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Sample records for soma lignite turkey

  1. Organic facies characteristics of the Miocene Soma Formation (Lower Lignite Succession-KM2), Soma Coal Basin, western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokerek, Selin; Ozcelik, Orhan

    2015-04-01

    The Soma coal basin is one of the largest economic lignite-bearing alluvial basins of western Turkey. The Miocene succession (Soma Formation) of the coalfield contains two lignite seams successions; Lower Lignite, Middle Lignite .The Lower Lignite (KM2) is a seam 15 m thick and found in contact between siliciclastic and carbonate deposits (marlstones). Detailed data from thick Miocene sediments (Soma Formation) made it possible to construct an organic facies framework using different zonations. Organic matter is composed predominantly of woody material. Kerogen in the deposits is type III, as indicated by organic petrographic observations and Rock-Eval data. Total organic carbon (TOC) values are generally between 28.45 and 72.66 %, but reach 73.38 % in the formation. Tmax values vary between 403 and 429 °C, confirming maturation trends indicated by vitrinite reflectance data (between 0.35-0.48 Ro %). Organic facies type C and CD were identified in the investigated units. Organic facies C and CD are related to clayey coal and coal lithofacies. These facies are characterized by average values of HI around 126 mg HC/g TOC (equivalent to type III kerogen), TOC around 56.61 %, and an average of S2 of 72.4 mg HC/g of rock. The organic matter is partly oxidized/oxidized and reworked. Keywords: Western Turkey; Soma Formation; organic facies; organic geochemistry

  2. Thermal effects of a basaltic intrusion on the Soma lignite bed in West Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Karayigit, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    A mineable lignite bed (k1) in the Soma Formation from the southern part of the Soma basin is of middle Miocene age and was deposited in a lacustrine environment. Its thickness reaches up to 24 m, and it is extensively mined by open-pit methods. The Soma Formation was invaded by an olivine basaltic intrusion during the Pliocene-Pleistocene. The intrusion has resulted in a local contact metamorphic influence at the top level of the k1. The coal bed, on the basis of proximate analyses and random reflectance measurement (%Ro, random) of huminite/vitrinite of coals or groundmass of cokes, can be divided into normal coal, transition zone, and natural coke, differing in their degree of coal metamorphism. Closer to the contact point with the intrusion, moisture and volatile matter contents rapidly decrease, while calorific value and the %Ro, random values increase.

  3. Emissions estimation for lignite-fired power plants in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Nurten Vardar; Zehra Yumurtaci

    2010-01-15

    The major gaseous emissions (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide), some various organic emissions (e.g. benzene, toluene and xylenes) and some trace metals (e.g. arsenic, cobalt, chromium, manganese and nickel) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are estimated. The estimations are made separately for each one of the thirteen plants that produced electricity in 2007, because the lignite-fired thermal plants in Turkey are installed near the regions where the lignite is mined, and characteristics and composition of lignite used in each power plant are quite different from a region to another. Emission factors methodology is used for the estimations. The emission factors obtained from well-known literature are then modified depending on local moisture content of lignite. Emission rates and specific emissions (per MWh) of the pollutants from the plants without electrostatic precipitators and flue-gas desulfurization systems are found to be higher than emissions from the plants having electrostatic precipitators and flue -gas desulfurization systems. Finally a projection for the future emissions due to lignite-based power plants is given. Predicted demand for the increasing generation capacity based on the lignite-fired thermal power plant, from 2008 to 2017 is around 30%. 39 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Co-combustion of pellets from Soma lignite and waste dusts of furniture works

    SciTech Connect

    Deveci, N.D.; Yilgin, M.; Pehlivan, D.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, volatiles and char combustion behaviors of the fuel pellets prepared from a low quality lignite and the dusts of furniture works and their various blends were investigated in an experimental fixed bed combustion system through which air flowed by natural convection. Combustion data obtained for varied bed temperatures, mass of pellets, and blend compositions has showed that ignition times of the pellets decreased and volatiles combustion rates tended to increase with the burning temperature. It was concluded that some synergy had existed between lignite and lower ratios of furniture work dusts, which was indicated by a prompt effect on the volatiles combustion rates. Char combustion rates of blend pellets have depended predominantly on the amount of lignite in the blend. The amounts of combustion residues of the pellets were considerably higher than those calculated from individual ash contents of the raw materials and related to lignite ratio in the blends.

  5. Properties and reserves of lignite in the Aydin-Sahinali field, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kirhan, S.; Inaner, H.; Nakoman, E.; Karayigit, A.I.

    2007-07-01

    This study focuses on some lignite properties and calculation of lignite reserves with two classical (isopach and polygon) methods in the Aydin-Sahinali field, Turkey, which is located in the western Turkey. This field has been mined by a private coal company since 1960 by open-cast and mainly underground mining methods. The producing lignites are consumed in domestic heating and industrial factories around Aydin. The metamorphic rocks of Palaezoic age form the basement of the coal field. The lignite-bearing unit of Miocene age, from bottom to the top, consists mainly of pebblestone, lignite and clayey lignite, siltstone with sandstone lenses, white colored claystone, clayey limestone and silisified limestone lenses. This unit in the lignite field was unconformably overlain by Pliocene unconsolidated sands and gravels. Three hundred seventy-three borehole data have been evaluated, and this study shows that a relatively thick and lateral extensive lignite seam has a mineable thickness of 1.6-14.4 m. The core samples from boreholes in panels in the lignite field indicate that the coal seam, on an as-received basis, contains high moisture contents (17.95-23.45%, average), high ash yields (16.30-26.03%, average), relatively high net calorific values (3,281-3,854 kcal/kg, average), and low total sulfur contents (1.00-1.22%, average). The remaining lignite potential in the Aydin-Sahinali lignite field was calculated as a 4.7 Mt of measured and a 2.9 Mt of mineable lignite-reserves.

  6. An aftermath analysis of the 2014 coal mine accident in Soma, Turkey: Use of risk performance indicators based on historical experience.

    PubMed

    Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-02-01

    On the 13th of May 2014 a fire related incident in the Soma coal mine in Turkey caused 301 fatalities and more than 80 injuries. This has been the largest coal mine accident in Turkey, and in the OECD country group, so far. This study investigated if such a disastrous event should be expected, in a statistical sense, based on historical observations. For this purpose, PSI's ENSAD database is used to extract accident data for the period 1970-2014. Four different cases are analyzed, i.e., OECD, OECD w/o Turkey, Turkey and USA. Analysis of temporal trends for annual numbers of accidents and fatalities indicated a non-significant decreasing tendency for OECD and OECD w/o Turkey and a significant one for USA, whereas for Turkey both measures showed an increase over time. The expectation analysis revealed clearly that an event with the consequences of the Soma accident is rather unlikely for OECD, OECD w/o Turkey and USA. In contrast, such a severe accident has a substantially higher expectation for Turkey, i.e. it cannot be considered an extremely rare event, based on historical experience. This indicates a need for improved safety measures and stricter regulations in the Turkish coal mining sector in order to get closer to the rest of OECD. PMID:26687539

  7. Trace elements in a Pliocene-Pleistocene lignite profile from the Afsin-Elbistan field, eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Karayigit, A.I.; Gayer, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    The authors present the results of proximate and ultimate analyses, mineralogical determination, and trace element analysis of a lignite profile from the Afsin-Elbistan field (eastern Turkey). The lignite, which developed during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition under freshwater lacustrine conditions, contains white gastropod (Planorbidae) shells composed of calcite and a little aragonite. Other identifiable mineral constituents, analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction, include quartz, pyrite, clay minerals, and rare feldspares. Petrographical studies demonstrate the immature nature of these lignites and very low degree of compaction during diagenesis. The mean concentrations of trace elements in the lignite, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), show relative enrichment in Mo (avg. 20 ppm), W (avg. 15 ppm) and U (avg. 25 ppm) when compared to the global range for most coals, while the others (Ti, p, Sc, Be, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ba, Y, Ta, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu) fall within their global ranges. Many of the trace elements show a good correlation with the ash yield, implying an inorganic affinity. However, Mo and Sr show a negative correlation with the ash yield and are thought to be organically associated. A lack of correlation of U with either the ash yield or the coal sulfur content, together with its relative enrichment, suggests secondary mobility of this element.

  8. Rank and petrology of the Middle Miocene Karapinar lignites in southeast Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Karayigit, A.I.; Goodarzi, F.; Ardag, Y.; Gentzis, T.

    1996-12-01

    The coal-bearing strata in the Basoren Formation from the Sariz-Karapinar coal region are of middle Miocene age and were deposited in a lacustrine environment. Coal in this formation is lignitic in rank (%Ro, random of eu-ulminite B is 0.37). These lignites have high inertinite content (up to 37.4%), which is higher than in any other Turkish lignites studied previously. Inertinite content in the region increases from the northeast to the southwest, possibly indicating oxidation of organic matter in the coal-forming environment due to lowering of the water level. Total sulfur content in the lignites ranges from 1.8 to 4.8%. High-rank coals present in the Upper Permian Yigiltepe Formation (%Ro, random is 0.66--0.70) contain more sulfur (S{sub tot} = 5.6--6.9%) and less inertinite (9.6--12.1%).

  9. Effect of experimental conditions on the yields during the copyrolysis of Mustafa Kemal Paa (MKP) Lignite (Turkey) with low-density polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Ali Sinag; Melike Sungur; Muammer Canel

    2006-08-15

    Copyrolysis of a Turkish lignite with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is conducted in a tubular reactor. The effect of experimental conditions (temperature of 400-700{sup o}C, catalyst, LDPE contents of the mixture are 33, 50, and 67 wt %) on the formation of tar, gas, and char and their effects on the formation of phenol are investigated. The catalysts used are red mud (which is a waste product of an aluminum factory in Turkey), zeolite (Linde type A (LTA)), and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Tar evolution is determined to be increased significantly by increasing the LDPE content of the coal-LDPE mixture during the pyrolysis. The effect of adding LDPE to the coal on the gas generation is not remarkable. An increase in temperature leads to increased gas yields. Phenol and phenol derivatives are the obstacles for the complete conversion of lignite to tar and gas. To investigate this negative effect of phenols on the yields, the phenols found in tar from coal pyrolysis are detected by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and it is observed that phenolic structures detected in the tar obtained by individual pyrolysis of coal are dramatically decreased by adding polymer to the coal. The use of catalysts during the copyrolysis procedure leads to improved gas generation. The possible reasons of these variations are discussed. A remarkable synergetic effect between lignite and LDPE on the tar yields is also observed. 21 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Biomonitoring of metals in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant in western Anatolia, Turkey using the epiphytic lichen, Xanthoria parietina.

    PubMed

    Gür, Filiz; Yaprak, Günseli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina was applied as the biomonitor of air pollution to determine the environmental influence in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant. Thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina growing on olive, oak and poplar trees were collected with their substrate in 2004-2006. They were taken from 44 different stations located in 3×3 km grids within an area of 30 km in diameter around the Soma power plant near the town of Soma. Lichen samples were analyzed by using the ICP-MS for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn elements and their concentrations were mapped. The sample analyses results were evaluated by using the statistical software (SPSS 11). Average element contents of samples were, in descending order, Fe > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Co > U > Th > Se > Cd > Hg. Results obtained in the current study were generally found to be higher than the data reported in literature although some lower values exist for Cd, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb elements. The most polluted areas were found to be those in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plant, particularly along the direction of predominant wind and in the corridor which runs from west to southeast direction due to topographic conditions. We believe that this research which is conducted around a coal-fired power plant will shed light on future research on pollution. PMID:21992698

  11. Behavior of chars from Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca Lignite (Turkey) during non-catalytic and catalytic gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Bozkurt, Y.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Sinag, A.; Tekes, A.T.; Canel, M.

    2008-07-01

    The reactivities of chars obtained by pyrolysis of Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut lignite and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca lignite (Turkey) at different temperatures were determined by CO{sub 2} gasification and by combustion with O{sub 2}. Catalytic effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gasification reactivity of chars was investigated. Gasification tests were performed in the fixed bed reactors operating at ambient pressure. Reactivity of chars during the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions was determined by calculating the reaction rate constants and reactivity of chars during the O{sub 2} gasification was determined by using ignition temperatures of the samples. Activation energies and Arrhenius constants of the chars on the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions were also calculated by the help of Arrhenius curves. The activation energy for CO{sub 2} gasification was generally decreased with pyrolysis temperature, due to the different surface characteristics and different nature of carbon atoms gasified as the gasification reactions proceed. Generally, the increase in pyrolysis temperature leads to an increase in gasification reactivity with CO{sub 2}. The reactivity of chars in catalytic gasification was higher than the corresponding non-catalytic reactivity of the same chars. Ignition temperature increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature.

  12. Pelletizing lignite

    DOEpatents

    Goksel, Mehmet A.

    1983-11-01

    Lignite is formed into high strength pellets having a calorific value of at least 9,500 Btu/lb by blending a sufficient amount of an aqueous base bituminous emulsion with finely-divided raw lignite containing its inherent moisture to form a moistened green mixture containing at least 3 weight % of the bituminous material, based on the total dry weight of the solids, pelletizing the green mixture into discrete green pellets of a predetermined average diameter and drying the green pellets to a predetermined moisture content, preferrably no less than about 5 weight %. Lignite char and mixture of raw lignite and lignite char can be formed into high strength pellets in the same general manner.

  13. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  14. The distribution of trace elements in Turkish lignites in Western Anatolia and the Thrace Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.A.; Tuncali, E.; Finkelman, R.

    1999-07-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration in Turkey (Maden Tetkik ve Arama:MTA) are working together to provide a more complete understanding of the chemical properties of lignites from major Turkish lignite producing areas. The project is a part of the USGS effort to produce an international coal database and is part of the ``Technological and Chemical properties of Turkish Lignite Inventory Project'' being conducted by the MTA General Directorate. The lignites in Turkey formed in several different depositional environments at different geologic times and have differing chemical properties. The Eocene lignites are limited to northern Turkey. Oligocene lignites, in the Trace Basin of northwestern Turkey, are intercalated with marine sediments. Miocene lignites are generally located in western Turkey. These coal deposits have relatively abundant reserves, with limnic characteristics. The Pliocene-Pleistocene lignites are found in the eastern part of Turkey. Most of these lignites have low calorific values, high moisture and high ash contents. The majority of the lignite extraction is worked in open-pit mines. Turkish lignite production is used mainly by power plants; small amounts are used by households and in industry. All the samples in this study were collected as channel samples of the beds. Analyses of 71 coal samples (mostly lignites) have been completed for 54 elements using various analytical techniques including inductively coupled plasma emission and mass spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis and various single element techniques. Many of these lignites have elemental concentrations similar to those of US lignites. However, maximum or mean concentrations of B, Cr, Cs, Ni, As, Br, Sb, Cs and U in Turkey were higher than the corresponding maximum or mean found in either of the Fort Union or Gulf Coast basins, the two most productive lignite basins in the U.S.

  15. Modeling higher heating values of lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Dincer, K.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, the elemental analysis results such as carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) were used for calculated higher heating values (HHVs) of 26 lignite samples from different areas of Turkey. The lignite samples have been tested with particle size of 0-0.05 mm. The HHVs of 26 lignite samples obtained from different Turkish sources were experimentally determined and can be calculated from the equation-based modeling. The HHVs (MJ/kg) of the lignite samples as a function of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) was calculated from the following equation: HHV = 31.6(C) + 142.3(H) + 30.8(S) - 15.4(O) - 14.5(N) of which the correlation coefficients for the equation was 0.9891. HHVs calculated from the equation showed mean deviation of +0.1.

  16. Frost susceptibility properties of Soma-B fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Cokca, E.

    1997-04-01

    This paper assesses the effect of freeze-thaw properties of compacted fly ash specimens likely to affect its use as fill material, on the basis of laboratory investigations conducted on Soma-B Thermal Power Plant ashes in western Turkey. Test specimens were subjected to compaction. Changes in strength with curing time and freeze-thaw cycles are measured using unconfined compression tests, and increases in strength with curing time and the number of freeze-thaw cycles were observed. The findings suggest that compacted Soma-B fly ash could serve as fill material, particularly over weak subgrades with no negative environmental effects, provided that the degree of saturation of the compacted fly ash embankment is at a specific value.

  17. Wasson's alternative candidates for soma.

    PubMed

    Riedlinger, T J

    1993-01-01

    Citing recently published challenges to R. Gordon Wasson's identification of Vedic soma as the psychoactive mushroom Amanita muscaria (fly-agaric), this article reviews unpublished letters by Wasson in which he considered and rejected other psychoactive plants as candidates, including the mint Lagochilus inebrians, Convolvulaceae (morning glory) seeds, the fungal parasite Claviceps purpurea (ergot), and especially the psilocybin mushroom Stropharia cubensis, known also as Psilocybe cubensis. Apart from their historical interest, these letters--from the Tina and Gordon Wasson Ethnomycological Collection at the Harvard Botanical Museum--demonstrate that Wasson remained open to refinements of his theory. PMID:8377083

  18. Turkey.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  19. Beysehir lignite-mining study. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-30

    Mineable lignite has been identified at three zones in the Beysehir area of Turkey; Karadiken, Avdancik, and Akcalar. The lignite from all three areas, has definite possibilities to be economically and selectively recovered by modern open pit mining techniques. It can then be converted into fuel for a steam electric power generating station by technology that has been proven in operation for over eight years. The highest Turkish government authorities have authorized the Turkish Electricity Authority (TEK) to contract for and eventually operate both the lignite mining facility and the steam electric generating plant at Beysehir in an effort to avoid heretofore experienced delays, overruns, and under-production.

  20. Morphometric evaluation of the Afşin-Elbistan lignite basin using kernel density estimation and Getis-Ord's statistics of DEM derived indices, SE Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarp, Gulcan; Duzgun, Sebnem

    2015-11-01

    A morphometric analysis of river network, basins and relief using geomorphic indices and geostatistical analyses of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) are useful tools for discussing the morphometric evolution of the basin area. In this study, three different indices including valley floor width to height ratio (Vf), stream gradient (SL), and stream sinuosity were applied to Afşin-Elbistan lignite basin to test the imprints of tectonic activity. Perturbations of these indices are usually indicative of differences in the resistance of outcropping lithological units to erosion and active faulting. To map the clusters of high and low indices values, the Kernel density estimation (K) and the Getis-Ord Gi∗ statistics were applied to the DEM-derived indices. The K method and Gi∗ statistic highlighting hot spots and cold spots of the SL index, the stream sinuosity and the Vf index values helped to identify the relative tectonic activity of the basin area. The results indicated that the estimation by the K and Gi∗ including three conceptualization of spatial relationships (CSR) for hot spots (percent volume contours 50 and 95 categorized as high and low respectively) yielded almost similar results in regions of high tectonic activity and low tectonic activity. According to the K and Getis-Ord Gi∗ statistics, the northern, northwestern and southern parts of the basin indicates a high tectonic activity. On the other hand, low elevation plain in the central part of the basin area shows a relatively low tectonic activity.

  1. Determination and calculation of combustion heats of 20 lignite samples

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Dincer, K.; Topaloglu, N.

    2008-07-01

    In this study, the proximate analyses, such as volatile matter (VM), fixed carbon (FC), and higher heating value (HHV), were determined for 20 lignite samples from different areas of Turkey. The lignite samples have been tested with particle size of 0-0.05 mm. Combustion heats (higher heating values, HHVs) of 20 lignite samples obtained from different Turkish sources were determined experimentally and calculated from both ultimate and proximate analyses. The HHVs (MJ/kg) of the lignite samples as a function of fixed carbon (FC, wt%) or volatile materials (VM, %) was calculated from the following equations: HHV = 0.2997FC + 11.1170 (1) HHV = -0.3225VM + 42.223 (2). The correlation coefficients for Eqs. (1) and (2) were 0.9820 and 0.9686, respectively. The combustion heats calculated from Eqs. (1) and (2) showed mean differences of +0.4% and +0.4%, respectively.

  2. Relationships proximate analysis results and higher heating values of lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    In this study, the higher heating values (HHVs) of 26 lignite samples were calculated by using the proximate and elemental analyses data. The proximate analysis results such as volatile materials (VM), fixed carbon (FC) and HHV and the elemental analysis results such as carbon, hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) were determined for 26 lignite samples from different areas of Turkey. The lignite samples have been tested with particle size of 0-0.05 mm. The HHVs of 26 lignite samples obtained from different Turkish sources were determined experimentally and calculated from both ultimate and proximate analyses. HHVs of 26 the lignite samples can be calculated from the equation based modeling. The HHVs (MJ/kg) of the lignite samples as a function of fixed carbon (FC, wt%) or volatile materials (VM, %) was calculated from the following equations: HHV = 0.300FC + 11.117 (1) HHV = -0.323VM + 42.223 (2) where the correlation coefficients for Eqs. (1) and (2) were 0.9907 and 0.9862, respectively. The combustion heats calculated from Eqs. (1) and (2) showed mean differences of +3.9% and +0.3%, respectively. The HHVs (MJ/kg) of the lignite samples as a function of C, H, O, N, and S were calculated from a given equation where the correlation coefficients for the equation was 0.9891. HHVs calculated from this equation showed a mean deviation of +0.1.

  3. LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2005-06-07

    This 3rd quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from January 1st through March 31st of 2005. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and final dryer/process design.

  4. LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2005-07-07

    This 4th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from April 1st through June 30th of 2005. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and dryer/process construction.

  5. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2006-02-03

    This 6th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from October 1st through December 31st of 2005. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and dryer/process construction. Hypothesis remains the same. We will be able to dry lignite an increment to benefit the performance of and reduce emissions from a coal burning electric power generating station.

  6. Humic preperations from Russian lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Rodeh, V.V.; Ryzhkov, O.G.

    1994-12-31

    THe objective of this work was to study lignites as the precursor materials to humic substances. Lignites contain humic substances primarily as humic acids. Their extraction requires the processing of coals with alkali.

  7. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was performed

  8. Natural radioactivity in lignites and lignite ash: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, N.R.; Wagner, P.

    1987-04-01

    Natural radioactivity in a Texas lignite field and in leachates from lignite ash from power plants was measured. The radioactivity concentrations found (4 ppM uranium in the lignite, 16 ppM uranium in the lignite ash, and a few picocuries of natural radionuclides per liter in the leachates) do not differ appreciably from those found previously in similar samples and in natural materials such as soils and ground waters. Additional information on stable elements are reported for both the lignites and the leachates.

  9. Binderless lignite briquetting

    SciTech Connect

    Mall, L.

    1996-12-31

    Almost all of Germany`s lignite deposits were formed during the Tertiary Period 20 to 40 million years ago. Germany`s entire coal resources amount to something over 100 billion tonnes, of which roughly 57 billion tonnes may be economically mined with today`s mining technology and energy prices. This means that Germany has more than 10% of the world`s economically mineable coal reserves. Lignite production on an economically significant scale is taking place in the following mining areas: (1) Rhine Mining Area, (2) Helmstedt Mining Area, (3) Central German Mining Area, and (4) Lusatian Mining Area.

  10. Lignite Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Fred

    Since it became known in l979 that the Arkansas Power and Light Company was going to build a large electricity generating plant near Hampton and that there would be a lignite mining operation established there to support the power plant, the Warren public schools have been preparing to meet the impact on the schools. Because it was assumed that…

  11. LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2004-10-29

    This 1st quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project explains what has transpired since Great River Energy was selected to negotiate the Cooperative agreement in February of 2003. The report will summarize Pre-award activities and any other activity since signature of the contract on July 9th of this year. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and final dryer/process design up to September 30th of 2004.

  12. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2007-03-31

    This 11th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from January 1st through March 31st of 2007. It summarizes the completion of the Prototype testing activity and initial full-scale dryer design, Budget Period 2 activity during that time period. The Design Team completed process design and layouts of air, water, and coal systems. Heyl-Patterson completed dryer drawings and has sent RFPs to several fabricators for build and assembly. Several meetings were held with Barr engineers to finalize arrangement of the drying, air jig, and coal handling systems. Honeywell held meetings do discuss the control system logic and hardware location. By the end of March we had processed nearly 300,000 tons of lignite through the dryer. Outage preparation maintenance activities on a coal transfer hopper restricted operation of the dryer in February and March. The Outage began March 17th. We will not dry coal again until early May when the Outage on Unit No.2 completes. The Budget Period 1 (Phase 1) final report was submitted this quarter. Comments were received from NETL and are being reviewed. The Phase 2 Project Management Plan was submitted to NETL in January 2007. This deliverable also included the Financing Plan. An application for R&D 100 award was submitted in February. The project received an award from the Minnesota Professional Engineering Society's Seven Wonders of Engineering Award and Minnesota ACEC Grand Award in January. To further summarize, the focus this quarter has been on finalizing commercial design and the layout of four dryers behind each Unit. The modification to the coal handling facilities at Coal Creek and incorporation of air jigs to further beneficiate the segregated material the dryers will reject 20 to 30 % of the mercury and sulfur is segregated however this modification will recover the carbon in that stream.

  13. Drying of Beulah Zap lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.; Molenda, D. ); Dang, Y.; Malhotra, V.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    Recent results on the kinetics of water's desorption from Beulah-Zap lignite coal, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique were reported. The kinetic analysis of DSC was further complimented by determining the mechanism of air drying of lignite coal with the help of an in-situ Desorption Kinetics via Fourier transform infrared (ISDK-FTIR) technique. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Oxydesulfurization of a Turkish hard lignite with ammonia solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    1996-09-01

    In this study the desulfurization of a high pyritic and high organic sulfur lignite taken from the Gediz area (western Turkey) was investigated by the oxydesulfurization method using ammonia solutions. The influence of such parameters as the concentration of ammonia solution, partial pressure of oxygen, temperature, and reaction time were studied. The ranges of these parameters were selected as 0--10 M concentration of ammonia solution, 0--1.5 MPa partial pressure of oxygen, 403--473 K temperature, and 10--60 min reaction time. It was concluded that the use of ammonia solution as an extraction solution increased the efficiency of the oxydesulfurization process.

  15. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2005-10-03

    The Design Team continues to conference this quarter albeit not as often. Primary focus this quarter is the continued procurement of material, receiving, and construction/installation. Phase 1 extension recommendation, and subsequent new project estimate. Forms 424 and 4600 were submitted to Ms. Zysk. The NETL technology team subsequently agreed that the increase is justified and made their recommendation to DOE HQ. All major mechanical equipment was delivered this quarter. Three hot water in-bed coils are all that remains for delivery. Two of the five are installed above the dryer air distribution bed. The dryer, baghouse, bucket elevator, control room, exhaust fan, process ductwork, and piping have all been installed. The mezzanine level over the inlet ductwork for access to the dryer was installed. Instrumentation was delivered and locations were identified. Cable is being pulled and connections made from the Control Room to the Motor Control Center. ''Emergency Stop'' equipment logic conditions were discussed and finalized. The functional description was competed and reviewed with Honeywell Controls. Piping & Instrument diagrams are completed. Some electrical schematics have been delivered for equipment south of Q-line. Dry & Wet coal conveyors are not completed. The exhaust chimney was installed. An Open House and ribbon cutting took place on August 9th. GRE project manager gave a presentation of the technology. Joe Strakey, NETL, also spoke. The Open House was attended by Governor Hoevon and Senator Conrad who also spoke about Clean Coal and helped kick-off Blue Flint ethanol and a potential Liquefaction plant. The deign team met the following day to discuss test plan and progress update. Headwaters Energy Incorporated also attended the Open House. A meeting was conducted with them to begin planning for the marketing and finalize our memorandum of understanding. Headwaters still plans to contact all US lignite plants and all bituminous plants who have

  16. Haoma-Soma in the world of ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Wohlberg, J

    1990-01-01

    Evidence of the worship of (nonalcoholic) Haoma-Soma in Iran and India (identified by Wasson as Amanita muscaria) can be found in Greece and its neighboring lands. While Iranian and India peoples preserved their original worship in their final settlements, Indo-European tribes, including the Thracians, the Phrygians, and the Greeks, after settling in Europe and Asia Minor, abandoned their ancestral worship of Soma (Sabazios) and substituted the Semitic (alcoholic) Dionysos. However, they retained traces of the original Soma worship in Dionysiac rituals. This modified Dionysiac worship spread throughout the Western world. Six formal criteria are used to establish the identify of Soma with Dionysos (Sabazios): (1) both cults had the same aim (to cause ecstatic behavior); (2) both cults required the attainment of the same spiritual state (purity); (3) both cults had an idiosyncratic myth in common; (4) both cults showed the identical word root in the name of the worshipped god; (5) both cults had identical zoological and botanical associations with their god; and (6) the alcoholic god (Dionysos) was depicted as having the same physical effects on human beings as that of the ancient nonalcoholic god (Soma). PMID:2286867

  17. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2006-04-03

    This 7th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from January 1st through March 31st of 2006. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity, dryer/process construction, and testing. The Design Team began conferencing again as construction completed and the testing program began. Primary focus this quarter was construction/installation completion. Phase 1 extension recommendation, and subsequent new project estimate, Forms 424 and 4600 were accepted by DOE headquarters. DOE will complete the application and amended contract. All major mechanical equipment was run, checked out, and tested this quarter. All water, air, and coal flow loops were run and tested. The system was run on January 30th, shut down to adjust equipment timing in the control system on the 31st, and run to 75 ton//hour on February 1st. It ran for seven to eight hours per day until March 20th when ''pairs'' testing ( 24 hour running) began. ''Pairs'' involves comparative testing of unit performance with seven ''wet'' pulverizers versus six ''wet'' and one ''dry''. During the interim, more operators were brought up to speed on system operation and control was shifted to the main Unit No.2 Control Room. The system is run now from the Unit control board operator and an equipment operator checks the system during regular rounds or when an alarm needs verification. The flawless start-up is unprecedented in the industry and credit should be made to the diligence and tenacity of Coal Creek maintenance/checkout staff. Great River Energy and Headwaters did not meet to discuss the Commercialization Plan this quarter. The next meeting is pending data from the drying system. Discussions with Basin Electric, Otter Tail, and Dairyland continue and confidentiality secured as we promote dryers in their stations. Lighting and fire protection were completed in January. Invoices No.12 through No.20 are completed and forwarded following preliminary

  18. Utilization of lignite ash in concrete mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Karslioglu, S.; Ayas, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this article 11 ashes from various Turkish lignite sources were studied to show the effects upon lignite ash quality for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. The lignite ashes were classified into two general types (Class A and Class B) based on total of silica, alumina, and iron oxide. Total content of the three major oxides must be more than 50% for Class A lignite ash and more than 70% for Class B lignite ash. When 25% of the cement was replaced by LA-1 (Class A) lignite ash, based on 300 kg/m{sup 3} cementitious material, the 28-day compressive strength increased 24.3% compared to the control mix. The optimal lignite ash replacement was 25% at 300 kg/m{sup 3} cementitious material.

  19. The washability of lignites for clay removal

    SciTech Connect

    Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U.

    2008-07-01

    In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

  20. Thunder among the pines: defining a pan-Asian soma.

    PubMed

    Dannaway, Frederick

    2009-03-01

    Many ancient cultures and religions engaged in various techniques and used various substances to instigate religious experience and to alter perception. These techniques of psycho-sexual drug yoga reached an unparalleled level of sophistication that arose and was often cloaked in practical terms of alchemy and metallurgy. The Vedic tradition describes this plant-based ritualism as soma, which has been identified by Gordon Wasson as the mushroom Amanita muscaria. This article traces these soma-influenced sects of esoteric Buddhism that exerted influences from India, China and Tibet to Japan. Some of the key components, practices and symbolism are retained despite numerous cultural filters. Japan's tradition of esoteric Buddhism can thus be seen to have preserved and incorporated the soma/amrita mushroom lore into its own traditions of mountain ascetic mystics. PMID:19455911

  1. Neocortical Maturation during Adolescence: Change in Neuronal Soma Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowicz, Theodore; Petetot, Jean MacDonald-Comber; Khoury, Jane C.; de Courten-Myers, Gabrielle M.

    2009-01-01

    During adolescence, cognitive abilities increase robustly. To search for possible related structural alterations of the cerebral cortex, we measured neuronal soma dimension (NSD = width times height), cortical thickness and neuronal densities in different types of neocortex in post-mortem brains of five 12-16 and five 17-24 year-olds (each 2F,…

  2. Mineral matter identification of some Turkish lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Taptik, Y.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.; Kadioglu, E.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of 15 Turkish lignites were oxidized by performic acid. Their mineral matter was isolated without any important chemical decomposition. The X-ray diffraction method was employed to determine the mineral species in the isolated mineral matter and in the ashes of the lignite samples. The results were compared and discussed.

  3. Multiple-use marketing of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, C.L.

    1993-09-01

    Marketing of lignite faces difficulties due to moisture and sulfur contents, as well as the sodium content, of the ash. The purpose of this study is to determine the economic viability of multiple-use marketing of lignite as a method to increase the use of North Dakota lignite by recapturing lost niche markets. Multiple-use marketing means using lignite and sulfur-capturing additives to clean agricultural wastewater followed by either direct steam and power generation or briquetting to produce a higher-Btu compliance fuel. Cooperative ownership of the resulting business by a coal company and an agriculture processing company helps ensure that lignite remains the coal of choice, especially when the ``good`` attributes of lignites are maximized, while the agricultural company obtains cleaner wastewater and a long-term supply of coal at a set price. The economic viabilities of the following scenarios were investigated: (1) Agriprocessing wastewater treatment using lignite and an additive followed by (2) the production of compliance fuel for resale or on-site cogeneration of steam and electricity. Laboratory tests were performed utilizing potato-processing plant wastewater with lignite and lime sludge.

  4. Solubilization of Australian lignites by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J.; Cox, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Australia has substantial lignite deposits, particularly in the Latrobe Valley in Victoria where 4.10/sup 10/ tons are accessible with available technologies. The authors have investigated the susceptibility of these coal to solubilization by microorganisms, including species additional to those already identified as active on North American lignites. The data presented here show that acid oxidized lignites from the Latrobe Valley are solubilized by each of seven species of microorganisms previously found to be active on Leonardite and oxidized North American lignites. These are the wood rot fungi: Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the lignin degrading prokaryote Streptomyces viridosporus and three fungi isolated from lignite in Mississippi: Candida ML-13, Cunninghamelia YML-1 and Penicillium waksmanii.

  5. Lignite pellets and methods of agglomerating or pelletizing

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Albert F.; Blaustein, Eric W.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.; Garvin, John P.; McKeever, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    The specification discloses lignite pellets which are relatively hard, dust resistant, of generally uniform size and free from spontaneous ignition and general degradation. Also disclosed are methods for making such pellets which involve crushing as mined lignite, mixing said lignite with a binder such as asphalt, forming the lignite binder mixture into pellets, and drying the pellets.

  6. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  7. Paleocene lignite deposits of southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.

    1984-04-01

    In southwest Alabama, lignite having economic potential occurs in the Oak Hill Member of the Naheola Formation. This middle Paleocene lignite generally consists of a single bed of 1-14 ft (0.5-4 m) in thickness and is the most extensive lignite in the southwest Alabama region. The Oak Hill lignite deposit accumulated in lower delta plain coastal marshes in interchannel areas behind a barrier system. The source area for the deltaic sediments was probably to the west and/or northwest of Choctaw County, Alabama. The lignite occurs in a clay-dominated sequence. Oak Hill interdistributary bay ripple-laminated clays are interbedded with ripple-laminated, crevasse splay sands generally less than 15 ft (5 m) thick. The glauconitic sands of the overlying Coal Bluff Marl Member of the Naheola Formation represent times of marine encroachment into the interchannel basin area. Lignite having subeconomic value at present occurs in the upper part of the Tuscahoma Sand. This upper Paleocene lignite is irregular in its outcrop pattern and apparently is not represented over extensive areas. It is locally persistent with one or more beds less than 3 ft (1 m) thick. The Tuscahoma may contain up to 6 lignite seams that may exceed a total thickness of 5 ft (1.5 m). These lignite beds were deposited in lower delta-plain coastal marshes adjacent to high constructive deltaic bar finger sands. Tuscahoma marsh clays are interbedded with ripple-laminated and cross-bedded bar finger sands. The Tuscahoma Sand is overlain by the Bashi Marl Member of the Hatchetigbee Formation. The Bashi contains a diverse lower Eocene marine fossil assemblage.

  8. Paleocene lignite deposits of southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.

    1984-04-01

    In southwest Alabama, lignite having economic potential occurs in the Oak Hill Member of the Naheola Formation. This middle Paleocene lignite generally consists of a single bed of 1-14 ft (0.5-4 m) in thickness and is the most extensive lignite in the southwest Alabama region. The Oak Hill lignite deposit accumulated in lower delta plain coastal marshes in interchannel areas behind a barrier system. The source area for the deltaic sediments was probably to the west and/or northwest of Choctaw County, Alabama. The lignite occurs in a clay-dominated sequence. Oak Hill interdistributary bay ripple-laminated clays are interbedded with ripple-laminated, crevasse splay sands generally less than 15 ft (5 m) thick. The glauconitic sands of the overlying Coal Bluff Marl Member of the Naheola Formation represent times of marine encroachment into the interchannel basin area. Lignite haing subeconomic value at present occurs in the upper part of the Tuscahoma Sand. This upper Paleocene lignite is irregular in its outcrop pattern and apparently is not represented over extensive areas. It is locally persistent with one or more beds less than 3 ft (1 m) thick. The Tuscahoma may contain up to 6 lignite seams that may exceed a total thickness of 5 ft (1.5 m). These lignite beds were deposited in lower delta-plain coastal marshes adjacent to high constructive deltaic bar finger sands. Tuscahoma marsh clays are interbedded with ripple-laminated and cross-bedded bar finger sands. The Tuscahoma Sand is overlain by the Bashi Marl Member of the Hatchetigbee Formation. The Bashi contains a diverse lower Eocene marine fossil assemblage.

  9. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D.

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  11. Psyche and soma: New insights into the connection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Yeragani, Vikram K

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of Psyche and Soma are well known and this interaction happens through a complex network of feedback, medication, and modulation among the central and autonomic nervous systems, the endocrine system, the immune system, and the stress system. These systems, which were previously considered pristinely independent, in fact, interact at myriad levels. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is an emerging discipline that focuses on various interactions among these body systems and provides the underpinnings of a scientific explanation for what is commonly referred to as the mind-body connection. This article reviews the relevant literature with an emphasis on Indian research. PMID:21836684

  12. Swelling of lignites in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    R.G. Makitra; D.V. Bryk

    2008-10-15

    Data on the swelling of Turkish lignites can be summarized using linear multiparameter equations that take into account various properties of solvents. Factors responsible for the amounts of absorbed solvents are the basicity and cohesion energy density of the solvents.

  13. Radiological investigation of lignite ash. The case of the West Macedonia Lignite Center (Greece)

    SciTech Connect

    Tsikritzis, L.I.; Fotakis, M.; Tzimkas, N.; Tsikritzi, R.; Trikoilidou, E.; Kolovos, N.

    2009-07-01

    This article investigates the natural radioactivity of 26 ash samples, laboratory produced from lignite samples collected in the West Macedonia Lignite Center in Northern Greece. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and 232Th were measured by spectroscopy and found four to five times higher than those in the original lignite samples. The radionuclides transfer factors depend on the characteristics of the combustion process and were found higher for {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, and 40K, because of their closer affinity with the inorganic fraction of the lignite. Compared with other results found in the published literature, the studied ash has relatively high content in radioactivity, but the resulting radiation dose from the radionuclide emissions in the West Macedonia Lignite Center do not contribute significantly to the total effective dose.

  14. Selective oil agglomeration of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Halime Abakay Temel; Volkan Bozkurt; Arun Kumar Majumder

    2009-01-15

    In this study, desulfurization and deashing of Adiyaman-Glbai lignite by the agglomeration method were studied. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of solid concentration, bridging liquid type and dosage, pH, and screen size on the agglomeration after desliming were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water (the Mediterranean Sea water, the Aegean Sea water, and the Black Sea water) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of sea waters and soda lake water in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the reduction of total sulfur content of agglomerates. In addition, the usage of NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3} in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the ash content reduction of the agglomerates. 27 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Using PARSEL Modules to Contextualizing the States-of-Matter Approach (SOMA) to Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    SOMA (States-Of-Matter Approach) is an introductory chemistry program for all students in the tenth or eleventh grade (age 16-17), which introduces chemistry through the separate study of the three states of matter. SOMA is basically a formalistic approach. In this paper, we discuss the use of PARSEL modules in providing a teaching approach to…

  16. Talking Turkey...

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Talking Turkey… 45 million turkeys are eaten each Thanksgiving, 22 ... more 4 Steps to Making Sense, Safely, of Turkey and "All the Fixin's" The U.S. Food and ...

  17. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

    2000-07-01

    High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from North Dakota lignites with those of commercial carbons was conducted. Previous studies indicated that a commercial carbon prepared from Texas lignite (Darco HDB) was superior to those prepared from bituminous coals for water treatment. That the high alkali content of North Dakota lignites would result in favorable adsorptive properties for the very large humate molecules was hypothesized, owing to the formation of larger pores during activation. Since no standard humate test has been previously developed, initial adsorption testing was performed using smaller dye molecules with various types of ionic character. With the cationic dye, methylene blue, a carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite (HSKRC) adsorbed more dye than the Darco HDB. The carbon from the low-sodium lignite was much inferior. With another cationic dye, malachite green, the Darco HDB was slightly better. With anionic dyes, methyl red and azocarmine-B, the results for the HSKRC and Darco HDB were comparable. A humate test was developed using Aldrich humic acid. The HSKRC and the Darco HDB gave equally high adsorption capacities for the humate (138 mg/g), consistent with the similarities observed in earlier tests. A carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite from a different mine showed an outstanding improvement (201 mg/g). The carbons prepared from the low-sodium lignites from both mines showed poor adsorption capacities for humate. Adsorption isotherms were performed for the set of activated carbons in the humate system. These exhibited a complex behavior interpreted as resulting from two types

  18. Removal of Gangue Minerals Containing Major Elements from Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl) Lignite Using a Reverse Flotation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Halime Abakay

    2015-12-01

    The removal of gangue minerals containing major elements was investigated using a reverse flotation method. Experiments were conducted on lignite samples, with high-ash and low-sulphur contents taken from a lignite field in Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl), Turkey. Predominant gangue minerals in the samples were found to be quartz, gypsum, feldspar minerals, mica minerals, and clays (smectite group). Preliminary flotation studies showed that gangue materials are more buoyant than the lignite sample. Some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of reverse flotation, such as grinding time, pH, collector type and volume, frother type and volume, and salt, were investigated. Quartz was found to cause a major problem in terms of reverse flotation. Flotation measurements showed that anionic collectors in an acidic medium result in the following element reduction order: sulphur trioxide > ferric oxide > magnesium oxide > calcium oxide > silicon dioxide > aluminium oxide.

  19. Effects of lignite properties on the hydroliquefaction behavior of representative Turkish lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Oener, M.; Bolat, E.; Dincer, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the conversion and yield data obtained for hydroliquefaction of 11 different Turkish lignites in tetralin, anthracene, and creosote oils with or without catalyst at 440{degrees}C and 80 bar that were correlated with the lignite properties obtained from proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses. The intercorrelation of experimental results and analytical data was evaluated by both simple linear regression and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses. Simple linear correlations between conversion and yield data with individual lignite parameters are unsatisfactory. An approach utilizing a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis lead to a number of linear equations relating oil yields to ash, sulfur, volatile matter, elemental carbon, maceral, and xylene extract contents of the lignites.

  20. Bi-directional gap junction-mediated soma-germline communication is essential for spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Smendziuk, Christopher M; Messenberg, Anat; Vogl, A Wayne; Tanentzapf, Guy

    2015-08-01

    Soma-germline interactions play conserved essential roles in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, patterning and homeostasis in the gonad. In the Drosophila testis, secreted signalling molecules of the JAK-STAT, Hedgehog, BMP and EGF pathways are used to mediate soma-germline communication. Here, we demonstrate that gap junctions may also mediate direct, bi-directional signalling between the soma and germ line. When gap junctions between the soma and germ line are disrupted, germline differentiation is blocked and germline stem cells are not maintained. In the soma, gap junctions are required to regulate proliferation and differentiation. Localization and RNAi-mediated knockdown studies reveal that gap junctions in the fly testis are heterotypic channels containing Zpg (Inx4) and Inx2 on the germ line and the soma side, respectively. Overall, our results show that bi-directional gap junction-mediated signalling is essential to coordinate the soma and germ line to ensure proper spermatogenesis in Drosophila. Moreover, we show that stem cell maintenance and differentiation in the testis are directed by gap junction-derived cues. PMID:26116660

  1. Inorganic constituents of some Turkish lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Taptik, Y.; Yavuz, R.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    1996-12-31

    In this study the mineral matter contents of two different Turkish lignite samples from Cayirhan and Tuncbilek regions were isolated by means of mild oxidation of organic matrix applying H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HCOOH treatment. The isolated minerals were analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques and constituents of the minerals were investigated qualitatively.

  2. Statistical tests for prediction of lignite quality

    SciTech Connect

    C.J. Kolovos

    2007-06-15

    Domestic lignite from large, bucket wheel excavators based open pit mines is the main fuel for electricity generation in Greece. Lignite from one or more mines may arrive at any power plant stockyard. The mixture obtained constitutes the lignite fuel fed to the power plant. The fuel is sampled in regular time intervals. These samples are considered as results of observations of values of spatial random variables. The aim was to form and statistically test many small sample populations. Statistical tests on the values of the humidity content, the ash-water free content, and the lower heating value of the lignite fuel indicated that the sample values form a normal population. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied for testing goodness-of-fit of sample distribution for a three year period and different power plants of the Kozani-Ptolemais area, western Macedonia, Greece. The normal distribution hypothesis can be widely accepted for forecasting the distribution of values of the basic quality characteristics even for a small number of samples.

  3. Evaluation of mine fires due to spontaneous combustion in the mechanized faces of Middle Anatolian Lignite mine (OAL), case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gueyagueler, T.; Karaman, H.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper fires due to spontaneous combustion in Middle Anatolian Lignite mine (OAL) which is the first fully mechanized underground lignite mine in Turkey, are studied. Since the installation of mechanization, due to spontaneous heating, four panel fires namely, AO1, AO2, AO3 and AO4 have broken out. During these fires, the concentrations of carbon monoxide, methane and the velocity of air are measured continuously by the Micro Minos Environmental monitoring system. For each fire, the environment where fire has started is examined and the possible causes of the fire are investigated. Also the precautions taken to extinguish the fire at different stages are described and the importance of the early detection of mine fire are discussed together with the limitations of the monitoring system the practical difficulties observed during the fire.

  4. Early evolution of the genetic basis for soma in the volvocaceae.

    PubMed

    Hanschen, Erik R; Ferris, Patrick J; Michod, Richard E

    2014-07-01

    To understand the hierarchy of life in evolutionary terms, we must explain why groups of one kind of individual, say cells, evolve into a new higher level individual, a multicellular organism. A fundamental step in this process is the division of labor into nonreproductive altruistic soma. The regA gene is critical for somatic differentiation in Volvox carteri, a multicellular species of volvocine algae. We report the sequence of regA-like genes and several syntenic markers from divergent species of Volvox. We show that regA evolved early in the volvocines and predict that lineages with and without soma descended from a regA-containing ancestor. We hypothesize an alternate evolutionary history of regA than the prevailing "proto-regA" hypothesis. The variation in presence of soma may be explained by multiple lineages independently evolving soma utilizing regA or alternate genetic pathways. Our prediction that the genetic basis for soma exists in species without somatic cells raises a number of questions, most fundamentally, under what conditions would species with the genetic potential for soma, and hence greater individuality, not evolve these traits. We conclude that the evolution of individuality in the volvocine algae is more complicated and labile than previously appreciated on theoretical grounds. PMID:24689915

  5. Revisiting Wasson's Soma: exploring the effects of preparation on the chemistry of Amanita muscaria.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Kevin

    2010-12-01

    In 1968 R. Gordon Wasson first proposed his groundbreaking theory identifying Soma, the hallucinogenic sacrament of the Vedas, as the Amanita muscaria mushroom. While Wasson's theory has garnered acclaim, it is not without its faults. One omission in Wasson's theory is his failure to explain how pressing and filtering Soma, as described in the Rig Veda, supports his theory of Soma's identity. Several critics have reasoned that such preparation should be unnecessary if equivalent results can be obtained by consuming the raw plant, as is done with other psychoactive mushrooms. In order to address these specific criticisms over 600 anecdotal accounts of Amanita muscaria inebriation were collected and analyzed to determine the impact of preparation on Amanita muscaria's effects. The findings of this study demonstrated that the effects of Amanita muscaria were related to the type of preparation employed, and that its toxic effects were considerably reduced by preparations that paralleled those described for Soma in the Rig Veda. While unlikely to end debate over the identity of Soma, this study's findings help to solidify the foundation of Wasson's theory, and also to demonstrate the importance of preparation in understanding and uncovering the true identity of Soma. PMID:21305914

  6. Comparative studies of Eocene silicified peat and lignite: transition between peat and lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, F.T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Silicified Eocene peats with excellent preserved cellular structures were found in lignite beds in western North Dakota and were comparatively studied. The well preserved plant tissues resemble that of modern Taxodium peat. The most striking difference between silicified peat and lignite is the disappearance of cell cavities when peat is transformed to lignite, a phenomenon caused primarily by compaction rather than cell wall swelling through humification or gelification. The differences between textinite and ulminite can be traced back to the differences between early wood and late wood of the secondary xylem. What appear to be cutinites in lignite are compressed cortex tissues of young plants. Silicified leaf and cortex tissues contain more visible fluorinite exhibiting brilliant fluorescence. Clustering phloem fibers or stone cells give rise to a material resembling resinite but are more akin to huminite A and/or suberinite. They converge to vitrinite when vitrinite reflectance exceeds 0.6%. Alternating banded phloem fibers and phloem parenchyma give rise to alternating layers of huminite A and huminite B. True micrinite does occur in lignite but in limited quantities.

  7. NOx reduction in a lignite cyclone furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Melland, C.; O`Connor, D.

    1998-12-31

    Reburning, selective catalytic reduction, and selective noncatalytic reduction techniques have demonstrated some potential for NOx reduction in cyclone boilers. These techniques are costly in terms of both capital and operating costs. Lignite cyclone combustion modeling studies indicated that modifying combustion inside the cyclone barrel could reduce cyclone NOx emissions. The modeling showed that air staging, secondary air basing, flue gas injection and variations in coal moisture content could affect NOx emissions. Short term lignite boiler tests and now longer term boiler operation have confirmed that significant NOx reductions can be accomplished merely by modifying cyclone combustion. The low NOx operation does not appear to significantly impact maintenance, reliability or capacity of the cyclone burner or furnace.

  8. (Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms)

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) characterize selected aerobic bacterial strains for their abilities to depolymerize lignite coal polymers, and isolate and identify the extracellular enzymes responsible for depolymerization of the coal; (2) characterize selected strictly anaerobic bacteria, that were previously shown to reductively transform coal substructure model compounds, for the ability to similarly transform polymeric coal; and (3) isolate more strains of anaerobic bacteria by enrichment using additional coal substructure model compounds and coal as substrates.

  9. INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF TEXAS LIGNITE DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME I. TECHNICAL ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains the results of a project to assess the probable impacts of expected future development of Texas lignite resources. This multi-disciplinary, policy-oriented study considered possible lignite extraction and utilization options through the year 2000. The researc...

  10. Physiological synaptic signals initiate sequential spikes at soma of cortical pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Ge, Rongjing; Qian, Hao; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The neurons in the brain produce sequential spikes as the digital codes whose various patterns manage well-organized cognitions and behaviors. A source for the physiologically integrated synaptic signals to initiate digital spikes remains unknown, which we studied at pyramidal neurons of cortical slices. In dual recordings from the soma vs. axon, the signals recorded in vivo induce somatic spikes with higher capacity, which is associated with lower somatic thresholds and shorter refractory periods mediated by voltage-gated sodium channels. The introduction of these parameters from the soma and axon into NEURON model simulates sequential spikes being somatic in origin. Physiological signals integrated from synaptic inputs primarily trigger the soma to encode neuronal digital spikes. PMID:21549002

  11. Characterization of microbes which polymerize and depolymerize lignite coals

    SciTech Connect

    Polman, J.K.; Breckenridge, C.R.; Quigley, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Several bacteria were tested for their ability to modify the macromolecular structure of different coals. When grown in the presence of Mississippi Wilcox lignite, North Dakota Beulah Zap lignite, and North Dakota lenoardite, strain Con5-1L produces polymerization products that are derived from coal. This bacterium was characterized extensively with respect to physiology and morphology and may be a member of the genus Arthrobacter. Strain UPLCPS2-B, which was identified as Pseudomonas chlororaphis, may be capable of limited depolymerization of Mississippi Wilcox lignite and leonardite, but not Beulah Zap lignite. Fermentative strain Con5-5C, which may extensively depolymerize Mississippi Wilcox lignite, was characterized according to morphology and physiology. Other strains tested had little or no effect on coal macromolecular structure. These included Escherichia coli, Arthrobacter paraffineus, and strain BED1. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Characterization of microbes which polymerize and depolymerize lignite coals

    SciTech Connect

    Polman, J.K.; Breckenridge, C.R.; Quigley, D.R.

    1991-12-01

    Several bacteria were tested for their ability to modify the macromolecular structure of different coals. When grown in the presence of Mississippi Wilcox lignite, North Dakota Beulah Zap lignite, and North Dakota lenoardite, strain Con5-1L produces polymerization products that are derived from coal. This bacterium was characterized extensively with respect to physiology and morphology and may be a member of the genus Arthrobacter. Strain UPLCPS2-B, which was identified as Pseudomonas chlororaphis, may be capable of limited depolymerization of Mississippi Wilcox lignite and leonardite, but not Beulah Zap lignite. Fermentative strain Con5-5C, which may extensively depolymerize Mississippi Wilcox lignite, was characterized according to morphology and physiology. Other strains tested had little or no effect on coal macromolecular structure. These included Escherichia coli, Arthrobacter paraffineus, and strain BED1. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Power Laws from Linear Neuronal Cable Theory: Power Spectral Densities of the Soma Potential, Soma Membrane Current and Single-Neuron Contribution to the EEG

    PubMed Central

    Pettersen, Klas H.; Lindén, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Tom; Einevoll, Gaute T.

    2014-01-01

    Power laws, that is, power spectral densities (PSDs) exhibiting behavior for large frequencies f, have been observed both in microscopic (neural membrane potentials and currents) and macroscopic (electroencephalography; EEG) recordings. While complex network behavior has been suggested to be at the root of this phenomenon, we here demonstrate a possible origin of such power laws in the biophysical properties of single neurons described by the standard cable equation. Taking advantage of the analytical tractability of the so called ball and stick neuron model, we derive general expressions for the PSD transfer functions for a set of measures of neuronal activity: the soma membrane current, the current-dipole moment (corresponding to the single-neuron EEG contribution), and the soma membrane potential. These PSD transfer functions relate the PSDs of the respective measurements to the PSDs of the noisy input currents. With homogeneously distributed input currents across the neuronal membrane we find that all PSD transfer functions express asymptotic high-frequency power laws with power-law exponents analytically identified as for the soma membrane current, for the current-dipole moment, and for the soma membrane potential. Comparison with available data suggests that the apparent power laws observed in the high-frequency end of the PSD spectra may stem from uncorrelated current sources which are homogeneously distributed across the neural membranes and themselves exhibit pink () noise distributions. While the PSD noise spectra at low frequencies may be dominated by synaptic noise, our findings suggest that the high-frequency power laws may originate in noise from intrinsic ion channels. The significance of this finding goes beyond neuroscience as it demonstrates how power laws with a wide range of values for the power-law exponent α may arise from a simple, linear partial differential equation. PMID:25393030

  14. Power laws from linear neuronal cable theory: power spectral densities of the soma potential, soma membrane current and single-neuron contribution to the EEG.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Klas H; Lindén, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Tom; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2014-11-01

    Power laws, that is, power spectral densities (PSDs) exhibiting 1/f(α) behavior for large frequencies f, have been observed both in microscopic (neural membrane potentials and currents) and macroscopic (electroencephalography; EEG) recordings. While complex network behavior has been suggested to be at the root of this phenomenon, we here demonstrate a possible origin of such power laws in the biophysical properties of single neurons described by the standard cable equation. Taking advantage of the analytical tractability of the so called ball and stick neuron model, we derive general expressions for the PSD transfer functions for a set of measures of neuronal activity: the soma membrane current, the current-dipole moment (corresponding to the single-neuron EEG contribution), and the soma membrane potential. These PSD transfer functions relate the PSDs of the respective measurements to the PSDs of the noisy input currents. With homogeneously distributed input currents across the neuronal membrane we find that all PSD transfer functions express asymptotic high-frequency 1/f(α) power laws with power-law exponents analytically identified as α∞(I) = 1/2 for the soma membrane current, α∞(p) = 3/2 for the current-dipole moment, and α∞(V) = 2 for the soma membrane potential. Comparison with available data suggests that the apparent power laws observed in the high-frequency end of the PSD spectra may stem from uncorrelated current sources which are homogeneously distributed across the neural membranes and themselves exhibit pink (1/f) noise distributions. While the PSD noise spectra at low frequencies may be dominated by synaptic noise, our findings suggest that the high-frequency power laws may originate in noise from intrinsic ion channels. The significance of this finding goes beyond neuroscience as it demonstrates how 1/f(α) power laws with a wide range of values for the power-law exponent α may arise from a simple, linear partial differential equation

  15. Emission characteristics of co-combustion of sewage sludge with olive cake and lignite coal in a circulating fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Toraman, Oner Yusuf; Topal, Hüseyin; Bayat, Oktay; Atimtay, Aysel T

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) of 125 mm diameter and 1800mm height was used to find the combustion characteristics of sewage sludge (SS) produced in Turkey. Sludge + olive cake, and sludge + lignite coal mixtures were burned separately. Various sludge-to-lignite coal and sludge-to-olive cake ratios (5/95, 10/90, 15/85, 20/80) were tried. On-line concentrations of major components (O2, SO2, CO2, CO, NOx, CmHn) were measured in the flue gas, as well as temperature and pressure distributions along the bed. Combustion efficiencies of sludge + olive cake and sludge + lignite coal mixtures were calculated, and the optimum conditions for operating parameters were discussed. The results have shown that the combustion mainly takes place in the upper regions of the main column where the temperature reaches 900 degrees C. SS + Coal burn in the CFB with an efficiency of 95.14% to 96.18%, which is considered to be quite good. When burning sludge mixed with olive cake, appreciable amounts of CO and unburned hydrocarbons are formed and the combustion efficiency drops to 92.93%. CO and CmHn emissions are lower when lignite coal is mixed with various amounts of SS than the emissions when the coal is burned alone. As the %SS is increased in the fuel mixture, the SO2 emission decreases. NOx emissions are slightly higher. When burning sludge mixed with olive cake, SO2 and NOx emissions are slightly higher. CO and CmHn emissions decrease sharply when SS is mixed with 5%wt. olive cake. With increasing sludge ratio these emissions increase due to the unburned hydrocarbons. As a result of this study, it is believed that SS can be burned effectively in a CFBC together with other fuels, especially with olive cake (OC). OC will be a good additive fuel for the combustion of lower quality fuels. PMID:15137713

  16. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M.; Ljubicic, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  17. Nitrogen incorporation into lignite humic acids during microbial degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, L.H.; Yuan, H.L.

    2009-07-01

    Previous study showed that nitrogen content in lignite humic acids (HA) increased significantly during lignite biodegradation. In this paper we evaluated the factors responsible for the increased level of N in HA and the formation of new nitrogen compound following microbial degradation. When the ammonium sulfate concentration in lignite medium was 0.5%, the N-content in HA was higher than that in the crude lignite humic acid (cHA); when the ammonium sulfate concentration was epsilon 0.5%, both the biodegraded humic acid (bHA) N-content and the content of bHA in lignite increased significantly, but at 2.0% no increase was observed. This indicated that HA incorporated N existing in the lignite medium, and more HA can incorporate more N with the increase of bHA amount in lignite during microbial degradation. CP/MAS {sup 15}N NMR analysis showed that the N incorporated into HA during biotransformation was in the form of free or ionized NH{sub 2}-groups in amino acids and sugars, as well as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. We propose nitrogen can be incorporated into HA biotically and abiotically. The high N content bHA has a potential application in agriculture since N is essential for plant growth.

  18. Briquettability of lignite and woody wastes composite fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Beker, U.G.

    2000-03-01

    Woody wastes have favorable burning characteristics compared to lignite, as well as low ash content and reduced smoke emission. The aim of this study was to blend lignite with woody wastes to obtain a solid fuel that retains the advantageous characteristics of woody materials. Blends with lignite were made up with 7, 9, 12, 15, and 20% of waste and then briquetted under pressures of 400, 550, 700, and 800 MPa. Sunflower shell, sawdust, and paper mill wastes were used in different amounts with molasses as binder. Studies were carried out on a laboratory scale to determine optimum parameters for briquetting, such as moisture content of lignite and pressure. Briquetting of lignite without waste materials produces products of low strength. The strongest briquettes were obtained with waste contents of 12--20% and lignite moisture contents of 10--12% at briquetting pressures of 550, 700, and 800 MPa. Briquettes with adequate mechanical strength are obtained from lignite-waste blends with the addition of 8% molasses.

  19. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models.

    PubMed

    Luengo-Sanchez, Sergio; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by neuroanatomists to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons similarly to how a neuroanatomist does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species. PMID:26578898

  20. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models

    PubMed Central

    Luengo-Sanchez, Sergio; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by neuroanatomists to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons similarly to how a neuroanatomist does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species. PMID:26578898

  1. Transcription Factor SomA Is Required for Adhesion, Development and Virulence of the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Jan; Sasse, Christoph; Gerke, Jennifer; Valerius, Oliver; Irmer, Henriette; Frauendorf, Holm; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Straßburger, Maria; Tran, Van Tuan; Herzog, Britta; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Flo8/Som1 controls filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and virulence in the plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Flo8/Som1 includes a characteristic N-terminal LUG/LUH-Flo8-single-stranded DNA binding (LUFS) domain and is activated by the cAMP dependent protein kinase A signaling pathway. Heterologous SomA from Aspergillus fumigatus rescued in yeast flo8 mutant strains several phenotypes including adhesion or flocculation in haploids and pseudohyphal growth in diploids, respectively. A. fumigatus SomA acts similarly to yeast Flo8 on the promoter of FLO11 fused with reporter gene (LacZ) in S. cerevisiae. FLO11 expression in yeast requires an activator complex including Flo8 and Mfg1. Furthermore, SomA physically interacts with PtaB, which is related to yeast Mfg1. Loss of the somA gene in A. fumigatus resulted in a slow growth phenotype and a block in asexual development. Only aerial hyphae without further differentiation could be formed. The deletion phenotype was verified by a conditional expression of somA using the inducible Tet-on system. A adherence assay with the conditional somA expression strain indicated that SomA is required for biofilm formation. A ptaB deletion strain showed a similar phenotype supporting that the SomA/PtaB complex controls A. fumigatus biofilm formation. Transcriptional analysis showed that SomA regulates expression of genes for several transcription factors which control conidiation or adhesion of A. fumigatus. Infection assays with fertilized chicken eggs as well as with mice revealed that SomA is required for pathogenicity. These data corroborate a complex control function of SomA acting as a central factor of the transcriptional network, which connects adhesion, spore formation and virulence in the opportunistic human pathogen A. fumigatus. PMID:26529322

  2. Appraising lignite quality parameters by linguistic fuzzy identification

    SciTech Connect

    Tutmez, B.

    2007-03-15

    Lignite quality parameters have had central importance for power plants. This article addresses a comparative study on fuzzy and regression modeling for estimating the calorific value of lignite, which is one of the quality parameters from the other parameters: moisture, ash, volatile matter, and sulphur content. For the estimations, data driven models were designed based on linguistic fuzzy modeling structures. In addition, estimations of the fuzzy models were compared with linear regression estimations. The great majority of performance evaluations showed that the fuzzy estimations are very satisfactory in estimating calorific value of lignite.

  3. Distribution of coal quality parameters in lignites of northeast Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, S.S.; Warwick, P.D.; Thomas, R.E.; Mason, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    The distribution of coal quality characteristics was examined in lignites (Wilcox Group, Paleocene-Eocene) near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. Coal quality parameters including ash yield, sulfur forms, moisture, calorific value, and selected potentially hazardous trace elements were plotted on cross sections of lignite beds to determine their stratigraphic distribution. This study has been undertaken as a part of the US Geological Survey`s National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) program in the Gulf Coast Lignite Region. The distribution in coal of Hazardous Air Pollutant elements (HAPs), as defined in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, are an important focus of the NCRA program.

  4. Use of fuzzy logic in lignite inventory estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Tutmez, B.; Dag, A.

    2007-07-01

    Seam thickness is one of the most important parameters for reserve estimation of a lignite deposit. This paper addresses a case study on fuzzy estimation of lignite seam thickness from spatial coordinates. From the relationships between input (Cartesian coordinates) and output (thickness) parameters, fuzzy clustering and a fuzzy rule-based inference system were designed. Data-driven fuzzy model parameters were derived from numerical values directly. In addition, estimations of the fuzzy model were compared with kriging estimations. It was concluded that the performance ofthe fuzzy model was more satisfactory. The results indicated that the fuzzy modeling approach is very reliable for the estimation of lignite reserves.

  5. Industrial properties of lignitic and lignocellulosic fly ashes from Turkish sources

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Cetin, S.

    2006-01-21

    Fly ash is an inorganic matter from combustion of the carbonaceous solid fuels. More than half the electricity in Turkey is produced from lignite-fired power plants. This energy production has resulted in the formation of more than 13 million tons of fly ash waste annually. The presence of carbon in fly ash inducing common faults include adding unwanted black color and adsorbing process or product materials such as water and chemicals. One of the reasons for not using fly ash directly is its carbon content. For some uses carbon must be lower than 3%. Fly ash has been used for partial replacement of cement, aggregate, or both for nearly 70 years, and it is still used on a very limited scale in Turkey. The heavy metal content of industrial wastewaters is an important source of environmental pollution. Each of the three major oxides (SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in fly ash can be ideal as a metal adsorbent.

  6. Effect of mechanical dispersion of lignite on its thermal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yusupov, T.S.; Shumskaya, L.G.; Burdukov, A.P.

    2007-09-15

    It is studied how the high-rate mechanical grinding affects thermal decomposition of lignite extracted from the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin. It has been shown that dispersion of lignite in the high energy intensive vibration-centrifugal and planetary mills causes formation of structures exhibiting lower thermal stability. That results in the shift of primary decomposition phenomena into the low-temperature region and, thus, in the higher reactivity of coals.

  7. Evaluation of lignite combustion residues as cement additives

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Aslan, A.

    1999-07-01

    In this study the physical and chemical properties of lignite fly ashes obtained from electrostatic precipitator and cyclone, lignite bottom ash, cement + lignite ash mixtures, and their effects on mechanical properties of concrete were investigated. The ashes were classified into two general types based on total silica, alumina, and iron-III oxide: class A and class B. When 25% of the cement was replaced by class A lignite bottom ash (the combined three oxide contents were 30.2%), the 28-day compressive strength increased by 18.9% compared to the control mix, and when 25% of the cement was replaced by class B lignite ash (the combined three oxide contents were 78.1%), the compressive strength decreased by 3.5% compared to the control mix. The results obtained were compared with the Turkish Standards and, in general, were found to be within the limits. As a result, the lignite fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

  8. Succinate dehydrogenase activity and soma size of motoneurons innervating different portions of the rat tibialis anterior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, A.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution, soma size and oxidative enzyme activity of gamma and alpha motoneurons innervating muscle fibres in the deep (away from the surface of the muscle) and superficial (close to the surface of the muscle) portions of the tibialis anterior in normal rats were determined. The deep portion had a higher percentage of high oxidative fibres than the superficial portion of the muscle. Motoneurons were labelled by retrograde neuronal transport of fluorescent tracers: Fast Blue and Nuclear Yellow were injected into the deep portion and Nuclear Yellow into the superficial portion of the muscle. Therefore, motoneurons innervating the deep portion were identified by both a blue fluorescent cytoplasm and a golden-yellow fluorescent nucleus, while motoneurons innervating the superficial portion were identified by only a golden-yellow fluorescent nucleus. After staining for succinate dehydrogenase activity on the same section used for the identification of the motoneurons, soma size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the motoneurons were measured. The gamma and alpha motoneurons innervating both the deep and superficial portions were located primarily at L4 and were intermingled within the same region of the dorsolateral portion of the ventral horn in the spinal cord. Mean soma size was similar for either gamma or alpha motoneurons in the two portions of the muscle. The alpha motoneurons innervating the superficial portion had a lower mean succinate dehydrogenase activity than those innervating the deep portion of the muscle. An inverse relationship between soma size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of alpha, but not gamma, motoneurons innervating both the deep and superficial portions was observed. Based on three-dimensional reconstructions within the spinal cord, there were no apparent differences in the spatial distribution of the motoneurons, either gamma or alpha, associated with the deep and superficial compartments of the muscle. The data

  9. Automated Detection of Soma Location and Morphology in Neuronal Network Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Burcin; Negi, Pooran; Laezza, Fernanda; Papadakis, Manos; Labate, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Automated identification of the primary components of a neuron and extraction of its sub-cellular features are essential steps in many quantitative studies of neuronal networks. The focus of this paper is the development of an algorithm for the automated detection of the location and morphology of somas in confocal images of neuronal network cultures. This problem is motivated by applications in high-content screenings (HCS), where the extraction of multiple morphological features of neurons on large data sets is required. Existing algorithms are not very efficient when applied to the analysis of confocal image stacks of neuronal cultures. In addition to the usual difficulties associated with the processing of fluorescent images, these types of stacks contain a small number of images so that only a small number of pixels are available along the z-direction and it is challenging to apply conventional 3D filters. The algorithm we present in this paper applies a number of innovative ideas from the theory of directional multiscale representations and involves the following steps: (i) image segmentation based on support vector machines with specially designed multiscale filters; (ii) soma extraction and separation of contiguous somas, using a combination of level set method and directional multiscale filters. We also present an approach to extract the soma’s surface morphology using the 3D shearlet transform. Extensive numerical experiments show that our algorithms are computationally efficient and highly accurate in segmenting the somas and separating contiguous ones. The algorithms presented in this paper will facilitate the development of a high-throughput quantitative platform for the study of neuronal networks for HCS applications. PMID:25853656

  10. Cellular resolution circuit mapping with temporal-focused excitation of soma-targeted channelrhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christopher A; Elyada, Yishai M; Parra, Andres; Bolton, M McLean

    2016-01-01

    We describe refinements in optogenetic methods for circuit mapping that enable measurements of functional synaptic connectivity with single-neuron resolution. By expanding a two-photon beam in the imaging plane using the temporal focusing method and restricting channelrhodopsin to the soma and proximal dendrites, we are able to reliably evoke action potentials in individual neurons, verify spike generation with GCaMP6s, and determine the presence or absence of synaptic connections with patch-clamp electrophysiological recording. PMID:27525487

  11. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  12. Microbial screening test for lignite degradation. Quarterly progress report No. 1, January-March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    Potassium permanganate and sodium hypochlorite oxidation of lignitic coal were performed. Ion chromatography of low molecular weight carboxylic acids - oxalic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid - produced by potassium permanganate and sodium hypochlorite oxidation was executed. Oxalic acid was found to be the most predominant low molecular weight species. It was estimated that about 10% of the carbon present in the chemical structure of lignite was converted to oxalic acid by sodium hypochlorite oxidation. Ion chromatography analysis showed that about 43% of the lignite carbon was converted to carbon dioxide in all experiments. Biological degradation of lignite by P. versicolor, a white-rot fungus, on lignite/agar and lignite slurry was attempted. Apparently, P. versicolor is capable of growing on lignite slurry. Acclimation of P. versicolor to lignite was proceeded. Biochemical reaction test for laccase production of P. versicolor was performed and found to be positive. 15 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Radioenvironmental survey of the Megalopolis lignite field basin.

    PubMed

    Rouni, P K; Petropoulos, N P; Anagnostakis, M J; Hinis, E P; Simopoulos, S E

    2001-05-14

    The Megalopolis lignite field basin in southern Greece, with Megalopolis-A and B lignite-fired power plants in operation (total 900 MW), has been repeatedly investigated during the past 25 years by the Nuclear Engineering Section of the National Technical University of Athens (NES-NTUA). The present work aims at an integrated radioenvironmental approach leading to the dose assessment to the public and to the plants staff. This approach includes systematic sampling of lignite and barren at the local lignite mines feeding the power plants and sampling of lignite, fly-ash and bottom ash at the power plants for the determination of the activity of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 234Th and 210Pb. Furthermore, the following measurements and samplings were conducted in 25 selected sites within 10 km around the power plants: soil sampling for the determination of the above radionuclides, radon concentration and exhalation rate measurements, soil gas radon concentration measurements, dose measurements and calculations, determination of air-particulate matter concentration, etc. The results obtained allowed for the mapping of the parameters studied which lead to useful conclusions. Dosimetric calculations for the population living around the power plants and the plants staff were also performed based on the guidance of UNSCEAR (1982 report). PMID:11379921

  14. Study on Combustion Characteristics of Lignite in a CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, J.; Zou, T. S.; Wu, J. X.; Jiang, C.; Gao, J. L.; Wu, J.; Su, D.; Song, D. Y.

    The shortage of coal promotes the lignite utility in power plant because of the rapid economy development recently. However, lignite is high in moisture content as well as volatile content and low in calorific value. It is very difficult to burn in traditional pulverized coal fired boiler. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is an alternative with low pollutant emission. Some CFB boilers are built and put into commercial operation in Northeast China and East Inner Mongolia where lignite is abundant. The operation experiences of these boilers are introduced in this paper. The effect of coal particle size on bottom ash ratio, combustion efficiency, thermal efficiency, pollution emission, and ash deposits in convective heating surface were investigated. It was found that for the lignite fired CFB boiler, the largest coal particle size should be 20 to 40mm to maintain bed material balance. But the bottom ash only shares less than 10% of the total ash. Due to high volatile content in the lignite, the combustion efficiency could achieve more than 99%. Meanwhile, NOx emission was relative low and satisfied national environment protection requirement. It is suggested that flue gas velocity in convective heating surface should be ranged in a certain scope to prevent ash deposit and erosion.

  15. Preventing ash agglomeration during gasification of high-sodium lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Dahlin; Johnny R. Dorminey; WanWang Peng; Roxann F. Leonard; Pannalal Vimalchand

    2009-01-15

    Various additives were evaluated to assess their ability to prevent ash agglomeration during the gasification of high-sodium lignite. Additives that showed promise in simple muffle furnace tests included meta-kaolin, vermiculite, two types of silica fume, and one type of bauxite. Additives that were tested and rejected included dolomite, calcite, sand flour, kaolinite, fine kaolin, and calcined bauxite. Based on the muffle furnace test results, the meta-kaolin was selected for a follow-on demonstration in a pilot-scale coal gasifier. Pilot-scale testing showed that the addition of coarse (minus 14-mesh, 920-{mu}m mean size) meta-kaolin at a feed rate roughly equivalent to the ash content of the lignite (10 wt %) successfully prevented agglomeration and deposition problems during gasification of high-sodium lignite at a maximum operating temperature of 927{sup o}C (1700{sup o}F). 13 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Thermal decomposition behaviors of lignite by pyrolysis-FTIR

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Li, W.Y.; Xie, K.C.

    2006-01-21

    An in situ pyrolysis reactor combined with the Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (PFTIR) technique is employed to study the coal structure and its thermal decomposition behaviors. The interface of pyroprobe with FTIR was designed delicately to ensure the path of the laser beam in FTIR was just 3 {mu}m above the coal sample, so any detection information of products from coal pyrolysis would be acquired previous to the secondary reaction. The PFTIR technique can be adopted to determine the activation energy of coal pyrolysis. Lignite coal has been used to evaluate this new method. The thermal decomposition behaviors of functional groups from lignite pyrolysis coincide with the first-order reaction.

  17. SOMA: A Proposed Framework for Trend Mining in Large UK Diabetic Retinopathy Temporal Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somaraki, Vassiliki; Harding, Simon; Broadbent, Deborah; Coenen, Frans

    In this paper, we present SOMA, a new trend mining framework; and Aretaeus, the associated trend mining algorithm. The proposed framework is able to detect different kinds of trends within longitudinal datasets. The prototype trends are defined mathematically so that they can be mapped onto the temporal patterns. Trends are defined and generated in terms of the frequency of occurrence of pattern changes over time. To evaluate the proposed framework the process was applied to a large collection of medical records, forming part of the diabetic retinopathy screening programme at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital.

  18. Compact electronic soma and synapse circuits fabricated using a low temperature approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Anand

    Digital circuits using the von Neumann architecture and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electronic devices dominate large-scale processing systems today and are extremely efficient at performing well-defined operations. However, these systems are less efficient at tasks which involve processing large amounts of imprecise information originating from the surrounding environment, such as pattern recognition and outcome prediction. The human brain is the best processor of such information sets, and consists of a large number of primitive elements (1010 neurons and 1014 synapses). Neuromorphic systems are a class of circuits that draw inspiration from the extremely parallel architecture of the brain. A major goal is thus to develop neuromorphic circuits using a large-area, low-power, and highly dense approach. The major focus of this work is the fabrication of a compact circuit which can implement a biologically realistic synaptic learning rule using low-temperature materials. Ambipolar nanocrystalline-silicon (nc-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are selected as basic building blocks of spiking soma circuits. These TFTs are fabricated at the nanoscale using a CMOS-compatible fabrication process at a maximum temperature of 250 °C. High-κ gate dielectrics are incorporated to achieve lower subthreshold swings and threshold voltages. Soma circuits which consist of a few nc-Si TFTs and capacitors are fabricated and shown to display spiking behavior similar to biological neurons. Electronic synapses are fabricated using Au nanoparticle (NP) memory devices based on nc-Si TFTs and TiN/HfO2/TiN memristors. These are then integrated with the soma circuit to achieve an action potential pair-based learning rule, namely spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). The STDP rule is experimentally demonstrated for the first time using simple rectangular voltage pulses alone. The soma circuits are shown to be capable of driving a significant number of synapses in a large

  19. Cellular resolution circuit mapping with temporal-focused excitation of soma-targeted channelrhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christopher A; Elyada, Yishai M; Parra, Andres; Bolton, M McLean

    2016-01-01

    We describe refinements in optogenetic methods for circuit mapping that enable measurements of functional synaptic connectivity with single-neuron resolution. By expanding a two-photon beam in the imaging plane using the temporal focusing method and restricting channelrhodopsin to the soma and proximal dendrites, we are able to reliably evoke action potentials in individual neurons, verify spike generation with GCaMP6s, and determine the presence or absence of synaptic connections with patch-clamp electrophysiological recording. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14193.001 PMID:27525487

  20. Influence of spaceflight on succinate dehydrogenase activity and soma size of rat ventral horn neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, A.; Ohira, Y.; Roy, R. R.; Nagaoka, S.; Sekiguchi, C.; Hinds, W. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1996-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities and soma cross-sectional areas (CSA) of neurons in the dorsolateral region of the ventral horn at the L5 segmental level of the spinal cord in the rat were determined after 14 days of spaceflight and after 9 days of recovery on earth. The results were compared to those in age-matched ground-based control rats. Spinal cords were quick-frozen, and the SDH activity and CSA of a sample of neurons with a visible nucleus were determined using a digitizer and a computer-assisted image analysis system. An inverse relationship between CSA and SDH activity of neurons was observed in all groups of rats. No change in mean CSA or mean SDH activity or in the size distribution of neurons was observed following spaceflight or recovery. However, there was a selective decrease in the SDH activity of neurons with soma CSA between 500 and 800 microns2 in the flight rats, and this effect persisted for at least 9 days following return to 1 g. It remains to be determined whether the selected population of motoneurons or the specific motor pools affected by spaceflight may be restricted to specific muscles.

  1. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on the Neuronal Soma Area in the Rat Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Aksić, Milan; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Aleksić, Dubravka; Jevtić, Gordana; Marković, Branka; Petronijević, Nataša; Radonjić, Vidosava; Filipović, Branislav

    2014-01-01

    Early separation of rat pups from their mothers (separatio a matrem) is considered and accepted as an animal model of perinatal stress. Adult rats, separated early postnatally from their mothers, are developing long-lasting changes in the brain and neuroendocrine system, corresponding to the findings observed in schizophrenia and affective disorders. With the aim to investigate the morphological changes in this animal model we exposed 9-day-old (P9) Wistar rats to a 24 h maternal deprivation (MD). At young adult age rats were sacrificed for morphometric analysis and their brains were compared with the control group bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Rats exposed to MD had a 28% smaller cell soma area in the prefrontal cortex (PFCX), 30% in retrosplenial cortex (RSCX), and 15% in motor cortex (MCX) compared to the controls. No difference was observed in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the neocortex of MD rats compared to the control group. The results of this study demonstrate that stress in early life has a long-term effect on neuronal soma size in cingulate and retrosplenial cortex and is potentially interesting as these structures play an important role in cognition. PMID:24895554

  2. GAMMA RADIATION TREATMENT OF WATERS FROM LIGNITE MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed in this report are results of laboratory investigations carried out with the application of gamma radiation for the purification of waters drained from surface lignite mines. These waters are polluted to a considerable extent with suspended matter of various sizes, a la...

  3. PURIFICATION OF WATERS DISCHARGED FROM POLISH LIGNITE MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exploitation of lignite deposits is linked with the necessity of lowering the groundwater table and dewatering the mine of precipitation. A large percentage of the discharge waters requires purification prior to delivery of receiving streams. The chief pollutants of these wat...

  4. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  5. WASHABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ARKANSAS AND TEXAS LIGNITES: REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the washability characteristics of 11 channel samples of lignite: 4 from Arkansas and 7 from Texas. The two samples collected from Dallas County, Arkansas, could be upgraded to meet the current EPA New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) of 1.2 lb SO2/million ...

  6. 30 CFR 75.380 - Escapeways; bituminous and lignite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Escapeways; bituminous and lignite mines. 75.380 Section 75.380 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation §...

  7. 30 CFR 75.380 - Escapeways; bituminous and lignite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Escapeways; bituminous and lignite mines. 75.380 Section 75.380 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation §...

  8. 30 CFR 75.380 - Escapeways; bituminous and lignite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Escapeways; bituminous and lignite mines. 75.380 Section 75.380 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation §...

  9. 30 CFR 75.380 - Escapeways; bituminous and lignite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Escapeways; bituminous and lignite mines. 75.380 Section 75.380 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation §...

  10. 30 CFR 75.380 - Escapeways; bituminous and lignite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Escapeways; bituminous and lignite mines. 75.380 Section 75.380 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation §...

  11. Assessment of Lignite Quality Variables: A Practical Approach with Sequential Gaussian Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ersoy, A.; Yunsel, T.Y.

    2009-07-01

    Traditional mine planning methods based on block models built with interpolation techniques such as inverse distance and kriging are inadequate in assessing the uncertainty associated with the technological parameters of coal deposit variables, which are modeled for short-range mine planning because of smoothing effects. However, simulation methods aim at reproducing in situ quality variability and spatial continuity of the attributes of interest. This study outlines the spatial distribution and uncertainty of quality variables at the Tufanbeyli (Adana-Turkey) lignite deposit using a probabilistic approach. A practical approach was based on geostatistical sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) used to yield a series of conditional images characterized by equally probable spatial distributions of the quality parameters across the deposit. Post processing of many simulations allowed the mapping of maximum/minimum limits for quality values and provided a model for the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of the quality parameters. SGS was validated by a number of tests such as descriptive statistics, histogram, and variogram reproductions. The advantages of SGS were practically illustrated through the case study. The simulated models can be incorporated into mine planning and scheduling.

  12. Fe(II) adsorption onto natural polymers derived from low-grade lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Tarlan, E.; Ahmetli, G.

    2007-09-15

    In comparison with conventional chemical treatment methods for Fe(II) ions, adsorption and ion exchange are considered more easily applicable and economical, depending on the material used. Polymeric rnaterials are the examples used in these commonly applied removal processes. In this study, the adsorption of Fe(II) ions from aqueous solutions onto two different natural polymers, insoluble humic acids (IHAs) extracted from low-grade lignites from Beysehir and Ermenek (in the central Anatolia region, Konya, Turkey), was investigated. The IHAs were synthesized through a series of acid-base reactions, and the obtained precipitates were chemically stable and had about 40% humic matter together with functional carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. The effects of the time and initial metal concentration on the effectiveness of the IHAs for Fe(II) adsorption were determined through batch experiments; the adsorption isotherms and capacities were calculated. The IHAs were effective, with capacities of 59 mg/g for the Beysehir IHA and 57 mg/g for the Ermenek IHA, for Fe removal under neutral pH conditions. The adsorption followed mainly a Freundlich isotherm for both IHAs, and the calculated adsorption rates were 0.86 for the Beysehir IHA and 0.81 for the Ermenek IHA. This indicated that the effectiveness of the Beysehir IHA was slightly higher than that of the Ermenek IHA. The results confirmed the real possibility of the practical application of IHAs for the separation of Fe(II) in aqueous systems.

  13. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U

  14. [Pharmaceutical Service after the Fukushima Disaster: A Case Report of Soma General Hospital].

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Hisanori; Momonoi, Toshiyuki; Kumakawa, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

      Despite being damaged by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster, Soma General Hospital, located approximately 40 km north of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was able to fulfill its role as a key regional hospital in northeast Fukushima. To elucidate the pharmaceutical service in response to the disaster, we investigated the hospital's operations in 2011 according to the medical records and prescriptions. One of the difficulties that the department of pharmaceutical service faced at that time was the increase in emergency healthcare requests by evacuated patients from other hospitals and clinics. Herein, we propose the following countermeasures to be considered in future disaster preparations: (1) establishing a medical and pharmaceutical service coordinator for disaster relief; (2) sharing all local patients' medical information in emergencies (at least contraindicated drugs or allergy history); and (3) reviewing disaster stockpiles, especially pharmaceuticals (both at the hospital and in nearby locations). PMID:26725681

  15. MTOR-driven quasi-programmed aging as a disposable soma theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    If life were created by intelligent design, we would indeed age from accumulation of molecular damage. Repair is costly and limited by energetic resources, and we would allocate resources rationally. But, albeit elegant, this design is fictional. Instead, nature blindly selects for short-term benefits of robust developmental growth. “Quasi-programmed” by the blind watchmaker, aging is a wasteful and aimless continuation of developmental growth, driven by nutrient-sensing, growth-promoting signaling pathways such as MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin). A continuous post-developmental activity of such gerogenic pathways leads to hyperfunctions (aging), loss of homeostasis, age-related diseases, non-random organ damage and death. This model is consistent with a view that (1) soma is disposable, (2) aging and menopause are not programmed and (3) accumulation of random molecular damage is not a cause of aging as we know it. PMID:23708516

  16. Abuse Potential of Soma®: the GABAA Receptor as a Target

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Lorie A.; Gatch, Michael B.; Forster, Michael J.; Dillon, Glenn H.

    2010-01-01

    Soma® (carisoprodol) is an increasingly abused, centrally-acting muscle relaxant. Despite the prevalence of carisoprodol abuse, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Its sedative effects, which contribute to its therapeutic and recreational use, are generally attributed to the actions of its primary metabolite, meprobamate, at GABAA receptors (GABAAR). Meprobamate is a controlled substance at the federal level; ironically, carisoprodol is not currently classified as such. Using behavioral and molecular pharmacological approaches, we recently demonstrated carisoprodol, itself, is capable of modulating GABAAR function in a manner similar to central nervous system depressants. Its functional similarities with this highly addictive class of drugs may contribute to the abuse potential of carisoprodol. The site of action of carisoprodol has not been identified; based on our studies, interaction with benzodiazepine or barbiturate sites is unlikely. These recent findings, when coupled with numerous reports in the literature, support the contention that the non-controlled status of carisoprodol should be reevaluated. PMID:20419052

  17. Reevaluation of whether a soma-to-germ-line transformation extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Andrew Kekūpa'a; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Strome, Susan

    2016-03-29

    The germ lineage is considered to be immortal. In the quest to extend lifespan, a possible strategy is to drive germ-line traits in somatic cells, to try to confer some of the germ lineage's immortality on the somatic body. Notably, a study in Caenorhabditis elegans suggested that expression of germ-line genes in the somatic cells of long-lived daf-2 mutants confers some of daf-2's long lifespan. Specifically, mRNAs encoding components of C. elegans germ granules (P granules) were up-regulated in daf-2 mutant worms, and knockdown of individual P-granule and other germ-line genes in daf-2 young adults modestly reduced their lifespan. We investigated the contribution of a germ-line program to daf-2's long lifespan and also tested whether other mutants known to express germ-line genes in their somatic cells are long-lived. Our key findings are as follows. (i) We could not detect P-granule proteins in the somatic cells of daf-2 mutants by immunostaining or by expression of a P-granule transgene. (ii) Whole-genome transcript profiling of animals lacking a germ line revealed that germ-line transcripts are not up-regulated in the soma of daf-2 worms compared with the soma of control worms. (iii) Simultaneous removal of multiple P-granule proteins or the entire germ-line program from daf-2 worms did not reduce their lifespan. (iv) Several mutants that robustly express a broad spectrum of germ-line genes in their somatic cells are not long-lived. Together, our findings argue against the hypothesis that acquisition of a germ-cell program in somatic cells increases lifespan and contributes to daf-2's long lifespan. PMID:26976573

  18. A hydrodynamics approach to the evolution of multicellularity: flagellar motility and germ-soma differentiation in volvocalean green algae.

    PubMed

    Solari, Cristian A; Kessler, John O; Michod, Richard E

    2006-04-01

    During the unicellular-multicellular transition, there are opportunities and costs associated with larger size. We argue that germ-soma separation evolved to counteract the increasing costs and requirements of larger multicellular colonies. Volvocalean green algae are uniquely suited for studying this transition because they range from unicells to multicellular individuals with germ-soma separation. Because Volvocales need flagellar beating for movement and to avoid sinking, their motility is modeled and analyzed experimentally using standard hydrodynamics. We provide comparative hydrodynamic data of an algal lineage composed of organisms of different sizes and degrees of complexity. In agreement with and extending the insights of Koufopanou, we show that the increase in cell specialization as colony size increases can be explained in terms of increased motility requirements. First, as colony size increases, soma must evolve, the somatic-to-reproductive cell ratio increasing to keep colonies buoyant and motile. Second, increased germ-soma specialization in larger colonies increases motility capabilities because internalization of nonflagellated germ cells decreases colony drag. Third, our analysis yields a limiting maximum size of the volvocalean spheroid that agrees with the sizes of the largest species known. Finally, the different colony designs in Volvocales reflect the trade-offs between reproduction, colony size, and motility. PMID:16670996

  19. Beneficiation of Turkish lignites by thermal treatment and magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, G.; Renda, D.; Mustafaev, I.; Dogan, Z.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the improvement of Turkish lignites by semi-coking and REMS magnetic separation, in two stages, is discussed. The oxidation and decomposition of pyrite through the thermal treatment result in the formation of iron oxide and pyrrhotite on the surface. In addition to pyrite, part of the organic sulfur is also removed. After thermal treatment of lignites at temperatures ranging from 370 to 650 C, the application of REMS magnetic separator produces a product higher in calorific value and lower in sulfur content. The product can be utilized after briquetting. The volatile gases can also be used after sulfur removal. This process appears to be feasible as a clean coal manufacture from the point of energy efficiency. A short economic analysis is also presented.

  20. Oxydesulfurization of a Turkish lignite using trona solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    1996-06-01

    This article investigates the possibility of using trona minerals in the oxydesulfurization of coal. The experiments were performed on a Turkish lignite having high organic and high pyritic sulfur content from the Gediz area. Oxydesulfurization of the lignite sample using trona minerals was studied at 423--473 K, under 0--1 MPa oxygen partial pressure at 0--0.3 M equivalent alkalinity of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for 2.5--60 min. Almost all of the pyritic sulfur content and, depending on the working conditions, an important part of the organic sulfur content were removed. Unless the temperature reached 473 K, solid product yield was not negatively affected. Trona minerals were seen as a suitable alkaline to use in oxydesulfurization of coal.

  1. Update on cost differentials - lignite versus other coals

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, P.F.

    1983-11-01

    Renewed interest in solid fossil fuels has developed a strongly competitive market environment for coals and lignites of widely different physical and chemical properties. In addressing this situation, both utility planners and fuel suppliers face decisions involving, simultaneously, the combustibles characteristics and relative pricing. This paper discusses the influence of fuel properties on capital, operating and maintenance costs, and proposes a method for preliminary economic evaluations of competing fuels focusing on heating value and sulfur content. The analysis performed suggests that exclusion of other properties, or their indirect assessment through the heating value, does not introduce significant distortion to the comparison. A procedure correlating fuel characteristics and electricity busbar costs is developed to assist the quick determination of competitive pricing ranges between fuels. A specific application of this approach quantifies the current degree of attractiveness of lignites as an energy source for electrical power generation in the Gulf Coast Region.

  2. Use of North Dakota lignite in advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Hurley, J.P.; Sharp, L.

    1992-12-01

    In order to develop critical data for Department of Energy (DOE) and private industry for advanced high-efficiency power systems using North Dakota lignite in pressurized gasification and combustion systems, tests were performed in bench-scale equipment at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The primary objectives were to (1) determine the conversion levels for Center ND lignite under pressurized fluid-bed gasification conditions with sorbent addition as a function of temperature, (2) determine the sulfur capture using limestone or dolomite under gasification conditions giving 90% or higher carbon conversion, (3) evaluate char/coal conversion and sulfur capture in a pressurized fluid-bed combustor, (4) assess the potential for bed agglomeration under the preferred operating conditions for both systems.

  3. Alkylation of lignites and peat in low-temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect

    L.I. Shchukin; S.I. Zherebtsov; M.V. Kornievich; O.A. Skutina

    2007-02-15

    The alkylation of lignites and peat was carried out at 50-270{sup o}C in different plasmas. The degree of conversion determined as the yield of the alcohol-benzene extract increases on passing from methane to alcohol plasma. The dependence of the extract yield on the plasma temperature, treatment time, and sample grinding degree was studied. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion testing of North Dakota lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, G; Vander Molen, R H; Wilson, K; Hajicek, D

    1980-05-01

    The sulfur retention by the inherent alkali, and added limestone sorbent, perform about the same and are reasonably predictable within a range of about +-10% retention by application of alkali to sulfur ratio. Temperature has a substantial effect on the retention of sulfur by the inherent alkali or limestone. The temperature effect is not yet fully understood but it appears to be different for different coals and operational conditions. The emission of SO/sub 2/ from the fluid bed burning the Beulah lignite sample used for these tests can be controlled to meet or better the current emission standards. The injection of limestone to an alkali-to-sulfur molar ratio of 1.5 to 1, should lower the SO/sub 2/ emissions below the current requirement of 0.6 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu to 0.4 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu, a safe 33% below the standard. Agglomeration of bed material, and consequent loss of fluidization quality can be a problem when burning high sodium lignite in a silica bed. There appears, however, to be several ways of controlling the problem including the injection of calcium compounds, and careful control of operating conditions. The heat transfer coefficients measured in the CPC and GFETC tests are comparable to data obtained by other researchers, and agree reasonably well with empirical conditions. The NO/sub x/ emissions measured in all of the tests on Beulah lignite are below the current New Source Performance Standard of 0.5 lb NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu input. Combustion efficiencies for the Beulah lignite are generally quite high when ash recycle is being used. Efficiencies in the range of 98% to 99%+ have been measured in all tests using this fuel.

  5. Prospects for future projections of the basic energy sources in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Sozen, A.; Arcaklioglu, E.

    2007-07-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the energy sources estimation equations in order to estimate the future projections and make correct investments in Turkey using artificial neural network (ANN) approach. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in demonstrating energy situation of Turkey in amount of EU countries. Basic energy indicators such as population, gross generation, installed capacity, net energy consumption, import, export are used in input layer of ANN. Basic energy sources such as coal, lignite, fuel-oil, natural gas and hydro are in output layer. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used to train. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are only used as test data to confirm this method. Also, in this study, the best approach was investigated for each energy sources by using different learning algorithms (scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM)) and a logistic sigmoid transfer function in the ANN with developed software. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R{sup 2}-value) for training data are equal to 0.99802, 0.99918, 0.997134, 0.998831 and 0.995681 for natural gas, lignite, coal, hydraulic, and fuel-oil, respectively. Similarly, these values for testing data are equal to 0.995623, 0.999456, 0.998545, 0.999236, and 0.99002. The best approach was found for lignite by SCG algorithm with seven neurons so mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is equal to 1.646753 for lignite. According to the results, the future projections of energy indicators using ANN technique have been obviously predicted within acceptable errors. Apart from reducing the whole time required, the importance of the ANN approach is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users.

  6. Thermal exploitation of wastes with lignite for energy production.

    PubMed

    Grammelis, Panagiotis; Kakaras, Emmanuel; Skodras, George

    2003-11-01

    The thermal exploitation of wastewood with Greek lignite was investigated by performing tests in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor, a 1-MW(th) semi-industrial circulating fluidized bed combustor, and an industrial boiler. Blends of natural wood, demolition wood, railroad sleepers, medium-density fiberboard residues, and power poles with lignite were used, and the co-combustion efficiency and the effect of wastewood addition on the emitted pollutants were investigated. Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen emissions were continuously monitored, and, during the industrial-scale tests, the toxic emissions (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and heavy metals) were determined. Ash samples were analyzed for heavy metals in an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy spectrophotometer. Problems were observed during the preparation of wastewood, because species embedded with different compounds, such as railway sleepers and demolition wood, were not easily treated. All wastewood blends were proven good fuels; co-combustion proceeded smoothly and homogeneous temperature and pressure profiles were obtained. Although some fluctuations were observed, low emissions of gaseous pollutants were obtained for all fuel blends. The metal element emissions (in the flue gases and the solid residues) were lower than the legislative limits. Therefore, wastewood co-combustion with lignite can be realized, provided that the fuel handling and preparation can be practically performed in large-scale installations. PMID:14649749

  7. Sulfur removal from Gediz lignite using aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions under mild oxidative conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    1999-11-01

    Sulfur removal from a high-sulfur Turkish lignite (Gediz) using aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions having dissolved oxygen was investigated under mild oxidative conditions. Effects of the parameters such as sodium hydroxide/lignite weight ratio, temperature, and partial pressure of oxygen were investigated within the ranges of 0.05--0.8, 423--498 K, and 1--2 MPa, respectively. Optimum values of these parameters were determined regarding sulfur removal and coal recovery. Influences of dry oxidation of the lignite sample as a pretreatment at 573 K and subsequent washing of some treated lignite samples with 1 N HCl were investigated.

  8. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  9. A preliminary report on a zone containing thick lignite beds, Denver Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soister, Paul E.

    1973-01-01

    A zone of lignite beds of Paleocene age in the Denver Formation (Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene) lies about 800-1,500 feet above the well-known and extensively mined coal beds of the Laramie Formation (Upper Cretaceous). The zone is a few hundred to as much as 500 feet thick. Where lignite beds lie within 1,000 feet of the surface, this zone underlies an area about 30 miles wide by about 75 miles long, stretching from just northeast of Denver to several miles south of Calhan. Fifteen mines were operated at various periods between 1874 and 1940 and probably produced a total of less than 100,000 tons of lignite, mostly for local use. From 1874 to 1974, several geologists have reported on this lignite zone or the enclosing beds, but no detailed reports have been written except for one by this writer. Drill holes are the main source of geologic data, owing to poor exposure. There are generally about 3 to 6 lignite beds, and they are mostly about 15 or 20 to a few tens of feet apart. Most or all beds typically contain numerous non-coal partings from a fraction of an inch to several inches thick, so that thickness of lignite beds should be stated as gross thickness and as net lignite thickness; net lignite thickness is generally from 70 to 90 percent of gross thickness. Many partings are composed of kaolin, but others are composed of other clay minerals, siltstone, and sandstone. The lignite beds range generally from 1 or 2 to several feet thick, and some are as much as 10-25 feet thick; the thickest known bed has a maximum thickness of 54.5 feet, with a net lignite thickness of 40 feet. Most lignite beds seem to have fair lateral continuity, and at least some beds are several miles in extent. The thickest known lignite bed was traced for at least 18 miles, from northwest to southeast of Watkins. The lignite is brownish-black to black, weathers, checks, and disintegrates rapidly, and even in drill cores from a few hundred feet in depth the lignite is easily broken by

  10. The place of hard coal in energy supply pattern of Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, A.O.; Aydiner, K.

    2009-07-01

    Lignite and hard coal are the major sources of domestic energy sources of Turkey. Hard coal is produced at only one district in the country. Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin is the major power for development of the Turkish steel-making industry. It is the only hard coal basin in the country and it has, to date, supplied approximately 400 million tons of run-of-mine hard coal. This article investigates the potential of hard coal as an energy source and discusses the measures to activate the region for the future energy supply objectives of the country.

  11. Cell differentiation and germ-soma separation in Ediacaran animal embryo-like fossils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Xiao, Shuhai; Pang, Ke; Zhou, Chuanming; Yuan, Xunlai

    2014-12-11

    Phosphorites of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation (∼600 million years old) yield spheroidal microfossils with a palintomic cell cleavage pattern. These fossils have been variously interpreted as sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, unicellular protists, mesomycetozoean-like holozoans, green algae akin to Volvox, and blastula embryos of early metazoans or bilaterian animals. However, their complete life cycle is unknown and it is uncertain whether they had a cellularly differentiated ontogenetic stage, making it difficult to test their various phylogenetic interpretations. Here we describe new spheroidal fossils from black phosphorites of the Doushantuo Formation that have been overlooked in previous studies. These fossils represent later developmental stages of previously published blastula-like fossils, and they show evidence for cell differentiation, germ-soma separation, and programmed cell death. Their complex multicellularity is inconsistent with a phylogenetic affinity with bacteria, unicellular protists, or mesomycetozoean-like holozoans. Available evidence also indicates that the Doushantuo fossils are unlikely crown-group animals or volvocine green algae. We conclude that an affinity with cellularly differentiated multicellular eukaryotes, including stem-group animals or algae, is likely but more data are needed to constrain further the exact phylogenetic affinity of the Doushantuo fossils. PMID:25252979

  12. Abuse Potential of Soma: the GABA(A) Receptor as a Target.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Lorie A; Gatch, Michael B; Forster, Michael J; Dillon, Glenn H

    2009-01-01

    Soma(®) (carisoprodol) is an increasingly abused, centrally-acting muscle relaxant. Despite the prevalence of carisoprodol abuse, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Its sedative effects, which contribute to its therapeutic and recreational use, are generally attributed to the actions of its primary metabolite, meprobamate, at GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R). Meprobamate is a controlled substance at the federal level; ironically, carisoprodol is not currently classified as such. Using behavioral and molecular pharmacological approaches, we recently demonstrated carisoprodol, itself, is capable of modulating GABA(A)R function in a manner similar to central nervous system depressants. Its functional similarities with this highly addictive class of drugs may contribute to the abuse potential of carisoprodol. The site of action of carisoprodol has not been identified; based on our studies, interaction with benzodiazepine or barbiturate sites is unlikely. These recent findings, when coupled with numerous reports in the literature, support the contention that the non-controlled status of carisoprodol should be reevaluated. PMID:20419052

  13. An efficient method that reveals both the dendrites and the soma mosaics of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Zhan, X J; Troy, J B

    1997-03-01

    A method of using neurobiotin to stain both the dendrites and the soma mosaics of retinal ganglion cells in fresh retinae is described. This method is simple to use and efficient in revealing morphological details for a large number of retinal ganglion cells. It has five advantages over currently available staining methods. (1) It stains all ganglion cells in the whole retina or in a selected retinal area, permitting ganglion cell distributions across the retina to be obtained. (2) It reveals cell dendrites in great detail, especially in regions outside the area centralis. The dendritic field mosaics and, therefore the dendritic field coverage factors, of different ganglion cell types across the whole retina can be obtained easily. (3) It works reliably, efficiently, and does not require the expensive set-up or the pains-taking work needed when staining cells through intracellular injection. (4) It works under both in vivo and in vitro settings, permitting the use of retinae from animals sacrificed for other purposes and the use of postmortem human retinae. (5) The end product of the visualization process is optically dark and electron dense, permitting specimens to be examined under both light and electron microscopes. PMID:9128174

  14. Mutation of Gonadal soma-derived factor induces medaka XY gonads to undergo ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takuto; Saino, Kentaro; Matsuda, Masaru

    2015-11-01

    Gonochoristic species have a bipotential gonad that develops into a testis or an ovary. In species whose sex is determined by a genetic factor, the expression of a sex-determining gene is the first cue that directs the development of a bipotential gonad. Subsequent expression of downstream genes induces the gonad to develop into a testis or an ovary. The TGF-ß family member Gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf) is thought to be an important gene for gonadal development in teleost fish, and it is expressed at higher levels in the testis than in the ovary from early to mature stages. However, there is little functional information about the gene. In this study, we targeted the Gsdf coding region in the medaka fish Oryzias latipes using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and studied the phenotypes of the Gsdf mutant medaka. Although normal and heterozygous XY gonads developed into a testis, all XY gonads with a homozygous mutation in Gsdf developed into an ovary at early developmental stages. However, two-thirds of Gsdf mutant XY gonads developed into testes in the adult stages. These results demonstrate that although a gonad can develop into a complete testis in the absence of Gsdf, Gsdf function is critical for directing the bipotential gonad at early developmental stages. Therefore, Gsdf is an endogenous inducer of testicular development similar to a master sex-determining gene. PMID:26408909

  15. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Joost; English, Sinead; Uller, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild. PMID:26752635

  16. Neuronal soma-satellite glial cell interactions in sensory ganglia and the participation of purinergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, GuangWen; Wang, Cong Ying; Huang, Li-Yen Mae

    2011-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the somata of neurons in sensory ganglia respond to electrical or chemical stimulation and release transmitters in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The function of the somatic release has not been well delineated. A unique characteristic of the ganglia is that each neuronal soma is tightly enwrapped by satellite glial cells (SGCs). The somatic membrane of a sensory neuron rarely makes synaptic contact with another neuron. As a result, the influence of somatic release on the activity of adjacent neurons is likely to be indirect and/or slow. Recent studies of neuron-SGC interactions have demonstrated that ATP released from the somata of dorsal root ganglion neurons activates SGCs. They in turn exert complex excitatory and inhibitory modulation of neuronal activity. Thus, SGCs are actively involved in the processing of afferent information. In this review, we summarize our understanding of bidirectional communication between neuronal somata and SGCs in sensory ganglia and its possible role in afferent signaling under normal and injurious conditions. The participation of purinergic receptors is emphasized because of their dominant roles in the communication. PMID:20604979

  17. Cell differentiation and germ-soma separation in Ediacaran animal embryo-like fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Xiao, Shuhai; Pang, Ke; Zhou, Chuanming; Yuan, Xunlai

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorites of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation (~600 million years old) yield spheroidal microfossils with a palintomic cell cleavage pattern. These fossils have been variously interpreted as sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, unicellular protists, mesomycetozoean-like holozoans, green algae akin to Volvox, and blastula embryos of early metazoans or bilaterian animals. However, their complete life cycle is unknown and it is uncertain whether they had a cellularly differentiated ontogenetic stage, making it difficult to test their various phylogenetic interpretations. Here we describe new spheroidal fossils from black phosphorites of the Doushantuo Formation that have been overlooked in previous studies. These fossils represent later developmental stages of previously published blastula-like fossils, and they show evidence for cell differentiation, germ-soma separation, and programmed cell death. Their complex multicellularity is inconsistent with a phylogenetic affinity with bacteria, unicellular protists, or mesomycetozoean-like holozoans. Available evidence also indicates that the Doushantuo fossils are unlikely crown-group animals or volvocine green algae. We conclude that an affinity with cellularly differentiated multicellular eukaryotes, including stem-group animals or algae, is likely but more data are needed to constrain further the exact phylogenetic affinity of the Doushantuo fossils.

  18. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, Joost; English, Sinead; Uller, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild. PMID:26752635

  19. Long term contracts, expansion, innovation and stability: North Dakota's lignite mines thrive

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-08-15

    North Dakota's lignite coal industry is mainly located in three countries in the central part of the state. Its large surface lignite mines are tied through long-term (20-40 years) contracts to power plants. The article talks about operations at three of the most productive mines - the Freedom mine, Falkirk mine and Center Mine. 4 figs.

  20. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  1. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büçkün, Zeynep; İnaner, Hülya; Oskay, Riza Görkem; Christanis, Kimon

    2015-06-01

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays many sharp alternations of matrix lignite beds and inorganic, lacustrine sediment layers. The coal is a medium-to-high ash lignite (10.47-31.16 wt%, on dry basis) with high total sulphur content (up to 10 wt%, on dry, ash-free basis), which makes it prone to self-combustion. The maceral composition indicates that the peat-forming vegetation consisted of both arboreal and herbaceous plants, with the latter being predominant in the upper part of the seam. Mica and feldspars contribute to the low part of the seam; carbonates are dominant in the upper part, whereas quartz and pyrite are present along the entire coal profile. The sudden transitions of the telmatic to the lacustrine regime and reverse is attributed to tectonic movements that controlled water table levels in the palaeomire, which affected surface runoff and hence, clastic deposition.

  2. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number

  3. Self-administration of ethanol, cocaine, or nicotine does not decrease the soma size of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Mazei-Robison, Michelle S; Appasani, Raghu; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Taylor, Seth R; Picciotto, Marina R; Koob, George F; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Our previous observations show that chronic opiate administration, including self-administration, decrease the soma size of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rodents and humans, a morphological change correlated with increased firing rate and reward tolerance. Given that a general hallmark of drugs of abuse is to increase activity of the mesolimbic DA circuit, we sought to determine whether additional drug classes produced a similar morphological change. Sections containing VTA were obtained from rats that self-administered cocaine or ethanol and from mice that consumed nicotine. In contrast to opiates, we found no change in VTA DA soma size induced by any of these other drugs. These data suggest that VTA morphological changes are induced in a drug-specific manner and reinforce recent findings that some changes in mesolimbic signaling and neuroplasticity are drug-class dependent. PMID:24755634

  4. Chemistry of lignite liquefaction. Quarterly report, October-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Baltisberger, R.J.; Stenberg, V.I.; Klabunde, K.J.; Woolsey, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    Asphaltene and preasphaltene samples were isolated by solvent extraction using toluene and tetrahydrofuran, respectively, from GFETC liquefaction runs 44-14, 44-12, 45-15, 46-16 and 58-15. All the forty series samples were prepared from North Dakota lignite while 58-15 was from a Texas lignite. The quantity of preashpaltenes and asphaltenes in the five samples were 4.5 +- 0.5% wt and 13 +- 3% wt, respectively. The majority of the lignite was converted into distillable oils. The samples contain 7 to 10% wt oxygen for the preasphaltenes and 4 to 6% wt for the asphaltenes. The preasphaltene/asphaltene ratio of oxygen was 1.5 +- 0.1 for a given run. Approximately 50% of the oxygen is phenolic and the remainder we assume to be etheral types. In comparing process conditions, higher reaction pressures led to lower aromaticity and degree of condensation in the products, but had little effect on the oxygen content for the asphaltenes and raised the oxygen percentage for the preasphaltenes. Understanding the Catalytic Role of H/sub 2/S in Low-Rank Coal Liquefaction: One postulate on the mechanism of H/sub 2/S promotion of liquefaction is by means of its conversion into elemental sulfur in intermediate stages. Consequently, elemental sulfur was reacted with compounds postulated to approximate the crucial chemical bonds of coal which are necessary to rupture for liquefaction: diphenylmethane, bibenzyl, diphenyl ether and N,N-dimethylaniline. The reactions quickly proceeded at liquefaction temperatures to give a variety of products. A portion of these products are lower in molecular weight than the starting materials. Some of the products have been identified. N,N-dimethylaniline is demethylated with either elemental sulfur or H/sub 2/S sequentially via N-methylaniline.

  5. H-binding groups in lignite vs. soil humic acids: NICA-Donnan and spectroscopic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Drosos, M.; Jerzykiewicz, M.; Deligiannakis, Y.

    2009-04-15

    A comparative study has been carried out for two sets of humic acids isolated from lignites and soils. H-binding data were analyzed using the NICA-Donnan model, for three Greek lignite humic acids (HA) plus IHSS Leonardite reference HA, and five Greek soil HAs plus a commercial peat HA. {sup 13}C-CP-MAS NMR and H-binding data provide quantitative estimates for functional groups, showing that lignite HAs of diverse origin have strikingly homogeneous properties, while the H-binding structural units of soil HAs are characterized by a large degree of variability. Consistent differences between soil HA vs. lignite HA are revealed at the level of functional groups' concentrations. In the pH range 4 to 10, soil HA showed a charge variation < 3 (equiv kg{sup -1}) while lignite HAs showed a higher charge variation > 3.5 (equiv kg{sup -1}).

  6. H-binding groups in lignite vs. soil humic acids: NICA-Donnan and spectroscopic parameters.

    PubMed

    Drosos, Marios; Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

    2009-04-01

    A comparative study has been carried out for two sets of humic acids isolated from lignites and soils. H-binding data were analyzed using the NICA-Donnan model, for three Greek lignite humic acids (HA) plus IHSS Leonardite reference HA, and five Greek soil HAs plus a commercial peat HA. (13)C-CP-MAS NMR and H-binding data provide quantitative estimates for functional groups, showing that lignite HAs of diverse origin have strikingly homogeneous properties, while the H-binding structural units of soil HAs are characterized by a large degree of variability. Consistent differences between soil HA vs. lignite HA are revealed at the level of functional groups' concentrations. In the pH range 4 to 10, soil HA showed a charge variation <3 [equiv kg(-1)] while lignite HAs showed a higher charge variation >3.5 [equiv kg(-1)]. PMID:19144349

  7. Reduction of quinquevalent vanadium solutions by wood and lignite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.

    1957-01-01

    To determine whether reduced vanadium ores could have been deposited by reduction from supergene quinquevalent vanadium solutions, the reducing capacity of fresh wood, wood degraded by long burial, and lignite was determined experimentally at temperatures of 120?? and 150?? in closed containers. A precipitate obtained by reduction of quinquevalent vanadium solutions with wood gave an X-ray pattern identical with a recently discovered low-valent vanadium mineral. The evidence indicated that deposition of reduced vanadium minerals by this mechanism is possible. ?? 1957.

  8. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES ON SOMA-SOMATIC INTERNEURONAL JUNCTIONS IN THE CORPUS PEDUNCULATUM OF THE WOOD ANT (FORMICA LUGUBRIS ZETT.)

    PubMed Central

    Landolt, Alex M.; Ris, Hans

    1966-01-01

    1. The corpora pedunculata of the wood ant (Formica lugubris Zett.) contain densely packed neuron perikarya which are separated by ultrathin glial sheaths. 2. These glial sheaths are occasionally interrupted by round holes with an average surface area of 2.64 µ2. The holes are designated glial windows since they represent intracellular gaps of glial cytoplasm. 3. The glial windows allow soma-somatic interneuronal junctions. Of all adjacent neurons in a selected neuron pool, only 42% were interconnected by such junctions. 4. The intercellular space at the soma-somatic junctions has an average diameter of 30 A; occasionally, it is collapsed and an external compound membrane ensues. The junctional membranes are characterized by the presence of a subunit pattern of cross-directional electron-opaque lines with a 50- to 70-A periodicity. 5. Morphological signs of chemical transmission are absent in these junctions. On the other hand, there is a striking similarity in structural organization between soma-somatic junctions and electrical synapses described in other species. Therefore, it is suggested that these cell contacts of the ant's "cerebral cortex" are another form of electrical junction. 6. The close proximity of the junctions to the cell nucleus is noted. Its significance could not be ascertained. 7. The suggestion is made that glial windows may have dynamic properties and may intervene in the regulation of interneuronal transfer of information. PMID:5914698

  9. Levoglucosan and other cellulose and lignin markers in emissions from burning of Miocene lignites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Daniele; Torri, Cristian; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Marynowski, Leszek; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Fabiańska, Monika J.

    Levoglucosan (L), mannosan (M), galactosan (G) and other cellulose and lignin markers from burn tests of Miocene lignites of Poland were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to assess their distributions and concentrations in the smoke. Their distributions were compared to those in the pyrolysis products of the lignites. Levoglucosan and other anhydrosaccharides are products from the thermal degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose and are commonly used as tracers for wood smoke in the atmosphere. Here we report emission factors of levoglucosan in smoke particulate matter from burning of lignite varying from 713 to 2154 mg kg -1, which are similar to those from burning of extant plant biomass. Solvent extracts of the lignites revealed trace concentrations of native levoglucosan (0.52-3.7 mg kg -1), while pyrolysis yielded much higher levels (1.6-3.5 × 10 4 mg kg -1), indicating that essentially all levoglucosan in particulate matter of lignite smoke is derived from cellulose degradation. The results demonstrate that burning of lignites is an additional input of levoglucosan to the atmosphere in regions where brown coal is utilized as a domestic fuel. Interestingly, galactosan, another tracer from biomass burning, is not emitted in lignite smoke and mannosan is emitted at relatively low concentrations, ranging from 7.8 to 70.5 mg kg -1. Thus, we propose L/M and L/(M + G) ratios as discriminators between products from combustion of lignites and extant biomass. In addition, other compounds, such as shonanin, belonging to lignans, and some saccharides, e.g., α- and β-glucose and cellobiose, are reported for the first time in extracts of bulk lignites and of smoke particulate matter from burning these lignites.

  10. NO emission during oxy-fuel combustion of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, K.; Normann, F.; Johnsson, F.; Leckner, B.

    2008-03-15

    This work presents experimental results and modeling of the combustion chemistry of the oxy-fuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} recycle) combustion process with a focus on the difference in NO formation between oxy-fired and air-fired conditions. Measurements were carried out in a 100 kW test unit, designed for oxy-fuel combustion with flue gas recycling. Gas concentration and temperature profiles in the furnace were measured during combustion of lignite. The tests comprise a reference test in air and three oxy-fuel cases with different oxygen fractions in the recycled feed gas. With the burner settings used, lignite oxy-combustion with a global oxygen fraction of 25 vol % in the feed gas results in flame temperatures close to those of air-firing. Similar to previous work, the NO emission (mg/MJ) during oxy-fuel operation is reduced to less than 30% of that of air-firing. Modeling shows that this reduction is caused by increased destruction of formed and recycled NO. The reverse Zeldovich mechanism was investigated by detailed modeling and was shown to significantly reduce NO at high temperature, given that the nitrogen content is low (low air leakage) and that the residence time is sufficient.

  11. Radiation intensity of lignite-fired oxy-fuel flames

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Klas; Johansson, Robert; Hjaertstam, Stefan; Johnsson, Filip; Leckner, Bo

    2008-10-15

    The radiative heat transfer in oxy-fuel flames is compared to corresponding conditions in air-fuel flames during combustion of lignite in the Chalmers 100 kW oxy-fuel test facility. In the oxy-fuel cases the flue-gas recycle rate was varied, so that, in principle, the same stoichiometry was kept in all cases, whereas the oxygen fraction in the recycled flue-gas mixture ranged from 25 to 29 vol.%. Radial profiles of gas concentration, temperature and total radiation intensity were measured in the furnace. The temperature, and thereby the total radiation intensity of the oxy-fuel flames, increases with decreasing flue-gas recycle rate. The ratio of gas and total radiation intensities increases under oxy-fuel conditions compared to air-firing. However, when radiation overlap between gas and particles is considered the ratios for air-firing and oxy-fuel conditions become more similar, since the gas-particle overlap is increased in the CO{sub 2}-rich atmosphere. A large fraction of the radiation in these lignite flames is emitted by particles whose radiation was not significantly influenced by oxy-fuel operation. Therefore, an increment of gas radiation due to higher CO{sub 2} concentration is not evident because of the background of particle radiation, and, the total radiation intensities are similar during oxy-fuel and air-fuel operation as long as the temperature distributions are similar. (author)

  12. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  13. Activated carbons from North Dakota lignite and leonardite

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.C.; Olson, E.S.; Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1995-12-01

    In a research and development program on carbon development, the EERC investigated key factors in the preparation of activated carbons from low-rank coals indigenous to North Dakota. The carbons were prepared for potential sorption applications with flue gas and waste liquid streams. Testing involved as-received, physically cleaned, and demineralized samples of a lignite and a leonardite. The following variables were examined: mineral matter content (7-19 wt%), carbonization temperature (350{degrees}-550{degrees}C), activation temperature (700{degrees}-1000{degrees}C), and activation time (10-60 minutes). Activated carbon samples were characterized by sorption of gaseous sulfur dioxide and liquid iodine. For both lignite and leonardite, sorption activity increased with lower mineral content and correlated with medium carbonization temperature and relatively high activation temperature but relatively short activation time. Steam activation did not significantly enhance the char`s sorptive capacity. Physically cleaned leonardite char had SO{sub 2} sorptive capacities as high as 10.9% of the sample weight at ambient temperatures.

  14. Activated carbons from North Dakota lignite and leonardite

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.C.; Olson, E.S.; Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    The EERC is undertaking a research and development program on carbon development, part of which is directed towards investigating the key parameters in the preparation of activated carbons from low-rank coals indigenous to North Dakota. Carbons have been prepared and characterized for potential sorption applications in flue gas and waste liquid streams. Lignite, owing to its wide occurrence and variability in properties, has received significant attention as a precursor of active carbon manufacture. Mineral matter content and its alkaline nature are two highly variable properties that can have important consequences on the production of suitable activated carbons. Other factors affecting the production include carbonizing conditions, the activation agents, activation temperature, and activation time. However, as previously noted, the relationship between the above factors and the sorption activity is particularly complex. Part of the difficulty is that sorption activity encompasses at least three parameters, namely, surface area, pore distribution, and surface acidity/basicity. The presence of mineral matter in the coal can affect not only carbonization but also the activation and subsequent sorption and desorption processes. This paper presents results of an investigation of demineralization, carbonization temperature, activation temperature, and activation time for one lignite and leonardite from North Dakota.

  15. Appraisal of Hydrologic Information Needed in Anticipation of Lignite Mining in Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, William Scott

    1981-01-01

    Lignite in western Tennessee occurs as lenses or beds at various stratigraphic horizons in the Coastal Plain sediments of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The occurrence of this lignite has been known for many decades, but not until the energy crisis was it considered an important energy resource. In recent years, several energy companies have conducted extensive exploration programs in western Tennessee, and tremendous reserves of lignite have been found. From available information, Lauderdale County was selected as one of the counties where strip-mining of lignite will most likely occur. Lignite in this county occurs in the Jackson and Cockfield Formations, undivided, of Tertiary age. The hydrology of the county is known only from regional studies and the collection of some site-specific data. Therefore, in anticipation of the future mining of lignite, a plan is needed for obtaining hydrologic and geologic information to adequately define the hydrologic system before mining begins and to monitor the effects of strip-mining once it is begun. For this planning effort, available hydrologic, geologic, land use, and associated data were located and compiled; a summary description of the surface and shallow subsurface hydrologic system was prepared: the need for additional baseline hydrologic information was outlined; and plans to monitor the effects of strip-mining were proposed. This planning approach, although limited to a county area, has transferability to other Coastal Plain areas under consideration for strip-mining of lignite.

  16. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lignite and calcified lignite from mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrabec, Mirijam; Markič, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko; Jaćimović, Radojko; Kanduč, Tjaša

    2014-05-01

    Lignite (organic rich) and calcified lignite (inorganic rich) samples from excavation field -50c mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia were investigated. During geological and structural mapping lignite and calcified lignite samples were systematically taken for determination of their petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics. Lignite is composed of fine detritical gelified matrix. At least five different types of calcified lignite were recognized forming laminations, calcifications after wood, petrified wood and complete replacements of lignite with carbonate. All measured parameters so far indicate geochemical processes during sedimentation of the Velenej Basin. After macroscopic description samples were split to organic and inorganic component (Ward, 1984) and powdered in an agate mortar for geochemical and isotopic analyses. Major and trace elements (As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Th, U, Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using k-0 standardization method (Jaćimović et al, 2002). The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined using a Europa 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. A 1 mg amount of a sample was weighed in a tin capsule for carbon and 10 mg for nitrogen analysis. Samples for carbon analyses were pretreated with 1 M HCl to remove carbonates. Carbonate samples from carbonate-rich strata and calcified xylite were first roasted at 450 deg C (Krantz et al., 1987). Three miligrams of carbonate sample was transformed into CO2 by reaction with anhydrous H3PO4 at 55 deg C under vacuum (McCrea, 1950) and measured with GV 2003 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Measured isotopic composition of oxygen as VPDB values was recalculated to the VSMOW reference standard to enable the comparison with data from other coal basins. SEM/EDXS of carbonate rich sediments was performed with JEOL JSM 5800 electron microanalyzer scanning electron microscope

  17. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  18. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  19. Concentration of low-grade lignites by multi-stage processing (washing, semicoking, magnetic separation)

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, G.; Renda, D.; Dogan, Z.

    1999-07-01

    Tavanl-Omerler lignite deposit with a reserve of 264 million tons forms an important section of Turkish lignites. This lignitic coal was subjected to washing, semi-coking and magnetic separation so that the total sulphur and ash contents were reduced from 4.08 % to 1.27 and 15.64 % to 8.5 % respectively. The calorific value of the solid fuel was raised from 5030 Kcal/kg to 6727 Kcal/kg and the volatiles can also be used after sulphur removal. This process appears to be feasible as a clean coal production from the point of energy efficiency. A short economic analysis is also presented.

  20. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  1. Geochemistry and mineralogy of Greek lignites from the Ioannina Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Gentzis, T.; Goodarzi, F.; Foscolos, A.E.

    1997-02-01

    Mineralogical and elemental composition of 26 lignites/lignitic shales and their ashes from the Ioannina Basin were examined using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Mineralogy consists of quartz, 2:1 interstratified layer silicates, kaolinite, and gypsum. Illite, calcite, amphiboles, feldspars, and pyrite are the minor minerals in the samples. The major oxides SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, and K{sub 2}O show an enrichment in the upper lignite-bearing interval within the succession, CaO shows the exact reverse trend, and Na{sub 2}O and MgO do not show any trends. Arsenic in the samples ranges from 2 to 46 ppm, Br from 10 to 25 ppm, Cl from 61 to 278 ppm, and Se from 2 to 14 ppm. Vertically, As content decreases from the shallower interval II to the deeper interval I. Within interval II, Cr and Br show a decrease from top to bottom. The concentration of Br and Cl is higher in the samples of low mineral matter, while the opposite is true for As. Laterally, there is an increase in Br and Cl from the northern to the central part of the basin, an increase of As in an eastern direction, and a decrease of Se in the same direction. Epigenetic processes related to high water table and subsurface water flow from the nearby phosphorite deposits are probably responsible for the high concentration of U, Mo, Sb, and possibly, V. The enrichment of Se is due to leaching from gypsum and/or anhydrite beds in the area. The rare earth elements follow variations in the low-temperature ash, but more specifically, the light REEs tend to mimic variations in Th and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, and the heavy REEs follow the TiO{sub 2} variation.

  2. Germ Cell Segregation from the Drosophila Soma Is Controlled by an Inhibitory Threshold Set by the Arf-GEF Steppke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghoon M.; Wilk, Ronit; Hu, Jack; Krause, Henry M.; Harris, Tony J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Germline cells segregate from the soma to maintain their totipotency, but the cellular mechanisms of this segregation are unclear. The Drosophila melanogaster embryo forms a posterior group of primordial germline cells (PGCs) by their division from the syncytial soma. Extended plasma membrane furrows enclose the PGCs in response to the germ plasm protein Germ cell-less (Gcl) and Rho1–actomyosin activity. Recently, we found that loss of the Arf-GEF Steppke (Step) leads to similar Rho1-dependent plasma membrane extensions but from pseudocleavage furrows of the soma. Here, we report that the loss of step also leads to premature formation of a large cell group at the anterior pole of the embryo . These anterior cells lacked germ plasm, but budded and formed at the same time as posterior PGCs, and then divided asynchronously as PGCs also do. With genetic analyses we found that Step normally activates Arf small G proteins and antagonizes Rho1–actomyosin pathways to inhibit anterior cell formation. A uniform distribution of step mRNA around the one-cell embryo cortex suggested that Step restricts cell formation through a global control mechanism. Thus, we examined the effect of Step on PGC formation at the posterior pole. Reducing Gcl or Rho1 levels decreased PGC numbers, but additional step RNAi restored their numbers. Reciprocally, GFP–Step overexpression induced dosage- and Arf-GEF-dependent loss of PGCs, an effect worsened by reducing Gcl or actomyosin pathway activity. We propose that a global distribution of Step normally sets an inhibitory threshold for Rho1 activity to restrict early cell formation to the posterior. PMID:25971667

  3. Experimental Study of Hydrogasification of Lignite and Subbituminous Coal Chars

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The experimental facility for pressure hydrogasification research was adapted to the pressure of 10 MPa and temperature of 1300 K, which ensured repeatability of results and hydrogen heating to the process temperature. A hydrogasification reaction of chars produced from two rank coals was investigated at temperatures up to 1173 K, pressures up to 8 MPa, and the gas flow rates of 0.5–5 dmn3/min. Reactivity of the “Szczerców” lignite char was found to be slightly higher than that of the subbituminous “Janina” coal char produced under the same conditions. A high value of the char reactivity was observed to a certain carbon conversion degree, above which a sharp drop took place. It was shown that, to achieve proper carbon conversion, the hydrogasification reaction must proceed at a temperature above 1200 K. PMID:26065028

  4. Microbial desulphurization of Turkish lignites by White Rot Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar Aytar; Mesut Sam; Ahmet Cabuk

    2008-03-15

    Biodesulphurization experiments were carried out with Tuncbilek lignite, characterized by high sulfur content (2.59%) by using Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME 446. At fungal biomass studies, the effects of various parameters on fungal desulphurization of coals such as pH, temperature, pulp density, incubation time, and sterilization were investigated for both microorganisms. The maximum desulphurization (40%) was observed after 6 days of incubation at 35{sup o}C for T. versicolor. The optimum pH was measured at 6, and the agitation rate was fixed at 125 rpm. The pulp density was found as 5% (w/v) for the high extent of desulphurization. Also, calorific value did not change during this experiment. However, the ash and metal contents of coal were eliminated. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Discrimination of unique biological communities in the Mississippi lignite belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F. (Principal Investigator); Cutler, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Small scale hardcopy LANDSAT prints were manually interpreted and color infrared aerial photography was obtained in an effort to identify and map large contiguous areas of old growth hardwood stands within Mississippi's lignite belt which do not exhibit signs of recent disturbance by agriculture, grazing, timber harvesting, fire, or any natural catastrophe, and which may, therefore, contain unique or historical ecological habitat types. An information system using land cover classes derived from digital LANDSAT data and containing information on geology, hydrology, soils, and cultural activities was developed. Using computer-assisted land cover classifications, all hardwood remnants in the study area which are subject to possible disturbance from surface mining were determined. Twelve rare plants were also identified by botanists.

  6. Microbial screening test for lignite degradation: Quarterly progress report No. 9 for the period January-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Teh Fu

    1987-03-01

    Anaerobic fermentation of water soluble fraction of modified lignite was attempted. Solubilized lignite formed bioprecipitate after biodegradation. Fermentation of water solubilized lignite in enrichment media produced gases and organic acids. FT-IR spectra of solubilized lignite after biodegradation showed that the concentration of organic oxygen have decreased and that the concentration of -CH/sub 3/ terminal group have increased. Solubilized lignite may serve as sole carbon source by using selective media. Bacteria was suspected of being able to utilize fulvic-like materials from solubilized lignite. Isolation of anaerobic bacteria was achieved by surface culture, and it indicated morphological differences among isolated colonies. Alginate gel entrapment, an immobilization method, was applied to T. versicolor fungal cells. Active fungal growth was observed from the immobilized spheres on sodium-alginate gel. It seems that the immobilized biocatalysts may be used to enhance the production of bioextract from lignite in a reactor system. Hydroxylation of lignite was accomplished through Fenton reaction at pH 7.5. FT-IR analysis showed that lignite treated with Fenton's reagent exhibits weaker aromatic bending and ether linkage than untreated lignite. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Review of lignite resources of western Tennessee and the Jackson Purchase area, western Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Thomas, Roger E.; Nichols, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This review of the lignite deposits of western Tennessee and the Jackson Purchase area in western Kentucky (Fig. 1) is a preliminary report on part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resource Assessment of the Gulf Coastal Plain Coal Province. Lignite deposits of western Kentucky and Tennessee are an extension of the Gulf Coastal Plain Coal Province (Cushing and others, 1964), and currently are not economic to mine. These deposits have not been extensively investigated or developed as an energy resource. This review includes a description of the geology of the lignite-bearing units, a discussion of the available coal quality data, and information on organic petrology. Palynological data for lignite samples collected in Kentucky and Tennessee as part of this work are presented in an Appendix.

  8. Nonisothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thai Lignite with High CaO Content

    PubMed Central

    Pintana, Pakamon

    2013-01-01

    Thermal behaviors and combustion kinetics of Thai lignite with different SO3-free CaO contents were investigated. Nonisothermal thermogravimetric method was carried out under oxygen environment at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C min−1 from ambient up to 1300°C. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods were adopted to estimate the apparent activation energy (E) for the thermal decomposition of these coals. Different thermal degradation behaviors were observed in lignites with low (14%) and high (42%) CaO content. Activation energy of the lignite combustion was found to vary with the conversion fraction. In comparison with the KAS method, higher E values were obtained by the FWO method for all conversions considered. High CaO lignite was observed to have higher activation energy than the low CaO coal. PMID:24250259

  9. 30 CFR 75.1319 - Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and lignite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Blasting § 75.1319 Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and lignite mines. (a... 3 pounds except when blasting solid rock in its natural deposit. (b) The total weight of...

  10. Effects of lignite application on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle pens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Shen, Jianlin; Griffith, David W T; Denmead, Owen T; Hill, Julian; Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin R; Chen, Deli

    2016-09-15

    Beef cattle feedlots are a major source of ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock industries. We investigated the effects of lignite surface applications on NH3 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot pens. Two rates of lignite, 3 and 6kgm(-2), were tested in the treatment pen. No lignite was applied in the control pen. Twenty-four Black Angus steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. We measured NH3 and N2O concentrations continuously from 4th Sep to 13th Nov 2014 using Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) NH3 analysers and a closed-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analyser (CP-FTIR) in conjunction with the integrated horizontal flux method to calculate NH3 and N2O fluxes. During the feeding period, 16 and 26% of the excreted nitrogen (N) (240gNhead(-1)day(-1)) was lost via NH3 volatilization from the control pen, while lignite application decreased NH3 volatilization to 12 and 18% of the excreted N, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Compared to the control pen, lignite application decreased NH3 emissions by approximately 30%. Nitrous oxide emissions from the cattle pens were small, 0.10 and 0.14gN2O-Nhead(-1)day(-1) (<0.1% of excreted N) for the control pen, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Lignite application increased direct N2O emissions by 40 and 57%, to 0.14 and 0.22gN2O-Nhead(-1)day(-1), for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. The increase in N2O emissions resulting from lignite application was counteracted by the lower indirect N2O emission due to decreased NH3 volatilization. Using 1% as a default emission factor of deposited NH3 for indirect N2O emissions, the application of lignite decreased total N2O emissions. PMID:27161136

  11. Comparison of Copper Sorption on Lignite and on Soils of Different Types and Their Humic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pekar, M.; Klucakova, M.

    2008-10-15

    We compared the sorption of copper on South Moravian lignite with that on several soils from Slovakia, using batch adsorption at a laboratory temperature of 25{sup o}C followed by a two-step desorption procedure. The results confirmed that lignite has a copper-sorption capacity and copper-binding strength that is comparable to or better than that of the Slovakian soils that we investigated. We compared these results with previously obtained data for sorption on humic acids (HA) isolated from lignite and soils. Although soil constituents other than HA, such as fulvic acids and mineral particles, also control metal sorption, HA bind copper at higher capacity and with greater strength than do the whole matrices of the soils we tested, and lignite showed a greater binding strength for copper than any of these soils. Our results thus far indicate that natural lignite mined in the Czech Republic, or lignite-derived HA, are potential agents for in situ soil remediation.

  12. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. PMID:25233215

  13. “Spatial Mapping of the Neurite and Soma Proteomes Reveals a Functional Cdc42/Rac Regulatory Network”

    SciTech Connect

    Pertz, Olivier C.; Wang, Yingchun; Yang, Feng; Wang, Wei; gay, laurie J.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Clauss, Therese RW; Anderson, David J.; Liu, Tao; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Klemke, Richard L.

    2008-02-12

    Neurite extension and growth cone navigation are guided by extracellular cues that control cytoskeletal rearrangements. However, understanding the complex signaling mechanisms that mediate neuritogenesis has been limited by the inability to biochemically separate the neurite and soma for spatial proteomic and bioinformatic analyses. Here, we apply global proteome profiling in combination with a novel neurite purification methodology for comparative analysis of the soma and neurite proteomes of neuroblastoma cells. The spatial relationship of 4855 proteins were mapped revealing networks of signaling proteins that control integrins, the actin cytoskeleton, and axonal guidance in the extending neurite. Bioinformatics and functional analyses revealed a spatially compartmentalized Rac/Cdc42 signaling network that operates in conjunction with multiple GEFs and GAPs to control neurite formation. Interestingly, RNA interference experiments revealed that the different GEFs and GAPs regulate specialized functions during neurite formation including neurite growth and retraction kinetics, cytoskeletal organization, and cell polarity. Our findings provide insight into the spatial organization of signaling networks that enable neuritogenesis and provide a comprehensive system-wide profile of proteins that mediate this process including those that control Rac and Cdc42 signaling.

  14. Age-related changes in soma size of neurons in the spinal cord motor column of the cat.

    PubMed

    Liu, R H; Bertolotto, C; Engelhardt, J K; Chase, M H

    1996-06-28

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of the aging process on the soma size and number of motoneurons and interneurons in the motor column of the spinal cord of old cats. Neurons in the motor column were divided into small and large populations based on a bimodal distribution of their soma cross-sectional areas. A 17% decrease in the cross-sectional area of small neurons was observed, this decrease was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The cross-sectional area of large neurons decreased by only 6%, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the number of large, small or of these combined population of ventral horn neurons in the aged cats compared with the control animals. This data suggest that neurons in the motor column are not uniformly affected by the aging process because morphological changes are proportionally greater in small neurons than in large neurons. PMID:8817566

  15. Echinococcosis multilocularis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uysal, V; Paksoy, N

    1986-10-01

    We present 20 new cases of Echinococcosis multilocularis (EM) and have also reviewed all 137 previously reported cases from Turkey. The total number of cases is now 157 up until the end of 1983. Of 146 cases with information on their place of occurrence, 133 (91%) were from eastern and central parts of Turkey or the region of the Black Sea where the cold climate is predominant. This area should be considered as part of the geographic distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis which extends from the Caucasian Republics (Azerbaijan and Georgian S.S.R.) to Siberia in the Soviet Union. EM is more frequent among the people involved in raising livestock in the rural areas of Turkey. Most of the cases (76%) were between the ages of 30 and 50; 53% were males. One hundred and thirty nine cases (92%) were liver infections, and most of the cases (60%) were clinically diagnosed as liver tumour. PMID:3795325

  16. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Denmead, Owen T.; Hill, Julian

    2015-11-01

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m-2 lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head-1 in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head-1 yr-1, based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots.

  17. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Denmead, Owen T.; Hill, Julian

    2015-01-01

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m−2 lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head−1 in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head−1 yr−1, based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots. PMID:26584639

  18. The effect of lignite on nitrogen mobility in a low-fertility soil amended with biosolids and urea.

    PubMed

    Paramashivam, Dharini; Clough, Tim J; Carlton, Anna; Gough, Kelsi; Dickinson, Nicholas; Horswell, Jacqui; Sherlock, Robert R; Clucas, Lynne; Robinson, Brett H

    2016-02-01

    Lignite has been proposed as a soil amendment that reduces nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching from soil. Our objective was to determine the effect of lignite on nitrogen (N) fluxes from soil amended with biosolids or urea. The effect of lignite on plant yield and elemental composition was also determined. Batch sorption and column leaching experiments were followed by a lysimeter trial where a low fertility soil was amended with biosolids (400 kg N/ha equivalent) and urea (200 kg N/ha equivalent). Treatments were replicated three times, with and without lignite addition (20 t/ha equivalent). Lignite did not reduce NO3(-) leaching from soils amended with either biosolids or urea. While lignite decreased NO3(-) leaching from an unamended soil, the magnitude of this effect was not significant in an agricultural context. Furthermore, lignite increased cumulative N2O production from soils receiving urea by 90%. Lignite lessened the beneficial growth effects of adding biosolids or urea to soil. Further work could investigate whether coating urea granules with lignite may produce meaningful environmental benefits. PMID:26615483

  19. Surface restructuring of lignite by bio-char of Cuminum cyminum - Exploring the prospects in defluoridation followed by fuel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msagati, T. A. M.; Mamba, B. B.; Sivasankar, V.; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2014-05-01

    Recently, there has been an interest in the areas of developing new carbon materials for fluoride removal applications. The development of new carbon materials is of recent choice which involves the synthesis of hybrid carbon from various sources. In this context, the present contribution is made to focus on the study the restructured surface of lignite using a bio-material called Cuminum cyminum. The restructured lignite (RSL) was synthesized with an improved carbon content of 13% and its BET surface area was found to be 3.12 times greater than lignite (L). The amorphous nature of lignite and RSL was quite explicable from XRD studies. SEM studies exhibited a fibrous and finer surface of lignite which was well restructured into a semi-melt (5 μm) surface for RSL. Defluoridation potential of Restructured Lignite (15.8 mg g-1) was greater than the lignite (13.8 mg g-1) at pH 7.93 ± 0.03. Kinetic and isotherm parameters derived from various models helped in comprehending the nature and dynamics of fluoride sorption. Both the normal and the restructured lignite were found to be consistent with its fluoride uptake of 57% and 60% respectively even after fifth cycle of regeneration. High heating values of 22.01 MJ kg-1 and 26.90 MJ kg-1 respectively for lignite and RSL deemed their additional application as fuel materials.

  20. Heterogeneous intracellular trafficking dynamics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor complexes in the neuronal soma revealed by single quantum dot tracking.

    PubMed

    Vermehren-Schmaedick, Anke; Krueger, Wesley; Jacob, Thomas; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Balkowiec, Agnieszka; Lidke, Keith A; Vu, Tania Q

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence underscores the importance of ligand-receptor dynamics in shaping cellular signaling. In the nervous system, growth factor-activated Trk receptor trafficking serves to convey biochemical signaling that underlies fundamental neural functions. Focus has been placed on axonal trafficking but little is known about growth factor-activated Trk dynamics in the neuronal soma, particularly at the molecular scale, due in large part to technical hurdles in observing individual growth factor-Trk complexes for long periods of time inside live cells. Quantum dots (QDs) are intensely fluorescent nanoparticles that have been used to study the dynamics of ligand-receptor complexes at the plasma membrane but the value of QDs for investigating ligand-receptor intracellular dynamics has not been well exploited. The current study establishes that QD conjugated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (QD-BDNF) binds to TrkB receptors with high specificity, activates TrkB downstream signaling, and allows single QD tracking capability for long recording durations deep within the soma of live neurons. QD-BDNF complexes undergo internalization, recycling, and intracellular trafficking in the neuronal soma. These trafficking events exhibit little time-synchrony and diverse heterogeneity in underlying dynamics that include phases of sustained rapid motor transport without pause as well as immobility of surprisingly long-lasting duration (several minutes). Moreover, the trajectories formed by dynamic individual BDNF complexes show no apparent end destination; BDNF complexes can be found meandering over long distances of several microns throughout the expanse of the neuronal soma in a circuitous fashion. The complex, heterogeneous nature of neuronal soma trafficking dynamics contrasts the reported linear nature of axonal transport data and calls for models that surpass our generally limited notions of nuclear-directed transport in the soma. QD-ligand probes are poised to provide

  1. Heterogeneous Intracellular Trafficking Dynamics of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Complexes in the Neuronal Soma Revealed by Single Quantum Dot Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Vermehren-Schmaedick, Anke; Krueger, Wesley; Jacob, Thomas; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Balkowiec, Agnieszka; Lidke, Keith A.; Vu, Tania Q.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence underscores the importance of ligand-receptor dynamics in shaping cellular signaling. In the nervous system, growth factor-activated Trk receptor trafficking serves to convey biochemical signaling that underlies fundamental neural functions. Focus has been placed on axonal trafficking but little is known about growth factor-activated Trk dynamics in the neuronal soma, particularly at the molecular scale, due in large part to technical hurdles in observing individual growth factor-Trk complexes for long periods of time inside live cells. Quantum dots (QDs) are intensely fluorescent nanoparticles that have been used to study the dynamics of ligand-receptor complexes at the plasma membrane but the value of QDs for investigating ligand-receptor intracellular dynamics has not been well exploited. The current study establishes that QD conjugated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (QD-BDNF) binds to TrkB receptors with high specificity, activates TrkB downstream signaling, and allows single QD tracking capability for long recording durations deep within the soma of live neurons. QD-BDNF complexes undergo internalization, recycling, and intracellular trafficking in the neuronal soma. These trafficking events exhibit little time-synchrony and diverse heterogeneity in underlying dynamics that include phases of sustained rapid motor transport without pause as well as immobility of surprisingly long-lasting duration (several minutes). Moreover, the trajectories formed by dynamic individual BDNF complexes show no apparent end destination; BDNF complexes can be found meandering over long distances of several microns throughout the expanse of the neuronal soma in a circuitous fashion. The complex, heterogeneous nature of neuronal soma trafficking dynamics contrasts the reported linear nature of axonal transport data and calls for models that surpass our generally limited notions of nuclear-directed transport in the soma. QD-ligand probes are poised to provide

  2. Potentially toxic elements in lignite and its combustion residues from a power plant.

    PubMed

    Ram, L C; Masto, R E; Srivastava, N K; George, J; Selvi, V A; Das, T B; Pal, S K; Maity, S; Mohanty, D

    2015-01-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements in lignite and coal is a matter of global concern during energy extraction from them. Accordingly, Barsingsar lignite from Rajasthan (India), a newly identified and currently exploited commercial source of energy, was evaluated for the presence of these elements and their fate during its combustion. Mobility of these elements in Barsingsar lignite and its ashes from a power plant (Bikaner-Nagaur region of Thar Desert, India) is presented in this paper. Kaolinite, quartz, and gypsum are the main minerals in lignite. Both the fly ash and bottom ash of lignite belong to class-F with SiO₂ > Al₂O₃ > CaO > MgO. Both the ashes contain quartz, mullite, anhydrite, and albite. As, In, and Sr have higher concentration in the feed than the ashes. Compared to the feed lignite, Ba, Co, U, Cu, Cd, and Ni are enriched (10-5 times) in fly ash and Co, Pb, Li, Ga, Cd, and U in bottom ash (9-5 times). Earth crust-normalization pattern showed enrichment of Ga, U, B, Ag, Cd, and Se in the lignite; Li, Ba, Ga, B, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se, in fly ash; and Li, Sr, Ga, U, B, Cu, Ag, Cd, Pb, and Se in bottom ash. Hg, Ag, Zn, Ni, Ba, and Se are possibly associated with pyrite. Leaching test by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) showed that except B all the elements are within the safe limits prescribed by Indian Standards. PMID:25446718

  3. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  4. Astronomy in Modern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk

    2013-01-01

    Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of Turkey are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.

  5. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556

  6. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  7. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  8. The "Turkey Buzzard" glider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G; Brown, D T

    1923-01-01

    The "Turkey Buzzard" is a semi-internally braced monoplane (Fig. 1). The wing is placed above the fuselage for two important aerodynamical reasons: first, because this position minimizes the mutual interference between the wing and the fuselage, and, second, useful lifting surface is utilized with the wing passing over the fuselage instead of through it.

  9. Country Profiles, Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lewis S.

    A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  10. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.

    2009-01-01

    Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…

  11. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eres, Figen

    2010-01-01

    The quality and the prevalence of education are the major indicators of the development of a society. It is a kind of human right to every person living in the society to be educated in a sufficient way. The education of the disabled people, a social reality in Turkey, is not sufficiently carried out. This paper aims at the education of the…

  12. Workability and strength of lignite bottom ash geopolymer mortar.

    PubMed

    Sathonsaowaphak, Apha; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Pimraksa, Kedsarin

    2009-08-30

    In this paper, the waste lignite bottom ash from power station was used as a source material for making geopolymer. Sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were used as liquid for the mixture and heat curing was used to activate the geopolymerization. The fineness of bottom ash, the liquid alkaline/ash ratio, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratio and the NaOH concentration were studied. The effects of the additions of water, NaOH and napthalene-based superplasticizer on the workability and strength of the geopolymer mortar were also studied. Relatively high strength geopolymer mortars of 24.0-58.0 MPa were obtained with the use of ground bottom ash with 3% retained on sieve no. 325 and mean particle size of 15.7 microm, using liquid alkaline/ash ratios of 0.429-0.709, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratios of 0.67-1.5 and 7.5-12.5M NaOH. The incorporation of water improved the workability of geopolymer mortar more effectively than the use of napthalene-based superplasticizer with similar slight reduction in strengths. The addition of NaOH solution slightly improves the workability of the mix while maintaining the strength of the geopolymer mortars. PMID:19264400

  13. Identification of gonadal soma-derived factor involvement in Monopterus albus (protogynous rice field eel) sex change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yefei; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiaowu; Guan, Guijun

    2016-07-01

    We studied molecular events and potential mechanisms underlying the process of female-to-male sex transformation in the rice field eel (Monopterus albus), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish in which the gonad is initially a female ovary and transforms into male testes. We cloned and identified a novel gonadal soma derived factor (GSDF), which encodes a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. gsdf expression was measured in gonads of female, intersex and male with reverse transcription-PCR and gsdf's role in sex transformation was studied with qPCR, histological analysis and dual-color in situ hybridization assays and compared to other sex-related genes. gsdf was correlated to Sertoli cell differentiation, indicating involvement in testicular differentiation and sex transformation from female to male in this species. A unique expression pattern reveals a potential role of gsdf essential for the sex transformation of rice field eels. PMID:27230579

  14. MTOR-driven quasi-programmed aging as a disposable soma theory: blind watchmaker vs. intelligent designer.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-06-15

    If life were created by intelligent design, we would indeed age from accumulation of molecular damage. Repair is costly and limited by energetic resources, and we would allocate resources rationally. But, albeit elegant, this design is fictional. Instead, nature blindly selects for short-term benefits of robust developmental growth. "Quasi-programmed" by the blind watchmaker, aging is a wasteful and aimless continuation of developmental growth, driven by nutrient-sensing, growth-promoting signaling pathways such as MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin). A continuous post-developmental activity of such gerogenic pathways leads to hyperfunctions (aging), loss of homeostasis, age-related diseases, non-random organ damage and death. This model is consistent with a view that (1) soma is disposable, (2) aging and menopause are not programmed and (3) accumulation of random molecular damage is not a cause of aging as we know it. PMID:23708516

  15. Photochemical dissolution of Turkish lignites in tetralin at different irradiation power and reaction times

    SciTech Connect

    F. Karacan; T. Torul

    2007-08-15

    The effect of the power of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubles yield (the total soluble product) and the soluble product distribution of the dissolution of Turkish lignites (Beypazari and Tuncbilek lignite) in tetralin at ambient temperatures has been investigated. The lignite samples were exposed to UV irradiation for 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 days in the power of irradiation ranging from 0 to 180 W at 60 W intervals. The yields of THF solubles and oils increased with increasing irradiation power and time. The optimum irradiation power depends on the irradiation time to obtain the highest degradation products. However, the yield of degradation products depends also on the lignite type. The largest fraction obtained from lignites by photochemical energy is oil. While the yields of THF solubles and oils sharply increased with irradiation power at longer reaction times, the yields of asphaltenes (AS) slightly decreased. Increasing oil yields is relatively larger when AS yields tend to decrease. These trends of AS and oil yields are ascribable to conversion of AS to oils at higher power. Small changes were observed in the PAS yields under all conditions. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Water-resources appraisal of the Camp Swift lignite area, central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaylord, J.L.; Slade, R.M.; Ruiz, L.M.; Welborn, C.T.; Baker, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Camp Swift area, Texas was studied to describe the hydrogeology and to provide baseline data of the groundwater and surface water resources that would be affected by the strip mining of lignite. The investigation was centered on the 18-square mile Camp Swift Military Reservation where a reported 80 to 100 million short tons of commercially mineable lignite occurs within 200 feet of the land surface. Groundwater data showed that water levels in observation wells changed only slightly and that the water quality in the Calvert Bluff Formation, which contains the lignite, and in the Simsboro Formation, which is the major aquifer beneath the Calvert Bluff, is suitable for most uses. Big Sandy Creek, which crosses Camp Swift generally has a base flow of less than 0.5 cu ft/sec and infrequently is dry. Dogwood Creek, which originates on Camp Swift, usually is dry. The flow of both streams changes rapidly in response to rainfall in the watersheds. The quality of the water in both streams generally is suitable for most uses. A lithologic examination of 255 feet of cored section that represents the overburden and the lignite showed cyclic layering of fine sand, silt, clay, and lignite. Chemical analyses indicate that the pyritic sulfur concentration is small but variable. (USGS)

  17. Process Analysis of Lignite Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Coupled with Pyrolysis Topping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoqun; Dong, Li; Wang, Yin; Matsuzawa, Y.; Xu, Guangwen

    We developed a comprehensive process model in ASPEN Plus to simulate the energy and mass balances of a lignite-fueled atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler integrated with coal predrying and pyrolysis topping. In this model, it is assumed that the heat from exhausted flue gas was employed for coal predrying, and the sensible heat derived from circulated bed material was used for the pyrolysis topping (endothermic process). The simulation was conducted with respectto the Yunnan Kaiyuan CFB boiler, and two representative lignite coals from Xiao Long Tan (XLT) and Xin Shao (XS) were considered. The result shows that the predrying of coal with the sensible heat of above 363 K from flue gas, the amount of coal consumed in the boiler can be reduced by 3.5% and 5.3% for XLT lignite and XS lignite, respectively. It was also found that integration of pyrolysis topping with the boiler increased the coal consumption of the boiler, and the extent of consumption-increase varies with the yields of tar and gas in the pyrolysis topping process. For agas yield of 5.2% and a tar yield of 5-6%, the consumption of XS lignite increased by about 20% comparing to that in the case without topping.

  18. Oxidation of lignite: Annotated bibliography, 1974-1986. [51 papers with abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, J.V.; Dahlberg, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal is being investigated because it requires rather mild operating conditions compared to thermal and chemical processes. A wide variety of fungi are able to liquefy lignites to various degrees. Recently it has become apparent that a high degree of microbial liquefaction is possible only when leonardite is used. Leonardite occurs naturally as oxidized lignite and can be produced by oxidizing lignite in the laboratory, using chemicals, gases, or heat. In an attempt to find the best suitable oxidant for the pretreatment of lignite, a literature search on the oxidation of lignite became necessary in addition to experiments. Literature citations are reported in this publication in reverse chronological order under three headings: (1) Chemical Oxidation; (2) Oxidation Using Air, O/sub 2/, or Other Gases; and (3) Thermal Oxidation. The search was limited to the years 1974 to 1986 because previous work on oxidation of coal has been reviewed by Lowry, Yohe, and Wender et al. Fifty-one articles are listed with asbstracts.

  19. Individual variation in rates of senescence: natal origin effects and disposable soma in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Charmantier, Anne; Verhulst, Simon; Sheldon, Ben C

    2010-11-01

    1. Longitudinal studies of various vertebrate populations have recently demonstrated senescent declines in reproductive performance and/or survival probability with age to be almost ubiquitous in nature. Little is known, however, about the extent to which rates of senescence vary between individuals, and about causes or consequences of such variation. Quantifying these links in natural populations is important for understanding the constraints and adaptive processes underlying the evolution of senescence. 2. Here, we analyse breeding data from 1029 female great tits Parus major to quantify the effect of natal conditions and early life reproduction on rates of reproductive senescence, reproductive life span and lifetime reproductive success. 3. Although for locally born females we find no evidence that natal conditions influence rates of reproductive senescence, we show that immigrant females suffer from faster rates of senescence than locally born females, and that this difference contributes to immigrants having a lower lifetime reproductive success. 4. Additionally, and independently, we find rates of reproductive senescence to increase with rates of early life reproduction, as predicted by the disposable soma hypothesis. Despite accelerated senescence late in life, high early life reproduction is, however, positively associated with lifetime reproductive success across individuals. 5. Female immigrant status and early life reproduction do not relate to reproductive life span. 6. We thus show that both immigration into our population, and high levels of early life reproduction, are associated with reduced late life reproductive performance in female great tits, but that fitness can be increased by high levels of early life reproduction at the expense of accelerated reproductive senescence. These results suggest disposable soma to be a likely mechanism underlying senescence in these birds, and encourage further study of the genetic basis (i.e. antagonistic

  20. Lignite occurrence in relation to depositional facies, Eocene Wilcox group, Sabine uplift area, east Texas - regional and local comparative studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, M.L.; Jackson, M.L.W.; Kaiser, W.R.; Fly, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    Lignite occurrence was related to sandbody geometry in two subsurface studies: a 12-county regional study and a local study of the Trawick gas field area, north-central Nacogdoches County. For both studies, the Wilcox Group was informally divided into lower progradational (deltaic) and upper aggradational (fluvial) units. The local study utilized closely spaced data to investigate a more detailed Wilcox stratigraphy. The most continuous lignite-bearing zone lies at the transition between lower and upper Wilcox strata. Mapping of lignite occurrence in both studies shows this zone to be coincident with distributary channels indicative of delta-plain settings. Lignites and laterally equivalent muds rest on platforms of sandy sediments. Initiation of peat accumulation in interdistributary basins, with upward and subsequent lateral development as blanket peat, is inferred from the local study. Thickness and most laterally extensive seams occur in Shelby and Panola Counties on the flanks of major delta lobes. Thick upper Wilcox lignites (> 5 ft, 1.5 m) occur regionally between major fluvial channel sand belts and cap 30 to 40-ft (9 to 12-m) upward-coarsening sequences (crevasse splays.). These lignites are surface-mined in Panola and Harrison Counties at Martin Lake and Darco. Westward, in northern Cherokee County, our drilling shows thick lignites (up to 11 ft, 3.4 m) have limited lateral extent in channel sand belt areas. Similarly, the local study lies within a major sand belt; small interchannel basins limit lateral continuity of lignites.

  1. Determination of pyrolysis kinetic parameters of San Miguel (Texas) lignite. Final report. [650 to 800/sup 0/C; atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, U.; Selim, S.; Jih, J.

    1982-06-01

    The thermal decomposition of lignite in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) is important as a part of processes for converting lignite to more desirable fuels or for recovery of energy from deep basin lignite. The pyrolysis reaction kinetics of San Miguel (Texas) lignite has been experimentally studied in the temperature range 650 to 800/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure. Gas and tar produced were collected and measured, and weight change as a function of time was measured. Lignite decomposition into gas, tar, and char can be described by three parallel first order reactions. In the temperature range investigated, the rates of pyrolysis are controlled by intraparticle transport phenomena. A simplified kinetic-transport model was used to estimate the individual reaction rate constants and activation energies. The gas produced was found to consist primarily of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen, with some methane, ethane, ethylene, and a trace C/sub 3/ compounds. Sample temperature increases and theoretical calculations indicate that oxygen from the lignite structure may be oxidizing lignite or pyrolysis products. It is recommended that, after suitable equipment modifications, the investigation be extended to study combined oxidation and pyrolysis of lignite.

  2. Levoglucosan and other cellulose markers in pyrolysates of Miocene lignites: geochemical and environmental implications

    SciTech Connect

    Daniele Fabbri; Leszek Marynowski; Monika J. Fabianska; Michal Zaton; Bernd R.T. Simoneit

    2008-04-15

    Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and off-line pyrolysis/silylation methods for lignites from three Miocene brown coal basins of Poland resulted in the characterization of many organic compounds, including dominant cellulose degradation products such as levoglucosan, 1,6-anhydro-{beta}-D-glucofuranose, and 1,4:3,6-dianhydroglucopyranose. Levoglucosan is a general source-specific tracer for wood smoke in the atmosphere and recent sediments. The presence of unusually high levels of this compound in brown coal pyrolysates suggests that a portion of this compound concentration in some airsheds may originate from lignite combustion. On the other hand, nonglucose anhydrosaccharides, in particular, mannosan and galactosan, typical of hemicellulose, are not detected in those lignite pyrolysates investigated. This indicates that mannosan and galactosan are better specific tracers for combustion of contemporary biomass in those regions where the utilization of brown coals containing fossilized cellulose is important. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. PMID:27416511

  4. Lignite combustion test project interim report: Tests L101-L114

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K.E.; Wilson, K.B.

    1980-08-01

    Fluidized bed combustion research on North Dakota lignite is being performed by Combustion Power Company, Inc. under contract to Grand Forks Energy Technology Center in a 7 sq ft Atmospheric Fluid Bed Combustor. A series of 14 parameteric tests have been completed in which various combinations of bed temperature, superficial velocity, excess air, and limestone Ca/S ratios made up the test matrix. Twelve of the 14 tests used ash recycle. The test results extend the lignite combustion characteristics determined from GFETC tests on smaller reactors with respect to: (1) sulfur retention on lignite ash and supplemental sorbents; (2) ash and bed agglomeration problems; (3) effect of operational conditions and bed characteristics on heat transfer coeffficient; (4) ash reinjection; and (5) flue gas pollutants. This interim report summarizes the test setup, test procedures and test results, describes operational problems, and provides observations noted during the tests and on post-test inspections.

  5. Comparison of artificial maturation of lignite in hydrous and nonhydrous conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behar, F.; Lewan, M.D.; Lorant, F.; Vandenbroucke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to compare product compositions and yields generated from lignite artificially matured by open nonhydrous pyrolysis, closed nonhydrous pyrolysis, and hydrous pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were fractionated into CO2, H2O, CH4, C2-C5, C8-C14, C14+ saturates, C14+ aromatics and NSOs (resins+asphaltenes). All three methods generated high and similar quantities of water during pyrolysis that ranged between 14.6 and 15.2 wt.% of the original lignite. As a result of this high water content generated by the lignite, the experiments with no added water are referred to as nonhydrous rather than anhydrous. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and elemental analyses were conducted on the recovered lignite after solvent extraction to determine their residual hydrocarbon generation potential and to plot their position in a van Krevelen diagram, respectively. Residual lignite from the closed nonhydrous and hydrous experiments showed relationships between vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) values and atomic H/C ratios that occurred within the fields observed for natural maturation of coal. Although no significant differences in the atomic H/C ratios were observed between closed nonhydrous and hydrous pyrolysis, the vitrinite reflectance values were on the average 0.2% Ro lower in the residual lignite from the nonhydrous experiments. The remaining hydrocarbon generation potential as determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis of the residual lignite showed that the nonhydrous residuals had on the average 16 mg more hydrocarbon potential per gram of original lignite than the hydrous residuals. This suggests there is a better release of the pyrolysis products from the lignite network in the hydrous experiments once generation occurs. For gas generation, at maximum yields, open nonhydrous pyrolysis generates the most hydrocarbon gas (21.0 mg/g original lignite), which is 20% more than closed nonhydrous pyrolysis and 29% more than hydrous pyrolysis. Closed nonhydrous pyrolysis

  6. Sorption of metal ions on lignite and the derived humic substances.

    PubMed

    Havelcová, Martina; Mizera, Jirí; Sýkorová, Ivana; Pekar, Miloslav

    2009-01-15

    The study presents results of sorption of metal ions (Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+) onto lignite mined in South Moravia, Czech Republic, and solid humic substances (humin and humic acid) derived from it. The efficiency of these sorbents has been studied as a function of contact time, solution pH, and metal concentration. The sorption efficiencies were higher for humin and lower for humic acid samples than for the original lignite. With its high sorption capacities of several mmol/g, particularly for Pb2+ and Cd2+, the South Moravian lignite can provide a cheap source material for preparation of sorbents utilizable in removal of toxic metals from wastewaters. PMID:18490104

  7. Lignite mine spoil characterization and approaches for its rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Praveen-Kumar; Kumar, S.; Sharma, K.D.; Choudhary, A.; Gehlot, K.

    2005-01-15

    Open cast mining of lignite leaves behind stockpiles of excavated materials (dumps) and refilled mining pits (spoils). Physicochemical and biochemical properties of both kinds of sites were estimated to identify the reasons for their barrenness. Subsequently, surface modifications were attempted, first in a greenhouse and later infield to develop a suitable approach for their rehabilitation. Dumps had low pH (4.8) and high Na{sup +} (2.5 mg g{sup -1}), spoils high pH (8.7) and high Na{sup +} (1.59 mg g{sup -1} soil). Both sites had low available nitrogen and phosphorus and showed very low dehydrogenase and phosphatases activity but no nitrification. The extreme physicochemical conditions and inert nature of damps and spoils explained their barrenness. In the greenhouse experiment, 14 plant species sown in surface materials of dumps and spoils after spreading a 0.15 m thick layer of dune sand, germinated ({gt}85%), and their seedlings survived for two months. This technique was followed at a spoil site (modified spoil site). After three years of stabilization the modified spoil site had only one-fifth Na{sup +} of that in spoil surface in the beginning and also showed higher dehydrogenase and phosphatase activity and nitrification. Pearl millet and Cenchrus ciliaris grown in modified spoil produced 128 to 394 kg and 2.25 to 3.50 Mg dry matter ha{sup -1}. Addition of farmyard manure with N and P fertilizers increased pearl millet yields.

  8. Paleocene-eocene lignite beds of southwest Alabama: Parasequence beds in highstand systems tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Tew, B.H. ); Carroll, R.E. )

    1993-09-01

    In southwest Alabama, lignite beds are present in at least four stratigraphic intervals that span approximately 8 m.y. of geologic time. Lignite is found in the Paleocene Oak Hill Member and Coal Bluff Member of the Naheola Formation of the Midway Group and the Paleocene Tuscahoma Sand and the Eocene Hatchetigbee Formation of the Wilcox Group. Lignite beds range in thickness from 0.5 to 11 ft and consist of 32-53% moisture, 13-39% volatile matter, 4-36% fixed carbon, and 5-51% ash. These Paleocene and Eocene lignite beds occur as parasequence deposits in highstand systems tracts of four distinct third-order depositional sequences. The lignite beds are interpreted as strata within highstand systems tract parasequences that occur in mud-dominated regressive intervals. Lignite beds were deposited in coastal marsh and low-lying swamp environments as part of deltaic systems that prograded into southwestern Alabama from the west. As sediment was progressively delivered into the basin from these deltas, the effects of relative sea level rise during an individual cycle were overwhelmed, producing a net loss of accommodation and concomitant overall basinward progradation of the shoreline (regression). Small-scale fluctuations in water depth resulting from the interaction of eustasy, sediment yield, and subsidence led to cyclical flooding of the low-lying coastal marshes and swamps followed by periods of progradational and regression. Highstand systems tract deposition within a particular depositional sequence culminated with a relative sea level fall that resulted in a lowering of base level and an abrupt basinward shift in coastal onlap. Following sea level fall and the subsequent accumulation of the lowstand deposits, significant relative sea level rise resulted in the marine inundation of the area previously occupied by coastal marshes and swamps and deposition of the transgressive systems tract of the overlying sequence.

  9. Possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and renal pelvic cancer in northwestern Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, J.E.; Tatu, C.A.; Bushon, R.N.; Stoeckel, D.M.; Brady, A.M.G.; Beck, M.; Lerch, H.E.; McGee, B.; Hanson, B.C.; Shi, R.; Orem, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    In May and September, 2002, 14 private residential drinking water wells, one dewatering well at a lignite mine, eight surface water sites, and lignite from an active coal mine were sampled in five Parishes of northwestern Louisiana, USA. Using a geographic information system (GIS), wells were selected that were likely to draw water that had been in contact with lignite; control wells were located in areas devoid of lignite deposits. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (cultures maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically) and for metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and presence of pathogenic leptospiral bacteria. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis (RPC) based on data obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry for the five Parishes included in the study. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the presence in drinking water of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO4 and NH3, and 13 chemical elements. Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was detected in four out of eight (50%) of the surface water sites sampled. The present study of a stable rural population examined possible linkages between aquifers containing chemically reactive lignite deposits, hydrologic conditions favorable to the leaching and transport of toxic organic compounds from the lignite into the groundwater, possible microbial contamination, and RPC risk. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  10. Possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and renal pelvic cancer in northwestern Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, Joseph E; Tatu, Calin A; Bushon, Rebecca N; Stoeckel, Donald M; Brady, Amie M G; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C; Shi, Runhua; Orem, William H

    2006-12-01

    In May and September, 2002, 14 private residential drinking water wells, one dewatering well at a lignite mine, eight surface water sites, and lignite from an active coal mine were sampled in five Parishes of northwestern Louisiana, USA. Using a geographic information system (GIS), wells were selected that were likely to draw water that had been in contact with lignite; control wells were located in areas devoid of lignite deposits. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (cultures maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically) and for metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and presence of pathogenic leptospiral bacteria. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis (RPC) based on data obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry for the five Parishes included in the study. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the presence in drinking water of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO(4) and NH(3), and 13 chemical elements. Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was detected in four out of eight (50%) of the surface water sites sampled. The present study of a stable rural population examined possible linkages between aquifers containing chemically reactive lignite deposits, hydrologic conditions favorable to the leaching and transport of toxic organic compounds from the lignite into the groundwater, possible microbial contamination, and RPC risk. PMID:17120101

  11. Quantitative evaluation of minerals in lignites and intraseam sediments from the Achlada Basin, Northern Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaos Koukouzas; Colin R. Ward; Dimitra Papanikolaou; Zhongsheng Li

    2009-04-15

    Seven core samples (five lignite samples and two intraseam nonlignite rock samples) from the Achlada open-cut mine in northern Greece were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques. Quantitative evaluation of the mineral phases in each sample was made from the powder X-ray diffractograms using Siroquant commercial interpretation software, which is based on Rietveld principles. The main minerals in the low-temperature ash (LTA) ash of the lignites are kaolinite and illite, with bassanite and quartz in minor proportions. The nonlignite rock samples mainly consist of illite, mica (2M1), and kaolinite (poorly ordered), along with quartz, chlorite (ferroan), feldspar (albite), rutile, and dolomite. Oriented-aggregate XRD study further shows the presence of smectite, and interstratified illite/smectite (I/S), in the clay fractions of the lignite and rock samples, with the mineral matter of the lignites being richer in kaolinite, smectite, and I/S than in mineral matter of the nonlignite materials. The differences in mineralogy between the lignite and the rock materials probably reflect selective concentration of minerals in the original peat during deposition, combined with authigenic precipitation of minerals such as kaolinite in the peat deposit. Inferred chemical analyses derived from the XRD data show reasonably good correlations with chemical data obtained by direct ash analysis, especially if the smectite and I/S are taken into account. This provides a link between mineralogical and chemical studies that may be valuable in evaluating the behavior of the lignite under different utilization conditions. 27 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Nursing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada. PMID:16982724

  13. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. Effect of catalysts and solvents on the direct hydroliquefaction of Turkish lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Oner, M.; Bolat, E.; Dincer, S. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the effectiveness of solvents on the liquefaction of 11 different Turkish lignites investigated by using tetralin, creosote, and anthracene oils. The highest total conversions were obtained with tetralin. The catalytic effects of CoMo and red mud were compared by using creosote oil as the solvent. It was found that red mud catalyzed mainly the asphaltene formation reaction for the given experimental conditions. The additional of CoMo significantly catalyzed the liquefaction reaction, thus increasing the lignite conversion and oil formation.

  15. Bio-liquefaction/solubilization of lignitic humic acids by white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    SciTech Connect

    Elbeyli, I.Y.; Palantoken, A.; Piskin, S.; Peksel, A.; Kuzu, H.

    2006-08-15

    Humic acid samples obtained from lignite were liquefied/solubilized by using white-rot fungus, and chemical characterization of the products was investigated by FTIR and GC-MS techniques. Prior to the microbial treatment, raw lignite was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid separately, and then humic acids were extracted by alkali solution. The prepared humic acid samples were placed on the agar surface of the fungus and liquid products formed by microbial affects were collected. The products were analyzed and the chemical properties were compared. The results show that oxidation agent and oxidation degree affect composition of the liquid products formed by microbial attack.

  16. Co-pyrolysis of Chinese lignite and biomass in a vacuum reactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Zhang, Weijiang

    2014-12-01

    A vacuum fixed bed reactor was applied to pyrolyze lignite, biomass (rice husk) and their blend with high temperature (900 °C) and low heating rate (10 °C/min). Pyrolytic products were kept in the vacuum reactor during the whole pyrolysis process, guaranteeing a long contact time (more than 2 h) for their interactions. Remarkable synergetic effects were observed. Addition of biomass obviously influenced the tar and char yields, gas volume yield, gas composition, char structure and tar composition during co-pyrolysis. It was highly possible that char gasification, gaseous phase interactions, and secondary tar cracking were facilitated when lignite and biomass were co-pyrolyzed. PMID:25277348

  17. Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.; Chappell, J.; Clark, G.; Phear, S.

    2005-07-01

    It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates that, in fact, there are both old and young sources of potential contamination. It is concluded that radiocarbon samples from Babeldaob need to be tested for appropriate carbon content rather than relying solely upon material identification.

  18. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  19. Macroscopic lithotype characterisation of the 1st Middle-Polish (1st Lusatian) Lignite Seam in the Miocene of central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widera, Marek

    2012-03-01

    The 1st Middle-Polish (1st Lusatian) Lignite Seam is exploited in open-cast mines in central Poland. A large number of lignite lithotypes, grouped in four lithotype associations, are distinguished: xylitic, detritic, xylo-detritic and detro-xylitic lithotype associations, which show various structures. Each lithotype association was produced under specific peat-forming environmental conditions. In the case of the lignite seams under study they represent all the main environments that are known from Neogene mires, i.e.: fen or open water, bush moor, wet forest swamp and dry forest swamp. For a simple and practical description in the field of both the lignite sections and borehole cores, a new codification for lignite lithotypes is proposed. It is based on the codification of clastic deposits (lithofacies). The practical value of the new lignite lithotype codification is examined in three vertical sections of the 1st Middle-Polish Lignite Seam.

  20. Catalytic hydrogenation of Turkish lignites to oxygen free oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yorulmaz, V.; Weiss, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to convert low heating value Turkish lignites (Elbistan and Beypaza) to high quality liquid and gaseous products and to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions with the optimum conditions of petroleum type oil production. 8 refs.

  1. Cofiring lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Zuhal Gogebakan; Nevin Selcuk

    2008-05-15

    In this study, cofiring of high ash and sulfur content lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue was investigated in 0.3 MWt METU Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig in terms of combustion and emission performance of different fuel blends. The results reveal that cofiring of hazelnut shell and cotton residue with lignite increases the combustion efficiency and freeboard temperatures compared to those of lignite firing with limestone addition only. CO{sub 2} emission is not found sensitive to increase in hazelnut shell and cotton residue share in fuel blend. Cofiring lowers SO{sub 2} emissions considerably. Cofiring of hazelnut shell reduces NO and N{sub 2}O emissions; on the contrary, cofiring cotton residue results in higher NO and N{sub 2}O emissions. Higher share of biomass in the fuel blend results in coarser cyclone ash particles. Hazelnut shell and cotton residue can be cofired with high ash and sulfur-containing lignite without operational problems. 32 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Production of cooking briquettes from Maissade (Haiti) lignite. Feasibility study and preliminary plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Hauserman, W.B.; Johnson, M.D.

    1986-03-20

    A laboratory study was done to establish the technical feasibility of producing domestic cooking briquettes to be marketed in Haiti, from the Maissade lignite reserves of that country, which are high in both ash and sulfur and not yet mined. It was found that acceptable briquettes could be made from Maissade char, pyrolized and compacted with a molasses-lime binder and the addition of bagasse to improve strength and burning rate. Molasses, lime and bagasse are all produced in Haiti. Sodium nitrate was added to enhance ignition, and borax as a wetting and release agent. Standard, ''pillow-shaped'' briquettes were successfully produced on a standard, double roll briquetting machine. The recommended process sequence and equipment selection are virtually identical to that used to produce standard US barbecue briquettes from North Dakota lignite. The heating value of the Maissade briquettes is lower due to their high ash level, which may be acceptable if they can be produced at a cost per heating value comparable to wood charcoal, currently used in Haiti. The high sulfur content, mostly in organic form, presents no problem, since it is tied up after combustion as CaSO/sub 4/ by the unusually high calcium content of this lignite. Detailed analyses of Maissade lignite and its mineral components are included, as well as a preliminary plant design and capital cost estimate, for capacities of 10,000 and 50,000 metric tons per year, and for a smaller pilot plant.

  3. Hydrologic and geochemical data for the Big Brown lignite mine area, Freestone County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorsey, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Lignite mining in east and east-central Texas is increasing in response to increased energy needs throughout the State. Associated with the increase in mining activities is a greater need to know the effects of mining activities on the water quantity and quality of near-surface aquifers. The near-surface lignite beds mined at the Big Brown Lignite Mine are from the Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group of Eocene age, which is a minor aquifer generally having water suitable for all uses, in eastern Freestone County, Texas. One of the potential hydro!ogic effects of surface-coal mining is a change in the quality of ground water associated with replacement of aquifer materials by mine spoils. The purpose of this report is to compile and categorize geologic, mineralogic, geochemical, and hydrologic data for the Big Brown Lignite Mine and surrounding area in east-central Texas. Included are results of pasteextract analyses, constituent concentrations in water from batch-mixing experiments, sulfur analyses, and minerals or mineral groups detected by X-ray diffraction in 12 spoil material samples collected from 3 locations at the mine site. Also, common-constituent and trace-constituent concentrations in water from eight selected wells, located updip and downdip from the mine, are presented. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water from batch-mixing experiments vary from 12 to 908 milligrams per liter. Water from selected wells contain dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 75 to 510 milligrams per liter.

  4. Lignite recovery of cobalt(+3) from an ammoniacal ammonium sulfate solution. Report of investigations/1984

    SciTech Connect

    Slavens, G.J.; Traut, D.E.; Penner, L.R.; Henry, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines has devised technology to recover cobalt, nickel, and byproduct copper from domestic lateritic material using an oxidative, ammoniacal ammonium sulfate leach. Nickel, cobalt, and copper were recovered by solvent extraction and electrowinning. To reduce the cost and complexity of cobalt recovery, an alternate method using lignite to extract Co(+3) was investigated as reported herein.

  5. Nutritional rickets in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Behzat

    2010-08-01

    Nutritional rickets (NR) remains the most common form of developmental bone disease, in spite of the efforts of clinicians and health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease in Turkey. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR exists along a spectrum ranging from isolated vitamin D deficiency to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR results from vita-min D deficiency that may have temporary but profound effects on short- and long-term skeletal development. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency during infancy may predispose a patient to diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, multiple sclerosis, etc. The factors responsible for the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in developing countries and its resurgence in developed countries include the following: limited sunshine exposure as individuals spend more time indoors watching television and working on computers or intentional sunshine avoidance for skin cancer prevention. Traditional clothing (covered dress) further limits the exposure to sunshine and thus decreases the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D. In Turkey, maternal vitamin D deficiency and breast feeding without supplementation are the most prominent reasons. The diagnosis of NR is established with a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. In conclusion, recent literature has drawn attention to the supplemental doses of vitamin D required to achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l), the serum concentration that is needed to optimize absorption of dietary calcium, suppress excess secretion of parathyroid hormone, and reduce fracture risk as well as prevent long-term negative effects. PMID:25610130

  6. Sphingolipidoses in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkara, Hatice Asuman; Topçu, Meral

    2004-09-01

    During the last 5 years 2057 children under the age of 5 with various neurologic symptoms with the suspected diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases were referred to our hospital from different universities and state hospitals. We were able to separate sphingolipidoses by lysosomal enzyme screening. A total of 300 patients (15%) with sphingolipidoses were diagnosed; there were deficiencies of arylsulfatase A [metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD)] in 93 (31%), hexosaminidase [Sandhoff disease (SHD)] in 62 (20.7%), hexosaminidase A [Tay-Sachs disease (TSD)] in 15 (5%), beta-galactosidase (GM1 gangliosidosis) in 35 (11.7%), alpha-galactosidase (Fabry disease) in one (0.3%) cerebroside beta-galactosidase (Krabbe disease) in 65 (21.7%) and glucosylceramidase (Gaucher disease) in 29 (9.6%). SHD (20.7%), MLD (31%) and Krabbe disease (21.7%) were common. Prenatal enzymatic diagnosis was made in 70 at risk pregnancies, 64 for TSD and SHD, three for MLD and three for GM1 gangliosidosis by using chorionic villus biopsy in 54, cord blood samples in 12 and cultured amniotic fluid cells in four. Seventeen fetuses were found to be affected. We have calculated the relative frequency and minimum incidence of sphingolipidoses in Turkey. The combined incidence of sphingolipidoses is 4.615 per 100,000 live births. The calculated incidences are 1.43, 0.95, 1, 0.23, 0.54, 0.45, 0.015 per 100,000 live births for MLD, SHD, Krabbe, Gaucher, TSD, GM1 gangliosidosis and Fabry diseases, respectively. The real incidence, which covers all subtypes of this group of diseases, should be greater than this number. The results suggested that, as a group, sphingolipidoses are relatively common and represent an important health problem in Turkey and some rare autosomal recessive diseases of Turkey are due to 'founder effect' created by consanguineous marriages. PMID:15275696

  7. The association of major, minor and trace inorganic elements with lignites. I. Experimental approach and study of a North Dakota lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Robert N.; Given, Peter H.

    1986-09-01

    Lignites resemble peats, the precursors of coals, in containing many carboxylic acid and other functional groups. Consequently much of the relatively small amount of inorganic matter in lignites is present as cations in carboxylates and in chelated coordination complexes, and not only as distinct mineral phases. Consequently the distribution of inorganic matter in lignites will be influenced by the structure of the organic matter, as well as by microbial processes in peats and the geochemical processes involving erosion of rocks and transport of mineral grains and cations in solution. The objective of this study was to seek information on the distribution of major, minor and trace elements in different forms of combination, and in particular to document organic/inorganic interactions in coal formation. Study of the first of five lignites is reported here. The coal (from the Hagel seam in North Dakota) was separated into five fractions by float/ sink methods, and the fractions were further separated into an ammonium acetate extract, an HCl extract and an insoluble residue. Analysis of the fractions (by atomic absorption, plasma arc emission, emission spectroscopy and neutron activation) was found to give much information on how elements were combined in the coals. Results of the fractionation indicate that Ca, Mg, Na, K, Sr, Ba and Mn were present largely or partly in ion-exchangeable form; appreciable amounts of K (illite), Ba (sulfate, carbonate) and Mn were also present in mineral phases. Some Al appeared to be present in organic association. Ti often occurs in sediments by substitution in clays, but we infer that substantial amounts are present here in both acidsoluble and acid-insoluble organic chelates. The considerable enrichment of a number of elements in the fractions of lowest specific gravity suggests that Be, Sc, Cr, Y, Yb, V, Ni, Cu and Zn are associated primarily or partly with the organic matter. The extent to which these elements are associated with

  8. Harsh Winter in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The predominantly mountainous terrain of the Republic of Turkey is covered by snow in this Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image, produced from data collected on January 13, 2002. The snow-laced peaks of the Kure Daglari mountain range in the north can be seen as they range from the upper middle of the image to the upper right. The mountains parallel the northern coastline, which opens to the Black Sea. Also visible in this image, at the bottom right, is the island of Cyprus. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. Delayed Survey of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in the Former Exclusion Zone in Minami-Soma, Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shinji; Okayasu, Akio; Yeh, Harry; Fritz, Hermann M.; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Shimozono, Takenori

    2014-12-01

    Post-tsunami field surveys in the Minami-Soma exclusion zone in the Fukushima Prefecture were delayed for 15 months after the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. The area was subject to access restrictions until June 2012 due to high radiation levels caused by the meltdown at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The distribution of the measured tsunami heights is presented in combination with observed infrastructure damage. The enhanced tsunami heights in the areas along the shoreline are attributed to wave reflection, funneling and splash-up at cliffs and seawalls, as well as the increased flow resistance as the tsunami plowed through coastal pine-tree forests. Consequently, large tsunami heights exceeding 10 m were limited to areas within 500 m from the shoreline. Onshore profiles of the maximum inundation levels were dependent on inland topography: tsunami heights increased inland in steep V-shaped valleys, while decaying with inundation distance along flat coastal plains. Tsunami flood levels in the coastal plains are affected by the extent of seawall damage: coastal flood levels are higher behind completely destroyed seawalls than behind partially damaged coastal defenses. Remnant seawalls provided valuable lessons to be implemented in future designs of tenacious structures based on the Japanese concept of `nebari' representing resiliency to endure tsunami overflow as the original design height is exceeded.

  10. Myosin II Motors and F-Actin Dynamics Drive the Coordinated Movement of the Centrosome and Soma during CNS Glial-Guided Neuronal Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Solecki, Dr. David; Trivedi, Dr. Niraj; Govek, Eve-Ellen; Kerekes, Ryan A; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Hatten, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Lamination of cortical regions of the vertebrate brain depends on glial-guided neuronal migration. The conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha} localizes to the centrosome and coordinates forward movement of the centrosome and soma in migrating neurons. The cytoskeletal components that produce this unique form of cell polarity and their relationship to polarity signaling cascades are unknown. We show that F-actin and Myosin II motors are enriched in the neuronal leading process and that Myosin II activity is necessary for leading process actin dynamics. Inhibition of Myosin II decreased the speed of centrosome and somal movement, whereas Myosin II activation increased coordinated movement. Ectopic expression or silencing of Par6{alpha} inhibited Myosin II motors by decreasing Myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These findings suggest leading-process Myosin II may function to 'pull' the centrosome and soma forward during glial-guided migration by a mechanism involving the conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha}.

  11. Soma influences GSC progeny differentiation via the cell adhesion-mediated steroid-let-7-Wingless signaling cascade that regulates chromatin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    König, Annekatrin; Shcherbata, Halyna R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is known that signaling from the germline stem cell niche is required to maintain germline stem cell identity in Drosophila. However, it is not clear whether the germline stem-cell daughters differentiate by default (because they are physically distant from the niche) or whether additional signaling is necessary to initiate the differentiation program. Previously, we showed that ecdysteroid signaling cell non-autonomously regulates early germline differentiation via its soma-specific co-activator and co-repressor, Taiman and Abrupt. Now, we demonstrate that this regulation is modulated by the miRNA let-7, which acts in a positive feedback loop to confer ecdysone signaling robustness via targeting its repressor, the transcription factor Abrupt. This feedback loop adjusts ecdysteroid signaling in response to some stressful alterations in the external and internal conditions, which include temperature stress and aging, but not nutritional deprivation. Upon let-7 deficit, escort cells fail to properly differentiate: their shape, division, and cell adhesive characteristics are perturbed. These cells have confused cellular identity and form columnar-like rather than squamous epithelium and fail to send protrusions in between differentiating germline cysts, affecting soma-germline communication. Particularly, levels of the homophilic cell adhesion protein Cadherin, which recruits Wg signaling transducer β-catenin, are increased in mutant escort cells and, correspondingly, in the adjacent germline cells. Readjustment of heterotypic (soma-germline) cell adhesion modulates Wg signaling intensity in the germline, which in turn regulates histone modifications that promote expression of the genes necessary to trigger early germline differentiation. Thus, our data first show the intrinsic role for Wg signaling in the germline and support a model where the soma influences the tempo of germline differentiation in response to external conditions. PMID:25661868

  12. Recent activity in Turkey.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    The role of Pathfinder grants to recent family planning projects led by business and labor in Turkey is described. Pathfinder funded a major portion of the Turkish Family Planning and Health Foundation, a grant agency set up to complement government programs. One current project is a survey of family planning needs of squatter communities. The Foundation's founder established a factory-based family planning clinic, aided by Pathfinder, now self-supporting. The Turkish TURK-IS Labor Federation has supported several other worksite clinics, and has placed family planning among its top priorities. Pathfinder supported development of their population policy statement. Turkey has only recently passed progressive family planning legislation and permitted significant private sector activities. The population of 52 million is growing at 2.8%. Unemployment is high; per capita income is $1160. The government's goals are to reduce fertility from 4.3 to 2.5 children per woman and increase contraceptive prevalence from 20% to 60% by the year 2000. PMID:12179678

  13. Atomic-resolution dissection of the energetics and mechanism of isomerization of hydrated ATP-Mg(2+) through the SOMA string method.

    PubMed

    Branduardi, Davide; Marinelli, Fabrizio; Faraldo-Gómez, José D

    2016-03-01

    The atomic mechanisms of isomerization of ATP-Mg(2+) in solution are characterized using the recently developed String Method with Optimal Molecular Alignment (SOMA) and molecular-dynamics simulations. Bias-Exchange Metadynamics simulations are first performed to identify the primary conformers of the ATP-Mg(2+) complex and their connectivity. SOMA is then used to elucidate the minimum free-energy path (MFEP) for each transition, in a 48-dimensional space. Analysis of the per-atom contributions to the global free-energy profiles reveals that the mechanism of these transitions is controlled by the Mg(2+) ion and its coordinating oxygen atoms in the triphosphate moiety, as well as by the ion-hydration shell. Metadynamics simulations in path collective variables based on the MFEP demonstrate these isomerizations proceed across a narrow channel of configurational space, thus validating the premise underlying SOMA. This study provides a roadmap for the examination of conformational changes in biomolecules, based on complementary enhanced-sampling techniques with different strengths. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26149527

  14. Exocytosis of serotonin from the neuronal soma is sustained by a serotonin and calcium-dependent feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Pinzon, Carolina; Cercós, Montserrat G.; Noguez, Paula; Trueta, Citlali; De-Miguel, Francisco F.

    2014-01-01

    The soma of many neurons releases large amounts of transmitter molecules through an exocytosis process that continues for hundreds of seconds after the end of the triggering stimulus. Transmitters released in this way modulate the activity of neurons, glia and blood vessels over vast volumes of the nervous system. Here we studied how somatic exocytosis is maintained for such long periods in the absence of electrical stimulation and transmembrane Ca2+ entry. Somatic exocytosis of serotonin from dense core vesicles could be triggered by a train of 10 action potentials at 20 Hz in Retzius neurons of the leech. However, the same number of action potentials produced at 1 Hz failed to evoke any exocytosis. The 20-Hz train evoked exocytosis through a sequence of intracellular Ca2+ transients, with each transient having a different origin, timing and intracellular distribution. Upon electrical stimulation, transmembrane Ca2+ entry through L-type channels activated Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. A resulting fast Ca2+ transient evoked an early exocytosis of serotonin from sparse vesicles resting close to the plasma membrane. This Ca2+ transient also triggered the transport of distant clusters of vesicles toward the plasma membrane. Upon exocytosis, the released serotonin activated autoreceptors coupled to phospholipase C, which in turn produced an intracellular Ca2+ increase in the submembrane shell. This localized Ca2+ increase evoked new exocytosis as the vesicles in the clusters arrived gradually at the plasma membrane. In this way, the extracellular serotonin elevated the intracellular Ca2+ and this Ca2+ evoked more exocytosis. The resulting positive feedback loop maintained exocytosis for the following hundreds of seconds until the last vesicles in the clusters fused. Since somatic exocytosis displays similar kinetics in neurons releasing different types of transmitters, the data presented here contributes to understand the cellular basis of paracrine neurotransmission

  15. Co-liquefaction of the Elbistan Lignite and Poplar Sawdust. Part I: The Effect of the Liquefaction Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Karaca, H.; Acar, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Keklik, I.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust, and the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and the poplar sawdust in an inert atmosphere and in non-catalytic conditions have been examined. Also, the effects of solvent/coal ratio and stirring speed on the total conversion derived as the result of the liquefaction process was attempted to be determined. Based on the results, although the effects of the solvent/coal ratio and the stirring speed on total conversion are similar for both the Elbistan lignite and the poplar sawdust, it was also noted that, under similar conditions, the conversion for the poplar sawdust was higher, as compared to the conversion of the Elbistan lignite. As the result of the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust under inert atmospheric conditions, the total conversion was increased partially, depending on both solvent/coal ratio and the speed of stirring. However, it was also noted that the total conversion did not change to a significant extent in high solvent/coal ratios and in stirring speed. As the result of the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust under inert atmospheric conditions, total conversion was increased, based on the solvent/coal ratio. However, as in the case of the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust, it was noted that the high solvent/coal ratios (i.e., solvent/coal ratios of higher than 2/1) did not have a significant effect on the total conversion that was derived as the result of the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust.

  16. Long term results from the first US low NOx conversion of a tangential lignite fired unit

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.; Woldehanna, S.; Grusha, J.; Heinz, G.

    1999-07-01

    Lignite fueled tangential furnaces, when compared to those burning bituminous coal, have unique design and operating requirements which obligate careful assessment for successful low NOx retrofit. Recently, a Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation Tangential Low NOx (TLN) system was installed at Cooperative Power/United Power Association (CP/UPA) lignite fired Coal Creek Unit No. 2. The system has not only achieved the plant's annual NOx emission compliance requirements, but has also substantially improved furnace operating conditions. After nearly one year of operation, the systems performance has continued to support these results. A second unit is scheduled for retrofit in the Spring of 1999. These results are an important milestone for tangential low NOx technology and serve as a forerunner for future low NOx conversions involving low rank coals.

  17. Supercritical Water as Nanomedium for Gasification of Lignite-Water Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzh, Raisa; Bortyshevskyi, Valerii

    2016-05-01

    The gasification of an aqueous suspension of lignite from Alexandria coalfield (Ukraine) under the supercritical pressure was studied. The initial rates of the formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane were evaluated. The mutually stimulating interaction of the components of "brown coal-water-mineral matter" system was shown due to the influence of nanoscaled water medium on the formation of dipole-inductive, dispersive and ionic associates. In the temperature range of 300-450 °C, the oxygen source for gaseous products of the lignite supercritical gasification is mainly ion-associative nanoclustered water. The source of hydrogen at the subcritical temperature is the organic part of brown coal. For the supercritical water, the source of H is the nanoscale medium with ion associates. The last ones were responsible for the further transformation of coal.

  18. Moessbauer analysis of Lewisville, Texas, archaeological site lignite and hearth samples. Environmental geology notes

    SciTech Connect

    Shiley, R.H.; Hughes, R.E.; Cahill, R.A.; Konopka, K.L.; Hinckley, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Lewisville site, located in Denton County on the Trinity River north of Dallas, Texas, was thought to provide evidence of the earliest human activity in the western hemisphere. Radiocarbon dates of 37,000 to 38,000 B.P. determined for the site in the late 1950s conflicted with the presence of a Clovis point, which would fix the age of the site between 11,000 and 11,500 B.P. It was hypothesized (Johnson, 1982) that Clovis people were burning lignite from nearby outcrops: lignite in hearth residues would give older than actual ages by radiocarbon dating. X-ray diffraction and instrumental neutron-activation analysis proved inconclusive; however, Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated that hematite, a pyrite combustion product, was present in the ash. From this evidence the authors conclude that there is some support for the hypothesis.

  19. Correlation between the mineral matter and the combustion kinetics of some Turkish lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yavuz, R.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    1996-12-31

    Coal is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic materials. The inorganic portion of coal is the sum of all mineral matter and inorganically bound elements that are present in coal. Coal contains significant and variable amounts of largely incombustible mineral matter which could influence the combustion characteristics of it, which is important in the design of coal fired boilers. In this investigation, kinetic evaluation of the combustion TG curves obtained at defined conditions for 23 Turkish lignites was achieved. A computer program in BASIC which enables regression analysis to be carried out was used to obtain the kinetic parameters from experimental nonisothermal TG data. In the kinetic analysis of curves 20 different model equations of possible solid-state rate controlling mechanism were considered. It was found that experimental TG curves were correlated well with Prout-Tompkins` model equation. Calculated activation energy values of lignites were correlated with their Ca, Mg, K and Na contents.

  20. Estimation of spatial variability of lignite mine dumping ground soil properties using CPTu results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagińska, Irena; Kawa, Marek; Janecki, Wojciech

    2016-03-01

    The paper deals with application of CPTu test results for the probabilistic modeling of dumping grounds. The statistical measures use results from 42 CPT test points located in the lignite mine dumping ground from the region of Central Europe. Both the tip resistance qc as well as local friction fs are tested. Based on the mean values and standard deviations of measured quantities the specific zones in the dumping site profile are distinguished. For three main zones standard deviations of linearly de-trended functions, distributions of normalized de-trended values for qc and fs are examined. Also the vertical scales of fluctuation for both measured quantities are estimated. The obtained result shows that lignite mine dumping site can be successfully described with the Random Field Theory. Additional use of fs values introduces supplementary statistical information.

  1. The lignipel process mass production of a low moisture content lignite agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Blaustein, E.W.; Garvin, J.P.

    1983-11-01

    The goal is to convert lignite to a less degradable and easily transportable product with a greatly reduced water content. Ideally, a process was sought that would result in an agglomerate with less than 20 percent moisture content remaining, without spontaneous combustion problems, significantly reduced dust losses, and improved heating value. The research and development project was significantly contracted to an engineering company and not to a research institution. The rationale was that the development of the improved coal should be as soon as possible translated into an actual industrial process. The approach while unorthodox produced results. Four years after conceiving the project, the engineering team demonstrated the new process with a continuous production of lignite pellets in a small industrial facility. A conceptional design and cost estimate for a 4,000 ton/day pelletizing facility was completed shortly thereafter.

  2. Supercritical Water as Nanomedium for Gasification of Lignite-Water Suspension.

    PubMed

    Korzh, Raisa; Bortyshevskyi, Valerii

    2016-12-01

    The gasification of an aqueous suspension of lignite from Alexandria coalfield (Ukraine) under the supercritical pressure was studied. The initial rates of the formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane were evaluated. The mutually stimulating interaction of the components of "brown coal-water-mineral matter" system was shown due to the influence of nanoscaled water medium on the formation of dipole-inductive, dispersive and ionic associates. In the temperature range of 300-450 °C, the oxygen source for gaseous products of the lignite supercritical gasification is mainly ion-associative nanoclustered water. The source of hydrogen at the subcritical temperature is the organic part of brown coal. For the supercritical water, the source of H is the nanoscale medium with ion associates. The last ones were responsible for the further transformation of coal. PMID:27194442

  3. Production of a nitrogeneous humic fertilizer by the oxidation-ammoniation of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Coca, J.

    1984-12-01

    Two lignite samples were oxidised with HNO/sub 3/ (20% wt) at 75 C and treated afterwards with NH/sub 3/ in a fluidised-bed reactor in a temperature range 100-375 C. The effects of temperature, NH/sub 3/ flow rate, and reaction time on the total N/sub 2/ content of the product are reported. The product contained 7-13% wt of total N/sub 2/ which increased as the ammoniation temperature increased. Soil nitrification measurements of the N/sub 2/-enriched lignites showed that the maximum conversion to nitrates and rate of nitrification are exhibited by the product obtained at the lowest ammoniation temperature, i.e. 100 C. Maximum conversion to nitrates at that temperature was 45%, which compares well with similar products such as ammoniated peat (35%) and ammonium nitrohumates (45%).

  4. Combustion Characteristics of Lignite Char in a Laboratory-scale Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yoshizo

    In a dual fluidized bed gasifier, the residual char after steam gasification is burnt in riser. The objectives of this work are to clarify the effect of parameters (temperature, pressure, and particle size of lignite char) of char combustion using a laboratory-scale pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC). As a result, the burnout time of lignite char can be improved with increasing operating pressure, and temperature. In addition, the decrease in the particle size of char enhanced the effect on burnout time. The initial combustion rate of the char can be increased with increasing operating pressure. The effect was decreased with increasing operating temperature. However, the effect of operating pressure was slightly changed in small particle size, such as 0.5-1.0 mm. It takes about 20 sec to burn 50% of char in the operating pressure of 0.5 MPa and the particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm.

  5. Kinetics and mechanisms of catalytic hydroliquefaction and hydrogasification of lignite. Quarterly report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Kranich, W.L.; Gueruez, K.; Weiss, A.H.

    1981-08-10

    The work reported in the Final Report for DOE Contract DE-AC22-77ET10618 has been continued under the current contract to expand the range of conditions previously studied. This has permitted a more detailed analysis of the variables involved in the hydroliquefaction and hydrogasification of lignite than was possible in the previous report. The principal progress has been a study of the catalytic batch hydroliquefaction of a range of low rank coals including two sub-bituminous coals, four lignites, and leonardite, as well as cellulose. These were studied both as received and after partial demineralization by washing with hydrochloric acid. The study is fully reported in the attached article which has been submitted for publication in a technical journal.

  6. A study of uranium and molybdenum in a South Texas lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Ilger, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The modes of occurrence of U and Mo in a South Texas lignite (Eocene, Jackson Group, Whitsett Formation) have been investigated in detail. The distribution of U and Mo in the whole coal density separates indicates variable modes of occurrence predominantly in finely disseminated form. The relative enrichment of U in the heaviest density separate indicates the presence of mineralized uranium. U and Mo extraction efficiencies for most of the organic solvents studied were low and it appears that these elements are not occurring in significant amounts as low molecular weight organometallics. Humic acids have been separated into three M.W. tractions (110,000, 24,000, and 7,000 daltons) by gel filtration chromatography. The humic acids have also been separated into five molecular weight fractions (ranging from > 100,000 to < 1000) by ultrafiltration for the determination of the U and Mo distribution. The >100,000 M.W. fraction contained 78 percent of the U and the <1000 M.W. fraction contained 67 percent of the Mo. Sequential extraction of the lignite with HCl solutions ranging in pH from 3.0 to 0.7 produced a U extraction curve that is similar in shape to the acid dissociation curves of metal complexes. The good fit between curves for the first HCl lignite extraction and calculated pH dependent uranyl-humate extraction are consistent with an exchange between the uranyl ions and hydrogen ions at the humic acid sites. Calculations indicate that approximately 80 percent of the U is humically associated. Poorly crystalline uranium oxide minerals (possibly uraninite) were found in the >2.90 g/ml fraction of the low temperature ash by SEMEDS. These minerals appear to be precipitated onto clay particles. The uranium oxide minerals account for 10 to 20 percent of the U present in the lignite.

  7. Effect of various experimental parameters on the swelling and supercritical extraction properties of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Hacimehmetoglu, S.; Sinag, A.; Tekes, A.T.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Canel, M.

    2007-07-01

    The original lignite sample, the samples swollen in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), dimethylformamide (DMF), pyridine, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone, ethylenediamine (EDA), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH), the samples impregnated by ZnCl{sub 2} as catalyst and the samples both swollen in the solvents and impregnated by ZnCl{sub 2} were subjected to the supercritical toluene extraction and the effects of temperature, pressure, pre-swelling procedure, hydrogen donor solvent (tetralin), and catalyst on the extract yields were investigated.

  8. Environment of deposition of an Eocene lignite-bearing sedimentary sequence in northeast Rusk County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, W.F.; Kersey, D.G.; Mathewson, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The stratigraphy and environment of deposition of the undivided Wilcox Group (lower Eocene) and Carrizo Formation (Eocene) were studied in an 88 km/sup 2/ (34 mi/sup 2/) area in northeastern Rusk County, Texas. Seven cores and 300 boreholes logs were used in the study. The undivided Wilcox Group is the predominant geologic unit in the study area and consists of poorly lithified, interlaminated sandstones, siltstone, claystones, and lignite seams. Lignite seams range in thickness from 0.1 to 2.2 m (4 in. to 7 ft) and are conformable with the overlying and underlying strata. Subtle coarsening-upward sequences, 1.8-31.3 m (6-103 ft) thick, occur between lignite seams; however, the individual sandstone units, 0.3-1.8 m (4 in.-6 ft) thick, within these sequences fine upward. The fine-grained rocks of the Wilcox Group are overlain unconformably by well-sorted, medium to coarse-grained sandstones of the Carrizo Formation. The small-scale sedimentary structures, fine-grain size, and matrix-rich nature of the undivided Wilcox units are characteristic of fluvial overbank deposits. Peat beds probably accumulated in interchannel swamps on a lower alluvial plain, distal from overbank discharge. As streams meandered across the area, overbank discharge buried the swamps. The coarsening-upward sequences between lignite seams indicate overbank deposition from a prograding stream. Swamps were reestablished as the stream was abandoned or migrated away. Fining-upward trends in grain size and the upward decrease in scale of sedimentary structures indicate the Carrizo Formation was deposited in fluvial channels.

  9. Combustion characteristics of blends of lignite and bituminous coal with different binder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    2000-05-01

    In this study, the combustion characteristics of blends of a Turkish lignite and a Siberian bituminous coal with and without binder materials were investigated. Sunflower shell, sawdust, and molasses were used as binder materials. The combustion curves of the coal and binder material samples and of the blends were obtained using differential thermal analysis (DTA). The differences observed in the DTA curves of the samples are discussed in detail.

  10. Soil stabilisation using AMD sludge, compost and lignite: TCLP leachability and continuous acid leaching.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A; Yip, Alex C K

    2013-11-01

    Utilising locally available industrial by-products for in situ metal stabilisation presents a low-cost remediation approach for contaminated soil. This study explored the potential use of inorganic (acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge and zero-valent iron) and carbonaceous materials (green waste compost, manure compost, and lignite) for minimising the environmental risks of As and Cu at a timber treatment site. After 9-month soil incubation, significant sequestration of As and Cu in soil solution was accomplished by AMD sludge, on which adsorption and co-precipitation could take place. The efficacy of AMD sludge was comparable to that of zero-valent iron. There was marginal benefit of adding carbonaceous materials. However, in a moderately aggressive environment (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), AMD sludge only suppressed the leachability of As but not Cu. Therefore, the provision of compost and lignite augmented the simultaneous reduction of Cu leachability, probably via surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups. Under continuous acid leaching in column experiments, combined application of AMD sludge with compost proved more effective than AMD sludge with lignite. This was possibly attributed to the larger amount of dissolved organic matter with aromatic moieties from lignite, which may enhance Cu and As mobility. Nevertheless, care should be taken to mitigate ecological impact associated with short-term substantial Ca release and continuous release of Al at a moderate level under acid leaching. This study also articulated the engineering implications and provided recommendations for field deployment, material processing, and assessment framework to ensure an environmentally sound application of reactive materials. PMID:24144464