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1

Induction of plant somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large scale propagation of plants via somatic embryogenesis, has so far been difficult to achieve. In this thesis research is described leading to embryogenic cell lines that can be maintained for a long period, without loss of genetic stability. It is also described how embryogenic potential of cell lines can be influenced by the addition of specific arabinogalactan-proteins.We consider

M. Kreuger

1996-01-01

2

Improvements in somatic embryogenesis protocol in Feijoa ( Acca sellowiana (Berg) Burret): Induction, conversion and synthetic seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pineapple guava (Acca sellowiana) syn. Feijoa sellowiana, a Brazilian indigenous Myrtaceae is under domestication in South Brazil. Previous works showed that this species is responsive to somatic embryogenesis and recalcitrant to conventional methods of clonal propagation. In the present work it was evaluated the role of components of culture medium in the induction and development of somatic embryos. The technology

Gabriela Claudia Cangahuala-Inocente; Lírio Luiz Dal Vesco; Douglas Steinmacher; Antonio Carlos Torres; Miguel Pedro Guerra

2007-01-01

3

DNA methylation during sexual embryogenesis and implications on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in Castanea sativa Miller.  

PubMed

From anthesis to mature seed formation, burrs from cross-pollinated adult Castanea sativa Miller trees were characterized and seven developmental stages defined based on macro and micromorphological traits. In order to get an insight into the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in sexual embryogenesis and to define somatic embryogenesis induction capability, global DNA methylation and the somatic embryogenic competence were quantified. On cross-pollinated trees once fertilization takes place, at least one ovule per ovary becomes dominant, and transient DNA demethylation occurs coinciding with the start of the sexual embryogenic programme. Unfertilized ovules from the same cluster, which maintain their prior size, increase their methylation level and undergo degeneration. These results were validated using non-cross-pollinated trees and the asynchrony of flower receptivity. When testing in vitro somatic embryogenesis response of isolated dominant ovules and axes from zygotic embryos under cross-pollinated conditions, the highest competence was found for reaching seed maturity. Thus, a "developmental window" of somatic embryogenesis in chestnut has been characterized. It includes from fertilization to embryo maturity, and a transient decrease in methylation is necessary after fertilization for the development of the somatic embryogenesis response. PMID:20552230

Viejo, M; Rodríguez, R; Valledor, L; Pérez, M; Cañal, M J; Hasbún, R

2010-12-01

4

Cellular and molecular changes associated with somatic embryogenesis induction in Agave tequilana.  

PubMed

In spite of the importance of somatic embryogenesis for basic research in plant embryology as well as for crop improvement and plant propagation, it is still unclear which mechanisms and cell signals are involved in acquiring embryogenic competence by a somatic cell. The aim of this work was to study cellular and molecular changes involved in the induction stage in calli of Agave tequilana Weber cultivar azul in order to gain more information on the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis in this species. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical techniques were used to identify differences between embryogenic and non-embryogenic cells from several genotypes. Presence of granular structures was detected after somatic embryogenesis induction in embryogenic cells; composition of these structures as well as changes in protein and polysaccharide distribution was studied using Coomassie brilliant blue and Periodic Acid-Schiff stains. Distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and pectins was investigated in embryogenic and non-embryogenic cells by immunolabelling using anti-AGP monoclonal antibodies (JIM4, JIM8 and JIM13) as well as an anti-methyl-esterified pectin-antibody (JIM7), in order to evaluate major modifications in cell wall composition in the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis. Our observations pointed out that induction of somatic embryogenesis produced accumulation of proteins and polysaccharides in embryogenic cells. Presence of JIM8, JIM13 and JIM7 epitopes were detected exclusively in embryogenic cells, which supports the idea that specific changes in cell wall are involved in the acquisition of embryogenic competence of A. tequilana. PMID:22270826

Portillo, L; Olmedilla, A; Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, F

2012-10-01

5

Protocol for Callus Induction and Somatic Embryogenesis in Moso Bamboo  

PubMed Central

Moso bamboo [Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (Mazel ex J. Houz.) Ohwi] is one of the most important forest crops in China and the rest of Asia. Although many sympodial bamboo tissue culture protocols have been established, there is no protocol available for plantlet regeneration as indicated by callus induction for monopodial bamboos, such as Moso bamboo. In the present report, embryogenic callus induction, embryoid development, and germination were established for Moso bamboo from zygotic seed embryos. Callus was initiated from zygotic embryos after 10–20 d culture on MS media supplemented with 4.0 mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.1 mg/L zeatin (ZT). About 50% of the explants produced calli, and nearly 15% of the calli were found to be embryogenic in nature. These embryogenic calli can be subcultured for proliferation in the Murashige and Skoog media (MS) supplemented with 0.5–2.0 mg/L 2, 4-D. These calli were found to have maintained their capacity for regeneration even after one year of subculture. The viable somatic embryoids regenerated in medium containing 5.0–7.0 mg/L ZT. Nearly 5% of the calli were found capable of regenerating into plantlets directly in MS medium containing 5.0–7.0 mg/L ZT. Root growth was more pronounced when the plantlets were transferred to medium containing 2.0 mg/L NAA. After 30 days of subculture, the plantlets were transferred to a greenhouse. PMID:24349159

Wu, Xiao-Li; Gu, Xiao-Ping

2013-01-01

6

Induction and establishment of somatic embryogenesis in elite Indian cotton cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Khandwa-2).  

PubMed

Embryogenesis in cotton is a difficult task due its genome dependency. We used 3 cotton cultivars (Khandwa-2, G. Cot. 10, and BC-68–2) and Coker-312 as control for regeneration. Efficient somatic embryogenesis was induced in agronomically important Indian cotton cultivars, Khandwa-2 and G. Cot. 10. For callusing in all the cultivars, different media combinations were tried. Embryogenesis was initiated on a hormone-free MS medium (MSB). For embryo maturation and recovery excess of L-glutamine and l-asparagine were used. Khandwa-2 somatic embryos were successfully regenerated into plants. However, no plantlet was obtained in case of G. Cot. 10. Callus induction was also observed in BC-68–2 but there was no embryogenesis observed. The study indicated that the medium and genotype significantly effects embryogenesis. An efficient protocol is described here for regenerating plants via somatic embryogenesis in an elite Indian cotton cultivar Khandwa-2. PMID:24494238

Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Harpal; Shukla, Anoop Kumar; Verma, Praveen C; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

2013-10-01

7

Induction and establishment of somatic embryogenesis in elite Indian cotton cultivar (Gossypium hirsutumL. cv Khandwa-2)  

PubMed Central

Embryogenesis in cotton is a difficult task due its genome dependency. We used 3 cotton cultivars (Khandwa-2, G. Cot. 10, and BC-68–2) and Coker-312 as control for regeneration. Efficient somatic embryogenesis was induced in agronomically important Indian cotton cultivars, Khandwa-2 and G. Cot. 10. For callusing in all the cultivars, different media combinations were tried. Embryogenesis was initiated on a hormone-free MS medium (MSB). For embryo maturation and recovery excess of L-glutamine and l-asparagine were used. Khandwa-2 somatic embryos were successfully regenerated into plants. However, no plantlet was obtained in case of G. Cot. 10. Callus induction was also observed in BC-68–2 but there was no embryogenesis observed. The study indicated that the medium and genotype significantly effects embryogenesis. An efficient protocol is described here for regenerating plants via somatic embryogenesis in an elite Indian cotton cultivar Khandwa-2. PMID:24169428

Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Harpal; Shukla, Anoop Kumar; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

2013-01-01

8

Effects of carbohydrate addition on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different carbohydrates was tested on early somatic embryogenesis of Hevea brasiliensis. Sucrose was replaced with maltose, fructose or glucose. Somatic embryo production was significantly higher with maltose.\\u000a With maltose, the initial yellow colour of the calli turned orange, and dry matter production after 28 days' culture was half\\u000a that obtained with sucrose. Maltose also reduced the soluble

G. Blanc; N. Michaux-Ferrière; C. Teisson; L. Lardet; M. P. Carron

1999-01-01

9

Effect of liquid pulses with 6-benzyladenine on the induction of somatic embryogenesis from coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) callus cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of the physical state of the nutrient medium on the induction of somatic embryogenesis on cell\\u000a cultures derived from coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Non-embryogenic callus tissues were pulsed initially with 50 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) for 6, 24 or 48 h in half-strength\\u000a liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. After pretreatment, calli were transferred to agar-solidified half-strength MS medium

Iosif Papanastasiou; Katerina Soukouli; Georgia Moschopoulou; Jane Kahia; Spiridon Kintzios

2008-01-01

10

Somatic Embryogenesis in Genera Medicago : an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter outlines the details of somatic embryogenesis in genera Medicago.\\u000a Various factors that influence the process of somatic embryo induction, development, maturation and\\u000a conversion are discussed. The role of genotype, explant choice and preparation hormonal compositions\\u000a and the origin of somatic embryos are also reviewed. Brief attention is paid to the regenerant's\\u000a phenotype and fertility.

A. Iantcheva; M. Vlahova; A. Atanassov

11

Genetic variation in somatic embryogenesis of Rosa Hybrida L.  

E-print Network

' and 'Baby Love' were cultured on somatic embryogenesis induction media and evaluated for the ability to produce embryogenic callus. Cultures of 'Tournament of Roses' produced somatic embryos at a much higher frequency versus 'Baby Love' that produced...

Burrell, Anna Mildred

2004-09-30

12

A new approach to direct somatic embryogenesis in Medicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly efficient system for direct somatic embryogenesis is described. Leaf sections originating from young trifoliate leaves of Medicago falcata line 47\\/1–5 and Medicago sativa line No2\\/9R, directly produced embryos after cultivation in liquid B5IV induction medium. In comparison with indirect somatic embryogenesis the system omits the callus stage and thus allows shortening of the process of somatic embryogenesis in

P. Denchev; M. Velcheva; A. Atanassov

1991-01-01

13

Mode of Action of Plant Hormones and Plant Growth Regulators During Induction of Somatic Embryogenesis: Molecular Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant hormones play critical roles in the establishment of somatic embryogenesis. During this\\u000a process, somatic plant cells reverse their state of differentiation, acquire pluripotentiality and\\u000a set up a new developmental program. The identification of the regulatory mechanisms that govern\\u000a the key events of somatic embryogenesis requires molecular and genetic investigations. One critical\\u000a issue is how plant hormones and growth regulators act

Clément Thomas; Víctor Jiménez

14

Embryo production through somatic embryogenesis can be used to study cell differentiation in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis is the process by which somatic cells, under induction conditions, generate embryogenic cells, which go through a series of morphological and biochemical changes that result in the formation of a somatic embryo. Somatic embryogenesis differs from zygotic embryogenesis in that it is observable, its various culture conditions can be controlled, and a lack of material is not a

Francisco R. Quiroz-Figueroa; Rafael Rojas-Herrera; Rosa M. Galaz-Avalos; Víctor M. Loyola-Vargas

2006-01-01

15

Regulation of Somatic Embryogenesis in Higher Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis is the developmental process by which somatic cells undergo restructuring to generate embryogenic cells. These cells then go through a series of morphological and biochemical changes that result in the formation of a somatic or non-zygotic embryo capable of regenerating plants. Somatic embryogenesis represents a unique developmental pathway that includes a number of characteristic events: dedifferentiation of cells,

Xiyan Yang; Xianlong Zhang

2010-01-01

16

Somatic embryogenesis from peach palm zygotic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors affecting the induction and development of somatic embryos and plantlet acclimatization of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) were evaluated to establish an efficient regenerative protocol based on somatic embryogenesis. Mature zygotic embryos\\u000a were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0–40 ?M of picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid)\\u000a and 0 or 5 ?M of 2-isopentyladenine (6-dimethylaminopurine) (2-iP). After 5 mo. in

D. A. Steinmacher; G. C. Cangahuala-Inocente; C. R. Clement; M. P. Guerra

2007-01-01

17

LEAFY COTYLEDON1 , FUSCA3 expression and auxin treatment in relation to somatic embryogenesis induction in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression pattern of the LEC1 and FUS3 genes during somatic embryogenesis in Arabidopsis explants (immature zygotic embryos) induced in vitro was analysed, using\\u000a Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). The analysis revealed differential expression of LEC1 but not FUS3 within a 30 day time course of somatic embryo development, and a significant auxin-dependent upregulation of LEC1 was found over the time course.

Agnieszka Ledwo?; Malgorzata D. Gaj

18

Somatic embryogenesis in wild cherry (Prunus avium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect somatic embryogenesis was obtained inPrunus avium L. from either somatic or zygotic embryos. An embryogenic line\\u000a was established by reinduction of embryogenic calluses from somatic embryos. The line was maintained for more than 3 years\\u000a through 6 generations of embryogenic cultures. In the last 2 generations, more than 50% of the explants were embryogenic.\\u000a Embryos at different stages of

Elisabeth Garin; Emmanuel Grenier; Ghislaine Grenier-De March

1997-01-01

19

Effects of different concentrations of 2,4-D and BAP on somatic embryogenesis induction in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).  

PubMed

To optimize an in vitro protocol for propagation of saffron through somatic embryogenesis, effects of various concentrations of 2,4-D ( 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg L(-1)) in combination with BAP (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg L(-1)) were studied. Surface-sterilized corms were cut transversally into equal portions and the upper or lower parts were used separately as explants. All treatments were maintained in the darkness at 24 +/- 2 degrees C. After 70 days, the first globular embryos were observed and the number of embryos on each explant reached to its maximum 3 months after culture. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between treatments regarding the number of embryos induced on each explant. The most effective treatment was 2.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D + 1.0 mg L(-1) BAP for both types of explant (inducing 6.5 +/- 1.3 and 35.95 +/- 4.9 embryos on each explant for the upper and lower parts, respectively). The average percentages of explants showing embryogenic response were 33.3 and 93.3% for the upper and the lower part of corm tissue respectively in this treatment. Complementary studies are in progress to optimize maturation and germination stages of these somatic embryos. PMID:19090256

Rajabpoor, Sh; Azghandi, A V; Saboora, A

2007-11-01

20

Somatic Embryogenesis in Peach Palm Using the Thin Cell Layer Technique: Induction, Morpho-histological Aspects and AFLP Analysis of Somaclonal Variation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The thin cell layer (TCL) technique is based on the use of very small explants and has allowed enhanced in vitro morphogenesis in several plant species. The present study evaluated the TCL technique as a procedure for somatic embryo production and plantlet regeneration of peach palm. Methods TCL explants from different positions in the shoot apex and leaf sheath of peach palm were cultivated in MS culture medium supplemented with 0–600 µm Picloram in the presence of activated charcoal. The production of primary calli and embryogenic calli was evaluated in these different conditions. Histological and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses were conducted to study in vitro morphogenetic responses and genetic stability, respectively, of the regenerated plantlets. Key Results Abundant primary callus induction was observed from TCLs of the shoot meristem in culture media supplemented with 150–600 µm Picloram (83–97 %, respectively). The production of embryogenic calli depends on Picloram concentration and explant position. The best response observed was 43 % embryogenic callus production from shoot meristem TCL on 300 µm Picloram. In maturation conditions, 34 ± 4 somatic embryos per embryogenic callus were obtained, and 45·0 ± 3·4 % of these fully developed somatic embryos were converted, resulting in plantlets ready for acclimatization, of which 80 % survived. Histological studies revealed that the first cellular division events occurred in cells adjacent to vascular tissue, resulting in primary calli, whose growth was ensured by a meristematic zone. A multicellular origin of the resulting somatic embryos arising from the meristematic zone is suggested. During maturation, histological analyses revealed bipolarization of the somatic embryos, as well as the development of new somatic embryos. AFLP analyses revealed that 92 % of the regenerated plantlets were true to type. The use of TCL explants considerably improves the number of calli and somatic embryos produced in comparison with previously described protocols for in vitro regeneration of peach palm. Conclusions The present study suggests that the TCL somatic embryogenesis protocol developed is feasible, although it still requires further optimization for in vitro multiplication of peach palm, especially the use of similar explants obtained from adult palm trees. PMID:17670751

Steinmacher, D. A.; Krohn, N. G.; Dantas, A. C. M.; Stefenon, V. M.; Clement, C. R.; Guerra, M. P.

2007-01-01

21

Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweetpotato  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas L.(Lam)l. Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryo-genesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants. They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

1997-01-01

22

Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

1997-01-01

23

Plant regeneration through direct somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Dendrobium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol for induction of direct somatic embryogenesis, secondary embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Dendrobium cv. Chiengmai Pink was developed. Thidiazuron (TDZ) at 0.3, 1 and 3 mg dm?3 induced 5–25 % of leaf tip segments of in vitro grown plants to directly form embryos after 60 d of culture, and 1 mg dm?3 TDZ was the best treatment. Somatic

H. H. Chung; J. T. Chen; W. C. Chang

2007-01-01

24

Somatic Embryogenesis in Some Cactus and Agave Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis is an asexual form of plant propagation in nature that mimics many of the events of sexual reproduction. Also, this process may be reproduced artificially by the manipulation of tissues and cells in vitro. Some of the most important factors for a successful plant regeneration are the culture medium and environmental incubation conditions. In vitro somatic embryogenesis is

Fernando Santacruz-Ruvalcaba; Antonia Gutiérrez-Mora; Benjamín Rodríguez-Gara

25

Spaceflight reduces somatic embryogenesis in orchardgrass (Poaceae)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Somatic embryos initiate and develop from single mesophyll cells in in vitro cultured leaf segments of orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Segments were plated at time periods ranging from 21 to 0.9 d (21 h) prior to launch on an 11 d spaceflight (STS-64). Using a paired t-test, there was no significant difference in embryogenesis from preplating periods of 14 d and 21 d. However, embryogenesis was reduced by 70% in segments plated 21 h before launch and this treatment was significant at P=0.0001. The initial cell divisions leading to embryo formation would be taking place during flight in this treatment. A higher ratio of anticlinal:periclinal first cell divisions observed in the flight compared to the control tissue suggests that microgravity affects axis determination and embryo polarity at a very early stage. A similar reduction in zygotic embryogenesis would reduce seed formation and have important implications for long-term space flight or colonization where seeds would be needed either for direct consumption or to grow another generation of plants.

Conger, B. V.; Tomaszewski, Z. Jr; McDaniel, J. K.; Vasilenko, A.

1998-01-01

26

Somatic embryogenesis of Agave victoria-reginae Moore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant regeneration through direct somatic embryogenesis of leaf blade explants from in vitro propagated plants of Agave victoria-reginae Moore, is described. Somatic embryogenesis was evident in a 6-week period on agarsolidified MS medium supplemented with L2 vitamins and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1,4 µM), and germination of somatic embryos was achieved after 8 weeks on half-strength MS medium and 4 weeks on

Benjamin Rodríguez-Garay; Antonia Gutiérrez-Mora; Beatríz Acosta-Duefias

1996-01-01

27

Somatic Embryogenesis in Four Tree Legumes  

PubMed Central

Somatic embryogenesis was achieved in four leguminous tree species, that is, Acacia catechu, Acacia arabica, Hardwickia binata, and Dalbergia sissoo using immature zygotic embryos as explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.25–1.0?mg/l Kn (kinetin) and 2.0–3.0?mg/l 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) or NAA (1-napthaleneacetic acid) and 3% sucrose. MS medium containing 2.0?mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0–1.5?mg/l Kn was noted to be most effective in inducing friable embryogenic callus (FEC); the number of somatic embryos per culture varied in MS medium supplemented with 1.0–2.0?mg/l 2,4-D or NAA and 0.25–1.5?mg/l kinetin. The maximum number of somatic embryos was obtained in MS medium containing 1.5–2.0?mg/l 2,4-D or NAA and 1.0–1.5?mg/l kinetin; proliferation of embryogenic calli was enhanced in cultures having 1.0–2.0?mg/l 2,4-D, 1.0–1.5?mg/l kinetin, and 400–600?mg/l L-Proline. The somatic embryos in various shapes and sizes after the first subculture on MS medium supplemented with 0.1?mg/l IAA and 0.25?mg/l BA; developed shoots and rooted in 1/2 strength MS medium supplemented with 0.1?mg/l IBA or IAA. The somatic embryo-derived plantlets were transferred to the field after being hardened in the climate-controlled hardening chamber. PMID:21350667

Das, Premananda

2011-01-01

28

In vitro regeneration of Irvingia gabonensis by somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

A productive genotype of Irvingia gabonensis were cultured in vitro for induction embryogenic calli, somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of plantlets. Fragments of young leaves were used as primary explants. Callogenesis was initiated by culture of explants during 30 days on Murashige and Skoog medium half strength (MS/2) supplemented with 1-6 mg L(-1) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The highest percentage of explants forming calli is 85.1% at 3 mg L(-1) of 2,4-D. Somatic embryos were obtained after a subculture of embryogenic calli during 60 days on MS/2 supplemented with 1-3 mg L(-1) of BAP. The highest percentage of embryogenic calli which differentiates somatic embryos is 63.8 +/- 2.3% at 1 mg L(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The highest number of somatic embryos per callus which is 43.6 is obtained with 2 mg L(-1) of this phytohormone. When isolated from calli and sub-cultured during 30 days on MS/2 supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) of BAP, somatic embryos germinate with a highest percentage of 83%. The subculture of germinated somatic embryos on the same Basal Medium (BM) supplemented with 4 mg L(-1) of BAP and 2 mg L(-1) of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) during 80 days gives rise to the plantlets with 82.7 +/- 4.8% of success. With this combination, each plantlet has average length of 5.6 cm, bears 3.3 leaves and 7.2 roots with 1 or 2 pivoting roots. Plantlets acclimatized on a mixture sterilized soil/vermiculite at equal volume survive at 93%. Results of this study constitute a new way for a production of Irvingia gabonensis seedlings with pivoting root and they permit to arrest the difficulties of natural and horticultural reproduction. PMID:18819568

Fotso; Oumar; Nicolas, Niemenak; Néhémie, Donfagsiteli Tchinda; Denis, Omokolo Ndoumou

2008-03-01

29

Repetitive somatic embryogenesis from peanut cultures in liquid medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A regeneration system based on repetitive somatic embryogenesis was developed for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Embryogenic suspension cultures were initiated using individual somatic embryos induced from immature cotyledons cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing 40 mg\\/l 2,4-D for 30 days. After transfer to a modified MS liquid medium, the somatic embryos produced masses of secondary and tertiary

Richard E. Durham; Wayne A. Parrott

1992-01-01

30

Secondary somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cassava  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos isolated from mature seed-derived cotyledon cultures of cassava (Mannihot esculenta Crantz) underwent direct secondary somatic embryogenesis or plant development under appropriate incubation conditions. Isolated somatic embryos were subjected to a two-stage culture procedure similar to that which induced their development on cotyledon explants. This involved incubation for 24–30 days on Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with 2–8

James A. Stamp; Graham G. Henshaw

1987-01-01

31

ENHANCING THE FREQUENCY OF SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS FOLLOWING AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF  

E-print Network

ENHANCING THE FREQUENCY OF SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS FOLLOWING AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION embryogenic explants along with the location of embryogenesis- and transformation-competent cells embryogenesis on immature cotyledons following Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and selection

Korban, Schuyler S.

32

Somatic embryogenesis from immature peach palm inflorescence explants: towards development of an efficient protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various factors affect the induction of somatic embryogenesis in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth). Among these, both the type and level of auxins had the greatest influence on in vitro responses, although the genotype\\u000a and the developmental stage of the explants also influenced results. Younger inflorescences were more competent to respond\\u000a to SE induction than more mature inflorescences and the

Douglas A. Steinmacher; Charles R. Clement; Miguel P. Guerra

2007-01-01

33

In vitro propagation of an endangered medicinal herb Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. through somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Tuberous roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. which are a source of steroidal saponins, possess immunomodulatory, adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, diuretic, hemostatic and anti-tumour properties. Poor seed setting and germination and slow growth in conventional vegetative propagation are major constraints in the large-scale cultivation of this commercially important medicinal plant. In the present study, a procedure for in vitro propagation of this endangered herb through somatic embryogenesis has been established. Seeds of Chlorophytum borivilianum were germinated on MS medium supplemented with 57.74 ?M gibberellic acid and hypocotyl portion from germinated seedling was used as explant for callus induction. Moderate to good callus induction was observed on MS medium containing 1.16 ?M kinetin and 1.13-2.26 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Regular subculturing of callus on kinetin (1.16 ?M) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1.13 ?M) supplemented medium induced somatic embryogenesis. In modified MS medium, 1.79 mM NH4NO3 and 10.72 mM KNO3 was optimal for somatic embryogenesis. 7.38 ?M 2-isopentenyladenine supplemented to modified MS medium, showed best response for somatic embryogenesis while proline (0.76 mM) as an amino acid supplement gave better response than glutamine. 30% germination of mature somatic embryos was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 15.54 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine. Multiplication of C. borivilianum through somatic embryogenesis may offer a better approach compared to organogenesis for developing scale-up technology employing bioreactors for its mass propagation. PMID:23572975

Rizvi, Mohd Zahid; Kukreja, Arun Kumar; Bisht, Narendra Singh

2010-07-01

34

Uptake Rate of Tracer Elements by Lycium barbarum L. in Somatic Embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this study was inducing somatic embryogenesis in the callus of Lycium barbarum L., The uptake rate of several metal ions in somatic embryogenesis was investigated by multitracer techniques. It was found that some metal ions changed the somatic embryogenesis dynamically. The uptake rates of metal ions were different from each other and exert mutual effect, mutual influence

Li Shan; Shen Zhenghu; Qin Zhi; Wang Yafu

2001-01-01

35

Effect of hydrogen peroxide on somatic embryogenesis of Lycium barbarum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this study is inducing somatic embryogenesis in the callus of Lyciumbarbarum L. and determining hydrogen peroxide in somatic embryogenesis. First of all, the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (SOD, peroxidase, catalase) in different stages of somatic embryogenesis were determined. The result showed that the activity of SOD gradually increased in the early days of differentiation culture and

Cui Kairong; Xing Gengsheng; Liu Xinmin; Xing Gengmei; Wang Yafu

1999-01-01

36

A temporary immersion system improves in vitro regeneration of peach palm through secondary somatic embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Secondary somatic embryogenesis has been postulated to occur during induction of peach palm somatic embryogenesis. In the present study this morphogenetic pathway is described and a protocol for the establishment of cycling cultures using a temporary immersion system (TIS) is presented. Methods Zygotic embryos were used as explants, and induction of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet growth were compared in TIS and solid culture medium. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to describe in vitro morphogenesis and accompany morpho-histological alterations during culture. Key Results The development of secondary somatic embryos occurs early during the induction of primary somatic embryos. Secondary somatic embryos were observed to develop continually in culture, resulting in non-synchronized development of these somatic embryos. Using these somatic embryos as explants allowed development of cycling cultures. Somatic embryos had high embryogenic potential (65·8 ± 3·0 to 86·2 ± 5·0 %) over the period tested. The use of a TIS greatly improved the number of somatic embryos obtained, as well as subsequent plantlet growth. Histological analyses showed that starch accumulation precedes the development of somatic embryos, and that these cells presented high nucleus/cytoplasm ratios and high mitotic indices, as evidenced by DAPI staining. Morphological and SEM observations revealed clusters of somatic embryos on one part of the explants, while other parts grew further, resulting in callus tissue. A multicellular origin of the secondary somatic embryos is hypothesized. Cells in the vicinity of callus accumulated large amounts of phenolic substances in their vacuoles. TEM revealed that these cells are metabolically very active, with the presence of numerous mitochondria and Golgi apparatuses. Light microscopy and TEM of the embryogenic sector revealed cells with numerous amyloplasts, large nuclei and nucleoli, and numerous plasmodesmata. Plantlets were obtained and after 3 months in culture their growth was significantly better in TIS than on solid culture medium. However, during acclimatization the survival rate of TIS-grown plantlets was lower. Conclusions The present study confirms the occurrence of secondary somatic embryos in peach palm and describes a feasible protocol for regeneration of peach palm in vitro. Further optimizations include the use of explants obtained from adult palms and improvement of somatic embryo conversion rates. PMID:21355009

Steinmacher, D. A.; Guerra, M. P.; Saare-Surminski, K.; Lieberei, R.

2011-01-01

37

Molecular characterization of a Cyrtochilum loxense Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor-like Kinase (SERK) gene expressed during somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Somatic embryogenesis is crucial for the propagation of endangered Ecuadorian orchid species, among them Cyrtochilum loxense, in view of the fact that their number in nature or in collections is quite reduced. One of the genes expressed during somatic and zygotic embryogenesis is Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor-like Kinase (SERK). Despite the development of somatic embryogenesis protocols for orchids, no SERK genes have been isolated from this family. This is the first report on the isolation of a full-length orchid SERK sequence, namely that of Cyrtochilum loxense (ClSERK). The identity of ClSERK was inferred by the presence of all domains typical of SERK proteins: a signal peptide, a leucine zipper domain, five LRRs, a serine proline-rich domain, a transmembrane domain, a kinase domain, and the C-terminal region. We have observed that the ClSERK gene is highly expressed in embryogenic calluses generated from protocorms at the time of appearance of embryonic morphological features. At later stages when embryos become well visible on calluses, ClSERK gene expression decreases. Compared to early stages of embryo formation on calluses, the expression detected in leaf tissue is far lower, thus suggesting a role of this gene during development. PMID:22350407

Cueva, Augusta; Concia, Lorenzo; Cella, Rino

2012-06-01

38

Assessment of somatic embryogenesis potency in Indian soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars.  

PubMed

Majority of the Indian soybean cultivars are recalcitrant to tissue culture regeneration. The present communication reports the development of somatic embryogenesis in a liquid culture medium from immature cotyledons of G. max. Following induction with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), the number of somatic embryos and percentage of explants that responded were higher with 45.24 microM 2,4-D. The proliferation of somatic embryos for three successive cycles was achieved in 22.62 microM 2,4-D. Histodifferentiation of somatic embryos under NAA (10.74 microM) indicated that better embryo development and maturation was achieved without any growth regulator. The amino acids such as L-glutamine favoured the somatic embryo induction and histodifferentiation at 20 and 30 mM respectively, where as L-asparagine at 10 mM concentration enhanced the somatic embryo proliferation. In addition, somatic embryos that were desiccated (air-drying method) for 5 days showed better germination (40.88%). The Indian soybean cultivars also showed strict genotypic influence and cv. Pusa 16 was emerged as a best responding cultivar for somatic embryo induction with 74.42% of response. PMID:24266110

Mariashibu, Thankaraj Salammal; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Arun, Muthukrishnan; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Rajesh, Manoharan; Rengan, Sampath Kasthuri; Chakravarthy, Rajan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

2013-10-01

39

The analysis of differential gene expression in early somatic embryogenesis on Lycium barbarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct exposure of calluses of Lycium barbarum L. to an auxin-free medium can induce somatic embryogenesis. Somatic\\u000a \\u000a embryogenesis of Lycium barbarum L. is controlled artificially by regulating 2,4-D concentration. The total RNA that was isolated from calluses, embryonic\\u000a calluses and early somatic embryos was used for analyzing differential genes expression. We obtained three cDNAs from early\\u000a somatic embryogenesis which were

Cui Kairong; Xing Gengsheng; Qin Lin; Liu Xinmin; Wang Yafu

1999-01-01

40

High Efficiency Secondary Somatic Embryogenesis in Hovenia dulcis Thunb. through Solid and Liquid Cultures  

PubMed Central

Embryogenic callus was obtained from mature seed explants on medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Primary somatic embryos (SEs) can only develop into abnormal plants. Well-developed SEs could be obtained through secondary somatic embryogenesis both in solid and liquid cultures. Temperature strongly affected induction frequency of secondary embryogenesis. Relatively high temperature (30°C) and germinated SEs explants were effective for induction of secondary somatic embryos, and low temperature (20°C) was more suitable for further embryo development, plantlet conversion, and transplant survival. Somatic embryos formed on agar medium had larger cotyledons than those of embryos formed in liquid medium. Supplementing 0.1?mg?L?1 6-benzyladenine (BA) was effective for plant conversion; the rate of plant conversion was 43.3% in somatic embryos from solid culture and 36.5% in embryos from liquid culture. In vitro plants were successfully acclimatized in the greenhouse. The protocol established in this study will be helpful for large-scale vegetative propagation of this medicinal tree. PMID:23818829

Yang, Jingli; Wu, Songquan; Li, Chenghao

2013-01-01

41

Role of trace elements in somatic embryogenesis A PIXE study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton induced X-ray emission was used to study the trace elemental profiles of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of an important cash crop of India - Plantago ovata. Somatic embryogenesis, a well-known process for plant regeneration and crop improvement is modulated by various factors such as ionizing radiation and micro nutrients in the growth media. The present work reports the trace element variation in normal and irradiated callus tissue of P. ovata. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus tissues were exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co gamma source. The absorbed dose ranged from 10 to 100 Gy. Subsequent experiments showed significant dose dependent alterations in K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr in both the embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. The precise involvement of these elements has been discussed in light of somatic embryogenesis of the selected medicinal plant.

Saha, P.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Mishra, D.; Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.

2008-03-01

42

An efficient regeneration system via somatic embryogenesis in olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive is one of the most important oil crops in the Mediterranean area. Biotechnological improvement of this species is hampered\\u000a by the recalcitrant nature of olive tissue regeneration in vitro. In this investigation, we have developed an efficient regeneration\\u000a system for juvenile olive explants via somatic embryogenesis. Embryogenic cultures were obtained at a rate of 25% by culturing\\u000a isolated radicles from

Sergio Cerezo; José A. Mercado; Fernando Pliego-Alfaro

2011-01-01

43

Somatic embryogenesis from integument (perisperm) cultures of coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis was induced in integument (perisperm) cultures of C x R hybrid cultivar of coffee, after a culture period of 15 months, using a sequence of 3 modifications of MS medium. Vigorously growing soft, white, watery crystalline calli were obtained on MS + TIBA (1 mg\\/l) + L-cysteine HCl (50 mg\\/l) + PVP (100 mg\\/l). After 45 d, the

H. L. Sreenath; H. M. Shanta; K. Harinath Babu; M. M. Naidu

1995-01-01

44

Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis from immature cotyledons of Camellia nitidissima Chi.  

PubMed

Camellia nitidissima Chi (Theaceae) is a world-famous economic and ornamental plant with golden-yellow flowers. It has been classified as one of the rarest and most endangered plants in China. Our objective was to induce somatic embryogenesis, shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration for C. nitidissima. Three types of callus (whitish, reddish and yellowish) were induced from immature cotyledons on improved woody plant medium (WPM) with different plant growth regulators (PGRs). Among the callus, whitish callus was induced by 4.5 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and reddish and yellowish callus were induced by strongly active cytokinins, thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), singly or combined with weakly active auxin, ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The embryogenic callus could differentiate into somatic embryos, nodular embryogenic structures (large embryo-like structures) or adventitious shoots depending on the PGR used in WPM. BAP was best for adventitious buds and zeatin was best for somatic embryogenesis while kinetin (Kt) was best for the formation of nodular embryogenic structures. The three regeneration pathways often occurred in the same embryogenic callus clumps. Most shoots (80.0%) developed roots in WPM supplemented with 24.6 ?M IBA and 0.3 ?M NAA while 47.5% of somatic embryos could germinate directly and develop into plantlets on induction medium supplemented with 0.9 ?M BAP and 0.1 ?M NAA. The nodular embryogenic structures could be sub-cultured and cyclically developed in one of two differentiation pathways: shoot organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis. Plantlets derived from shoot buds rooted and somatic embryos germinated when transplanted into soil in a greenhouse; 66.7% of plantlets from shoot culture and 78.6% of plantlets from somatic embryos survived after 8 weeks' acclimatization. PMID:23790533

Lü, Jinfeng; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Muhan; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Ma, Guohua

2013-09-01

45

Induction of somatic embryos on in vitro cultured zygotic embryos of spring Brassica napus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature and immature zygotic embryos of three Brassica napus doubled haploid lines were examined for their ability to produce somatic embryos. Seedlings from mature seeds did not produce somatic embryos in all of the tested media. Induction of somatic embryogenesis directly from immature seeds of doubled haploid lines was obtained on plant growth regulator-free medium. Th ere was no callus

Natalija Burbulis; Ramune Kupriene

46

Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis from immature embryo cotyledons of three sour cherry cultivars ( Prunus cerasus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immature cotyledons of open-pollinated fruits from three sour cherry cultivars (Prunus cerasus L.) were excised and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various combinations of auxin and cytokinin to induce somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis occurred principally when using the combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid plus kinetin. Using a-naphthaleneacetic acid or 6-benzylaminopurine reduced the incidence of somatic embryogenesis. Conversely, formation

Haoru Tang; Zhenglong Ren; Gabi Krczal

2000-01-01

47

Somatic embryogenesis of a wild passion fruit species Passiflora cincinnata Masters: histocytological and histochemical evidences.  

PubMed

The characterization of cellular changes that occur during somatic embryogenesis is essential for understanding the factors involved in the transition of somatic cells into embryogenically competent cells and determination of cells and/or tissues involved. The present study describes the anatomical and ultrastructural events that lead to the formation of somatic embryos in the model system of the wild passion fruit (Passiflora cincinnata). Mature zygotic embryos were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog induction media supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6-benzyladenine. Zygotic embryo explants at different development stages were collected and processed by conventional methods for studies using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histochemical tests were used to examine the mobilization of reserves. The differentiation of the somatic embryos began in the abaxial side of the cotyledon region. Protuberances were formed from the meristematic proliferation of the epidermal and mesophyll cells. These cells had large nuclei, dense cytoplasm with a predominance of mitochondria, and a few reserve compounds. The protuberances extended throughout the abaxial surface of the cotyledons. The ongoing differentiation of peripheral cells of these structures led to the formation of proembryogenic zones, which, in turn, dedifferentiated into somatic embryos of multicellular origin. In the initial stages of embryogenesis, the epidermal and mesophyll cells showed starch grains and less lipids and protein reserves than the starting explant. These results provide detailed information on anatomical and ultrastructural changes involved in the acquisition of embryogenic competence and embryo differentiation that has been lacking so far in Passiflora. PMID:21927886

Rocha, Diego Ismael; Vieira, Lorena Melo; Tanaka, Francisco André Ossamu; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; Otoni, Wagner Campos

2012-07-01

48

Somatic embryogenesis in sisal ( Agave sisalana Perr. ex. Engelm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol has been developed for somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of sisal ( Agave sisalana Perr. ex. Engelm). Embryogenic callus cultures were initiated from young shoots raised in vitro from the stem portion of the bulbil on medium supplemented with 1–2 mg l -1 kinetin (KN) and 0.2–0.5 mg l -1 a-naphthaleneacetic acid plus KN or 1–1.5 mg l -1benzylaminopurine (BAP) or 0.25–0.5 mg l -12,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

T. D. Nikam; G. M. Bansude; K. C. Aneesh Kumar

2003-01-01

49

Somatic embryogenesis in Cymbopogon pendulus and evaluation of clonal fidelity of regenerants using ISSR marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient plant propagation system through somatic embryogenesis was established in Cymbopogon pendulus, an aromatic grass followed by analysis of genetic status of regenerants using ISSR markers. Optimum embryogenic callus induction was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 13.57?M 2,4-dicholorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with 8.88?M N6-benzyladenine (BA). Subsequent culturing of embryogenic calli on MS medium containing 4.52?M 2,4-D and 8.88–13.32?M

S. Bhattacharya; T. K. Bandopadhyay; P. D. Ghosh

2010-01-01

50

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in the culture of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. immature zygotic embryos.  

PubMed

Immature zygotic embryos (IZEs) of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., a model species for plant -genomics, provide efficient explants for a simple, rapid, and effective system for inducing somatic embryogenesis (SE) under in vitro culture. The process of SE can be induced directly from explant tissue, or indirectly through a callus stage, and the mode of morphogenesis depends on the developmental stage of the IZEs that are used. Auxin treatment, preferably with 2,4-D, results in the formation of embryogenic callus tissue in cultures derived from IZEs less advanced in development, i.e., at globular and torpedo stages, while IZE at the late cotyledonary stage rapidly produces somatic embryos, mostly via a direct pathway. In the best SE-responsive genotypes, including the commonly used Col-0 ecotype, up to 90% of the late cotyledonary-stage zygotic embryos undergo rapid and efficient SE. The subculture of somatic embryos onto auxin-free medium results in their conversion into plantlets with an average frequency of 80%. Such a high frequency of somatic embryos developing rapidly from explant tissue, followed by efficient regeneration of fertile plants with a low level of somaclonal variation, is the recommended system for wide application in studies on mechanisms governing plant totipotency; and especially for identifying genetic factors controlling embryogenic transition of somatic plant cells. In this chapter, the induction, development, and maturation of somatic embryos leading to subsequent regeneration of Arabidopsis plantlets in culture of IZEs are presented. PMID:21207274

Gaj, Malgorzata D

2011-01-01

51

Isolation and Characterization of Genes Associated to Cotton Somatic Embryogenesis by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization and Macroarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the developmental reprogramming of somatic cells toward the embryogenesis pathway and is a notable\\u000a illustration of cell totipotency. To identify genes involved in SE, subtractive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed\\u000a to generate transcripts highly enriched for SE-related genes, using cDNA prepared from a mixture of embryogenic callus and\\u000a preglobular somatic embryos, as the tester, and

Fanchang Zeng; Xianlong Zhang; Longfu Zhu; Lili Tu; Xiaoping Guo; Yichun Nie

2006-01-01

52

High-efficiency transformation of Lycium barbarum mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and transgenic plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a reliable and high-frequency system of transformation and regeneration via somatic embryogenesis (SE) of Lycium barbarum. Leaf segments were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA101 (pIG121Hm) carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene as a selectable marker and an intron-#-glucuronidase (GUS) gene as a reporter marker. On the medium for callus-induction, which contained 50 mg l-1 kanamycin (Km), approximately

Z. Hu; J. Yang; G. Guo; G. Zheng

2002-01-01

53

Clonal propagation of Cyclamen persicum via somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum) is an economically important ornamental pot plant with local use as cut flower as well. Traditionally, it is propagated via seeds, but interest is given in vegetative propagation of parental lines as well as superior single plants. Somatic embryogenesis is an efficient in vitro propagation method for many cyclamen cultivars. Starting from ovules of unpollinated flowers, callus is induced and propagated in a medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP). Transfer to hormone-free medium results in the differentiation of somatic embryos, which afterwards germinate on the same medium. These first culture stages take about 6-7 months and are carried out in complete darkness. Two to four months after the transfer to light, plantlets develop which can be acclimatized in the greenhouse. The regenerated plants are characterized by low percentages of somaclonal variation. This protocol has proven useful not only for clonal propagation, but also for artificial seed preparation, cryopreservation, genetic transformation and protoplast regeneration. PMID:20099110

Winkelmann, Traud

2010-01-01

54

Induced expression of AtLEC1 and AtLEC2 differentially promotes somatic embryogenesis in transgenic tobacco plants.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC) genes, AtLEC1 and AtLEC2, are important embryonic regulators that play key roles in morphogenesis and maturation phases during embryo development. Ectopic expression of AtLEC1 and AtLEC2 in tobacco caused abnormality in transgenic seedling. When transgenic seeds germinated on medium containing 30 µM DEX, LEC1 transgenic seedlings were ivory and fleshy, with unexpanded cotyledons, stubby hypocotyls, short roots and no obvious callus formation at the shoot meristem position. While LEC2 transgenic seedlings formed embryonic callus on the shoot apical meristem and somatic embryo-like structures emerged from the surface of the callus. When callus were transferred to hormone free MS0 medium more shoots were regenerated from each callus. However, shoot formation was not observed in LEC1 overexpressors. To investigate the mechanisms of LEC2 in somatic embryogenesis, we studied global gene expression by digital gene expression profiling analysis. The results indicated that ectopic expression of LEC2 genes induced accumulation of embryo-specific proteins such as seed storage proteins, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes, products of steroid biosynthesis related genes and key regulatory genes of the embryo development. Genes of plant-specific transcription factors such as NAC domain protein, AP2 and GRAS family, resistance-related as well as salicylic acid signaling related genes were up-regulated in LEC2 transgenic seedlings. Ectopi c expression of LEC2 induced large number of somatic embryo formation and shoot regeneration but 20 d DEX induction of LEC1 is not sufficient to induce somatic embryogenesis and shoot formation. Our data provide new information to understand the mechanisms on LEC2 gene's induction of somatic embryogenesis. PMID:23951228

Guo, Fengdan; Liu, Chuanliang; Xia, Han; Bi, Yuping; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Zhao, Shuzhen; Hou, Lei; Li, Fuguang; Wang, Xingjun

2013-01-01

55

Induced Expression of AtLEC1 and AtLEC2 Differentially Promotes Somatic Embryogenesis in Transgenic Tobacco Plants  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC) genes, AtLEC1 and AtLEC2, are important embryonic regulators that play key roles in morphogenesis and maturation phases during embryo development. Ectopic expression of AtLEC1 and AtLEC2 in tobacco caused abnormality in transgenic seedling. When transgenic seeds germinated on medium containing 30 µM DEX, LEC1 transgenic seedlings were ivory and fleshy, with unexpanded cotyledons, stubby hypocotyls, short roots and no obvious callus formation at the shoot meristem position. While LEC2 transgenic seedlings formed embryonic callus on the shoot apical meristem and somatic embryo-like structures emerged from the surface of the callus. When callus were transferred to hormone free MS0 medium more shoots were regenerated from each callus. However, shoot formation was not observed in LEC1 overexpressors. To investigate the mechanisms of LEC2 in somatic embryogenesis, we studied global gene expression by digital gene expression profiling analysis. The results indicated that ectopic expression of LEC2 genes induced accumulation of embryo-specific proteins such as seed storage proteins, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes, products of steroid biosynthesis related genes and key regulatory genes of the embryo development. Genes of plant-specific transcription factors such as NAC domain protein, AP2 and GRAS family, resistance-related as well as salicylic acid signaling related genes were up-regulated in LEC2 transgenic seedlings. Ectopi c expression of LEC2 induced large number of somatic embryo formation and shoot regeneration but 20 d DEX induction of LEC1 is not sufficient to induce somatic embryogenesis and shoot formation. Our data provide new information to understand the mechanisms on LEC2 gene’s induction of somatic embryogenesis. PMID:23951228

Xia, Han; Bi, Yuping; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Zhao, Shuzhen; Hou, Lei; Li, Fuguang; Wang, Xingjun

2013-01-01

56

Isolation of two somatic embryogenesis-related genes from orchardgrass ( Dactylis glomerata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) leaf segments have a high capacity for direct embryogenesis from mesophyll cells and indirect embryogenesis through callus. Total RNA extracted from leaf cultures of embryogenic and nonembryogenic genotypes were used to generate two differentially expressed cDNA fragments. An embryogenic leaf culture cDNA library was screened with these fragments and two somatic embryogenesis-related genes designated DGE1 and

Krassimira S Alexandrova; B. V Conger

2002-01-01

57

Influence of abscisic acid and sucrose on somatic embryogenesis in Cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma mostruosa.  

PubMed

Having produced the embryos of cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma monstruosa at the globular stage and callus, we investigated the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) in the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100? ? M on successive stages of direct (DSE) and indirect somatic embryogenesis (ISE). In the indirect somatic embryogenesis process we also investigated a combined effect of ABA (0, 0.1, 1? ? M) and sucrose (1, 3, 5%). The results showed that a low concentration of ABA (0-1? ? M) stimulates the elongation of embryos at the globular stage and the number of correct embryos in direct somatic embryogenesis, while a high ABA concentration (10-100? ? M) results in growth inhibition and turgor pressure loss of somatic embryos. The indirect somatic embryogenesis study in this cactus suggests that lower ABA concentrations enhance the increase in calli fresh weight, while a high concentration of 10? ? M ABA or more changes calli color and decreases its proliferation rate. However, in the case of indirect somatic embryogenesis, ABA had no effect on the number of somatic embryos and their maturation. Nevertheless, we found a positive effect of sucrose concentration for both the number of somatic embryos and the increase in calli fresh weight. PMID:23843737

Lema-Rumi?ska, J; Goncerzewicz, K; Gabriel, M

2013-01-01

58

Effect of hydrogen peroxide on synthesis of proteins during somatic embryogenesis in Lycium barbarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct exposure of calluses of Lycium barbarum L. to an auxin-free medium can induce somatic embryogenesis. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on synthesis of proteins during somatic embryogenesis in Lycium barbarum L. was studied. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that new protein was synthesized by embryogenic callus II (in MS+200 µmol l-1 H2O2 medium). Therefore, we suggested that there was a

Cui Kairong; Li Ji; Xing Gengmei; Li Jianlong; Wang Lihong; Wang Yafu

2002-01-01

59

Effect of hydrogen peroxide on synthesis of proteins during somatic embryogenesis in Lycium barbarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct exposure of calluses of Lycium barbarum L. to an auxin-free medium can induce somatic embryogenesis. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on synthesis of proteins during somatic embryogenesis in Lycium barbarum L. was studied. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that new protein was synthesized by embryogenic callus II (in MS+200 µmol l?1 H2O2 medium). Therefore, we suggested that there was a

Cui Kairong; Xing Gengmei; Wang Lihong; Wang Yafu

2002-01-01

60

Direct somatic embryogenesis from leaves, cotyledons and hypocotyls of Hippophae rhamnoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant regeneration via direct somatic embryogenesis from cotyledons, hypocotyls and leaves in seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) was achieved. The influences of basal media, carbon sources, plant growth regulators (PGRs) with different concentrations\\u000a and combinations on embryogenesis capacity of explants were studied. The highest frequency of somatic embryos production and\\u000a germination was obtained on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium (SH) supplemented with

C. Q. Liu; X. L. Xia; W. L. Yin; J. H. Zhou; H. R. Tang

2007-01-01

61

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a method for the regeneration of the prickly-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) through somatic embryogenesis (SE). Direct SE was induced by cultivating shoot apices devoid of leaf primordia on semisolid Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4-amino 3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) at 4mgl?1. Somatic embryogenesis was influenced by the type, age, physiological and developmental stage of

Francisco Linhares Arruda Ferreira Gomes; Fabíola Fernandes Heredia; Priscilla Barbeta e Silva; Olivardo Facó; Francisco de Assis de Paiva Campos

2006-01-01

62

Characterization of CsSEF1 gene encoding putative CCCH-type zinc finger protein expressed during cucumber somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Somatic embryos obtained in vitro are a form of vegetative reproduction that can be used in artificial seed technology, as well as a model to study the principles of plant development. In order to isolate the genes involved in somatic embryogenesis of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), we utilized the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). One of the obtained sequences was the CsSEF1 clone (Cucumis sativus Somatic Embryogenesis Zinc Finger 1), with a level of expression that sharply increased with the induction of embryogenesis. The full length cDNA of CsSEF1 encodes the putative 307 amino acid long protein containing three zinc finger motifs, two with CCCH and one with the atypical CHCH pattern. The CsSEF1 protein shows significant similarity to other proteins from plants, in which the zinc fingers arrangement and patterns are very similar. Transcripts of CsSEF1 were localized in the apical part of somatic embryos, starting as early as the polarity was visible and in later developmental stages marking the cotyledon primordia and procambium tissues. As a result of transferring an antisense fragment of CsSEF1 into Arabidopsis thaliana abnormalities in zygotic embryos and also in cotyledons and root development were observed. PMID:18778873

Grabowska, Agnieszka; Wisniewska, Anita; Tagashira, Norikazu; Malepszy, Stefan; Filipecki, Marcin

2009-02-15

63

High-frequency plant regeneration through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).  

PubMed

A high-frequency plantlet regeneration protocol was developed for black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis. Secondary embryos formed from the radicular end of the primary somatic embryos which were originally derived from micropylar tissues of germinating seeds on growth regulator-free SH medium in the absence of light. The process of secondary embryogenesis continued in a cyclic manner from the root pole of newly formed embryos resulting in clumps of somatic embryos. Strength of the medium and sucrose concentration influenced the process of secondary embryogenesis and fresh weight of somatic embryo clumps. Full-strength SH medium supplemented with 1.5% sucrose produced significantly higher fresh weight and numbers of secondary somatic embryos while 3.0 and 4.5% sucrose in the medium favored further development of proliferated embryos into plantlets. Ontogeny of secondary embryos was established by histological analysis. Secondary embryogenic potential was influenced by the developmental stage of the explanted somatic embryo and stages up to "torpedo" were more suitable. A single-flask system was standardized for proliferation, maturation, germination and conversion of secondary somatic embryos in suspension cultures. The system of cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis in black pepper described here represents a permanent source of embryogenic material that can be used for genetic manipulations of this crop species. PMID:16249871

Nair, R Ramakrishnan; Dutta Gupta, S

2006-01-01

64

Improved efficiency of somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos in Hyoscyamus niger by seed water-soaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an efficient procedure to obtain somatic embryos from mature zygotic embryos of Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane). It has several advantages over previous regeneration methods, which are: the use of mature seeds, an average 80% somatic embryogenesis rate and a high (eight-fold higher than the control) plant regeneration frequency. The critical step in this protocol was soaking of the

Shanjun Tu; R. S. Sangwan; B. S. Sangwan-Norreel

2005-01-01

65

Amplified somatic embryogenesis from male flowers of triploid banana and plantain cultivars ( Musa spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of banana and plantain cultivars (Musa spp.) were obtained by culturing young male flowers. Multiplication and maintenance of embryogenic cultures were achieved\\u000a by culturing somatic embryos in a temporary immersion system (SIT). A multiplication rate of 40 allowed us to obtain more\\u000a than 6000 somatic embryos after 6 mo. of subculture. Plant recovery frequencies were

Jean-Vincent Escalant; Claude Teisson; François Cote

1994-01-01

66

N-Acetylglucosamine and Glucosamine-Containing Arabinogalactan Proteins Control Somatic Embryogenesis1  

PubMed Central

In plants, complete embryos can develop not only from the zygote, but also from somatic cells in tissue culture. How somatic cells undergo the change in fate to become embryogenic is largely unknown. Proteins, secreted into the culture medium such as endochitinases and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are required for somatic embryogenesis. Here we show that carrot (Daucus carota) AGPs can contain glucosamine and N-acetyl-d-glucosaminyl and are sensitive to endochitinase cleavage. To determine the relevance of this observation for embryogenesis, an assay was developed based on the enzymatic removal of the cell wall from cultured cells. The resulting protoplasts had a reduced capacity for somatic embryogenesis, which could be partially restored by adding endochitinases to the protoplasts. AGPs from culture medium or from immature seeds could fully restore or even increase embryogenesis. AGPs pretreated with chitinases were more active than untreated molecules and required an intact carbohydrate constituent for activity. AGPs were only capable of promoting embryogenesis from protoplasts in a short period preceding cell wall reformation. Apart from the increase in embryogenesis, AGPs can reinitiate cell division in a subpopulation of otherwise non-dividing protoplasts. These results show that chitinase-modified AGPs are extracellular matrix molecules able to control or maintain plant cell fate. PMID:11299367

van Hengel, Arjon J.; Tadesse, Zewdie; Immerzeel, Peter; Schols, Henk; van Kammen, Ab; de Vries, Sacco C.

2001-01-01

67

Somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of plantlets in protoplast cultures from somatic embryos of coffee (Coffea canephora P. ex Fr.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis was achieved in protoplast cultures of coffee. Protoplasts were isolated from cell suspension-derived somatic embryos of Coffea canephora. After repeated subculture in a medium supplemented with 0.5 mg\\/l of each of kinetin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), microcalli developed. Transfer of these microcalli to a medium lacking growth regulators resulted in the formation of globular embryos.

Christian Schöpke; Ludwig E. Müller; Hans-Willy Kohlenbach

1987-01-01

68

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Gloriosa L.  

PubMed

Friable callus was initiated from shoot apices of Gloriosa superba L. on basal MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D (4mg L(-1)) + Kn(5 mg L(-1)) + CH(10 mg L(-1)) + CW(20%). Subculture of callus on the same medium after 4-5 weeks showed induction of large number of somatic embryos, which was confirmed with histological studies. Development of embryoids in plantlet took place when the embryogenic callus was transferred to basal MS medium supplemented with BAP (5 mg L(-1)), CH(50 mg L(-1)) +CW(20%). Roots were developed by subculturing them on to the medium containing Kn or BAP (5 mg L(-1)) and IBA (4 mg L(-1)). Plantlets were successfully transferred to pots containing mixture of soil, sand and farmyard manure (2:1:1). PMID:11831383

Jadhav, S Y; Hegde, B A

2001-09-01

69

Somatic embryogenesis in white spruce ( Picea glauca ): genetic control in somatic embryos exposed to storage, maturation treatments, germination, and cryopreservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic controls for growth of embryogenic cultures, storage, maturation treatments, germination and cryopreservation in white spruce somatic embryogenesis (SE) were examined. These SE processes were under genetic control but less strongly so than the initiation phase. For all the SE characters examined, variance due to clones within families was significant and often the largest genetic component of variance. This was

Y. S. Park; S. E. Pond; J. M. Bonga

1994-01-01

70

Localization of calcium during somatic embryogenesis of carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The distribution of free cytosolic Ca2+ was studied during somatic embryogenesis of carrot using confocal scanning laser microscopy with fluo-3 as a fluorescent Ca2+ indicator. Chlorotetracycline fluorescence, antimonate precipitation and proton induced X-ray emission analysis were used as additional methods to confirm the results obtained with fluo-3. The process of embryogenesis was found to coincide with a rise in

A. C. J. Timmers; H.-D. Reiss; J. Bohsung; K. Traxel; J. H. N. Schel

1996-01-01

71

Extensive Modulation of the Transcription Factor Transcriptome during Somatic Embryogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms controlling plant totipotency are largely unknown and studies on somatic embryogenesis (SE), the process through which already differentiated cells reverse their developmental program and become embryogenic, provide a unique means for deciphering molecular mechanisms controlling developmental plasticity of somatic cells. Among various factors essential for embryogenic transition of somatic cells transcription factors (TFs), crucial regulators of genetic programs, are believed to play a central role. Herein, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to identify TF genes affected during SE induced by in vitro culture in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of 1,880 TFs were evaluated in the highly embryogenic Col-0 accession and the non-embryogenic tanmei/emb2757 mutant. Our study revealed 729 TFs whose expression changes during the 10-days incubation period of SE; 141 TFs displayed distinct differences in expression patterns in embryogenic versus non-embryogenic cultures. The embryo-induction stage of SE occurring during the first 5 days of culture was associated with a robust and dramatic change of the TF transcriptome characterized by the drastic up-regulation of the expression of a great majority (over 80%) of the TFs active during embryogenic culture. In contrast to SE induction, the advanced stage of embryo formation showed attenuation and stabilization of transcript levels of many TFs. In total, 519 of the SE-modulated TFs were functionally annotated and transcripts related with plant development, phytohormones and stress responses were found to be most abundant. The involvement of selected TFs in SE was verified using T-DNA insertion lines and a significantly reduced embryogenic response was found for the majority of them. This study provides comprehensive data focused on the expression of TF genes during SE and suggests directions for further research on functional genomics of SE. PMID:23874927

Gliwicka, Marta; Nowak, Katarzyna; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Gaj, Malgorzata D.

2013-01-01

72

Identification of novel genes potentially involved in somatic embryogenesis in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)  

PubMed Central

Background In our laboratory we use cultured chicory (Cichorium intybus) explants as a model to investigate cell reactivation and somatic embryogenesis and have produced 2 chicory genotypes (K59, C15) sharing a similar genetic background. K59 is a responsive genotype (embryogenic) capable of undergoing complete cell reactivation i.e. cell de- and re-differentiation leading to somatic embryogenesis (SE), whereas C15 is a non-responsive genotype (non-embryogenic) and is unable to undergo SE. Previous studies [1] showed that the use of the ?-D-glucosyl Yariv reagent (?-GlcY) that specifically binds arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) blocked somatic embryo production in chicory root explants. This observation indicates that ?-GlcY is a useful tool for investigating somatic embryogenesis (SE) in chicory. In addition, a putative AGP (DT212818) encoding gene was previously found to be significantly up-regulated in the embryogenic K59 chicory genotype as compared to the non-embryogenic C15 genotype suggesting that this AGP could be involved in chicory re-differentiation [2]. In order to improve our understanding of the molecular and cellular regulation underlying SE in chicory, we undertook a detailed cytological study of cell reactivation events in K59 and C15 genotypes, and used microarray profiling to compare gene expression in these 2 genotypes. In addition we also used ?-GlcY to block SE in order to identify genes potentially involved in this process. Results Microscopy confirmed that only the K59, but not the C15 genotype underwent complete cell reactivation leading to SE formation. ?-GlcY-treatment of explants blocked in vitro SE induction, but not cell reactivation, and induced cell wall modifications. Microarray analyses revealed that 78 genes were differentially expressed between induced K59 and C15 genotypes. The expression profiles of 19 genes were modified by ?-GlcY-treatment. Eight genes were both differentially expressed between K59 and C15 genotypes during SE induction and transcriptionally affected by ?-GlcY-treatment: AGP (DT212818), 26 S proteasome AAA ATPase subunit 6 (RPT6), remorin (REM), metallothionein-1 (MT1), two non-specific lipid transfer proteins genes (SDI-9 and DEA1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), and snakin 2 (SN2). These results suggest that the 8 genes, including the previously-identified AGP gene (DT212818), could be involved in cell fate determination events leading to SE commitment in chicory. Conclusion The use of two different chicory genotypes differing in their responsiveness to SE induction, together with ?-GlcY-treatment represented an efficient tool to discriminate cell reactivation from the SE morphogenetic pathway. Such an approach, together with microarray analyses, permitted us to identify several putative key genes related to the SE morphogenetic pathway in chicory. PMID:20565992

2010-01-01

73

Whole Transcriptome Profiling of Maize during Early Somatic Embryogenesis Reveals Altered Expression of Stress Factors and Embryogenesis-Related Genes  

PubMed Central

Embryogenic tissue culture systems are utilized in propagation and genetic engineering of crop plants, but applications are limited by genotype-dependent culture response. To date, few genes necessary for embryogenic callus formation have been identified or characterized. The goal of this research was to enhance our understanding of gene expression during maize embryogenic tissue culture initiation. In this study, we highlight the expression of candidate genes that have been previously regarded in the literature as having important roles in somatic embryogenesis. We utilized RNA based sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the transcriptome of immature embryo explants of the highly embryogenic and regenerable maize genotype A188 at 0, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after placement of explants on tissue culture initiation medium. Genes annotated as functioning in stress response, such as glutathione-S-transferases and germin-like proteins, and genes involved with hormone transport, such as PINFORMED, increased in expression over 8-fold in the study. Maize genes with high sequence similarity to genes previously described in the initiation of embryogenic cultures, such as transcription factors BABY BOOM, LEAFY COTYLEDON, and AGAMOUS, and important receptor-like kinases such as SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR LIKE KINASES and CLAVATA, were also expressed in this time course study. By combining results from whole genome transcriptome analysis with an in depth review of key genes that play a role in the onset of embryogenesis, we propose a model of coordinated expression of somatic embryogenesis-related genes, providing an improved understanding of genomic factors involved in the early steps of embryogenic culture initiation in maize and other plant species. PMID:25356773

Salvo, Stella A. G. D.; Hirsch, Candice N.; Buell, C. Robin; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Kaeppler, Heidi F.

2014-01-01

74

Whole Transcriptome Profiling of Maize during Early Somatic Embryogenesis Reveals Altered Expression of Stress Factors and Embryogenesis-Related Genes.  

PubMed

Embryogenic tissue culture systems are utilized in propagation and genetic engineering of crop plants, but applications are limited by genotype-dependent culture response. To date, few genes necessary for embryogenic callus formation have been identified or characterized. The goal of this research was to enhance our understanding of gene expression during maize embryogenic tissue culture initiation. In this study, we highlight the expression of candidate genes that have been previously regarded in the literature as having important roles in somatic embryogenesis. We utilized RNA based sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the transcriptome of immature embryo explants of the highly embryogenic and regenerable maize genotype A188 at 0, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after placement of explants on tissue culture initiation medium. Genes annotated as functioning in stress response, such as glutathione-S-transferases and germin-like proteins, and genes involved with hormone transport, such as PINFORMED, increased in expression over 8-fold in the study. Maize genes with high sequence similarity to genes previously described in the initiation of embryogenic cultures, such as transcription factors BABY BOOM, LEAFY COTYLEDON, and AGAMOUS, and important receptor-like kinases such as SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR LIKE KINASES and CLAVATA, were also expressed in this time course study. By combining results from whole genome transcriptome analysis with an in depth review of key genes that play a role in the onset of embryogenesis, we propose a model of coordinated expression of somatic embryogenesis-related genes, providing an improved understanding of genomic factors involved in the early steps of embryogenic culture initiation in maize and other plant species. PMID:25356773

Salvo, Stella A G D; Hirsch, Candice N; Buell, C Robin; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Kaeppler, Heidi F

2014-01-01

75

Microarray Analysis of Siberian Ginseng Cyclic Somatic Embryogenesis Culture Systems Provides Insight into Molecular Mechanisms of Embryogenic Cell Cluster Generation  

PubMed Central

Four systems of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim) were used to study the mechanism of embryonic cell cluster generation. The first, direct somatic embryo induction (DSEI), generates secondary embryos directly from the primary somatic embryos; the second, direct embryogenic cell cluster induction (DEC)), induces embryogenic cell clusters directly from somatic embryos in agar medium. Subsequently, we found that when DEC-derived somatic embryos are transferred to suspension culture or a bioreactor culture, only somatic embryos are induced, and embryogenic cell clusters cannot form. Therefore, these new lines were named DEC cultured by liquid medium (ECS) and DEC cultured by bioreactor (ECB), respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that DEC epidermal cells contained a variety of inclusions, distinct from other lines. A cDNA library of DEC was constructed, and 1,948 gene clusters were obtained and used as probes. RNA was prepared from somatic embryos from each of the four lines and hybridized to a microarray. In DEC, 7 genes were specifically upregulated compared with the other three lines, and 4 genes were downregulated. EsXTH1 and EsPLT1, which were among the genes upregulated in DEC, were cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Real-time quantitative PCR showed EsXTH1 was more highly expressed in DEC than in other lines throughout the culture cycle, and EsPLT1 expression in DEC increased as culture duration increased, but remained at a low expression level in other lines. These results suggest that EsXTH1 and EsPLT1 may be the essential genes that play important roles during the induction of embryogenic cell clusters. PMID:24743225

Zhou, Chenguang; Liu, Likun; Li, Chenghao

2014-01-01

76

Somatic embryogenesis, scanning electron microscopy, histology and biochemical analysis at different developing stages of embryogenesis in six date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars  

PubMed Central

An efficient somatic embryogenesis system has been established in six date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars (Barhee, Zardai, Khalasah, Muzati, Shishi and Zart). Somatic embryogenesis (SE) was growth regulators and cultivars dependent. Friable embryogenic callus was induced from excised shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with various auxins particularly 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 1.5 mg 1?l). Suspension culture increased embryogenesis potentiality. Only a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 0.5 mg 1?1) produced somatic embryos in culture. Somatic embryos germinated and converted into plantlets in N6-benzyladenine (BAP, 0.75 mg 1?l) added medium following a treatment with thidiazuron (TDZ, 1.0 mg 1?l) for maturation. Scanning electron microscopy showed early stages of somatic embryo particularly, globular types, and was in masses. Different developing stages of embryogenesis (heart, torpedo and cotyledonary) were observed under histological preparation of embryogenic callus. Biochemical screening at various stages of somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic callus, somatic embryos, matured, germinated embryos and converted plantlets) of date palm cultivars has been conducted and discussed in detail. The result discussed in this paper indicates that somatic embryos were produced in numbers and converted plantlets can be used as a good source of alternative propagation. Genetic modification to the embryo precursor cell may improve the fruit quality and yield further. PMID:23961149

Aslam, Junaid; Khan, Saeed Ahmad; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel; Mujib, Abdul; Sharma, Maheshwar Pershad; Srivastava, Prem Shanker

2011-01-01

77

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from stem explants of Moricandia arvensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient and reproducible plant regeneration has been established from stem internode explants of Moricandia arvensis, a crucifer of special interest due to its C3-C4 intermediate photosynthetic activity. Somatic embryogenesis was induced in one-third of explants cultured on Murashige and\\u000a Skoog based medium containing 9 mm 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. High frequencies of plant regeneration (>90%) resulted when somatic embryos were germinated\\u000a on

W. Craig; A. Wiegand; C. M. O'Neill; R. J. Mathias; J. B. Power; M. R. Davey

1997-01-01

78

Evidence for in vitro induced mutation which improves somatic embryogenesis in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Somatic embryogenesis from different genotypes of Asparagus officinalis L. could be obtained by in vitro culture of shoot apices. Apices were first cultured on an auxin-rich inducing medium and then transferred onto a hormone-free development medium. All genotypes tested in this way produced a few somatic embryos. In some experiments, during the development phase, a new kind of friable highly

B. Delbreil; M. Jullien

1994-01-01

79

Regeneration of diploid annual medics via direct somatic embryogenesis promoted by thidiazuron and benzylaminopurine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a simple and rapid procedure for direct somatic embryogenesis from wild Medicago spp. (M. truncatula, M. littoralis, M. murex, M. polymorpha) has exploited various explants including meristematic zones. Phytogel-solidified medium supplemented with thidiazuron or\\u000a 6-benzylaminopurine at different concentrations effectively promoted this process. The first somatic structures emerged within\\u000a 20 days of culture initiation. Histological analyses confirmed the

A. Iantcheva; M. Vlahova; E. Bakalova; E. Kondorosi; M. C. Elliott; A. Atanassov

1999-01-01

80

Regeneration of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) from plumule explants through somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol was developed for coconut regeneration using plumules from mature zygotic embryos as explants, and media with\\u000a the synthetic growth regulators 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine. Evidence for the regeneration process\\u000a from these tissues occurring through somatic embryogenesis is presented. The somatic embryos were capable of germination,\\u000a subsequent development into plantlets and successful transfer to the nursery. The yields were

J. L. Chan; L. Saénz; C. Talavera; R. Hornung; M. Robert; C. Oropeza

1998-01-01

81

Regeneration of Solanum nigrum by somatic embryogenesis, involving frog egg-like body, a novel structure.  

PubMed

A new protocol was established for the regeneration of Solanum nigrum by frog egg-like bodies (FELBs), which are novel somatic embryogenesis (SE) structures induced from the root, stem, and leaf explants. The root, stem, and leaf explants (93.33%, 85.10%, and 100.00%, respectively) were induced to form special embryonic calli on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, under dark condition. Further, special embryonic calli from the root, stem, and leaf explants (86.97%, 83.30%, and 99.47%, respectively) were developed into FELBs. Plantlets of FELBs from the three explants were induced in vitro on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and 0.1 mg/L gibberellic acid, and 100.00% plantlet induction rates were noted. However, plantlet induction in vivo on MS medium supplemented with 20 mg/L thidiazuron showed rates of 38.63%, 15.63%, and 61.30% for the root, stem, and leaf explants, respectively, which were lower than those of the in vitro culture. Morphological and histological analyses of FELBs at different development stages revealed that they are a novel type of SE structure that developed from the mesophyll (leaf) or cortex (stem and root) cells of S. nigrum. PMID:24896090

Xu, Kedong; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Wang, Feige; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Tong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Yan; Niu, Wei; Jia, Shuzhao; Xie, Hengchang; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

2014-01-01

82

Regeneration of Solanum nigrum by Somatic Embryogenesis, Involving Frog Egg-Like Body, a Novel Structure  

PubMed Central

A new protocol was established for the regeneration of Solanum nigrum by frog egg-like bodies (FELBs), which are novel somatic embryogenesis (SE) structures induced from the root, stem, and leaf explants. The root, stem, and leaf explants (93.33%, 85.10%, and 100.00%, respectively) were induced to form special embryonic calli on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, under dark condition. Further, special embryonic calli from the root, stem, and leaf explants (86.97%, 83.30%, and 99.47%, respectively) were developed into FELBs. Plantlets of FELBs from the three explants were induced in vitro on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and 0.1 mg/L gibberellic acid, and 100.00% plantlet induction rates were noted. However, plantlet induction in vivo on MS medium supplemented with 20 mg/L thidiazuron showed rates of 38.63%, 15.63%, and 61.30% for the root, stem, and leaf explants, respectively, which were lower than those of the in vitro culture. Morphological and histological analyses of FELBs at different development stages revealed that they are a novel type of SE structure that developed from the mesophyll (leaf) or cortex (stem and root) cells of S. nigrum. PMID:24896090

Xu, Kedong; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Wang, Feige; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Tong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Yan; Niu, Wei; Jia, Shuzhao; Xie, Hengchang; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

2014-01-01

83

The effectiveness of various nitrogen sources in white spruce [ Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of glutamine-based dipeptides, glutamine and casein hydrolysate, as well as the deletion of organic nitrogen, were investigated during white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] somatic embryogenesis. There were no differences in the fresh weight increase of the tissue masses grown on initiation medium with different combinations of organic nitrogen. This was also the case for subsequent growth on

J. D. Barrett; Y. S. Park; J. M. Bonga

1997-01-01

84

Asexual reproduction, regeneration, and somatic embryogenesis in the planarian Dugesia tigrina (Turbellaria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In reviewing recent research published in Russian on regeneration and asexual reproduction, the following morphogenetic processes in the planarian Dugesia tigrina are considered: 1) regeneration of lost parts of the body; 2) regeneration of the whole worm from fragments of the body, either by normal regeneration when the inital polarity of the fragment is retained or by somatic embryogenesis when

Elena B. Krichinskaya

1986-01-01

85

Research note Putrescine enhances somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in upland  

E-print Network

with culture media containing various Putrescine concentrations. The best results were obtained with the a significantly lower for these lines as compared to the standard cultivar for cotton transformation, `Coker 312/maturation media on somatic embryogenesis and regeneration potential in cot- ton. The plant materials consisted

Chee, Peng W.

86

Localization and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Theobroma cacao L. Somatic Embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Cocoa breeders and growers continue to face the problem of high heterogeneity between individuals derived from one progeny. Vegetative propagation by somatic embryogenesis could be a way to increase genetic gains in the field. Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. This study was conducted to investigate the phenolic composition of cocoa flowers (the explants used to achieve somatic embryogenesis) and how it changes during the process, by means of histochemistry and conventional chemical techniques. In flowers, all parts contained polyphenolics but their locations were specific to the organ considered. After placing floral explants in vitro, the polyphenolic content was qualitatively modified and maintained in the calli throughout the culture process. Among the new polyphenolics, the three most abundant were isolated and characterized by 1H? and 13C?NMR. They were hydroxycinnamic acid amides: N?trans?caffeoyl?l?DOPA or clovamide, N?trans?p?coumaroyl?l?tyrosine or deoxiclovamide, and N?trans?caffeoyl?l?tyrosine. The same compounds were found also in fresh, unfermented cocoa beans. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non?embryogenic conditions. Given the antioxidant nature of these compounds, they could reflect the stress status of the tissues. PMID:12933367

ALEMANNO, L.; RAMOS, T.; GARGADENEC, A.; ANDARY, C.; FERRIERE, N.

2003-01-01

87

[Changes in polyamine levels in Citrus sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia callus during somatic embryogenesis].  

PubMed

Somatic embryogenetic capability and changes in polyamine level and their relationship were analyzed using the long-term (8 years) subcultured calli of Citrus sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia as materials. The results showed that endogenous polyamine contents in embryogenic calli were higher than those in non-embryogenic calli, and the embryogenetic capability was positively correlated to the levels of endogenous polyamines. When the calli were transferred to a differentiation medium, the putrescine content rapidly increased and reached a peak, then fell gradually. Applying exogenous putrescine raised the embryogenesis frequency and endogenous putrescine level. It indicated that increase in putrescine content at early stage of differentiation promoted embryogenesis. With the development of somatic embryo, spermidine content reached its the highest level at globular embryo stage, spermine content rose and reached a peak at a later stage of globular embryo development. Furthermore, changes of the putrescine, spermidine and spermine contents during somatic embryogenesis were similar in Valencia calli which had different ploidy levels, but their contents decreased following the increasing of ploidy level. Changes in arginine decarboxylase activity were positively correlated to the polyamine levels, which suggest that the later is a key factor in regulating the polyamine levels during somatic embryogenesis in citrus plants. PMID:15961902

Liu, Hua-Ying; Xiao, Lang-Tao; Lu, Xu-Dong; Hu, Jia-Jin; Wu, Shun; He, Chang-Zheng; Deng, Xiu-Xin

2005-06-01

88

Alfalfa embryo production in airlift vessels via direct somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the development of alfalfa (Medicago falcata L.) somatic embryos to the torpedo stage in air-lift vessels is described. Embryos were initiated from chopped leaf explants and were formed by direct somatic embryogensis. The system produced a high number of torpedo stage embryos. The effect of various inoculation densities on embryo development was studied. A procedure for the

Alexander I. Kuklin; Plamen D. Denchev; Atanas I. Atanassov; Alan H. Scragg

1994-01-01

89

Regeneration of pineapple plants via somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have developed efficient methods for plant regeneration, via both embryogenesis and organogenesis, of Smooth Cayenne pineapple,\\u000a Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. Leaf bases and core (stem) sections of in vitro shoots, produced from culture of crown tip meristem, were used as explants for plant regeneration as follows: (1) Leaf base\\u000a and core section explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS)

E. Firoozabady; Y. Moy

2004-01-01

90

Production of plants resistant to Alternaria carthami via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of safflower cv. NARI-6 treated with fungal culture filtrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes a system for efficient plant regeneration via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of safflower\\u000a (Carthamus\\u000a tinctorius L.) cv. NARI-6 in fungal culture filtrates (FCF)-treated cultures. FCF was prepared by culturing Alternaria carthami fungal mycelia in selection medium for host-specific toxin production. Cotyledon explants cultured on callus induction medium\\u000a with different levels of FCF (10–50%) produced embryogenic callus.

J. Vijaya Kumar; B. D. Ranjitha Kumari; G. Sujatha; Enrique Castaño

2008-01-01

91

Developmental Localization and Methylesterification of Pectin Epitopes during Somatic Embryogenesis of Banana (Musa spp. AAA)  

PubMed Central

Background The plant cell walls play an important role in somatic embryogenesis and plant development. Pectins are major chemical components of primary cell walls while homogalacturonan (HG) is the most abundant pectin polysaccharide. Developmental regulation of HG methyl-esterification degree is important for cell adhesion, division and expansion, and in general for proper organ and plant development. Methodology/Principal Findings Developmental localization of pectic homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes and the (1?4)-?-D-galactan epitope of rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DM) were studied during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA). Histological analysis documented all major developmental stages including embryogenic cells (ECs), pre-globular, globular, pear-shaped and cotyledonary somatic embryos. Histochemical staining of extracellularly secreted pectins with ruthenium red showed the most intense staining at the surface of pre-globular, globular and pear-shaped somatic embryos. Biochemical analysis revealed developmental regulation of galacturonic acid content and DM in diverse embryogenic stages. Immunodots and immunolabeling on tissue sections revealed developmental regulation of highly methyl-esterified HG epitopes recognized by JIM7 and LM20 antibodies during somatic embryogenesis. Cell walls of pre-globular/globular and late-stage embryos contained both low methyl-esterified HG epitopes as well as partially and highly methyl-esterified ones. Extracellular matrix which covered surface of early developing embryos contained pectin epitopes recognized by 2F4, LM18, JIM5, JIM7 and LM5 antibodies. De-esterification of cell wall pectins by NaOH caused a decrease or an elimination of immunolabeling in the case of highly methyl-esterified HG epitopes. However, immunolabeling of some low methyl-esterified epitopes appeared stronger after this base treatment. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that both low- and highly-methyl-esterified HG epitopes are developmentally regulated in diverse embryogenic stages during somatic embryogenesis. This study provides new information about pectin composition, HG methyl-esterification and developmental localization of pectin epitopes during somatic embryogenesis of banana. PMID:21826225

Xu, Chunxiang; Zhao, Lu; Pan, Xiao; Samaj, Jozef

2011-01-01

92

Role of genetic background in somatic embryogenesis in Medicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-six cultivars of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., M. falcata L. and M. varia Martyn) were tested in vitro for their capacity to produce callus and somatic embryos. A three-step media protocol was used to survey the response of the cotyledons and hypocotyl of each genotype while the epicotyl region was conserved in order to recover highly responding genotypes. The best

Daniel C. W. Brown; Atanas Atanassov

1985-01-01

93

Detection of somaclonal variants in somatic embryogenesis-regenerated plants of Vitis vinifera by flow cytometry and microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow cytometry and microsatellite analyses were used to evaluate the trueness-to-type of somatic embryogenesis-regenerated\\u000a plants from six important Spanish grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars. Tetraploid plants were regenerated through somatic embryogenesis from all of the cultivars tested with the\\u000a exception of ‘Merenzao’. In addition, an octoploid plant was obtained in the cv. ‘Albariño’, and two mixoploids in ‘Torrontés’.\\u000a The most

María Jesús Prado; Eleazar Rodriguez; Laura Rey; María Victoria González; Conceição Santos; Manuel Rey

2010-01-01

94

Endogenous Abscisic Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Somatic Embryogenesis in Cultured Leaf Explants of Pennisetum purpureum Schum. 1  

PubMed Central

Effects of application in vivo of glyphosate, fluridone, and paclobutrazol to glasshouse-grown donor plants of Pennisetum purpureum Schum. on endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in young leaves and on somatic embryogenesis in cultured leaf explants were studied. Treatment of plants with glyphosate (100 milligrams per liter) resulted in elevated levels of endogenous ABA and IAA in young leaves. In contrast, paclobutrazol (50% active ingredient; 200 milligrams per liter) did not alter the endogenous levels of ABA and IAA. Fluridone (100 milligrams per liter) markedly inhibited synthesis of ABA and leaf explants from fluridone-treated plants lost the capacity for somatic embryogenesis. Explants from glyphosate- or paclobutrazol-treated plants did not show any reduction in embryogenic capacity when compared with untreated control plants. Glyphosate and fluridone were also incorporated into the culture media at various concentrations (0 to 20 milligrams per liter) to study their effects in vitro on somatic embryogenesis in leaf explants from untreated, field-grown plants. Glyphosate was inhibitory to somatic embryogenesis but only at concentrations above 5 milligrams per liter. Fluridone inhibited somatic embryogenesis at all concentrations tested. Inhibition of somatic embryogenesis by fluridone, by either in vivo or in vitro application, could be overcome partially by (±)-ABA added to the culture medium. Exogenous application of (±)-ABA enhanced somatic embryogenesis and reduced the formation of nonembryogenic callus. Application of IAA or gibberellic acid (GA3; >5 milligrams per liter) was inhibitory to somatic embryogenesis. These results indicate that endogenous ABA is one of the important factors controlling the embryogenic capacity of leaf explants in Napier grass. PMID:16665403

Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Hein, Mich B.; Vasil, Indra K.

1987-01-01

95

Regeneration and large-scale propagation of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus Nees) through somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete protocol for large-scale propagation of Dendrocalamus strictus Nees by somatic embryogenesis has been developed. Seeds cultured on agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented\\u000a with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D; 3×10–5\\u000a m) produced embryogenic callus from proliferation of the embryo. Somatic embryos formed in vitro multiplied rapidly (two- to\\u000a five fold every 5 weeks) on semi-solid MS medium containing 2,4-D

S. Saxena; V. Dhawan

1999-01-01

96

Somatic embryogenesis on Thin Cell Layers of a C 4 species, Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from transverse thin cell layers (tTCLs) of Digitaria sanguinalis. tTCLs (0.2 - 0.4mm thick,\\u000a 1mm in diameter) were excised from 4-week-old seedlings and placed onto Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with a varying\\u000a concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (from 1 µM to 100 µM) and sucrose (from 3% to 24%). Somatic embryos\\u000a were obtained in the

Bui Van Le; Do My Nghieng Thao; C. Gendy; J. Vidal; K. Tran Thanh Van

1997-01-01

97

Interspecific hybrids of Cucumis metuliferus × C. anguria obtained through embryo culture and somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific crosses between Cucumis metuliferus Naud. and C. anguria L. were obtained through embryo culture. Embryos in the rabbit-ear to advanced fluke-shaped stages were rescued 34–99 days after pollination. Plants were obtained through direct embryo culture, and through somatic embryogenesis from immature embryos. For direct embryo culture, fluke-shaped embryos were stored in sterile water in darkness for three days at

George Fassuliotis; B. V. Nelson

1988-01-01

98

Starch and triacylglycerol metabolism related to somatic embryogenesis in Papaver orientale tissue cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

During somatic embryogenesis in Papaver orientale tissue cultures a permanent starch accumulation and a transient triacylglycerol accumulation were observed. The degradation of the lipids during plantlet development from embryoids was paralleled by an activity increase of the glyoxylate-cycle enzymes malate synthase (EC 4.1.3.2) and isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1). Fat accumulation and breakdown was interpreted as a reflection of seed formation

Sayuri Hara; Heinz Falk; Hans Kleinig

1985-01-01

99

Characterisation of a cyclin-dependent kinase ( CDKA ) gene expressed during somatic embryogenesis of coconut palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CDKA gene is linked to the cellular control. This gene was isolated from coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L) and a detailed expression analysis was done during somatic embryogenesis. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence\\u000a showed the most important residues to be conserved. The highest homology was with Picea abies (96% similarity). Expression of the putative CnCDKA gene steadily

Mayra Montero-Cortés; Francisco Rodríguez-Paredes; Caroline Burgeff; Teresa Pérez-Nuñez; Iván Córdova; Carlos Oropeza; Jean-Luc Verdeil; Luis Sáenz

2010-01-01

100

Plant regeneration from protoplasts of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol for plant regeneration from protoplasts of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via somatic embryogenesis was developed. Viable protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic cell suspensions\\u000a at a yield of 1.2 × 107 protoplasts\\/ml packed cell volume (PCV). Liquid and feeder layer culture systems with medium-A and medium-B were used for\\u000a protoplast culture. In liquid culture system, medium-B was more efficient for

Wang Xiao; Xue-Lin Huang; Xia Huang; Ya-Ping Chen; Xue-Mei Dai; Jie-Tang Zhao

2007-01-01

101

Callus culture of Coronilla varia L. (crownvetch): plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus culture and plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis have been obtained in Coronilla varia. Media used were UM (25) supplemented with 2 mg\\/l 2,4-D followed by subculture on MS (18) containing 1 mg\\/l 2-iP and 0.1 mg\\/l IAA. Embryoids developed into complete plantlets on filter paper saturated with hormone-free MS medium.

Domenico Mariotti; Sergio Arcioni

1983-01-01

102

Genetic transformation via somatic embryogenesis to establish herbicide-resistant opium poppy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable genetic transformation protocol via somatic embryogenesis has been developed for the production of fertile, herbicide-resistant\\u000a opium poppy plants. Transformation was mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens using the pCAMBIA3301 vector, which harbors the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (pat) gene driven by a tandem repeat of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the ?-glucuronidase (gus) structural gene driven by a single

Peter J. Facchini; Natalia Loukanina; Vincent Blanche

2008-01-01

103

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature embryos of western larch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis was initiated from immature embryos of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) on media containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and N6- benzyladenine. The effects of explant type and ammonium nitrate and glutamine concentrations on initiation were tested. Although 21–93% of explants rendered cultures in various experiments, only 3% yielded sustainable embryogenic lines. Excised embryos at the early cotyledonary stage were optimal

R. Gail Thompson; Patrick von Aderkas

1992-01-01

104

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus cultures with globular proembryogenic structures were induced from zygotic embryos and hypocotyl segments of Cyphomandra betacea on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D. Proembryogenic structures produced somatic embryos and plantlets on regulator-free basal medium. Pieces of embryogenic callus subcultured on medium with the same original composition gave rise to new globular structures and the potential for plantlet regeneration has been

Maria Ludovina S. Guimarães; Gil S. Cruz; João M. Montezuma-De-Carvalho

1988-01-01

105

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Catharanthus roseus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenic callus in Catharanthus roseus was initiated from hypocotyl on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0–2.0 mg dm?3 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or chlorophenoxyacetic acid (CPA). Calli from other sources were non-embryogenic.\\u000a Numerous somatic embryos were induced from primary callus on MS medium suplemented with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) within\\u000a two weeks of culture. Embryo proliferation was much

A. Junaid; A. Mujib; M. A. Bhat; M. P. Sharma; J. Šamaj

2007-01-01

106

Evaluation of somaclonal variation during somatic embryogenesis of interior spruce ( Picea glauca engelmannii complex) using culture morphology and isozyme analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somaclonal variation during interior spruce (Picea glauca engelmannii complex) somatic embryogenesis was evaluated using culture morphology and isozyme analysis. Genotype-specific abscisic acid-dependent developmental profiles and isozyme patterns were similar for subclone and parent line embryogenic cultures and cotyledonary somatic embryos. Extensive analysis of fifteen hundred subclone embryos of one genotype revealed no isozyme pattern variation. Initiation of embryogenic cultures was

P. Ann K. Eastman; Fiona B. Webster; Jack A. Pitel; Dane R. Roberts

1991-01-01

107

Effect of 2-( n-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and myo-inositol on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from zygotic embryos of Hyoscyamus niger L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and efficient regeneration system via somatic embryogenesis has been developed from zygotic embryos of Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane). The effect of 2-(n-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES), myo-inositol (MI) and different combinations of them with a number of growth regulators on somatic embryogenesis was evaluated. Maximum frequency of direct somatic embryogenesis and germination (30.6%) was achieved after 2–5 weeks by a

Shanjun Tu; Thiérry Tétu; Rajbir S. Sangwan; Brigitte S. Sangwan-Norreel

1996-01-01

108

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature embryos of western larch.  

PubMed

Somatic embryogenesis was initiated from immature embryos of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) on media containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and N6- benzyladenine. The effects of explant type and ammonium nitrate and glutamine concentrations on initiation were tested. Although 21-93% of explants rendered cultures in various experiments, only 3% yielded sustainable embryogenic lines. Excised embryos at the early cotyledonary stage were optimal for initiation. Maturation of somatic embryos was promoted by abscisic acid. Response to abscisic acid concentrations and duration of exposure to abscisic acid varied with genotype. Maximal results were obtained with 0.025 ? M abscisic acid for 1 to 2 weeks followed by individual culture on medium without growth regulators. Mature somatic embryos developed into shoots with roots. Plantlets have been established in peat. PMID:24201537

Thompson, R G; von Aderkas, P

1992-07-01

109

Tobacco Arabinogalactan Protein NtEPc Can Promote Banana (Musa AAA) Somatic Embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Banana is an important tropical fruit worldwide. Parthenocarpy and female sterility made it impossible to improve banana varieties through common hybridization. Genetic transformation for banana improvement is imperative. But the low rate that banana embryogenic callus was induced made the transformation cannot be performed in many laboratories. Finding ways to promote banana somatic embryogenesis is critical for banana genetic transformation. After tobacco arabinogalactan protein gene NtEPc was transformed into Escherichia coli (DE3), the recombinant protein was purified and filter-sterilized. A series of the sterilized protein was added into tissue culture medium. It was found that the number of banana immature male flowers developing embryogenic calli increased significantly in the presence of NtEPc protein compared with the effect of the control medium. Among the treatments, explants cultured on medium containing 10 mg/l of NtEPc protein had the highest chance to develop embryogenic calli. The percentage of lines that developed embryogenic calli on this medium was about 12.5 %. These demonstrated that NtEPc protein can be used to promote banana embryogenesis. This is the first paper that reported that foreign arabinogalactan protein (AGP) could be used to improve banana somatic embryogenesis. PMID:25227688

Shu, H; Xu, L; Li, Z; Li, J; Jin, Z; Chang, S

2014-12-01

110

Somatic embryogenesis in wild relatives of cotton ( Gossypium Spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild cotton species can contribute a valuable gene pool for agronomically desirable cultivated tetraploid cultivars. In order\\u000a to exploit diploid cotton a regeneration system is required to achieve transformation based goals. The present studies aimed\\u000a at optimizing the conditions for regeneration of local varieties as well as wild species of cotton. Different callus induction\\u000a media were tested with varying concentrations

Abdul Qayyum Rao; S. Sarfraz Hussain; M. Saqib Shahzad; S. Yassir Abbas Bokhari; M. Hashim Raza; Allah Rakha; A. Majeed; A. Ali Shahid; Zafar Saleem; Tayyab Husnain; S. Riazuddin

2006-01-01

111

Metabolic footprinting study of white spruce somatic embryogenesis using NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

White spruce is an important commercial species for reforestation. The success in its propagation through somatic embryogenesis is well documented; however the physiological processes involved are poorly understood and remain unoptimized. The variable quality embryos generated in vitro from the same genotype suggest control at the protein and metabolite level. In order to probe metabolic changes, we have conducted a "metabolic footprinting" study, whereby culture media from growing cells was quantitatively analyzed to determine which metabolites were consumed and excreted. Such experiments are advantageous in that there is no need to quench cellular metabolism or extract intracellular metabolites through time-consuming protocols. In this paper we demonstrate the application of the footprinting assay to somatic embryo cells of white spruce (Picea glauca) using 1D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We have surveyed embryogenesis metabolism in two types of media, maintenance (MN) and maturation (MT). MN medium does not result in shoot apical meristem (SAM) formation, while MT medium induces the necessary changes leading to fully developed somatic embryos. The two types of media were easily distinguished using metabolomics analysis, namely multivariate pattern recognition statistics (orthogonal partial least squares discriminatory analysis). From this analysis, we have identified numerous compounds involved with branched chain amino acid pathways such as valine and isoleucine. These results are explained on the basis of known metabolic pathways implicated in plant and animal developmental processes, and ultimately implicate altered CoA biosynthesis. PMID:19195904

Dowlatabadi, Reza; Weljie, Aalim M; Thorpe, Trevor A; Yeung, Edward C; Vogel, Hans J

2009-05-01

112

Expression and Function of Cell Wall-Bound Cationic Peroxidase in Asparagus Somatic Embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Cultured asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. cv Y6) cells induced to regenerate into whole plants through somatic embryogenesis secreted a 38-kD protein into cell walls. The full-length cDNA sequence of this protein (Asparagus officinalis peroxidase 1 [AoPOX1]) determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed similarity with plant peroxidases. AoPOX1 transcripts were particularly abundant during early somatic embryogenesis. To evaluate the in vivo function of AoPOX1 protein, purified recombinant AoPOX1 protein was reacted with a series of phenolic substrates. The AoPOX1 protein was effective in the metabolism of feruloyl (o-methoxyphenol)-substituted substrates, including coniferyl alcohol. The reaction product of coniferyl alcohol was fractionated and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, indicating that the oxidation product of coniferyl alcohol in the presence of AoPOX1 was dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol. The concentration of dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol in the cultured medium of the somatic embryos was in the range of 10?8 m. Functions of the AoPOX1 protein in the cell differentiation are discussed. PMID:12692335

Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kotake, Toshihisa; Nakagawa, Naoki; Sakurai, Naoki; Nevins, Donald J.

2003-01-01

113

Expression and function of cell wall-bound cationic peroxidase in asparagus somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Cultured asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. cv Y6) cells induced to regenerate into whole plants through somatic embryogenesis secreted a 38-kD protein into cell walls. The full-length cDNA sequence of this protein (Asparagus officinalis peroxidase 1 [AoPOX1]) determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed similarity with plant peroxidases. AoPOX1 transcripts were particularly abundant during early somatic embryogenesis. To evaluate the in vivo function of AoPOX1 protein, purified recombinant AoPOX1 protein was reacted with a series of phenolic substrates. The AoPOX1 protein was effective in the metabolism of feruloyl (o-methoxyphenol)-substituted substrates, including coniferyl alcohol. The reaction product of coniferyl alcohol was fractionated and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, indicating that the oxidation product of coniferyl alcohol in the presence of AoPOX1 was dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol. The concentration of dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol in the cultured medium of the somatic embryos was in the range of 10(-8) M. Functions of the AoPOX1 protein in the cell differentiation are discussed. PMID:12692335

Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kotake, Toshihisa; Nakagawa, Naoki; Sakurai, Naoki; Nevins, Donald J

2003-04-01

114

Ultrastructural changes and the distribution of arabinogalactan proteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1').  

PubMed

A better understanding of somatic embryogenesis in banana (Musa spp.) may provide a practical way to improve regeneration of banana plants. In this study, we applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualize the ultrastructural changes during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1'). We also used histological and immunohistochemical techniques with 16 monoclonal antibodies to study the spatial distribution and cellular/subcellular localization of different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) components of the cell wall during somatic embryogenesis. Histological study with periodic acid-Schiff staining documented diverse embryogenic stages from embryogenic cells (ECs) to the late embryos. SEM revealed a mesh-like structure on the surface of proembryos which represented an early structural marker of somatic embryogenesis. TEM showed that ECs were rich in juvenile mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi stacks. Cells in proembryos and early globular embryos resembled ECs, but they were more vacuolated, showed more regular nuclei and slightly more developed organelles. Immunocytochemical study revealed that the signal of most AGP epitopes was stronger in starch-rich cells when compared with typical ECs. The main AGP component in the extracellular matrix surface network of banana proembryos was the MAC204 epitope. Later, AGP immunolabelling patterns varied with the developmental stages of the embryos. These results about developmental regulation of AGP epitopes along with developmental changes in the ultrastructure of cells are providing new insights into the somatic embryogenesis of banana. PMID:21496030

Pan, Xiao; Yang, Xiao; Lin, Guimei; Zou, Ru; Chen, Houbin; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

2011-08-01

115

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in zygotic embryos of Trifolium nigrescens (Viv.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed a plant regeneration protocol for Trifolium nigrescens (Viv.) via somatic embryogenesis (SE). Immature zygotic embryos at torpedo (TsE) and cotyledonary (CsE) stage were cultured on media\\u000a with different auxins and cytokinins at different concentrations. The cultural requirements for SE differed between the explants\\u000a used: the addition of 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin) or N6-[2-isopentenyl]-adenine (2iP) along with 2,4-dihydrophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)

Robert Konieczny; Maria Pilarska; Monika Tuleja; Terezia Salaj; Tomasz Ilnicki

2010-01-01

116

Large impact of the apoplast on somatic embryogenesis in Cyclamen persicum offers possibilities for improved developmental control in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Clonal propagation is highly desired especially for valuable horticultural crops. The method with the potentially highest multiplication rate is regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. However, this mode of propagation is often hampered by the occurrence of developmental aberrations and non-embryogenic callus. Therefore, the developmental process of somatic embryogenesis was analysed in the ornamental crop Cyclamen persicum by expression profiling, comparing different developmental stages of embryogenic cell cultures, zygotic vs. somatic embryos and embryogenic vs. non-embryogenic cell cultures. Results The analysis was based on a cDNA microarray representing 1,216 transcripts and was exemplarily validated by realtime PCR. For this purpose relative transcript abundances of homologues of a putative receptor kinase, two different glutathione S-transferases (GST), a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) and a peroxidase (POX) were quantitatively measured by realtime PCR for three different comparisons. In total, 417 genes were found to be differentially expressed. Gene Ontology annotation revealed that transcripts coding for enzymes that are active in the extracellular compartment (apoplast) were significantly overrepresented in several comparisons. The expression profiling results are underpinned by thorough histological analyses of somatic and zygotic embryos. Conclusions The putative underlying physiological processes are discussed and hypotheses on improvement of the protocol for in vitro somatic embryogenesis in Cyclamen persicum are deduced. A set of physiological markers is proposed for efficient molecular control of the process of somatic embryogenesis in C. persicum. The general suitability of expression profiling for the development and improvement of micropropagation methods is discussed. PMID:20426818

2010-01-01

117

GhAGL15s, preferentially expressed during somatic embryogenesis, promote embryogenic callus formation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool for gene transfer and propagation of plants. AGAMOUS-LIKE15 (AGL15) promotes somatic embryogenesis in many plant species. In this study, three homologous AGL15 genes were isolated from Gossypium hirsutum L., namely GhAGL15-1, GhAGL15-3, and GhAGL15-4. Their putative proteins contained a highly conserved MADS-box DNA-binding domain and a less conserved K domain. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the three GhAGL15s clustered most closely with AGL15 proteins in other plants. Subcellular location analyses revealed that three GhAGL15s were localized in the nucleus. Furthermore, their expression levels increased following embryogenic callus induction, but sharply decreased during the embryoid stage. GhAGL15-1 and GhAGL15-3 were significantly induced by 2,4-D and kinetin, whereas GhAGL15-4 was only responsive to 2,4-D treatment. Over-expression of the three GhAGL15s in cotton callus improved callus quality and significantly increased the embryogenic callus formation rate, while GhAGL15-4 had the highest positive effect on the embryogenic callus formation rate (an increase from 38.1 to 65.2%). These results suggest that over-expression of GhAGL15s enhances embryogenic potential of transgenic calli. Therefore, spatiotemporal manipulation of GhAGL15s expression may prove valuable in improving cotton transformation efficiency. PMID:24833045

Yang, Zuoren; Li, Changfeng; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Chaojun; Wu, Zhixia; Zhang, Xueyan; Liu, Chuanliang; Li, Fuguang

2014-10-01

118

Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species  

PubMed Central

Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33) was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F1 plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets. PMID:23235330

Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah

2012-01-01

119

Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species.  

PubMed

Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33) was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F(1) plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets. PMID:23235330

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah

2012-01-01

120

Influence of low temperature preincubation on somatic embryogenesis and ethylene emanation from orchardgrass leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of low temperature (4 degrees C) preincubation on somatic embryogenesis from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) leaf cultures and to relate these effects to ethylene emanation during the preincubation and incubation periods. Experiments were also conducted with an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOA). Segments from the innermost two leaves were cultured on SH medium with 30 micromoles dicamba at 4 degrees C for 1 to 7 d before transfer to 21 degrees C. Results from a paired design showed that the embryogenic response of leaf segments preincubated at 4 degrees C was equal or superior to nonpreincubated leaves at all time periods. Ethylene emanation was decreased during the low temperature incubation. Transfer of leaf segments from 4 degrees C to 21 degrees C was accompanied by a burst of ethylene which rose to control levels within 30 min. AOA at 20 and 40 micromoles decreased ethylene emanation but did not stimulate the embryogenic response. We conclude that the stimulation of somatic embryogenesis by low temperature is probably due to factors other than suppression of ethylene biosynthesis.

Tomaszewski, Z. Jr; Kuklin, A. I.; Sams, C. E.; Conger, B. V.

1994-01-01

121

Identification of expressed sequences in the coffee genome potentially associated with somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Brazil possesses the most modern and productive coffee growing farms in the world, but technological development is desired to cope with the increasing world demand. One way to increase Brazilian coffee growing productivity is wide scale production of clones with superior genotypes, which can be obtained with in vitro propagation technique, or from tissue culture. These procedures can generate thousands of clones. However, the methodologies for in vitro cultivation are genotype-dependent, which leads to an almost empirical development of specific protocols for each species. Therefore, molecular markers linked to the biochemical events of somatic embryogenesis would greatly facilitate the development of such protocols. In this context, sequences potentially involved in embryogenesis processes in the coffee plant were identified in silico from libraries generated by the Brazilian Coffee Genome Project. Through these in silico analyses, we identified 15 EST-contigs related to the embryogenesis process. Among these, 5 EST-contigs (3605, 9850, 13686, 17240, and 17265) could readily be associated with plant embryogenesis. Sequence analysis of EST-contig 3605, 9850, and 17265 revealed similarity to a polygalacturonase, to a cysteine-proteinase, and to an allergenine, respectively. Results also show that EST-contig 17265 sequences presented similarity to an expansin. Finally, analysis of EST-contig 17240 revealed similarity to a protein of unknown function, but it grouped in the similarity dendrogram with the WUSCHEL transcription factor. The data suggest that these EST-contigs are related to the embryogenic process and have potential as molecular markers to increase methodological efficiency in obtaining coffee plant embryogenic materials. PMID:23765976

Silva, A T; Paiva, L V; Andrade, A C; Barduche, D

2013-01-01

122

AGAMOUS-Like15 Promotes Somatic Embryogenesis in Arabidopsis and Soybean in Part by the Control of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Response1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Many of the regulatory processes occurring during plant embryogenesis are still unknown. Relatively few cells are involved, and they are embedded within maternal tissues, making this developmental phase difficult to study. Somatic embryogenesis is a more accessible system, and many important regulatory genes appear to function similar to zygotic development, making somatic embryogenesis a valuable model for the study of zygotic processes. To better understand the role of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MADS factor AGAMOUS-Like15 (AGL15) in the promotion of somatic embryogenesis, direct target genes were identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation-tiling arrays and expression arrays. One potential directly up-regulated target was At5g61590, which encodes a member of the ethylene response factor subfamily B-3 of APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factors and is related to Medicago truncatula SOMATIC EMBRYO-RELATED FACTOR1 (MtSERF1), which has been shown to be required for somatic embryogenesis in M. truncatula. Here, we report confirmation that At5g61590 is a directly expressed target of AGL15 and that At5g61590 is essential for AGL15’s promotion of somatic embryogenesis. Because At5g61590 is a member of the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR family, effects of ethylene on somatic embryogenesis were investigated. Precursors to ethylene stimulate somatic embryogenesis, whereas inhibitors of ethylene synthesis or perception reduce somatic embryogenesis. To extend findings to a crop plant, we investigated the effects of ethylene on somatic embryogenesis in soybean (Glycine max). Furthermore, we found that a potential ortholog of AGL15 in soybean (GmAGL15) up-regulates ethylene biosynthesis and response, including direct regulation of soybean orthologs of At5g61590/MtSERF1 named here GmSERF1 and GmSERF2, in concordance with the M. truncatula nomenclature. PMID:23457229

Zheng, Qiaolin; Zheng, Yumei; Perry, Sharyn E.

2013-01-01

123

Somatic embryogenesis and in vitro rosmarinic acid accumulation in Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa leaf callus cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of explant age, plant growth regulators and culture conditions on somatic embryogenesis and rosmarinic acid production\\u000a from leaf explants of Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa plants collected in Greece was investigated. Embryogenic callus with numerous spherical somatic embryos could be induced\\u000a on explants derived from both species and cultured for 3 weeks on a Murashige and Skoog (MS)

S. Kintzios; A. Nikolaou; M. Skoula

1999-01-01

124

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from different wild diploid cotton (Gossypium) species.  

PubMed

Calli were successfully induced from hypocotyls of eight wild diploid cotton species (Gossypium) on MSB (MS salts and B(5) vitamins) medium supplemented with 0.09 microM 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and 2.32 microM KT (kinetin). Plant growth regulator (PGR) combinations, adding GA(3) (Gibberellic acid), high inorganic salt stress, and PGR-free media were used to induce embryogenic calli from nonembryogenic calli. Embryogenic cultures were induced from G. aridum S. (D(4) genome), G. davidsonii K. (D(3)-d genome), G. klotzschianum A. (D(3)-k genome), G. raimondii U. (D(5) genome), and G. stocksii M. (E(1) genome). We then observed somatic embryogenesis in the five species while calli of G. africanum V. (A(1)-2 genome), G. anomalum W. (B(1) genome), and G. bickii P. (G genome) remained nonembryogenic. Somatic embryogenesis was adjusted by changing sugar sources, regulating combinations of PGRs, and using cell suspension culture. Embryos at various developmental stages produced mature and germinating embryos when cultured on filter paper placed on the media containing different sugar sources. The utility of different sugar sources promoted globular embryos developing into cotyledonary stage and increased the frequency of cotyledonary embryos developing into normal plants. Normal plantlets were regenerated from G. davidsonii, G. klotzschianum, G. raimondii, and G. stocksii. Only abnormal plantlets were obtained in G. aridum. This work will contribute to broadening the number of regenerable cotton species and provide foundations for somatic hybridization in cotton to create new germplasm. PMID:16315034

Sun, Yuqiang; Zhang, Xianlong; Huang, Chao; Guo, Xiaoping; Nie, Yichun

2006-04-01

125

A mathematical model for the coreceptors SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1 and SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE3 in BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-mediated signaling.  

PubMed

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are key regulators in plant growth and development. The main BR-perceiving receptor in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1). Seedling root growth and hypocotyl elongation can be accurately predicted using a model for BRI1 receptor activity. Genetic evidence shows that non-ligand-binding coreceptors of the SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SERK) family are essential for BRI1 signal transduction. A relatively simple biochemical model based on the properties of SERK loss-of-function alleles explains complex physiological responses of the BRI1-mediated BR pathway. The model uses BRI1-BR occupancy as the central estimated parameter and includes BRI1-SERK interaction based on mass action kinetics and accurately describes wild-type root growth and hypocotyl elongation. Simulation studies suggest that the SERK coreceptors primarily act to increase the magnitude of the BRI1 signal. The model predicts that only a small number of active BRI1-SERK complexes are required to carry out BR signaling at physiological ligand concentration. Finally, when calibrated with single mutants, the model predicts that roots of the serk1serk3 double mutant are almost completely brassinolide (BL) insensitive, while the double mutant hypocotyls remain sensitive. This points to residual BRI1 signaling or to a different coreceptor requirement in shoots. PMID:24072582

van Esse, Wilma; van Mourik, Simon; Albrecht, Catherine; van Leeuwen, Jelle; de Vries, Sacco

2013-11-01

126

Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in the forage grass Caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica).  

PubMed

Plantlets were regenerated from cultured seed explants of the forage grass Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa caucasica (Trin.) C.E. Hubbard] via somatic embryogenesis. Embryogenic callus was produced in four weeks when surface sterilized seeds were cultured on a medium containing MS-salts, B-5 vitamins, 12 mM L-proline, 2% sucrose, 0.8% agar and 5?M 2,4-D. Plantlets were regenerated in 6-8 weeks after culture initiation. Healthy root and shoot systems were produced within three weeks after the plantlets were transferred to a medium lacking 2,4-D. Approximately 95% of the plantlets survived greenhouse acclimation and produced healthy plants and viable seeds. Caucasian bluestem callus cultures exhibit natural resistance to kanamycin. High levels of kanamycin (up to 800 mg/l) did not completely inhibit callus growth. However, the regeneration of healthy-plantlets was completely inhibited by kanamycin even at low levels (50 mg/l). PMID:24227174

Franklin, C I; Trieu, T N; Gonzales, R A

1990-12-01

127

The relationship between induction of embryogenesis and chromosome doubling in microspore cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The objective of this paper is to review the relationship between induction of microspore embryogenesis and chromosome doubling.\\u000a It has been augmented with relative data on chromosome doubling by nuclear fusion. Some of the treatments used for induction\\u000a of embryogenesis may also lead to doubling of the chromosome number, either through nuclear fusion or endomitosis. High frequencies\\u000a of spontaneous chromosome

Y. S. Shim; K. J. Kasha; E. Simion; J. Letarte

2006-01-01

128

Somatic embryogenesis and vegetative cutting capacity are under distinct genetic control in Coffea canephora Pierre.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the possible genetic effect on vegetative propagation of Coffea canephora. Diversity for somatic embryogenesis (SE) ability was observed not only among two groups of C. canephora Pierre (Congolese and Guinean), but also within these different genetic groups. The results therefore showed that, under given experimental conditions, SE ability is depending on genotype. Furthermore the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the SE and cutting abilities of C. canephora was performed on a large number of clones including accessions from a core collection, three parental clones and their segregating progenies. On the one hand we detected eight QTLs determining SE. Six positive QTLs for SE ability, whatever the criteria used to quantify this ability, were localized on one single chromosome region of the consensus genetic map. Two negative QTLs for SE ability (frequency of micro calli without somatic embryo) were detected on another linkage group. Deep analysis of the six QTLs detected for SE ability came to the conclusion that they can be assimilated to one single QTL explaining 8.6-12.2% of the observed variation. On the other hand, two QTLs for average length of roots and length of the longest sprouts of cuttings were detected in two linkage groups. These QTLs detected for cutting ability are explaining 12-27% of the observed variation. These observations led to conclude that SE and cutting abilities of C. canephora Pierre appeared to be genetic dependent but through independent mechanisms. PMID:20145933

Priyono; Florin, Bruno; Rigoreau, Michel; Ducos, Jean-Paul; Sumirat, Ucu; Mawardi, Surip; Lambot, Charles; Broun, Pierre; Pétiard, Vincent; Wahyudi, Teguh; Crouzillat, Dominique

2010-04-01

129

Interactions of ancymidol with sucrose and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid in promoting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions of varying ancymidol concentrations with those of ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or sucrose in embryo induction medium were related to the production and development of asparagus\\u000a (Asparagus officinalis L.) somatic embryos, and to the ability of these embryos to germinate. A significant sucrose×ancymidol interaction was observed\\u000a only for the production of bipolar embryos; 4% sucrose with 0.75 mg l–1 ancymidol

B. Li; D. J. Wolyn

1997-01-01

130

Initiation of somatic embryogenesis in white spruce ( Picea glauca ): genetic control, culture treatment effects, and implications for tree breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of genetic control and the effects of cultural treatments on somatic embryogenesis (SE) in white spruce were investigated with material derived from six-parent diallel crosses, including reciprocals. Thirty zygotic embryos from both immature and mature cones of each family were cultured in media with either 2,4-D or Picloram immediately after the collection of cones and after 2 months

Y. S. Park; S. E. Pond; J. M. Bonga

1993-01-01

131

Application of somatic embryogenesis in high-value clonal forestry: Deployment, genetic control, and stability of cryopreserved clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The most important advantage of cloning conifers by somatic embryogenesis (SE) is that the embryogenic tissue can be cryopreserved\\u000a without changing its genetic make-up and without loss of juvenility. This offers an opportunity to develop high-value clonal\\u000a varieties by defrosting and repropagating cryopreserved clones after genetic testing has shown which clones are the best performers.\\u000a In the current absence of

Y. S. Park; J. D. Barrett; J. M. Bonga

1998-01-01

132

Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from tissues of mature oak trees: true-to-type conformity of plantlets by RAPD analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis was induced in expanding leaf explants excised from epicormic shoots forced from branch segments taken at four different times of year from a mature oak (Quercus robur L.). Branch segments 2–4 cm in diameter produced most shoots when collected in March. Somatic embryos were induced on explants derived from branches of all collection dates, although collection in November seemed

S. Valladares; C. Sánchez; M. T. Martínez; A. Ballester; A. M. Vieitez

2006-01-01

133

Influence of plant growth regulators, carbon sources and iron on the cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of transgenic cherry rootstock `Colt' ( Prunus avium × P. pseudocerasus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of long-term secondary somatic embryogenesis and shoot meristem development from embryogenic masses of the cherry rootstock `Colt' ( Prunus avium × P. pseudocerasus), differentiated from transgenic roots containing the T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, has opened the way for genetic improvement by biotechnological techniques. Whole plants were produced by stimulating shoot meristem development from somatic embryos. The combination of

Patricia Gutièrrez pesce; Eddo Rugini

2004-01-01

134

Thidiazuron induces shoot organogenesis at low concentrations and somatic embryogenesis at high concentrations on leaf and petiole explants of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl).  

PubMed

Regeneration via shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was observed from thidiazuron (TDZ)-treated leaf and petiole explants of greenhouse- and in vitro-grown African violet plants. The response of cultures to other growth regulators over a range of 0.5 microM to 10 microM was 50% less than that observed with TDZ. A comparative study among several cultivars of African violet indicated that "Benjamin" and "William" had the highest regeneration potential. In "Benjamin", higher frequencies of shoot organogenesis (twofold) and somatic embryogenesis (a 50% increase) were observed from in vitro- and greenhouse-grown plants, respectively. At concentrations lower than 2.5 microM, TDZ induced shoot organogenesis, whereas at higher doses (5-10 microM) somatic embryos were formed. These findings provide the first report of simultaneous shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of African violet explants in response to TDZ. PMID:12789442

Mithila, J; Hall, J C; Victor, J M R; Saxena, P K

2003-01-01

135

Annotation of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Somatic Embryogenesis of Musa and Their Location in the Banana Genome  

PubMed Central

Analysis of cDNA-AFLP was used to study the genes expressed in zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Musa acuminata Colla ssp. malaccensis, and a comparison was made between their differential transcribed fragments (TDFs) and the sequenced genome of the double haploid- (DH-) Pahang of the malaccensis subspecies that is available in the network. A total of 253 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected with apparent size of 100–4000 bp using 5 pairs of AFLP primers, of which 21 were differentially expressed during the different stages of banana embryogenesis; 15 of the sequences have matched DH-Pahang chromosomes, with 7 of them being homologous to gene sequences encoding either known or putative protein domains of higher plants. Four TDF sequences were located in all Musa chromosomes, while the rest were located in one or two chromosomes. Their putative individual function is briefly reviewed based on published information, and the potential roles of these genes in embryo development are discussed. Thus the availability of the genome of Musa and the information of TDFs sequences presented here opens new possibilities for an in-depth study of the molecular and biochemical research of zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Musa. PMID:24027442

Maldonado-Borges, Josefina Ines; Ku-Cauich, Jose Roberto; Escobedo-GraciaMedrano, Rosa Maria

2013-01-01

136

New Insights into Somatic Embryogenesis: LEAFY COTYLEDON1, BABY BOOM1 and WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX4 Are Epigenetically Regulated in Coffea canephora  

PubMed Central

Plant cells have the capacity to generate a new plant without egg fertilization by a process known as somatic embryogenesis (SE), in which differentiated somatic cells can form somatic embryos able to generate a functional plant. Although there have been advances in understanding the genetic basis of SE, the epigenetic mechanism that regulates this process is still unknown. Here, we show that the embryogenic development of Coffea canephora proceeds through a crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modifications during the earliest embryogenic stages of SE. We found that low levels of DNA methylation, histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) and H3K27me3 change according to embryo development. Moreover, the expression of LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and BABY BOOM1 (BBM1) are only observed after SE induction, whereas WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX4 (WOX4) decreases its expression during embryo maturation. Using a pharmacological approach, it was found that 5-Azacytidine strongly inhibits the embryogenic response by decreasing both DNA methylation and gene expression of LEC1 and BBM1. Therefore, in order to know whether these genes were epigenetically regulated, we used Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. It was found that WOX4 is regulated by the repressive mark H3K9me2, while LEC1 and BBM1 are epigenetically regulated by H3K27me3. We conclude that epigenetic regulation plays an important role during somatic embryogenic development, and a molecular mechanism for SE is proposed. PMID:23977240

Nic-Can, Geovanny I.; Lopez-Torres, Adolfo; Barredo-Pool, Felipe; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Loyola-Vargas, Victor M.; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael; De-la-Pena, Clelia

2013-01-01

137

Explants of Ri-transformed hairy roots of spinach can develop embryogenic calli in the absence of gibberellic acid, an essential growth regulator for induction of embryogenesis from non-transformed roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy roots of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) were obtained by inoculation of cotyledon explants with wild-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes A13. Integration of the transfer DNA (T-DNA) of a root-inducing (Ri) plasmid of A. rhizogenes into the plant DNA was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction. Somatic embryogenesis from explants of hairy roots were induced even when the callus-induction (CI) medium did

Takuma Ishizaki; Yoichiro Hoshino; Kiyoshi Masuda; Katsuji Oosawa

2002-01-01

138

A rapid system for micropropagation of Swertia chirata Buch-Ham. ex Wall.: an endangered medicinal herb via direct somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method of direct somatic embryogenesis (SE) was developed in Swertia chirata for the first time using leaves and roots of in vitro-grown young seedlings. In the present study, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic\\u000a acid (2,4-D) was assessed individually and in combination with other auxins, as well as with cytokinin for its effectiveness\\u000a to induce somatic embryos. Leaf explants with abaxial side in

K. Balaraju; S. Saravanan; P. Agastian; S. Ignacimuthu

2011-01-01

139

High frequency shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in juvenile and adult tissues of seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is a multipurpose small tree with unique berries of high nutritional and pharmaceutical values. A clonally propagated plant\\u000a originating from a 20-year-old tree of H. r. rhamnoides × mongolica hybrid cultivar Julia and seedling offspring of this cultivar were investigated regarding induction of shoot organogenesis\\u000a in leaf explants and in roots of intact seedlings, and induction of direct somatic

Sridevy Sriskandarajah; Per-Olof Lundquist

2009-01-01

140

Influence of a loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.). Culture medium and its components on growth and somatic embryogenesis of the wild carrot ( Daucus carota L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new culture medium, originally designed and shown to grow cell suspensions from a variety of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) explants, was used to study growth and somatic embryogenesis of the wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) in cell suspensions. The new loblolly pine medium (LM) differed from the standard wild carrot medium (WCM) in having very low Ca2+, very

John D. Litvay; Devi C. Verma; Morris A. Johnson

1985-01-01

141

Improved efficiency and normalization of somatic embryogenesis in Triticum aestivum (wheat)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Tissue cultures derived from the scutellum of immature embryos ofTriticum aestivum L. (wheat) gave rise to somatic embryos with a well-defined scutellum and coleoptile as well as one or more shoot primordia and a root primordium. The normal somatic embryos were formed from compact, white callus tissue which was not observed until 4 or more weeks after culture initiation.

Peggy Ozias-Akins; Indra K. Vasil

1983-01-01

142

Characterization and expression analysis of SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE (SERK) genes in sexual and apomictic Paspalum notatum.  

PubMed

The SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SERK) gene plays a fundamental role in somatic embryogenesis of angiosperms, and is associated with apomixis in Poa pratensis. The objective of this work was to isolate, characterize and analyze the expression patterns of SERK genes in apomictic and sexual genotypes of Paspalum notatum. A conserved 200-bp gene fragment was amplified from genomic DNA with heterologous primers, and used to initiate a chromosomal walking strategy for cloning the complete sequence. This procedure allowed the isolation of two members of the P. notatum SERK family; PnSERK1, which is similar to PpSERK1, and PnSERK2, which is similar to ZmSERK2 and AtSERK1. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PnSERK1 and PnSERK2 represent paralogous sequences. Southern-blot hybridization indicated the presence of at least three copies of SERK genes in the species. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that PnSERK2 was expressed at significantly higher levels than PnSERK1 in roots, leaves, reproductive tissues and embryogenic calli. Moreover, in situ hybridization experiments revealed that PnSERK2 displayed a spatially and chronologically altered expression pattern in reproductive organs of the apomictic genotype with respect to the sexual one. PnSERK2 is expressed in nucellar cells of the apomictic genotype at meiosis, but only in the megaspore mother cell in the sexual genotype. Therefore, apomixis onset in P. notatum seems to be correlated with the expression of PnSERK2 in nucellar tissue. PMID:24146222

Podio, Maricel; Felitti, Silvina Andrea; Siena, Lorena Adelina; Delgado, Luciana; Mancini, Micaela; Seijo, José Guillermo; González, Ana María; Pessino, Silvina Claudia; Ortiz, Juan Pablo A

2014-03-01

143

Induction of Canonical Wnt Signaling by Alsterpaullone Is Sufficient for Oral Tissue Fate During Regeneration and Embryogenesis in Nematostella vectensis  

PubMed Central

Although regeneration is widespread among metazoa, the molecular mechanisms have been studied in only a handful of taxa. Of these taxa, fewer still are amenable to studies of embryogenesis. Our understanding of the evolution of regeneration, and its relation to embryogenesis, therefore remains limited. Using ?-catenin as a marker, we investigated the role of canonical Wnt signaling during both regeneration and embryogenesis in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is known to play a conserved role in primary axis patterning in triploblasts. Induction of Wnt signaling with alsterpaullone results in ectopic oral tissue during both regeneration and embryogenesis by specifically upregulating ?-catenin expression, as measured by qRTPCR. Our data indicate that canonical Wnt signaling is sufficient for oral patterning during Nematostella regeneration and embryogenesis. These data also contribute to a growing body of literature indicating a conserved role for patterning mechanisms across various developmental modes of metazoans. PMID:22052821

Trevino, Michael; Stefanik, Derek J.; Rodriguez, Richard; Harmon, Shane; Burton, Patrick M.

2013-01-01

144

Effect of vitamins and inorganic micronutrients on callus growth and somatic embryogenesis from leaves of chilli pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different vitamins and inorganic micronutrients on callus growth and the induction and proliferation of somatic embryos from young mature, fully expanded leaves of chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was investigated. Explants were cultured on a solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8% (w\\/v) sucrose, 12.9 µM 6-benzyladenine, 9 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg l-1

S. Kintzios; J. B. Drossopoulos; Ch. Lymperopoulos

2001-01-01

145

Plant regeneration in Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. from embryogenic callus and cell suspension culture and assessment of genetic fidelity of plants derived through somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Efficient in vitro propagation of medicinally important endangered plant C. borivilianum has been achieved through somatic embryogenesis. Solid embryogenic medium [Murashige and Skoog medium containing 1.79 mM NH4NO3, 10.72 mM KNO3, 1.13 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 7.38 ?M 2-isopentenyladenine and 0.76 mM proline] supplemented with polyethylene glycol and sucrose (3 % each), exhibited 1.88-fold increase in embryo maturation compared to embryogenic medium containing 3 % sucrose. Liquid embryogenic medium supported better somatic embryo production and maturation. Highest total (79) and mature (cotyledonary stage) somatic embryos (38) as well as highest germination (57.5 %) was observed at inoculum density of 0.4 g/40 ml of liquid medium. 5.86 pH level exhibited optimal growth, maturation and germination of somatic embryos. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of C. borivilianum plants regenerated through somatic embryogenesis revealed that they were genetically similar to the mother plant. The protocol established in the present study can be used for rapid mass multiplication of C. borivilianum in bioreactor employing liquid medium. PMID:23814440

Rizvi, Mohd Zahid; Kukreja, Arun Kumar; Bisht, Narendra Singh

2012-07-01

146

Genotypic variation and chromosomal location of QTLs for somatic embryogenesis revealed by epidermal layers culture of recombinant inbred lines in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to identify the genetic factors controlling somatic embryogenesis in the sunflower. Two traits,\\u000a the number of embryogenic explants per 40 explants plated (EE\\/40 E) and the number of embryos per 40 explants (E\\/40 E), were\\u000a scored in 74 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between ’PAC-2’ and ’RHA-266’. The experiment was designed as a

E. Flores Berrios; A. Sarrafi; F. Fabre; G. Alibert; L. Gentzbittel

2000-01-01

147

Plant regeneration from the root-derived embryonic tissues of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Charming via a combined pathway of somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes culture conditions for a plant regeneration system via a combined pathway of somatic embryogenesis and\\u000a organogenesis in root explant cultures of the commercial rose cultivar 'Charming'. Root explants formed white calluses at\\u000a a frequency of 30% after 6 weeks of culture on Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) medium supplemented with 11 mg l?1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. After 6 weeks of transfer to SH

Suk Weon Kim; Myung Jin Oh; Jang R. Liu

2009-01-01

148

Thidiazuron stimulates shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in white ash (Fraxinus americana L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immature and mature nonstratified seeds of white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) were dissected transversely and 2\\/3 of each seed was placed onto agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium. Adventitious buds, shoots, and somatic embryos formed on callus, cotyledons, and hypocotyls of the resulting seedlings. Shoot organogenesis was induced on explants cultured on medium with 10 µM thidiazuron but not on explants

Sharon Bates; John E. Preece; Nadia E. Navarrete; J. W. Sambeek; Gerald R. Gaffney

1992-01-01

149

Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis of Agave victoriae-reginae : Considerations for its conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agave victoriae-reginae somatic embryos were produced through a callus phase from seedling stem segments cultured on MS medium. The optimal treatment was MS medium with 2.26 µM 2,4-D. Multiple shoot regeneration was induced from axillary buds from stem segments cultured on MS medium with 2.2–4.4 µM BA. Effect of MS and modified MS medium with 50% macronutrient concentration, both containing

Alejandro Martínez-Palacios; M. Pilar Ortega-Larrocea; Víctor M. Chávez; Robert Bye

2003-01-01

150

Callus production, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Lycium barbarum root explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new micropropagation system for Lycium barbarum (L.) was developed using root explants as starting material. Callus can be produced from root explants on Murashige and Skoog\\u000a (MS) medium containing 0.2 mg dm?3 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. After three subcultures on the same medium, callus was then transferred onto the MS medium\\u000a supplemented with 500 mg dm?3 lactalbumin hydrolysate to induce somatic

Z. Hu; Y. Hu; H. H. Gao; X. Q. Guan; D. H. Zhuang

2008-01-01

151

Somatic embryogenesis in suspension and suspension-derived callus cultures of Dactylis glomerata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Suspension cultures were initiated from somatic embryos and embryogenic callus ofDactylis glomerata L. in SH-30 liquid medium [Schenk andHildebrandt (1972) containing 30 µM 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid (dicamba)] with or without 1.5 gl-1 casein hydrolysate. Established suspension cultures maintained in SH-30 without casein hydrolysate proliferated when cell masses underwent cell division and enlargement. These cultures contained numerous root primordia and increased

D. J. Gray; B. V. Conger; G. E. Hanning

1984-01-01

152

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Coronilla varia L. (crownvetch) long-term tissue cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous recovery of regeneration abilities was observed in a long-term (about two-year-old) crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.) tissue culture permanently grown on MS medium containing 1 mg 1-1 IAA. Somatic embryos and later complete plants differentiated from initially regenerating roots. The formation and development\\u000a of embryos was accompanied by a 10- to 20-fold increase in the content of cardioactive glycosides hyrcanoside

Ji?ina Duškova; Z. Opatrný; Marie Sovová; J. Dušek

1990-01-01

153

Somatic embryogenesis on various potato tissues from a range of genotypes and ploidy levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos (SEs) formed on in vitro-cultured stem internodes, leaves, microtubers and roots of 18 tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, diploid and monoploid germplasm and three wild Solanum species. A two-step protocol with 6-benzylaminopurine or thidiazuron in the first medium, and zeatin, indoleacetic acid and gibberellic acid in the second medium produced SEs within 14-28 days. SEs developed through

J. E. A. Seabrook; L. K. Douglass

2001-01-01

154

Improved culture conditions for somatic embryogenesis from Asparagus officinalis L. using an aseptic ventilative filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calli were induced from the crown of seedlings or lateral bud of young spears of Asparagus officinalis L. on Linsmaier and Skoog's (LS) solid-medium supplemented with 5 µ M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Embryogenic callus was selected from induced calli and proliferated in LS liquid medium supplemented with 5 µ M 2,4-D. Non-vitrified somatic embryos were formed and efficiently developed into

Takeo Saito; Shuji Nishizawa; Shigeo Nishimura

1991-01-01

155

Plant regeneration from cultured immature inflorescences of coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.): evidence for somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immature inflorescences of coconut belonging to three different genotypes were cultured on a solid medium supplemented with activated charcoal (2%) and a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) concentrations (from 1.5 to 3.5 × 10-4M). Globular white callus formed from immature floral meristems, depending on inflorescence age and 2,4-D concentration. Acquisition of embryogenic competence is described histologically. Somatic embryos presented a

Jean-Luc Verdeil; Christine Huet; Frédérique Grosdemange; Jacqueline Buffard-Morel

1994-01-01

156

A Mathematical Model for the Coreceptors SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1 and SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE3 in BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-Mediated Signaling[C][W  

PubMed Central

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are key regulators in plant growth and development. The main BR-perceiving receptor in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1). Seedling root growth and hypocotyl elongation can be accurately predicted using a model for BRI1 receptor activity. Genetic evidence shows that non-ligand-binding coreceptors of the SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SERK) family are essential for BRI1 signal transduction. A relatively simple biochemical model based on the properties of SERK loss-of-function alleles explains complex physiological responses of the BRI1-mediated BR pathway. The model uses BRI1-BR occupancy as the central estimated parameter and includes BRI1-SERK interaction based on mass action kinetics and accurately describes wild-type root growth and hypocotyl elongation. Simulation studies suggest that the SERK coreceptors primarily act to increase the magnitude of the BRI1 signal. The model predicts that only a small number of active BRI1-SERK complexes are required to carry out BR signaling at physiological ligand concentration. Finally, when calibrated with single mutants, the model predicts that roots of the serk1serk3 double mutant are almost completely brassinolide (BL) insensitive, while the double mutant hypocotyls remain sensitive. This points to residual BRI1 signaling or to a different coreceptor requirement in shoots. PMID:24072582

van Esse, Wilma; van Mourik, Simon; Albrecht, Catherine; van Leeuwen, Jelle; de Vries, Sacco

2013-01-01

157

Deep Sequencing and Microarray Hybridization Identify Conserved and Species-Specific MicroRNAs during Somatic Embryogenesis in Hybrid Yellow Poplar  

PubMed Central

Background To date, several studies have indicated a major role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating plant development, but miRNA-mediated regulation of the developing somatic embryo is poorly understood, especially during early stages of somatic embryogenesis in hardwood plants. In this study, Solexa sequencing and miRNA microfluidic chips were used to discover conserved and species-specific miRNAs during somatic embryogenesis of hybrid yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera×L. chinense). Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 17,214,153 reads representing 7,421,623 distinct sequences were obtained from a short RNA library generated from small RNAs extracted from all stages of somatic embryos. Through a combination of deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses, we discovered 83 sequences with perfect matches to known miRNAs from 33 conserved miRNA families and 273 species-specific candidate miRNAs. MicroRNA microarray results demonstrated that many conserved and species-specific miRNAs were expressed in hybrid yellow poplar embryos. In addition, the microarray also detected another 149 potential miRNAs, belonging to 29 conserved families, which were not discovered by deep sequencing analysis. The biological processes and molecular functions of the targets of these miRNAs were predicted by carrying out BLAST search against Arabidopsis thaliana GenBank sequences and then analyzing the results with Gene Ontology. Conclusions Solexa sequencing and microarray hybridization were used to discover 232 candidate conserved miRNAs from 61 miRNA families and 273 candidate species-specific miRNAs in hybrid yellow poplar. In these predicted miRNAs, 64 conserved miRNAs and 177 species-specific miRNAs were detected by both sequencing and microarray hybridization. Our results suggest that miRNAs have wide-ranging characteristics and important roles during all stages of somatic embryogenesis in this economically important species. PMID:22952685

Qiu, Shuai; Zhang, Yanjuan; Wang, Pengkai; Yang, Liwei; Lu, Ye; Shi, Jisen

2012-01-01

158

The union of somatic gonad precursors and primordial germ cells during Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Somatic gonadal niche cells control the survival, differentiation, and proliferation of germline stem cells. The establishment of this niche-stem cell relationship is critical, and yet the precursors to these two cell types are often born at a distance from one another. The simple Caenorhabditis elegans gonadal primordium, which contains two somatic gonad precursors (SGPs) and two primordial germ cells (PGCs), provides an accessible model for determining how stem cell and niche cell precursors first assemble during development. To visualize the morphogenetic events that lead to formation of the gonadal primordium, we generated transgenic strains to label the cell membranes of the SGPs and PGCs and captured time-lapse movies as the gonadal primordium formed. We identify three distinct phases of SGP behavior: posterior migration along the endoderm towards the PGCs, extension of a single long projection around the adjacent PGC, and a dramatic wrapping over the PGC surfaces. We show that the endoderm and PGCs are dispensable for SGP posterior migration and initiation of projections. However, both tissues are required for the final positioning of the SGPs and the morphology of their projections, and PGCs are absolutely required for SGP wrapping behaviors. Finally, we demonstrate that the basement membrane component laminin, which localizes adjacent to the developing gonadal primordium, is required to prevent the SGPs from over-extending past the PGCs. Our findings provide a foundation for understanding the cellular and molecular regulation of the establishment of a niche-stem cell relationship. PMID:23562590

Rohrschneider, Monica R; Nance, Jeremy

2013-07-15

159

Alterations in the Transcriptome of Soybean in Response to Enhanced Somatic Embryogenesis Promoted by Orthologs of AGAMOUS-Like15 and AGAMOUS-Like181[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a poorly understood process during which competent cells respond to inducing conditions, allowing the development of somatic embryos. It is important for the regeneration of transgenic plants, including for soybean (Glycine max). We report here that constitutive expression of soybean orthologs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MADS box genes AGAMOUS-Like15 (GmAGL15) and GmAGL18 increased embryogenic competence of explants from these transgenic soybean plants. To understand how GmAGL15 promotes SE, expression studies were performed. Particular genes of interest involved in embryogenesis (ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 and FUSCA3) were found to be directly up-regulated by GmAGL15 by using a combination of quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and chromatin immunoprecipitation. To look more broadly at changes in gene expression in response to GmAGL15, we assessed the transcriptome using the Affymetrix Soybean Genome Array. Interestingly, the gene expression profile of 35Spro:GmAGL15 explants (0 d in culture) was found to resemble nontransgenic tissue that had been induced for SE by being placed on induction medium for 3 d, possibly explaining the more rapid SE development observed on 35Spro:GmAGL15 tissue. In particular, transcripts from genes related to the stress response showed increased transcript accumulation in explants from 35Spro:GmAGL15 tissue. These same genes also showed increased transcript accumulation in response to culturing nontransgenic soybean explants on the medium used to induce SE. Overexpression of GmAGL15 may enhance SE by making the tissue more competent to respond to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induction by differential regulation of genes such as those involved in the stress response, resulting in more rapid and prolific SE. PMID:24481137

Zheng, Qiaolin; Perry, Sharyn E.

2014-01-01

160

Hormonally regulated overexpression of Arabidopsis WUS and conifer LEC1 (CHAP3A) in transgenic white spruce: implications for somatic embryo development and somatic seedling growth.  

PubMed

Adult conifers are still recalcitrant in clonal propagation despite significant advances in forest tree biotechnology. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from explants older than mature zygotic embryos is either difficult or impossible to achieve. To investigate if ectopic expression of transcription factors involved in the induction of the embryogenic process would induce somatic embryogenesis in Picea glauca (white spruce) somatic plants, we used the LEAFY-COTYLEDON1 homolog cloned from Picea mariana, CHAP3A, and Arabidopsis thaliana WUS to transform embryonal mass of P. glauca. Ectopic gene expression was induced by 17-beta-estradiol during stages of somatic embryogenesis (early embryogenesis and late embryogenesis) and somatic seedling growth in the transgenics. Of the two transcription factors, only WUS produced severe phenotypes by disrupting the development of somatic embryos on the maturation medium and inhibiting germination. However, none of the transgenes induced ectopic somatic embryogenesis even in the presence of plant growth regulators. Absolute quantitative PCR confirmed the expression of both CHAP3A and WUS in transgenic embryonal mass and in all parts of somatic seedlings. A high expression of the transgenes did not influence expression profiles of any of the ten other transcription factors tested, some of which have been known to be involved in the process of embryogenesis. Implications of these results for further work are discussed. PMID:20424847

Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Pelletier, Gervais; Overton, Catherine; Stewart, Don; Rutledge, Robert G

2010-07-01

161

Somatic embryogenesis, tetraploidy, and variant leaf morphology in transgenic diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca subspecies vesca ‘Hawaii 4’)  

PubMed Central

Background The diploid (2n = 2x = 14) strawberry model plant Fragaria vesca ssp. vesca ‘Hawaii 4’ was employed for functional analysis of expressed DNA sequences initially identified as being unique to Fragaria and of unknown or poorly understood function. ‘Hawaii 4’ is prominent in strawberry research due to its ease of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regenerability, and its status as the source of the first complete strawberry genomic sequence. Our studies of a set of transformants have documented intriguing, construct-associated effects on leaf morphology, and provide important and unexpected insights into the performance of the ‘Hawaii 4’ transformation and regeneration system. Results Following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf explants with gene constructs carried by Gateway® vectors, plants were regenerated using a modified version of an established ‘Hawaii 4’ protocol. Expanding upon the findings of prior studies, we documented that plantlet regeneration was occurring via a somatic embryogenic rather than an organogenic developmental pathway. Among transformants, several variations in leaf morphology were observed. Unexpectedly, a particular leaf variant type, occurring in ~17% of all regenerants independent of construct type, was found to be attributable to tetraploidy. The tetraploidy-associated alteration in leaf morphology could be differentiated from the leaf morphology of diploid regenerants on the basis of a quantitative ratio of leaf dimensions: B/A, where B is the width of the central leaflet and A is the overall width of the trifoliate leaf. Variant effects on leaf morphology of four different transgenic constructs were also documented, and were in all cases distinguishable from the effects of tetraploidy. Conclusions These results define opportunities to optimize the existing ‘Hawaii 4’ protocol by focusing on treatments that specifically promote somatic embryogenesis. The reported morphological metric and descriptions will guide future transgenic studies using the ‘Hawaii 4’ model system by alerting researchers to the potential occurrence of polyploid regenerants, and to differentiating the effects on leaf morphology due to polyploidy versus transgenic manipulations. Finally, an intriguing spectrum of leaf morphology alterations resulting from manipulation of expressed sequences of uncertain function is documented, providing a foundation for detailed studies of the respective genes and their functional roles. PMID:24418064

2014-01-01

162

Cytokinins induce direc somatic embryogenesis of Dendrobium chiengmai pink and subsequent plant regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Four auxins (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA], indole-3-butyric acid [IBA], and naphthaleneacetic\\u000a acid [NAA]), and five cytokinins (N\\u000a 6-[2-isopentenyl]-adenine [2iP], N\\u000a 6-benzyladenine [BA], 6-furfurylaminopurine [kinetin], 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)-urea [TDZ], and 6-[4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enylamino]purine\\u000a [zeatin]) were examined for their effects on direct embryo induction from leaf explants of Dendrobium cv. Chiengmai Pink cultured on 1\\/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Whether in light or

Hsiao-Hang Chung; Jen-Tsung Chen; Wei-Chin Chang

2005-01-01

163

Abscisic acid induction of cloned cotton late embryogenesis-abundant (Lea) mRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies found that cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cotyledons contain several mRNAs which are more abundant during late embryogenesis than in mid-embryogenesis or early germination. They are here termed ‘Late embryogenesis-abundant’ mRNAs, encoded by Lea loci. Complementary DNA clones for 18 such mRNA sequences, defined at a hybridization criterion of Tm-15°C, were identified in a mature embryo cDNA library by

Glenn A. Galau; D. Wayne Hughes; Leon Dure

1986-01-01

164

Somatic Embryogenesis in Larix  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The genus Larix has 10 species and many varieties and hybrids. They are native in the cool-temperate and boreal regions of the northern hemisphere\\u000a and in the Himalaya mountains (Gower & Richards, 1990). An outstanding characteristic of Larix is that it is the only conifer genus that is deciduous. In part because of their deciduous habit, many larches can endure

Jan M. Bonga; Krystyna Klimaszewska; Marie-Anne Lelu; Patrick Aderkas

165

Somatic embryogenesis and synthetic seed production--a biotechnological approach for true-to-type propagation and in vitro conservation of an ornamental bulbaceous plant Drimiopsis kirkii Baker.  

PubMed

An efficient plant regeneration protocol through indirect somatic embryogenesis pathway via callus had been developed from the leaf explant of an ornamental bulbaceous plant Drimiopsis kirkii. Optimum friable calli were induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1.0 mg/l of ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). On subculturing the callus on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l of thidiazuron (TDZ), 73.3 % of the cultures responded with 20.4 ± 0.3 somatic embryos (SEs) per 500 mg callus at different stages of development after 6 weeks of culture. The highest response of 86.7 % with 28.3 ± 0.5 embryos per 500 mg callus was observed on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l TDZ and 1.0 mg/l NAA. SEs were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for the production of synthetic seeds (SSs) and their storability was investigated. The highest SS germination (93.3 %) was observed in 1.0 % sodium alginate followed by 86.7 % germination with 2.5 % sodium alginate. The SSs were stored at three different temperatures (4, 15, and 24?ºC) up to 6 months. The SSs kept at 15 °C showed 64.4 % germinability even after 4 months of storage. Both nonencapsulated and encapsulated SE-derived plants were successfully transferred to soil with 93.3 and 88.3 % survival rate accordingly. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis revealed that there were no somaclonal variations among the plants produced via somatic embryogenesis and they are true-to-type to their parental plant. These results confirmed the most reliable methods, which can be further used for genetic transformation studies as well as for mass propagation of ornamental D. kirkii at a commercial level. PMID:24604129

Haque, Sk Moquammel; Ghosh, Biswajit

2014-04-01

166

Formulation of Nutrient Medium for In Vitro Somatic Embryo Induction in Plantago ovata Forsk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrient medium has been formulated by altering the macro- and micro-elemental concentration in the culture medium for in\\u000a vitro somatic embryo induction of economically important medicinal plant Plantago ovata Forsk .A comparison was made between induced embryos with normal embryos (produced in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium) to\\u000a observe frequency of embryo induction and also to determine regeneration efficiency.

Priyanka Saha; Subhendu Bandyopadhyay; Sarmistha Sen Raychaudhuri

2011-01-01

167

Embryogenesis and blastocyst development after somatic cell nuclear transfer in nonhuman primates: overcoming defects caused by meiotic spindle extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic cloning or nuclear transfer for stem cells (NTSC) seeks to overcome immune rejection through the development of embryonic stem cells (ES cells) derived from cloned blastocysts. The successful derivation of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line from blastocysts generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) provides proof-of-principle for “therapeutic cloning,” though immune matching of the differentiated NT-hES remains

Calvin Simerly; Christopher Navara; Sang Hwan Hyun; Byeong Chun Lee; Sung Keun Kang; Saverio Capuano; Gabriella Gosman; Tanja Dominko; Kowit-Yu Chong; Duane Compton; Woo Suk Hwang; Gerald Schatten

2004-01-01

168

A carrot G-box binding factor-type basic region/leucine zipper factor DcBZ1 is involved in abscisic acid signal transduction in somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Carrot (Daucus carota) somatic embryogenesis has been extensively used as an experimental system for studying embryogenesis. In maturing zygotic embryos, abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in acquisition of desiccation tolerance and dormancy. On the other hand, somatic embryos contain low levels of endogenous ABA and show desiccation intolerance and lack dormancy, but tolerance and dormancy can be induced by exogenous application of ABA. In ABA-treated carrot embryos, some ABA-inducible genes are expressed. We isolated the Daucus carota bZIP1 (DcBZ1) gene encoding a G-box binding factor-type basic region/leucine zipper (GBF-type bZIP) factor from carrot somatic embryos. The expression of DcBZ1 was detected in embryogenic cells, non-embryogenic cells, somatic embryos, developing seeds, seedlings, and true leaves. Notably, higher expression was detected in embryogenic cells, true leaves, and seedlings. The expression of DcBZ1 increased in seedlings and true leaves after ABA treatment, whereas expression was not affected by differences in light conditions. During the development of zygotic and somatic embryos, increased expression of DcBZ1 was commonly detected in the later phase of development. The recombinant DcBZ1 protein showed specific binding activity to the two ABA-responsive element-like motifs (motif X and motif Y) in the promoter region of the carrot ABA-inducible gene according to results from an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Our findings suggest that the carrot GBF-type bZIP factor, DcBZ1, is involved in ABA signal transduction in embryogenesis and other vegetative tissues. PMID:18407508

Shiota, Hajime; Ko, Sukmin; Wada, Shinko; Otsu, Claudia Tomiko; Tanaka, Ichiro; Kamada, Hiroshi

2008-01-01

169

Induction of somatic embryos in cotyledonary tissue of soybean, Glycine max L. Merr  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the induction of somatic embryos in soybean tissue cultures is described. Cotyledons from immature embryos were utilized as explant source. Supplementing the culture medium with auxins (2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4,5-T, NAA, IAA, IBA) caused formation of meristematic tissue on cotyledon explants. The extent of meristematic tissue formed depended on the kind and concentration of auxin in the culture

Bärbel Lippmann; Gunter Lippmann

1984-01-01

170

The Effects of Exogenous Auxins on Endogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid Metabolism (The Implications for Carrot Somatic Embryogenesis).  

PubMed Central

The effect of auxin application on auxin metabolism was investigated in excised hypocotyl cultures of carrot (Daucus carota). Concentrations of both free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), [2H4]IAA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were measured by mass spectroscopy using stable-isotope-labeled internal standards. [13C1]NAA was synthesized for this purpose, thus extending the range of auxins that can be assayed by stable-isotope techniques. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid promoted callus proliferation of the excised hypocotyls, accumulated as the free form in large quantities, and had minor effects on endogenous IAA concentrations. NAA promoted callus proliferation and the resulting callus became organogenic, producing both roots and shoots. NAA was found mostly in the conjugated form and had minor effects on endogenous IAA concentrations. [2H4]IAA had no visible effect on the growth pattern of cultured hypocotyls, possibly because it was rapidly metabolized to form inactive conjugates or possibly because it mediated a decrease in endogenous IAA concentrations by an apparent feedback mechanism. The presence of exogenous auxins did not affect tryptophan labeling of either the endogenous tryptophan or IAA pools. This suggested that exogenous auxins did not alter the IAA biosynthetic pathway, but that synthetic auxins did appear to be necessary to induce callus proliferation, which was essential for excised hypocotyls to gain the competence to form somatic embryos. PMID:12226408

Ribnicky, D. M.; Ilic, N.; Cohen, J. D.; Cooke, T. J.

1996-01-01

171

Stress-related variation in antioxidative enzymes activity and cell metabolism efficiency associated with embryogenesis induction in isolated microspore culture of triticale ( x Triticosecale Wittm.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated microspore cultures of two spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) cultivars were used to examine the effect of various stress treatments (either high—32°C or low—5°C temperature with\\u000a or without nitrogen\\/carbohydrate starvation) applied to excised anthers on the effectiveness of microspore embryogenesis induction.\\u000a To quantify the effects of pretreatment conditions, the activity of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide\\u000a dismutase) together

Iwona ?ur; Ewa Dubas; El?bieta Golemiec; Magdalena Szechy?ska-Hebda; Gabriela Go??biowska; Maria W?dzony

2009-01-01

172

Direct somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature embryos of hybrid sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) on a high sucrose-containing medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were obtained by placing immature zygotic embryos on a high sucrose (12%) containing medium. The somatic embryos were first observed 6 days after culture and a callus intermediate was not formed. Histological examination revealed the classical stages of embryo development. The somatic embryos proliferated directly from the surface of the zygotic embryos and germinated

John J. Finer

1987-01-01

173

LEAFY COTYLEDON2 gene expression and auxin treatment in relation to embryogenic capacity of Arabidopsis somatic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression pattern of the LEC2 gene during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in Arabidopsis explants (immature zygotic embryos) induced in vitro was followed, using real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). The analysis\\u000a revealed differential expression of LEC2 transcripts within a 30 days time course of somatic embryo development. A significant auxin-dependent upregulation of the\\u000a LEC2 gene was found to be associated with the induction

Agnieszka Ledwo?; Ma?gorzata D. Gaj

2009-01-01

174

Camalexin induction in intertribal somatic hybrids between Camelina sativa and rapid-cycling Brassica oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camelina sativa, a wild relative of Brassica crops, is virtually immune to blackspot disease caused by Alternaria brassicicola. Intertribal somatic hybrids were produced between C. sativa and rapid-cycling Brassica oleracea as a step toward the transfer of resistance to this disease into Brassica vegetable crops. The plants recovered were confirmed as somatic hybrids by flow cytometry and RAPD analysis. All

M. A. Sigareva; E. D. Earle

1999-01-01

175

Characterization of three heat-shock-protein genes and their developmental regulation during somatic embryogenesis in white spruce [ Picea glauca (Moench) Voss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cDNAs (PgEMB22, 27 and 29) predicted to encode low-molecular-weight (LMW) heat-shock proteins (HSPs) were cloned and characterized from white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] somatic embryo tissues by differentially screening a cotyledonary embryo cDNA library. Clone PgEMB22 is predicted to encode a putative mitochondria-localized LMW HSP, and PgEMB27 and 29 are predicted to encode different cytoplasmic class II LMW

Jin-Zhuo Dong; David I. Dunstan

1996-01-01

176

Buffer capacity of cotton cells and effects of extracellular pH on growth and somatic embryogenesis in cotton cell suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This research was designed to: a) characterize the normal pH changes that occur when cotton cell are grown in culture; b)\\u000a determine if cotton cells can regulate the pH of their extracellular medium; and c) explore the effects of starting pH on\\u000a cellular differentiation in culture, including formation of somatic embryos. When an aliquot of cotton cell suspension culture\\u000a (Gossypium

Xiao Min Shang; Ji Ying Huang; Candace H. Haigler; Norma L. Trolinder

1991-01-01

177

Redox state of low-molecular-weight thiols and disulphides during somatic embryogenesis of salt-treated suspension cultures of Dactylis glomerata L.  

PubMed

The tripeptide antioxidant ?-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine, or glutathione (GSH), serves a central role in ROS scavenging and oxidative signalling. Here, GSH, glutathione disulphide (GSSG), and other low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols and their corresponding disulphides were studied in embryogenic suspension cultures of Dactylis glomerata L. subjected to moderate (0.085 M NaCl) or severe (0.17 M NaCl) salt stress. Total glutathione (GSH + GSSG) concentrations and redox state were associated with growth and development in control cultures and in moderately salt-stressed cultures and were affected by severe salt stress. The redox state of the cystine (CySS)/2 cysteine (Cys) redox couple was also affected by developmental stage and salt stress. The glutathione half-cell reduction potential (E(GSSG/2 GSH)) increased with the duration of culturing and peaked when somatic embryos were formed, as did the half-cell reduction potential of the CySS/2 Cys redox couple (E(CySS/2 Cys)). The most noticeable relationship between cellular redox state and developmental state was found when all LMW thiols and disulphides present were mathematically combined into a 'thiol-disulphide redox environment' (E(thiol-disulphide)), whereby reducing conditions accompanied proliferation, resulting in the formation of pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs), and oxidizing conditions accompanied differentiation, resulting in the formation of somatic embryos. The comparatively high contribution of E(CySS/2 Cys) to E(thiol-disulphide) in cultures exposed to severe salt stress suggests that Cys and CySS may be important intracellular redox regulators with a potential role in stress signalling. PMID:22348546

Zagorchev, Lyuben; Seal, Charlotte E; Kranner, Ilse; Odjakova, Mariela

2012-05-01

178

Pine embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

In plants, programmed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism that controls normal growth and development as well as many defence responses. At present, research on PCD in different plant species is actively carried out due to the possibilities offered by modern methods in molecular biology and the increasing amount of genome data. The pine seed provides a favourable model for PCD because it represents an interesting inheritance of seed tissues as well as an anatomically well-described embryogenesis during which several tissues die via morphologically different PCD processes. PMID:19826239

Sutela, Suvi; Tillman-Sutela, Eila; Kauppi, Anneli; Jokela, Anne; Sarjala, Tytti; Haggman, Hely

2009-01-01

179

Sex determination of the Drosophila germ line:tra anddsx control somatic inductive signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In Drosophila, the sex of germ cells is determined by cell-autonomous and inductive signals. XY germ cells autonomously enter spermatogenesis when developing in a female host. In contrast, XX germ cells non-autonomouslybecome,spermatogenic,when developing in a male host. In first instar larvae with two X chromosomes, XX germ cells enter the female or the male pathway depending on the presence

M Steinmann-Zwicky

1994-01-01

180

Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated. PMID:8771452

Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

1996-07-01

181

Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in ginger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenic callus cultures of ginger were induced from young leaf segments taken from in vitro shoot cultures. Among the four auxins tested in Murashige & Skoog medium, dicamba at 2.7 µM was most effective in inducing and maintaining embryogenic cultures. Efficient plant regeneration was achieved when embryogenic cultures were transferred to Murashige & Skoog medium containing 8.9 µM benzyladenine. Histological

A. Kackar; S. R. Bhat; K. P. S. Chandel; S. K. Malik

1993-01-01

182

Nanog Is an Essential Factor for Induction of Pluripotency in Somatic Cells from Endangered Felids  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nanog has an important role in pluripotency induction in bovines and snow leopards. To examine whether it was required for wild felids globally, we examined the induction of pluripotency in felids from Asia (Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris), Africa (serval, Leptailurus serval), and the Americas (jaguar, Panthera onca). Dermal fibroblasts were transduced with genes encoding the human transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC with or without NANOG. Both four- and five-factor induction resulted in colony formation at day 3 in all three species tested; however, we were not able to maintain colonies that were generated without NANOG beyond passage (P) 7. Five-factor induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) colonies from wild cats were expanded in vitro on feeder layers and were positive for alkaline phosphatase and protein expression of OCT-4, NANOG, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 at P4 and P14. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that all five human transgenes were transcribed at P4; however, OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG transgenes were silenced by P14. Endogenous OCT4 and NANOG transcripts were detected at P4 and P14 in all cell lines confirming successful reprogramming. At P14, the iPSCs from all three species remained euploid and differentiated in vivo and in vitro into derivatives of the three germ layers. This study describes an effective method for inducing pluripotency in three endangered wild cats from across the globe and confirms Nanog as an essential factor in the reprogramming event. Efficient production of iPSC from endangered felids creates a unique opportunity for species preservation through gamete production, nuclear transfer, embryo complementation, and future novel technologies. PMID:23514873

Verma, Rajneesh; Liu, Jun; Holland, Michael Kenneth; Temple-Smith, Peter; Williamson, Mark

2013-01-01

183

Nanog is an essential factor for induction of pluripotency in somatic cells from endangered felids.  

PubMed

Nanog has an important role in pluripotency induction in bovines and snow leopards. To examine whether it was required for wild felids globally, we examined the induction of pluripotency in felids from Asia (Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris), Africa (serval, Leptailurus serval), and the Americas (jaguar, Panthera onca). Dermal fibroblasts were transduced with genes encoding the human transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC with or without NANOG. Both four- and five-factor induction resulted in colony formation at day 3 in all three species tested; however, we were not able to maintain colonies that were generated without NANOG beyond passage (P) 7. Five-factor induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) colonies from wild cats were expanded in vitro on feeder layers and were positive for alkaline phosphatase and protein expression of OCT-4, NANOG, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 at P4 and P14. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that all five human transgenes were transcribed at P4; however, OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG transgenes were silenced by P14. Endogenous OCT4 and NANOG transcripts were detected at P4 and P14 in all cell lines confirming successful reprogramming. At P14, the iPSCs from all three species remained euploid and differentiated in vivo and in vitro into derivatives of the three germ layers. This study describes an effective method for inducing pluripotency in three endangered wild cats from across the globe and confirms Nanog as an essential factor in the reprogramming event. Efficient production of iPSC from endangered felids creates a unique opportunity for species preservation through gamete production, nuclear transfer, embryo complementation, and future novel technologies. PMID:23514873

Verma, Rajneesh; Liu, Jun; Holland, Michael Kenneth; Temple-Smith, Peter; Williamson, Mark; Verma, Paul John

2013-02-01

184

Vitamin C deficiency improves somatic embryo development through distinct gene regulatory networks in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Changes in the endogenous ascorbate redox status through genetic manipulation of cellular ascorbate levels were shown to accelerate cell proliferation during the induction phase and improve maturation of somatic embryos in Arabidopsis. Mutants defective in ascorbate biosynthesis such as vtc2-5 contained ~70 % less cellular ascorbate compared with their wild-type (WT; Columbia-0) counterparts. Depletion of cellular ascorbate accelerated cell division processes and cellular reorganization and improved the number and quality of mature somatic embryos grown in culture by 6-fold compared with WT tissues. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryogenesis (SE), we profiled dynamic changes in the transcriptome and analysed dominant patterns of gene activity in the WT and vtc2-5 lines across the somatic embryo culturing process. Our results provide insight into the gene regulatory networks controlling SE in Arabidopsis based on the association of transcription factors with DNA sequence motifs enriched in biological processes of large co-expressed gene sets. These data provide the first detailed account of temporal changes in the somatic embryo transcriptome starting with the zygotic embryo, through tissue dedifferentiation, and ending with the mature somatic embryo, and impart insight into possible mechanisms for the improved culture of somatic embryos in the vtc2-5 mutant line. PMID:25151615

Becker, Michael G; Chan, Ainsley; Mao, Xingyu; Girard, Ian J; Lee, Samantha; Elhiti, Mohamed; Stasolla, Claudio; Belmonte, Mark F

2014-11-01

185

Vitamin C deficiency improves somatic embryo development through distinct gene regulatory networks in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Changes in the endogenous ascorbate redox status through genetic manipulation of cellular ascorbate levels were shown to accelerate cell proliferation during the induction phase and improve maturation of somatic embryos in Arabidopsis. Mutants defective in ascorbate biosynthesis such as vtc2-5 contained ~70 % less cellular ascorbate compared with their wild-type (WT; Columbia-0) counterparts. Depletion of cellular ascorbate accelerated cell division processes and cellular reorganization and improved the number and quality of mature somatic embryos grown in culture by 6-fold compared with WT tissues. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryogenesis (SE), we profiled dynamic changes in the transcriptome and analysed dominant patterns of gene activity in the WT and vtc2-5 lines across the somatic embryo culturing process. Our results provide insight into the gene regulatory networks controlling SE in Arabidopsis based on the association of transcription factors with DNA sequence motifs enriched in biological processes of large co-expressed gene sets. These data provide the first detailed account of temporal changes in the somatic embryo transcriptome starting with the zygotic embryo, through tissue dedifferentiation, and ending with the mature somatic embryo, and impart insight into possible mechanisms for the improved culture of somatic embryos in the vtc2-5 mutant line. PMID:25151615

Becker, Michael G.; Chan, Ainsley; Mao, Xingyu; Girard, Ian J.; Lee, Samantha; Elhiti, Mohamed; Stasolla, Claudio; Belmonte, Mark F.

2014-01-01

186

Transcriptional changes of antioxidant responses, hormone signalling and developmental processes evoked by the Brassica napus SHOOTMERISTEMLESS during in vitro embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Previous work showed that alterations in Brassica napus (Bn) SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (BnSTM) expression levels influence microspore-derived embryogenesis in B. napus. While over-expression of BnSTM increased microspore-derived embryo (MDE) yield and quality, down-regulation of BnSTM repressed embryo formation [16]. Transcriptional analyses were conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms underpinning these responses. The induction of BnSTM resulted in a heavy transcriptional activation of genes involved in antioxidant responses, hormone signalling and developmental processes. Several antioxidant enzymes, including catalases, superoxide dismutases, and components of the Halliwell-Asada cycle were induced in embryos ectopically expressing BnSTM and contributed to the removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These changes were accompanied by elevated levels of ascorbate and glutathione, which have been shown to promote embryonic growth and development. Induction or repression of BnSTM altered the early cytokinin response, whereas late responses, modulated by Type-A Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs), were induced in MDEs over-expressing BnSTM. Major differences between transgenic MDEs were also observed in the expression pattern of several auxin transporters and key developmental factors required for normal embryogenesis. While some of these factors, BABYBOOM1 (BBM1) and SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE (SERK), play a key role during early embryogeny, others, CYP78A5, LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and 2 (LEC1 and LEC2), as well as WOX2 and 9, are required for proper embryo development. Collectively these results demonstrate the involvement of BnSTM in novel developmental processes which can be utilized to enhance in vitro embryogenesis. PMID:22878158

Elhiti, Mohamed; Yang, Cunchun; Belmonte, Mark F; Gulden, Robert H; Stasolla, Claudio

2012-09-01

187

In vitro induction of natural killer T cells from embryonic stem cells prepared using somatic cell nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ectopic expression of the Notch receptor ligand delta-like 1 on stromal cells allows the induction of T cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, these in vitro-generated T cells are not trans- plantable because they are too immature to mount an immune response in an immunocompromised animal. We efficiently generated a subset of T cells called invariant natural killer

Hiroshi Wakao; Rika Wakao; Sakura Sakata; Kazuya Iwabuchi; Atsushi Oda; Hiroyoshi Fujita

2008-01-01

188

Studies on the Induction of Embryogenic Globular Structures in Opuntia ficus-indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In studies on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in Opuntia ficus-indica, globular structures were obtained from isolated, in vitro-germinating zygotic embryos in the presence of 0.45×10-6 mol·l-1 2,4-D and 0.91×10-6 or 9.1×10-6 mol·l-1 kinetin. The globuli displayed typical morphological characteristics of embryogenic globuli, i.e., a well-defined globular shape without vascular connection to the original tissue, demonstrating yellowish-white colour. Serial histological

Samantha Pinheiro da Costa; Arlete A. Soares; Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt

189

[Specific features of early embryogenesis in apomictic Poa pratensis L].  

PubMed

We studied the early stages of embryo formation in apomictic Poa partensis L. It was shown that during transition to parthenogenesis, at least at the initial stages of embryogenesis, the algorithm of development of the sexual embryo is preserved. This could be due to the system of genetic control of embryogenesis, common for amphimixis and apomixis. We described asynchrony of developmental processes both within the efflorescence (asynchronous maturation of ovules) and within the ovule and even gametophyte (different timing of induction of apoarchesporic initials and oospores). This feature of pseudogamous apomicts allows them to produce simultaneously both sexual and apomictic progenies. PMID:17352289

Iudakova, O I; Shakina, T N

2007-01-01

190

Embryogenesis in hydra.  

PubMed

Embryogenesis in hydra includes a variable period of dormancy; and this period, as well as subsequent stages through hatching, takes place within a thick cuticle that hinders observation. Thus, although the early stages of development have been well-characterized qualitatively, the middle and later stages are only poorly understood. Here, we provide a detailed description of the stages of embryogenesis, including the time required to traverse each of the stages, and the changes that occur in the type and number of cells throughout the stages. The events of cleavage and gastrulation occur within the first 48 h. Cleavage is holoblastic and unipolar and leads to a single-layered coeloblastula. Gastrulation occurs by ingression and is followed by the deposition of the thick cuticle. Thereafter, during the variable period of dormancy ranging from 2-24 weeks, little occurs; the important events are the conversion of the outer layer into an ectoderm and the appearance of the interstitial cell lineage. During the last 2 days before hatching, the endoderm and gastric cavity form, while stem cells of the interstitial cell lineage proliferate and differentiate into neurons, nematocytes, and secretory cells. Finally, the cuticle cracks, and the hatchling enlarges and emerges from the cuticle as a functional animal. The formation of the gastric cavity and the hatching of the embryo are both explicable in terms of the osmotic behavior of the animal and the hydrostatic forces generated by this behavior. Characteristics of development that are common to hydra and triploblastic phyla are presented. PMID:9212444

Martin, V J; Littlefield, C L; Archer, W E; Bode, H R

1997-06-01

191

Somatization disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Greenberg DB, Braun IM, Cassem NH. Functional somatic symptoms and somatoform disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman J, Rauch SL, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry . 1st ...

192

Regulation of Medicago sativa L. somatic embryos regeneration by gibberellin A 3 and abscisic acid in relation to starch content and ?-amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryo quality is an important factor decisive for the efficiency of somatic embryogenesis. Addition gibberellic acid (GA3) at a concentration of 1 ?M to germination medium improved the regeneration of alfalfa somatic embryos. Inhibitory effect of ancymidol, an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis, on germination and conversion may indicate that those processes require endogenous GAs. Since fluridone, an ABA biosynthetic inhibitor,

Ewa K?pczy?ska; Sylwia Zieli?ska

2006-01-01

193

CHAPTER 1. GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS DURING SOMATIC EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT AND  

E-print Network

expression patterns were profiled during somatic embryogenesis in a regeneration- proficient maize hybrid line, Hi II, in an effort to identify genes that might be used as developmental markers or targets to optimize regeneration steps for recovering maize plants from tissue culture. Gene expression profiles were

Carriquiry, Alicia

194

Relationship between production of carrot somatic embryos and dissolved oxygen concentration in liquid culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the relationship between somatic embryogenesis and dissolved oxygen concentration, somatic embryo cultures of\\u000a carrot (Daucus carota L.) were cultured under various dissolved oxygen concentration levels (bubble free aeration with 4%,\\u000a 7%, 20%, 30%, and 40% oxygen in flasks). The system used allows dissolved oxygen concentration control without bubble aeration\\u000a or mixing speed modification. The total number of somatic

Teruaki Shimazu; Kenji Kurata

1999-01-01

195

Somatic embryogenesis, maturation and DNA transfer in Pinus  

E-print Network

') into intact conifer cells. Use of micropro)ectile- mediated DNA transfer has been reported for embryogenic cells of Picea glauca (Ellis et aL 1991; 1993), P. abies (Newton et al. 1992; Yibrah and Clapham 1990), P. mariana (Duchesne and Charest 1991... lambertiana Lamb. ) (Gupta and Durzan 1986b), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. ) (Becwar et al. 1990; Gupta and Durzan 1987a), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) (Hakman and Fowke 1987a), and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. ) B. S. P. ) (Hakman...

Marek, Kimberly Ann

2012-06-07

196

A new microspore embryogenesis system under low temperature which mimics zygotic embryogenesis initials, expresses auxin and efficiently regenerates doubled-haploid plants in Brassica napus  

PubMed Central

Background Microspore embryogenesis represents a unique system of single cell reprogramming in plants wherein a highly specialized cell, the microspore, by specific stress treatment, switches its fate towards an embryogenesis pathway. In Brassica napus, a model species for this phenomenon, incubation of isolated microspores at 32°C is considered to be a pre-requisite for embryogenesis induction. Results We have developed a new in vitro system at lower temperature (18°C) to efficiently induce microspore embryogenesis throughout two different developmental pathways: one involving the formation of suspensor-like structures (52.4%) and another producing multicellular embryos without suspensor (13.1%); additionally, a small proportion of non-responsive microspores followed a gametophytic-like development (34.4%) leading to mature pollen. The suspensor-like pathway followed at 18°C involved the establishment of asymmetric identities from the first microspore division and an early polarity leading to different cell fates, suspensor and embryo development, which were formed by cells with different organizations and endogenous auxin distribution, similar to zygotic embryogenesis. In addition, a new strategy for germination of microspore derived embryos was developed for achieving more than 90% conversion of embryos to plantlets, with a predominance of spontaneous doubled haploids plants. Conclusion The present work reveals a novel mechanism for efficient microspore embryogenesis induction in B. napus using continuous low temperature treatment. Results indicated that low temperature applied for longer periods favours an embryogenesis pathway whose first division originates asymmetric cell identities, early polarity establishment and the formation of suspensor-like structures, mimicking zygotic embryogenesis. This new in vitro system provides a convenient tool to analyze in situ the mechanisms underlying different developmental pathways during the microspore reprogramming, breaking or not the cellular symmetry, the establishment of polarity and the developmental embryo patterning, which further produce mature embryos and plants. PMID:22857779

2012-01-01

197

Embryogenesis and plant regeneration from tissue culture of Canada wildrye, Elymus canadensis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Canada wildrye (Elymus canadensis L.) from tissue culture was investigated by culturing immature embryos and inflorescences on MS medium containing 2 mg\\/l 2,4-D. The optimum size of explants for maximum embryogenic callus formation was 1.0 to 1.5 mm for embryos and 4 to 6 cm for inflorescences. Plant regeneration from the subcultured embryogenic callus

C. H. Park; P. D. Walton

1989-01-01

198

Somatic embryo mediated mass production of Catharanthus roseus in culture vessel (bioreactor) – A comparative study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the use of liquid and solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in different culture vessels for mass production of Catharanthus roseus, an important source of anticancerous compounds, vincristine and vinblastine. Three media conditions i.e. agar-solidified medium (S), liquid medium in agitated conical flask (L) and growtek bioreactor (B) were used. Rapid propagation was achieved through in vitro somatic embryogenesis pathway. The process of embryogenesis has been categorized into induction, proliferation, maturation and germination stages. All in vitro embryogenesis stages were conducted by withdrawing spent liquid medium and by adding fresh MS medium. In optimized 4.52 ?M 2,4-D added MS, the callus biomass growth was low in solid (1.65 g) compared to liquid medium in agitated conical flask (1.95 g) and in bioreactor (2.11 g). The number of normal somatic embryos was more in solid medium (99.75/50 mg of callus mass) compared to liquid medium used in conical flask (83.25/callus mass) and growtek bioreactor (84.88/callus mass). The in vitro raised embryos maturated in GA3 (2.60 ?M) added medium; and in bioreactor the embryo growth was high, a maximum length of 9.82 mm was observed at the end of four weeks. These embryos germinated into seedlings in BAP (2.22 ?M) added medium and the embryo germination ability was more (59.41%) in bioreactor compared to liquid medium in conical flask (55.5%). Shoot length (11.25 mm) was also high in bioreactor compared to agitated conical flask. The liquid medium used in agitated conical flask and bioreactor increased seedling production efficiency, at the same time it also reduced plant recovery time. The embryo generated plants grew normally in outdoor conditions. The exploitation of medium to large culture vessel or bioreactor may make the process more efficient in getting large number of Catharanthus plant as it is the only source of anti-cancerous alkaloids, vincristine and vinblastine. PMID:25313279

Mujib, A.; Ali, Muzamil; Isah, Tasiu; Dipti

2014-01-01

199

Somatic embryo mediated mass production of Catharanthus roseus in culture vessel (bioreactor) - A comparative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the use of liquid and solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in different culture vessels for mass production of Catharanthus roseus, an important source of anticancerous compounds, vincristine and vinblastine. Three media conditions i.e. agar-solidified medium (S), liquid medium in agitated conical flask (L) and growtek bioreactor (B) were used. Rapid propagation was achieved through in vitro somatic embryogenesis pathway. The process of embryogenesis has been categorized into induction, proliferation, maturation and germination stages. All in vitro embryogenesis stages were conducted by withdrawing spent liquid medium and by adding fresh MS medium. In optimized 4.52 ?M 2,4-D added MS, the callus biomass growth was low in solid (1.65 g) compared to liquid medium in agitated conical flask (1.95 g) and in bioreactor (2.11 g). The number of normal somatic embryos was more in solid medium (99.75/50 mg of callus mass) compared to liquid medium used in conical flask (83.25/callus mass) and growtek bioreactor (84.88/callus mass). The in vitro raised embryos maturated in GA3 (2.60 ?M) added medium; and in bioreactor the embryo growth was high, a maximum length of 9.82 mm was observed at the end of four weeks. These embryos germinated into seedlings in BAP (2.22 ?M) added medium and the embryo germination ability was more (59.41%) in bioreactor compared to liquid medium in conical flask (55.5%). Shoot length (11.25 mm) was also high in bioreactor compared to agitated conical flask. The liquid medium used in agitated conical flask and bioreactor increased seedling production efficiency, at the same time it also reduced plant recovery time. The embryo generated plants grew normally in outdoor conditions. The exploitation of medium to large culture vessel or bioreactor may make the process more efficient in getting large number of Catharanthus plant as it is the only source of anti-cancerous alkaloids, vincristine and vinblastine. PMID:25313279

Mujib, A; Ali, Muzamil; Isah, Tasiu; Dipti

2014-11-01

200

Contrasting globulin and cysteine proteinase gene expression patterns reveal fundamental developmental differences between zygotic and somatic embryos of oil palm.  

PubMed

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) somatic embryos differ from zygotic embryos in that they accumulate only small amounts of storage proteins. We compared the balance between deposition and degradation of storage proteins during zygotic or somatic embryogenesis and germinative growth in the two types of embryos. During mid to late zygotic embryogenesis, storage proteins accumulated and globulin 7S (GLO7A) gene transcripts were detected, whereas neither protease activity nor cysteine proteinase (CPR) gene transcripts were detected. Globulin degradation occurred after 8 days of in vitro germination in zygotic embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in GLO7A transcripts. Transcripts of three cysteine proteinase genes of the papain family were detected as early as Day 2 of in vitro germination. Several proteolytically active protein bands were identified by zymography, and CPR-like proteins were detected with an antibody raised against the Vicia sativa L. cysteine proteinase CPR1. Protease activities and CPR-like proteins were observed from Day 8 onward when globulin degradation occurred. During somatic embryogenesis and subsequent germinative growth, only small amounts of storage proteins accumulated, even though GLO7A transcripts were detected. Two of the three cysteine proteinase genes were expressed throughout both somatic embryogenesis and germinative growth. Protease activities and CPR-like protein species were detected in somatic embryos at several developmental stages. In contrast to zygotic embryogenesis, the accumulation of globulins and their subsequent mobilization appear to be concomitant processes during somatic embryogenesis, which could explain the low accumulation of storage proteins in somatic embryos. PMID:18519247

Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Duval, Yves; Tregear, James

2008-08-01

201

Plant regeneration from somatic embryos of Taxus brevifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Taxusbrevifolia is the source of paclitaxel (Taxol®), an anticancer drug. A method for regeneration ofTaxus brevifolia from immature zygotic embryos via somatic embryogenesis is described. Embryogenic callus tissues were obtained by culturing immature zygotic embryos on Lloyd and McCown medium (MCM) supplemented with 160 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) + 5 ?M benzylaminopurine (BA) + 5 ?M naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)

Paula P. Chee

1996-01-01

202

Custos controls ?-catenin to regulate head development during vertebrate embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Precise control of the canonical Wnt pathway is crucial in embryogenesis and all stages of life, and dysregulation of this pathway is implicated in many human diseases including cancers and birth defect disorders. A key aspect of canonical Wnt signaling is the cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of ?-catenin, a process that remains incompletely understood. Here we report the identification of a previously undescribed component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway termed Custos, originally isolated as a Dishevelled-interacting protein. Custos contains casein kinase phosphorylation sites and nuclear localization sequences. In Xenopus, custos mRNA is expressed maternally and then widely throughout embryogenesis. Depletion or overexpression of Custos produced defective anterior head structures by inhibiting the formation of the Spemann-Mangold organizer. In addition, Custos expression blocked secondary axis induction by positive signaling components of the canonical Wnt pathway and inhibited ?-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription. Custos binds to ?-catenin in a Wnt responsive manner without affecting its stability, but rather modulates the cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of ?-catenin. This effect on nuclear import appears to be the mechanism by which Custos inhibits canonical Wnt signaling. The function of Custos is conserved as loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies in zebrafish also demonstrate a role for Custos in anterior head development. Our studies suggest a role for Custos in fine-tuning canonical Wnt signal transduction during embryogenesis, adding an additional layer of regulatory control in the Wnt-?-catenin signal transduction cascade. PMID:25157132

Komiya, Yuko; Mandrekar, Noopur; Sato, Akira; Dawid, Igor B; Habas, Raymond

2014-09-01

203

Proliferation, Maturation and Germination of Castanea sativa Mill. Somatic Embryos Originated from Leaf Explants  

PubMed Central

Experiments were performed to determine the influence of proliferation medium on the maintenance of embryogenic competence and on repetitive embryogenesis in Castanea sativa Mill. somatic embryos derived from leaf explants. Somatic embryo proliferation was carried out by both direct secondary embryogenesis and by the culture of nodular callus tissue originated from cotyledons of somatic embryos. Both systems led to the production of cotyledonary somatic embryos on Murashige and Skoog proliferation medium supplemented with 0·1 mg l–1 benzyladenine and 0·1 mg l–1 naphthaleneacetic acid. Carbon source and concentration had a marked influence on maturation and subsequent germination ability of chestnut somatic embryos. Plantlet conversion was achieved in embryos matured on media with 6 % sucrose, and on 3 or 6 % maltose, whereas mean shoot length, root length and leaf number of produced plants were not significantly affected by these maturation media. Overall, the best results were obtained with 3 % maltose?matured somatic embryos, giving rise to 6 % plant recovery in addition to 33 % of embryos exhibiting only shoot development. The application of a 2?month cold treatment at 4 °C to somatic embryos matured on medium with 3 % maltose was necessary for achieving plant conversion, while partial desiccation did not appear to influence this response. A total of 39 % of embryos eventually produced plants either through conversion to plantlets or indirectly through rooting of shoots. Shoots formed by somatic embryos could be excised, multiplied and rooted following the micropropagation procedures previously developed for chestnut. PMID:12763755

CORREDOIRA, E.; BALLESTER, A.; VIEITEZ, A. M.

2003-01-01

204

Kinetic studies of embryo development and nutrient utilization in an alfalfa direct somatic embryogenic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for direct somatic embryogenesis in alfalfa (Medicago falcata) is described. The time course in the development phase has been followed for fresh weight, cell density, pH, sugar uptake and embryo number and type. The method of disrupting the explant material has also been shown to influence subsequent embryo formation.

Plamen D. Denchev; Alexander I. Kuklin; Atanas I. Atanassov; Alan H. Scragg

1993-01-01

205

Influence of Growth Regulators on Callogenesis and Somatic Embryo Development in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Sahelian Cultivars  

PubMed Central

This study provides a physiological analysis of somatic embryogenesis in four elite cultivars of date palms: Ahmar, Amsekhsi, Tijib, and Amaside, from the initial callogenesis to establishment and proliferation of embryogenic suspension cultures. Somatic embryos development and in vitro plants rooting were also studied. For each step, auxins and cytokinins concentrations were optimised. The primary callogenesis from leaf explants of seedlings appeared highly dependent on genotype. Ahmar (80%) and Amsekhsi (76%) appeared highly callogenic, whereas Tijib (10%) and Amaside (2%) produced low amounts of calluses. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid appeared favorable to the induction of primary callogenesis and its effect was enhanced by the addition of benzyl adenine or adenine sulfate. Secondary friable calli obtained from chopped granular calli were used to initiate embryogenic cell suspensions in media supplied with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Suspension cultures showed a growth rate of fourfold after four subcultures in presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2?mg/L. Our results showed that a seven-day transitory treatment with benzyl adenine 0,5?mg/L was necessary to optimize embryos development. Naphthalene acetic acid induced the development of primary orthogravitropic roots during embryos germination. The comparison with cytofluorometry of nuclear DNA amounts showed no significant difference in ploidy level between regenerated plants and seedlings. PMID:22629211

Sane, Djibril; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frederique; Diatta, Leopold Ibrahima Djitiningo; Gueye, Badara; Daher, Abdourahman; Sagna, Maurice; Duval, Yves; Borgel, Alain

2012-01-01

206

Silencing of Germline-Expressed Genes by DNA Elimination in Somatic Cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Chromatin diminution is the programmed elimination of specific DNA sequences during development. It occurs in diverse species, but the function(s) of diminution and the specificity of sequence loss remain largely unknown. Diminution in the nematode Ascaris suum occurs during early embryonic cleavages and leads to the loss of germline genome sequences and the formation of a distinct genome in somatic cells. We found that ~43 Mb (~13%) of genome sequence is eliminated in A. suum somatic cells, including ~12.7 Mb of unique sequence. The eliminated sequences and location of the DNA breaks are the same in all somatic lineages from a single individual, and between different individuals. At least 685 genes are eliminated. These genes are preferentially expressed in the germline and during early embryogenesis. We propose that diminution is a mechanism of germline gene regulation that specifically removes a large number of genes involved in gametogenesis and early embryogenesis. PMID:23123092

Wang, Jianbin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Berriman, Matthew; Thorne, Alicia; Magrini, Vincent; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Kumar, Sujai; Blaxter, Mark L.; Davis, Richard E.

2012-01-01

207

Changes in DNA methylation levels and nuclear distribution patterns after microspore reprogramming to embryogenesis in barley.  

PubMed

Under specific stress treatments, the microspore can be induced in vitro to deviate from its gametophytic development and to reprogram towards embryogenesis, becoming a totipotent cell and forming haploid embryos. These can further regenerate homozygous plants for production of new isogenic lines, an important biotechnological tool for crop breeding. DNA methylation constitutes a prominent epigenetic modification of the chromatin fiber which regulates gene expression. Changes in DNA methylation accompany the reorganization of the nuclear architecture during plant cell differentiation and proliferation; however, the relationship between global DNA methylation and genome-wide expression patterns is still poorly understood. In this work, the dynamics of global DNA methylation levels and distribution patterns were analyzed during microspore reprogramming to embryogenesis and during pollen development in Hordeum vulgare. Quantification of global DNA methylation levels and 5-methyl-deoxycytidine (5mdC) immunofluorescence were conducted at specific stages of pollen development and after reprogramming to embryogenesis to analyze the epigenetic changes that accompany the change of developmental program and cell fate. The results showed low DNA methylation levels in microspores and a high increase along pollen development and maturation; an intense 5mdC signal was concentrated in the generative and sperm nuclei whereas the vegetative nucleus exhibited a weaker DNA methylation signal. After inductive stress treatment, low methylation levels and faint 5mdC signals were observed in nuclei of reprogrammed microspores and 2-4-cell proembryos. This data revealed a global DNA hypomethylation during the change of the developmental program and first embryogenic divisions. This is in contrast with the hypermethylation of generative and sperm cells of the male germline during pollen maturation, suggesting an epigenetic regulation after induction of microspore embryogenesis. At later embryogenesis stages, global DNA methylation progressively increased, accompanying embryo development and differentiation events like in zygotic embryos, corroborating that DNA methylation is critical for the regulation of gene expression in microspore embryogenesis. PMID:25074410

El-Tantawy, Ahmed-Abdalla; Solís, María-Teresa; Risueño, María C; Testillano, Pilar S

2014-01-01

208

A carrot somatic embryo mutant is rescued by chitinase.  

PubMed Central

At the nonpermissive temperature, somatic embryogenesis of the temperature-sensitive (ts) carrot cell mutant ts11 does not proceed beyond the globular stage. This developmental arrest can be lifted by the addition of proteins secreted by wild-type cells to the culture medium. From this mixture of secreted proteins, a 32-kD glycoprotein, designated extracellular protein 3 (EP3), that allows completion of somatic embryo development in ts11 at the nonpermissive temperature was purified. On the basis of peptide sequences and biochemical characterization, EP3 was identified as a glycosylated acidic endochitinase. The addition of the 32-kD endochitinase to ts11 embryo cultures at the nonpermissive temperature appeared to promote the formation of a correctly formed embryo protoderm. These results imply that a glycosylated acidic endochitinase has an important function in early plant somatic embryo development. PMID:1498601

De Jong, A J; Cordewener, J; Lo Schiavo, F; Terzi, M; Vandekerckhove, J; Van Kammen, A; De Vries, S C

1992-01-01

209

Hemoglobin Control of Cell Survival/Death Decision Regulates in Vitro Plant Embryogenesis1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) in multicellular organisms is a vital process in growth, development, and stress responses that contributes to the formation of tissues and organs. Although numerous studies have defined the molecular participants in apoptotic and PCD cascades, successful identification of early master regulators that target specific cells to live or die is limited. Using Zea mays somatic embryogenesis as a model system, we report that the expressions of two plant hemoglobin (Hb) genes (ZmHb1 and ZmHb2) regulate the cell survival/death decision that influences somatic embryogenesis through their cell-specific localization patterns. Suppression of either of the two ZmHbs is sufficient to induce PCD through a pathway initiated by elevated NO and Zn2+ levels and mediated by production of reactive oxygen species. The effect of the death program on the fate of the developing embryos is dependent on the localization patterns of the two ZmHbs. During somatic embryogenesis, ZmHb2 transcripts are restricted to a few cells anchoring the embryos to the subtending embryogenic tissue, whereas ZmHb1 transcripts extend to several embryonic domains. Suppression of ZmHb2 induces PCD in the anchoring cells, allowing the embryos to develop further, whereas suppression of ZmHb1 results in massive PCD, leading to abortion. We conclude that regulation of the expression of these ZmHbs has the capability to determine the developmental fate of the embryogenic tissue during somatic embryogenesis through their effect on PCD. This unique regulation might have implications for development and differentiation in other species. PMID:24784758

Huang, Shuanglong; Hill, Robert D.; Wally, Owen S.D.; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Ayele, Belay T.; Jami, Sravan Kumar; Stasolla, Claudio

2014-01-01

210

The effect of carbohydrates and osmoticum on storage reserve accumulation and germination of Norway spruce somatic embryos.  

PubMed

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) represents a useful experimental system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of embryo development. In this study, the effect of carbohydrates and osmoticum on storage reserve accumulation and germination of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] somatic embryos were investigated. Using time lapse photography, we monitored development from proliferation of proembryogenic masses (PEMs) to maturation of somatic embryos in two P. abies cell lines cultured on two maturation treatments. A combination of sugar assays, metabolic and proteomic analyses were used to quantify storage reserves in the mature somatic embryos. The maturation treatment containing a nonpermeating osmoticum, polyethylene glycol (PEG, 7.5%) and maltose (3%) as the carbohydrate gave significantly high maturation and low germination frequencies of somatic embryos compared to the treatment with only 3% sucrose. Somatic embryos treated with 3% sucrose contained high levels of sucrose, raffinose and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. These compounds are known to be involved in the acquisition of desiccation tolerance during seed development and maturation. In addition the sucrose treatment significantly increased the content of starch in the somatic embryos while the maltose and PEG treatment resulted in somatic embryos with a high content of storage proteins. The high levels of sucrose, raffinose and LEA proteins in the embryos treated with 3% sucrose suggest that sucrose may improve the germination of somatic embryos by promoting the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. PMID:23421376

Businge, Edward; Bygdell, Joakim; Wingsle, Gunnar; Moritz, Thomas; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

2013-10-01

211

Stage-specific regulation of four HD-ZIP III transcription factors during polar pattern formation in Larix leptolepis somatic embryos.  

PubMed

Polar auxin transport provides a developmental signal for cell fate specification during somatic embryogenesis. Some members of the HD-ZIP III transcription factors participate in regulation of auxin transport, but little is known about this regulation in somatic embryogenesis. Here, four HD-ZIP III homologues from Larix leptolepis were identified and designated LaHDZ31, 32, 33 and 34. The occurrence of a miR165/166 target sequence in all four cDNA sequences indicated that they might be targets of miR165/166. Identification of the cleavage products of LaHDZ31 and LaHDZ32 in vivo confirmed that they were regulated by miRNA. Their mRNA accumulation patterns during somatic embryogenesis and the effects of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) on their transcript levels and somatic embryo maturation were investigated. The results showed that the four genes had higher transcript levels at mature stages than at the proliferation stage, and that NPA treatment down-regulated the mRNA abundance of LaHDZ31, 32 and 33 at cotyledonary embryo stages, but had no effect on the mRNA abundance of LaHDZ34. We concluded that these four members of Larix HD-ZIP III family might participate in polar auxin transport and the development of somatic embryos, providing new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis. PMID:23566830

Li, Shui-gen; Li, Wan-feng; Han, Su-ying; Yang, Wen-hua; Qi, Li-wang

2013-06-15

212

Rapid H1 linker histone transitions following fertilization or somatic cell nuclear transfer: evidence for a uniform developmental program in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

H1 linker histones (H1s) are key regulators of chromatin structure and function. The functions of different H1s during early embryogenesis, and mechanisms regulating their associations with chromatin are largely unknown. The developmental transitions of H1s during oocyte growth and maturation, fertilization and early embryogenesis, and in cloned embryos were examined. Oocyte-specific H1FOO, but not somatic H1s, associated with chromatin in

Shaorong Gao; Young Gie Chung; Missag H Parseghian; Gretchen J King; Eli Y Adashi; Keith E Latham

2004-01-01

213

Mechanistic Role of If Revealed by Induction of Ventricular Automaticity by Somatic Gene Transfer of Gating-Engineered Pacemaker (HCN) Channels  

PubMed Central

Background Although If, encoded by the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-modulated (HCN) channel gene family, is known to be functionally important in pacing, its mechanistic action is largely inferential and indeed somewhat controversial. To dissect in detail the role of If, we investigated the functional consequences of overexpressing in adult guinea pig left ventricular cardiomyocytes (LVCMs) various HCN1 constructs that have been engineered to exhibit different gating properties. Methods and Results We created the recombinant adenoviruses Ad-CMV-GFP-IRES (CGI), Ad-CGI-HCN1, Ad-CGI-HCN1-???, and Ad-CGI-HCN1-Ins, which mediate ectopic expression of GFP alone, WT, EVY235-7???, and Ins HCN1 channels, respectively; EVY235-7??? and Ins encode channels in which the S3—S4 linkers have been shortened and lengthened to favor and inhibit opening, respectively. Ad-CGI-HCN1, Ad-CGI-HCN1-???, and Ad-CGI-HCN1-Ins, but not control Ad-CGI, transduction of LVCMs led to robust expression of If with comparable densities when fully open (?-22 pA/pF at -140 mV; P>0.05) but distinctive activation profiles (V1/2=-70.8±0.6, -60.4±0.7, and -87.7±0.7 mV; P<0.01, respectively). Whereas control (nontransduced or Ad-CGI—transduced) LVCMs were electrically quiescent, automaticity (206±16 bpm) was observed exclusively in 61% of Ad-HCN1-???—transduced cells that displayed depolarized maximum diastolic potential (-60.6±0.5 versus -70.6±0.6 mV of resting membrane potential of control cells; P<0.01) and gradual phase 4 depolarization (306±32 mV/s) that were typical of genuine nodal cells. Furthermore, spontaneously firing Ad-HCN1-???—transduced LVCMs responded positively to adrenergic stimulation (P<0.05) but exhibited neither overdrive excitation nor suppression. In contrast, the remaining 39% of Ad-HCN1-???—transduced cells exhibited no spontaneous action potentials; however, a single ventricular action potential associated with a depolarized resting membrane potential and a unique, incomplete “phase 4—like” depolarization that did not lead to subsequent firing could be elicited on simulation. Such an intermediate phenotype, similarly observed in 100% of Ad-CGI-HCN— and Ad-CGI-HCN1-Ins—transduced LVCMs, could be readily reversed by ZD7288, hinting at a direct role of If. Correlation analysis revealed the specific biophysical parameters required for If to function as an active membrane potential oscillator. Conclusions Our results not only contribute to a better understanding of cardiac pacing but also may advance current efforts that focus primarily on automaticity induction to the next level by enabling bioengineering of central and peripheral cells that make up the native sinoatrial node. PMID:17389267

Xue, Tian; Siu, Chung-Wah; Lieu, Deborah K.; Lau, Chu-Pak; Tse, Hung-Fat; Li, Ronald A.

2009-01-01

214

Transcript Profiling and Identification of Molecular Markers for Early Microspore Embryogenesis in Brassica napus1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Isolated microspores of Brassica napus are developmentally programmed to form gametes; however, microspores can be reprogrammed through stress treatments to undergo appropriate divisions and form embryos. We are interested in the identification and isolation of factors and genes associated with the induction and establishment of embryogenesis in isolated microspores. Standard and normalized cDNA libraries, as well as subtractive cDNA libraries, were constructed from freshly isolated microspores (0 h) and microspores cultured for 3, 5, or 7 d under embryogenesis-inducing conditions. Library comparison tools were used to identify shifts in metabolism across this time course. Detailed expressed sequence tag analyses of 3 and 5 d cultures indicate that most sequences are related to pollen-specific genes. However, semiquantitative and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses at the initial stages of embryo induction also reveal expression of embryogenesis-related genes such as BABYBOOM1, LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), and LEC2 as early as 2 to 3 d of microspore culture. Sequencing results suggest that embryogenesis is clearly established in a subset of the microspores by 7 d of culture and that this time point is optimal for isolation of embryo-specific expressed sequence tags such as ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3, ATS1, LEC1, LEC2, and FUSCA3. Following extensive polymerase chain reaction-based expression profiling, 16 genes were identified as unequivocal molecular markers for microspore embryogenesis in B. napus. These molecular marker genes also show expression during zygotic embryogenesis, underscoring the common developmental pathways that function in zygotic and gametic embryogenesis. The quantitative expression values of several of these molecular marker genes are shown to be predictive of embryogenic potential in B. napus cultivars (e.g. ‘Topas’ DH4079, ‘Allons,’ ‘Westar,’ ‘Garrison’). PMID:17384168

Malik, Meghna R.; Wang, Feng; Dirpaul, Joan M.; Zhou, Ning; Polowick, Patricia L.; Ferrie, Alison M.R.; Krochko, Joan E.

2007-01-01

215

Somatic cell genetics  

SciTech Connect

This volume traces the major developments of somatic cell genetics via 47 critical papers on somatic cell hybridization, gene transfer, and mutant mammalian cells. Recognized authorities emphasize the importance of applying the combined approach of cell genetics and recombinant DNA to questions of developments, regulations, and growth of both normal and tumor cells.

Davidson, R.L.

1984-01-01

216

Cognitive and somatic anxiety.  

PubMed

Three hundred and forty adults (including sports players, recreational exercisers, mediators and sedentary controls) completed three inventories purporting to measure cognitive and somatic aspects of anxiety. These were the Cognitive-Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ) devised by Schwartz, Davidson & Goleman (Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 321-328, 1978), the Worry-Emotionality Scale (WES, Morris, Davis & Hutchens, Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 541-555, 1981) and the Lehrer-Woolfolk (1982) Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (LWASQ). Factor analysis of the CSAQ and WES identified distinct cognitive and somatic anxiety factors in both inventories. Higher somatic than cognitive ratings were recorded on the CSAQ and WES, while the pattern was reversed on the LWASQ. The CSAQ can tentatively be recommended as a useful measure of these two anxiety components. We were unable to confirm an observation made previously in the literature that practice of meditation is associated with reduced cognitive anxiety, or that exercise is linked with lower somatic anxiety. PMID:2405835

Steptoe, A; Kearsley, N

1990-01-01

217

Ethylene precursors and antagonists increase embryogenesis of Hordeum vulgare L. anther culture.  

PubMed

The role of ethylene in microspore embryogenesis and regeneration was analyzed by studying the effects of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and the ethylene antagonists silver nitrate and silver thiosulphate on the androgenic response of in vitro cultured anthers of seven genotypes of barley. Incorporation of either ACC or silver salts in the culture medium lead to a significant increase in callus induction for five of the seven genotypes tested. The treatment that increased callus induction depended upon genotype. Only anthers cultured on 1 mg l(-1) silver thiosulphate gave rise to fertile plants in all seven genotypes tested. PMID:24193518

Evans, J M; Batty, N P

1994-09-01

218

Left-Right Asymmetry in Animal Embryogenesis  

E-print Network

1 Left-Right Asymmetry in Animal Embryogenesis Michael Levin Cell Biology dept. Bldg. C1, rm. 403 of a given type) differences between the left and right sides of an animal's morphology. This specifically of an organism looking the same to some level of detail on either side of a symmetry line). Animal body- plans

Levin, Michael

219

Generation of hermaphrodite transgenic papaya lines with virus resistance via transformation of somatic embryos derived from adventitious roots of in vitro shoots.  

PubMed

Papaya production is seriously limited by Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) worldwide and Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) in Eastern Asia. An efficient transformation method for developing papaya lines with transgenic resistance to these viruses and commercially desirable traits, such as hermaphroditism, is crucial to shorten the breeding program for this fruit crop. In this investigation, an untranslatable chimeric construct pYP08 containing truncated PRSV coat protein (CP) and PLDMV CP genes coupled with the 3' untranslational region of PLDMV, was generated. Root segments from different portions of adventitious roots of in vitro multiple shoots of hermaphroditic plants of papaya cultivars 'Tainung No. 2', 'Sunrise', and 'Thailand' were cultured on induction medium for regeneration into somatic embryos. The highest frequency of somatic embryogenesis was from the root-tip segments of adventitious roots developed 2-4 weeks after rooting in perlite medium. After proliferation, embryogenic tissues derived from somatic embryos were wounded in liquid-phase by carborundum and transformed by Agrobacterium carrying pYP08. Similarly, another construct pBG-PLDMVstop containing untranslatable CP gene of PLDMV was also transferred to 'Sunrise' and 'Thailand', the parental cultivars of 'Tainung No. 2'. Among 107 transgenic lines regenerated from 349 root-tip segments, nine lines of Tainung No. 2 carrying YP08 were highly resistant to PRSV and PLDMV, and 9 lines (8 'Sunrise' and 1 'Thailand') carrying PLDMV CP highly resistant to PLDMV, by a mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing. The hermaphroditic characteristics of the transgenic lines were confirmed by PCR with sex-linked primers and phenotypes of flower and fruit. Our approach has generated transgenic resistance to both PRSV and PLDMV with commercially desirable characters and can significantly shorten the time-consuming breeding programs for the generation of elite cultivars of papaya hybrids. PMID:19943109

Kung, Yi-Jung; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Wang, Hui-Chin; Wang, Shin-Lan; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2010-08-01

220

Patterns of Gene Expression in Drosophila Embryogenesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new image database of gene expression patterns in Drosophila embryogenesis is now available from the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP), a consortium of the Drosophila Genome Center. The BDGP team used "high throughput 96-well plate RNA in situ protocol to determine patterns of gene expression during embryogenesis for Drosophila genes represented in non-redundant sets of Drosophila ESTs DGC1 and DGC2." The entire set of image, microarray, and annotation data may be browsed or searched from this Web site. As of October 4, 2002, 1354 gene expressions have been documented with 25,263 digital photographs, with many more additions expected. This site also provides a useful FAQs page.

221

!l~ -g 'an 1 *It -!aiA Plant Embryogenesis  

E-print Network

formation (6, 7). Genetic manipulation of Arabidopsis thali- ana, by both chemical mutagenesis (8 information about the processes regulating higher plant embryogenesis. Both the genetic and mo- lecular

Goldberg, Robert B.

222

Asymmetric Wolbachia Segregation during Early Brugia malayi Embryogenesis Determines Its Distribution in Adult Host Tissues  

PubMed Central

Wolbachia are required for filarial nematode survival and fertility and contribute to the immune responses associated with human filarial diseases. Here we developed whole-mount immunofluorescence techniques to characterize Wolbachia somatic and germline transmission patterns and tissue distribution in Brugia malayi, a nematode responsible for lymphatic filariasis. In the initial embryonic divisions, Wolbachia segregate asymmetrically such that they occupy only a small subset of cells in the developing embryo, facilitating their concentration in the adult hypodermal chords and female germline. Wolbachia are not found in male reproductive tissues and the absence of Wolbachia from embryonic germline precursors in half of the embryos indicates Wolbachia loss from the male germline may occur in early embryogenesis. Wolbachia rely on fusion of hypodermal cells to populate adult chords. Finally, we detect Wolbachia in the secretory canal lumen suggesting living worms may release bacteria and/or their products into their host. PMID:20689574

Landmann, Frederic; Foster, Jeremy M.; Slatko, Barton; Sullivan, William

2010-01-01

223

Embryogenesis and plant regeneration from tissue culture of Canada wildrye, Elymus canadensis L.  

PubMed

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Canada wildrye (Elymus canadensis L.) from tissue culture was investigated by culturing immature embryos and inflorescences on MS medium containing 2 mg/l 2,4-D. The optimum size of explants for maximum embryogenic callus formation was 1.0 to 1.5 mm for embryos and 4 to 6 cm for inflorescences. Plant regeneration from the subcultured embryogenic callus was attempted monthly using hormone-free MS medium or MS medium with 0.5 mg/1 2,4-D and 0.3 mg/l GA3. Three hundred and fifty seven plantlets were regenerated from the callus cultures of both explant sources during a six month period. Ten chlorophyll deficient plants accounting for 2.8% of the total regenerants were observed. One plant with white striped leaves survived and was found to be an octoploid. PMID:24233228

Park, C H; Walton, P D

1989-05-01

224

Somatic polymorphism and seed dispersal  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOMATIC seed polymorphism is the production of seeds of different morphologies or behaviour on different parts of the same plant and is a somatic differentiation rather than the result of genetic segregation1. This phenomenon appears to be confined to a limited number of families of higher plants (for example, Cruciferae, Compositae, Chenopodiaceae, Gramineae). Seed produced within a somatic polymorphism may

Anne E. Sorensen

1978-01-01

225

Isolation of an embryogenic line from non-embryogenic Brassica napus cv. Westar through microspore embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Brassica napus cultivar Westar is non-embryogenic under all standard protocols for induction of microspore embryogenesis; however, the rare embryos produced in Westar microspore cultures, induced with added brassinosteroids, were found to develop into heritably stable embryogenic lines after chromosome doubling. One of the Westar-derived doubled haploid (DH) lines, DH-2, produced up to 30% the number of embryos as the highly embryogenic B. napus line, Topas DH4079. Expression analysis of marker genes for embryogenesis in Westar and the derived DH-2 line, using real-time reverse transcription-PCR, revealed that the timely expression of embryogenesis-related genes such as LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEC2, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3, and BABY BOOM1, and an accompanying down-regulation of pollen-related transcripts, were associated with commitment to embryo development in Brassica microspores. Microarray comparisons of 7?d cultures of Westar and Westar DH-2, using a B. napus seed-focused cDNA array (10?642 unigenes), identified highly expressed genes related to protein synthesis, translation, and response to stimulus (Gene Ontology) in the embryogenic DH-2 microspore-derived cell cultures. In contrast, transcripts for pollen-expressed genes were predominant in the recalcitrant Westar microspores. Besides being embryogenic, DH-2 plants showed alterations in morphology and architecture as compared with Westar, for example epinastic leaves, non-abscised petals, pale flower colour, and longer lateral branches. Auxin, cytokinin, and abscisic acid (ABA) profiles in young leaves, mature leaves, and inflorescences of Westar and DH-2 revealed no significant differences that could account for the alterations in embryogenic potential or phenotype. Various mechanisms accounting for the increased capacity for embryogenesis in Westar-derived DH lines are considered. PMID:18552352

Malik, Meghna R.; Wang, Feng; Dirpaul, Joan M.; Zhou, Ning; Hammerlindl, Joe; Keller, Wilf; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Ferrie, Alison M. R.; Krochko, Joan E.

2008-01-01

226

Shusterman on Somatic Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Richard Shusterman's "Body Consciousness" aims at formulating a theory of somaesthetics and somatic experience. There has indeed been a growing interest in the role of the body in experience. Shusterman examines the arguments of six important writers who have been influential in this discussion. The emphasis on the body is natural for a…

Maattanen, Pentti

2010-01-01

227

Somatic cell nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloning by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cells is a remarkable demonstration of developmental plasticity. When a nucleus is placed in oocyte cytoplasm, the changes in chromatin structure that govern differentiation can be reversed, and the nucleus can be made to control development to term.

I. Wilmut; N. Beaujean; P. A. de Sousa; A. Dinnyes; T. J. King; L. A. Paterson; D. N. Wells; L. E. Young

2002-01-01

228

Embryogenesis of brassica rapa l. under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of reproductive development of higher plants in spaceflight represents scientific interest first of all with the necessity to work out the plant space technologies for creation of controlled life-support systems. In such systems mainly the higher plants are considered to be an important component that makes it necessary to obtain the several generations of higher plants with their full ontogenesis. As a rule, seeds obtained in three species of the higher plants in a series of experiments differ from the control by some parameters (Merkis, Laurinavichius, 1983; Musgrave et al., 1998; 2000; Levinskikh et all. 1999; Stankovich et al., 2002). It was shown, that immature embryos generated in microgravity were at a range of developmental stage, while the ground control embryos had all reached the premature stage of development (Kuang et al., 2003). Besides, the distinctions in a degree of nutrient substances accumulation in them were revealed (Kuang et al., 2000). Therefore, the elucidation of the possible reasons for distortion of plant reproduction in microgravity demands the further research. In this study we examined embryogenesis of higher plant Brassica rapa L. with an application of slow horizontal clinostats, that allows to deprive the plants the opportunity to perceive the gravitational stimulus. Some plants were clinorotated from the moment sowing of seeds; in other series the experiment plants were placed on clinostats after formation of flower buds. Temporal fixation of the material was used in these experiments, which allow to obtain material for studying of consecutive stages of embryogenesis. The development of 2-21 day-old embryos was studied. Comparative embryological analysis has shown a similarity in the main of process of embryo differentiation produced under clinorotation and in the stationary control. At the early stages of embryogenesis, the distortion in suspensor formation was observed more frequently. Embryos generated in clinorotation variant had a wider range of developmental stages in comparison with the stationary control. At the stage of embryo maturation the various deviations in embryo differentiation were revealed. These distortions were connected both with cotyledon and radicle development. Possible reasons for deviations in the process of embryogenesis in condition of altered gravity are discussed.

Popova, A.; Ivanenko, G.

229

Real-time Embryogenesis in Live Caenorhabditis elegans Worms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lab exercise geared toward first-year undergraduate biology majors, where they get to view early embryogenesis in a live animal. In this exercise students will prepare slides if live C. elegans embryos, find one- or two-cell stage embryos, and observe cleavage stage of embryogenesis over the course of 30 minutes.

Dr. Anita G Fernandez (Fairfield University Biology); Ian Chin-Sing (Queens University)

2011-11-21

230

Somatic mutations in the variable regions of a human IgG anti-double- stranded DNA autoantibody suggest a role for antigen in the induction of systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

The processes that govern the generation of pathogenic anti-DNA autoantibodies in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are largely unknown. Autoantibodies may arise as a consequence of polyclonal B cell activation and/or antigen-driven B cell activation and selection. The role of these processes in humoral autoimmunity may be studied by molecular genetic analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) regions of antibodies that are characteristic of SLE. We have analyzed the gene elements that encode a high affinity, IgG anti-double-stranded DNA autoantibody secreted by a monoclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- transformed cell line derived from a patient with active SLE. In addition, we have identified, cloned, and sequenced the germline counterparts of the VH and VL genes expressed in this autoantibody. The comparison of both sets of gene elements shows that the autoantibody VH and VL regions harbor numerous somatic mutations characteristic of an antigen-driven immune response. The light chain expressed in this autoantibody is a somatically mutated variant of the kv325 germline gene that is frequently associated with paraproteins having autoantibody activity and with Ig molecules produced by malignant B cells that express the CD5 antigen. Furthermore, the utilized DH segment has been repeatedly found in multireactive, low affinity IgM anti-DNA autoantibodies from SLE patients and healthy individuals. These results suggest that pathogenic IgG anti-DNA autoantibodies in human SLE may arise through antigen-driven selection of somatic mutations in the gene elements that frequently encode multireactive IgM autoantibodies. PMID:1899104

1991-01-01

231

Somatic mutations in the variable regions of a human IgG anti-double-stranded DNA autoantibody suggest a role for antigen in the induction of systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

The processes that govern the generation of pathogenic anti-DNA autoantibodies in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are largely unknown. Autoantibodies may arise as a consequence of polyclonal B cell activation and/or antigen-driven B cell activation and selection. The role of these processes in humoral autoimmunity may be studied by molecular genetic analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) regions of antibodies that are characteristic of SLE. We have analyzed the gene elements that encode a high affinity, IgG anti-double-stranded DNA autoantibody secreted by a monoclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed cell line derived from a patient with active SLE. In addition, we have identified, cloned, and sequenced the germline counterparts of the VH and VL genes expressed in this autoantibody. The comparison of both sets of gene elements shows that the autoantibody VH and VL regions harbor numerous somatic mutations characteristic of an antigen-driven immune response. The light chain expressed in this autoantibody is a somatically mutated variant of the kv325 germline gene that is frequently associated with paraproteins having autoantibody activity and with Ig molecules produced by malignant B cells that express the CD5 antigen. Furthermore, the utilized DH segment has been repeatedly found in multireactive, low affinity IgM anti-DNA autoantibodies from SLE patients and healthy individuals. These results suggest that pathogenic IgG anti-DNA autoantibodies in human SLE may arise through antigen-driven selection of somatic mutations in the gene elements that frequently encode multireactive IgM autoantibodies. PMID:1899104

van Es, J H; Gmelig Meyling, F H; van de Akker, W R; Aanstoot, H; Derksen, R H; Logtenberg, T

1991-02-01

232

Anisotropic growth shapes intestinal tissues during embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Embryogenesis offers a real laboratory for pattern formation, buckling, and postbuckling induced by growth of soft tissues. Each part of our body is structured in multiple adjacent layers: the skin, the brain, and the interior of organs. Each layer has a complex biological composition presenting different elasticity. Generated during fetal life, these layers will experience growth and remodeling in the early postfertilization stages. Here, we focus on a herringbone pattern occurring in fetal intestinal tissues. Common to many mammalians, this instability is a precursor of the villi, finger-like projections into the lumen. For avians (chicks' and turkeys' embryos), it has been shown that, a few days after fertilization, the mucosal epithelium of the duodenum is smooth, and then folds emerge, which present 2 d later a pronounced zigzag instability. Many debates and biological studies are devoted to this specific morphology, which regulates the cell renewal in the intestine. After reviewing experimental results about duodenum morphogenesis, we show that a model based on simplified hypothesis for the growth of the mesenchyme can explain buckling and postbuckling instabilities. Being completely analytical, it is based on biaxial compressive stresses due to differential growth between layers and it predicts quantitatively the morphological changes. The growth anisotropy increasing with time, the competition between folds and zigzags, is proved to occur as a secondary instability. The model is compared with available experimental data on chick's duodenum and can be applied to other intestinal tissues, the zigzag being a common and spectacular microstructural pattern of intestine embryogenesis. PMID:23754398

Ben Amar, Martine; Jia, Fei

2013-06-25

233

Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes  

PubMed Central

Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.

2013-01-01

234

Y.-S. ParkConifer somatic embryogenesis in clonal forestry Original article  

E-print Network

and genetic stability of clones is re- viewed, using white spruce (Picea glauca) and eastern white pine (Pinus en utilisant comme espèces modèles l'épinette blanche (Picea glauca) et le pin blanc (Pinus strobus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

235

Somatic embryogenesis of carrot in hormone-free medium: external pH control over morphogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultures of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs) were initiated from mechanically wounded mature zygotic embryos of carrot, Daucus carota, on a hormone-free, semisolid medium. These PGSPs have been maintained and multiplied for extended periods without their progression into later embryo stages on the same hormone-free medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Sustained maintenance of cultures comprised exclusively of PGSPs was dependent on medium pH throughout the culture period. Best growth and multiplication of PGSP cultures occurred when the pH of unbuffered, hormone-free medium fell from 4.5 to 4 over a 2-week period or when buffered medium was titrated to pH 4. If the hormone-free medium was buffered to sustain a pH at or above 4.5, PGSPs developed into later embryo stages. Maintenance with continuous multiplication of PGSPs occurred equally well on medium containing NH4+ or NH4+ and NO3-, but growth was poor with NO3- alone. Additional observations on the effects of medium components such as various nitrogen sources and levels, sucrose concentration, semisolid supports, type of buffer, borate concentration, activated charcoal, and initial pH that permit optimum maintenance of the PGSPs or foster their continued developmental progression into mature embryos and plantlets are reported. The influence of the pH of the hormone-free medium as a determinant in maintaining cultures as PGSPs or allowing their continued embryonic development are unequivocally demonstrated by gross morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and histological preparations.

Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

1990-01-01

236

Rapid plant regeneration through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis from cultured protoplasts of Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplasts derived from hypocotyls of seedlings grown on half-strength MS medium containing 1% sucrose were cultured at a density of 5×104 ml-1 in Kao's medium supplemented with 1.0 mgl-12,4-D, 0.1 mgl-1 NAA and 0.5 mgl-1 zeatin riboside. After three days of culture in darkness at 25±1°C, cultures were transferred to light (70 µEm-2s-1) in a 16\\/8 h ligø ht\\/dark cycle.

P. B. Kirti; V. L. Chopra

1990-01-01

237

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from protoplasts of asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic calli of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Mary Washington and cultured in 1\\/2 MS medium with 1 mg\\/l NAA, 0.5 mg\\/l zeatin, 1 g\\/l L-glutamine, 0.6 M glucose and 0.1% Gellan Gum. Protoplasts started to divide after 3–4 d of culture and formed visible colonies after 30 d of culture. The percentage of colony formation (plating

Hisato Kunitake; Masahiro Mii

1990-01-01

238

Rapid transformation and regeneration of alfalfa (Medicago falcata L.) via direct somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two simple, rapid and efficient protocols for theregeneration of transformed tetraploid lines ofalfalfa (Medicago falcata L.) have beendeveloped and compared. Leaf explants fromembryogenic lines 47\\/1-150 and 47\\/1-5 were inoculatedwith Agrobacterium tumefaciens containingconstructs carrying the nptII selectable markergene and promoter:gusA gene fusions under thecontrol of the CaMV 35S or Arabidopsis cdc2a,CycB1 and CycA2 promoters. In the firstregeneration system (the MSH system),

C. Y. Shao; E. Russinova; A. Iantcheva; A. Atanassov; A. McCormac; D. F. Chen; M. C. Elliott; A. Slater

2000-01-01

239

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature zygotic embryos of Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenic tissue was initiated using LM, LP and MS media from open-pollinated immature embryos of Larix leptolepis. The\\u000a initiation frequency varied with collection dates. The highest frequencies of embryogenic tissue initiation (60, 67 and 59%\\u000a on LM, LP and MS media, respectively) were observed from cones collected on July 30. At this time, all the excised embryos\\u000a were at the

Yong Wook Kim; Yang Youn; Eu Rae Noh; Joon Chul Kim

1998-01-01

240

Somatic Mutagenesis in Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Our laboratory investigates systemic autoimmune disease in the context of mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is associated with high titers of serum autoantibodies of the IgG class that are predominantly directed against nuclear antigens, with pathological manifestations that are considered by many to be characteristic of an immune-complex mediated disease. In this review, we focus on the known and potential roles of somatic mutagenesis in SLE. We will argue that antinuclear antibodies (ANA) arise predominantly from nonautoreactive B cells that are transformed into autoreactive cells by the process of somatic hypermutation (SHM), which is normally associated with affinity maturation during the germinal center reaction. We will also discuss the role of SHM in creating antigenic peptides in the V region of the B cell receptor (BCR) and its potential to open an avenue of unregulated T cell help to autoreactive B cells. Finally, we will end this review with new experimental evidence suggesting that spontaneous somatic mutagenesis of genes that regulate B cell survival and activation is a rate-limiting causative factor in the development of ANA. PMID:23249093

Detanico, Thiago; St Clair, James B.; Aviszus, Katja; Kirchenbaum, Greg; Guo, Wenzhong; Wysocki, Lawrence J

2013-01-01

241

Mutual inductance Mutual induction  

E-print Network

Mutual inductance Mutual induction � current in one coil induces emf in other coil Distinguish from self-induction Mutual inductance, M21 of coil 2 with respect to coil 1 is 1 212 21 i N M = i N L B = #12;Mutual inductance Rearrange equation Vary i1 with time Faraday's law Induced emf in coil 2 due

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

242

Programmed Cell Death during Embryogenesis in Maize  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) in plants is considered an integral part of development. Evidence of DNA fragmentation, occurring at specific sites and times during embryo formation in maize (Zea mays L.), was obtained using terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase?mediated dUTP?fluorescein nick end labelling (TUNEL) and by genomic DNA ladder detection. During the crucial period of elaboration of the primary shoot and root axis (14–20 d after pollination), TUNEL?positive nuclei are present in the scutellum, coleoptile, root cap and principally in the suspensor. Additional evidence of a form of programmed cell death occurring in these tissues comes from the detection of a DNA ladder. Upon completion of the differentiation process, all embryonic cells are TUNEL?negative, indicating that possible programmed cell death events during maize embryogenesis are confined to structures or organs that do not contribute to the adult plant body. PMID:12197527

GIULIANI, CONCETTA; CONSONNI, GABRIELLA; GAVAZZI, GIUSEPPE; COLOMBO, MONICA; DOLFINI, SILVANA

2002-01-01

243

High Genetic and Epigenetic Stability in Coffea arabica Plants Derived from Embryogenic Suspensions and Secondary Embryogenesis as Revealed by AFLP, MSAP and the Phenotypic Variation Rate  

PubMed Central

Embryogenic suspensions that involve extensive cell division are risky in respect to genome and epigenome instability. Elevated frequencies of somaclonal variation in embryogenic suspension-derived plants were reported in many species, including coffee. This problem could be overcome by using culture conditions that allow moderate cell proliferation. In view of true-to-type large-scale propagation of C. arabica hybrids, suspension protocols based on low 2,4-D concentrations and short proliferation periods were developed. As mechanisms leading to somaclonal variation are often complex, the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes were jointly assessed so as to accurately evaluate the conformity of suspension-derived plants. The effects of embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis, used as proliferation systems, on the genetic conformity of somatic embryogenesis-derived plants (emblings) were assessed in two hybrids. When applied over a 6 month period, both systems ensured very low somaclonal variation rates, as observed through massive phenotypic observations in field plots (0.74% from 200 000 plant). Molecular AFLP and MSAP analyses performed on 145 three year-old emblings showed that polymorphism between mother plants and emblings was extremely low, i.e. ranges of 0–0.003% and 0.07–0.18% respectively, with no significant difference between the proliferation systems for the two hybrids. No embling was found to cumulate more than three methylation polymorphisms. No relation was established between the variant phenotype (27 variants studied) and a particular MSAP pattern. Chromosome counting showed that 7 of the 11 variant emblings analyzed were characterized by the loss of 1–3 chromosomes. This work showed that both embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis are reliable for true-to-type propagation of elite material. Molecular analyses revealed that genetic and epigenetic alterations are particularly limited during coffee somatic embryogenesis. The main change in most of the rare phenotypic variants was aneuploidy, indicating that mitotic aberrations play a major role in somaclonal variation in coffee. PMID:23418563

Bobadilla Landey, Roberto; Cenci, Alberto; Georget, Frederic; Bertrand, Benoit; Camayo, Gloria; Dechamp, Eveline; Herrera, Juan Carlos; Santoni, Sylvain; Lashermes, Philippe; Simpson, June; Etienne, Herve

2013-01-01

244

High genetic and epigenetic stability in Coffea arabica plants derived from embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis as revealed by AFLP, MSAP and the phenotypic variation rate.  

PubMed

Embryogenic suspensions that involve extensive cell division are risky in respect to genome and epigenome instability. Elevated frequencies of somaclonal variation in embryogenic suspension-derived plants were reported in many species, including coffee. This problem could be overcome by using culture conditions that allow moderate cell proliferation. In view of true-to-type large-scale propagation of C. arabica hybrids, suspension protocols based on low 2,4-D concentrations and short proliferation periods were developed. As mechanisms leading to somaclonal variation are often complex, the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes were jointly assessed so as to accurately evaluate the conformity of suspension-derived plants. The effects of embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis, used as proliferation systems, on the genetic conformity of somatic embryogenesis-derived plants (emblings) were assessed in two hybrids. When applied over a 6 month period, both systems ensured very low somaclonal variation rates, as observed through massive phenotypic observations in field plots (0.74% from 200,000 plant). Molecular AFLP and MSAP analyses performed on 145 three year-old emblings showed that polymorphism between mother plants and emblings was extremely low, i.e. ranges of 0-0.003% and 0.07-0.18% respectively, with no significant difference between the proliferation systems for the two hybrids. No embling was found to cumulate more than three methylation polymorphisms. No relation was established between the variant phenotype (27 variants studied) and a particular MSAP pattern. Chromosome counting showed that 7 of the 11 variant emblings analyzed were characterized by the loss of 1-3 chromosomes. This work showed that both embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis are reliable for true-to-type propagation of elite material. Molecular analyses revealed that genetic and epigenetic alterations are particularly limited during coffee somatic embryogenesis. The main change in most of the rare phenotypic variants was aneuploidy, indicating that mitotic aberrations play a major role in somaclonal variation in coffee. PMID:23418563

Bobadilla Landey, Roberto; Cenci, Alberto; Georget, Frédéric; Bertrand, Benoît; Camayo, Gloria; Dechamp, Eveline; Herrera, Juan Carlos; Santoni, Sylvain; Lashermes, Philippe; Simpson, June; Etienne, Hervé

2013-01-01

245

Regional specification during embryogenesis in the inarticulate brachiopod Glottidia.  

PubMed

A fate map has been constructed for the lingulid brachiopod Glottidia pyramidata. The animal half of the egg forms part of the apical lobe and the dorsal valve of the larva. The vegetal half of the egg forms mesoderm and endoderm and is the site of gastrulation; it also forms part of the apical lobe and the ventral valve of the larva. The plane of the first cleavage goes through the animal-vegetal axis of the egg along the future plane of bilateral symmetry of the larva. The timing of regional specification in these embryos was examined by isolating animal or vegetal, anterior or posterior, or lateral regions at different times from prior to fertilization through gastrulation. Animal halves isolated at all stages formed an epithelial vesicle and did not gastrulate. When these halves were isolated from unfertilized eggs or early cleavage stage embryos, they usually did not form an apical lobe or valve; however, when the halves were isolated at later developmental stages, these structures differentiated in a high frequency of cases. Vegetal halves were isolated at all stages gastrulated and formed a larva; however, when these halves were isolated at gastrulation they frequently lacked a dorsal valve. When lateral cuts were made along the animal-vegetal axis at all developmental stages, both halves gastrulated. When the cut was made perpendicular to the plane of the first cleavage from the four-cell stage on, one-half formed the anterior end and the other half formed the posterior end of the larva. These results suggest that there are localized determinants in the egg that specify the different regions of the larva, but there is also an inductive signal(s) from the vegetal region of the embryo that is necessary in order for cells that inherit a given determinant to differentiate. Embryogenesis in Glottidia is compared with articulate brachiopods and phoronids. PMID:7589795

Freeman, G

1995-11-01

246

Somatic disease and psychological disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between physical and psychological disorders has been demonstrated repeatedly. There are a number of explanations for this association, each of them pointing to specific diseases and operationalizations of mental distress. In this article, the relationship between various somatic diseases and a number of indices for psychological distress was investigated. Within one study population, patients with different somatic diseases

Peter F. M. Verhaak

1997-01-01

247

Acrolein and embryogenesis: an experimental study  

SciTech Connect

The effects of acrolein were studied on the chick embryos of 48 and 72 hr of incubation. Acrolein was dissolved in physiological saline and injected into the air sacs of the eggs at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 mg per egg. The controls received and equal amount of saline only (0.1 ml per egg). All the embryos including controls were examined at Day 13. In all, 600 eggs were utilized for this investigation. At 48 hr incubation, the percentage survival ranged from 80 to 0 as the dosage of acrolein was increased. Embryonic mortality following 72 hr incubation did not increase significantly at any dose level. Gross malformations such as short and twisted limbs, everted viscera, microphthalmia, short and twisted neck, and hemorrhage over the body were observed. The frequency and the types of gross abnormalities did not vary much in the 48- or 72-hr-treated groups. The incidence of malformation in the controls was low. The results of this study indicates that acrolein is embryotoxic at higher doses and moderately teratogenic to chick embryogenesis.

Chhibber, G.; Cilani, S.H.

1986-01-01

248

Metabolome Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster during Embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila melanogaster embryo has been widely utilized as a model for genetics and developmental biology due to its small size, short generation time, and large brood size. Information on embryonic metabolism during developmental progression is important for further understanding the mechanisms of Drosophila embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the changes in embryos’ metabolome that occur at different stages of the Drosophila embryonic development. Time course samples of Drosophila embryos were subjected to GC/MS-based metabolome analysis for profiling of low molecular weight hydrophilic metabolites, including sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. The results showed that the metabolic profiles of Drosophila embryo varied during the course of development and there was a strong correlation between the metabolome and different embryonic stages. Using the metabolome information, we were able to establish a prediction model for developmental stages of embryos starting from their high-resolution quantitative metabolite composition. Among the important metabolites revealed from our model, we suggest that different amino acids appear to play distinct roles in different developmental stages and an appropriate balance in trehalose-glucose ratio is crucial to supply the carbohydrate source for the development of Drosophila embryo. PMID:25121768

An, Phan Nguyen Thuy; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

2014-01-01

249

Expression of periostin during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Periostin (postn) is a secreted, extracellular matrix protein containing an EMI domain as well as four fasciclin I-like (Fas1) domains. Postn protein functions in cell adhesion, cell mobility, cell proliferation and gene regulation. Earlier studies have shown that postn is involved in different developmental processes such as somitogenesis, cardiogenesis and bone formation. Intriguingly, postn seems to be a very good candidate to establish novel therapies against cancer and chronic heart defects. Here we describe for the first time the spatio-temporal expression profile of postn during early development of Xenopus laevis. By semi-quantitative RT-PCR approaches, we demonstrate that postn is maternally expressed. Zygotic expression starts during early gastrulation and increases until stage 40. Whole mount in situ hybridization experiments revealed that postn is detectable in somites, the sensory layer of the epidermis, the roof plate, the notochord, the heart, migrating neural crest cells, cranial ganglia and forming cranial cartilage structures. Our results implicate a role of postn during Xenopus embryogenesis and represent a good starting point for future functional analyses. PMID:21901578

Tao, Si; Kühl, Michael; Kühl, Susanne J

2011-10-01

250

[Hairy root induction and plant regeneration of crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.) transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes].  

PubMed

An efficient system of genetic transformation and plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis was established in crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.) by infecting the segments of cotyledons and hypocotyls of 15d-old seedlings with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834. Hairy roots were produced directly from the wounded surface of the explants or via calluses on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium after infection by A. rhizogenes. Transformed roots grew rapidly either on solid or liquid MS medium, and exhibited typical hairy root phenotypes. The highest transformation frequency (87.4%) was achieved by preculturing cotyledons for 2d and pre-treating the A. rhizogenes with suitable concentration of acetosyringone at logarithmic phase (OD600 = 0.8). The embryogenic calluses with 100% induction frequency were induced from hairy roots on MS medium containing 0.2mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5mg/L NAA and 0.5mg/L KT. Globular-, heart-, torpedo-, and cotyledon shaped somatic embryos were produced orderly and developed into plantlets when transferred the embryogenic calluses on MS medium supplemented with 0.5mg/L KT, 0.2mg/L IBA and 300mg/L proline. The transformed plants did not show differences in morphology except abundant lateral root branches compared to the non-transformed plants. However, the contents of 3-nitropropanic acid in hairy roots and leaves of one of 5 transformed clones were 57.68% and 58.17% in roots and leaves of untransformed plants, respectively. Opine paper electrophoresis revealed the integration and expression of TR-DNA. PCR analysis confirmed that the TL-DNA including 654 bp rol B sequence was inserted into the genome of transformed hairy roots and their regenerated plants. PMID:16572849

Han, Xiao-Ling; Bu, Huai-Yu; Hao, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Yu-Wei; Jia, Jing-Fen

2006-01-01

251

Pollen embryogenesis to induce, detect, and analyze mutants.  

PubMed Central

The development of fully differentiated plants from individual pollen grains through a series of developmental phases that resemble embryogenesis beginning with the zygote was demonstrated during the mid-1960's. This technology opened the door to the use of haploid plants (sporophytes with the gametic number of chromosomes) for plant breeding and genetic studies, biochemical and metabolic studies, and the selection of mutations. Although pollen embryogenesis has been demonstrated successfully in numerous plant genera, the procedure cannot as yet be used routinely to generate large populations of plants for experiments. Practical results from use of the technology in genetic toxicology research to detect mutations have failed to fully realize the theoretical potential; further developments of the technology could overcome the limitations. Pollen embryogenesis could be used to develop plants from mutant pollen grains to verify that genetic changes are involved. Through either spontaneous or induced chromosome doubling, these plants can be made homozygous and used to analyze genetically the mutants involved. The success of this approach will depend on the mutant frequency relative to the fraction of pollen grains that undergo embryogenesis; these two factors will dictate population size needed for success. Research effort is needed to further develop pollen embryogenesis for use in the detection of genotoxins under both laboratory and in situ conditions. PMID:7460882

Constantin, M J

1981-01-01

252

Characterization of conservative somatic instability of the CAG repeat region in Huntington`s disease  

SciTech Connect

Instability and enlargement of a CAG repeat region at the beginning of the huntingtin gene (IT-15) has been linked with Huntington`s disease. The CAG repeat size shows a highly significant correlation with age-of-onset of clinicial features in individuals with 40 or more repeats who have Huntington disease. The clinical status of nonsymptomatic individuals with 30 to 39 CAG repeats is considered ambiguous. In order to define more carefully the nature of the HD expansion instability, we examined patients in our HD population using a discriminating fluorescence-based PCR approach. The degree of somatic mutation increases with both earlier age of onset and the size of the inherited allele. A single prominent band one repeat larger than the index peak was typical in individuals with 40-41 CAG repeats. Three to four larger bands are typically discerned in individuals with 50 or more repeats. In an extreme example, an individual with approximately 95 repeats had at least 8 prominent bands. Plotting the degree of somatic mutation relative to the size of the HD allele shows somatic mutation activity increases with size. By this approach 40-60% of the alleles in a 40-41 CAG repeat HD loci is represented in the primary allele. In contrast, the primary allele represents a relatively minor proportion of the total alleles for expansions greater than 50 CAG repeats (10-20%). The limited range of somatic mutation suggest that the instability is restricted to very early stages of embryogenesis before tissue development diverges or that persistent somatic instability occurs at a slow rate. Therefore, the properties of somatic instability in Huntington`s disease have aspects that are both in common but also different from that found in other trinucleotide repeat expanding diseases such as myotonic muscular dystrophy and fragile X syndrome.

Schaefer, F.V.; Calikoglu, A.S.; Whetsell, L.H. [H.A. Chapman Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)

1994-09-01

253

Colchicine-induced microspore embryogenesis in coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol for the induction of androgenesis and plant regeneration from C. arabica cv. Caturra isolated microspores in vitro using colchicine pretreatment has been developed. Microspores were mechanically isolated and then carefully purified. Before colchicine pretreatment, microspores were cultured in a semi-solid medium for further develop and regeneration. Different times of colchicine exposure as well as different concentrations were tested.

J. C. Herrera; L. G. Moreno; J. R. Acuña; M. De Peña; D. Osorio

2002-01-01

254

Vitellin processing and protein synthesis during cricket embryogenesis.  

PubMed

At the start of insect embryogenesis most of the protein mass of the egg cytoplasm exists as vitellin (Vt) obtained endocytically during vitellogenesis. Of the new embryo polypeptides (EP) appearing in the egg during embryogenesis, many are synthesized de novo, while, in some species, others derive from developmentally programmed partial proteolysis of Vt. Earlier we showed that by the end of vitellogenesis the two native Vts in Acheta domesticus exist in opposing gradients along the longitudinal axis of the egg. Here we hypothesize that this ooplasmic Vt distribution presents a milieu for Vt processing out of which region-specific regulatory molecules could arise. The metabolic origin and stage-specific patterns of seven predominant EPs (EP 1-7) identified by SDS-PAGE were examined and the results correlated with developmental morphology during the 14 days of embryogenesis. Based on antibody reactivity, peptide mapping and in vitro radiolabeling, we determined that EPs 1-3, 6 and 7 are Vt-derived, while EPs 4 and 5 are produced de novo by the embryo. The five Vt-derived EPs appear during the first 24 h of embryogenesis when migrating cleavage nuclei and associated cytoplasm form the cellular blastoderm, and levels of EPs 4 and 5 increase during days 4-6 of embryogenesis when katatrepsis and yolk mass contraction occur. Positive periodic acid-Schiff staining indicated that EPs 1-3 and their Vt-precursor polypeptides are glycoproteins. This work shows that developmental stage-specific Vt processing occurs during A. domesticus embryogenesis and points next to investigation of the functional significance of Vt cleavage products during development. PMID:9818388

Handley, H L; Estridge, B H; Bradley, J T

1998-11-01

255

Microspore embryogenesis: establishment of embryo identity and pattern in culture.  

PubMed

The developmental plasticity of plants is beautifully illustrated by the competence of the immature male gametophyte to change its developmental fate from pollen to embryo development when exposed to stress treatments in culture. This process, referred to as microspore embryogenesis, is widely exploited in plant breeding, but also provides a unique system to understand totipotency and early cell fate decisions. We summarize the major concepts that have arisen from decades of cell and molecular studies on microspore embryogenesis and put these in the context of recent experiments, as well as results obtained from the study of pollen and zygotic embryo development. PMID:23852380

Soriano, Mercedes; Li, Hui; Boutilier, Kim

2013-09-01

256

NO, ROS, and cell death associated with caspase-like activity increase in stress-induced microspore embryogenesis of barley  

PubMed Central

Under specific stress treatments (cold, starvation), in vitro microspores can be induced to deviate from their gametophytic development and switch to embryogenesis, forming haploid embryos and homozygous breeding lines in a short period of time. The inductive stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), signalling molecules mediating cellular responses, and cell death, modifying the embryogenic microspore response and therefore, the efficiency of the process. This work analysed cell death, caspase 3-like activity, and ROS and NO production (using fluorescence probes and confocal analysis) after inductive stress in barley microspore cultures and embryogenic suspension cultures, as an in vitro system which permitted easy handling for comparison. There was an increase in caspase 3-like activity and cell death after stress treatment in microspore and suspension cultures, while ROS increased in non-induced microspores and suspension cultures. Treatments of the cultures with a caspase 3 inhibitor, DEVD-CHO, significantly reduced the cell death percentages. Stress-treated embryogenic suspension cultures exhibited high NO signals and cell death, while treatment with S-nitrosoglutathione (NO donor) in control suspension cultures resulted in even higher cell death. In contrast, in microspore cultures, NO production was detected after stress, and, in the case of 4-day microspore cultures, in embryogenic microspores accompanying the initiation of cell divisions. Subsequent treatments of stress-treated microspore cultures with ROS and NO scavengers resulted in a decreasing cell death during the early stages, but later they produced a delay in embryo development as well as a decrease in the percentage of embryogenesis in microspores. Results showed that the ROS increase was involved in the stress-induced programmed cell death occurring at early stages in both non-induced microspores and embryogenic suspension cultures; whereas NO played a dual role after stress in the two in vitro systems, one involved in programmed cell death in embryogenic suspension cultures and the other in the initiation of cell division leading to embryogenesis in reprogrammed microspores. PMID:22197894

Rodriguez-Serrano, Maria; Barany, Ivett; Prem, Deepak; Coronado, Maria-Jose; Risueno, Maria C.; Testillano, Pilar S.

2012-01-01

257

Inductive Reactance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discusses the methods of compensating for power losses in inductors. Defines inductive reactance. Presents the formula for computing inductive reactance, and gives examples of solving. Discusses how frequency and inductance affect inductive reactance.

1994-01-01

258

INTRODUCTION During embryogenesis, neurons of the cerebral cortex are  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION During embryogenesis, neurons of the cerebral cortex are generated in the ventricular in the cerebral cortex employed glia as their sole substratum and consequently followed strictly radial pathways., 1988; Turner and Cepko, 1987; Wetts and Fraser, 1988), clones in the cerebral cortex spread

McConnell, Susan

259

Cyclin E2 is required for embryogenesis in Xenopus laevis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammalian cells, E-type cyclins (E1 and E2) are generally believed to be required for entry into S phase. However, in mice, cyclin E is largely dispensable for normal embryogenesis. Moreover, Drosophila cyclin E plays a critical role in cell fate determination in neural lineages independently of proliferation. Thus, the functions of cyclin E, particularly during early development, remain elusive.

Tetsuya Gotoh; Noriko Shigemoto; Takeo Kishimoto

2007-01-01

260

Genotoxic effects of cisplatin in somatic tissue of Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster transdihybrid for mwh and flr were exposed to varying concentrations of cisplatin by feeding on dry media wetted with aqueous solutions of the test compound. Larval feeding continued until pupation, and surviving transdihybrid adults were collected seven days following commencement of feeding. Wings of adults were removed and scored under 400X magnification for the presence of twin spots and single spots comprised of clones of cells possessing malformed wing hairs. Cisplatin was found to induce both twin spots and single spots, and significant linear concentration-response relationships were obtained with respect to the induction of all endpoints. This capacity to induce mitotic exchange in the somatic tissue of Drosophila compares well with the compound's reported ability to induce chromosome breaks in Drosophila germ cells. However, not all compounds possess similar genotoxic profiles in the somatic an germ tissue of Drosophila.

Katz, A.J.

1987-01-01

261

A Comparison of Self-Devaluation and Somatic Suggestion Content in Depressive Mood Manipulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied whether somatic content is more important than self-devaluation in producing depressive mood variations, using the Veltan Mood Induction Procedure on college students (N=302). Results indicated that students in the self-devaluation condition showed significantly more depressed affect than students in the neutral condition. (WAS)

Small, Arnold; And Others

1983-01-01

262

Somatic variation in Lolium perenne  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of somatic variation in 10 plants of Lolium perenne, using a two-stage cloning process followed by two further cycles of vegetative propagation, has revealed that persistent differences in tiller number and plant height may arise at the time of the initial cloning. These effects were dependent upon the age of the clone and its past vegetative history. Transmissibility

Y Shimamoto; M D Hayward

1975-01-01

263

A hypocotyl-derived somatic embryogenic system in Brassica juncea Czern & Coss and its manipulation for enhanced storage lipid accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and reproducible protocol for induction, growth and development of somatic embryos from hypocotyl explants of Indian\\u000a mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss) var. RLM 198 is reported. The HDSE (Hypocotyl-derived somatic embryos) were fleshy globular to torpedo structures\\u000a that were maintained by regular subculturing every three weeks. These embryos developed non-synchronously into the heart shaped-stage\\u000a while some

Anita Kumari; G. S. Cheema; S. K. Munshi

2000-01-01

264

Testicular Somatic Cells, not Gonocytes, Are the Major Source of Functional Activin A during Testis Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Proper development of the seminiferous tubules (or testis cords in embryos) is critical for male fertility. Sertoli cells, somatic components of the seminiferous tubules, serve as nurse cells to the male germline, and thus their numbers decide the quantity of sperm output in adulthood. We previously identified activin A, the protein product of the activin ?A (Inhba) gene, as a key regulator of murine Sertoli cell proliferation and testis cord expansion during embryogenesis. Although our genetic studies implicated fetal Leydig cells as the primary producers of testicular activin A, gonocytes are another potential source. To investigate the relative contribution of gonocyte-derived activin A to testis morphogenesis, we compared testis development in the Inhba global knockout mouse, which lacks activin A production in all cells (including the gonocytes), and a steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1)-specific conditional knockout model in which activin A expression in testicular somatic cells is disrupted but gonocyte expression of activin A remains intact. Surprisingly, testis development was comparable in these two models of activin A insufficiency, with similar reductions in Sertoli cell proliferation and minor differences in testis histology. Thus, our findings suggest activin A from male gonocytes is insufficient to promote Sertoli cell proliferation and testis cord expansion in the absence of somatic cell-derived activin A. Evaluation of adult male mice with fetal disruption of activin A revealed reduced testis size, lowered sperm production, altered testicular histology, and elevated plasma FSH levels, defects reminiscent of human cases of androgen-sufficient idiopathic oligozoospermia. PMID:21952240

Archambeault, Denise R.; Tomaszewski, Jessica; Childs, Andrew J.; Anderson, Richard A.

2011-01-01

265

Cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.  

PubMed

For Castanea sativa (European chestnut), a species with recalcitrant seeds that is not easily propagated vegetatively, cryopreservation is one of the most promising techniques for maintaining genetic resource diversity and for conservation of selected germplasms. Long-term conservation of selected seeds and valuable embryogenic lines can be achieved through the cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos, respectively. This chapter describes methods for the desiccation-based cryostorage of zygotic embryonic axes, and the vitrification-based cryopreservation of somatic embryos. For zygotic embryonic axes, the highest post-thaw survival and plantlet recovery rates are obtained by desiccation in a laminar flow hood to 20-25% moisture content, followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. For somatic embryos, embryogenesis resumption rates of over 60% are achieved by preculture of embryo clumps for 3 days on solid medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution for 60 min at 0°C, and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Plantlet recovery from cryostored embryogenic lines requires proliferation of the thawed embryos and subsequent maturation before germination and conversion into plantlets. PMID:21207271

Vieitez, Ana M; San-José, M Carmen; Corredoira, Elena

2011-01-01

266

Cracking the egg: virtual embryogenesis of real robots.  

PubMed

All multicellular living beings are created from a single cell. A developmental process, called embryogenesis, takes this first fertilized cell down a complex path of reproduction, migration, and specialization into a complex organism adapted to its environment. In most cases, the first steps of the embryogenesis take place in a protected environment such as in an egg or in utero. Starting from this observation, we propose a new approach to the generation of real robots, strongly inspired by living systems. Our robots are composed of tens of specialized cells, grown from a single cell using a bio-inspired virtual developmental process. Virtual cells, controlled by gene regulatory networks, divide, migrate, and specialize to produce the robot's body plan (morphology), and then the robot is manually built from this plan. Because the robot is as easy to assemble as Lego, the building process could be easily automated. PMID:24730763

Cussat-Blanc, Sylvain; Pollack, Jordan

2014-01-01

267

Non-coding RNAs as regulators of embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of embryogenesis. They control embryonic gene expression by several means, ranging from microRNA-induced degradation of mRNAs to long ncRNA-mediated modification of chromatin. Many aspects of embryogenesis seem to be controlled by ncRNAs, including the maternal–zygotic transition, the maintenance of pluripotency, the patterning of the body axes, the specification and differentiation of cell types and the morphogenesis of organs. Drawing from several animal model systems, we describe two emerging themes for ncRNA function: promoting developmental transitions and maintaining developmental states. These examples also highlight the roles of ncRNAs in ensuring a robust commitment to one of two possible cell fates. PMID:21245830

Pauli, Andrea; Rinn, John L.; Schier, Alexander F.

2014-01-01

268

DNA methylation dynamics and MET1a-like gene expression changes during stress-induced pollen reprogramming to embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Stress-induced plant cell reprogramming involves changes in global genome organization, being the epigenetic modifications key factors in the regulation of genome flexibility. DNA methylation, accomplished by DNA methyltransferases, constitutes a prominent epigenetic modification of the chromatin fibre which is locked in a transcriptionally inactive conformation. Changes in DNA methylation accompany the reorganization of the nuclear architecture during plant cell differentiation and proliferation. After a stress treatment, in vitro-cultured microspores are reprogrammed and change their gametophytic developmental pathway towards embryogenesis, the process constituting a useful system of reprogramming in isolated cells for applied and basic research. Gene expression driven by developmental and stress cues often depends on DNA methylation; however, global DNA methylation and genome-wide expression patterns relationship is still poorly understood. In this work, the dynamics of DNA methylation patterns in relation to nuclear architecture and the expression of BnMET1a-like DNA methyltransferase genes have been analysed during pollen development and pollen reprogramming to embryogenesis in Brassica napus L. by a multidisciplinary approach. Results showed an epigenetic reprogramming after microspore embryogenesis induction which involved a decrease of global DNA methylation and its nuclear redistribution with the change of developmental programme and the activation of cell proliferation, while DNA methylation increases with pollen and embryo differentiation in a cell-type-specific manner. Changes in the presence, abundance, and distribution of BnMET1a-like transcripts highly correlated with variations in DNA methylation. Mature zygotic and pollen embryos presented analogous patterns of DNA methylation and MET1a-like expression, providing new evidence of the similarities between both developmental embryogenic programmes. PMID:23175669

Testillano, Pilar S.

2012-01-01

269

Embryogenesis from cultured immature inflorescences and nodes of Lolium multiflorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cultured on agar-solidified media (based on Murashige and Skoog's formula), immature inflorescences and nodes ofLolium multiflorum underwent several different pathways of morphogenesis. The pathway expressed was dependent upon the type of explant, its\\u000a age and the composition of the culture medium. Immature inflorescences generally produced either leaves and roots or embryoids\\u000a whereas nodes produced axillary shoots or embryoids. Embryogenesis

P. J. Dale; E. Thomas; R. I. S. Brettell; W. Wernicke

1981-01-01

270

Genome-wide analysis reveals divergent patterns of gene expression during zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao L., the chocolate tree  

PubMed Central

Background Theobroma cacao L. is a tropical fruit tree, the seeds of which are used to create chocolate. In vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE) of cacao is a propagation system useful for rapid mass-multiplication to accelerate breeding programs and to provide plants directly to farmers. Two major limitations of cacao SE remain: the efficiency of embryo production is highly genotype dependent and the lack of full cotyledon development results in low embryo to plant conversion rates. With the goal to better understand SE development and to improve the efficiency of SE conversion we examined gene expression differences between zygotic and somatic embryos using a whole genome microarray. Results The expression of 28,752 genes was determined at 4 developmental time points during zygotic embryogenesis (ZE) and 2 time points during cacao somatic embryogenesis (SE). Within the ZE time course, 10,288 differentially expressed genes were enriched for functions related to responses to abiotic and biotic stimulus, metabolic and cellular processes. A comparison ZE and SE expression profiles identified 10,175 differentially expressed genes. Many TF genes, putatively involved in ethylene metabolism and response, were more strongly expressed in SEs as compared to ZEs. Expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and seed storage protein genes were also differentially expressed in the two types of embryos. Conclusions Large numbers of genes were differentially regulated during various stages of both ZE and SE development in cacao. The relatively higher expression of ethylene and flavonoid related genes during SE suggests that the developing tissues may be experiencing high levels of stress during SE maturation caused by the in vitro environment. The expression of genes involved in the synthesis of auxin, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites was higher in SEs relative to ZEs despite lack of lipid and metabolite accumulation. These differences in gene transcript levels associated with critical processes during seed development are consistent with the fact that somatic embryos do not fully develop the large storage cotyledons found in zygotic embryos. These results provide insight towards design of improved protocols for cacao somatic embryogenesis. PMID:25030026

2014-01-01

271

[Embryogenesis of microspore derived multicells in Capsicum annuum L].  

PubMed

Microspores and derived multicells were isolated and cultured in modified liquid CP medium after a 15d's preculture of anthers on solidified medium. Thirty days later in suspension culture, at 28 degrees C dark condition embryoids with different developmental stages were formed. Up to 22 embryoids could be formed from the cell suspension of 12 anthers, and about 23% of the embryoids were at the cotyledonary stage. Fluorescence and light microscope observations revealed that these embryoids derived from microspores. After several symmetrical division of the nuclei of uninucleated microspores, multi-nuclei cells or multi-cells were formed, and developed further into embryoids. There were white hairs on the surface of pepper embryoids, and some embryoids showed low vigor while others showed normal by TTC staining. Plants could be formed from torpedo and cotyledonary stage embryoids on solidified medium. Embryoids could be induced by 7 degrees C, 32 degrees C or 35 degrees C stress treatment on anthers, Higher embryogenesis frequencies were got at 7 degrees C and 35 degrees C condition in anther culture while 35 degrees C and 32 degrees C treatment showed a higher embryogenesis in isolated multicell culture. The reason of this result was discussed. There were obvious differences in embryogenesis frequency among different genotypes and different temperature stress conditions. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that there were haploidy, doubled haploidy and haploid-diploid chimera in the regenerated plants. PMID:18198578

Liu, Fan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Yue Yun

2007-12-01

272

Interactions between ?-tocopherol, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lipoxygenases during embryogenesis.  

PubMed

?-Tocopherol is a lipid-soluble antioxidant that is specifically required for reproduction and embryogenesis. However, since its discovery, ?-tocopherol's specific biologic functions, other than as an antioxidant, and the mechanism(s) mediating its requirement for embryogenesis remain unknown. As an antioxidant, ?-tocopherol protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from lipid peroxidation. ?-Tocopherol is probably required during embryonic development to protect PUFAs that are crucial to development, specifically arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Additionally, ARA and DHA are metabolized to bioactive lipid mediators via lipoxygenase enzymes, and ?-tocopherol may directly protect, or it may mediate the production and/or actions of, these lipid mediators. In this review, we discuss how ?-tocopherol (1) prevents the nonspecific, radical-mediated peroxidation of PUFAs, (2) functions within a greater antioxidant network to modulate the production and/or function of lipid mediators derived from 12- and 12/15-lipoxygenases, and (3) modulates 5-lipoxygenase activity. The application and implication of such interactions are discussed in the context of ?-tocopherol requirements during embryogenesis. PMID:23920314

Lebold, Katie M; Traber, Maret G

2014-01-01

273

Embryogenesis and plant regeneration from isolated microspores of Brassica rapa L. ssp. Oleifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Conditions favourable to embryogenesis from isolated microspores of Brassica rapa L. ssp. oleifera (canola quality) were identified. A population with enhanced responsiveness for microspore embryogenesis (C200) was synthesized by crossing individual plants showing microspore embryogenic potential. For optimal microspore embryogenesis, buds (2–3mm in length, containing mid-late uninucieate microspores) were collected from older plants (2 months old) and microspores isolated and

Laurie Burnett; Stephen Yarrow; Bin Huang

1992-01-01

274

Somatic disease and psychological disorder.  

PubMed

The association between physical and psychological disorders has been demonstrated repeatedly. There are a number of explanations for this association, each of them pointing to specific diseases and operationalizations of mental distress. In this article, the relationship between various somatic diseases and a number of indices for psychological distress was investigated. Within one study population, patients with different somatic diseases were identified, and their experience with mental distress, their requests for help from their GP during consultations, and their GPs' diagnoses were registered and compared with the total study population: It appears that relationships could be demonstrated between experience of distress and presentation of psychological symptoms during consultations, on the one hand, and common physical disorders, on the other. Patients with neurological diseases (Parkinson's, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis) and gastric ulcers showed the same relationships, but were also more frequently diagnosed by the GP as having psychological disorders. Patients with a number of other serious somatic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and arthritis, did not distinguish themselves in a positive way on one of indices for psychological distress. PMID:9130183

Verhaak, P F

1997-03-01

275

Establishment of suspension cultures from seeds of plains bluestem [ Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng.] and regeneration of plants via somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Mature seeds of plains Old World bluestem [Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng.] were used to initiate suspension cultures. The medium contained the major and minor minerals of Murashige and\\u000a Skoog, Gamborg's B-5 vitamins, 30 g\\/liter sucrose, and 3 mg\\/liter 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with or without 12 mM proline at pH 5.5. Cultures contained both embryogenic and nonembryogenic (NE) cells. Suspensions that had

BECKY B. JOHNSONAND; Martin Worthington

1987-01-01

276

Plant regeneration from cultured immature embryos and inflorescences of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat): Evidence for somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Tissue cultures ofTriticum aestivum L. (wheat) initiated from young inflorescences and immature embryos possessed the potential for regeneration of whole plants. Both a friable and a compact type of callus were produced on Murashige and Skoog's medium with 2 mg\\/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The friable callus contained meristematic centers in which the peripheral cells ceased dividing, elongated, and could be

Peggy Ozias-Akins; Indra K. Vasil

1982-01-01

277

Somatic embryogenesis in loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.): improving culture initiation with abscisic acid and silver nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) culture initiation was improved by the addition of abscisic acid (ABA) (3.7 µ M), silver nitrate (20  µ M), and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, 8-bromo-, sodium salt (10 µ M) to the medium and by raising cytokinin levels in the presence of 50 mg\\/l activated carbon (AC). Basal medium contained modified 1\\/2-P6 salts, 50 mg\\/l AC, Cu and Zn added

G. S. Pullman; K. Namjoshi; Y. Zhang

2003-01-01

278

The role of Somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase 1 in controlling pollen production of the Gossypium anther.  

PubMed

In flowering plants, male gametophytes are generated in anthers from microsporocytes. However, more evidence is needed to reveal the genetic mechanisms which regulate the differentiation and interaction of these highly specialized cells in anthers. Here we report the characterization of a series of male-sterile cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) mutants, including mutants with normal fertility, semi-sterility and complete sterility. These mutants are forms of transgenic cotton containing RNAi vectors with partial cDNA fragments of GhSERK1. The GhSERK1 gene encodes a putative leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase (LRR-RLK), and generally has 11 domains. In previous research, we found plants containing GhSERK1 produce an abundance of male reproductive tissue. In this paper, three RNAi constructs were designed separately to analyze its function in anther. After the three RNAi vectors were transformed into the cotton, transgenic plants with the specialized fragment exhibited normal fertility or the pollen energy decreased slightly, as ones with the homologous fragments exhibited various degrees of male sterility with different expression levels of GhSERK1 mRNA. In conclusion, for the transgenic plants with conserved fragments, lower expression levels of GhSERK1 mRNA were in transgenic plants, and a higher degree of male sterility was observed. Taking together, these findings demonstrate the GhSERK1 gene has a role in the development of anthers, especially in the formation of pollen grains. Also, we infer there must be another homolog of GhSERK1 in cotton, and both of GhSERK1 and its homolog function redundantly as important control points in controlling anther pollen production. PMID:24276918

Shi, Ya-li; Guo, San-dui; Zhang, Rui; Meng, Zhi-gang; Ren, Mao-zhi

2014-01-01

279

Genotype and auxin influence direct somatic embryogenesis from protoplasts derived from embryogenic cell suspensions of Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenic callus from four asparagus genotypes, Jersey Giant No. 8, MD10, Rutgers 22, and 86SOM1 was simultaneously initiated from spear explants on semisolid LS medium containing 5 ?M 2,4-D or 50 ?M NAA. Calluses were used to initiate cell suspensions in liquid LS medium of the same composition. The eight sets of cell suspensions were used as protoplast donors at

Roger A. May; Kenneth C. Sink

1995-01-01

280

The use of centrifugation to study early Drosophila embryogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By the end of 10th nuclear cycle, the somatic nuclei of the Drosophila embryo have migrated to the periphery of the egg. Centrifugation of embryos did not result in the displacement of these nuclei, since cytoskeletal elements anchor them to the cortex. But, mild centrifugal forces displace the centrally located, nascent yolk nuclei. If this increased sensitivity to hypergravity occurs before the beginning of nuclear differentiation during cycle 8, when the nascent yolk and somatic nuclei physically separate, then it would mark the earliest functional difference between these two lineages.

Abbott, M. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1993-01-01

281

Neurenteric cysts of the posterior fossa: recognition, management, and embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Neurenteric cysts are endothelium-lined structures most commonly encountered in the lower cervical or upper thoracic spinal cord. The occurrence of neurenteric cysts within the cranial vault is unusual. We present three patients with neurenteric cysts located within the posterior fossa: one near the jugular foramen deforming the 4th ventricle, a second in the cerebellopontine angle, and a third in the prepontine cistern. Several different theories have been advanced to explain the embryogenesis of neurenteric cysts. We review these theories and conclude that cranial neurenteric cysts may arise from a disturbance of early gastrulation, shortly after the onset of primitive streak regression. PMID:1758603

Harris, C P; Dias, M S; Brockmeyer, D L; Townsend, J J; Willis, B K; Apfelbaum, R I

1991-12-01

282

Somatic neurosis in Muslim women in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chronic neurotic syndrome among Muslim women in India with predominantly somatic multiple symptomatology is briefly described. It is suggested that the syndrome is distinctive in its clinical features and in the cultural background of the patients. Pending resolution of its nosological status it is referred to as Somatic neurosis. In an attempt to determine its nature a group of

N. Janakiramaiah; D. K. Subbakrishna

1980-01-01

283

Visceral versus Somatic Pain: Similarities and Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory bowel disease and the irritable bowel syndrome are conditions characterized by chronic pain that generates persistent, hyperalgesic states in many regions of the body. It is difficult to explain the pain of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome by extrapolating directly from what is known about the mechanisms of somatic pain. Visceral and somatic pain

Fernando Cervero

2009-01-01

284

SOMATIC EMBRYOS OF CLONAL BURBANK PARADOX WALNUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos are used in our procedure for inserting new genes into walnuts. Historically, we have used somatic embryo cultures derived from zygotic tissue, specifically the immature cotyledon. In 1995 we obtained embryo cultures from maternal anther tissue of 'Chandler' walnut but were unable to duplicate the results with other cultivars. This year the sterile anthers of paradox 'Burbank' were

Mary Lou Mendum; Soussan Hirbod; Chuck Leslie; Gale McGranahan

285

Integrative analysis of a cancer somatic mutome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The consecutive acquisition of genetic alterations characterizes neoplastic processes. As a consequence of these alterations, molecular interactions are reprogrammed in the context of highly connected and regulated cellular networks. The recent identification of the collection of somatically mutated genes in breast tumors (breast cancer somatic \\

Pilar Hernández; Xavier Solé; Joan Valls; Víctor Moreno; Gabriel Capellá; Ander Urruticoechea; Miguel Angel Pujana

2007-01-01

286

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in the Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals since ``Dolly,'' the first animal cloned from an adult cell was reported in 1997. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming is still largely unknown, this technique has been proven to

Satoshi Kishigami; Teruhiko Wakayama

2009-01-01

287

Somatic recombination, gene amplification and cancer.  

PubMed

The principle objective of this research programme, to analyse chemical induction of somatic recombination and related endpoints, i.e., mobilization of transposing elements and gene amplification, has been approached by means of several assay systems. These have included Drosophila, Saccharomyces and mammalian cell cultures. 6.1. Screening assays for mitotic recombination. A large number of chemicals have been investigated in the three Drosophila assay systems employed--the multiple wing hair/flare wing spot system developed by Graf et al., 1984, the white-ivory system developed by Green et al., 1986 and the white/white+ eye spot assay developed by Vogel (Vogel and Nivard, 1993). Particularly the screening of 181 chemicals, covering a wide array of chemical classes, by the last mentioned assay has shown that measurement of somatic recombination in Drosophila constitutes a sensitive and efficient short-term test which shows a remarkably good correlation with the agent score of 83 short-term tests analysed by ICPEMC (Mendelsohn et al., 1992; Table 2) as well as the assay performance in international collaborative programmes measuring carcinogen/non-carcinogens (de Serres and Ashby, 1981; Ashby et al., 1985, 1988). Also the wing spot assay has gained wide international recognition as a similarly sensitive test. These two assay systems in Drosophila measure both intrachromosomal events and interchromosomal recombination. The white-ivory system on the other hand is based on the loss of a tandem duplication in the white locus, the mechanism of which is less known, but probably involves intrachromosomal recombination. The difference in the mechanism between this assay and the former two was indicated by the lack of response to methotrexate in the white-ivory assay, while this compound was strongly recombinogenic in both the wing spot and white/white+ assays. The use of different strains of Drosophila with the white/white+ assay demonstrated the importance of the background genotype for the outcome of the test. Up to a 60-fold variation was found between the different genotypes in the response to procarcinogens, evidently dependent on differences in the metabolic activation of procarcinogens. In 1989 Schiestl presented results on intrachromosomal recombination in the strain RS112 of Saccharomyces, which indicated a capability to detect a range of chemical carcinogens, which gave negative results in Ames Salmonella assay. Such a test system, which could identify a larger range of potential carcinogens than conventional short-term tests evidently would be of great value and it therefore seemed of importance to follow up the observations by Schiestl. However, studies within this programme on the same strain of Saccharomyces, as well as the strains D7 (measuring intragenic recombination, intergenic recombination, and point mutation) and JD1 (measuring intragenic recombination at two loci) could not support the observations and interpretation by Schiestl (1989). The Drosophila white-ivory system, which presumably responds primarily by intrachromosomal recombination, did not give positive results with these Salmonella-negative agents either. One system to measure mitotic recombination in mammalian cell cultures was developed in the present programme. It was based on heterozygous mutations in both alleles of the adenosine deaminase gene (ADA). The system selects for proficient recombinants generated by the deficient cells. So far only pilot experiments, indicating that this experimental system operates as planned, have been performed. 6.2 Mechanisms of mitotic recombination The induction of mosaic spots in the wing spot and the white/white+ assays is predominantly dependent on interchromosomal recombination. This is evident from the fact that heterozygous inversions reduce the frequency of spots. A relationship between the length of inversions and the reduction of spots was demonstrated in the white/white+ assay--the long inversion ln(l)sc4L PMID:8692194

Ramel, C; Cederberg, H; Magnusson, J; Vogel, E; Natarajan, A T; Mullender, L H; Nivard, J M; Parry, J M; Leyson, A; Comendador, M A; Sierra, L M; Ferreiro, J A; Consuegra, S

1996-06-12

288

Reporter genes for embryogenesis research in livestock species.  

PubMed

Currently, our knowledge of early mammalian embryogenesis, stem cell differentiation and development is largely based on studies performed in mouse models. However, in important aspects, e.g. the timing of epigenetic reprogramming and embryonic genome activation, livestock species probably reflect far more closely the situation in men and other non-rodent mammals. A major challenge is the fact that in mammals, the development of individual zygotes is highly variable and vulnerable, and the outcome is uncertain. Valid indicators of the highly heterogeneous development and health status, and the actual developmental potential of individual oocytes, zygotes or embryos would be crucially important to tap the full power of holistic transcriptome and proteome analyses. Fluorescent reporter proteins opened new vistas for embryology and stem cell research: they can be used as reporters for the activity of gene promoters or tagged to functional proteins to study their intracellular localization in living cells, tissues and organisms. Fluorescent reporter genes may be used to microscopically observe key processes of early development. Thus, novel information related to developmental potential can be obtained from living embryos before processing them, e.g. for "-omic" studies. This review summarizes the main current reporter gene techniques and gene transfer approaches, which might be suitable for the investigation of early embryogenesis in livestock mammals. The potential of promoter reporter genes is exemplified by a bovine model system for quantitative monitoring of transcriptional reactivation of the so-called pluripotency gene POU5F1 in cloned bovine embryos. PMID:17583783

Habermann, F A; Wuensch, A; Sinowatz, F; Wolf, E

2007-09-01

289

Systematic determination of patterns of gene expression during Drosophila embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Cell-fate specification and tissue differentiation during development are largely achieved by the regulation of gene transcription. Results As a first step to creating a comprehensive atlas of gene-expression patterns during Drosophila embryogenesis, we examined 2,179 genes by in situ hybridization to fixed Drosophila embryos. Of the genes assayed, 63.7% displayed dynamic expression patterns that were documented with 25,690 digital photomicrographs of individual embryos. The photomicrographs were annotated using controlled vocabularies for anatomical structures that are organized into a developmental hierarchy. We also generated a detailed time course of gene expression during embryogenesis using microarrays to provide an independent corroboration of the in situ hybridization results. All image, annotation and microarray data are stored in publicly available database. We found that the RNA transcripts of about 1% of genes show clear subcellular localization. Nearly all the annotated expression patterns are distinct. We present an approach for organizing the data by hierarchical clustering of annotation terms that allows us to group tissues that express similar sets of genes as well as genes displaying similar expression patterns. Conclusions Analyzing gene-expression patterns by in situ hybridization to whole-mount embryos provides an extremely rich dataset that can be used to identify genes involved in developmental processes that have been missed by traditional genetic analysis. Systematic analysis of rigorously annotated patterns of gene expression will complement and extend the types of analyses carried out using expression microarrays. PMID:12537577

Tomancak, Pavel; Beaton, Amy; Weiszmann, Richard; Kwan, Elaine; Shu, ShengQiang; Lewis, Suzanna E; Richards, Stephen; Ashburner, Michael; Hartenstein, Volker; Celniker, Susan E; Rubin, Gerald M

2002-01-01

290

Radiation-induced bystander signaling from somatic cells to germ cells in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Recently, radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been studied in mouse models in vivo, which clearly demonstrated bystander effects among somatic cells. However, there is currently no evidence for RIBE between somatic cells and germ cells in animal models in vivo. In the current study, the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans was used to investigate the bystander signaling from somatic cells to germ cells, as well as underlying mechanisms. C. elegans body size allows for precise microbeam irradiation and the abundant mutant strains for genetic dissection relative to currently adopted mouse models make it ideal for such analysis. Our results showed that irradiation of posterior pharynx bulbs and tails of C. elegans enhanced the level of germ cell apoptosis in bystander gonads. The irradiation of posterior pharynx bulbs also increased the level of DNA damage in bystander germ cells and genomic instability in the F1 progeny of irradiated worms, suggesting a potential carcinogenic risk in progeny even only somatic cells of parents are exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). It was also shown that DNA damage-induced germ cell death machinery and MAPK signaling pathways were both involved in the induction of germ cell apoptosis by microbeam induced bystander signaling, indicating a complex cooperation among multiple signaling pathways for bystander effects from somatic cells to germ cells. PMID:23931723

Guo, Xiaoying; Sun, Jie; Bian, Po; Chen, Lianyun; Zhan, Furu; Wang, Jun; Xu, An; Wang, Yugang; Hei, Tom K; Wu, Lijun

2013-09-01

291

Genetic transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants in grapevine ( Vitis rupestris S.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated somatic embryos from petiole-derived callus cultures ofVitis rupestris Scheele have been employed in experiments on genetic transformation. Co-cultivation of somatic embryos during embryogenesis induction withAgrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404, which contains the plasmid pBI121 carrying the neomycin phosphotranspherase and theß-glucuronidase genes, produced transformed cellular lines capable of recurrent somatic embryogenesis. Precocious selection for high levels of kanamycin (100 mgl-1) was

L. Martinelli; G. Mandolino

1994-01-01

292

Developmental regulation of glial cell phagocytic function during Drosophila embryogenesis.  

PubMed

The proper removal of superfluous neurons through apoptosis and subsequent phagocytosis is essential for normal development of the central nervous system (CNS). During Drosophila embryogenesis, a large number of apoptotic neurons are efficiently engulfed and degraded by phagocytic glia. Here we demonstrate that glial proficiency to phagocytose relies on expression of phagocytic receptors for apoptotic cells, SIMU and DRPR. Moreover, we reveal that the phagocytic ability of embryonic glia is established as part of a developmental program responsible for glial cell fate determination and is not triggered by apoptosis per se. Explicitly, we provide evidence for a critical role of the major regulators of glial identity, gcm and repo, in controlling glial phagocytic function through regulation of SIMU and DRPR specific expression. Taken together, our study uncovers molecular mechanisms essential for establishment of embryonic glia as primary phagocytes during CNS development. PMID:25046770

Shklyar, Boris; Sellman, Yael; Shklover, Jeny; Mishnaevski, Ketty; Levy-Adam, Flonia; Kurant, Estee

2014-09-15

293

Differential expression of two scribble isoforms during Drosophila embryogenesis.  

PubMed

The tumour suppressor gene scribble (scrib) is required for epithelial polarity and growth control in Drosophila. Here, we report the identification and embryonic expression pattern of two Scrib protein isoforms resulting from alternative splicing during scrib transcription. Both proteins are first ubiquitously expressed during early embryogenesis. Then, during morphogenesis each Scrib protein displays a specific pattern of expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems, CNS and PNS, respectively. During germ band extension, the expression of the longer form Scrib1 occurs predominantly in the neuroblasts derived from the neuro-ectoderm and becomes later restricted to CNS neurones as well as to the pole cells in the gonads. By contrast, the shorter form Scrib2 is strongly expressed in the PNS and a subset of CNS neurones. PMID:11578873

Li, M; Marhold, J; Gatos, A; Török, I; Mechler, B M

2001-10-01

294

Effect of drilling muds on embryogenesis of the rainbow trout  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effect of three drilling muds on the early developmental stages of the rainbow trout. The following parameters were examined in the experiments: embryo mortality rate, rate of development, time of the beginning and end of individual stages and the duration embryogenesis on the whole, presence of developmental abnormalities, timing of larval hatching and morphometric indices of the larvae. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the drilling muds were determined. The gel-humate drilling mud was the most toxic. At its level equal to 0.1-5.0 g/liter significant dose-dependent inhibition of their linear growth rate and the rate of weight increase, was found despite the high survival rate of the larvae. 4 refs., 7 tabs.

Kosheleva, V.V.; Novikov, M.A.; Migalovskii, I.P.

1994-09-01

295

Dance and Somatic Inquiry in Studios and Community Dance Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses pragmatic aspects of somatics in the public sector, investigating the fit of somatics within various institutions and settings, including universities, professional schools, and community programs. The article explores issues such as somatic movement approaches, certification, academic degrees in somatic study, confusions within the…

Eddy, Martha Hart

2002-01-01

296

Living in Movement: Development of Somatic Practices in Different Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a transcultural perspective on somatics, reflecting on the evolution of somatics in different dance communities around the world, noting shifts that have occurred within specific cultural contexts, and discussing the presence of somatics in academia with the challenge of conducting research that retains somatic integrity. The article…

Fortin, Sylvie

2002-01-01

297

Stress and Somatic Complaints in Low-Income Urban Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied rates of somatic complaints and the association between stress and somatic complaints for 1,030 low-income urban adolescents in grades 6 through 8. For both boys and girls, somatization was the most commonly reported internalizing symptom, and heightened rates of urban stress predicted heightened rates of somatic complaints. (SLD)

Reynolds, Linda K.; O'Koon, Jeffrey H.; Papademetriou, Eros; Szczygiel, Sylvia; Grant, Kathryn E.

2001-01-01

298

Gravitational induction  

E-print Network

We study the linear post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity known as gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM); in particular, we examine the similarities and differences between GEM and electrodynamics. Notwithstanding some significant differences between them, we find that a special nonstationary metric in GEM can be employed to show {\\it explicitly} that it is possible to introduce gravitational induction within GEM in close analogy with Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law in electrodynamics. Some of the physical implications of gravitational induction are briefly discussed.

Donato Bini; Christian Cherubini; Carmen Chicone; Bahram Mashhoon

2008-03-04

299

Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development  

PubMed Central

Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotranspositions, with frequent target-site duplications (67%), consensus TTTTAA sites at insertion points, inverted rearrangements (21%), 5? truncation (74%) and polyA tails (88%). Transcriptional consequences include expression of pseudogenes from UTRs or introns of target genes. In addition, a somatic pseudogene that integrated into the promoter and first exon of the tumour suppressor gene, MGA, abrogated expression from that allele. Thus, formation of processed pseudogenes represents a new class of mutation occurring during cancer development, with potentially diverse functional consequences depending on genomic context. PMID:24714652

Cooke, Susanna L.; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P.; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M.C.; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R.; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Behjati, Sam; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Teixeira, Vitor H.; Raine, Keiran; O'Meara, Sarah; Dodoran, Maryam S.; Teague, Jon W.; Butler, Adam P.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Santarius, Thomas; Grundy, Richard G.; Malkin, David; Greaves, Mel; Munshi, Nikhil; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Bowtell, David; Martin, Sancha; Larsimont, Denis; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Boussioutas, Alex; Taylor, Jack A.; Hayes, Neil D.; Janes, Sam M.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.; McDermott, Ultan; Campbell, Peter J.; Provenzano, Elena; van de Vijver, Marc; Richardson, Andrea L.; Purdie, Colin; Pinder, Sarah; Mac Grogan, Gaetan; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Larsimont, Denis; Grabau, Dorthe; Sauer, Torill; Garred, Øystein; Ehinger, Anna; Van den Eynden, Gert G.; van Deurzen, C.H.M; Salgado, Roberto; Brock, Jane E.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Giri, Dilip D.; Arnould, Laurent; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Treilleux, Isabelle; Caldas, Carlos; Chin, Suet-Feung; Fatima, Aquila; Thompson, Alastair M.; Stenhouse, Alasdair; Foekens, John; Martens, John; Sieuwerts, Anieta; Brinkman, Arjen; Stunnenberg, Henk; Span, Paul N.; Sweep, Fred; Desmedt, Christine; Sotiriou, Christos; Thomas, Gilles; Broeks, Annegein; Langerod, Anita; Aparicio, Samuel; Simpson, Peter T.; van ’t Veer, Laura; Erla Eyfjörd, Jórunn; Hilmarsdottir, Holmfridur; Jonasson, Jon G.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Hooijer, Gerrit K.J.

2014-01-01

300

Somatic retrotransposition in the cancer genome  

E-print Network

Cancer is a complex disease of the genome exhibiting myriad somatic mutations, from single nucleotide changes to various chromosomal rearrangements. The technological advances of next-generation sequencing enable high-throughput ...

Helman, Elena

2014-01-01

301

(Somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA)  

SciTech Connect

The study is concerned the design of new assays that may detect rare somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, which may increase upon exposure to mutagens, and thus become a marker of human exposure to such mutagens. Two assays for somatic mutation were presented, one for mitochondrial DNA deletions which was developed by the author, and one for deletions of the ADA gene which resides in the nucleus.

Not Available

1992-01-01

302

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) in Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now more than nine years since Dolly, the world’s first somatic cell cloned mammal was born, and the success of somatic\\u000a cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still disappointingly low. Only about 3–5% of reconstructed embryos develop to term, and it\\u000a is also evident that even if some clones are born, they are not necessarily fully developed and healthy.

Josef Fulka; Helena Fulka

303

Embryogenesis and production of albino plants from cell cultures of Bromus inermis.  

PubMed

Embryogenesis occurs in cells from brome grass grown in suspension culture in defined medium. Exogenous hormones are not required. The embryos develop into plants which lack chlorophyll. PMID:24497150

Gamborg, O L; Constabel, F; Miller, R A

1970-12-01

304

The Velten Mood Induction Procedure: Effects on Mood and Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the hypothesis that the self-devaluative aspects of the Velton Mood Induction Procedure (VMIP) do not lower mood but that the depression-related somatic states of the VMIP do lower mood. Found that both aspects of the VMIP have a powerful impact on mood. (Author/RC)

Riskind, John H.; And Others

1982-01-01

305

Induction voidmeter  

DOEpatents

An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; means for applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and means for detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Brewer, J.

1983-12-21

306

Induction voidmeter  

DOEpatents

An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge circuit, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

Anderson, Thomas T. (Downers Grove, IL); Roop, Conard J. (Lockport, IL); Schmidt, Kenneth J. (Midlothian, IL); Brewer, John (Oak Lawn, IL)

1986-01-01

307

Somatic symptoms in those with performance and interaction anxiety.  

PubMed

This study (n = 304) examined the relationship between somatic symptoms and social anxiety. Significant differences in the experience of somatic symptoms were found among four groups (i.e. performance anxious, interaction anxious, generalized socially anxious, and controls). Post hoc analyses revealed that those who exceeded the clinical cutoff for generalized social anxiety exhibited more somatic symptoms than those who exceeded the clinical cutoff in the other two social anxiety domains or controls. Individuals in each group exhibited more somatic symptoms than controls, but subtypes did not differ in the amount of somatic symptoms experienced. Additionally, regression analyses revealed that type of somatic symptoms experienced varied depending on subtype. PMID:23818506

May, Anna C; Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Jenkins, Whitney S; Reuther, Erin T; Whiting, Sara E

2014-11-01

308

A simple consensus approach improves somatic mutation prediction accuracy  

PubMed Central

Differentiating true somatic mutations from artifacts in massively parallel sequencing data is an immense challenge. To develop methods for optimal somatic mutation detection and to identify factors influencing somatic mutation prediction accuracy, we validated predictions from three somatic mutation detection algorithms, MuTect, JointSNVMix2 and SomaticSniper, by Sanger sequencing. Full consensus predictions had a validation rate of >98%, but some partial consensus predictions validated too. In cases of partial consensus, read depth and mapping quality data, along with additional prediction methods, aided in removing inaccurate predictions. Our consensus approach is fast, flexible and provides a high-confidence list of putative somatic mutations. PMID:24073752

2013-01-01

309

Embryogenesis, morphogens and cancer stem cells: putting the puzzle together.  

PubMed

This paper describes a model which puts together three key elements of cancer theory: the analogies between embryogenesis and carcinogenesis, the role played in both processes by morphogens and related pathways, and the recently emerged paradigm of cancer stem cells. The model is called Epigenetic Tracking. Originally conceived as a model of embryonic development, it was later extended to interpret other aspects of biology, such as the presence of junk DNA, the phenomenon of ageing and the process of cancer formation. In this work we deepen our vision of carcinogenesis, and propose a novel hypothesis on the role of morphogen-processing pathways. According to the hypothesis, the interplay of these pathways leads in stem cells to the production of new transcription factors, which act as drivers of cellular differentiation. The disruption of these pathways, caused by mutations in specific genes, would represent the first and most distinctive event in the carcinogenic process. Our hypothesis allows us to make testable predictions on patterns of gene mutations involved in carcinogenesis. Our hypothesis also suggests that cancer stem cells can stay dormant until they are activated in a process that resembles activation of stem cells during tissue repair or at a specific time during development. PMID:23932050

Fontana, Alessandro; Wróbel, Borys

2013-10-01

310

Modeling cell-cycle synchronization during embryogenesis in Xenopus laevis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A widely conserved aspect of embryogenesis is the ability to synchronize nuclear divisions post-fertilization. How is synchronization achieved? Given a typical protein diffusion constant of 10 ?m^2sec, and an embryo length of 1mm, it would take diffusion many hours to propagate a signal across the embryo. Therefore, synchrony cannot be attained by diffusion alone. We hypothesize that known autocatalytic reactions of cell-cycle components make the embryo an ``active medium'' in which waves propagate much faster than diffusion, enforcing synchrony. We report on robust spatial synchronization of components of the core cell cycle circuit based on a mathematical model previously determined by in vitro experiments. In vivo, synchronized divisions are preceded by a rapid calcium wave that sweeps across the embryo. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that increases in transient calcium levels lead to derepression of a negative feedback loop, allowing cell divisions to start. Preliminary results indicate a novel relationship between the speed of the initial calcium wave and the ability to achieve synchronous cell divisions.

McIsaac, R. Scott; Huang, K. C.; Sengupta, Anirvan; Wingreen, Ned

2010-03-01

311

The ?-tocopherol transfer protein is essential for vertebrate embryogenesis.  

PubMed

The hepatic ?-tocopherol transfer protein (TTP) is required for optimal ?-tocopherol bioavailability in humans; mutations in the human TTPA gene result in the heritable disorder ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED, OMIM #277460). TTP is also expressed in mammalian uterine and placental cells and in the human embryonic yolk-sac, underscoring TTP's significance during fetal development. TTP and vitamin E are essential for productive pregnancy in rodents, but their precise physiological role in embryogenesis is unknown. We hypothesize that TTP is required to regulate delivery of ?-tocopherol to critical target sites in the developing embryo. We tested to find if TTP is essential for proper vertebrate development, utilizing the zebrafish as a non-placental model. We verify that TTP is expressed in the adult zebrafish and its amino acid sequence is homologous to the human ortholog. We show that embryonic transcription of TTP mRNA increases >7-fold during the first 24 hours following fertilization. In situ hybridization demonstrates that Ttpa transcripts are localized in the developing brain, eyes and tail bud at 1-day post fertilization. Inhibiting TTP expression using oligonucleotide morpholinos results in severe malformations of the head and eyes in nearly all morpholino-injected embryos (88% compared with 5.6% in those injected with control morpholinos or 1.7% in non-injected embryos). We conclude that TTP is essential for early development of the vertebrate central nervous system. PMID:23077608

Miller, Galen W; Ulatowski, Lynn; Labut, Edwin M; Lebold, Katie M; Manor, Danny; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Barton, Carrie L; Tanguay, Robert L; Traber, Maret G

2012-01-01

312

Further evidence that sperm nuclear proteins are necessary for embryogenesis.  

PubMed

We have recently presented evidence that the structural integrity of the mouse sperm nuclear matrix may be necessary for the proper unpackaging of sperm DNA for participation in embryogenesis. It is likely that the sperm nuclear matrix contributes to the organisation of the sperm DNA and its disturbance can seriously damage the paternal genome or its expression. In this work, we confirm our previous data and further suggest that even very subtle changes in the sperm nuclear structure may have a significant impact on embryo development. As reported previously, dithiothreitol (DTT) in the presence of an ionic detergent, ATAB, destabilized the nuclear matrix as measured by the halo assay, and oocytes injected with these nuclei failed to develop. We also discovered that omitting the protease inhibitor PMSF from the buffers used to extract spermatozoa prevented sperm injected into oocytes from participating in development. The organization of DNA into loop domains by the nuclear matrix in these nuclei appeared normal, as measured by the halo assay. Oocytes injected with sperm nuclei that had been washed with ATAB in the presence of phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) but in the absence of DTT resulted in live births. Neither DTT treatment nor the absence of PMSF would be expected to disrupt the integrity of the paternal DNA. The data therefore suggest that even very subtle alterations in the structural proteins of the nucleus are enough to deprive sperm DNA of the ability to contribute to embryonic development. PMID:10840874

Ward, W S; Kishikawa, H; Akutsu, H; Yanagimachi, H; Yanagimachi, R

2000-02-01

313

Coherent Somatic Mutation in Autoimmune Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Many aspects of autoimmune disease are not well understood, including the specificities of autoimmune targets, and patterns of co-morbidity and cross-heritability across diseases. Prior work has provided evidence that somatic mutation caused by gene conversion and deletion at segmentally duplicated loci is relevant to several diseases. Simple tandem repeat (STR) sequence is highly mutable, both somatically and in the germ-line, and somatic STR mutations are observed under inflammation. Results Protein-coding genes spanning STRs having markers of mutability, including germ-line variability, high total length, repeat count and/or repeat similarity, are evaluated in the context of autoimmunity. For the initiation of autoimmune disease, antigens whose autoantibodies are the first observed in a disease, termed primary autoantigens, are informative. Three primary autoantigens, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), phogrin (PTPRN2) and filaggrin (FLG), include STRs that are among the eleven longest STRs spanned by protein-coding genes. This association of primary autoantigens with long STR sequence is highly significant (). Long STRs occur within twenty genes that are associated with sixteen common autoimmune diseases and atherosclerosis. The repeat within the TTC34 gene is an outlier in terms of length and a link with systemic lupus erythematosus is proposed. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that many autoimmune diseases are triggered by immune responses to proteins whose DNA sequence mutates somatically in a coherent, consistent fashion. Other autoimmune diseases may be caused by coherent somatic mutations in immune cells. The coherent somatic mutation hypothesis has the potential to be a comprehensive explanation for the initiation of many autoimmune diseases. PMID:24988487

Ross, Kenneth Andrew

2014-01-01

314

Somatic cell counts of ewes' milk.  

PubMed

The somatic cell counts of ewes' milk were determined by an electronic particle counter (Coulter Counter). Of 1408 apparently normal milk samples, 98.2% had a somatic cell count lower than 1.0 x 10(6) cells/ml and 85.8% of 254 bacteriologically positive samples had a count higher than 1.0 x 10(6) cells/ml. Values exceeding 1.0 x 10(6) cells/ml are indicative of subclinical mastitis, if samples were collected from clinically healthy mammary glands. PMID:1777802

Fthenakis, G C; el-Masannat, E T; Booth, J M; Jones, J E

1991-01-01

315

Demethylation of somatic and testis-specific histone H2A and H2B genes in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells.  

PubMed Central

In contrast to many other genes containing a CpG island, the testis-specific H2B (TH2B) histone gene exhibits tissue-specific methylation patterns in correlation with gene activity. Characterization of the methylation patterns within a 20-kb segment containing the TH2A and TH2B genes in comparison with that in a somatic histone cluster revealed that: (i) the germ cell-specific unmethylated domain of the TH2A and TH2B genes is defined as a small region surrounding the CpG islands of the TH2A and TH2B genes and (ii) somatic histone genes are unmethylated in both liver and germ cells, like other genes containing CpG islands, whereas flanking sequences are methylated. Transfection of in vitro-methylated TH2B, somatic H2B, and mouse metallothionein I constructs into F9 embryonal carcinoma cells revealed that the CpG islands of the TH2A and TH2B genes were demethylated like those of the somatic H2A and H2B genes and the metallothionein I gene. The demethylation of those CpG islands became significantly inefficient at a high number of integrated copies and a high density of methylated CpG dinucleotides. In contrast, three sites in the somatic histone cluster, of which two sites are located in the long terminal repeat of an endogenous retrovirus-like sequence, were efficiently demethylated even at a high copy number and a high density of methylated CpG dinucleotides. These results suggest two possible mechanisms for demethylation in F9 cells and methylation of CpG islands of the TH2A and TH2B genes at the postblastula stage during embryogenesis. Images PMID:8355699

Choi, Y C; Chae, C B

1993-01-01

316

piggyBac Transposon Somatic Mutagenesis with an Activated Reporter and Tracker (PB-SMART) for Genetic Screens in Mice  

PubMed Central

Somatic forward genetic screens have the power to interrogate thousands of genes in a single animal. Retroviral and transposon mutagenesis systems in mice have been designed and deployed in somatic tissues for surveying hematopoietic and solid tumor formation. In the context of cancer, the ability to visually mark mutant cells would present tremendous advantages for identifying tumor formation, monitoring tumor growth over time, and tracking tumor infiltrations and metastases into wild-type tissues. Furthermore, locating mutant clones is a prerequisite for screening and analyzing most other somatic phenotypes. For this purpose, we developed a system using the piggyBac (PB) transposon for somatic mutagenesis with an activated reporter and tracker, called PB-SMART. The PB-SMART mouse genetic screening system can simultaneously induce somatic mutations and mark mutated cells using bioluminescence or fluorescence. The marking of mutant cells enable analyses that are not possible with current somatic mutagenesis systems, such as tracking cell proliferation and tumor growth, detecting tumor cell infiltrations, and reporting tissue mutagenesis levels by a simple ex vivo visual readout. We demonstrate that PB-SMART is highly mutagenic, capable of tumor induction with low copy transposons, which facilitates the mapping and identification of causative insertions. We further integrated a conditional transposase with the PB-SMART system, permitting tissue-specific mutagenesis with a single cross to any available Cre line. Targeting the germline, the system could also be used to conduct F1 screens. With these features, PB-SMART provides an integrated platform for individual investigators to harness the power of somatic mutagenesis and phenotypic screens to decipher the genetic basis of mammalian biology and disease. PMID:22039523

Bosenberg, Marcus W.; Xu, Tian

2011-01-01

317

Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to

X Cindy Tian; Chikara Kubota; Brian Enright; Xiangzhong Yang

2003-01-01

318

Somatic Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews number of theories which address role of psychological factors in etiology of somatic disorders. Focuses on psychological treatment approaches that have been used to alleviate or reduce symptomatic behaviors associated with eating disorders, elimination disorders, and headaches in children. Discusses role of school psychologists in…

Siegel, Lawrence J.

1990-01-01

319

Checkpoint kinase 1 negatively regulates somatic hypermutation  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin (Ig) diversification by somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells is instrumental for maturation of the humoral immune response, but also bears the risk of excessive or aberrant genetic changes. Thus, introduction of DNA damage by activation-induced cytidine deaminase as well as DNA repair by multiple pathways need to be tightly regulated during the germinal center response to prevent lymphomagenesis. In the present study, we show that DNA damage checkpoint signaling via checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) negatively regulates somatic hypermutation. Chk1 inhibition in human B cell lymphoma lines as well as inactivation of Chk1 alleles by gene targeting in DT40 B cells leads to increased somatic hypermutation. This is apparently due to changes in DNA repair pathways regulated by Chk1, such as a decreased homologous recombination efficiency that also leads to decreased Ig gene conversion in DT40. Our data show that Chk1 signaling plays a crucial role in regulation of Ig diversification and sheds unexpected light on potential origins of aberrant somatic hypermutation in B cell lymphomagenesis. PMID:24423870

Frankenberger, Samantha; Davari, Kathrin; Fischer-Burkart, Sabine; Böttcher, Katrin; Tomi, Nils-Sebastian; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Jungnickel, Berit

2014-01-01

320

Psychosomatic Syndromes, Somatization and Somatoform Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psychosomatic syndrome is defined as a syndrome in which psychological processes play a substantial role in the etiology of the illness in some of the patients. The main conclusions on the extent of the biological and psychosocial contributions to several psychosomatic syndromes are presented and the relationship of these syndromes to somatization and somatoform disorders is discussed. The syndromes

Robert Kellner

1994-01-01

321

Somatic Cell Cloning in Polyester Stacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single somatic cells, including fibroblasts, myelomas, and hybridomas, proliferate normally when trapped between a plastic dish and a disc of polyester cloth. Contact between the overlay and the plastic for 8-16 days results in identical colony patterns on the cloth and the plate. When several cloth discs are simultaneously stacked over Chinese hamster ovary cells, three or four high-resolution colony

Christian R. H. Raetz; Mary M. Wermuth; Thomas M. McIntyre; Jeffrey D. Esko; Debra C. Wing

1982-01-01

322

Animal Cell Differentiation Patterns Suppress Somatic Evolution  

E-print Network

Cell differentiation in multicellular organisms has the obvious function during development of creating new cell types. However, in long-lived organisms with extensive cell turnover, cell differentiation often continues after new cell types are no longer needed or produced. Here, we address the question of why this is true. It is believed that multicellular organisms could not have arisen or been evolutionarily stable without possessing mechanisms to suppress somatic selection among cells within organisms, which would otherwise disrupt organismal integrity. Here, we propose that one such mechanism is a specific pattern of ongoing cell differentiation commonly found in metazoans with cell turnover, which we call ‘‘serial differentiation.’ ’ This pattern involves a sequence of differentiation stages, starting with self-renewing somatic stem cells and proceeding through several (non–self-renewing) transient amplifying cell stages before ending with terminally differentiated cells. To test the hypothesis that serial differentiation can suppress somatic evolution, we used an agent-based computer simulation of cell population dynamics and evolution within tissues. The results indicate that, relative to other, simpler patterns, tissues organized into serial differentiation experience lower rates of detrimental cell-level evolution. Self-renewing cell populations are susceptible to somatic evolution, while those that are not self-renewing are not. We find that a mutation disrupting differentiation can create a new self-renewing cell population that is vulnerable to somatic evolution. These results are relevant not only to understanding the evolutionary origins of multicellularity, but also the causes of pathologies such as cancer and

Kathleen Sprouffske; Carlo C. Maley

323

Correction: Somatic mutations in cancer development  

PubMed Central

Since publication of Environmental Health 2011, 10(Suppl 1):S12 [1] it has been noticed that titles and captions for the figures and tables were incorrectly applied. In this full-length correction article, figures and tables have been renumbered with legends and captions applied appropriately. Some minor typographical errors have also been corrected. The inconvenience caused to readers by premature publication of the original paper is regretted. The transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell takes place through a sequence of a small number of discrete genetic events, somatic mutations: thus, cancer can be regarded properly as a genetic disease of somatic cells. The analogy between evolution of organisms and evolution of cell populations is compelling: in both cases what drives change is mutation, but it is Darwinian selection that enables clones that have a growth advantage to expand, thus providing a larger target size for the next mutation to hit. The search for molecular lesions in tumors has taken on a new dimension thanks to two powerful technologies: the micro-arrays for quantitative analysis of global gene expresssion (the transcriptome); and ‘deep’ sequencing for the global analysis of the entire genome (or at least the exome). The former offers the most complete phenotypic characterization of a tumor we could ever hope for – we could call this the ultimate phenotype; the latter can identify all the somatic mutations in an individual tumor – we could call this the somatic genotype. However, there is definitely the risk that while we are ‘drowned by data, we remain thirsty for knowledge’. If we want to heed the teachings of Lorenzo Tomatis, I think the message is clear: we ought to take advantage of the new powerful technologies – not by becoming their slaves, but remaining their masters. Identifying somatic mutations in a tumor is important because through a deeper understanding of the nature of that particular tumor it can help us to optimize therapy or to design new therapeutic approaches.

2011-01-01

324

Somatization, heartsink patients, or functional somatic symptoms? Towards a clinical useful classification in primary health care.  

PubMed

Several definitions of somatization exist and try to deal with the fundamental problem that a large group of patients present with physical symptoms for which a conventional pathology cannot be identified. However, the concept remains somewhat confusing. The prevalence of somatization is high in general practice. Nevertheless, patients do not receive proper treatment and risk iatrogenic somatic fixation and harm, the doctor-patient relationship is often negatively affected and the overall healthcare system suffers from high expenditure on unnecessary physical investigations and treatments. During the last decade research has shown that somatization may be treated effectively in specialist care. Little is known about effective treatment in primary care but the Reattribution Model and the Extended Reattribution and Management Model have shown promising results. The development and evaluation of new treatment strategies is, however, hampered by the confusion of definitions and concepts. In this article an overview is presented of the various concepts relevant to the clinical work and research in primary health care. It is important to realize that somatizing patients in primary health care present a broader spectrum of severity than patients seen in a specialist setting. Hence, primary care cannot apply definitions from specialist care directly but needs a definition that also includes the mild cases. We need classifications and agreed definitions applicable in primary health care in order to develop appropriate management strategies, to predict prognosis, and to enable rigorous research concerning the large group of somatizing patients in primary health care. PMID:16025867

Rosendal, Marianne; Fink, Per; Bro, Flemming; Olesen, Frede

2005-03-01

325

The ?-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the ?-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the ?1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the ?3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the ?1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

326

RBE for late somatic effects in mice irradiated with 60 MeV protons relative to X-rays.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the relative biological effectiveness of energetic protons for the induction of somatic effects in a mammal (mice) following whole body irradiation. The proton energy used approximates the mean energy for proton spectra accompanying solar events. The effects on longevity and the incidence of major neoplastic diseases are summarized. The results obtained suggest that medium energy proton irradiation is no more effective, and on the whole, probably less effective, than conventional X radiation for the induction of late radiation effects in the mouse.

Darden, E. B., Jr.; Clapp, N. K.; Bender, R. S.; Jernigan, M. C.; Upton, A. C.

1971-01-01

327

Chapter Summary Mathematical Induction  

E-print Network

#12;Chapter Summary Mathematical Induction Strong Induction Well-Ordering Recursive Definitions Structural Induction Recursive Algorithms #12;Section 5.1 #12;Sec.on Summary Mathematical Induction Examples of Proof by Mathematical

328

Inductionless Induction Hubert Comon  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Inductionless Induction Hubert Comon Second readers: Bernhard Gramlich and David Mac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1 Inductive theorem proving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 Inductionless induction versus implicit induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.4 Outline

Comon-Lundh, Hubert

329

Chromatin repeat length in somatic hybrids.  

PubMed Central

In order to study the mechanisms by which a characteristic repeat length is inherited in somatic cells, it was necessary to develop a method for determining repeat length with a precision of 1 to 2 base pairs. Hybrid clones between parental cell lines differing in repeat length by 6 base pairs were isolated. The four independent hybrid clones characterized had repeat lengths intermediate between those of the parental lines; however, it could be demonstrated that these repeat lengths are unique values and do not arise from a double distribution of the parental repeat lengths. It therefore is concluded that repeat length in somatic cells is determined by a common pool of diffusible substances. Images PMID:6930661

Sperling, L; Tardieu, A; Weiss, M C

1980-01-01

330

Induction machine  

DOEpatents

A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

Owen, Whitney H. (Ogden, UT)

1980-01-01

331

Evolution and the molecular basis of somatic hypermutation of antigen receptor genes.  

PubMed Central

Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes occurs in many vertebrates including sharks, frogs, camels, humans and mice. Similarities among species reveal a common mechanism and these include the AGC/T sequence hot spot, preponderance of base substitutions, a bias towards transitions and strand bias. There are some differences among species, however, that may unveil layers of the mechanism. These include a G:C bias in frog and shark IgM but not in nurse shark antigen receptor (NAR), a high frequency of doublets in NAR hypermutation, and the co-occurrence of somatic hypermutation with gene conversion in some species. Here we argue that some of the similarities and differences among species are best explained by error-prone DNA synthesis by the translesion synthesis DNA polymerase zeta (Pol zeta) and, as suggested by others, induction of DNA synthesis by DNA breaks in antigen receptor variable genes. Finally, targeting of the variable genes is probably obtained via transcription-related elements, and it is the targeting phase of somatic hypermutation that is the most likely to reveal molecules unique to adaptive immunity. PMID:11205333

Diaz, M; Flajnik, M F; Klinman, N

2001-01-01

332

Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Somatic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can differentiate to generate more specialized cell types responsible for tissue-specific\\u000a function. During development, the differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells leads to the production of specialized\\u000a somatic cells that are ultimately responsible for the structure and function of all adult tissues and organs. “Naturally”\\u000a pluripotent cells exist only at the earliest stages of

Kah Yong Tan; Francis S. Kim; Amy J. Wagers; Shane R. Mayack

333

Somatic cell cloning in polyester stacks.  

PubMed Central

Single somatic cells, including fibroblasts, myelomas, and hybridomas, proliferate normally when trapped between a plastic dish and a disc of polyester cloth. Contact between the overlay and the plastic for 8-16 days results in identical colony patterns on the cloth and the plate. When several cloth discs are simultaneously stacked over Chinese hamster ovary cells, three or four-high resolution colony copies can be generated from a single master dish. The colonies on the cloth can be analyzed by radiochemical methods [Esko, J. D. & Raetz, C. R. H. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 1190-1193] or by "replica plating" to a new disc. The use of polyester cloth, singly or in stacks, has several major advantages over previous techniques for somatic cell replica plating, including: (i) broad applicability to diverse cell lines such as fragile membrane mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells and relatively nonadherent myelomas or hybridomas; (ii) the possibility of generating multiple copies of the same colony population, allowing simultaneous analysis for several enzymes or cellular components; and (iii) superior resolution and transfer efficiency in copying colony patterns from one surface to another. The remarkable capacity of animal cell colonies to proliferate upward through "polyester stacks" may reflect chemotropic movement of individual cells and opens new approaches to somatic cell genetics. Images PMID:6954474

Raetz, C R; Wermuth, M M; McIntyre, T M; Esko, J D; Wing, D C

1982-01-01

334

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in the Mouse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals since “Dolly,” the first animal cloned from an adult cell was reported in 1997. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming is still largely unknown, this technique has been proven to work in more than 10 mammalian species. Among them, the mouse provides the best model for both basic and applied research of somatic cloning because of its abounding genetic resources, rapid sexual maturity and propagation, minimal requirements for housing, etc. This chapter describes a basic protocol for mouse cloning using cumulus cells, the most popular cell type for NT, in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. In particular, we focus on a new, more efficient mouse cloning protocol using trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which increases both in vitro and in vivo developmental rates from twofold to fivefold. This new method including TSA will be helpful to establish mouse cloning in many laboratories.

Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

335

Identification in Pea Seed Mitochondria of a Late-Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Able to  

E-print Network

Identification in Pea Seed Mitochondria of a Late-Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Able to Protect) seed mitochondria. PsLEAm revealed typical LEA features such as high hydrophilicity and repeated motifs. The overall results constitute, to our knowledge, the first characterization of a LEA protein in mitochondria

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

Na,K-ATPase ? and ? subunit genes exhibit unique expression patterns during zebrafish embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used in situ hybridization to analyze Na,K-ATPase ? and ? subunit gene expression during zebrafish embryogenesis. The most striking finding is that each of the 14 Na,K-ATPase genes exhibits a distinct expression profile. All ? and ? subunit genes are expressed in the nervous system, although the pattern of expression in different regions varies dramatically. In peripheral tissues,

Victor A Canfield; Benjamin Loppin; Bernard Thisse; Christine Thisse; John H Postlethwait; Manzoor-Ali P. K Mohideen; S. Johannes R Rajarao; Robert Levenson

2002-01-01

337

Spontaneous chromosome doubling results from nuclear fusion during in vitro maize induced microspore embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary study was carried out to analyse the chromosome doubling process during the early stages of in vitro maize microspore embryogenesis. The main stages (microspore derivatives) that were formed in the course of the culture were analysed. Chromosome number was determined from squashed cells, and DNA content was measured by cytometry. In parallel, an ultrastructural analysis of the microspore

P. Testillano; S. Georgiev; H. L. Mogensen; M. J. Coronado; C. Dumas; M. C. Risueno; E. Matthys-Rochon

2004-01-01

338

The Pesticide Malathion Disrupts "Xenopus" and Zebrafish Embryogenesis: An Investigative Laboratory Exercise in Developmental Toxicology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Malathion is an organophosphorus insecticide, which is often sprayed to control mosquitoes. When applied to aquatic habitats, malathion can also influence the embryogenesis of non-target organisms such as frogs and fish. We modified the frog embryo teratogen assay in "Xenopus" (FETAX), a standard toxicological assay, into an investigative…

Chemotti, Diana C.; Davis, Sarah N.; Cook, Leslie W.; Willoughby, Ian R.; Paradise, Christopher J.; Lom, Barbara

2006-01-01

339

A mitochondrial late embryogenesis abundant protein stabilizes model membranes in the dry state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a highly diverse group of polypeptides expected to play important roles in desiccation tolerance of plant seeds. They are also found in other plant tissues and in some anhydrobotic invertebrates, fungi, protists and prokaryotes. The LEA protein LEAM accumulates in the matrix space of pea (Pisum sativum) mitochondria during late seed maturation. LEAM is

Dimitri Tolleter; Dirk K. Hincha; David Macherel

2010-01-01

340

LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) proteins and their encoding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins have first been described about 25 years ago as accumulating late in plant seed development. They were later found in vegetative plant tissues following environmental stress and also in desiccation tolerant bacteria and invertebrates. Although they are widely assumed to play crucial roles in cellular dehydration tolerance, their physiological and biochemical functions are largely

Michaela Hundertmark; Dirk K Hincha

2008-01-01

341

Determination of cell division axes in the early embryogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of cell division axes was examined in the early embryonic divisions of Caenorhabditis elegans. It has been shown previously that there are two different patterns of cleavage during early embryogenesis. In one set of cells, which un- dergo predominantly determinative divisions, the divi- sion axes are established successively in the same orientation, while division axes in the other

Anthony A. Hyman; John G. White

1987-01-01

342

Induction, Sequences and Series Section 1: Induction  

E-print Network

Unit IS Induction, Sequences and Series Section 1: Induction Suppose A(n) is an assertion that depends on n. We use induction to prove that A(n) is true when we show that · it's true for the smallest will review the idea of proof by induction and give some examples. Here is a formal statement of proof

Bernstein, Daniel

343

In-depth Proteomics Characterization of Embryogenesis of the Honey Bee Worker (Apis mellifera ligustica).  

PubMed

Identifying proteome changes of honey bee embryogenesis is of prime importance for unraveling the molecular mechanisms that they underlie. However, many proteomic changes during the embryonic period are not well characterized. We analyzed the proteomic alterations over the complete time course of honey bee worker embryogenesis at 24, 48, and 72 h of age, using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, label-free quantitation, and bioinformatics. Of the 1460 proteins identified the embryo of all three ages, the core proteome (proteins shared by the embryos of all three ages, accounting for 40%) was mainly involved in protein synthesis, metabolic energy, development, and molecular transporter, which indicates their centrality in driving embryogenesis. However, embryos at different developmental stages have their own specific proteome and pathway signatures to coordinate and modulate developmental events. The young embryos (<24 h) stronger expression of proteins related to nutrition storage and nucleic acid metabolism may correlate with the cell proliferation occurring at this stage. The middle aged embryos (24-48 h) enhanced expression of proteins associated with cell cycle control, transporters, antioxidant activity, and the cytoskeleton suggest their roles to support rudimentary organogenesis. Among these proteins, the biological pathways of aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, ?-alanine metabolism, and protein export are intensively activated in the embryos of middle age. The old embryos (48-72 h) elevated expression of proteins implicated in fatty acid metabolism and morphogenesis indicate their functionality for the formation and development of organs and dorsal closure, in which the biological pathways of fatty acid metabolism and RNA transport are highly activated. These findings add novel understanding to the molecular details of honey bee embryogenesis, in which the programmed activation of the proteome matches with the physiological transition observed during embryogenesis. The identified biological pathways and key node proteins allow for further functional analysis and genetic manipulation for both the honey bee embryos and other eusocial insects. PMID:24895377

Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Han, Bin; Lu, Xiaoshan; Ramadan, Haitham; Li, Jianke

2014-09-01

344

Germ band retraction as a landmark in glucose metabolism during Aedes aegypti embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background The mosquito A. aegypti is vector of dengue and other viruses. New methods of vector control are needed and can be achieved by a better understanding of the life cycle of this insect. Embryogenesis is a part of A. aegypty life cycle that is poorly understood. In insects in general and in mosquitoes in particular energetic metabolism is well studied during oogenesis, when the oocyte exhibits fast growth, accumulating carbohydrates, lipids and proteins that will meet the regulatory and metabolic needs of the developing embryo. On the other hand, events related with energetic metabolism during A. aegypti embryogenesis are unknown. Results Glucose metabolism was investigated throughout Aedes aegypti (Diptera) embryonic development. Both cellular blastoderm formation (CBf, 5 h after egg laying - HAE) and germ band retraction (GBr, 24 HAE) may be considered landmarks regarding glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) destination. We observed high levels of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity at the very beginning of embryogenesis, which nevertheless decreased up to 5 HAE. This activity is correlated with the need for nucleotide precursors generated by the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), of which G6PDH is the key enzyme. We suggest the synchronism of egg metabolism with carbohydrate distribution based on the decreasing levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity and on the elevation observed in protein content up to 24 HAE. Concomitantly, increasing levels of hexokinase (HK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activity were observed, and PEPCK reached a peak around 48 HAE. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3) activity was also monitored and shown to be inversely correlated with glycogen distribution during embryogenesis. Conclusions The results herein support the hypothesis that glucose metabolic fate changes according to developmental embryonic stages. Germ band retraction is a moment that was characterized as a landmark in glucose metabolism during Aedes aegypti embryogenesis. Furthermore, the results also suggest a role for GSK3 in glycogen balance/distribution during morphological modifications. PMID:20184739

2010-01-01

345

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28) are sufficient to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells that exhibit the essential characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells. These induced pluripotent human stem cells have normal

Junying Yu; Maxim A. Vodyanik; Kim Smuga-Otto; Jessica Antosiewicz-Bourget; Jennifer L. Frane; Shulan Tian; Jeff Nie; Gudrun A. Jonsdottir; Victor Ruotti; Ron Stewart; Igor I. Slukvin; James A. Thomson

2007-01-01

346

Human somatic mutation assays as biomarkers of carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes four assays that detect somatic gene mutations in humans: the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase assay, the glycophorin A assay, the HLA-A assay, and the sickle cell hemoglobin assay. Somatic gene mutations can be considered a biomarker of carcinogenesis, and assays for somatic mutation may assist epidemiologists in studies that attempt to identify factors associated with increased risks of cancer. Practical aspects of the use of these assays are discussed.

Compton, P.J.E.; Smith, M.T. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Hooper, K. (California Dept. of Health Services, Berkeley (United States))

1991-08-01

347

Family background and sexual abuse associated with somatization.  

PubMed

To help clarify the complex association between negative childhood experiences and somatization, the authors examined the possible relationship between self-reported childhood sexual abuse, dysfunctional family background and several types of somatization in a nonclinical sample. Three anonymous questionnaires were completed by 202 female university students (average age 22 years). The findings confirm that severe or repeated childhood sexual victimization and a familial deficiency syndrome in childhood may be important in the pathogenesis of somatization. PMID:8559957

Kinzl, J F; Traweger, C; Biebl, W

1995-01-01

348

Advances in Reprogramming Somatic Cells to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, nuclear reprogramming of cells has been performed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into oocytes, by combining\\u000a somatic and pluripotent cells together through cell fusion and through genetic integration of factors through somatic cell\\u000a chromatin. All of these techniques changes gene expression which further leads to a change in cell fate. Here we discuss recent\\u000a advances in generating induced pluripotent

Minal Patel; Shuying Yang

2010-01-01

349

A SOMATIC-MARKER THEORY OF ADDICTION  

PubMed Central

Similar to patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) lesions, substance abusers show altered decision-making, characterized by a tendency to choose the immediate reward, at the expense of negative future consequences. The somatic-marker model proposes that decision-making depends on neural substrates that regulate homeostasis, emotion and feeling. According to this model, there should be a link between alterations in processing emotions in substance abusers, and their impairments in decision-making. A growing evidence from neuroscientific studies indicate that core aspects of addiction may be explained in terms of abnormal emotional/homeostatic guidance of decision-making. Behavioural studies have revealed emotional processing and decision-making deficits in substance abusers. Neuroimaging studies have shown that altered decision-making in addiction is associated with abnormal functioning of a distributed neural network critical for the processing of emotional information, and the experience of “craving”, including the VMPC, the amygdala, the striatum, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the insular/somato-sensory cortices, as well as non-specific neurotransmitter systems that modulate activities of neural processes involved in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to review this growing evidence, and to examine the extent of which these studies support a somatic-marker theory of addiction. We conclude that there are at least two underlying types of dysfunctions where emotional signals (somatic-markers) turns in favor of immediate outcomes in addiction: (1) a hyperactivity in the amygdala or impulsive system, which exaggerates the rewarding impact of available incentives, and (2) hypoactivity in the prefrontal cortex or reflective system, which forecasts the long-term consequences of a given action. PMID:18722390

Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Bechara, Antoine

2009-01-01

350

Somatic sensory cortex of llama (Lama glama).  

PubMed

The somatic sensory cortex (SI and SII) was mapped in llamas using microelectrode mapping methods developed earlier in a study of SI of the slow loris. Projections to SI from the llama's prehensile browsing lips were differentially enlarged when compared to those reported for sheep. In llama, SII was reversed in its mediolatreal pattern from that reported for SII in most other mammals. Fissural landmarks reliably demarcated different projections within SI, between SI and SII and between SI or SII and other surrounding nonsensory areas. The use of microelectrode mapping methods in different mammals to determine gyral and fissural homologies is discussed. PMID:990910

Welker, W I; Adrian, H O; Lifshitz, W; Kaulen, R; Caviedes, E; Gutman, W

1976-01-01

351

Mechanisms and models of somatic cell reprogramming.  

PubMed

Conversion of somatic cells to pluripotency by defined factors is a long and complex process that yields embryonic-stem-cell-like cells that vary in their developmental potential. To improve the quality of resulting induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which is important for potential therapeutic applications, and to address fundamental questions about control of cell identity, molecular mechanisms of the reprogramming process must be understood. Here we discuss recent discoveries regarding the role of reprogramming factors in remodelling the genome, including new insights into the function of MYC, and describe the different phases, markers and emerging models of reprogramming. PMID:23681063

Buganim, Yosef; Faddah, Dina A; Jaenisch, Rudolf

2013-06-01

352

A Digital Framework to Build, Visualize and Analyze a Gene Expression Atlas with Cellular Resolution in Zebrafish Early Embryogenesis  

E-print Network

A gene expression atlas is an essential resource to quantify and understand the multiscale processes of embryogenesis in time and space. The automated reconstruction of a prototypic 4D atlas for vertebrate early embryos, ...

Luengo-Oroz, Miguel A.

353

Unipolar Induction  

E-print Network

The phenomenon of unipolar induction consists in generating electric field by uniformly rotating permanent magnets made of either conducting or dielectric substance. The origin of the field around conducting magnets is explained and calculated in Sect. 1. Dielectrics are considered in Sect. 2, where the role of the electric moment due to moving magnetic dipole moment is clarified. Sect. 3 is devoted to the description of the effect in the corotating frame of reference. In Sect. 4 the theory is applied to the Earth core and it is shown that the calculated electric field falls precisely into the range of the ambient electric field observed in the Tethered Satellite System mission of NASA. In the last paragraph I reflect on whether flyby anomaly might be attributed to an electric effect.

P. Hraskó

2008-03-25

354

Two novel MYB homologues with changed expression in late embryogenesis-defective Arabidopsis mutants.  

PubMed

Two novel MYB genes (ATMYBR1 and ATMYBR2) were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. Binding to a conserved MYB recognition sequence is demonstrated for the ATMYBR1 protein. The expression of both genes is affected by the fus3, lec1 and abi3 mutations causing pleiotropic defects during late embryogenesis and seed maturation including the loss of dormancy and desiccation tolerance. The strong increase of the transcript levels of both MYB genes during very late stages of embryogenesis typically found in wild type is missing in the mutants. Furthermore, the expression of both MYB genes is developmentally regulated in vegetative tissues. The highly conserved repeats (R2 and R3) of the DNA binding MYB domain of both proteins represent chimeric structures combining features typical of plant and animal derived proteins. This demonstrates the existence of a distinct subfamily of animal-like MYB factors in plant genomes. PMID:9678577

Kirik, V; Kölle, K; Miséra, S; Bäumlein, H

1998-07-01

355

Differing effects of thermal stress on coral fertilization and early embryogenesis in four Indo Pacific species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are expected to be severely impacted by rising seawater temperatures associated with climate change. The fertilization and early embryogenesis of four reef-building coral species representing three Indo-Pacific families were examined in a series of laboratory experiments where temperatures were increased up to 5-6°C at ambient. High levels of fertilization and normal embryogenesis were observed for Favites abdita, Favites chinensis and Mycedium elephantotus at temperatures to 32°C (+5°C) and embryos developed normally until the 5th cell cleavage. Acropora millepora was the only species to be affected by higher temperatures, exhibiting significantly reduced fertilization and a higher frequency of embryonic abnormalities at 32°C (+4°C), and fertilization ceased altogether at 34°C (+6°C). Early cell cleavage rates increased with temperature up to 32°C for all species.

Negri, A. P.; Marshall, P. A.; Heyward, A. J.

2007-12-01

356

Foregut duplication cysts: a report of two cases with emphasis on embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Duplication cyst of the stomach with a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium is extremely rare. We describe two cases of these cysts, with emphasis on their immunophenotype and embryogenesis. The first patient was a 29-year-old man who presented with cramping abdominal pain in his left lower quadrant. The second patient was a 26-year-old woman who had a history, over several years, of chronic epigastric abdominal pain radiating to her back. Both lesions were surgically removed. They showed the same histomorphology. The cysts were lined by a pseudostratified respiratory epithelium with ciliated cells. The first cyst was connected to the stomach, while the second cyst was not connected. Both cysts expressed thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and surfactant. In this report, we explore the possible embryogenesis of these lesions in the light of TTF-1 and surfactant expression. PMID:21218094

Khoury, Thaer; Rivera, Louis

2011-01-01

357

Germinal and somatic cell interrelationships in gonadal sex differentiation  

E-print Network

Germinal and somatic cell interrelationships in gonadal sex differentiation Wai-Sum O T. G. BAKER precociously while XX germ cells fail to survive in an XY somatic environment. One of the major differences to assess whether meiosis is actively induced in the ovary, prevented in the pre-pubertal testis, or whether

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Somatics in the Dance Studio: Embodying Feminist/Democratic Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1970s, somatics have increasingly become a part of the dance training landscape. Although the psychophysical benefits seem sufficient in themselves to warrant inclusion in dance, this article explores another possible outcome of embracing somatic pedagogical principles, a change that affects not "what" is taught in a dance class, but…

Burnidge, Anne

2012-01-01

359

Development of the Ghent Multidimensional Somatic Complaints Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed at developing a new scale that operationalizes a hierarchical model of somatic complaints. First, 63 items representing a wide range of symptoms and sensations were compiled from somatic complaints scales and emotion literature. These complaints were rated by Belgian students (n = 307) and Belgian adults (n = 603).…

Beirens, Koen; Fontaine, Johnny R. J.

2010-01-01

360

Birth of Beagle dogs by somatic cell nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate two enucleation methods for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and to standardize the optimum number of embryos for transfer to each recipient for canines. Oocytes retrieved from outbreed dogs were reconstructed with adult somatic cells from a male Beagle dog. A total of 134 or 267 oocytes were enucleated either by aspiration or

Mohammad Shamim Hossein; Yeon Woo Jeong; Sun Woo Park; Joung Joo Kim; Eugine Lee; Kyeong Hee Ko; Park Hyuk; Song Seung Hoon; Yeun Wook Kim; Sang Hwan Hyun; Taeyoung Shin; Woo Suk Hwang

2009-01-01

361

Human somatic cell nuclear transfer is alive and well.  

PubMed

In this issue, Chung et al. (2014) generate human embryonic stem cells by fusing an adult somatic cell to a previously enucleated human oocyte, in agreement with recent reports by the Mitalipov and Egli groups. We can now safely say that human somatic cell nuclear transfer is alive and well. PMID:24905159

Cibelli, Jose B

2014-06-01

362

Production of goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we demonstrate the production of transgenic goats by nuclear transfer of fetal somatic cells. Donor karyoplasts were obtained from a primary fetal somatic cell line derived from a 40-day transgenic female fetus produced by artificial insemination of a nontransgenic adult female with semen from a transgenic male. Live offspring were produced with two nuclear transfer procedures. In

Alexander Baguisi; Esmail Behboodi; David T. Melican; Julie S. Pollock; Margaret M. Destrempes; Christine Cammuso; Jennifer L. Williams; Scott D. Nims; Catherine A. Porter; Patricia Midura; Monica J. Palacios; Sandra L. Ayres; Richard S. Denniston; Michael L. Hayes; Carol A. Ziomek; Harry M. Meade; Robert A. Godke; William G. Gavin; Eric W. Overström; Yann Echelard

1999-01-01

363

Improvement of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study on canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was to evaluate the effects of fusion strength, type of activation, culture media and site of transfer on developmental potential of SCNT embryos. We also examined the potential of enucleated bovine oocytes to serve as cytoplast recipients of canine somatic cells. Firstly, we evaluated the morphological characteristics

G. Jang; H. J. Oh; M. K. Kim; Y. H. Fibrianto; M. S. Hossein; H. J. Kim; J. J. Kim; S. G. Hong; J. E. Park; S. K. Kang; B. C. Lee

2008-01-01

364

Analysis of four maize mutants arrested in early embryogenesis reveals an irregular pattern of cell division  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process that leads to embryo formation appears to follow a defined pattern, whose sequential developmental steps--under strict genetic control--can be analysed through the study of mutants affecting embryogenesis. We present the analysis of four embryo-specific (emb) mutants of maize, characterised by abnormal development not overcoming the proembryo or early transition stage, that define three separate genes on the basis

G. Consonni; C. Aspesi; A. Barbante; S. Dolfini; C. Giuliani; A. Giulini; S. Hansen; R. Brettschneider; R. Pilu; G. Gavazzi

2003-01-01

365

A histological study of tissue proliferation, embryogenesis, and organogenesis from tissue cultures of Dactylis glomerata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Histological information is presented on the origin of initial tissue proliferation and on embryogenesis and organogenesis in sub-cultured tissue derived from mature orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) embryos. Embryos were plated on an LS agar medium containing 20 µM 2,4-D. Examination of cultures between 96 and 144 hours after plating showed parenchyma proliferation originating primarily from the coleorhiza, especially the

Judith K. McDaniel; B. V. Conger; E. T. Graham

1982-01-01

366

Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant protein in Arabidopsis : structure, regulation, and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant proteins accumulate in maturing seeds, in which their expression correlates with desiccation\\u000a tolerance. Group 3 proteins are also strongly associated with tolerance for abiotic stresses, such as high salinity, drought,\\u000a cold, and osmotic stress in vegetative tissues. However, the precise function of these proteins remained obscure for more\\u000a than 20 years. In this study, the structure

PengShan ZhaoFei; Fei Liu; GuoChang Zheng; Heng Liu

2011-01-01

367

Developmental expression of Apnanos during oogenesis and embryogenesis in the parthenogenetic pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.  

PubMed

Among genes that are preferentially expressed in germ cells, nanos and vasa are the two most conserved germline markers in animals. Both genes are usually expressed in germ cells in the adult gonads, and often also during embryogenesis. Both nanos-first or vasa-first expression patterns have been observed in embryos, implying that the molecular networks governing germline development vary among species. Previously we identified Apvasa, a vasa homologue expressed in germ cells throughout all developmental stages in the parthenogenetic and viviparous pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. In asexual A. pisum, oogenesis is followed by embryogenesis, and both occur within the ovarioles. In order to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of nanos versus vasa during oogenesis and embryogenesis, we isolated a nanos homologue, Apnanos, and studied its expression. In adults, Apnanos is preferentially expressed in the ovaries. In early embryos, Apnanos transcripts are localized to the cytoplasm of cellularizing germ cells, and soon thereafter are restricted to the newly segregated germ cells in the posterior region of the cellularized blastoderm. These results strongly suggest that the Apnanos gene is a germline marker and is involved in germline specification in asexual A. pisum. However, during the middle stages of development, when germline migration occurs, Apnanos is not expressed in the migrating germ cells expressing Apvasa, suggesting that Apnanos is not directly associated with germline migration. PMID:19123140

Chang, Chun-Che; Huang, Ting-Yu; Cook, Charles E; Lin, Gee-Way; Shih, Chun-Liang; Chen, Rita P-Y

2009-01-01

368

Nuclear lamins and peripheral nuclear antigens during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear structural changes during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins are traced using four antibodies. The oocytes from virgin female mice, morulae and blastocytes from mated females, and gametes from the sea urchin Lytechnius variegatis are studied using mouse monoclonal antibodies to nuclear lamin A/C, monoclonal antibody to P1, human autoimmune antibodies to lamin A/C, and to lamin B. The mouse fertilization data reveal no lamins on the oocyte; however, lamins are present on the pronuclei, and chromosomes are found on the oocytes and pronuclei. It is detected that on the sea urchin sperm the lamins are reduced to acrosomal and centriolar fossae and peripheral antigens are around the sperm nucleus. The mouse sperm bind lamin antibodies regionally and do not contain antigens. Lamins and antigens are observed on both pronuclei and chromosomes during sea urchin fertilization. Mouse embryogenesis reveals that lamin A/C is not recognized at morula and blastocyst stages; however, lamin B stains are retained. In sea urchin embryogenesis lamin recognition is lost at the blastrula, gastrula, and plutei stages. It is noted that nuclear lamins lost during spermatogenesis are restored at fertilization and peripheral antigens are associated with the surface of chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis and with the periphery of the pronuclei and nuclei during interphase.

Schatten, G.; Schatten, H.; Simerly, C.; Maul, G. G.; Chaly, N.

1985-01-01

369

Epigenetic Reprogramming by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Primates  

PubMed Central

We recently demonstrated that somatic cells from adult primates could be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the low efficiency with donor cells from one monkey necessitated the need for large oocyte numbers. Here, we demonstrate nearly threefold higher blastocyst development and embryonic stem (ES) cell derivation rates with different nuclear donor cells. Two ES cell lines were isolated using adult female rhesus macaque skin fibroblasts as nuclear donors and oocytes retrieved from one female, following a single controlled ovarian stimulation. In addition to routine pluripotency tests involving in vitro and in vivo differentiation into various somatic cell types, primate ES cells derived from reprogrammed somatic cells were also capable of contributing to cells expressing markers of germ cells. Moreover, imprinted gene expression, methylation, telomere length, and X-inactivation analyses were consistent with accurate and extensive epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cells by oocyte-specific factors. PMID:19489081

Sparman, Michelle; Dighe, Vikas; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip; Ma, Hong; Ramsey, Cathy; Pedersen, Darlene; Clepper, Lisa; Nighot, Prashant; Wolf, Don; Hennebold, Jon; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

2009-01-01

370

The Somatic Genomic Landscape of Glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multi-dimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA expression, supporting a role in telomerase reactivation. Correlative analyses confirm that the survival advantage of the proneural subtype is conferred by the G-CIMP phenotype, and MGMT DNA methylation may be a predictive biomarker for treatment response only in classical subtype GBM. Integrative analysis of genomic and proteomic profiles challenges the notion of therapeutic inhibition of a pathway as an alternative to inhibition of the target itself. These data will facilitate the discovery of therapeutic and diagnostic target candidates, the validation of research and clinical observations and the generation of unanticipated hypotheses that can advance our molecular understanding of this lethal cancer. PMID:24120142

Brennan, Cameron W.; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; McKenna, Aaron; Campos, Benito; Noushmehr, Houtan; Salama, Sofie R.; Zheng, Siyuan; Chakravarty, Debyani; Sanborn, J. Zachary; Berman, Samuel H.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bernard, Brady; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Genovese, Giannicola; Shmulevich, Ilya; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Zou, Lihua; Vegesna, Rahulsimham; Shukla, Sachet A.; Ciriello, Giovanni; Yung, WK; Zhang, Wei; Sougnez, Carrie; Mikkelsen, Tom; Aldape, Kenneth; Bigner, Darell D.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Prados, Michael; Sloan, Andrew; Black, Keith L.; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Friedman, William; Andrews, David W.; Guha, Abhijit; Iacocca, Mary; O'Neill, Brian P.; Foltz, Greg; Myers, Jerome; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Penny, Robert; Kucherlapati, Raju; Perou, Charles M.; Hayes, D. Neil; Gibbs, Richard; Marra, Marco; Mills, Gordon B.; Lander, Eric; Spellman, Paul; Wilson, Richard; Sander, Chris; Weinstein, John; Meyerson, Matthew; Gabriel, Stacey; Laird, Peter W.; Haussler, David; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda

2013-01-01

371

Regeneration of a wide range of African cassava genotypes via shoot organogenesis from cotyledons of maturing somatic embryos and conformity of the field-established regenerants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotypic differences in the ability of immature leaf lobes and apical shoot meristems of cassava to form primary somatic embryos in P-CIM were observed (p = 0.05). The mean number of apical meristems forming primary organized embryogenic structures when cultured in embryo induction medium supplemented with picloram (P-CIM) had greatest variability between genotypes (C.V.=22.70%). Maturation frequencies of primary embryos were

B. B. Hankoua; S. Y. C. Ng; I. Fawole; J. Puonti-Kaerlas; M. Pillay; A. G. O. Dixon

2005-01-01

372

Cotyledonary somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster Ait. most closely resemble fresh, maturing cotyledonary zygotic embryos: biological, carbohydrate and proteomic analyses.  

PubMed

Cotyledonary somatic embryos (SEs) of maritime pine are routinely matured for 12 weeks before being germinated and converted to plantlets. Although regeneration success is highly dependent on SEs quality, the date of harvesting is currently determined mainly on the basis of morphological features. This empirical method does not provide any accurate information about embryo quality with respect to storage compounds (proteins, carbohydrates). We first analyzed SEs matured for 10, 12 and 14 weeks by carrying out biological (dry weight, water content) and biochemical measurements (total protein and carbohydrate contents). No difference could be found between collection dates, suggesting that harvesting SEs after 12 weeks is appropriate. Cotyledonary SEs were then compared to various stages, from fresh to fully desiccated, in the development of cotyledonary zygotic embryos (ZEs). We identified profiles that were similar using hierarchical ascendant cluster analysis (HCA). Fresh and dehydrated ZEs could be distinguished, and SEs clustered with fresh ZEs. Both types of embryo exhibited similar carbohydrate and protein contents and signatures. This high level of similarity (94.5 %) was further supported by proteome profiling. Highly expressed proteins included storage, stress-related, late embryogenesis abundant and energy metabolism proteins. By comparing overexpressed proteins in developing and cotyledonary SEs or ZEs, some (23 proteins) could be identified as candidate biomarkers for the late, cotyledonary stage. This is the first report of useful generic protein markers for monitoring embryo development in maritime pine. Our results also suggest that improvements of SEs quality may be achieved if the current maturation conditions are refined. PMID:25115559

Morel, Alexandre; Trontin, Jean-François; Corbineau, Françoise; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Beaufour, Martine; Reymond, Isabelle; Le Metté, Claire; Ader, Kevin; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Label, Philippe; Teyssier, Caroline; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

2014-11-01

373

RECENT PROBLEMS OF INDUCTION  

E-print Network

8 RECENT PROBLEMS OF INDUCTION Carl G. Hempel It is true that from truths we can conclnde only to Canon Foucher (1692) THE CLASSICAL PROBLEM OF INDUCTION In the philosophical discussion of induction- ferred to as the problem of induction. That is the problem of justifying the way in which, in scientific

Fitelson, Branden

374

Xist repression shows time-dependent effects on the reprogramming of female somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Although the reactivation of silenced X chromosomes has been observed as part of the process of reprogramming female somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), it remains unknown whether repression of the X-inactive specific transcript (Xist) can greatly enhance female iPSC induction similar to that observed in somatic cell nuclear transfer studies. In this study, we discovered that the repression of Xist plays opposite roles in the early and late phases of female iPSCs induction. Our results demonstrate that the downregulation of Xist by an isopropyl ?-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system can greatly impair the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in the early phase of iPSC induction but can significantly promote the transition of pre-iPSCs to iPSCs in the late phase. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although the knockdown of Xist did not affect the H3K27me3 modification on the X chromosome, macroH2A was released from the inactivated X chromosome (Xi). This enables the X chromosome silencing to be a reversible event. Moreover, we demonstrate that the supplementation of vitamin C (Vc) can augment and stabilize the reversible X chromosome by preventing the relocalization of macroH2A to the Xi. Therefore, our study reveals an opposite role of Xist repression in the early and late stages of reprogramming female somatic cells to pluripotency and demonstrates that the release of macroH2A by Xist repression enables the transition from pre-iPSCs to iPSCs. Stem Cells 2014;32:2642-2656. PMID:24965076

Chen, Qi; Gao, Shuai; He, Wenteng; Kou, Xiaochen; Zhao, Yanhong; Wang, Hong; Gao, Shaorong

2014-10-01

375

Spectrum of somatic mitochondrial mutations in five cancers.  

PubMed

Somatic mtDNA mutations have been reported in some human tumors, but their spectrum in different malignancies and their role in cancer development remain incompletely understood. Here, we describe the breadth of somatic and inherited mutations across the mitochondrial genome by sequence analyses of paired tumor and normal tissue samples from 226 individuals with five types of cancer using whole-genome data generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. The frequencies of deleterious tumor-specific somatic mutations found in mtDNA varied across tumor types, ranging from 13% of glioblastomas to 63% of rectal adenocarcinomas. Compared with inherited mtDNA variants, somatic mtDNA mutations were enriched for nonsynonymous vs. synonymous changes (93 vs. 15; P < 2.2E-16) and were predicted to functionally impact the encoded protein. Somatic missense mutations in tumors were distributed uniformly among the mitochondrial protein genes, but 65% of somatic truncating mutations occurred in NADH dehydrogenase 5. Analysis of staging data in colon and rectal cancers revealed that the frequency of damaging mitochondrial mutations is the same in stages I and IV tumors. In summary, these data suggest that damaging somatic mtDNA mutations occur frequently (13-63%) in these five tumor types and likely confer a selective advantage in oncogenesis. PMID:22891333

Larman, Tatianna C; DePalma, Steven R; Hadjipanayis, Angela G; Protopopov, Alexei; Zhang, Jianhua; Gabriel, Stacey B; Chin, Lynda; Seidman, Christine E; Kucherlapati, Raju; Seidman, J G

2012-08-28

376

Spectrum of somatic mitochondrial mutations in five cancers  

PubMed Central

Somatic mtDNA mutations have been reported in some human tumors, but their spectrum in different malignancies and their role in cancer development remain incompletely understood. Here, we describe the breadth of somatic and inherited mutations across the mitochondrial genome by sequence analyses of paired tumor and normal tissue samples from 226 individuals with five types of cancer using whole-genome data generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. The frequencies of deleterious tumor-specific somatic mutations found in mtDNA varied across tumor types, ranging from 13% of glioblastomas to 63% of rectal adenocarcinomas. Compared with inherited mtDNA variants, somatic mtDNA mutations were enriched for nonsynonymous vs. synonymous changes (93 vs. 15; P < 2.2E?16) and were predicted to functionally impact the encoded protein. Somatic missense mutations in tumors were distributed uniformly among the mitochondrial protein genes, but 65% of somatic truncating mutations occurred in NADH dehydrogenase 5. Analysis of staging data in colon and rectal cancers revealed that the frequency of damaging mitochondrial mutations is the same in stages I and IV tumors. In summary, these data suggest that damaging somatic mtDNA mutations occur frequently (13–63%) in these five tumor types and likely confer a selective advantage in oncogenesis. PMID:22891333

Larman, Tatianna C.; DePalma, Steven R.; Hadjipanayis, Angela G.; Protopopov, Alexei; Zhang, Jianhua; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Chin, Lynda; Seidman, Christine E.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Seidman, J. G.

2012-01-01

377

Approach to the patient with multiple somatic symptoms.  

PubMed

Primary care providers play a crucial role in the recognition and appropriate treatment of patients with multiple somatic complaints. Both the number of somatic symptoms and the persistence of symptoms are associated with co-occurring depression or anxiety disorders. It can be challenging to simultaneously address possible medical causes for physical symptoms while also considering an associated psychiatric diagnosis. In this article, strategies to improve the care and outcomes among these patients are described, including collaboration, education about the interaction between psychosocial stressors and somatic symptoms, regularly scheduled visits, focus on improving functional status, and evidence-based treatment of depression and anxiety. PMID:25134874

Croicu, Carmen; Chwastiak, Lydia; Katon, Wayne

2014-09-01

378

Consequences of the recurrent MYD88L265P somatic mutation for B cell tolerance  

PubMed Central

MYD88L265P has recently been discovered as an extraordinarily frequent somatic mutation in benign monoclonal IgM gammopathy, Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. In this study, we analyze the consequences for antigen-activated primary B cells of acquiring MYD88L265P. The mutation induced rapid B cell division in the absence of exogenous TLR ligands and was inhibited by Unc93b13d mutation and chloroquine or TLR9 deficiency, indicating continued dependence on upstream TLR9 activation. Proliferation and NF-?B activation induced by MYD88L265P were nevertheless rapidly countered by the induction of TNFAIP3, an NF-?B inhibitor frequently inactivated in MYD88L265P–bearing lymphomas, and extinguished by Bim-dependent apoptosis. MYD88L265P caused self-reactive B cells to accumulate in vivo only when apoptosis was opposed by Bcl2 overexpression. These results reveal checkpoints that fortify TLR responses against aberrant B cell proliferation in response to ubiquitous TLR and BCR self-ligands and suggest that tolerance failure requires the accumulation of multiple somatic mutations. PMID:24534189

Wang, James Q.; Jeelall, Yogesh S.; Beutler, Bruce

2014-01-01

379

Somatic Knowledge: The Body as Content and Methodology in Dance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores applications of somatics to school and university curricula, addressing somatic knowledge as content and methodology in dance education, proposing strategies for bringing the body back into dance and dance curricula, exploring cultural diversity issues within dance and somatic education, and concluding that somatic knowledge and practice…

Green, Jill

2002-01-01

380

Regulation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell induction by Wnt/?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

Wnt signaling has been implicated in promoting somatic cell reprogramming. However, its molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here we report that Wnt/?-catenin enhances iPSCs induction at the early stage of reprogramming. The augmented reprogramming induced by ?-catenin is not due to increased total cell population or activation of c-Myc. In addition, ?-catenin interacts with reprogramming factors Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2, further enhancing expression of pluripotency circuitry genes. These studies reveal novel mechanisms underlying the regulation of reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency by Wnt/?-catenin signaling. PMID:24482235

Zhang, Peilin; Chang, Wen-Hsuan; Fong, Brendan; Gao, Fan; Liu, Chunming; Al Alam, Denise; Bellusci, Saverio; Lu, Wange

2014-03-28

381

Assessment of somatic complaints in environmental health.  

PubMed

In patients attributing their health complaints to environmental factors (EnvPat) evidence based medical diagnostics usually do not confirm environmental and somatic causes of symptoms. Many symptoms remain unexplained. Aim of the study was the systematic assessment of medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) in EnvPat and comparison to symptom rates reported by subjects of an environmental study exposed to environmental odors (EnvExp). This specific exposure was chosen, as odors are associated by an unclear mechanism with physical symptoms. By this we aimed to enlighten the open question as to likeliness that MUPS of EnvPat are caused by hitherto unrevealed environmental exposures or result from somatization. MUPS were measured with SOMS-2 in EnvPat n=92, patients presenting in a university environmental outpatients clinic, and different study groups exposed to environmental odors (EnvExp). These were: (1) subjects exposed to annoying odors and medically relevant concentrations of bioaerosols, such as airborne microorganisms (EnvExp-1, n=74), and (2) subjects exposed to odors alone (EnvExp-2, n=282) as well as unexposed controls (Controls, n=235). Logistic regression and analysis of variance were applied to analyze rates of single complaints and the sum index of complaints (SOMS-CoIx). In EnvPat rates of MUPS were highest - significant (p<0.05) adjusted OR in 23 of 25 MUPS compared to controls - and highest SOMS-CoIx (mean 15.3 (S.D. +/-9.3). Rates of MUPS were lower in environmentally exposed subjects with difference in the two strata: while EnvExp-1 differed in several complaints, i.e., nausea and SOMS-CoIx (mean 7.2, S.D. +/-6.9) from controls (p<0.05), EnvExp-2 (SOMS-CoIx mean 4.8, S.D. +/-5.2) showed relevant differences only in two single complaints and not in the SOMS-CoIx from controls, SOMS-CoIx mean 3.9, S.D. +/-5.0. This remained when adjusting for age, gender, and school education. Rates of MUPS in environmental patients were clearly higher than in subjects with actual environmental exposure, making it unlikely that their symptoms are due to undetected environmental factors. MUPS of EnvPat show similarities to psychosomatic patients. In the environmental survey symptom assessment by SOMS-2 was sensitive to different environmental scenarios, i.e., higher rates of physical complaints were only found in subjects with hazardous residential bioaerosols pollution as well as an annoying odor exposure and interestingly not in subjects exposed to annoying odors alone. This underlines that questionnaire data of somatic complaints need to be interpreted on the basis of exposure assessment in order to unjustly attribute health complaints to annoyance. PMID:18397841

Herr, Caroline E W; Zur Nieden, Anja; Kopka, Ines; Rethage, Tobias; Gieler, Uwe; Eikmann, Thomas F; Stilianakis, Nikolaos I

2009-01-01

382

Somatization in the community: relationship to disability and use of services.  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypotheses that an abridged somatization construct that we had developed would be associated with use of health services, preferential use of medical over mental health services, and an index of disability. These hypotheses were tested using structured interview data from 3,132 randomly selected community respondents. We found that: respondents meeting criteria for somatization reported a heavier use of health services than non-somatizers; of those respondents meeting criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis, somatizers preferentially used medical over mental health services whereas non-somatizers reported the opposite trend; and somatizers were more likely than non-somatizers to report recent sick leave or restricted activity. PMID:3592038

Escobar, J I; Golding, J M; Hough, R L; Karno, M; Burnam, M A; Wells, K B

1987-01-01

383

Recurrent somatic structural variations contribute to tumorigenesis in pediatric osteosarcoma.  

PubMed

Pediatric osteosarcoma is characterized by multiple somatic chromosomal lesions, including structural variations (SVs) and copy number alterations (CNAs). To define the landscape of somatic mutations in pediatric osteosarcoma, we performed whole-genome sequencing of DNA from 20 osteosarcoma tumor samples and matched normal tissue in a discovery cohort, as well as 14 samples in a validation cohort. Single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) exhibited a pattern of localized hypermutation called kataegis in 50% of the tumors. We identified p53 pathway lesions in all tumors in the discovery cohort, nine of which were translocations in the first intron of the TP53 gene. Beyond TP53, the RB1, ATRX, and DLG2 genes showed recurrent somatic alterations in 29%-53% of the tumors. These data highlight the power of whole-genome sequencing for identifying recurrent somatic alterations in cancer genomes that may be missed using other methods. PMID:24703847

Chen, Xiang; Bahrami, Armita; Pappo, Alberto; Easton, John; Dalton, James; Hedlund, Erin; Ellison, David; Shurtleff, Sheila; Wu, Gang; Wei, Lei; Parker, Matthew; Rusch, Michael; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Wu, Jianrong; Mao, Shenghua; Boggs, Kristy; Mulder, Heather; Yergeau, Donald; Lu, Charles; Ding, Li; Edmonson, Michael; Qu, Chunxu; Wang, Jianmin; Li, Yongjin; Navid, Fariba; Daw, Najat C; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Downing, James R; Zhang, Jinghui; Dyer, Michael A

2014-04-10

384

Reprogramming human somatic cells to pluripotency using RNA  

E-print Network

Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent stem-cell state by ectopic expression of defined proteins. However, existing reprogramming methods take several weeks, suffer from low efficiencies, and most use DNA-based ...

Angel, Matthew (Matthew M.)

2012-01-01

385

Reprogramming of somatic cells induced by fusion of embryonic stem cells using hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E)  

SciTech Connect

In this research, hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) was used to reprogram somatic cells by fusion with mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Neomycin-resistant mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were used as somatic cells. Nanog-overexpressing puromycin-resistant EB3 cells were used as mouse ES cells. These two cells were fused by exposing to HVJ-E and the generated fusion cells were selected by puromycin and G418 to get the stable fusion cell line. The fusion cells form colonies in feeder-free culture system. Microsatellite analysis of the fusion cells showed that they possessed genes from both ES cells and fibroblasts. The fusion cells were tetraploid, had alkali phosphatase activity, and expressed stem cell marker genes such as Pou5f1, Nanog, and Sox2, but not the fibroblast cell marker genes such as Col1a1 and Col1a2. The pluripotency of fusion cells was confirmed by their expression of marker genes for all the three germ layers after differentiation induction, and by their ability to form teratoma which contained all the three primary layers. Our results show that HVJ-E can be used as a fusion reagent for reprogramming of somatic cells.

Yue, Xiao-shan [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan) [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); Fujishiro, Masako [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Toyoda, Masashi [Department of Reproductive Biology, National Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1, Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, National Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1, Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Akaike, Toshihiro [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); Ito, Yoshihiro, E-mail: y-ito@riken.jp [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan) [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan)

2010-04-16

386

Somatic and visceral nervous systems - an ancient duality  

PubMed Central

The vertebrate nervous system is deeply divided into ‘somatic’ and ‘visceral’ subsystems that respond to external and internal stimuli, respectively. Molecular characterization of neurons in different groups of mollusks by Nomaksteinsky and colleagues, published in this issue of BMC Biology, reveals that the viscero-somatic duality is evolutionarily ancient, predating Bilateria. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/53 PMID:23631570

2013-01-01

387

Somatic symptom disorder: an important change in DSM.  

PubMed

This paper describes the rationale for the new diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder (SSD) within DSM5. SSD represents a consolidation of a number of previously listed diagnoses. It deemphasizes the centrality of medically unexplained symptoms and defines the disorder on the basis of persistent somatic symptoms associated with disproportionate thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to these symptoms. Data are presented concerning reliability, validity, and prevalence of SSD, as well as tasks for future research, education, and clinical practice. PMID:23972410

Dimsdale, Joel E; Creed, Francis; Escobar, Javier; Sharpe, Michael; Wulsin, Lawson; Barsky, Arthur; Lee, Sing; Irwin, Michael R; Levenson, James

2013-09-01

388

A new approach to quantitative analysis of somatic association.  

PubMed

A formula is proposed for estimating statistically the degree of somatic chromosome association during metaphase. Standard chi-square tests can then be used to determine the presence or absence of somatic association between homologous chromosomes in selected species. The method requires that the chromosomes be morphologically distinguishable and that their circular arrangement on the metaphase plate has not been distorted by the squash used during their preparation. PMID:884967

Lacadena, J R; Ferrer, E; Yanez, I

1977-01-01

389

[Somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The study is concerned the design of new assays that may detect rare somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, which may increase upon exposure to mutagens, and thus become a marker of human exposure to such mutagens. Two assays for somatic mutation were presented, one for mitochondrial DNA deletions which was developed by the author, and one for deletions of the ADA gene which resides in the nucleus.

Not Available

1992-09-01

390

Optimization of electrofusion protocols for somatic cell nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrofusion is one of the critical steps used in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This low effectiveness of electrofusion of the somatic donor cell into the recipient oocyte limits the cloning success in certain mammals. In this study, chamber fusion (CF) and micro-electrode fusion were compared in goat SCNT. A 15?m tip-end, 100?m frustum-end and 200?m parallel micro-electrodes were employed

Feng-Jun Liu; Yong Zhang; Yue-Mao Zheng; Ming-Tao Zhao; Yu-Ling Zhang; Yong-Sheng Wang; Guo-Hua Wang; Fu-Sheng Quan; Zhi-Xing An

2007-01-01

391

Genetic Diversification by Somatic Gene Conversion  

PubMed Central

Gene conversion is a type of homologous recombination that leads to transfer of genetic information among homologous DNA sequences. It can be categorized into two classes: homogenizing and diversifying gene conversions. The former class results in neutralization and homogenization of any sequence variation among repetitive DNA sequences, and thus is important for concerted evolution. On the other hand, the latter functions to increase genetic diversity at the recombination-recipient loci. Thus, these two types of gene conversion play opposite roles in genome dynamics. Diversifying gene conversion is observed in the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci of chicken, rabbit, and other animals, and directs the diversification of Ig variable segments and acquisition of functional Ig repertoires. This type of gene conversion is initiated by the biased occurrence of recombination initiation events (e.g., DNA single- or double-strand breaks) on the recipient DNA site followed by unidirectional homologous recombination from multiple template sequences. Transcription and DNA accessibility is also important in the regulation of biased recombination initiation. In this review, we will discuss the biological significance and possible mechanisms of diversifying gene conversion in somatic cells of eukaryotes. PMID:24710138

Kurosawa, Kohei; Ohta, Kunihiro

2011-01-01

392

Genotoxic effects of bisphenol A on somatic cells of female mice, alone and in combination with X-rays.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer used in the manufacture of epoxy, polycarbonate, and polystyrene resins, is a xenoestrogen present in many consumer products. We investigated the effects of 2-week exposure to BPA, either alone or in combination with X-rays, on the induction of DNA damage in somatic cells of female mice in vivo. The micronucleus and alkaline comet assays were used to evaluate genotoxicity. BPA induced DNA strand breaks in lung cells but not in bone marrow lymphocytes, liver, kidney, or spleen cells. Induction of micronuclei was observed only in polychromatic reticulocytes of peripheral blood. Levels of damage following combination exposure to ionizing radiation plus BPA depended on tissue, assay, and time. PMID:23954285

Gajowik, Aneta; Radzikowska, Joanna; Dobrzy?ska, Ma?gorzata M

2013-10-01

393

Computer Science Induction to  

E-print Network

Computer Science Induction to Postgraduate Research Studies Ulrich Berger Head of Postgraduate Research Supervision Regulations Progression Regulations Computer Science Induction to Postgraduate Research Studies Ulrich Berger Head of Postgraduate Research Department of Computer Science Swansea

Berger, Ulrich

394

Gametic embryogenesis and haploid technology as valuable support to plant breeding.  

PubMed

Plant breeding is focused on continuously increasing crop production to meet the needs of an ever-growing world population, improving food quality to ensure a long and healthy life and address the problems of global warming and environment pollution, together with the challenges of developing novel sources of biofuels. The breeders' search for novel genetic combinations, with which to select plants with improved traits to satisfy both farmers and consumers, is endless. About half of the dramatic increase in crop yield obtained in the second half of the last century has been achieved thanks to the results of genetic improvement, while the residual advance has been due to the enhanced management techniques (pest and disease control, fertilization, and irrigation). Biotechnologies provide powerful tools for plant breeding, and among these ones, tissue culture, particularly haploid and doubled haploid technology, can effectively help to select superior plants. In fact, haploids (Hs), which are plants with gametophytic chromosome number, and doubled haploids (DHs), which are haploids that have undergone chromosome duplication, represent a particularly attractive biotechnological method to accelerate plant breeding. Currently, haploid technology, making possible through gametic embryogenesis the single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, has already had a huge impact on agricultural systems of many agronomically important crops, representing an integral part in their improvement programmes. The aim of this review was to provide some background, recent advances, and future prospective on the employment of haploid technology through gametic embryogenesis as a powerful tool to support plant breeding. PMID:21431908

Germanà, Maria Antonietta

2011-05-01

395

Esterase and lipase in camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) during embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Esterase and lipase activity showed significant changes during embryogenesis of camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii. From the elution profile of chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, six forms of H. dromedarii esterase (El to EVI) can be distinguished. Esterase EIII was purified to homogeneity after chromatography on Sepharose 6B. The molecular mass of esterase EIII was 45 kDa for the native enzyme and represented a monomer of 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Esterase EIII had an acidic pI at 5.3. Lipase activity was detected in the same DEAE-cellulose peaks (LI to LVI) of H. dromedarii esterases. The highest lipase activity was exhibited by lipase LIII. Esterase EIII and lipase LIII were compared with respect to Michaelis constant, substrate specificity, temperature optimum, heat stability, pH optimum, effect of metal ions and inhibitors. This study suggests that H. dromedarii lipolytic enzymes may play a central role in the interconversion of lipovitellins during embryogenesis. PMID:14990212

Fahmy, Afaf S; Abdel-Gany, Somia S; Mohamed, Tarek M; Mohamed, Saleh A

2004-02-01

396

Mathematical Induction William Cherry  

E-print Network

Mathematical Induction William Cherry February 2011 These notes provide some additional examples to supplement the section of the text on mathe- matical induction. Inequalities. It happens that often textbook does not work through examples of how to use induction to prove inequalities and yet these can

Cherry, William A.

397

Progress in the reprogramming of somatic cells.  

PubMed

Pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into nearly all types of cells in the body. This unique potential provides significant promise for cell-based therapies to restore tissues or organs destroyed by injuries, degenerative diseases, aging, or cancer. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology offers a possible strategy to generate patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. However, because of concerns about the specificity, efficiency, kinetics, and safety of iPSC reprogramming, improvements or fundamental changes in this process are required before their effective clinical use. A chemical approach is regarded as a promising strategy to improve and change the iPSC process. Dozens of small molecules have been identified that can functionally replace reprogramming factors and significantly improve iPSC reprogramming. In addition to the prospect of deriving patient-specific tissues and organs from iPSCs, another attractive strategy for regenerative medicine is transdifferentiation-the direct conversion of one somatic cell type to another. Recent studies revealed a new paradigm of transdifferentiation: using transcription factors used in iPSC generation to induce transdifferentiation or called iPSC transcription factor-based transdifferentiation. This type of transdifferentiation not only reveals and uses the developmentally plastic intermediates generated during iPSC reprogramming but also produces a wide range of cells, including expandable tissue-specific precursor cells. Here, we review recent progress of small molecule approaches in the generation of iPSCs. In addition, we summarize the new concept of iPSC transcription factor-based transdifferentiation and discuss its application in generating various lineage-specific cells, especially cardiovascular cells. PMID:23371904

Ma, Tianhua; Xie, Min; Laurent, Timothy; Ding, Sheng

2013-02-01

398

Convergent mechanisms of somatic mutations in polycythemia vera.  

PubMed

Polycythemia vera (PV) is an acquired blood disorder, with variable increase of clonal myeloid cells (erythrocytes, granulocytes and platelets) and mostly normal polyclonal T lymphocytes. Most patients have a somatic V617F gain-of-function mutation in JAK2 associated with acquired uniparental disomy (UPD) on chromosome 9p. Yet, the JAK2 V617F mutation is not a PV-initiating event and the family clustering of PV suggests a contribution of inherited genetic events. Using whole-genome SNP arrays, we assayed 34 T-cells and 66 granulocytes (including 32 pairs from the same patients), and identified multiple SNPs around JAK2 that are associated with PV susceptibility (rs11999802, P=1.8E-8, OR=4.4). We also developed a quantitative measure of the fraction of somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) based on allele-specific PCR, and a quantitative measure of somatic UPD based on "fractional copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH)" on SNP arrays. Somatic genomic changes in granulocytes revealed strong genetic heterogeneity, including 9p UPD and chromosomal gain. The magnitude of somatic 9p UPD was strongly associated with V617F dosage (r2=0.74, P=4.8E-12), suggesting that UPD preferentially increases the V617F subclone. In granulocytes with heterozygous rs11999802 genotypes, UPD increased the relative fraction of germline risk alleles (P=0.03). Thus, germline risk variants at JAK2 predispose to somatic point mutations within JAK2, whose allelic dosage can be further increased by a serial subclonal expansion of allele-specific UPD or copy number alteration, contributing to PV pathogenesis. We argue that PV represents a unique disease model to study the interplay between germline risk variants and convergent mechanisms of somatic mutations. PMID:21794206

Wang, Kai; Swierczek, Sabina; Hickman, Kimberly; Hakonarson, Hakon; Prchal, Josef T

2011-07-01

399

Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae); Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha × piperita L., Melissa officinalis L.

A. Ramos Ruiz; R. A. De la Torre; N. Alonso; A. Villaescusa; J. Betancourt; A. Vizoso

1996-01-01

400

Diverse mechanisms of somatic structural variations in human cancer genomes.  

PubMed

Identification of somatic rearrangements in cancer genomes has accelerated through analysis of high-throughput sequencing data. However, characterization of complex structural alterations and their underlying mechanisms remains inadequate. Here, applying an algorithm to predict structural variations from short reads, we report a comprehensive catalog of somatic structural variations and the mechanisms generating them, using high-coverage whole-genome sequencing data from 140 patients across ten tumor types. We characterize the relative contributions of different types of rearrangements and their mutational mechanisms, find that ~20% of the somatic deletions are complex deletions formed by replication errors, and describe the differences between the mutational mechanisms in somatic and germline alterations. Importantly, we provide detailed reconstructions of the events responsible for loss of CDKN2A/B and gain of EGFR in glioblastoma, revealing that these alterations can result from multiple mechanisms even in a single genome and that both DNA double-strand breaks and replication errors drive somatic rearrangements. PMID:23663786

Yang, Lixing; Luquette, Lovelace J; Gehlenborg, Nils; Xi, Ruibin; Haseley, Psalm S; Hsieh, Chih-Heng; Zhang, Chengsheng; Ren, Xiaojia; Protopopov, Alexei; Chin, Lynda; Kucherlapati, Raju; Lee, Charles; Park, Peter J

2013-05-01

401

Diverse mechanisms of somatic structural variations in human cancer genomes  

PubMed Central

Summary Identification of somatic rearrangements in cancer genomes has accelerated through analysis of high-throughput sequencing data. However, characterization of complex structural alterations and their underlying mechanisms remains inadequate. Here, applying an algorithm to predict structural variations from short reads, we report a comprehensive catalog of somatic structural variations and the mechanisms generating them, using high-coverage whole-genome sequencing data from 140 patients across ten tumor types. We characterize the relative contributions of different types of rearrangements and their mutational mechanisms, find that ~20% of the somatic deletions are complex deletions formed by replication errors, and describe the differences between the mutational mechanisms in somatic and germline alterations. Importantly, we provide detailed reconstructions of the events responsible for loss of CDKN2A/B and gain of EGFR in glioblastoma, revealing that these alterations can result from multiple mechanisms even in a single genome and that both DNA double-strand breaks and replication errors drive somatic rearrangements. PMID:23663786

Yang, Lixing; Luquette, Lovelace J.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Xi, Ruibin; Haseley, Psalm S.; Hsieh, Chih-Heng; Zhang, Chengsheng; Ren, Xiaojia; Protopopov, Alexei; Chin, Lynda; Kucherlapati, Raju; Lee, Charles; Park, Peter J.

2013-01-01

402

Evolution of the Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (Lea) genes: analysis of the Lea B19 gene family in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly conserved Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (Lea) genes are present in the genome of most plants as a gene family. Family members are conserved along the entire coding region, especially within the extremely hydrophilic internal 20 amino acid motif, which may be repeated. Cloning of Lea Group 1 genes from barley resulted in the characterization of four family

Robin A. P. Stacy; Mari Espelund; Stein Sæbøe-Larssen; Kristin Hollung; Even Helliesen; Kjetill S. Jakobsen

1995-01-01

403

Aromatase Activity during Embryogenesis in the Brain and AdrenalKidneyGonad of the Red-Eared Slider  

E-print Network

, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 Accepted May 2, 2000 Gonadal sex in the red-eared sliderAromatase Activity during Embryogenesis in the Brain and Adrenal­Kidney­Gonad of the Red-Eared a rel- atively narrow window of development establishes the sex of the individual. Research on the red-eared

Crews, David

404

Two different late embryogenesis abundant proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana contain specific domains that inhibit Escherichia coli growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins constitute a set of proteins widespread in the plant kingdom that show common physicochemical properties such as high hydrophilicity and high content of small amino acid residues such as glycine, alanine, and serine. Typically, these proteins accumulate in response to water deficit conditions imposed by the environment or during plant normal development. In this work,

Francisco Campos; Fernando Zamudio; Alejandra A. Covarrubias

2006-01-01

405

Interplay between acid phosphatase and cysteine proteases in mediating vitellin degradation during early embryogenesis of Periplaneta americana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we characterized the activities of two classes of proteases and AcP during early embryogenesis of Periplaneta americana. AcP activity was first detected at day 6 and reached a maximum level at day 10 of development. Using phosphoamino acids, phosphatase activity was shown to be directed only against phosphotyrosine at day 6 while at day 10 it was

Danielle M. P. Oliveira; Isabela B. Ramos; Flavia C. G. Reis; Ana P. C. A. Lima; Ednildo A. Machado

2008-01-01

406

Embryogenesis and plant regeneration of pakchoi ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) via in vitro isolated microspore culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated microspores of various populations of three varieties of the Chinese cabbage pakchoi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were cultivated in vitro on NLN82 medium (Lichter 1982) and embryos and plantlets obtained with nine cultivars. The best embryo yield per bud was 57.4. A 33°C one day heat treatment was generally necessary to induce embryogenesis. Analysis of ploidy level through flow

Ming Qing Cao; Yan Li; Fan Liu; Claire Doré

1994-01-01

407

4 Induction and Recursion 4.1 Mathematical induction (weak induction)  

E-print Network

4 Induction and Recursion 4.1 Mathematical induction (weak induction) This section presents another proof technique (besides direct, contrapositive and con- tradiction) 1. mathematical induction is used that 1! = 1 is less than or equal to 11 = 1. The inductive step will continue now. (b) Inductive Step: k

Gera, Ralucca

408

6 Induction and Recursion 6.1 Mathematical induction (weak induction)  

E-print Network

6 Induction and Recursion 6.1 Mathematical induction (weak induction) This section presents another nonempty subset of it has a smallest element. 2. mathematical induction is used to prove statements = 1. The inductive step will continue now. (b) Inductive Step: k 1 (P(k) P(k + 1)) This step proves

Gera, Ralucca

409

5 Induction and Recursion 5.1 Mathematical induction (weak induction)  

E-print Network

5 Induction and Recursion 5.1 Mathematical induction (weak induction) This section presents another proof technique (besides direct, contrapositive and con- tradiction) 1. mathematical induction is used that 1! = 1 is less than or equal to 11 = 1. The inductive step will continue now. (b) Inductive Step: k

Gera, Ralucca

410

Chick embryogenesis: a unique platform to study the effects of environmental factors on embryo development.  

PubMed

Bird embryogenesis takes place in a relatively protected environment that can be manipulated especially well in domestic fowl (chickens) where incubation has long been a commercial process. The embryonic developmental process has been shown to begin in the oviduct such that the embryo has attained either the blastodermal and/or gastrulation stage of development at oviposition. Bird embryos can be affected by "maternal effects," and by environmental conditions during the pre-incubation and incubation periods. "Maternal effects" has been described as an evolutionary mechanism that has provided the mother, by hormonal deposition into the yolk, with the potential to proactively influence the development of her progeny by exposing them to her particular hormonal pattern in such a manner as to influence their ability to cope with the expected wide range of environmental conditions that may occur post-hatching. Another important aspect of "maternal effects" is the effect of the maternal nutrient intake on progeny traits. From a commercial broiler chicken production perspective, it has been established that greater cumulative nutrient intake by the hen during her pullet rearing phase prior to photostimulation resulted in faster growing broiler progeny. Generally, maternal effects on progeny, which have both a genetic and an environmental component represented by yolk hormones deposition and embryo nutrient utilization, have an important effect on the development of a wide range of progeny traits. Furthermore, commercial embryo development during pre-incubation storage and incubation, as well as during incubation per se has been shown to largely depend upon temperature, while other environmental factors that include egg position during storage, and the amount of H2O and CO2 lost by the egg and the subsequent effect on albumen pH and height during storage have become important environmental factors to be considered for successful embryogenesis under commercial conditions. Manipulating environmental temperature during the period of egg storage, during the intermediate pre-incubation period, and incubation period per se has been found to significantly affect embryo development, hatching progress, chick quality at hatching, and chick development post-hatching. These temperature manipulations have also been shown to affect the acquisition of thermotolerance to subsequent post-hatching thermal challenge. This chapter will focus on: a. "maternal effects" on embryo and post-hatching development; b. environmental effects during the post-ovipositional period of egg storage, the intermediate pre-incubation period, and incubation period per se on chick embryogenesis and subsequent post-hatching growth and development; and c. effects of temperature manipulations during the pre-incubation and incubation periods on acquisition of thermotolerance and development of secondary sexual characteristics in broiler chickens. PMID:25158087

Yahav, S; Brake, J

2014-01-01

411

Auxin Synthesized by the YUCCA Flavin Monooxygenases Is Essential for Embryogenesis and Leaf Formation in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Auxin plays a key role in embryogenesis and seedling development, but the auxin sources for the two processes are not defined. Here, we demonstrate that auxin synthesized by the YUCCA (YUC) flavin monooxygenases is essential for the establishment of the basal body region during embryogenesis and the formation of embryonic and postembryonic organs. Both YUC1 and YUC4 are expressed in discrete groups of cells throughout embryogenesis, and their expression patterns overlap with those of YUC10 and YUC11 during embryogenesis. The quadruple mutants of yuc1 yuc4 yuc10 yuc11 fail to develop a hypocotyl and a root meristem, a phenotype similar to those of mp and tir1 afb1 afb2 afb3 auxin signaling mutants. We further show that YUC genes play an essential role in the formation of rosette leaves by analyzing combinations of yuc mutants and the polar auxin transport mutants pin1 and aux1. Disruption of YUC1, YUC4, or PIN1 alone does not abolish leaf formation, but the triple mutant yuc1 yuc4 pin1 fails to form leaves and flowers. Furthermore, disruption of auxin influx carrier AUX1 in the quadruple mutant yuc1 yuc2 yuc4 yuc6, but not in wild-type background, phenocopies yuc1 yuc4 pin1, demonstrating that auxin influx is required for plant leaf and flower development. Our data demonstrate that auxin synthesized by the YUC flavin monooxygenases is an essential auxin source for Arabidopsis thaliana embryogenesis and postembryonic organ formation. PMID:17704214

Cheng, Youfa; Dai, Xinhua; Zhao, Yunde

2007-01-01

412

Dynamics and regulation of bulk milk somatic cell counts.  

PubMed Central

Somatic cell count (SCC) in milk is inversely related to dairy cow productivity and milk quality. In an effort to improve product quality, and indirectly farm productivity, regulatory limits on somatic cell counts have been established by many of the major dairy producing countries. The purpose of this paper was to assess the impact of regulations on bulk milk somatic cell counts in Ontario and to assist producers in meeting regulatory limits through development of prediction models. Through the use of a transfer function model, provincial SCC was found to have dropped by approximately 60,000 as a result of the reduction program. Limits of the regulatory program, seasonality and herd characteristics were found through time series cross-sectional models to have an impact on prediction of SCC at the farm level, but the major influence was historical SCC levels. PMID:8490807

Schukken, Y H; Weersink, A; Leslie, K E; Martin, S W

1993-01-01

413

The Great Recession, somatic symptomatology and alcohol use and abuse.  

PubMed

While most research has examined the long-term effects of alcohol consumption on health, the current study examines how health status impacts on drinking behavior. Using data from a national study conducted between 2010 and 2011 to assess the impact of the recession on drinking behavior, this study examines how economic hardships linked to the recent economic recession affect physical health, and how physical health may in turn affect alcohol use. Structural equation models were used to test the predicted associations. The data demonstrate that many of the economic stressors linked to the recession are associated with increased somatic symptoms. Somatic symptoms are also associated with increased drinking for men, but not for women. These findings suggest that men may use alcohol to self medicate somatic symptomatology. The current findings are consistent with gender role-based explanations that account for gender disparities in the utilization of medical care. PMID:22632797

Vijayasiri, Ganga; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M

2012-09-01

414

The Dynamics of Somatic Exocytosis in Monoaminergic Neurons  

PubMed Central

Some monoaminergic neurons can release neurotransmitters by exocytosis from their cell bodies. The amount of monoamine released by somatic exocytosis can be comparable to that released by synaptic exocytosis, though neither the underlying mechanisms nor the functional significance of somatic exocytosis are well understood. A detailed examination of these characteristics may provide new routes for therapeutic intervention in mood disorders, substance addiction, and neurodegenerative diseases. The relatively large size of the cell body provides a unique opportunity to understand the mechanism of this mode of neuronal exocytosis in microscopic detail. Here we used three photon and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to focus on the dynamics of the pre-exocytotic events and explore the nature of somatic vesicle storage, transport, and docking at the membrane of serotonergic neurons from raphe nuclei of the rat brain. We find that the vesicles (or unresolved vesicular clusters) are quiescent (mean square displacement, MSD ?0.04??m2/s) before depolarization, and they move minimally (<1??m) from their locations over a time-scale of minutes. However, within minutes of depolarization, the vesicles become more dynamic (MSD ?0.3??m2/s), and display larger range (several ?m) motions, though without any clear directionality. Docking and subsequent exocytosis at the membrane happen at a timescale (?25?ms) that is slower than most synaptic exocytosis processes, but faster than almost all somatic exocytosis processes observed in endocrine cells. We conclude that, (A) depolarization causes de-tethering of the neurotransmitter vesicles from their storage locations, and this constitutes a critical event in somatic exocytosis; (B) their subsequent transport kinetics can be described by a process of constrained diffusion, and (C) the pre-exocytosis kinetics at the membrane is faster than most other somatic exocytosis processes reported so far. PMID:23133421

Sarkar, Bidyut; Das, Anand Kant; Arumugam, Senthil; Kaushalya, Sanjeev Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Arkarup; Balaji, Jayaprakash; Maiti, Sudipta

2012-01-01

415

Green Fluorescent Protein as a Visual Marker in Somatic Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Using a transgenic citrus plant expressing Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as a parent in somatic fusion experiments, we investigated the suitability of GFP as an in vivo marker to follow the processes of protoplast fusion, regeneration and selection of hybrid plants. A high level of GFP expression was detected in transgenic citrus protoplasts, hybrid callus, embryos and plants. It is demonstrated that GFP can be used for the continuous monitoring of the fusion process, localization of hybrid colonies and callus, and selection of somatic hybrid embryos and plants. PMID:12096810

OLIVARES?FUSTER, O.; PEÑA, L.; DURAN?VILA, N.; NAVARRO, L.

2002-01-01

416

Labeled lines meet and talk: population coding of somatic sensations  

PubMed Central

The somatic sensory system responds to stimuli of distinct modalities, including touch, pain, itch, and temperature sensitivity. In the past century, great progress has been made in understanding the coding of these sensory modalities. From this work, two major features have emerged. First, there are specific neuronal circuits or labeled lines transmitting specific sensory information from the skin to the brain. Second, the generation of specific sensations often involves crosstalk among distinct labeled lines. These features suggest that population coding is the mechanism underlying somatic sensation. PMID:21041959

Ma, Qiufu

2010-01-01

417

Virmid: accurate detection of somatic mutations with sample impurity inference  

PubMed Central

Detection of somatic variation using sequence from disease-control matched data sets is a critical first step. In many cases including cancer, however, it is hard to isolate pure disease tissue, and the impurity hinders accurate mutation analysis by disrupting overall allele frequencies. Here, we propose a new method, Virmid, that explicitly determines the level of impurity in the sample, and uses it for improved detection of somatic variation. Extensive tests on simulated and real sequencing data from breast cancer and hemimegalencephaly demonstrate the power of our model. A software implementation of our method is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/virmid/. PMID:23987214

2013-01-01

418

Death anxiety as related to somatic symptoms in two cultures.  

PubMed

Two undergraduate samples from Kuwait (52 men, 157 women; M age = 21.2 yr., SD =2.1) and the USA (46 men, 145 women; M age = 22.4 yr., SD = 5.3) answered the Somatic Symptoms Inventory, the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, and the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale. The Kuwaiti sample obtained significantly higher mean scores on all the scales than the American sample. Scores on the Somatic Symptoms Inventory were positively correlated with Death Anxiety scores, indicating that people who enjoy good physical health are less concerned with death. PMID:19928602

Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

2009-10-01

419

Generation of bovine transgenics using somatic cell nuclear transfer  

PubMed Central

The ability to produce transgenic animals through the introduction of exogenous DNA has existed for many years. However, past methods available to generate transgenic animals, such as pronuclear microinjection or the use of embryonic stem cells, have either been inefficient or not available in all animals, bovine included. More recently somatic cell nuclear transfer has provided a method to create transgenic animals that overcomes many deficiencies present in other methods. This review summarizes the benefits of using somatic cell nuclear transfer to create bovine transgenics as well as the possible opportunities this method creates for the future. PMID:14613543

Hodges, Craig A; Stice, Steven L

2003-01-01

420

Human somatic cell nuclear transfer using adult cells.  

PubMed

Derivation of patient-specific human pluripotent stem cells via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has the potential for applications in a range of therapeutic contexts. However, successful SCNT with human cells has proved challenging to achieve, and thus far has only been reported with fetal or infant somatic cells. In this study, we describe the application of a recently developed methodology for the generation of human ESCs via SCNT using dermal fibroblasts from 35- and 75-year-old males. Our study therefore demonstrates the applicability of SCNT for adult human cells and supports further investigation of SCNT as a strategy for regenerative medicine. PMID:24746675

Chung, Young Gie; Eum, Jin Hee; Lee, Jeoung Eun; Shim, Sung Han; Sepilian, Vicken; Hong, Seung Wook; Lee, Yumie; Treff, Nathan R; Choi, Young Ho; Kimbrel, Erin A; Dittman, Ralph E; Lanza, Robert; Lee, Dong Ryul

2014-06-01

421

Planarian D-amino acid oxidase is involved in ovarian development during sexual induction.  

PubMed

To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying switching from asexual to sexual reproduction, namely sexual induction, we developed an assay system for sexual induction in the hermaphroditic planarian species Dugesia ryukyuensis. Ovarian development is the initial and essential step in sexual induction, and it is followed by the formation of other reproductive organs, including the testes. Here, we report a function of a planarian D-amino acid oxidase, Dr-DAO, in the control of ovarian development in planarians. Asexual worms showed significantly more widespread expression of Dr-DAO in the parenchymal space than did sexual worms. Inhibition of Dr-DAO by RNAi caused the formation of immature ovaries. In addition, we found that feeding asexual worms 5 specific D-amino acids could induce the formation of immature ovaries that are similar to those observed in Dr-DAO knockdown worms, suggesting that Dr-DAO inhibits the formation of immature ovaries by degrading these D-amino acids. Following sexual induction, Dr-DAO expression was observed in the ovaries. The knockdown of Dr-DAO during sexual induction delayed the maturation of the other reproductive organs, as well as ovary. These findings suggest that Dr-DAO acts to promote ovarian maturation and that complete sexual induction depends on the production of mature ovaries. We propose that Dr-DAO produced in somatic cells prevents the onset of sexual induction in the asexual state, and then after sexual induction, the female germ cells specifically produce Dr-DAO to induce full maturation. Therefore, Dr-DAO produced in somatic and female germline cells may play different roles in sexual induction. PMID:24434168

Maezawa, Takanobu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Haruka; Ono, Mizuki; Aoki, Manabu; Matsumoto, Midori; Ishida, Tetsuo; Horiike, Kihachiro; Kobayashi, Kazuya

2014-05-01

422

Genome-wide identification and analysis of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes in Prunus mume.  

PubMed

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins play important roles in plant desiccation tolerance. In this study, 30 LEA genes were identified from Chinese plum (Prunus mume) through genome-wide analysis. The PmLEA genes are distributed on all Chinese plum chromosomes except chromosome 3. Twelve (40 %) and five PmLEA genes are arranged in tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. The PmLEA genes could be divided into eight groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3, LEA_4, LEA_5, PvLEA18, dehydrin and seed maturation protein). Ten gene conversion events were observed and most of them (70 %) were identified in dehydrin group. Most PmLEA genes were highly expressed in flower (22/30) and up-regulated by ABA treatment (19/30). PMID:23086279

Du, Dongliang; Zhang, Qixiang; Cheng, Tangren; Pan, Huitang; Yang, Weiru; Sun, Lidan

2013-02-01

423

Emerging Roles of Nodal and Cripto-1: From Embryogenesis to Breast Cancer Progression  

PubMed Central

Breast carcinoma cells and embryonic progenitors similarly implement stem cell-associated signaling pathways to sustain continued growth and plasticity. Indeed, recent studies have implicated signaling pathways, including those associated with the Notch, and Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-?) superfamilies, as instrumental to both embryological development and breast cancer progression. In particular, Nodal, an embryonic morphogen belonging to the TGF-? superfamily, and its co-receptor, Cripto-1, are requisite to both embryogenesis and mammary gland maturation. Moreover, these developmental proteins have been shown to promote breast cancer progression. Here, we review the role of Nodal and its co-receptor Cripto-1 during development and we describe how this signaling pathway may be involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis. Moreover, we emphasize the potential utility of this signaling pathway as a novel target for the treatment and diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:19029628

Strizzi, Luigi; Postovit, Lynne-Marie; Margaryan, Naira V.; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Abbott, Daniel E.; Seftor, Richard E.B.; Salomon, David S.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

2011-01-01

424

Microspore embryogenesis and the development of a double haploidy protocol for cow cockle (Saponaria vaccaria).  

PubMed

Factors affecting microspore embryogenesis of cow cockle (Saponaria vaccaria) were evaluated including donor plant growing conditions, genotype, bud size, density, medium composition, and culture conditions. Of the two donor plant (day/night) temperature regimes evaluated (10/5 degrees C and 20/15 degrees C), plants grown at 20/15 degrees C were the most embryogenic. An embryogenic frequency of greater than 350 embryos/100 buds was observed in the most embryogenic genotype, cv. 'White Beauty'. Buds from 3-9 mm in length were evaluated for their embryogenic potential; buds that were 4-7.9 mm produced the most embryos/100 buds. Of all the media compositions evaluated, NLN medium with 15% sucrose resulted in the most embryos. Cow cockle microspores required an initial period of 32 degrees C for 3 days for production of microspore-derived embryos (MDEs). PMID:16231184

Kernan, Zoë; Ferrie, A M R

2006-04-01

425

Small peptides switch the transcriptional activity of Shavenbaby during Drosophila embryogenesis.  

PubMed

A substantial proportion of eukaryotic transcripts are considered to be noncoding RNAs because they contain only short open reading frames (sORFs). Recent findings suggest, however, that some sORFs encode small bioactive peptides. Here, we show that peptides of 11 to 32 amino acids encoded by the polished rice (pri) sORF gene control epidermal differentiation in Drosophila by modifying the transcription factor Shavenbaby (Svb). Pri peptides trigger the amino-terminal truncation of the Svb protein, which converts Svb from a repressor to an activator. Our results demonstrate that during Drosophila embryogenesis, Pri sORF peptides provide a strict temporal control to the transcriptional program of epidermal morphogenesis. PMID:20647469

Kondo, T; Plaza, S; Zanet, J; Benrabah, E; Valenti, P; Hashimoto, Y; Kobayashi, S; Payre, F; Kageyama, Y

2010-07-16

426

Ixodes pacificus Ticks Maintain Embryogenesis and Egg Hatching after Antibiotic Treatment of Rickettsia Endosymbiont  

PubMed Central

Rickettsia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that causes a variety of diseases in humans and other mammals and associates with a diverse group of arthropods. Although Rickettsia appears to be common in ticks, most Rickettsia-tick relationships remain generally uncharacterized. The most intimate of these associations is Rickettsia species phylotype G021, a maternally and transstadially transmitted endosymbiont that resides in 100% of I. pacificus in California. We investigated the effects of this Rickettsia phylotype on I. pacificus reproductive fitness using selective antibiotic treatment. Ciprofloxacin was 10-fold more effective than tetracycline in eliminating Rickettsia from I. pacificus, and quantitative PCR results showed that eggs from the ciprofloxacin-treated ticks contained an average of 0.02 Rickettsia per egg cell as opposed to the average of 0.2 in the tetracycline-treated ticks. Ampicillin did not significantly affect the number of Rickettsia per tick cell in adults or eggs compared to the water-injected control ticks. We found no relationship between tick embryogenesis and rickettsial density in engorged I. pacificus females. Tetracycline treatment significantly delayed oviposition of I. pacificus ticks, but the antibiotic’s effect was unlikely related to Rickettsia. We also demonstrated that Rickettsia-free eggs could successfully develop into larvae without any significant decrease in hatching compared to eggs containing Rickettsia. No significant differences in the incubation period, egg hatching rate, and the number of larvae were found between any of the antibiotic-treated groups and the water-injected tick control. We concluded that Rickettsia species phylotype G021 does not have an apparent effect on embryogenesis, oviposition, and egg hatching of I. pacificus. PMID:25105893

Kurlovs, Andre H.; Li, Jinze; Cheng, Du; Zhong, Jianmin

2014-01-01

427

The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. {yields} L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. {yields} Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

Homma, Taihei [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimizu, Miho [Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)] [Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kuroda, Reiko, E-mail: ckuroda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan) [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

2011-01-07

428

Coordinated metabolic transitions during Drosophila embryogenesis and the onset of aerobic glycolysis.  

PubMed

Rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells and embryonic stem cells rely on a specialized metabolic program known as aerobic glycolysis, which supports biomass production from carbohydrates. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster also utilizes aerobic glycolysis to support the rapid growth that occurs during larval development. Here we use singular value decomposition analysis of modENCODE RNA-seq data combined with GC-MS-based metabolomic analysis to analyze the changes in gene expression and metabolism that occur during Drosophila embryogenesis, spanning the onset of aerobic glycolysis. Unexpectedly, we find that the most common pattern of co-expressed genes in embryos includes the global switch to glycolytic gene expression that occurs midway through embryogenesis. In contrast to the canonical aerobic glycolytic pathway, however, which is accompanied by reduced mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, the expression of genes involved in the tricarboxylic cycle (TCA cycle) and the electron transport chain are also upregulated at this time. Mitochondrial activity, however, appears to be attenuated, as embryos exhibit a block in the TCA cycle that results in elevated levels of citrate, isocitrate, and ?-ketoglutarate. We also find that genes involved in lipid breakdown and ?-oxidation are upregulated prior to the transcriptional initiation of glycolysis, but are downregulated before the onset of larval development, revealing coordinated use of lipids and carbohydrates during development. These observations demonstrate the efficient use of nutrient stores to support embryonic development, define sequential metabolic transitions during this stage, and demonstrate striking similarities between the metabolic state of late-stage fly embryos and tumor cells. PMID:24622332

Tennessen, Jason M; Bertagnolli, Nicolas M; Evans, Janelle; Sieber, Matt H; Cox, James; Thummel, Carl S

2014-05-01

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The Spectra of Somatic Mutations Across Many Tumor Types - Michael Lawrence, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos The Spectra of Somatic Mutations Across Many Tumor Types - Michael Lawrence The Spectra of Somatic Mutations Across Many Tumor Types - Michael Lawrence, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011 You will need Adobe

430

Analysis of Somatic Mutations Across Many Tumor Types - Petar Stojanov, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Analysis of Somatic Mutations Across Many Tumor Types - Petar Stojanov Analysis of Somatic Mutations Across Many Tumor Types - Petar Stojanov, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need Adobe Flash

431

Absolute Quantification of Somatic DNA Alterations in Human Cancer - Scott Carter, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Absolute Quantification of Somatic DNA Alterations in Human Cancer - Scott Carter Absol