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Groups of butterfly species established under high-mountain conditions in the southeastern Russia were described. The role of species with different distribution including arctic-alpine and alpine ones typical of these conditions in the species composition was considered. Fifteen local faunas inhabiting the areas of Buryatia, Chita, Amur, and Sakhalin Regions, and Khabarovsk and Maritime Territories were taxonomically analyzed. The common faunistic background was found in the mountains of the Mongolian-South-Siberian and East-Siberian provinces, while only some elements of the high-mountain fauna were observed at individual elevations of the South-Okhotsk province. PMID:17352197
Species groups formed in light coniferous forests prevailing in southeastern Russia are considered using the example of butterflies. Problems concerning the formation of species composition and its originality in some insects groups are discussed. A classification analysis of species checklists for twelve local faunas of Transbaikalia and the southern Russian Far East is performed. It is shown that the faunas of areas occupied by light coniferous forests have a common background. PMID:19391481
This paper introduce a numeric procedure to determine the temporal evolution of the height, potential temperature and mixing ratio in the atmospheric mixing layer. The time and spatial derivatives were evaluated via forward in time scheme to predict the l...
Introduction: Sleep disorders, especially sleep breathing disorders, have not been well studied in the patients attending a family health center in Chile. Sleep breathing disorders have been linked to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Method: We studied a randomized sample of 180 adult patients (135 women and 45 men, with a mean age
Patterns of formation of island Rhopalocera fauna at the northern forest boundary in the region of Valdai inland ice were analyzed by the example of White Sea islands. The ecotone effect, typical for northernmost taiga and forest-tundra and introducing the transitional Rhopalocera fauna in near-tundra forest between the boreal and hypoarctic zones, was not observed on the White Sea islands. Island isolation provided for the absence of some Arctic species, entering near-tundra forest from the North, in the island fauna. Island Rhopalocera faunas represent poor variants of the northern taiga fauna lacking some polyzonal and temperate species and having a reduced set of Arctic boreal species. PMID:16771146
Entre los gerentes modernos existen inquietudes sobre la forma de motivar a los empleados. En anteriores artículos nos hemos expedido sobre la posibilidad de que la motivación se torne algo negativo cuando es excesiva; en efecto los empleados quienes se comprometen en demasía con la estima de sus supervisores y jefes como también con su propia elaboración al respecto de
RESUMEN La enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólica, en inglés non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), es definida como una acumulación excesiva de grasa en los hepatocitos. Presenta una prevalencia mundial de alrededor del 15 al 25%. Los factores de riesgo asociados frecuentemente a NAFLD son obesidad, diabetes tipo 2 y dislipemia. Por un lado se ha propuesto que una
Observations of the normal phase variations of the 16 kc/s signals radiated from Rugby, U.K., and received in College, Alaska, U.S.A., are given in the form of 15-day averages and standard deviations at 5 minute intervals. The relations between the diurna...
G.G. è un paziente di 62 anni, in condizioni generali discrete, che giunge alla nostra osservazione per la presenza di sintomi urinari del basso tratto urinario, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) pari a 16. Anamnesi familiare negativa per carcinoma prostatico. Il paziente esegue terapia con calcio antagonista per ipertensione arteriosa. Ha subito un intervento di colecistectomia. Il paziente riferiva inoltre una qualità di vita negativamente influenzata da sintomi minzionali irritativi che lo portavano ad alzarsi più di 3 volte a notte per urinare ed una pollachiuria diurna ogni 3 ore. Viene inoltre riferita un'attività sessuale moderatamente insoddisfacente. PMID:22101552
In 1868, Lydia Becker (1827-1890), the renowned Manchester suffragist, announced in a talk before the British Association for the Advancement of Science that the mind had no sex. A year later, she presented original botanical research at the BAAS, contending that a parasitic fungus forced normally single-sex female flowers of Lychnis diurna to develop stamens and become hermaphroditic. This essay uncovers the complex relationship between Lydia Becker's botanical research and her stance on women's rights by investigating how her interest in evolutionary theory, as well as her correspondence with Charles Darwin, critically informed her reform agendas by providing her with a new vocabulary for advocating for equality. One of the facts that Becker took away from her work on Lychnis was that even supposedly fixed, dichotomous categories such as biological sex became unfocused under the evolutionary lens. The details of evolutionary theory, from specific arguments on structural adaptations to more encompassing theories on heredity (i.e., pangenesis), informed Becker's understanding of human physiology. At the same time, Becker's belief in the fundamental equality of the sexes enabled her to perceive the distinction between inherent, biological differences and culturally contingent ones. She applied biological principles to social constructs as she asked: Do analogous evolutionary forces act on humans? PMID:23961688
INTRODUCTION: Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome was introduced into clinical practice in 1996 in order to describe unique syndrome, clinically expressed during hypertensive and uremic encephalopathy, eclampsia and during immunosuppressive therapy . First clinical investigations showed that leucoencephalopathy is major characteristic of the syndrome, but further investigations showed no significant destruction in white cerebral tissue [2, 3, 4]. In majority of cases changes are localise in posterior irrigation area of the brain and in the most severe cases anterior region is also involved. Taking into consideration all above mentioned facts, the suggested term was Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) for the syndrome clinically expressed by neurological manifestations derived from cortical and subcortical changes localised in posterior regions of cerebral hemispheres, cerebral trunk and cerebellum . CASE REPORT: Patient, aged 53 years, was re-hospitalized in Cardiovascular Institute "Dediwe" two months after successful aorto-coronary bypass performed in June 2001 due to the chest bone infection. During the treatment of the infection (according to the antibiogram) in September 2001, patient in evening hours developed headache and blurred vision. The recorded blood pressure was 210/120 mmHg so antihypertensive treatment was applied (Nifedipin and Furosemid). After this therapy there was no improvement and intensive headache with fatigue and loss of vision developed. Neurological examination revealed cortical blindness and left hemiparesis. Manitol (20%, 60 ccm every 3 hours) and i.v. Nytroglicerin (high blood pressure). Brain CT revealed oedema of parieto-occipital regions of both hemispheres, more emphasized on the right. (Figure 1a, b, c). There was no sign of focal ischemia even in deeper sections (Figure 1d, e, f). Following three days enormous high blood pressure values were registered. On the fourth day the significant clinical improvement occurred with lowering of blood pressure, better mental state and better vision. There was no sign of left hemiparesis on the 7th day. On the 9th day there were no symptoms or sign of disease. Control brain CT (15th day) was normal. ETHIOPATHOGENESIS: Most common causes of PRES are hypertensive encephalopathy [6-8], pre-eclampsia/eclampsia [9-12] cyclosporin A administration [13-22] and uremic encephalopathy . There are several theories about the mechanism for PRES in hypertensive encephalopathy (reversible vasospasm and hyperperfusion) and administration of cyclosporin A (neurotoxic effect). CLINICAL PICTURE: Most common symptoms are headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, behavioural changes, changes of conciousness (from somnolencia to stupor), vision disturbances (blurred vision, haemianopsia, cortical blindness) and epileptic manifestations (mostly focal attacks with secondary generalisation). Mental functions are characterised with decreased activity and reactivity, confusion, loss of concentration and mild type of amnesia. Lethargy is often initial sign, sometimes accompanied with phases of agitation. Stupor and coma rarely occurred. DIAGNOSIS: In patients with hypertensive encephalopathy and eclampsia high blod pressure is registered. Neurological examination revealed vision changes and damages of mental function as well as increased reflex activity. Today, brain MRI and CT are considered the most important diagnostic method for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with PRES . Brain MRI better detects smaller focal parenhim abnormalities than brain CT. The most often neuroradiological finding is relatively symmetrical oedema of white cerebral tissue in parieto-occipital regions of both cerebral hemispheres. Gray cerebral tissue is sometimes involved, usually in mild form of disease. Diagnosis of this "cortical" form of PRES is possible by MR FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery) technique . TREATMENT: Therapeutic strategy depends on the cause of PRES and clinical picture. Most important are blood pres