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Sample records for sore throat systematic

  1. Sore Throat

    MedlinePlus

    ... sore throat will return and also helps prevent antibiotic resistance. What is the treatment for a sore throat ... given to children younger than 18 years of age. Gargle with warm salt water (1 teaspoon of ...

  2. Postoperative sore throat: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    El-Boghdadly, K; Bailey, C R; Wiles, M D

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative sore throat has a reported incidence of up to 62% following general anaesthesia. In adults undergoing tracheal intubation, female sex, younger age, pre-existing lung disease, prolonged duration of anaesthesia and the presence of a blood-stained tracheal tube on extubation are associated with the greatest risk. Tracheal intubation without neuromuscular blockade, use of double-lumen tubes, as well as high tracheal tube cuff pressures may also increase the risk of postoperative sore throat. The expertise of the anaesthetist performing tracheal intubation appears to have no influence on the incidence in adults, although it may in children. In adults, the i-gel(™) supraglottic airway device results in a lower incidence of postoperative sore throat. Cuffed supraglottic airway devices should be inflated sufficiently to obtain an adequate seal and intracuff pressure should be monitored. Children with respiratory tract disease are at increased risk. The use of supraglottic airway devices, oral, rather than nasal, tracheal intubation and cuffed, rather than uncuffed, tracheal tubes have benefit in reducing the incidence of postoperative sore throat in children. Limiting both tracheal tube and supraglottic airway device cuff pressure may also reduce the incidence. PMID:27158989

  3. Pharyngitis - sore throat

    MedlinePlus

    Pharyngitis - bacterial; Sore throat ... caused by swelling in the back of the throat (pharynx) between the tonsils and the voice box (larynx). Most sore throats are caused by colds, the flu, coxsackie virus ...

  4. Sore Throat (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Sore ...

  5. Resolving the Sore Throat Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Brian; Yassi, Anna Lee

    1981-01-01

    Many physicians ignore the traditional dictum that throat culture is the only tool of value in assessing sore throat. A review of the literature supports this skepticism. Evidence indicates that clinical assessment has been underestimated and the significance of positive culture exaggerated. An approach to managing pharyngitis utilizing the combined strengths of throat culture and clinical assessment is proposed. This approach avoids needless cultures, minimizes unnecessary antibiotic use, achieves prompt clinical improvement in patients whose symptoms are most severe and reduces the risk of long term morbidity from rheumatic heart disease to negligible levels. PMID:21289692

  6. Soothing a Sore Throat

    MedlinePlus

    ... infectious disease expert at NIH. “Having lozenges or hard candies—or anything that stimulates saliva production—will keep ... fluids.” For young children who might choke on hard candies or lozenges, try cold liquids and popsicles. Throat ...

  7. Doctor, I have a sore throat

    PubMed Central

    Dholakia, Shamik; Hashimi, Yasmin

    2013-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare yet potentially fatal cause of sore throat. Recently published literature suggests an increase in the incidence of this ‘forgotten disease’, highlighting Lemierre's syndrome as a clinically important differential diagnosis of sore throat. We present a case report of an 85-year-old man who developed a sore throat, which illustrates the re-emergence of Lemierre's syndrome. Reducing the morbidity and mortality from this disease requires a high index of clinical suspicion to ensure prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate multidisciplinary management. PMID:23376662

  8. Doctor, I have a sore throat.

    PubMed

    Dholakia, Shamik; Hashimi, Yasmin

    2013-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare yet potentially fatal cause of sore throat. Recently published literature suggests an increase in the incidence of this 'forgotten disease', highlighting Lemierre's syndrome as a clinically important differential diagnosis of sore throat. We present a case report of an 85-year-old man who developed a sore throat, which illustrates the re-emergence of Lemierre's syndrome. Reducing the morbidity and mortality from this disease requires a high index of clinical suspicion to ensure prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate multidisciplinary management. PMID:23376662

  9. Treating Sore Throats: Practice vs. Theory

    PubMed Central

    Hutten-Czapski, P.

    1987-01-01

    The management of a seemingly simple and common ailment, the sore throat, is shrouded in considerable controversy. At present, authoritarian opinion, stressing prevention of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), is in conflict with the practices of a large segment of the profession, whose members seem to treat primarily for symptom relief. Recent developments, in fields as diverse as epidemiology of ARF, clinical decision making, laboratory tests for streptococcus, and clinical trials of penicillin, are in support of management that is directed primarily towards symptom relief and secondarily towards prevention of ARF. PMID:21263777

  10. Pregame Sore Throat, Postgame Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Stork, Natalie C; Smoot, M Kyle

    2016-05-01

    A collegiate football athlete presented, on game day, with an acute onset of sore throat. He was afebrile, speaking in full sentences, without signs of respiratory distress. His examination was negative for lymphadenopathy or tonsillar enlargement or exudate. Twelve hours after initial presentation, he developed acute epiglottitis. He underwent urgent fiberoptic intubation and was empirically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids. Currently, there are no published reports of acute epiglottitis in athletes. Consequently, there is no evidence to guide return to play decisions. Return to play, following acute epiglottitis, should include resolution of symptoms and a graded return to play, taking into consideration the level of deconditioning the athlete experienced from hospitalization. PMID:26247550

  11. Effect of Intracuff Lidocaine on Postoperative Sore Throat and the Emergence Phenomenon: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Fai; Lin, Yu-Cih; Tsai, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, Ta-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative sore throat and other airway morbidities are common and troublesome after endotracheal tube intubation general anesthesia (ETGA). We propose lidocaine as endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff inflation media to reduce the postintubation-related emergence phenomenon. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases systematically for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated the outcome of intracuff lidocaine versus air or saline in patients receiving ETGA. Using a random-effects model, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relative risks (RRs) and mean difference (MD) of the incidence and intensity of relevant adverse outcomes. Results We reviewed nineteen trials, which comprised 1566 patients. The incidence of early- and late-phase postoperative sore throat (POST), coughing, agitation, hoarseness, and dysphonia decreased significantly in lidocaine groups, with RRs of 0.46 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31 to 0.68), 0.41 (95% CI: 0.25 to 0.66), 0.43 (95% CI: 0.31 to 0.62), 0.37 (95% CI: 0.25 to 0.55), 0.43 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.63), and 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.5), respectively, when compared with the control groups. The severity of POST also reduced significantly (mean difference [MD] -16.43 mm, 95% CI: -21.48 to -11.38) at 1 h and (MD -10.22 mm, 95% CI: -13.5 to -6.94) at 24 h. Both alkalinized and non-alkalinized lidocaine in the subgroup analyses showed significant benefits in emergence phenomena prevention compared with the control. Conclusion Our results indicate that both alkalinized and non-alkalinized intracuff lidocaine may prevent and alleviate POST and postintubation-related emergence phenomena. PMID:26288276

  12. Just a sore throat? Uncommon causes of significant respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Dalia; Bichard, Julia; Shah, Anand; Mann, Bhupinder

    2013-01-01

    We present two uncommon underlying causes of a sore throat which, if missed or delayed in diagnosis, can lead to disastrous consequences. Our first case is of Lemierre's syndrome diagnosed in a 21-year-old man presenting with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and bilateral pulmonary nodules on CT imaging. Fusobacterium necrophorum cultured from peripheral blood and an occluded left internal jugular vein on ultrasound lead to an eventual diagnosis. Our second case presents a 29-year-old woman with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever and right-sided pleuritic chest pain. A left-sided quinsy was diagnosed and aspirated and the patient was discharged home. She represented shortly with worsening pleuritic pain and was found to have a right-sided pleural effusion with descending mediastinitis originating from the tonsillar abscess. Delayed diagnosis resulted in open thoracotomy, decortication and prolonged intravenous antibiotics. PMID:23632177

  13. Just a sore throat? Uncommon causes of significant respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Dalia; Bichard, Julia; Shah, Anand; Mann, Bhupinder

    2013-01-01

    We present two uncommon underlying causes of a sore throat which, if missed or delayed in diagnosis, can lead to disastrous consequences. Our first case is of Lemierre's syndrome diagnosed in a 21-year-old man presenting with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and bilateral pulmonary nodules on CT imaging. Fusobacterium necrophorum cultured from peripheral blood and an occluded left internal jugular vein on ultrasound lead to an eventual diagnosis. Our second case presents a 29-year-old woman with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever and right-sided pleuritic chest pain. A left-sided quinsy was diagnosed and aspirated and the patient was discharged home. She represented shortly with worsening pleuritic pain and was found to have a right-sided pleural effusion with descending mediastinitis originating from the tonsillar abscess. Delayed diagnosis resulted in open thoracotomy, decortication and prolonged intravenous antibiotics. PMID:23632177

  14. School Nurses on the Front Lines of Medicine: A Student With Fever and Sore Throat.

    PubMed

    Olympia, Robert P

    2016-05-01

    Fever and sore throat are common chief complaints encountered by school nurses. This article explains the etiology of both fever and sore throat in children, describes the office assessment, and delineates life-threatening complications associated with fever and sore throat that may prompt the school nurse to transfer the child to a local emergency department. PMID:27091630

  15. Group A streptococcal sore throat in a periurban population of northern India: a one-year prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, S.; Kumar, R.; Ray, P.; Vohra, H.; Ganguly, N. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and risk factors of group A streptococcus (GAS) sore throat among school-aged children living in a periurban slum area of Chandigarh, North India. METHODS: A total of 536 children aged 5-15 years from 261 families identified by a systematic random selection method were enrolled in the study. Episodes of sore throat were recorded through fortnightly home visits over a one-year period. The local vernacular (Hindi) terms gala kharab (bad throat) and khansi jukam (cough and cold) were used to identify symptoms of sore throat, and throat swab specimens were collected from children who had these symptoms on the day of the home visit. Bacterial culture was carried out and the isolation of GAS was confirmed using group-A-specific antiserum. FINDINGS: The incidences of sore throat and GAS sore throat were, respectively, 7.05 and 0.95 episodes per child-year. The incidence was higher in the following situations: among 11-year-olds, during the winter (November to January) and rainy (August) months (a bimodal peak), among children living in houses where there was no separate room for the kitchen, and in homes that included a tobacco smoker. CONCLUSION: The results show that the incidence of GAS sore throat was related to age, season, and indoor air pollution. PMID:11436474

  16. [Tonsillitis and sore throat in childhood].

    PubMed

    Stelter, K

    2014-03-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcome after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy slowly change in Germany since that. However, there exist no national guidelines and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies in the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under 6 years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i. e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (= tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  17. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children.

    PubMed

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  18. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children

    PubMed Central

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  19. Life threatening complication of sore throat: Lemierre's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif; Ganesan, Subramanian; Arora, Manish; Hussain, Nahin

    2013-12-01

    The authors report a case of previously healthy toddler who presented with acute sore throat that led to bacteremia, septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, encephalopathy and pleural effusion. Magnetic resonance imaging and venogram showed thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. He was successfully treated with antibiotics and low molecular weight heparin. The authors review the literature and explore the presentation, management and the role of anticoagulation in this condition. To the authors' knowledge, this is one of the youngest patient reports with this condition in the literature. PMID:23275185

  20. Sore throat in a young man: guess what…

    PubMed Central

    Lazarescu, Roxana Elena; Prabhu, Vinay; Wallace, Camari; Htet, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Sore throat is a common complaint in the outpatient and emergency room settings. Typically, little workup is necessary and includes visual inspection with or without swabs for bacterial infection. We present a case that demonstrates an important entity to be excluded by simple history and physical examination in patients presenting with pain in the throat or neck. The most important cause of pneumomediastinum is previous instrumentation. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is uncommonly seen in young adults. Most cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum are uncomplicated, as mediastinal pressures rarely mount to dangerous levels. However, when the patient presents with distended neck veins, cyanosis or marked dyspnoea, further action is necessary. Lastly, since pneumomediastinum can be caused by oesophageal rupture and occasionally present with concurrent pneumothorax, these dangerous entities must be excluded. PMID:24951599

  1. An unusual case of a sore throat and otalgia in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Siupšinskienė, Nora; Padervinskis, Evaldas; Poškienė, Lina; Endeley, Nganjo; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2012-01-01

    A sore throat, otalgia, and snoring are the common symptoms seen in children presenting to an otorhinolaryngological clinic. Sometimes, however, these symptoms may be suggestive of an aggressive malignancy. We present a rare case of Burkitt's lymphoma of the tonsil in a young child, which initially manifested as a sore throat and otalgia. PMID:22864276

  2. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  3. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  4. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food and... anesthetic, chewing gum containing aspirin, various mouth washes and gargles and other articles sold over...

  5. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food and... anesthetic, chewing gum containing aspirin, various mouth washes and gargles and other articles sold over...

  6. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food and... anesthetic, chewing gum containing aspirin, various mouth washes and gargles and other articles sold over...

  7. Reconsidering sore throats. Part I: Problems with current clinical practice.

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, W. J.; Goel, V.; Slaughter, P. M.; Parsons, G. W.; Woolnough, K. V.; Weir, P. T.; Ennet, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence-based answers to clinical questions posed by family physicians about Group A streptococcus pharyngitis and to further understanding of why management is controversial. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Evidence from randomized trials was not found for most questions. The most critical information came from high-quality community prevalence studies and criterion standard studies of physician clinical judgement. MAIN FINDINGS: Expert recommendations for physician management are not likely to help prevent rheumatic fever, as most people with sore throats do not seek medical care. Current clinical practices result in overuse of antibiotics because accuracy of clinical judgment is limited. CONCLUSIONS: Costs associated with visits for upper respiratory infections as well as increasing antibiotic resistance necessitate reconsidering the current clinical approach. An alternative management strategy is presented in part 2. PMID:9116520

  8. The usefulness of a clinical 'scorecard' in managing patients with sore throat in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of a clinical scorecard in managing sore throat in general practice. Design: Validation study of scorecard for sore throat with a throat swab culture used as the 'gold standard'. Setting: A solo family practice in rural New South Wales, Australia Participants: Patients attending with sore throat. Methods Patients from the age of 5 years and above presenting with the main symptom of a sore throat, and who have not had any antibiotic treatment in the previous two weeks, were invited to participate in the study. The doctor completed a scorecard for each patient participating and took a throat swab for culture. Adult patients (> 16 yrs) were asked to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire, while guardians accompanying children (5 yr to < 16 yrs old) were asked to complete a similar, guardian questionnaire. Main outcome measures: 1. Ability of a new scorecard to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial sore throat. 2. Patients' trust in the scorecard. Results The scorecard has a sensitivity of 93.33%, a specificity of 63.16%, a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity is better than other sore throat scorecards that have been published but with a slightly lower specificity. There was a high level of patient trust in the scorecard was (85.8% agreement). Patients also trusted their doctor's judgement based on the scorecard (90.6% agreement). Conclusions As the scorecard has a high sensitivity but only a moderate specificity, this means that it is more reliable for negative results, i.e. when the result suggests a viral infection. When the result favours a bacterial sore throat, then a high sensitivity can mean that there are a number of false positives. GPs can be confident in withholding antibiotics when the scorecard indicates a viral infection. PMID:20670439

  9. Awareness about sore-throat, rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in a rural community.

    PubMed

    Arya, R K

    1992-01-01

    This I.C.M.R. study was conducted in 74 villages of Chiraigaon block, Varanasi, U.P., during the period March 1983 and December 1986. Before and after health education awareness survey about sore throat, rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease was carried out by interviewing 315 persons by stratified random sampling. The study shows that there is significant increase in the knowledge about most of the symptoms, causes, consequences and preventive measures of sore throat, rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. This paper highlights the importance of health education as a vital component of rheumatic heart disease control programme. PMID:1303991

  10. Difference between a Sore Throat, Strep, and Tonsillitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  11. When a Sore Throat Is a More Serious Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  12. Predictive Factors for Medical Consultation for Sore Throat in Adults with Recurrent Pharyngotonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Koskenkorva, T.; Koivunen, P.; Alho, O.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Objects. To seek patient- and episode-related factors that associate with medical consultation for acute sore throat because these factors may affect the patient being referred to specialist care and tonsillectomy for recurrent pharyngotonsillitis. Methods. In a secondary analysis of two prior randomised controlled trials, sore throat episodes and medical visits were explored among 156 adult patients referred for tonsillectomy because of recurrent pharyngotonsillitis. Results. The 156 patients (104 females, mean age of 26 years) suffered from 208 acute pharyngotonsillitis episodes during 5-6 months of follow-up. Forty (25%) patients visited a physician, and female gender (adjusted hazard ratio, HR, 3.3; 95% confidence interval 1.4–8.0) and finding of chronically infected tonsils (HR 2.7; 1.2–6.1) were associated with medical consultation. Thirty-six (17%) episodes led to medical consultation during the first 7 days of symptoms. Presence of severe throat pain was related to medical visit (HR 4.3; 1.0–18.5). Conclusions. Even among patients with recurrent pharyngotonsillitis, the acute sore throat episodes were usually mild and only few resulted in medical consultation, with female gender, chronically infected tonsils, and having severe throat pain increasing the consultation rate.

  13. Sore throat may be a clue to the early diagnosis of spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Wei; Chiu, Wen-Yi; Lo, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is defined as presence of air in the mediastinum without obvious cause such as esophageal perforation or abscess formation. It is a benign condition and usually resolved by itself in 1 to 2 weeks. The main symptom of spontaneous pneumomediastinum is retrosternal chest pain. Here, we present a young adult who complained about sore throat initially. Marked retropharyngeal emphysema was noted by neck x-ray. Pneumomediastinum was confirmed with chest x-ray and computed tomographic scan later on.We want to emphasize the importance of thorough history taking and lateral soft tissue neck radiograph on retropharyngeal emphysema in real time, which is key to the diagnostic workup for patients who present with persistent sore throat and dysphagia in young adult. PMID:25070194

  14. The prophylactic effect of dexamethasone on postoperative sore throat in prone position surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Yoon Chan; Choi, So Ron; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Jong Hwan; Chung, Chan Jong

    2016-01-01

    Background Sore throat and hoarseness are common complications after general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The position for patients can affect the incidence of postoperative sore throat (POST) by causing displacement of the endotracheal tube. This study investigated the prophylactic effect of dexamethasone in prone position surgeries. Methods One hundred-fifty patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery (18-75 yr) were randomly allocated into the normal saline group (group P, n = 50), dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg group (group D1, n = 50) or dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg group (group D2, n = 50). The incidence and severity of POST, hoarseness, and cough were measured using direct interview at 1, 6, and 24 h after tracheal extubation. The severity of POST, hoarseness, and cough were graded using a 4-point scale. Results At 1, 6, and 24 h after extubation, the incidence of sore throat was significantly lower in group D1 (1 h; P = 0.015, 6 h; P < 0.001, 24 h; P = 0.038) and group D2 (1 h; P < 0.001, 6 h; P < 0.001, 24 h; P = 0.017) compared to group P. There were less number of patients in the groups D1 and D2 than group P suffering from moderate grade of POST at 1, 24 h after extubation. The incidence of hoarseness at 1, 6, and 24 h after extubation was significantly lower in groups D2 than group P (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of cough among the three groups. Conclusions The prophylactic use of dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg in prone surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative sore throat and dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg decreases the incidence of hoarseness. PMID:27274371

  15. The Evolution of Web-based Medical Information on Sore Throat: a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Buonuomo, Paola Sabrina; De Rose, Paola; Onesimo, Roberta; Vituzzi, Andrea; D'Atri, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    Background The content of a page can change and is likely to change over time; this is one of the useful qualities of the Web, but also a dangerous one. Objective To monitor the evolution of Web page contents on sore throat over a 3 year period. Methods Two medical doctors independently evaluated 34 Web pages on sore throat. Pages were found using a metasearch engine. The evaluation factors were: the adherence of medical contents to a gold standard (American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations) composed of 5 subfactors (epidemiological, clinical, complications, diagnosis, and therapy); the completeness of the contents in terms of considered/missed factors of the gold standard; references to medical literature; and a specified last update of the page. During the observation period these sites were revisited twice, after 28 and 39 months, to examine any changes therein since the first visit. Results The degree of adherence to the gold standard did not significantly change. Variations (both positive and negative) were recorded solely with regard to the update and references factors as well as with regard to the availability of the pages over time (18% disappeared during the observation period). Conclusions In 3 years medical contents have not changed significantly and despite the contemporary epochal Internet revolution (in terms of, eg, technology, graphics, and access) and the increase in the number of sites dealing with the issue of sore throat, there has been no corresponding qualitative increase in the contents of the pages monitored. PMID:12857666

  16. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Sore Throat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews of Outpatient Stewardship Audit and Feedback ...

  17. Prophylactic Effects of Lidocaine or Beclomethasone Spray on Post-Operative Sore Throat and Cough after Orotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Banihashem, Nadia; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Hasannasab, Bahman; Zarei, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Post-operative sore throat and cough are common complications of endotracheal intubation. These conditions may be very distressing for the patient and may lead to unpleasant memories. This study was performed in order to determine whether beclomethasone and lidocaine spray could reduce the frequency of post-operative sore throat and hoarseness after tracheal extubation. Materials and Methods: Ninety women (18–60 years of age) with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II and undergoing elective mastoidectomy were randomized into three groups of 30 patients. The endotracheal tubes in each group were sprayed with 50% beclomethasone, 10% lidocaine hydrochloride, or normal saline (control group) before endotracheal intubation. Patients were examined for sore throat (none, mild, moderate, or severe), cough, and hoarseness at 1 and 24 h after extubation. Results: There was a significantly lower incidence and severity of post-operative sore throat in the beclomethasone group than the lidocaine and control groups (P<0.05) at each observation time point. At 24 h after extubation, the incidence and severity of sore throat and cough was significantly lower in the lidocaine compared with the control group. The incidence of hoarseness was not significantly different among the three groups. Conclusion: Spraying beclomethasone and lidocaine on the endotracheal tube is a simple and effective method to reduce the incidence and severity of post-operative sore throat. PMID:26082898

  18. Postoperative Sore Throat After Laryngoscopy With Macintosh or Glide Scope Video Laryngoscope Blade in Normal Airway Patients

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Atabak; Imani, Farsad; Makarem, Jalil; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Etezadi, Farhad; Habibi, Shirin; Shariat Moharari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Glide Scope videolaryngoscope provides a suitable view for intubation, with less force required. Objectives: The present study was conducted, to compare postoperative sore throat and hoarseness after laryngoscopy and intubation, by Macintosh blade or Glide Scope video laryngoscope in normal airway patients. Patients and Methods: Three hundred patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 150: Macintosh blade laryngoscope or Glide Scope video laryngoscope. The patients were evaluated for 48 hours for sore throat and hoarseness by an interview. Results: The incidence and severity of sore throat in the Glide Scope group, at 6, 24 and 48 hours after the operation, were significantly lower than in the Macintosh laryngoscope group. In addition, the incidence of hoarseness in the Glide Scope group, at 6 and 24 hours after the operation, were significantly lower than in the Macintosh laryngoscope group. The incidence and severity of sore throat in men, at 6 and 24 hours after the operation, were significantly lower than in the women. Conclusions: The incidence and severity of sore throat and hoarseness after tracheal intubation by Glide Scope were lower than in the Macintosh laryngoscope. The incidence and severity of sore throat were increased by intubation and longer operation times. PMID:24660157

  19. Understanding variation for clinical governance: an illustration using the diagnosis and treatment of sore throat.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Tom; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Lim, Hei Toon

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of clinical governance is to improve clinical care. An understanding of the information contained in variation is central to any improvement effort. We must distinguish between variation intrinsic to a process (common cause variation) and variation caused by extrinsic factors (special cause variation). The control chart is a method of distinguishing between these two kinds of variation: it is used in industry to effect improvement and may be useful in primary care. AIM: To illustrate the use of control charts to distinguish between common cause and special cause variation and to guide appropriate action. DESIGN OF STUDY: Analysis of diagnostic and treatment decisions for sore throat. SETTING: Single practice in the West Midlands. METHODS: We identified each general practitioner's (GP's) consultations for sore throat over a two-year period. We grouped these into two diagnostic categories (tonsillitis and non-tonsillar throat infection) and two treatment categories (antibiotics and no antibiotics). These data were illustrated graphically as XY control charts. RESULTS: In this practice, a special cause affects one GP's diagnosis--he is less likely to use the term 'tonsillitis'. A special cause also affects his treatment decisions--he is more likely to prescribe antibiotics. Diagnostic and treatment differences between the remaining GPs are consistent with common cause variation. CONCLUSION: In this practice, action to improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment of sore throat shouldfocus on investigating why one practitioner's diagnosis and treatment differs from that of his colleagues. Control chart analysis is valuable because it enables users to obtain practical guidance for action. PMID:11942443

  20. Strep throat

    MedlinePlus

    Pharyngitis - streptococcal; Streptococcal pharyngitis; Tonsillitis - strep; Sore throat strep ... Strep throat is most common in children between ages 5 and 15, although anyone can get it. Strep throat ...

  1. Predictors of suppurative complications for acute sore throat in primary care: prospective clinical cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Beth; Hobbs, F D Richard; Butler, Chris C; Hay, Alastair D; Campbell, John; Delaney, Brendan; Broomfield, Sue; Barratt, Paula; Hood, Kerenza; Everitt, Hazel; Mullee, Mark; Williamson, Ian; Mant, David; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective To document whether elements of a structured history and examination predict adverse outcome of acute sore throat. Design Prospective clinical cohort. Setting Primary care. Participants 14 610 adults with acute sore throat (≤2 weeks’ duration). Main outcome measures Common suppurative complications (quinsy or peritonsillar abscess, otitis media, sinusitis, impetigo or cellulitis) and reconsultation with new or unresolving symptoms within one month. Results Complications were assessed reliably (inter-rater κ=0.95). 1.3% (177/13 445) of participants developed complications overall and 14.2% (1889/13 288) reconsulted with new or unresolving symptoms. Independent predictors of complications were severe tonsillar inflammation (documented among 13.0% (1652/12 717); odds ratio 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.28 to 2.89) and severe earache (5% (667/13 323); 3.02, 1.91 to 4.76), but the model including both variables had modest prognostic utility (bootstrapped area under the receiver operator curve 0.61, 0.57 to 0.65), and 70% of complications (124/177) occurred when neither was present. Clinical prediction rules for bacterial infection (Centor criteria and FeverPAIN) also predicted complications, but predictive values were also poor and most complications occurred with low scores (67% (118/175) scoring ≤2 for Centor; 126/173 (73%) scoring ≤2 for FeverPAIN). Previous medical problems, sex, temperature, and muscle aches were independently but weakly associated with reconsultation with new or unresolving symptoms. Conclusion Important suppurative complications after an episode of acute sore throat in primary care are uncommon. History and examination and scores to predict bacterial infection cannot usefully identify those who will develop complications. Clinicians will need to rely on strategies such as safety netting or delayed prescription in managing the uncertainty and low risk of complications. PMID:24277339

  2. A clinical score to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in patients with sore throat

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, W J; White, D; Tannenbaum, D; Low, D E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate a score based on clinical symptoms and signs for the identification of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection in general practice patients with score throat. DESIGN: A single throat swab was used as the gold standard for diagnosing GAS infection. Clinical information was recorded by experienced family physicians on standardized encounter forms. Score criteria were identified by means of logistic regression modelling of data from patients enrolled in the first half of the study. The score was then validated among the remaining patients. SETTING: University-affiliated family medicine centre in Toronto. PATIENTS: A total of 521 patients aged 3 to 76 years presenting with a new upper respiratory tract infection from December 1995 to February 1997. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios for identification of GAS infection with the score approach compared with throat culture. Proportion of patients prescribed antibiotics, throat culture use, and sensitivity and specificity with usual physician care and with score-based recommendations were compared. RESULTS: A score was developed ranging in value from 0 to 4. The sensitivity of the score for identifying GAS infection was 83.1%, compared with 69.4% for usual physician care (p = 0.06); the specificity values of the 2 approaches were similar. Among patients aged 3 to 14 years, the sensitivity of the score approach was higher than that of usual physician care (96.9% v. 70.6%) (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients receiving initial antibiotic prescriptions would have been reduced 48% by following score-based recommendations compared with observed physician prescribing (p < 0.001), without any increase in throat culture use. CONCLUSIONS: An age-appropriate sore throat score identified GAS infection in children and adults with sore throat better than usual care by family physicians, with significant reductions in unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics. A randomized trial

  3. A comparative study of the diagnostic methods for Group A streptococcal sore throat in two reference hospitals in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Gonsu, Hortense Kamga; Bomki, Cynthia Mbimenyuy; Djomou, François; Toukam, Michel; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Lyonga, Emilia Enjema; Mbakop, Calixte Didier; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sore throat is a common complaint in general practice which is more frequent in children. The most frequent pathogenic bacteria associated with this infection is Streptococcus pyogenes. Rapid Antigen Diagnostic Test (RADT) facilitates the rapid identification and consequently prompt treatment of patients, prevents complications, and also reduces the risk of spread of Group A Streptococcus (GAS). The main objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of a rapid streptococcal antigen detection test in patients with sore throat. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from January to April 2011 on patients aged 3 to 72 years consulting for pharyngitis or sore throat at the paediatric and Ear, Nose and Throat units of the University Teaching Hospital Yaounde and the Central Hospital Yaounde. Two throat swabs were collected per patient. One was used for the rapid test and the other for standard bacteriological analysis. Results The prevalence of GAS in the study population was 22.5%. Out of the 71 samples collected, the RADT detected group A streptococcal antigens in 12 of 16 positive cultures giving a sensitivity of 75%. The specificity of the rapid test was 96%, with positive predictive value of 85.7%, and negative predictive value of 93% respectively. Conclusion Rapid test may have an additional value in the management of patients with high risk of having GAS infection. However, tests with a higher sensitivity are needed for accurate and reliable results for early diagnosis of patients with sore throat caused by GAS.

  4. Salient beliefs and intentions to prescribe antibiotics for patients with a sore throat.

    PubMed

    Walker, A. E.; Grimshaw, J. M.; Armstrong, E. M.

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: General practitioners (GPs) in the UK continue to prescribe antibiotics for patients with sore throats despite evidence that they are ineffective and can contribute to the growth of antibiotic resistance in the population. This study uses the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate the strength of intention to prescribe antibiotics, and to identify the salient beliefs associated with this intention. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study testing hypotheses derived from the TPB. METHOD: A 66-item postal questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of GPs in one NHS region (N = 185). The questionnaire included measures of intention to prescribe antibiotics, attitude, behavioural beliefs and evaluations, normative beliefs and evaluations, perceived behavioural control, control beliefs, and past prescribing. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the GPs returned complete questionnaires (N = 126, 68%). The majority intended to prescribe antibiotics for less than half of their patients with sore throats (N = 69, 55%). The variables specified in TPB predicted 48% of the variance in intention, with past behaviour adding a further 15%. Seven salient beliefs distinguished between doctors who intend to prescribe antibiotics and those who do not. CONCLUSIONS: Attitudes towards antibiotics and control beliefs are important predictors of intention to prescribe, as predicted by TPB. Interventions could target salient beliefs associated with motivation to prescribe. PMID:12614509

  5. The Effect of Flurbiprofen on Postoperative Sore Throat and Hoarseness After LMA-ProSeal Insertion: A Randomised, Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Uztüre, Neslihan; Menda, Ferdi; Bilgen, Sevgi; Keskin, Özgül; Temur, Sibel; Köner, Özge

    2014-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that flurbiprofen lozenges reduce the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (LMA) related symptoms of Post Operative Sore Throat (POST), hoarseness and dysphagia compared to placebo lozenges. Methods Eighty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I–II patients undergoing general anaesthesia with LMA were included in this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical and single centre (university hospital) study. Group F received an 8.75 mg flurbiprofen lozenge (Strefen®) and Group P received a placebo lozenge 45 minutes before the induction of anaesthesia. Postoperative sore throat, hoarseness and dysphagia were evaluated 30 minutes after removal of the LMA in the recovery room and then at 4, 12 and 24 h after surgery using a 4-point scale. Data were analysed using Student’s t test, and Fisher’s exact and Mann-Whitney U tests. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The 8.75 mg flurbiprofen lozenges reduced the severity of early (30 mins) POST and dysphagia. The severity of dysphagia at 4 h and hoarseness at 12 h were also significantly reduced in Group F. There were no significant differences betweeen the groups regarding incidence of sore throat, dysphagia and hoarseness throughout the study period. Conclusion Preoperative flurbiprofen lozenges reduce the severity of early postoperative sore throat and dysphagia. PMID:27366405

  6. Reconsidering sore throats. Part 2: Alternative approach and practical office tool.

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, W. J.; Goel, V.; Slaughter, P. M.; Parsons, G. W.; Woolnough, K. V.; Weir, P. T.; Ennet, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a management approach for Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis that would address overuse of antibiotics and could be implemented immediately. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: No randomized, controlled trials were found; four observational studies met our criteria: simplicity, discrimination ability for GAS pharyngitis compared with throat culture, and validation in a different patient population. Only one scoring system fulfilled all three criteria. MAIN FINDINGS: Formal clinical scoring systems have the potential to improve family physicians' ability to identify and manage GAS pharyngitis. One system had been sufficiently validated to support its use in clinical practice. Four clinical characteristics (no cough, fever higher than 38 degrees C, exudate, and tender cervical nodes) linked to explicit management decisions form the basis for a sore throat score. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a clinical score for management of GAS pharyngitis can be recommended on the basis of the rarity of rheumatic fever in modern society, the resources devoted to management of upper respiratory tract illnesses, the volume of antibiotics prescribed, and the emergence of antibiotic resistance as a growing health issue. PMID:9116521

  7. Strep throat

    MedlinePlus

    Strep throat is a disease that causes a sore throat (pharyngitis). It is an infection with a germ called ... Strep throat is most common in children between ages 5 and 15, although anyone can get it. Strep throat ...

  8. Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this trial was to assess the relative efficacy of a sage/echinacea spray and a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray in the treatment of acute sore throats. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy controlled trial carried out in eleven general practices in Switzerland. A total of 154 patients (133 analyzed in per protocol collective) at least 12 years old with acute sore throat present for not more than 72 hours prior to inclusion and with a throat score ≥6 participated in the study. They used either an echinacea/sage spray or a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray with two puffs every 2 hours, in a double-dummy blinded manner, up to 10 times daily until they were symptom-free, for a maximum of 5 days. The main outcome measures was the comparison of response rates during the first three days. A response was defined as a decrease of at least 50% of the total symptoms compared to baseline. Results The echinacea/sage treatment exhibited similar efficacy to the chlorhexidine/lidocaine treatment in reducing sore throat symptoms during the first 3 days (P(x < Y) = .5083). Response rates after 3 days were 63.8% in the echinacea/sage group and 57.8% in the chlorhexidine/lidocaine group. For all secondary parameters, such as time to becoming symptom free, throat pain, and global assessments of efficacy by the physician and patient, no difference between the two treatments was seen. They were both very well tolerated. Conclusion An echinacea/sage preparation is as efficacious and well tolerated as a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray in the treatment of acute sore throats. PMID:19748859

  9. The effect of intravenous low dose ketamine for reducing postoperative sore throat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Noh, Jung Il; Lee, Su Myoung; Kim, Mun Gyu; Kim, Sang Ho; Ok, Si Young; Kim, Soon Im

    2010-01-01

    Background This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous low dose ketamine for reducing the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat (POST). Methods This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. The study population consisted of 70 patients between 20 and 70 years old who were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II and were scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were divided randomly into two groups. Patients in the ketamine group received an intravenous injection of 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine just before induction, followed by 10 µg/kg/min throughout the operation. Patients in the control group received intravenous saline instead of ketamine. The patients were interviewed 1, 6, and 24 h after the operation. The incidence and severity of POST were recorded. Results No significant differences in the incidence and severity of POST during the 24 h after the operation were found between the two groups (21/31 in the ketamine group vs. 26/34 in the control group, P = 0.398). Conclusions Intravenous injection of low dose ketamine was not effective for reducing POST. PMID:20651994

  10. Evaluation of preoperative Strepsils lozenges on incidence of postextubation cough and sore throat in smokers undergoing anesthesia with endotracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Divya; Agrawal, Sanjay; Sharma, Jagdish P.

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative sore throat (POST) is an undesirable side effect of endotracheal intubation. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures have been utilized for minimizing the morbidity caused by POST. We have tested use of Strepsils lozenges in providing efficacy for decreasing POST in smokers presenting for surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: 100 patients, 20-65 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II, either sex, history of smoking, posted for elective surgical procedure of more than 1 hour, requiring general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were included and randomly divided into groups (n = 50) to receive Strepsils (Group A) and sugar candy (Group B). The patients were assessed for cough, sore throat, and hoarseness of voice after extubation, 30 min, 12 hrs, and 24 hrs after extubation. Results: At extubation no cough was seen in 39 (78%) patients (group A) compared to 23 (46%) patients (Group B), and mild cough in 22% (Group A) and 52% (Group B). Incidence of sore throat at extubation was lower in group A compared to Group B (P = 0.04). At other times of observations (30 min,12 hrs and 24 hrs) there was a significant decrease in incidence of sore throat in Group A compared to Group B (P = 0.000). Hoarseness of voice was not observed in any patient in either group. Conclusions: Use of preoperative Strepsils lozenges decreases incidence of POST and maybe utilized as a simple and cost-effective measure for decreasing the symptoms of POST and increasing the satisfaction of patients. PMID:24843341

  11. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat.

    PubMed

    Mehreen, Arifa; Waheed, Muzzamil; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Najma

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17-21 mm, MIC: 7.12-62.5 μg/mL), Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16-20 mm, MIC: 15.62-31.25 μg/mL), Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16-20 mm, MIC: 12.62-62.5 μg/mL), Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20-22 mm, MIC: 3-15.62 μg/mL), Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21-25 mm, MIC: 7.81-31.25 μg/mL), and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14-20 mm, MIC: 7.81-31.25 μg/mL) showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93-0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27429983

  12. Effect of magnesium sulfate nebulization on the incidence of postoperative sore throat

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Monu; Chalumuru, Nitish; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a well-recognized complication after general anesthesia (GA). Numerous nonpharmacological and pharmacological measures have been used for attenuating POST with variable success. The present study was conducted to compare the efficiency of preoperative nebulization of normal saline and magnesium sulfate in reducing the incidence of POST following GA. Materials and Methods: Following institutional ethical committee approval and written informed consent, a prospective randomized double-blinded study was conducted in 100 cases divided into two equal groups. Patients included in the study were of either gender belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) status 1 or 2 undergoing elective surgery of approximately 2 h or more duration requiring tracheal intubation. Patients in Group A are nebulized with 3 ml of normal saline and the patients in Group B are nebulized with 3 ml of 225 mg isotonic nebulized magnesium sulfate for 15 min, 5 min before induction of anesthesia. The incidence of POST at rest and on swallowing and any undue complaints at 0, 2, 4, and 24 h in the postoperative period are evaluated. Results: There is no significant difference in POST at rest during 0th, 2nd and 4th h between normal saline and MgSO4. Significant difference is seen at 24th h, where MgSO4 lessens POST. There is no significant difference in POST on swallowing during 0th and 2nd h between normal saline and MgSO4. Significant difference is seen at 4th h, where MgSO4 has been shown to lessen POST. Conclusions: MgSO4 significantly reduces the incidence of POST compared to normal saline. PMID:27275043

  13. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat

    PubMed Central

    Mehreen, Arifa; Waheed, Muzzamil; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Najma

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17–21 mm, MIC: 7.12–62.5 μg/mL), Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 15.62–31.25 μg/mL), Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 12.62–62.5 μg/mL), Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20–22 mm, MIC: 3–15.62 μg/mL), Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21–25 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL), and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14–20 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL) showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93–0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27429983

  14. Comparison of illumigene Group A Streptococcus Assay with Culture of Throat Swabs from Children with Sore Throats in the New Zealand School-Based Rheumatic Fever Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bissessor, Liselle; Farrell, Elizabeth; Shulman, Stanford T.; Zheng, Xiaotian; Lennon, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a particularly important condition in areas of New Zealand where the incidence of acute rheumatic fever remains unacceptably high. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of GAS pharyngitis are cornerstones of the Rheumatic Fever Prevention Programme, but these are hindered by the turnaround time of culture. Tests with excellent performance and rapid turnaround times are needed. For this study, throat swabs (Copan ESwabs) were collected from schoolchildren self-identifying with a sore throat. Samples were tested by routine culture and the illumigene GAS assay using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Discrepant results were resolved by retesting of the same specimen by an alternative molecular assay. Seven hundred fifty-seven throat swab specimens were tested by both methods. The performance characteristics of the illumigene assay using culture on blood agar as the “gold standard” and following discrepancy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 82% and 87%, respectively; specificity, 93% and 98%, respectively; positive predictive value, 61% and 88%, respectively; and negative predictive value, 97% and 97%, respectively. In our unique setting of a school-based throat swabbing program, the illumigene assay did not perform quite as well as described in previous reports. Despite this, its improved sensitivity and rapid turnaround time compared with those of culture are appealing. PMID:26560542

  15. Comparison of illumigene Group A Streptococcus Assay with Culture of Throat Swabs from Children with Sore Throats in the New Zealand School-Based Rheumatic Fever Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Upton, Arlo; Bissessor, Liselle; Farrell, Elizabeth; Shulman, Stanford T; Zheng, Xiaotian; Lennon, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a particularly important condition in areas of New Zealand where the incidence of acute rheumatic fever remains unacceptably high. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of GAS pharyngitis are cornerstones of the Rheumatic Fever Prevention Programme, but these are hindered by the turnaround time of culture. Tests with excellent performance and rapid turnaround times are needed. For this study, throat swabs (Copan ESwabs) were collected from schoolchildren self-identifying with a sore throat. Samples were tested by routine culture and the illumigene GAS assay using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Discrepant results were resolved by retesting of the same specimen by an alternative molecular assay. Seven hundred fifty-seven throat swab specimens were tested by both methods. The performance characteristics of the illumigene assay using culture on blood agar as the "gold standard" and following discrepancy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 82% and 87%, respectively; specificity, 93% and 98%, respectively; positive predictive value, 61% and 88%, respectively; and negative predictive value, 97% and 97%, respectively. In our unique setting of a school-based throat swabbing program, the illumigene assay did not perform quite as well as described in previous reports. Despite this, its improved sensitivity and rapid turnaround time compared with those of culture are appealing. PMID:26560542

  16. Throat swab culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... bacteria or other germs that may cause a sore throat were found. What Abnormal Results Mean An abnormal ... bacteria or other germs that can cause a sore throat were seen on the throat swab. Risks This ...

  17. Do patients with sore throat benefit from penicillin? A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with penicillin V in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Dagnelie, C F; van der Graaf, Y; De Melker, R A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of antibiotic therapy in sore throat is questionable and this dilemma has been complicated by the emergence of multiple resistant strains of micro-organisms. AIM: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was undertaken in patients aged 4-60 years to assess the efficacy of penicillin V on the clinical course and bacteriological response in patients with sore throat in general practice. METHOD: Two hundred and thirty-nine patients presenting with an acute sore throat to 37 general practices in the Netherlands who were clinically suspected of group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS) were randomized for treatment with penicillin V (n = 121) or placebo (n = 118). Resolution of sore throat, fever and return to daily activities were evaluated by the general practitioner 2 days after the start of treatment and by the patients keeping a diary for 7 days. The result of throat culture after 2 days was evaluated. RESULTS: A difference in resolution of sore throat was present after 2 days in all patients, but was a result of GABHS-positive patients (n = 111; 46%) in favour of those randomized for penicillin V (adjusted odds ratio 5.3; 95% CI 1.9-15.1). An effect in the course of fever was also seen in GABHS-positive patients (adjusted odds ratio 5.3; 95% CI 1.02-27.7). A difference of 1-2 days was seen in clinical recovery. No difference was found in daily activities between the treatment groups. After 2 days, 4% of the penicillin-treated patients harboured GABHS compared with 75% of the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Only GABHS-positive patients benefit from penicillin V in their clinical cure in the first few days. Therefore, rapid testing is necessary. Treatment may be beneficial with regard to the clinical course, but it is not necessary. PMID:8945796

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Ambroxol Lozenges in the Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Sore Throat - a Pooled Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Mey, C; Koelsch, S; Richter, E; Pohlmann, T; Sousa, R

    2016-07-01

    A pooled analysis is presented of 7 placebo-controlled RCT that investigated lozenges containing ambroxol for pain relief in acute sore throat.2 242 patients were treated with different ambroxol doses or control treatments, 2 183 were evaluable for efficacy. The present analysis is focused on the recommended dose of 20 mg (AXL20): 856 patients were treated with AXL20, 847 with matched placebo lozenges (PL).The average reduction in pain intensity over the first 3 h after the first AXL20 ranged from 38% to 52% of the maximum achievable effect (MAE). The overall treatment difference between AXL20 and PL was 11% (95% CI: 8-13%) of the MAE (post-hoc meta-analysis). The corresponding NNT was 6.0 (CI: 4.7-8.4) for an average pain reduction from baseline of 33% of the MAE over the first 3 h.71.9, 79.0, and 85.3% of the AXL20-patients scored the efficacy as "very good or good" at the end of the 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) day, respectively, vs. 57.5, 64.4, and 70.4% of the PL-patients resulting in odds ratios of 1.9 (CI: 1.5-2.3) for the 1(st), 2.1 (CI: 1.7-2.6) for the 2(nd) and 2.43 (CI: 1.8-3.3) for the 3(rd) day.At the end of treatment 'no redness' or 'slightly red' was scored on pharyngeal inspection in 84.4% and 77.3% of AXL20- and PL-patients (OR: 1.6, CI: 1.3-1.9).AXL20-treatment was well tolerated and is safe and efficacious for acute uncomplicated sore throat of recent onset in adolescent and adult patients. PMID:27281448

  19. Throat Problems (Symptom Checker)

    MedlinePlus

    ... See complete list of charts. Throat pain and mouth sores, along with other cold and flu symptoms, are ... or on the sides or back of your mouth? Yes These sores are called CANKER SORES. They usually occur by ...

  20. A 44-Year-Old Man With Sore Throat and Fatigue After Using an Old Camper Van.

    PubMed

    Yap, Vanessa; Abrantes, Jessica; Cruz, Lucas; Wu, Ulysses; Lahiri, Bimalin

    2016-08-01

    A 44-year-old man from Connecticut with no significant past medical history presented to the ED with a 2-week history of sore throat and fatigue, subsequently developing cough, dyspnea, fevers, and chills. The patient reported buying an old camper van and noticed a large infestation of rodent droppings, which he had cleaned thoroughly from the cabin. He used the camper van on several camping trips in Vermont, and symptoms started on his return. PMID:27502993

  1. Efficacy of disintegrating aspirin in two different models for acute mild-to-moderate pain: sore throat pain and dental pain.

    PubMed

    Voelker, M; Schachtel, B P; Cooper, S A; Gatoulis, S C

    2016-02-01

    A recently developed fast-release aspirin tablet formulation has been evaluated in two different pain models. The dental impaction pain model and the sore throat pain model are widely used for assessing analgesia, including acute mild-to-moderate pain. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, parallel group and compared a single dose of 1000 mg aspirin with 1000 mg paracetamol and with placebo and investigated the onset and overall time course of pain relief. Speed of onset was measured by the double-stopwatch method for time to meaningful pain relief and time to first perceptible pain relief. Pain intensity and pain relief were rated subjectively over a 6-h (dental pain) and 2-h (sore throat pain) time period. In both models fast-release aspirin and commercial paracetamol were statistically significantly different from placebo for onset of action, summed pain intensity differences and total pain relief. Meaningful pain relief was achieved within a median of 42.3 and 42.9 min for aspirin and paracetamol, respectively, in the dental pain model. The corresponding numbers in sore throat pain were 48.0 and 40.4 min. All treatments in both studies were safe and well tolerated. No serious adverse events were reported and no subject was discontinued due to an adverse event. Overall the two studies clearly demonstrated efficacy over placebo in the two pain models and a comparable efficacy and safety profile between aspirin and an equivalent dose of paracetamol under the conditions of acute dental pain and acute sore throat pain. Trial registration These trials were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01420094, registration date: July 27, 2011 and registration number: NCT01453400, registration date: October 13, 2011. PMID:26603742

  2. Clinical symptoms and signs in sore throat patients with large colony variant β-haemolytic streptococci groups C or G versus group A

    PubMed Central

    Lindbæk, Morten; Høiby, Ernst Arne; Lermark, Gro; Steinsholt, Inger Marie; Hjortdahl, Per

    2005-01-01

    Background The role of large colony streptococci groups C or G as pathogen agents in sore throat has been questioned. Aim To analyse clinical features of patients with large colony streptococci groups C or G compared with patients with group A streptococci (GAS) and with negative cultures. Design of study Prospective study of patients with sore throat. Setting Two Norwegian general practices in Stokke and Kongsberg communities with 6500 patients. Method Frequency of clinical features in the three patient categories including the four Centor criteria (fever, anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, tonsillar exudates, and lack of cough), degree of pain on swallowing, pharyngeal rubor, C-reactive protein (CRP) values, patient age between 3 and 14 years, and duration of symptoms before seeing the doctor. A logistic regression analysis to find independent predictors was performed. Results Out of 306 patients with a sore throat, 244 were adults and 62 were children under 10 years old; 40% were men. One hundred and twenty-seven had GAS, 33 had streptococci groups C or G, and 146 had negative throat cultures. Forty-eight per cent of the GAS patients and 45% of the C or G patients met three or four of the Centor criteria. The logistic regression revealed that in patients with GAS considerable pain on swallowing, an age of 3–14 years and a duration of symptoms of ≤3 days or less were significantly associated with GAS infection in addition to the Centor criteria. The same results were found when all streptococci were analysed together, in addition elevated CRP was significant. In patients with streptococci group C or G an elevated CRP-value was significantly associated. Conclusion Patients with tonsillitis caused by streptococcus groups C or G have, to a large extent, the same clinical picture as patients with GAS. Large colony streptococci groups C and G should be considered as throat pathogens in line with GAS. PMID:16105370

  3. Pharyngitis - sore throat

    MedlinePlus

    Flores AR, Caserta MT. Pharyngitis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  4. Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Rob D; Gabriel, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness after exercise, risk of injury, and athletic performance. Method Systematic review. Data sources Randomised or quasi-randomised studies identified by searching Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro, and by recursive checking of bibliographies. Main outcome measures Muscle soreness, incidence of injury, athletic performance. Results Five studies, all of moderate quality, reported sufficient data on the effects of stretching on muscle soreness to be included in the analysis. Outcomes seemed homogeneous. Stretching produced small and statistically non-significant reductions in muscle soreness. The pooled estimate of reduction in muscle soreness 24 hours after exercising was only 0.9 mm on a 100 mm scale (95% confidence interval −2.6 mm to 4.4 mm). Data from two studies on army recruits in military training show that muscle stretching before exercising does not produce useful reductions in injury risk (pooled hazard ratio 0.95, 0.78 to 1.16). Conclusions Stretching before or after exercising does not confer protection from muscle soreness. Stretching before exercising does not seem to confer a practically useful reduction in the risk of injury, but the generality of this finding needs testing. Insufficient research has been done with which to determine the effects of stretching on sporting performance. What is already known on this topicReviews of the effects of stretching before exercising have drawn conflicting conclusionsThe literature on effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury has not been systematically reviewedWhat this study addsStretching before and after exercising does not confer protection from muscle soreness and stretching before exercise does not seem to confer a practically useful reduction in the risk of injury PMID:12202327

  5. PRImary care Streptococcal Management (PRISM) study: identifying clinical variables associated with Lancefield group A β-haemolytic streptococci and Lancefield non-Group A streptococcal throat infections from two cohorts of patients presenting with an acute sore throat

    PubMed Central

    Little, Paul; Moore, Michael; Hobbs, F D R; Mant, David; McNulty, Cliodna; Williamson, Ian; Cheng, Edith; Stuart, Beth; Kelly, Joanne; Barnett, Jane; Mullee, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between features of acute sore throat and the growth of streptococci from culturing a throat swab. Design Diagnostic cohort. Setting UK general practices. Participants Patients aged 5 or over presenting with an acute sore throat. Patients were recruited for a second cohort (cohort 2, n=517) consecutively after the first (cohort 1, n=606) from similar practices. Main outcome Predictors of the presence of Lancefield A/C/G streptococci. Results The clinical score developed from cohort 1 had poor discrimination in cohort 2 (bootstrapped estimate of area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (0.65), due to the poor validity of the individual items in the second data set. Variables significant in multivariate analysis in both cohorts were rapid attendance (prior duration 3 days or less; multivariate adjusted OR 1.92 cohort, 1.67 cohort 2); fever in the last 24 h (1.69, 2.40); and doctor assessment of severity (severely inflamed pharynx/tonsils (2.28, 2.29)). The absence of coryza or cough and purulent tonsils were significant in univariate analysis in both cohorts and in multivariate analysis in one cohort. A five-item score based on Fever, Purulence, Attend rapidly (3 days or less), severely Inflamed tonsils and No cough or coryza (FeverPAIN) had moderate predictive value (bootstrapped area under the ROC curve 0.73 cohort 1, 0.71 cohort 2) and identified a substantial number of participants at low risk of streptococcal infection (38% in cohort 1, 36% in cohort 2 scored ≤1, associated with a streptococcal percentage of 13% and 18%, respectively). A Centor score of ≤1 identified 23% and 26% of participants with streptococcal percentages of 10% and 28%, respectively. Conclusions Items widely used to help identify streptococcal sore throat may not be the most consistent. A modified clinical scoring system (FeverPAIN) which requires further validation may be clinically helpful in identifying individuals who are

  6. A Hyperhemolytic/Hyperpigmented Group B Streptococcus Strain with a CovR Mutation Isolated from an Adolescent Patient with Sore Throat

    PubMed Central

    Gendrin, Claire; Vornhagen, Jay; Frando, Andrew; Harrell, Maria Isabel; McAdams, Ryan; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococci (GBS) are ß-hemolytic, gram-positive bacteria that are typically associated with infections in human newborns or immunocompromised adults. However, mutation in the two-component regulator CovR/S relieves repression of hemolysin, potentially increasing virulence of GBS. We report the isolation of hyperhemolytic/hyperpigmented GBS strain from an adolescent patient who presented to the University of Washington clinic with symptoms of sore throat. While the patient also tested positive for mononucleosis, a GBS strain with increased hemolysis was isolated from the throat swab obtained from the patient. As hyperhemolytic/hyperpigmented GBS strains are typically associated with mutations in the regulator CovR/CovS, we sequenced the covR/S loci in the clinical isolate. An adenine to cytosine mutation resulting in a change in amino acid coding sequence from glutamine at position 120 to proline in CovR (Q120P) was identified. Introduction of the Q120P amino acid substitution in a CovR complementation plasmid abolished complementation of a ΔcovR mutant derived from the wild type GBS serotype Ia strain A909; these results confirm that the hyperhemolysis observed in the clinical isolate is due to the Q120P substitution in CovR. Antibiotic was prescribed and the patient's symptoms resolved without reported complications. This study represents the first report of the isolation of a hyperhemolytic/hyperpigmented GBS strain due to a covR/S mutation from an adolescent patient with persistent sore throat who was also diagnosed with mononucleosis. The isolation of GBS CovR/S mutants indicates their presence in settings of co-infections and includes adolescents. PMID:26913295

  7. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Are Cold Sores? Article Chapters What Are Cold Sores? Cold ... January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Canker and Cold Sores Aloe Vera May Help Relieve Mouth Sores ...

  8. Intravenous dexamethasone versus ketamine gargle versus intravenous dexamethasone combined with ketamine gargle for evaluation of post-operative sore throat and hoarseness: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Mohammadreza; Honarmand, Azim; Fariborzifar, Arghavan; Attari, Mohammadali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sore throat and hoarseness are the most frequent subjective complaints after tracheal intubation for general anesthesia. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous (IV) dexamethasone plus ketamine gargle for reducing the incidence and severity of post-operative sore throat (POST) and hoarseness. Materials and Methods: 140 patients (aged 16-65 year) scheduled for elective surgery were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated into four groups of 35 subjects each: Group K, gargled 40 mg ketamine in 30 ml saline; Group D, were infused 0.2 mg/kg IV dexamethasone; Group KD, gargled 40 mg ketamine in 30 ml saline plus 0.2 mg/kg IV dexamethasone; Group P (placebo) that received saline (gargle and IV). POST was graded at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 h after operation on a four-point scale (0-3). Results: The incidence and severity of POST were significantly lower in Group KD, compared with the other groups at all times after tracheal extubation for up to 24 h (P < 0.05). Also the incidence and severity of hoarseness were significantly lower in each Groups of KD and K and D compared with group placebo (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The prophylactic use of 0.2 mg/kg of IV dexamethasone plus ketamine gargle significantly reduced the incidence and severity of POST compared with using each of these drugs alone or using placebo. PMID:25371869

  9. Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... may form. Pressure sores are also called bedsores, pressure ulcers and decubitus ulcers. Symptoms What are the symptoms ... do to help pressure sores heal: Relieving the pressure that caused the sore Treating the sore itself Improving nutrition and other conditions to help the sore heal ...

  10. Mononucleosis - view of the throat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes a sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes, and fatigue. The throat may appear red and the tonsils covered with a whitish material. Mononucleosis and severe streptococcal tonsillitis appear quite similar. ...

  11. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes canker sores. Mouth injuries, stress, poor nutrition, food allergies and menstrual periods are some of the things that may increase your chances of getting a canker sore. Treatment How are canker sores treated? There is no cure for canker sores, but they usually go away ...

  12. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... cycle . Some research suggests that using products containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) can be associated with canker sores. SLS ... with toothpastes and mouthwashes that don't contain sodium lauryl sulfate. And avoid brushing the sore itself with a ...

  13. Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which ...

  14. Mouth sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... minerals in the diet, including vitamin B12 or folate Less commonly, mouth sores can be a sign ... sores often, talk to your provider about taking folate and vitamin B12 to prevent outbreaks. To prevent ...

  15. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  16. A qualitative study of GP, NP and patient views about the use of rapid streptococcal antigen detection tests (RADTs) in primary care: ‘swamped with sore throats?’

    PubMed Central

    Leydon, Gerry M; McDermott, Lisa; Moore, Mike; Williamson, Ian; Hobbs, F D Richard; Lambton, Tessa; Cooper, Rebecca; Henderson, Hugo; Little, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore patient and healthcare professionals’ (HCP) views of clinical scores and rapid streptococcal antigen detection tests (RADTs) for acute sore throat. Design Qualitative semistructured interview study. Setting UK primary care. Participants General practitioners (GPs), nurse practitioners (NPs) and patients from general practices across Hampshire, Oxfordshire and the West Midlands who were participating in the Primary Care Streptococcal Management (PRISM) study. Method Semistructured, face-to-face and phone interviews were conducted with GPs, NPs and patients from general practices across Hampshire, Oxfordshire and the West Midlands. Results 51 participants took part in the study. Of these, 42 were HCPs (29 GPs and 13 NPs) and 9 were patients. HCPs could see a positive role for RADTs in terms of reassurance, as an educational tool for patients, and for aiding inexperienced practitioners, but also had major concerns about RADT use in clinical practice. Particular concerns included the validity of the tests (the role of other bacteria, and carrier states), the tension and possible disconnect with clinical assessment and intuition, the issues of time and resource use and the potential for medicalisation of self-limiting illness. In contrast, however, experience of using RADTs over time seemed to make some participants more positive about using the tests. Moreover, patients were much more positive about the place of RADTs in providing reassurance and in limiting their antibiotic use. Conclusions It is unlikely that RADTs will have a (comfortable) place in clinical practice in the near future until health professionals’ concerns are met, and they have direct experience of using them. The routine use of clinical scoring systems for acute upper respiratory illness also face important barriers related to clinicians’ perceptions of their utility in the face of clinician experience and intuition. PMID:23558734

  17. Mouth sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... begin as blisters and then crust over. The herpes virus can live in your body for years. It only appears as a mouth sore when something triggers it, such as: Another ... medicines, penicillamine, sulfa drugs, and phenytoin.

  18. Mouth or Throat Pain or Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Soft, non-acidic fruit and vegetables, if tolerated Citrus fruit and raw vegetables Drinks, desserts, and other ... cookies (as tolerated), pie Gelatin Ice cream, sherbet Citrus juices (grapefruit, orange, lemon, and lime), tomato juice ...

  19. Canker sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... most cases, the canker sores go away without treatment. Try not to eat hot or spicy foods, which can cause pain. Use over-the-counter medicines that ease pain in the area. Rinse your mouth with salt water or mild, over-the-counter mouthwashes. (DO NOT ...

  20. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  1. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... be triggered by stress, food allergies, lack of vitamins and minerals, hormonal changes or menstrual periods. In some cases the cause is unknown. In most cases, the sores go away by themselves. Some ointments, creams or rinses may help with the pain. Avoiding ...

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to ...

  3. Throat Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harling, B. v.

    2010-02-01

    In this thesis, we study throats in the early, hot universe. Throats are a common feature of the landscape of type IIB string theory. If a throat is heated during cosmological evolution, energy is subsequently transferred to other throats and to the standard model. We calculate the heat transfer rate and the decay rate of throat-localized Kaluza-Klein states in a ten-dimensional model. For the calculation, we employ the dual description of the throats in terms of gauge theories. We discuss modifications of the decay rate which arise in flux compactifications and for Klebanov-Strassler throats and emphasize the role of tachyonic scalars in such throats in mediating decays of Kaluza-Klein modes. Our results are also applicable to the energy transfer from the heated standard model to throats. We determine the resulting energy density in throats at our epoch in dependence of their infrared scales and of the reheating temperature. The Kaluza-Klein modes in the throats decay to other sectors with a highly suppressed rate. If their lifetime is longer than the age of the universe, they are an interesting dark matter candidate. We show that, if the reheating temperature was 10^10 - 10^11 GeV, throats with infrared scales in the range of 10^5 GeV to 10^10 GeV can account for the observed dark matter. We identify several scenarios where this type of dark matter is sufficiently stable but where decays to the standard model can be discovered via gamma-ray observations.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Low Glutathione in Common Ear, Nose, and Throat Conditions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Asher, Benjamin Finkelhor; Guilford, Frederick Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Context • Oxidative stress and tissue-damaging, oxygen (O2)-related, free-radical formation is inherent in human metabolism, and the tissues of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) have an increased exposure to injury from those substances. Because glutathione (GSH) is a major component in an antioxidant defense against oxidative damage in ENT tissues, a review of the impact of lowered GSH and oxidative stress in conditions associated with the upper respiratory tract is warranted. Objective • The review intended to summarize the role that oxidative stress and GSH play. Design • The research team performed a literature review from 1980 to the present that was based on the following keywords: oxidative stress, oxidation, antioxidant, and GSH in common ENT conditions. The review found the following conditions: (1) rhinitis, (2) allergic rhinitis, (3) chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), (4) CRS with polyps, (5) otitis media with effusion, (6) chronic otitis media (COM), (7) COM and cholesteatoma, (8) tympanic membrane sclerosis, (9) tonsillitis, (10) Meniere's disease, (11) laryngeal conditions, and (12) chronic cough. Results • ENT conditions have been found to be associated with oxidative stress and with low GSH. A limited number of the reviewed studies discussed antioxidant use or repletion of GSH. Although only a few reports support the use of GSH or antioxidants as adjuncts in the management of ENT conditions, no reports of side effects were found related to their use. Conclusions • Many ENT conditions are associated with oxidative stress and decreased GSH, both locally in the affected tissues and systemically. The oxidative stress of those conditions may be related to depletion of GSH, which is increased by the higher levels of O2 in the upper respiratory tract. A small number of studies have reported clinical benefits from the use of an antioxidant or GSH support. The findings of benefits and the lack of reports of side effects suggest that the clinical use of

  5. Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection in the tonsils Pharyngitis - inflammation of the pharynx Cancers Croup - inflammation, usually in small children, which causes a barking cough Most throat problems are minor and go away on their own. Treatments, when needed, depend on the problem.

  6. Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes) Information for adults A A ... face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is a common, recurrent ...

  7. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  8. Throat infections are associated with exacerbation in a substantial proportion of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Thorleifsdottir, Ragna H.; Eysteinsdottir, Jenna H.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Sigurdsson, Martin I.; Johnston, Andrew; Valdimarsson, Helgi; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcal throat infections are known to trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, and several studies support the benefit of tonsillectomy. To evaluate the potential of tonsillectomy as a treatment, we used a retrospective study-specific questionnaire to assess the proportion of psoriasis patients with sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations. Our survey sampled 275 psoriasis patients. 42% of patients with plaque psoriasis reported sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations, and 72% of patients with confirmed streptococcal infections reported aggravation. Notably, women and early onset psoriasis patients were more likely to report psoriasis exacerbation after a sore throat (p<0.001, p=0.046 respectively). Other psoriasis aggravation factors were more common in patients with sore throat-associated exacerbations (p<0.01). 49% of tonsillectomized patients reported subsequent improvement and had more frequent sore throat-associated aggravation of psoriasis than patients who did not improve after tonsillectomy (p=0.015). These findings suggest a closer association between sore throats, streptococcal throat infections and plaque psoriasis than previously reported. PMID:26984718

  9. Throat Infections are Associated with Exacerbation in a Substantial Proportion of Patients with Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Thorleifsdottir, Ragna H; Eysteinsdóttir, Jenna H; Olafsson, Jón H; Sigurdsson, Martin I; Johnston, Andrew; Valdimarsson, Helgi; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur

    2016-08-23

    Streptococcal throat infections are known to trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, and several studies support the benefit of tonsillectomy. To evaluate the potential of tonsillectomy as a treatment, we used a retrospective study-specific questionnaire to assess the proportion of psoriasis patients with sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations. Our survey sampled 275 psoriasis patients. Of patients with plaque psoriasis, 42% reported sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations, and of patients with confirmed streptococcal infections, 72% reported aggravation. Notably, women and patients with early onset psoriasis were more likely to report psoriasis exacerbation after a sore throat (p < 0.001, p = 0.046, respectively). Other psoriasis aggravation factors were more common in patients with sore throat-associated exacerbations (p < 0.01). Of tonsillectomized patients, 49% reported subsequent improvement and had more frequent sore throat-associated aggravation of psoriasis than patients who did not improve after tonsillectomy (p = 0.015). These findings suggest a closer association between sore throats, streptococcal throat infections and plaque psoriasis than reported previously. PMID:26984718

  10. Cold Sores (HSV-1)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cold Sores (HSV-1) KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold Sores (HSV-1) Print A A A Text Size What's in ... person's lips, are caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) . But they don't just show ...

  11. Canker Sores (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the sores appear more than two or three times a year. Diagnosis Tests are usually not done to diagnose canker sores, as a doctor can identify them based on medical history and physical exam alone. If your child has very frequent or severe bouts of recurrent ...

  12. Sore Throat? Know When To Call the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... be. According to Phillip L. Accardo, DO, an osteopathic physician from Lee’s Summit, Mo., the key to treating ... does not support this functionality. About Osteopathic Medicine Osteopathic physicians, or DOs, are fully licensed to prescribe medicine ...

  13. Mouth and Throat

    MedlinePlus

    ... lips) or the oropharynx (the part of the throat at the back of the mouth). PDF Learning ... booklet covers: The anatomy of the mouth and throat Treatments for oral cancer, including taking part in ...

  14. Strep Throat Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Was this page helpful? Also known as: Throat Culture; Culture, Throat; Rapid Strep Test; Rapid Antigen Detection Test; ... beta hemolytic streptococcus Related tests: Influenza Tests ; Blood Culture ; ASO ; Anti-DNase B All content on Lab ...

  15. Throat or larynx cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  16. Throat or larynx cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... or use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long ...

  17. Lemierre's syndrome: the link between a simple sore throat, sore neck and pleuritic chest pain.

    PubMed Central

    Ajulo, P.; Qayyum, A.; Brewis, C.; Innes, A.

    2005-01-01

    An unusual case of tonsillitis which showed progression to this rare syndrome despite treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Lemierre's syndrome is a rare condition characterised by a triad of: sepsis, thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein along with pleuropulmonary and/or distant metastatic abscesses. Diagnosis rests on a high index of suspicion and is confirmed by culture of Fusobacterium spp. from blood or infected sites. Radiological investigations are established aids for confirmation of diagnosis. Treatment is with appropriate antibiotics for at least 6 weeks and surgical drainage of abscesses if required. This case has been presented to highlight the mode of presentation, diagnostic tools employed and the management of the complications that featured in this condition. PMID:16053693

  18. Osteomyelitis beneath pressure sores

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.; Hawes, S.; Musher, D.M.; Klima, M.; Young, E.J.; Pircher, F.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-eight pressure sores were evaluated prospectively. Osteomyelitis was reported histologically in nine of 28 bones and pressure-related changes were reported in 14 bones. Roentgenograms suggested the presence of osteomyelitis in four instances of histologically proved osteomyelitis. Technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scans were highly sensitive, showing increased uptake in all cases of osteomyelitis; however, increased uptake also occurred commonly in uninfected bones due to pressure-related changes or other noninfectious causes. Cultures of bone biopsy samples usually disclosed anaerobic bacteria, gram-negative bacilli, or both. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis must be considered if a pressure sore does not respond to local therapy. If the technetium Tc 99m medronate uptake is increased in the involved area, or roentgenographic findings are abnormal, the diagnosis can only be made with certainty by histologic examination of bone. Antibacterial treatment should be selected based on the results of bone culture.

  19. Taking Care of Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... between dressing changes. 6. Check for signs of wound healing with each dressing change. 7. If there are ... Surgery is frequently required for this type of wound. How to know if the sore is healing The sore will get smaller. Pinkish tissue usually ...

  20. Curvatons in Warped Throats

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2010-06-23

    We present a curvaton model from type IIB string theory compactified on a warped throat with approximate isometries. Considering an (anti-)D3-brane sitting at the throat tip as a prototype standard model brane, we show that the brane's position in the isometry directions can play the role of curvatons. The basic picture is that the fluctuations of the (anti-)D3-brane in the angular isometry directions during inflation eventually turns into the primordial curvature perturbations, and subsequently the brane's oscillation excites other open string modes on the brane and reheat the universe. We find in the explicit case of the KS throat that a wide range of parameters allows a consistent curvaton scenario. It is also shown that the oscillations of branes at throat tips are capable of producing large non-Gaussianity, either through curvature or isocurvature perturbations. Since such setups naturally arise in warped (multi-)throat compactifications and are constrained by observational data, the model can provide tests for compactification scenarios. This work gives an explicit example of string theory providing light fields for generating curvature perturbations. Such mechanisms free the inflaton from being responsible for the perturbations, thus open up new possibilities for inflation models. The discussions in this paper are based on [1].

  1. Curvatons in warped throats

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Mukohyama, Shinji E-mail: shinji.mukohyama@ipmu.jp

    2009-07-01

    We present a curvaton model from type IIB string theory compactified on a warped throat with approximate isometries. Considering an (anti-)D3-brane sitting at the throat tip as a prototype standard model brane, we show that the brane's position in the isometry directions can play the role of curvatons. The basic picture is that the fluctuations of the (anti-)D3-brane in the angular isometry directions during inflation eventually turns into the primordial curvature perturbations, and subsequently the brane's oscillation excites other open string modes on the brane and reheat the universe. We find in the explicit case of the KS throat that a wide range of parameters allows a consistent curvaton scenario. It is also shown that the oscillations of branes at throat tips are capable of producing large non-Gaussianity, either through curvature or isocurvature perturbations. Since such setups naturally arise in warped (multi-)throat compactifications and are constrained by observational data, the model can provide tests for compactification scenarios. This work gives an explicit example of string theory providing light fields for generating curvature perturbations. Such mechanisms free the inflaton from being responsible for the perturbations, thus open up new possibilities for inflation models.

  2. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV ... virus 1 (HSV1) is the common cause of cold sores (oral herpes) around the mouth. HSV2 normally ...

  3. Why Are My Breasts Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and it is often present in guys and girls. The breast bud may be a little tender and may cause you to worry but it's a normal part of puberty. It is also common to have sore breasts around the beginning of a girl's period, or menstruation. During her menstrual cycle, a ...

  4. Scoop on Strep Throat (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Scoop on Strep Throat KidsHealth > For Kids > The Scoop on Strep Throat ... bacteria to others. How Can I Prevent Strep Throat? If someone in your house has strep throat, ...

  5. Incidence and clinical variables associated with streptococcal throat infections: a prospective diagnostic cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Little, Paul; Hobbs, FD Richard; Mant, David; McNulty, Cliodna AM; Mullee, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background Management of pharyngitis is commonly based on features which are thought to be associated with Lancefield group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS) but it is debatable which features best predict GABHS. Non-group A strains share major virulence factors with group A, but it is unclear how commonly they present and whether their presentation differs. Aim To assess the incidence and clinical variables associated with streptococcal infections. Design and setting Prospective diagnostic cohort study in UK primary care. Method The presence of pathogenic streptococci from throat swabs was assessed among patients aged ≥5 years presenting with acute sore throat. Results Pathogenic streptococci were found in 204/597 patients (34%, 95% CI = 31 to 38%): 33% (68/204) were non-group A streptococci, mostly C (n = 29), G (n = 18) and B (n = 17); rarely D (n = 3) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 1). Patients presented with similar features whether the streptococci were group A or non-group A. The features best predicting A, C or G beta-haemolytic streptococci were patient’s assessment of severity (odds ratio [OR] for a bad sore throat 3.31, 95% CI = 1.24 to 8.83); doctors’ assessment of severity (severely inflamed tonsils OR 2.28, 95% CI = 1.39 to 3.74); absence of a bad cough (OR 2.73, 95% CI = 1.56 to 4.76), absence of a coryza (OR 1.54, 95% CI = 0.99 to 2.41); and moderately bad or worse muscle aches (OR 2.20, 95% CI = 1.41 to 3.42). Conclusion Non-group A strains commonly cause streptococcal sore throats, and present with similar symptomatic clinical features to group A streptococci. The best features to predict streptococcal sore throat presenting in primary care deserve revisiting. PMID:23211183

  6. Temperature in the throat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviani, Dariush; Mosaffa, Amir Esmaeil

    2016-09-01

    We study the temperature of extended objects in string theory. Rotating probe D-branes admit horizons and temperatures a la Unruh effect. We find that the induced metrics on slow rotating probe D1-branes in holographic string solutions including warped Calabi-Yau throats have distinct thermal horizons with characteristic Hawking temperatures even if there is no black hole in the bulk Calabi-Yau. Taking the UV/IR limits of the solution, we show that the world volume black hole nucleation depends on the deformation and the warping of the throat. We find that world volume horizons and temperatures of expected features form not in the regular confining IR region but in the singular nonconfining UV solution. In the conformal limit of the UV, we find horizons and temperatures similar to those on rotating probes in the AdS throat found in the literature. In this case, we also find that activating a background gauge field form the U (1) R-symmetry modifies the induced metric with its temperature describing two different classes of black hole solutions.

  7. Pressure sores in nursing home patients.

    PubMed

    Weiler, P G; Franzi, C; Kecskes, D

    1990-09-01

    One hundred and sixty-seven patients were part of a cross-sectional study examining pressure sores in patients in skilled nursing facilities. Every patient admitted to this study was physically examined for the presence or absence of pressure sores and evaluated according to a standardized procedure. Using logistic regression analysis, the variables most significantly associated with pressure sores included a history of hypertension, infection, unwelcome response to visitors, history of poor dietary intake and a pattern of slow or poor response to commands. Knowledge of these factors may lead to more intensive efforts to develop better methods of prevention and treatment of pressure sores. PMID:2094365

  8. How to care for pressure sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... to protect the area from bodily fluids. Ask your doctor what type of moisturizer to use. Stage II pressure sores ... sore moist so it can heal. Talk with your doctor about what type of dressing to use. Depending on the size ...

  9. Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are common ... What ENT Problems Are Common in Children With Down Syndrome? External Ear Canal Stenosis Stenotic ear canals (narrow ...

  10. [Prevalence and prevention and treatment modalities for pressure sores. Study of the Emilia-Romagna region].

    PubMed

    Melotti, Rita Maria; Fortuna, Daniela; Chiari, Paolo; Cavicchioli, Andrea; Mongardi, Maria; Santullo, Antonella; Grilli, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    This audit initiative aimed at assessing the prevalence of pressure sores in the public hospitals of Emilia-Romagna, and at monitoring the rate of use of specific modalities of prevention and cure. The design was cross-sectional, with information collected on three index days during 2000 by trained personnel. Overall, the prevalence of pressure sores at the regional level was 7.1%, with remarkable variation across hospitals (from 2.9% to 9.7%), also after adjustment for case mix. As for patterns of prevention and cure, 74% of patients at risk (according to the Braden scale) of developing a pressure sores received only standard low technology devices, and 50% of those in need were included in a systematic programme of postural change. Adequate (according to the available evidence) medications were used in 45% of patients with a pressure sore. The overall prevalence of pressure sore is close (or even inferior) to that observed in similar studies. However, variation between hospitals indicates that the current health services ability to deal with pressure sore is variable and often suboptimal. This evaluation is also supported by the limited adoption of adequate preventive and curative modalities. PMID:12958732

  11. [A boy with blood blisters on his lips after having a sore throat].

    PubMed

    van Els, Anne L; Drewes, A J Noud

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy came to the Emergency Department with blood blisters on both lips, limiting him in his oral intake. He had no history of herpes simplex or use of any medication. The symptoms turned out to be caused by erythema exsudativum multiforme major, in most cases a self-limiting disease. PMID:25227887

  12. [Research on acupuncture for throat diseases in Qing Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Ji, Zheng-han; Zu, Na

    2012-06-01

    The accurate acupoint and application of acupuncture for throat diseases described in Zheng Mei-jian's book Chonglou Yuyao (Jade key to the secluded chamber) is clarified through exploration on recordings of the relative acupuncture skills in medical literatures of the mid-Qing Dynasty. It is found that the so called open-the-wind-way-acupuncture includes at least two groups of acupoints on the hand and the head, they are applied respectively for light and severe cases of sore-throat. Together with the third group of points which is used for the extremely severe cases, the three groups of points are all classified into the concept of qi-acupuncture. Although the composition of acupoints and process of application are different in recordings of various medical literatures in same periods, the treating principles are all focused on "opening the passage for elimination of the wind so as to remove the pathogenic wind-heat and promote blood circulation". PMID:22741274

  13. Doctors Report on Success of Throat Reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158217.html Doctors Report on Success of Throat Reconstruction Seven years after receiving metal stents, donated ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An American man who underwent throat reconstruction seven years ago has no swallowing problems ...

  14. Strep Test: Throat Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Strep Test: Throat Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Strep Test: Throat Culture Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Exudado faríngeo: rápido What It Is A throat culture or strep test is performed by using a ...

  15. Silicone moulding for pressure sore debridement.

    PubMed

    Erba, P; Wettstein, R; Schumacher, R; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, K; Pierer, G; Kalbermatten, D F

    2010-03-01

    The radicality of wound debridement is an important feature of the surgical treatment of pressure sores. Several methods such as injection of methylene blue or hydrogen peroxide have been proposed to facilitate and optimise the surgical debridement technique, but none of them proved to be sufficient. We present an innovative modification of the pseudo-tumour technique consisting in the injection of fluid silicone. Vulcanization of the silicone leads to pressure-sore moulding, permitting a more radical and sterile excision. In a series of 10 paraplegic patients presenting with ischial pressure sores, silicone moulding was used to facilitate debridement. Radical en bloc debridement was achieved in all patients. After a minimal follow-up of 2 years, no complications and recurrences occurred. A three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the silicone prints objectified the pyramidal shape of ischial pressure sores. Our study showed that complete resection without capsular lesion can be easily achieved. Further, it allows the surgeon to analyse the shape and size of the resected defect, which might be helpful to select the appropriate defect coverage technique. PMID:19167279

  16. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size Can you get genital herpes from a cold sore? – Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get ...

  17. Delayed onset muscle soreness: is massage effective?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    Despite the widespread occurrence of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), there is little consensus as to the exact cause or which treatments may be most effective at alleviating symptoms. Greater understanding of DOMS can give sports medicine and fitness professionals an opportunity to help prevent or speed recovery of this performance limiting condition. This article will review the DOMS literature, including the potential role of psychosocial factors and explore studies which involve massage therapy as a treatment modality. Articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and references from articles are included in this review. Search words and phrases included delayed onset muscle soreness, repeated bout effect, massage effectiveness, exercise induced muscle damage, and eccentric exercise. PMID:24139006

  18. Bifid throats for axion monodromy inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retolaza, Ander; Uranga, Angel M.; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    We construct a simple explicit local geometry providing a `bifid throat' for 5-brane axion monodromy. A bifid throat is a throat that splits into two daughter throats in the IR, containing a homologous 2-cycle family reaching down into each daughter throat. Our example consists of a deformed ℤ 3 × ℤ 2 orbifold of the conifold, which provides us with an explicit holographic dual of the bifid throat including D3-branes and fractional 5-branes at the toric singularities of our setup. Having the holographic description in terms of the dual gauge theory allows us to address the effect of 5-brane-antibrane pair backreaction including the warping effects. This leads to the size of the backreaction being small and controllable after imposing proper normalization of the inflaton potential and hence the warping scales.

  19. Pressure sore survey. Part 3: Locus of control.

    PubMed

    Maylor, M; Torrance, C

    1999-03-01

    This is the third in a three-part article which investigates the prevalence, knowledge and attitudes to pressure sores in one NHS trust. This study describes the methodology used in choosing and developing attitude scales to explore whether there are any relationships between the locus of control and pressure sore prevention. Factors to do with attitude and the value associated with pressure sore prevention have a central role. Attitudes and beliefs affect what we do and may contribute to pressure sore development. PMID:10362985

  20. Pressure sores and underlying bone infection

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.

    1987-03-01

    Pressure sores are a serious complication of hospitalized and chronically ill patients. Evaluation for underlying bone infection can be made difficult by radiographic, nuclear imaging, and soft-tissue culture studies that are abnormal and suggest the presence of bone infection, when no infection is present. Evaluation by bone biopsy with histologic and microbiological studies can accurately and promptly diagnose whether bone infection is present. This allows appropriate treatment when infection is present, and prevents unneeded and potentially toxic antibiotic therapy when preliminary studies incorrectly suggest that infection is present.

  1. Laser homeostatics on delayed onset muscle soreness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. C. Y.; Fu, D. R.; Liu, X. G.; Tian, Z. X.

    2011-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and its photobiomodulation were reviewed from the viewpoint of function-specific homeostasis (FSH) in this paper. FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific fluctuations inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A stressor may destroy a FSH. A stress is a response of a biosystem to a stressor and may also be in stress-specific homeostasis (StSH). A low level light (LLL) is so defined that it has no effects on a function in its FSH or a stress in its StSH, but it modulate a function far from its FSH or a stress far from its StSH. For DOMS recovery, protein metabolism in the Z-line streaming muscular cell is the essential process, but the inflammation, pain and soreness are non-essential processes. For many DOMS phenomena, protein metabolism in the Z-line streaming muscular cell is in protein metabolism-specific homeostasis (PmSH) so that there are no effects of LLL although the inflammation can be inhibited and the pain can be relieved. An athlete or animal in the dysfunctional conditions such as blood flow restriction and exercise exhaustion is far from PmSH and the protein metabolism can be improved with LLL.

  2. New concepts in the prevention of pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Bogie, Kath; Powell, Heather L; Ho, Chester H

    2012-01-01

    Pressure sores are a serious, and costly, complication for many patients with reduced mobility and sensation. Some populations, such as those with spinal cord injury (SCI), remain at high risk throughout their lifetime. Prevention is highly preferable and while the concept is readily definable, it is much more challenging to develop valid preventative measures. Subjective and objective approaches to risk factor assessment before pressure sores develop are reviewed, including risk status scales and emerging techniques to assess deep tissue injury. Devices to prevent pressure sores have traditionally focused on pressure-relieving cushions and mattresses. Technological advances being applied in the development of new pressure sore prevention devices are presented. Clinical evidence-based practice is integral to pressure sore prevention. Comprehensive assessment must include evaluation of systemic diseases, anatomical and physiological factors, together with environmental and psychosocial factors, which can all contribute to pressure sore development. Extrinsic factors need to be considered in conjunction with intrinsic tissue health factors and are reviewed together with an evaluation of currently available clinical practice guidelines. This chapter presents the broad diversity of factors associated with pressure sore development and highlights the need for an interdisciplinary team approach in order to maximize successful prevention of pressure sores. PMID:23098716

  3. Does Postexercise Static Stretching Alleviate Delayed Muscle Soreness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buroker, Katherine C.; Schwane, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Because many experts recommend stretching after exercise to relieve muscle soreness, 23 subjects performed a 30-minute step test to induce delayed muscle soreness. There was neither temporary relief of pain immediately after stretching nor a reduction in pain during the 3-day postexercise period. (Author/SM)

  4. Orientifolds of warped throats from toric Calabi-Yau singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retolaza, Ander; Uranga, Angel

    2016-07-01

    We study the complex deformations of orientifolds of D3-branes at toric CY singularities, using their description in terms of dimer diagrams. We describe orientifold quotients that have fixed lines or fixed points in the dimer, and characterize the possibilities to deform them in terms of the behaviour of zig-zag paths under the orientifold symmetry. The resulting models are holographic duals to warped throats with orientifold planes. Our systematic construction provides a general class of configurations which includes models recently appeared in the context of de Sitter uplift by nilpotent goldstino or dynamical supersymmetry breaking.

  5. Nozzle Aerodynamic Stability During a Throat Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawecki, Edwin J.; Ribeiro, Gregg L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the internal aerodynamic stability of a family of two-dimensional (2-D) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) nozzle concepts. These nozzles function during takeoff as mixer-ejectors to meet acoustic requirements, and then convert to conventional high-performance convergent-divergent (CD) nozzles at cruise. The transition between takeoff mode and cruise mode results in the aerodynamic throat and the minimum cross-sectional area that controls the engine backpressure shifting location within the nozzle. The stability and steadiness of the nozzle aerodynamics during this so called throat shift process can directly affect the engine aerodynamic stability, and the mechanical design of the nozzle. The objective of the study was to determine if pressure spikes or other perturbations occurred during the throat shift process and, if so, identify the caused mechanisms for the perturbations. The two nozzle concepts modeled in the test program were the fixed chute (FC) and downstream mixer (DSM). These 2-D nozzles differ principally in that the FC has a large over-area between the forward throat and aft throat locations, while the DSM has an over-area of only about 10 percent. The conclusions were that engine mass flow and backpressure can be held constant simultaneously during nozzle throat shifts on this class of nozzles, and mode shifts can be accomplished at a constant mass flow and engine backpressure without upstream pressure perturbations.

  6. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  11. Can electric beds aid pressure sore prevention in hospitals?

    PubMed

    Hampton, S

    The purchase, cleaning and maintenance of air mattresses can be an expensive part of pressure sore prevention and repositioning of patients can be time consuming and costly in terms of possible nursing injuries. The King's Fund bed has been a friend to the health service for many years but the time has come to look for an alternative system that will support patient comfort and independence, will assist nurses in implementation of a no-lifting policy and aid pressure sore prevention policies. This article describes a study that was undertaken in two medical wards to assess the value of electrically controlled beds in relation to the prevention of pressure sores, implementation of a no-lifting policy and quality of patient care. A total of 782 patients took part in the study over a 6-month period and 726 replies were obtained from nurses. The ward had similar profiles of patients' medical conditions and age; they were being medically managed by the same consultants. Results showed that patients experienced greater comfort on beds with the electric facility, produced less pressure sores, mobilized easily and pressure sore prevention costs could be reduced. There is a need to be proactive in prevention of pressure sores and not reactive to a pressure sore that is already developing. PMID:9830895

  12. Transpiration cooled throat for hydrocarbon rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Lee R.; Burkhardt, Wendel M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective for the Transpiration Cooled Throat for Hydrocarbon Rocket Engines Program was to characterize the use of hydrocarbon fuels as transpiration coolants for rocket nozzle throats. The hydrocarbon fuels investigated in this program were RP-1 and methane. To adequately characterize the above transpiration coolants, a program was planned which would (1) predict engine system performance and life enhancements due to transpiration cooling of the throat region using analytical models, anchored with available data; (2) a versatile transpiration cooled subscale rocket thrust chamber was designed and fabricated; (3) the subscale thrust chamber was tested over a limited range of conditions, e.g., coolant type, chamber pressure, transpiration cooled length, and coolant flow rate; and (4) detailed data analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between the key performance and life enhancement variables.

  13. Homicidal Cut Throat: The Forensic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Samaraweera, Jeewana C

    2016-01-01

    The forensic pathologists have a challenging task during the ascertainment of the manner of death in cut throat injuries when presented with no proper history or witnesses. We report a rare homicide, where a person was killed by the father of his gay partner. A 51-year-old married man was found dead in his car on the driving seat at a road. There were blood stains on the dash board and windscreen. No weapon had been recovered. At autopsy, a deep, oblique, long incised injury was found on the front of the neck. There were no hesitant or defense injuries. The cause of death was cut throat. The findings were compatible with a homicidal cut throat by a right handed person from behind after head being restrained firmly. Findings were compatible with the history provided by the suspect. PMID:27134896

  14. Decimal Commas Are a Problem; Actiq Is Not for Sore Throats; Dosing Error with Tasigna; Repackaging of Imbruvica Is Approved

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael R.; Smetzer, Judy L.

    2014-01-01

    These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again—perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers’ names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at ismpinfo@ismp.org. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters’ wishes as to the level of detail included in publications. PMID:25477591

  15. Throat Flow Modelling of Expansion Deflection Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. V.; Hempsell, C. M.

    Modelling of the supersonic flow within a rocket nozzle of both conventional and expansion deflection (ED) design is well handled by Method of Characteristics based algorithms. This approach provides both a predic- tion of the flowfield, and allows efficient optimisation of nozzle shape with respect to length. However, the Method of Characteristics requires a solution of the transonic flow through the nozzle throat to provide initial conditions, and the accuracy of the description of the transonic flow will clearly affect the overall accuracy of the complete nozzle flow calculation. However, it is relatively simple to show that conventional analytical methods for this process break down when applied to the more complex throat geometry of ED nozzles. This requires the use of a time marching solution method, which allows the analysis of the flow within this region even on such advanced configurations. This paper demonstrates this capability, outlines a general method for ED nozzle throat geometric definition, and examines the effect of various throat parameters on the permissible range of ED contours. It is found that the design of length optimised ED nozzles is highly sensitive to small changes in these parameters, and hence they must be selected with care.

  16. New definition of a wormhole throat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshimune; Izumi, Keisuke; Shiromizu, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    We present a new definition of the wormhole throat including the flare-out condition and the feature corresponding to the traversability for general dynamical spacetimes in terms of null geodesic congruences. We will examine our definition for some examples and see advantages compared to the others.

  17. Dual-throat thruster thermal model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewen, R. L.; Obrien, C. J.; Matthews, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The dual-throat engine is one of the dual nozzle engine concepts studied for advanced space transportation applications. It provides a thrust change and an in-flight area ratio change through the use of two concentric combustors with their throats arranged in series. Test results are presented for a dual throat thruster burning gaseous oxygen and hydrogen at primary (inner) chamber pressures from 380 to 680 psia. Heat flux profiles were obtained from calorimetric cooling channels in the inner nozzle, outer or secondary chamber and the tip of the inner nozzle. Data were obtained for two nozzle spacings over a chamber pressure ratio (secondary/primary) range of 0.45 to 0.83 with both chambers firing (Mode I). Fluxes near the end of the inner nozzle were significantly higher than in Mode II when only the inner chamber was fired, due to the flow separation and recirculation caused by the back pressure imposed by the secondary chamber. As the pressure ratio increased, these heat fluxes increased and the region of high heat flux relative to Mode II extended farther upstream. The use of the gaseous hydrogen bleed flow in the secondary chamber to control heat fluxes in the primary plume attachment region was investigated in Mode II testing. A thermal model of a dual throat thruster was developed and upgraded using the experimental data.

  18. CEA VARIABLE-THROAT VENTURI SCRUBBER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives detailed results of fractional and overall mass efficiency tests of a Combustion Equipment Associates(CEA) variable-throat venturi scrubber. The tests were performed on a full-scale scrubber used for controlling particles and SOx emissions from a pulverized-coal-...

  19. U.K. Case of Throat Gonorrhea Resists Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159536.html U.K. Case of Throat Gonorrhea Resists Antibiotics U.S. officials concerned about potential ... public health experts have confirmed a case of throat gonorrhea that proved untreatable with the standard antibiotic ...

  20. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  1. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  2. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  3. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  4. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  5. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  6. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  7. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  8. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  9. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  10. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  11. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  12. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  13. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  14. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  15. Human Error in Throat Pack Management: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Baranger, Violaine; Bon Mardion, Nicolas; Dureuil, Bertrand; Compère, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Throat packs are frequently used after tracheal intubation during ear, nose, and throat surgery. We report 2 cases of complications related to throat packs retained at the end of surgery. Miscommunication between anesthesiology and surgery teams on throat pack management led to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examination under general anesthesia in the first case and to severe respiratory distress requiring tracheal reintubation in the second case. Our 2 case reports highlight the importance of good communication between anesthesiology and surgery teams and of standardized procedures and checklists for the management of throat packs to ensure patient safety. PMID:27301056

  16. A case of "atypical homicidal" cut-throat injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar S, Ajay; Kumar Ms, Vinay; Babu, Yp Raghavendra; Prasad, Mahadeshwara

    2016-09-01

    Cut-throats can be of homicidal, suicidal or accidental origin. In cases of death from a cut-throat, distinguishing the cause is one of the important functions in crime investigation. The features that differentiate suicidal and homicidal cut-throat injuries are the presence of hesitation cuts, depth of wound, signs of struggle, edges of the wound, etc. In the case of a suicidal cut-throat, it is not uncommon to find hesitation cuts but in a homicidal cut-throat, it is uncommon. We present a case of a homicidal cut-throat injury but with hesitation cuts and tailing over the neck, unlike the classical description of homicidal cut-throat injury. This resulted from a curved, sharp and moderately heavy weapon. PMID:27381317

  17. Recommendations for the Avoidance of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the possible causes of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), which include buildup of lactic acid in muscle, increased intracellular calcium concentration, increased intramuscular inflammation, and muscle fiber and connective tissue damage. Proposed methods to reduce DOMS include warming up before exercise and performing repeated bouts…

  18. Hemispheric Asymmetry and Pun Comprehension: When Cowboys Have Sore Calves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Seana; Severens, Els

    2007-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded as healthy participants listened to puns such as ''During branding, cowboys have sore calves.'' To assess hemispheric differences in pun comprehension, visually presented probes that were either highly related (COW), moderately related (LEG), or unrelated, were presented in either the left or right…

  19. RSRM Nozzle Anomalous Throat Erosion Investigation Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Wendel, Gary M.

    1998-01-01

    In September, 1996, anomalous pocketing erosion was observed in the aft end of the throat ring of the nozzle of one of the reusable solid rocket motors (RSRM 56B) used on NASA's space transportation system (STS) mission 79. The RSRM throat ring is constructed of bias tape-wrapped carbon cloth/ phenolic (CCP) ablative material. A comprehensive investigation revealed necessary and sufficient conditions for occurrence of the pocketing event and provided rationale that the solid rocket motors for the subsequent mission, STS-80, were safe to fly. The nozzles of both of these motors also exhibited anomalous erosion similar to, but less extensive than that observed on STS-79. Subsequent to this flight, the investigation to identify both the specific causes and the corrective actions for elimination of the necessary and sufficient conditions for the pocketing erosion was intensified. A detailed fault tree approach was utilized to examine potential material and process contributors to the anomalous performance. The investigation involved extensive constituent and component material property testing, pedigree assessments, supplier audits, process audits, full scale processing test article fabrication and evaluation, thermal and thermostructural analyses, nondestructive evaluation, and material performance tests conducted using hot fire simulation in laboratory test beds and subscale and full scale solid rocket motor static test firings. This presentation will provide an over-view of the observed anomalous nozzle erosion and the comprehensive, fault-tree based investigation conducted to resolve this issue.

  20. The practical evaluation and management of patients with symptoms of a sore burning mouth.

    PubMed

    Steele, John C

    2016-01-01

    There are many etiologic factors to consider in a patient who presents with symptoms or sensations of a sore burning mouth. These range from local causes within the oral cavity to underlying systemic disease, including psychologic factors. This paper aims to describe the different clinical presentations and to outline a systematic approach to the evaluation and management of such patients. The clinician will be directed to the relevant diagnosis by following the traditional medical model of taking a focused history, performing a thorough clinical examination, considering the potential differential diagnoses, and requesting pertinent and appropriate investigations. The various differential diagnoses and broad treatment options will also be discussed and outlined. This paper will not, however, discuss burning mouth syndrome (oral dysesthesia), which is a diagnosis of exclusion, whereby the oral mucosa is clinically normal and there are no identifiable medical or dental causes to account for the patient's symptoms. PMID:27343959

  1. Adhesive tablet effective for treating canker sores in humans.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Boaz; Golenser, Jacob; Wolnerman, Joseph S; Domb, Abraham J

    2004-12-01

    A new mucoadhesive tablet, which releases natural active agents for pain reduction and rapid healing of canker sores, has been prepared and characterized. Adhesive tablets were prepared by compression molding of mixed powders of crosslinked polyacrylic acid and hydroxypropyl cellulose, absorbed with citrus oil and magnesium salt. The rate of tablet erosion and the rates of citrus oil and magnesium release were determined as well as the adhesiveness of the tablet using bovine gingival tissue and an Instron tensiometer. A clinical trial was conducted on 248 volunteers who had canker sores. Tablets adhere well to the mucosal tissue and gradually erode for 8 h releasing the citrus oil in a zero-order pattern whereas the magnesium is released during a period of 2 h. Both experimental and plain tablets were effective in reducing pain and decreasing healing time (p < 0.05) without adverse side effects. However, the tablets loaded with active agents were more effective. PMID:15459950

  2. Do Shale Pore Throats Have a Threshold Diameter for Oil Storage?

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Caineng; Jin, Xu; Zhu, Rukai; Gong, Guangming; Sun, Liang; Dai, Jinxing; Meng, Depeng; Wang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jianming; Wu, Songtao; Liu, Xiaodan; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a nanoporous template with a controllable channel diameter was used to simulate the oil storage ability of shale pore throats. On the basis of the wetting behaviours at the nanoscale solid-liquid interfaces, the seepage of oil in nano-channels of different diameters was examined to accurately and systematically determine the effect of the pore diameter on the oil storage capacity. The results indicated that the lower threshold for oil storage was a pore throat of 20 nm, under certain conditions. This proposed pore size threshold provides novel, evidence-based criteria for estimating the geological reserves, recoverable reserves and economically recoverable reserves of shale oil. This new understanding of shale oil processes could revolutionize the related industries. PMID:26314637

  3. Do Shale Pore Throats Have a Threshold Diameter for Oil Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Caineng; Jin, Xu; Zhu, Rukai; Gong, Guangming; Sun, Liang; Dai, Jinxing; Meng, Depeng; Wang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jianming; Wu, Songtao; Liu, Xiaodan; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a nanoporous template with a controllable channel diameter was used to simulate the oil storage ability of shale pore throats. On the basis of the wetting behaviours at the nanoscale solid-liquid interfaces, the seepage of oil in nano-channels of different diameters was examined to accurately and systematically determine the effect of the pore diameter on the oil storage capacity. The results indicated that the lower threshold for oil storage was a pore throat of 20 nm, under certain conditions. This proposed pore size threshold provides novel, evidence-based criteria for estimating the geological reserves, recoverable reserves and economically recoverable reserves of shale oil. This new understanding of shale oil processes could revolutionize the related industries.

  4. Electrical stimulation for pressure sore prevention and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bogie, K M; Reger, S I; Levine, S P; Sahgal, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews applications of therapeutic electrical stimulation (ES) specific to wound healing and pressure sore prevention. The application of ES for wound healing has been found to increase the rate of healing by more than 50%. Furthermore, the total number of wounds healed is also increased. However, optimal delivery techniques for ES therapy have not been established to date. A study of stimulation current effects on wound healing in a pig model has shown that direct current (DC) stimulation is most effective in wound area reduction and alternating current (AC) stimulation for wound volume reduction at current densities of 127 microA/cm2 and 1,125 microA/cm2, respectively. Preliminary studies have been carried out at two research centers to assess the role of ES in pressure sore prevention. Surface stimulation studies have shown that ES can produce positive short-term changes in tissue health variables such as regional blood flow and pressure distribution. The use of an implanted stimulation system consisting of intramuscular electrodes with percutaneous leads has been found to produce additional long-term changes. Specifically, gluteal muscle thickness increased by 50% with regular long-term ES application concurrent with a 20% decrease in regional interface pressures and increased tissue oxygen levels. These findings indicate that an implantable ES system may have great potential for pressure sore prevention, particularly for individuals who lack sensation or who are physically unable to perform regular independent pressure relief. PMID:11067577

  5. Dual throat thruster cold flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgreen, R. B.; Nickerson, G. R.; Obrien, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    The concept was evaluated with cold flow (nitrogen gas) testing and through analysis for application as a tripropellant engine for single-stage-to-orbit type missions. Three modes of operation were tested and analyzed: (1) Mode 1 Series Burn, (2) Mode 1 Parallel Burn, and (3) Mode 2. Primary emphasis was placed on the Mode 2 plume attachment aerodynamics and performance. The conclusions from the test data analysis are as follows: (1) the concept is aerodynamically feasible, (2) the performance loss is as low as 0.5 percent, (3) the loss is minimized by an optimum nozzle spacing corresponding to an AF-ATS ratio of about 1.5 or an Le/Rtp ratio of 3.0 for the dual throat hardware tested, requiring only 4% bleed flow, (4) the Mode 1 and Mode 2 geometry requirements are compatible and pose no significant design problems.

  6. Throat-cutting of accidental origin.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2008-07-01

    Incised wounds of the neck can be accidental, homicidal, or suicidal. In this paper, a death case has been presented where a spinning circular saw of a cutting machine in a workshop came off its place and cut the throat of a 30-year-old male who was operating the machine. There was an incision (15 cm x 5 cm) that began in the middle of the neck down the thyroid cartilage, extended horizontally to the left of the neck and ended on the outer part of the neck in the outer left side of m. trapezius. Death occurred because of exsanguination caused by the cutting of carotis artery and jugular vein. In the case we presented, although the cut in the neck initially suggested homicide, it was found to have occurred as a result of an accident after the autopsy and death scene investigation. PMID:18489556

  7. Experimental and raytrace results for throat-to-throat compound parabolic concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, D. B.; Leitch, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Compound parabolic concentrators are nonimaging cone-shaped optics with useful angular transmission characteristics. Two cones used throat-to-throat accept radiant flux within one well-defined acceptance angle and redistribute it into another. If the entrance cone is fed with Lambertian flux, the exit cone produces a beam whose half-angle is the exit cone's acceptance angle and whose cross section shows uniform irradiance from near the exit mouth to infinity. (The pair is a beam angle transformer). The design of one pair of cones is discussed, also an experiment to map the irradiance of the emergent beam, and a raytracing program which models the cones fed by Lambertian flux. Experimental results compare favorably with raytrace results.

  8. Lack of reliability of primary grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci by culture of throat swabs with streptocult supplemented with bacitracin disks in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, S

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-eight general practitioners took throat swabs from 434 patients with sore throats. Office cultures were performed on Streptocult supplemented with bacitracin disks in an attempt to carry out primary grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci (BHS). In 424 cases the findings were compared with those obtained in a microbiological laboratory. Streptocult showed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 84% in the detection of BHS. The office-performed grouping procedure of the correctly detected BHS, however, only had a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 87%. Overall, as many as 45% of the patients with BHS group A were misdiagnosed. The unsatisfactory results obtained with primary grouping of BHS may be due partly to incorrect determinations of the diameter of the inhibition zone around the bacitracin disks and partly to an inappropriate choice of breakpoint. It is concluded that cultures of throat swabs on Streptocult in general practice should not be accompanied by attempts to carry out primary grouping with bacitracin disks. A laboratory investigation showed that incubation at room temperature for 48 h and at 35 degrees C for 24 h gave identical BHS positivity rates. PMID:3908467

  9. Pressure-induced referred pain is expanded by persistent soreness.

    PubMed

    Doménech-García, V; Palsson, T S; Herrero, P; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2016-05-01

    Several chronic pain conditions are accompanied with enlarged referred pain areas. This study investigated a novel method for assessing referred pain. In 20 healthy subjects, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded and pressure stimuli (120% PPT) were applied bilaterally for 5 and 60 seconds at the infraspinatus muscle to induce local and referred pain. Moreover, PPTs were measured bilaterally at the shoulder, neck, and leg before, during, and after hypertonic saline-induced referred pain in the dominant infraspinatus muscle. The pressure and saline-induced pain areas were assessed on drawings. Subsequently, delayed onset muscle soreness was induced using eccentric exercise of the dominant infraspinatus muscle. The day-1 assessments were repeated the following day (day 2). Suprathreshold pressure stimulations and saline injections into the infraspinatus muscle caused referred pain to the frontal aspect of the shoulder/arm in all subjects. The 60-second pressure stimulation caused larger referred pain areas compared with the 5-second stimulation (P < 0.01). Compared with pressure stimulation, the saline-induced referred pain area was larger (P < 0.02). After saline-induced pain, the PPTs at the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles were reduced (P < 0.05), and the 5-second pressure-induced referred pain area was larger than baseline. Pressure pain thresholds at the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles were reduced at day 2 in the delayed onset muscle soreness side (P < 0.05). Compared with day 1, larger pressure and saline-induced referred pain areas were observed on day 2 (P < 0.05). Referred pain to the shoulder/arm was consistently induced and enlarged after 1 day of muscle soreness, indicating that the referred pain area may be a sensitive biomarker for sensitization of the pain system. PMID:26808146

  10. Vibration Therapy in Management of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS).

    PubMed

    Veqar, Zubia; Imtiyaz, Shagufta

    2014-06-01

    Both athletic and nonathletic population when subjected to any unaccustomed or unfamiliar exercise will experience pain 24-72 hours postexercise. This exercise especially eccentric in nature caused primarily by muscle damage is known as delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). This damage is characterized by muscular pain, decreased muscle force production, reduce range of motion and discomfort experienced. DOMS is due to microscopic muscle fiber tears. The presence of DOMS increases risk of injury. A reduced range of motion may lead to the incapability to efficiently absorb the shock that affect physical activity. Alterations to mechanical motion may increase strain placed on soft tissue structures. Reduced force output may signal compensatory recruitment of muscles, thus leading to unaccustomed stress on musculature. Differences in strength ratios may also cause excessive strain on unaccustomed musculature. A range of interventions aimed at decreasing symptoms of DOMS have been proposed. Although voluminous research has been done in this regard, there is little consensus among the practitioners regarding the most effective way of treating DOMS. Mechanical oscillatory motion provided by vibration therapy. Vibration could represent an effective exercise intervention for enhancing neuromuscular performance in athletes. Vibration has shown effectiveness in flexibility and explosive power. Vibration can apply either local area or whole body vibration. Vibration therapy improves muscular strength, power development, kinesthetic awareness, decreased muscle sore, increased range of motion, and increased blood flow under the skin. VT was effective for reduction of DOMS and regaining full ROM. Application of whole body vibration therapy in postexercise demonstrates less pressure pain threshold, muscle soreness along with less reduction maximal isometric and isokinetic voluntary strength and lower creatine kinase levels in the blood. PMID:25121012

  11. Development of a cushion to prevent ischial pressure sores.

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, P; Davidson, L M

    1979-01-01

    A study was carried out jointly by nursing staff and technologists in an attempt to develop a cushion based on scientific principles and measurement that might prevent pressure sores. At each stage in the development clinical trials were carried out, and using the results of these together with the opinions of medical staff and patients who used the cushion the design was suitably modified. Over four years a seat was evolved that was simple to construct and fulfilled the clinical requirements for a wide range of patients while providing maximum relief of high-pressure points. The design was subsequently taken up commercially. Images Fig 3 PMID:509176

  12. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity and Ear, ... all children be regularly screened for snoring. Middle ear infections Acute otitis media (AOM) and chronic ear ...

  13. Impact analysis studies of clinical prediction rules relevant to primary care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Emma; Uijen, Maike J M; Clyne, Barbara; Zarabzadeh, Atieh; Keogh, Claire; Galvin, Rose; Smith, Susan M; Fahey, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Following appropriate validation, clinical prediction rules (CPRs) should undergo impact analysis to evaluate their effect on patient care. The aim of this systematic review is to narratively review and critically appraise CPR impact analysis studies relevant to primary care. Setting Primary care. Participants Adults and children. Intervention Studies that implemented the CPR compared to usual care were included. Study design Randomised controlled trial (RCT), controlled before–after, and interrupted time series. Primary outcome Physician behaviour and/or patient outcomes. Results A total of 18 studies, incorporating 14 unique CPRs, were included. The main study design was RCT (n=13). Overall, 10 studies reported an improvement in primary outcome with CPR implementation. Of 6 musculoskeletal studies, 5 were effective in altering targeted physician behaviour in ordering imaging for patients presenting with ankle, knee and neck musculoskeletal injuries. Of 6 cardiovascular studies, 4 implemented cardiovascular risk scores, and 3 reported no impact on physician behaviour outcomes, such as prescribing and referral, or patient outcomes, such as reduction in serum lipid levels. 2 studies examined CPRs in decision-making for patients presenting with chest pain and reduced inappropriate admissions. Of 5 respiratory studies, 2 were effective in reducing antibiotic prescribing for sore throat following CPR implementation. Overall, study methodological quality was often unclear due to incomplete reporting. Conclusions Despite increasing interest in developing and validating CPRs relevant to primary care, relatively few have gone through impact analysis. To date, research has focused on a small number of CPRs across few clinical domains only. PMID:27008685

  14. Observation of the laryngeal movements for throat singing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Konishi, Tomoko; Murano, Emi Z.; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Kumada, Masanobu; Kondo, Kazumasa; Niimi, Seiji

    2002-11-01

    Throat singing is a traditional singing style of people who live around the Altai Mountains. Khoomei in Tyva and Khoomij in Mongolia are representative styles of throat singing. The laryngeal voices of throat singing is classified into (i) a drone voice which is the basic laryngeal voice in throat singing and used as drone and (ii) a kargyraa voice which is very low pitched with the range outside the modal register. In throat singing, the special features of the laryngeal movements are observed by using simultaneous recording of high-speed digital images, EGG, and sound wave forms. In the drone voice, the ventricular folds (VTFs) vibrate in the same frequency as the vocal folds (VFs) but in opposite phases. In the kargyraa voice, the VTFs can be assumed to close once for every two periods of closure of the VFs, and this closing blocks airflow and contributes to the generation of the subharmonic tone of kargyraa. Results show that in throat singing the VTFs vibrate and contribute to producing the laryngeal voice, which generates the special timbre and whistle-like overtone.

  15. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  16. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  17. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  18. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  20. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  2. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  3. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  5. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  6. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  7. Moist Heat or Dry Heat for Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Bains, Gurinder; Khowailed, Iman Akef; Hui, Timothy; Granado, Michael; Laymon, Mike; Lee, Haneul

    2013-01-01

    Background Heat is commonly used in physical therapy following exercise induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Most heat modalities used in a clinical setting for DOMS are only applied for 5 to 20 minutes. This minimal heat exposure causes little, if any, change in deep tissue temperature. For this reason, long duration dry chemical heat packs are used at home to slowly and safely warm tissue and reduce potential heat damage while reducing pain associated from DOMS. Clinically, it has been shown that moist heat penetrates deep tissue faster than dry heat. Therefore, in home use chemical moist heat may be more efficacious than dry heat to provide pain relief and reduce tissue damage following exercise DOMS. However, chemical moist heat only lasts for 2 hours compared to the 8 hours duration of chemical dry heat packs. The purpose of this study was to compare the beneficial effect of dry heat versus moist heat on 100 young subjects after exercise induce DOMS. Methods One hundred subjects exercised for 15 minutes accomplishing squats. Before and for 3 days after, strength, muscle soreness, tissue resistance, and the force to passively move the knee were recorded. Heat and moist heat were applied in different groups either immediately after exercise or 24 hours later. Results The research results of this study showed that immediate application of heat, either dry (8 hours application) or moist (2 hours application), had a similar preservation of quadriceps muscle strength and muscle activity. Results also revealed that the greatest pain reduction was shown after immediate application of moist heat. Never the less, immediate application of dry heat had a similar effect but to a lesser extent. Conclusion It should be noted that moist heat had not only similar benefits of dry heat but in some cases enhanced benefits, and with only 25% of the time of application of the dry heat. PMID:24171053

  8. Computation of the throat area of a turbine blade ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-01-01

    The throat area is a geometric parameter of the blade ring necessary to profile its blades and compute the turbine capacity. As applied to the filament flow model, the area is defined by the involute of the throat solid figure onto the plane formed by the cascade throat located on one of the cylindrical sections of the blade ring and the radius. An equation is derived for computing the area of the involute, which considers the effect of the shape of the ring's tailing outlines and the fillets at the transition from the outlines to the blade feather. Comparison of the area values for several turbines computed by the derived equation and by a more complex method based on a search for the minimum distances from the tailing edge of the blade to the suction surface of the neighboring blade in the channel revealed slight differences. The fluid-dynamic 2D analysis determined the radial boundaries of the filament bands, the parameters of the cascade that lie on a filament's cylindrical surfaces, and the flow velocity normal to the throat section of the filament. The proposed approach to computation of the throat area is common for problems of both designing and analyzing the turbine operation and allows for excluding, in practice, methodological differences in determination of the flow rate and the flow angles at the outlet of the blade ring.

  9. [The Development of a Care Protocol for Postoperative Pressure Sore Prevention].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hui-Ling; Wang, Fang; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne

    2015-12-01

    Pressure sores are a common complication caused by long periods of bed rest following major surgery. These sores may increase patient postoperative pain, increase the risk of infections, lengthen the pe-riod of hospitalization, and increase the duration and costs of nursing care. Therefore, maintaining the skin integrity of surgical patients is an important responsibility for operating room nurses and an indicator of nursing care quality. While pressure-sore risk assessment tools and interoperative strategies are available and used in foreign countries, there has been little related research conducted in Taiwan. After examining the relevant literature and considering the current postoperative pressure sore situation in Taiwan, the author developed a postoperative pressure sore care protocol as a reference for clinical staff. Protocol procedures include major breakthrough developments in areas such as post-survey risk assessment for pressure ulcers, pressure ulcer prevention strategies that take surgery-related risk factors into consideration, extra care and protection measures for surgical supine patients, and post-pressure sores. The developed postoperative pressure sore protocol may be incorporated into surgical care procedures during the post-surgical care period in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of post-surgery pressure ulcers. Furthermore, the developed protocol offers the potential to improve and strengthen the quality of surgical care in terms of both healthcare and post-surgical care. PMID:26645449

  10. Polymer quantization of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat

    SciTech Connect

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Peltola, Ari; Louko, Jorma

    2010-01-15

    We present a polymer quantization of spherically symmetric Einstein gravity in which the polymerized variable is the area of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat. In the classical polymer theory, the singularity is replaced by a bounce at a radius that depends on the polymerization scale. In the polymer quantum theory, we show numerically that the area spectrum is evenly spaced and in agreement with a Bohr-Sommerfeld semiclassical estimate, and this spectrum is not qualitatively sensitive to issues of factor ordering or boundary conditions except in the lowest few eigenvalues. In the limit of small polymerization scale we recover, within the numerical accuracy, the area spectrum obtained from a Schroedinger quantization of the wormhole throat dynamics. The prospects of recovering from the polymer throat theory a full quantum-corrected spacetime are discussed.

  11. Adult NREM Parasomnia Associated with Lancinating Throat Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bušková, Jitka; Šonka, Karel

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old woman presenting with dangerous nocturnal NREM episodes with the clinical feature of lancinating throat pain. We hypothesize that the pain may have represented sensory hallucination analogous to commonly recognized visual images associated with NREM parasomnias. This case is also unusual for probable psychological triggers that could play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease, as evidenced by successful psychotherapy. Citation: Bušková J, Šonka K. Adult NREM parasomnia associated with lancinating throat pain. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):925-926. PMID:25126041

  12. A review of tonsillectomy for recurrent throat infection.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, T

    1998-01-01

    Tonsillectomy is most frequently carried out for recurrent throat infection, but there is uncertainty about its effectiveness. This paper reviews the evidence of its effectiveness obtained from a search of the Cochrane database and MEDLINE for randomized controlled trials comparing tonsillectomy with non-surgical management of recurrent throat infection. The results show that the effectiveness of a procedure such as tonsillectomy, needs to be considered in the light of its adverse effects. Attempts should be made to inform patients about the uncertainty surrounding the procedure. PMID:9747553

  13. Using a modified nasotracheal tube to prevent nasal ala pressure sore during prolonged nasotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2010-12-01

    Nasotracheal tube induced nasal ala pressure sores or necrosis during prolonged nasotracheal intubation have been reported, and it is a serious but preventable complication. Here we introduce a modified nasotracheal tube to prevent this complication. This modified nasotracheal tube is composed of two parts, an oral endotracheal tube and a proximal part of a preformed nasotracheal tube, which are linked by a connector. The use of this modified nasotracheal tube can prevent nasal ala pressure sores during prolonged nasotracheal intubation. PMID:20809246

  14. Dual-throat thruster thermal model. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ewen, R.L.; Obrien, C.J.; Matthews, L.W.

    1986-08-01

    The dual-throat engine is one of the dual nozzle engine concepts studied for advanced space transportation applications. It provides a thrust change and an in-flight area ratio change through the use of two concentric combustors with their throats arranged in series. Test results are presented for a dual throat thruster burning gaseous oxygen and hydrogen at primary (inner) chamber pressures from 380 to 680 psia. Heat flux profiles were obtained from calorimetric cooling channels in the inner nozzle, outer or secondary chamber and the tip of the inner nozzle. Data were obtained for two nozzle spacings over a chamber pressure ratio (secondary/primary) range of 0.45 to 0.83 with both chambers firing (Mode I). Fluxes near the end of the inner nozzle were significantly higher than in Mode II when only the inner chamber was fired, due to the flow separation and recirculation caused by the back pressure imposed by the secondary chamber. As the pressure ratio increased, these heat fluxes increased and the region of high heat flux relative to Mode II extended farther upstream. The use of the gaseous hydrogen bleed flow in the secondary chamber to control heat fluxes in the primary plume attachment region was investigated in Mode II testing. A thermal model of a dual throat thruster was developed and upgraded using the experimental data.

  15. Throat clicking as the initial symptom of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Sanjay S; Morgan, John C; Glover, Andrea L; Sethi, Kapil D

    2005-10-01

    The presenting manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) are variable, but a majority of patients note tremor as the initial symptom. Others complain of slowing of movements, loss of dexterity, fatigue, or changes in handwriting as initial symptoms. We describe a patient who developed an unusual clicking sound emanating from his throat as the initial manifestation of PD. PMID:16001408

  16. Experimental study of moving throat plug in a shock tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. K.; Park, C.; Kwon, O. J.

    2015-07-01

    An experimental study has been carried out to investigate the flow in the KAIST shock tunnel with two moving throat plugs at a primary shock velocity of 1.19 km/s. The nozzle reservoir pressure and the Pitot pressure at the exit of the nozzle were measured to examine the influence of the moving throat plugs on the shock tunnel flow. To assess the present experimental results, comparisons with previous work using a stationary throat plug were made. The mechanism for closing the moving throat plug was developed and verified. The source of the force to move the plug was the pressure generated when the primary shock was reflected at the bottom of the plug. It was observed that the two plugs terminated the shock tunnel flow after the steady flow. .The time for the plugs to terminate the flow showed good agreement with the calculation of the proposed simple analytic solution. There was a negligible difference in flow values such as the reflected pressure and the Pitot pressure between the moving and the stationary plugs.

  17. Trying Not to "Shove Religion down Their Throats"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts two tasks. First, to clarify how the claim that colleges and universities may "shove religion down students' throats" has a historical background. Second, to indicate how pedagogical strategies--like service learning, discussions, paper revisions, and "Just in Time Teaching" exercises--can be used in ways…

  18. Upper Airway Hematoma Secondary to Warfarin Therapy: A Systematic Review of Reported Cases

    PubMed Central

    Karmacharya, Paras; Pathak, Ranjan; Ghimire, Sailu; Shrestha, Pragya; Ghimire, Sushil; Poudel, Dilli Ram; Khanal, Raju; Shah, Shirin; Aryal, Madan Raj; Alweis, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Upper airway hematoma (UAH) is a rare but life-threatening complication of oral anticoagulants requiring early recognition. However, no consensus exists regarding the best approach to treatment. We therefore, sought to systematically review the published literature on UAH to elaborate its demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment, complications, and outcomes. A systematic electronic search of PubMed and EMBASE for case reports, case series, and related articles of UAH related to warfarin published from inception (November 1950) to March 2015 was carried out. Categorical variables were expressed as percentage and continuous variables as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. All cases were reported to have UAH as a complication of anticoagulation therapy with warfarin. Demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment, complications and outcomes of UAH were studied. Thirty-eight cases of UAH were identified from 34 reports in the literature. No gender preponderance (male = 52.78%) was seen and the average age of presentation was 60.11 ± 12.50 years. Dysphagia, sore throat, and neck swelling were the most common symptoms and the mean international normalized ratio (INR)at presentation was 8.07 ± 4.04. Most cases had sublingual hematoma (66.57%) followed by retropharyngeal hematoma (27.03%). Of the cases, 48.65% were managed conservatively while the rest underwent either cricothyrotomy or intubation with the time to resolution being 7.69 ± 5.44 days. UAH is a rare butpotentially serious complication of warfarin therapy. It is more common in the elderly population with supratherapeutic INR; inciting events were present in many cases. Overall, it has a good prognosis with significant morbidity present only if concomitant respiratory compromise is present. Reversal of anticoagulation with low threshold for artificial airway placement in the event of airway

  19. SPECIFIC AND CROSS OVER EFFECTS OF MASSAGE FOR MUSCLE SORENESS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil; Søndergaard, Stine D.; Behm, David; Brandt, Mikkel; Særvoll, Charlotte A.; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Muscle soreness can negatively interfere with the activities of daily living as well as sports performance. In the working environment, a common problem is muscle tenderness, soreness and pain, especially for workers frequently exposed to unilateral high repetitive movements tasks. The aim of the study is therefore to investigate the acute effect of massage applied using a simple device Thera‐band roller Massager on laboratory induced hamstring muscle soreness, and the potential cross over effect to the non‐massaged limb. Methods: 22 healthy untrained men (Mean age 34 +/− 7 years; mean height 181.7 +/− 6.9 cm; mean weight 80.6 +/− 6.4 kg; BMI: 24.5 +/− 1.3) with no prior history of knee, low back or neck injury or other adverse health issues were recruited. Participants visited the researchers on two separate occasions, separated by 48 hours, each time providing a soreness rating (modified visual analog scale 0‐10), and being tested for pressure pain threshold (PPT) and active range of motion (ROM) of the hamstring muscles. During the first visit, delayed onset muscular soreness of the hamstring muscles was induced by 10 x 10 repetitions of the stiff‐legged dead‐lift. On the second visit participants received either 1) 10 minutes of roller massage on one leg, while the contralateral leg served as a cross over control, or 2) Resting for 10 minutes with no massage at all. Measurement of soreness, PPT and ROM were taken immediately before and at 0, 10, 30 and 60 min. after treatment. Results: There was a significant group by time interaction for soreness (p < 0.0001) and PPT (p = 0.0007), with the massage group experiencing reduced soreness and increasing PPT compared with the control group. There was no group by time interaction for ROM (p = 0.18). At 10 min. post massage there was a significant reduction in soreness of the non‐massaged limb in the cross over control group compared to controls but this effect was lost 30

  20. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  1. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  2. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  3. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  8. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  15. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. 874.4420 Section 874.4420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  20. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  1. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  3. Engine throat/nozzle optics for plume spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, R. L.; Duncan, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    The Task 2.0 Engine Throat/Nozzle Optics for Plume Spectroscopy, effort was performed under the NASA LeRC Development of Life Prediction Capabilities for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines program. This Task produced the engineering design of an optical probe to enable spectroscopic measurements within the SSME main chamber. The probe mounts on the SSME nozzle aft manifold and collects light emitted from the throat plane and chamber. Light collected by the probe is transferred to a spectrometer through a fiber optic cable. The design analyses indicate that the probe will function throughout the engine operating cycle and is suitable for both test stand and flight operations. By detecting metallic emissions that are indicative of component degradation or incipient failure, engine shutdown can be initiated before catastrophic failure. This capability will protect valuable test stand hardware and provide enhanced mission safety.

  4. Detection and Isolation of Digital Dermatitis Treponemes from Bovine Pressure Sores.

    PubMed

    Clegg, S R; Crosby-Durrani, H E; Bell, J; Blundell, R; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Evans, N J

    2016-05-01

    Pressure sores cause severe pain and discomfort in hospitalized people and in farmed cattle and are often infected with unknown bacteria. Pressure sores occur on the upper legs of 6-10% of recumbent cattle and are generally considered to be caused by constant pressure, commonly on bony areas of the limbs. This study analyzed pressure sores taken from the upper limbs of 14 cattle using isolation in culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect treponemes associated with digital dermatitis (DD). A 100% association of DD treponemes with the pressure sores was demonstrated, but treponemes were shown not to be part of the normal skin microbiota. Immunohistochemistry showed an association of DD treponemes with lesions and particularly with the hair follicles in lesions, identifying the bacteria deep within wounds, thereby suggesting that they could contribute to lesion pathogenesis. The bacteria isolated from the pressure sore lesions were similar or identical on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to those found in DD foot lesions in cattle, suggesting the same bacteria can infect multiple lesions. Indeed, the results of this study suggest that these spirochaetal bacteria may be expanding in host range and in their ability to colonize different tissues and contribute to a range of disease manifestations in farm animals. PMID:27040650

  5. [The plasty for the hip region sores, using the flap, consisting of M. tensor fasciae latae].

    PubMed

    Pasichniy, D A

    2015-02-01

    The method of plasty for the hip region sores, based on transposition of proximal part of m. tensor fascia latae in content of the flap, using her transsection between place of attachment to spina iliaca anterior superior and place of the main vascular pedicle entry into the muscle, was proposed, what permits to prevent vast mobilization of the muscle and to secure existing in normal conditions and formed in pathological conditions anas- tomoses between vascular net of the flap and surrounding tissues. The method proposed was successfully applied for plasty of the hip region sores of degrees III-IV in 2 patients. PMID:25985701

  6. Mononucleosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... mono, is a viral infection that causes fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, most often in the ... with fatigue, a general ill feeling, headache, and sore throat. The sore throat slowly gets worse. Your tonsils ...

  7. Male tawny dragons use throat patterns to recognize rivals.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Louise; Umbers, Kate D L; Backwell, Patricia R Y; Keogh, J Scott

    2012-10-01

    The ability to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is important for many animals, especially territorial species since it allows them to avoid unnecessary interactions with individuals that pose little threat. There are very few studies, however, that identify the proximate cues that facilitate such recognition in visual systems. Here, we show that in tawny dragons (Ctenophorus decresii), males can recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific males based on morphological features alone, without the aid of chemical or behavioural cues. We further show that it is the colour pattern of the throat patches (gular) that facilitates this recognition. PMID:22990636

  8. Throat swabs are necessary to reliably detect carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Dominik; Frei, Reno; Jaussi, Barbara; Tietz, Andreas; Stebler, Christine; Flückiger, Ursula; Widmer, Andreas F

    2007-08-15

    The anterior nares are the most important screening site of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. We screened 2966 individuals for S. aureus carriage with swabs of both nares and throat. A total of 37.1% of persons were nasal carriers, and 12.8% were solely throat carriers. Screening of throat swabs significantly increases the sensitivity of detection among carriers by 25.7%. PMID:17638197

  9. Neutrophilia and an Anti-Inflammatory Drug as Markers of Inflammation in Delayed Muscle Soreness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lucille L.; And Others

    This study reexamined the concept that delayed muscle soreness (DMS) is a form of inflammatory pain. This was accomplished by having 32 male volunteers perform exercise known to induce DMS and then assess the total and differential white blood cell changes. In addition, an anti-inflammatory drug, idomethacin, was administered to determine whether…

  10. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery

    PubMed Central

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery. PMID:27390415

  11. Interleukin-6 and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Do Not Vary during the Menstrual Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffin, Morgan E.; Berg, Kris E.; Meendering, Jessica R.; Llewellyn, Tamra L.; French, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and delayed onset muscles soreness (DOMS) exists in two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine runners performed one 75-min high-intensity interval running session during the early follicular (EF) phase and once during the midluteal (ML) phase of the…

  12. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery.

    PubMed

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery. PMID:27390415

  13. Evaluating the effects of pentoxifylline administration on experimental pressure sores in rats by biomechanical examinations

    PubMed Central

    Velaei, Kobra; Torkman, Giti; Rezaie, Fatemealsadat; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Tavassol, Azaedh; Bayat, Mehernoush

    2012-01-01

    This study used a biomechanical test to evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline administration on the wound healing process of an experimental pressure sore induced in rats. Under general anesthesia and sterile conditions, experimental pressure sores generated by no. 25 Halsted mosquito forceps were inflicted on 12 adult male rats. Pentoxifylline was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily from the day the pressure sore was generated, for a period of 20 days. At the end of 20 days, rats were sacrificed and skin samples extracted. Samples were biomechanically examined by a material testing instrument for maximum stress (N mm2), work up to maximum force (N), and elastic stiffness (N/mm). In the experimental group, maximum stress (2.05±0.15) and work up to maximum force (N/mm) (63.75±4.97) were significantly higher than the control group (1.3±0.27 and 43.3±14.96, P=0.002 and P=0.035, respectively). Pentoxifylline administration significantly accelerated the wound healing process in experimental rats with pressure sores, compared to that of the control group. PMID:23091522

  14. Performance predictions for an SSME configuration with an enlarged throat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, G. R.; Dang, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Two Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) computer program that was recently developed for NASA was used to predict the performance of a Large Throat Configuration of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Calculations indicate that the current design SSME contains a shock wave that is induced by the nozzle wall shape. In the Large Throat design an even stronger shock wave is predicted. Because of the presence of this shock wave, earlier performance predictions that have neglected shock wave effects have been questioned. The JANNAF thrust chamber performance prediction procedures given in a reference were applied. The analysis includes the effects of two dimensional reacting flow with a shock wave. The effects of the boundary layer with a regenatively cooled wall are also included. A Purdue computer program was used to compute axially symmetric supersonic nozzle flows with an induced shock, but is restricted to flows with a constant ratio of specific heats. Thus, the TDK program was also run with ths assumption and the results of the two programs were compared.

  15. -dimensional thin shell wormhole with deformed throat can be supported by normal matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2015-06-01

    From the physics standpoint the exotic matter problem is a major difficulty in thin shell wormholes (TSWs) with spherical/cylindrical throat topologies. We aim to circumvent this handicap by considering angle dependent throats in dimensions. By considering the throat of the TSW to be deformed spherical, i.e., a function of and , we present general conditions which are to be satisfied by the shape of the throat in order to have the wormhole supported by matter with positive density in the static reference frame. We provide particular solutions/examples to the constraint conditions.

  16. Passive Rocket Diffuser Theory: A Re-Examination of Minimum Second Throat Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Second-throat diffusers serve to isolate rocket engines from the effects of ambient back pressure during testing without using active control systems. Among the most critical design parameters is the relative area of the diffuser throat to that of the nozzle throat. A smaller second throat is generally desirable because it decreases the stagnation-to-ambient pressure ratio the diffuser requires for nominal operation. There is a limit, however. Below a certain size, the second throat can cause pressure buildup within the diffuser and prevent it from reaching the start condition that protects the nozzle from side-load damage. This paper presents a method for improved estimation of the minimum second throat area which enables diffuser start. The new 3-zone model uses traditional quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow theory to approximate the structure of two distinct diffuser flow fields observed in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and combines them to provide a less-conservative estimate of the second throat size limit. It is unique among second throat sizing methods in that it accounts for all major conical nozzle and second throat diffuser design parameters within its limits of application. The performance of the 3-zone method is compared to the historical normal shock and force balance methods, and verified against a large number of CFD simulations at specific heat ratios of 1.4 and 1.25. Validation is left as future work, and the model is currently intended to function only as a first-order design tool.

  17. The Effects of Anesthesia Method on Throat Pain after Elective Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Elyassi, Hedayatollah; Mousavinasab, Masoud; Rambod, Mehdi; Hashemian, Mohammad Reza; Dabbagh, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Throat pain is a common postoperative complaint. In this study, we aimed to determine its incidence of throat pain after rhinoplasty by general anesthesia (GA) or conscious sedation (CS). Methods: We evaluated throat pain in postanesthesia care unit, 4, 12 and 24 hours after surgery using a numerical rating scale (NRS) in a clinical trial. A total number of 252 consecutive females aging over 18 years undergoing GA or CS for elective rhinoplasty entered the study after implementing inclusion and exclusion criteria. A logistic regression model was used to predict having throat pain. Results: The incidence of throat pain after CS and GA in postanesthesia care unit, 4, 12 and 24 hours after rhinoplasty were 34.9% vs. 34.9% (P = 0.99), 27.0% vs. 33.3% (P = 0.27), 14.3% vs. 22.2% (P = 0.10), 10.3% vs. 15.9% (P = 0.19), respectively. The odds ratio for throat pain was statistically significant for nausea/vomiting in postanesthesia care unit (OR = 11.1, 95% CI: 5.7-21.8; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Method of anesthesia had no independent role in predicting throat pain. Although larynx of subjects undergoing general anesthesia is manipulated by tracheal intubation, sedation has its specific risks for promoting throat pain after surgery. Therefore, neither CS nor GA is superior in terms of throat pain. PMID:22174969

  18. Tonsillectomy

    MedlinePlus

    Tonsils removal; Tonsillitis - tonsillectomy; Pharyngitis - tonsillectomy; Sore throat - tonsillectomy ... can lead to frequent or very painful sore throats. In either of these cases, the child's tonsils ...

  19. Cancer of the Throat: A Physician's Experience as a Patient.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2016-01-01

    The author, a practicing physician, was diagnosed with throat cancer and lost his vocal cords. He endured the side effects of radiation, repeated surgeries, and the effects of prolonged hospitalizations; confronted medical mistakes and discrimination after losing his vocal cords; and struggled to regain his speech and find new meaning and purpose for his life. Facing the hardship and trials of becoming a laryngectomee illustrated to him how dependent and helpless a patient can become. Being unable to speak, eat, and breathe normally, while dealing with a potentially terminal illness, makes the patient very vulnerable, both physically and emotionally. A skillful, competent, error-free, empathetic, and caring approach that recognizes what the patient is experiencing can expedite recovery and well-being and help the patient return to a productive and meaningful life. PMID:27487313

  20. 78 FR 61208 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Blue-throated Macaw

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... included in the 1991 petition (56 FR 65207). On March 28, 1994, we published a document that served as our 12-month finding on the 1991 petition (59 FR 14496). In that document, we announced our finding that...-throated macaw. On January 10, 2013, we issued a proposed rule (78 FR 2239) to add the blue-throated...

  1. A life history study of the yellow throat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, R.E.

    1953-01-01

    Investigations concerning the life history of the Yellow-throat were made in southern Michigan during the spring and summer of 1938. Supplementary information was also obtained at Arlington, Virginia, in 1940 and at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, in 1947.....Resident males established territories almost immediately upon arrival in spring. In southern Michigan some resident males arrived at least as soon as, if not before, transient males. Most females appeared on their nesting ground about a week later. Adults were engaged in nesting activities from the time of their arrival in spring until the advent of the post-nuptial molt in late summer.....Typical Yellow-throat habitat consists of a mixture of a dense herbaceous vegetation and small woody plants in damp or wet situations. At Ann Arbor, the Yellow-throat was a common breeding species in its restricted suitable habitat. The population density in one area of suitable habitat was about 69 territorial males per 100 acres. Of 11 territorial males that were intensively studied, one was polygamous (with two mates), nine were monogamous, and one was probably monogamous (with at least one mate).....The song of the individual Yellow-throat was heard throughout the breeding season except for the courtship period. Two major types of song were the common song given while perched, and an occasional, more elaborate, flight song. Most males sing in spurts, singing at fairly regular intervals for a considerable period and then abruptly ceasing for another period. The vocabulary of both sexes included several types of call notes that appeared either to have special functions or to represent outward expressions of distinct emotional states of the bird.....Resident males were antagonistic toward each other throughout the breeding season. Most remained on well-established territories during this period. Territories of 10 monogamous males ranged in size from .8 to 1.8 acres but the territory of one polygamous male occupied

  2. Physical characteristics of a new synthetic fiber mattress in relation to pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Mita, K; Akataki, K; Itoh, K; Yoshida, M; Shinoda, T; Ishida, Y

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a mattress which was made of the new synthetic fibers called 'Shin-Gosen', and to determine its physical characteristics associated with pressure sores such as pressure distribution, temperature and humidity. The Shin-Gosen mattress consisted of three layers of elastic fibers made of polyester multifilaments, which were mediated by four layers of wave-like fabrics made of nylon monofilaments. The physical characteristics of the mattress were compared with (a) the conventional cotton hospital mattress and (b) the SORELESS MAT made of vacuole gel which effectively eliminated compression forces. The Shin-Gosen mattress was found to provide pressure relief effects similar to that of the SORELESS MAT the desired thermal insulation as well as that of the cotton mattress and a higher level of moisture vapor permeability. These excellent features will not only contribute to preventing pressure sores, but will also enable comfortable resting and sleeping. PMID:9444514

  3. The user--friendliness of protective support surfaces in prevention of pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Conine, T A; Choi, A K; Lim, R

    1989-01-01

    Special mattress overlays and seat cushions for the prevention of pressure sores constitute a large portion of the rehabilitation products market. Consumers frequently face economic concerns in choosing among these products. This article summarizes the favorable and unfavorable features of major support surface types: foam, air-filled, flotation, and alternating air. A careful consideration of characteristics, such as fire safety, patient comfort, and ease of transfer and handling, may facilitate selection and result in more satisfied users and caregivers. PMID:2781130

  4. Therapeutic Effect of External Application of Ligustrazine Combined with Holistic Nursing on Pressure Sores

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Junzhi; Han, Lin; Gong, Fen

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of external application of ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing on pressure sores, as well as the underlying mechanism. Material/Methods From February 2014 to March 2015, a total of 32 patients with Phase II and Phase III pressure sores were enrolled and randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The clinical data were comparable between the 2 groups. In addition to holistic nursing, the patients in the experimental group received 4 weeks of continuous external application of ligustrazine, whereas patients in the control group received compound clotrimazole cream. Therapeutic effect and healing time were recorded. HaCaT cells were used as an in vitro model for mechanism analysis of the effect of ligustrazine in treating pressure sores. After culturing with different concentrations of ligustrazine or the inhibitor of AKT (LY294002) for 72 h, cell viability, clone formation numbers, and levels of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-AKT, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were determined. Results Compared to the control group, the total effective rate in the experimental group was significantly higher, and the healing time was significantly reduced. Cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly upregulated by ligustrazine in a dose-dependent manner. Both the cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly inhibited by application of LY294002. Conclusions Our results suggest that ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing is an effective treatment of pressure sores. The protective effect may be associated with the promotion of cell growth by activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:27523814

  5. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Alessandro; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore. PMID:26495200

  6. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore. PMID:26495200

  7. Design and research on reliability-validity for 3S intraoperative risk assessment scale of pressure sore.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xing-lian; Hu, Juan-juan; Ma, Qiong; Wu, He-yu; Wang, Zeng-yan; Li, Ting-ting; Shen, Jian-hui; Yang, Ying

    2015-04-01

    The reliability and validity of risk assessment scale (RAS) of pressure sore during 3S surgery were investigated. RAS of pressure sore was designed independently during 3S surgery. Five operating room nursing experts were selected to consult and detect face validity. Convenient and purposive sampling of 707 samples was conducted. Cronbach's alpha was used to measure content reliability and evaluate the internal consistence of RAS. The structural reliability was investigated by exploratory factor analysis method. The results showed that the content validity index was 0.92, and Cronbach's alpha of content reliability was 0.71. Structural validity, detected by Bartlett sphericity test, was 135.3 for 707 samples with the difference being statistically significant (P<0.01). KMO value was 0.729. The accumulative variance contribution ratio of common factor was 64.63%. The exploratory factor analysis showed the factor load of every clause was larger than 0.596. It was concluded that RAS of pressure sore for 3S surgery has better validity and reliability, and it could be used for evaluating and screening the high risk patients with pressure sores during surgery in order to efficiently reduce the occurrence of pressure sore during surgery. RAS of pressure sore for 3S surgery is worth to be popularized. PMID:25877367

  8. Survival of red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) may be linked to marine conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Large variations in the summering population size of Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) have occurred in recent decades in Alaska. Little information exists about annual or seasonal survival rates of adult Red-throated Loons. This study used tracking data from satellite transmitters implanted into 33 Red-throated Loons captured on breeding areas in Alaska to estimate annual survival with the sampling effort split between two study periods: 2000–2002 and 2008–2010. Mortality was inferred from transmitted sensor data that indicated body temperature of the Red-throated Loon and voltage of the transmitter's battery. Two definitive mortalities occurred, resulting in an annual survival estimate of 0.920 (SE = 0.054). The fates of two additional Red-throated Loons were ambiguous and, when treated as mortalities, the annual survival estimate was 0.838 (SE = 0.074). All four putative mortalities occurred during the non-breeding season in the early study period. Oceanic conditions, indexed by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, appeared to differ between the study periods with higher Pacific Decadal Oscillation values associated with the early study period. Given that high values for Pacific Decadal Oscillation were also associated with the large decline of Red-throated Loons observed in Alaska during 1977–1993, this study suggests that survival of adult Red-throated Loons may vary in relation to the state of the marine ecosystem and thus contribute to long-term variation in population trends.

  9. The acoustic cough monitoring and manometric profile of cough and throat clearing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Carson, D; Boris, L; Mabary, J; Lin, Z; Nicodème, F; Cuttica, M; Kahrilas, P J; Pandolfino, J E

    2014-01-01

    Cough and throat clearing might be difficult to differentiate when trying to detect them acoustically or manometrically. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of acoustic monitoring for detecting cough and throat clearing, and to also determine whether these two symptoms present with different manometric profiles on esophageal pressure topography. Ten asymptomatic volunteers (seven females, mean age 31.1) were trained to simulate cough and throat clearing in a randomized order every 6 minutes during simultaneous acoustic monitoring and high-resolution manometry. The accuracy of automated acoustic analysis and two blinded reviewers were compared. The pattern of the events and the duration of the pressure changes were assessed using the 30 mmHg isobaric contour. There were 50 cough and 50 throat-clearing events according to the protocol. The sensitivity and specificity of automated acoustic analysis was 84% and 50% for cough, while the blinded analysis using sound revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 92%. The manometric profile of both cough and throat clearing was similar in terms of qualitative findings; however, cough was associated with a greater number of repetitive pressurizations and a more vigorous upper esophageal sphincter contraction compared with throat clearing. The acoustic analysis software has a moderate sensitivity and poor specificity to detect cough. The profile of cough and throat clearing in pressure topography revealed a similar qualitative pattern of pressurization with more vigorous pressure changes and a greater rate of repetitive pressurizations in cough. PMID:23442178

  10. Throat hit in users of the electronic cigarette: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey on the Internet in 2012-2014 was used to study the "throat hit," the specific sensation in the throat felt by users of e-cigarettes. Participants were 1672 current users of e-cigarettes, visitors of Websites dedicated to e-cigarettes and to smoking cessation. It was assessed whether the strength of the throat hit was associated with the characteristics of e-cigarettes and e-liquids, modifications of the devices, patterns of use, reasons for use, satisfaction with e-cigarettes, dependence on e-cigarettes, smoking behavior, and perceived effects on smoking. The strongest throat hit was obtained by using better-quality models and liquids with high nicotine content. Those who reported a "very strong" throat hit used liquids with 17.3 mg/mL nicotine, versus 7.1 mg/mL for those reporting a "very weak" hit (p < .001). The strength of the throat hit was also associated with ratings of dependence on e-cigarettes, and with the perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes to relieve craving for tobacco and to facilitate smoking cessation. All the variables assessing satisfaction with e-cigarettes were associated with a stronger throat hit. From a public health perspective, there is a trade-off between e-cigarette models that provide high levels of nicotine, a strong throat hit, high satisfaction, and more effects on smoking, but may also be addictive, and models than contain less nicotine and are less addictive, but produce a weaker throat hit, are less satisfactory, and are possibly less efficient at helping people quit smoking. This trade-off must be kept in mind when regulating e-cigarettes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26653150