbiased way. Essential dynamics subspaces associated to conformational transitions can also be analyzed. As a test case, we study the glutaminase interacting protein (GIP), composed of a single PDZ domain. Both GIP ligand-free state and glutaminase L peptide-bound states are analyzed. Our findings concerning the relative changes in the flexibility pattern upon binding are in good agreement with experimental Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data.

  10. Voltage-dependent conformational changes in connexin channels?

    PubMed Central

    Bargiello, Thaddeus A.; Tang, Qingxiu; Oh, Seunghoon; Kwon, Taekyung

    2011-01-01

    Channels formed by connexins display two distinct types of voltage-dependent gating, termed Vj- or fast-gating and loop- or slow-gating. Recent studies, using metal bridge formation and chemical cross-linking have identified a region within the channel pore that contributes to the formation of the loop-gate permeability barrier. The conformational changes are remarkably large, reducing the channel pore diameter from 15 to 20 to less than 4 . Surprisingly, the largest conformational change occurs in the most stable region of the channel pore, the 310 or parahelix formed by amino acids in the 4251 segment. The data provide a set of positional constraints that can be used to model the structure of the loop-gate closed state. Less is known about the conformation of the Vj-gate closed state. There appear to be two different mechanisms; one in which conformational changes in channel structure are linked to a voltage sensor contained in the N-terminus of Cx26 and Cx32 and a second in which the C-terminus of Cx43 and Cx40 may act either as a gating particle to block the channel pore or alternatively to stabilize the closed state. The later mechanismutilizes the same domains as implicated in effecting pH gating of Cx43 channels. It is unclear if the two Vj-gating mechanisms are related or if they represent different gating mechanisms that operate separately in different subsets of connexin channels. A model of the Vj-closed state of Cx26 hemichannel that is based on the X-ray structure of Cx26 and electron crystallographic structures of a Cx26 mutation suggests that the permeability barrier for Vj-gating is formed exclusively by the N-terminus, but recent information suggests that this conformation may not represent a voltage-closed state. Closed state models are considered from a thermodynamic perspective based on information from the 3.5 Cx26 crystal structure and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The applications of computational and experimental methods to define the path of allosteric molecular transitions that link the open and closed states are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The communicating junctions, composition, structure and functions. PMID:21978595

  11. Conformational Electroresistance and Hysteresis in Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiangguo; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Among many mechanisms proposed for electroresistance, ones involving structural changes are the least understood because of challenges of controllability and repeatability. Yet structural changes can cause dramatic changes in electronic properties, leading to multiple ways in which conduction paths can be opened and closed, not limited to filament movement or variation in molecular conductance. Here we show at least another way: conformational dependence of the Coulomb charging energy of a nanocluster, where charging induced conformational distortion changes the blockade voltage, which in turn leads to a giant electroresistance. This intricate interplay between charging and conformation change is demonstrated in a nanocluster Zn3O4 by combining a first-principles calculation with a temperature dependent transport model. The predicted hysteretic Coulomb blockade staircase in the current-voltage curve adds another dimension to the rich phenomenon of tunneling electroresistance. The new mechanism also provides a better controlled and repeatable platform to study conformational electroresistance.

  12. Nanoporous films: From conventional to the conformal

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie

    2015-12-14

    Here, thin and continuous films of porous metal-organic frameworks can now be conformally deposited on various substrates using a vapor-phase synthesis approach that departs from conventional solution-based routes.

  13. Aluminized fiberglass insulation conforms to curved surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Layers of fiber glass with outer reflective films of vacuum-deposited aluminum or other reflective metal, provide thermal insulation which conforms to curved surfaces. This insulation has good potential for cryogenic systems.

  14. Conformable apparatus in a drill string

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Fox, Joe

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube. The metal tube may be adapted to stretch as the drill pipes stretch.

  15. Parametric dependence of irregular conformal block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang-Kwan; Rim, Chaiho

    2014-04-01

    Irregular conformal block is an important tool to study a new type of conformal theories, which can be constructed as the colliding limit of the regular conformal block. The irregular conformal block is realized as the β-deformed Penner matrix model whose partition function is regarded as the inner product of the irregular modules. The parameter dependence of the inner product is obtained explicitly using the loop equation with close attention to singularities in the parameter space. It is noted that the exact singular structure of the parameter space in general can be found using a very simple and powerful method which uses the flow equations of the partition function together with the hierarchical structure of the singularity. This method gives the exact expression to all orders of large N expansion without using the explicit contour integral of the filling fraction.

  16. Mesh generation by conformal and quasiconformal mappings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, C. W.; Thompson, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that many recent advances in the finite-difference solution of elliptic equations have been limited to regions whose boundary contours coincide with coordinate lines of the Cartesian coordinate system. The reason for this is related to the fact that in the case of an arbitrary curvilinear coordinate system the original equation becomes much more complex. However, there is no added complexity if an orthogonal coordinate system is generated from a conformal mapping. In the present investigation, a finite difference method developed for the construction of conformal mappings has been generalized to construct quasi-conformal mappings. It is expected that the use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms could lead to improvements in both speed and accuracy. Quasi-conformal mappings have applications not only in the solution of elliptic equations but also in other areas such as orthogonal mesh generation on surfaces and the solution of certain fluid flow problems.

  17. Nanoporous films: From conventional to conformal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie

    2016-03-01

    Thin and continuous films of porous metal-organic frameworks can now be conformally deposited on various substrates using a vapour-phase synthesis approach that departs from conventional solution-based routes.

  18. Supersymmetric Dualities beyond the Conformal Window

    SciTech Connect

    Spiridonov, V. P.; Vartanov, G. S.

    2010-08-06

    Using the superconformal (SC) indices techniques, we construct Seiberg type dualities for N=1 supersymmetric field theories outside the conformal windows. These theories are physically distinguished by the presence of chiral superfields with small or negative R charges.

  19. Nanoporous films: Beyond conventional to the conformal

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie

    2015-12-01

    Here, thin and continuous films of porous metal-organic frameworks can now be conformally deposited on various substrates using a vapor-phase synthesis approach that departs from conventional solution-based routes.

  20. Conformational dynamics of human IAPP monomers.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Ronan D; Conlon, Jennifer; Mansoor, Tayyaub; Luca, Sorin; Vaiana, Sara M; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel

    2012-06-01

    We study the conformational dynamics of the human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (hIAPP) molecule - a 37 residue-long peptide associated to type 2 diabetes - using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We identify partially structured conformational states of the hIAPP monomer, categorized by both end-to-end distance and secondary structure, as suggested by previous experimental and computational studies. The MD trajectories of hIAPP are analyzed using data-driven methods, in particular principal component analysis, in order to identify preferred conformational states of the amylin monomer and to discuss their relative stability as compared to corresponding states in the amylin dimer. These potential hIAPP conformational states could be further tested and described experimentally, or in conjunction with modern computational analysis tools such as Markov state-based methods for extracting kinetics and thermodynamics from atomistic MD trajectories. PMID:22609945