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Sample records for sore throat systematic

  1. Sore Throat

    MedlinePlus

    ... sore throat will return and also helps prevent antibiotic resistance. What is the treatment for a sore throat ... given to children younger than 18 years of age. Gargle with warm salt water (1 teaspoon of ...

  2. Postoperative sore throat: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    El-Boghdadly, K; Bailey, C R; Wiles, M D

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative sore throat has a reported incidence of up to 62% following general anaesthesia. In adults undergoing tracheal intubation, female sex, younger age, pre-existing lung disease, prolonged duration of anaesthesia and the presence of a blood-stained tracheal tube on extubation are associated with the greatest risk. Tracheal intubation without neuromuscular blockade, use of double-lumen tubes, as well as high tracheal tube cuff pressures may also increase the risk of postoperative sore throat. The expertise of the anaesthetist performing tracheal intubation appears to have no influence on the incidence in adults, although it may in children. In adults, the i-gel(™) supraglottic airway device results in a lower incidence of postoperative sore throat. Cuffed supraglottic airway devices should be inflated sufficiently to obtain an adequate seal and intracuff pressure should be monitored. Children with respiratory tract disease are at increased risk. The use of supraglottic airway devices, oral, rather than nasal, tracheal intubation and cuffed, rather than uncuffed, tracheal tubes have benefit in reducing the incidence of postoperative sore throat in children. Limiting both tracheal tube and supraglottic airway device cuff pressure may also reduce the incidence. PMID:27158989

  3. Pharyngitis - sore throat

    MedlinePlus

    Pharyngitis - bacterial; Sore throat ... caused by swelling in the back of the throat (pharynx) between the tonsils and the voice box (larynx). Most sore throats are caused by colds, the flu, coxsackie virus ...

  4. Sore Throat (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Sore ...

  5. Resolving the Sore Throat Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Brian; Yassi, Anna Lee

    1981-01-01

    Many physicians ignore the traditional dictum that throat culture is the only tool of value in assessing sore throat. A review of the literature supports this skepticism. Evidence indicates that clinical assessment has been underestimated and the significance of positive culture exaggerated. An approach to managing pharyngitis utilizing the combined strengths of throat culture and clinical assessment is proposed. This approach avoids needless cultures, minimizes unnecessary antibiotic use, achieves prompt clinical improvement in patients whose symptoms are most severe and reduces the risk of long term morbidity from rheumatic heart disease to negligible levels. PMID:21289692

  6. Soothing a Sore Throat

    MedlinePlus

    ... infectious disease expert at NIH. “Having lozenges or hard candies—or anything that stimulates saliva production—will keep ... fluids.” For young children who might choke on hard candies or lozenges, try cold liquids and popsicles. Throat ...

  7. Doctor, I have a sore throat

    PubMed Central

    Dholakia, Shamik; Hashimi, Yasmin

    2013-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare yet potentially fatal cause of sore throat. Recently published literature suggests an increase in the incidence of this ‘forgotten disease’, highlighting Lemierre's syndrome as a clinically important differential diagnosis of sore throat. We present a case report of an 85-year-old man who developed a sore throat, which illustrates the re-emergence of Lemierre's syndrome. Reducing the morbidity and mortality from this disease requires a high index of clinical suspicion to ensure prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate multidisciplinary management. PMID:23376662

  8. Doctor, I have a sore throat.

    PubMed

    Dholakia, Shamik; Hashimi, Yasmin

    2013-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare yet potentially fatal cause of sore throat. Recently published literature suggests an increase in the incidence of this 'forgotten disease', highlighting Lemierre's syndrome as a clinically important differential diagnosis of sore throat. We present a case report of an 85-year-old man who developed a sore throat, which illustrates the re-emergence of Lemierre's syndrome. Reducing the morbidity and mortality from this disease requires a high index of clinical suspicion to ensure prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate multidisciplinary management. PMID:23376662

  9. Treating Sore Throats: Practice vs. Theory

    PubMed Central

    Hutten-Czapski, P.

    1987-01-01

    The management of a seemingly simple and common ailment, the sore throat, is shrouded in considerable controversy. At present, authoritarian opinion, stressing prevention of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), is in conflict with the practices of a large segment of the profession, whose members seem to treat primarily for symptom relief. Recent developments, in fields as diverse as epidemiology of ARF, clinical decision making, laboratory tests for streptococcus, and clinical trials of penicillin, are in support of management that is directed primarily towards symptom relief and secondarily towards prevention of ARF. PMID:21263777

  10. Pregame Sore Throat, Postgame Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Stork, Natalie C; Smoot, M Kyle

    2016-05-01

    A collegiate football athlete presented, on game day, with an acute onset of sore throat. He was afebrile, speaking in full sentences, without signs of respiratory distress. His examination was negative for lymphadenopathy or tonsillar enlargement or exudate. Twelve hours after initial presentation, he developed acute epiglottitis. He underwent urgent fiberoptic intubation and was empirically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids. Currently, there are no published reports of acute epiglottitis in athletes. Consequently, there is no evidence to guide return to play decisions. Return to play, following acute epiglottitis, should include resolution of symptoms and a graded return to play, taking into consideration the level of deconditioning the athlete experienced from hospitalization. PMID:26247550

  11. Effect of Intracuff Lidocaine on Postoperative Sore Throat and the Emergence Phenomenon: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Fai; Lin, Yu-Cih; Tsai, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, Ta-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative sore throat and other airway morbidities are common and troublesome after endotracheal tube intubation general anesthesia (ETGA). We propose lidocaine as endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff inflation media to reduce the postintubation-related emergence phenomenon. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases systematically for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated the outcome of intracuff lidocaine versus air or saline in patients receiving ETGA. Using a random-effects model, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relative risks (RRs) and mean difference (MD) of the incidence and intensity of relevant adverse outcomes. Results We reviewed nineteen trials, which comprised 1566 patients. The incidence of early- and late-phase postoperative sore throat (POST), coughing, agitation, hoarseness, and dysphonia decreased significantly in lidocaine groups, with RRs of 0.46 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31 to 0.68), 0.41 (95% CI: 0.25 to 0.66), 0.43 (95% CI: 0.31 to 0.62), 0.37 (95% CI: 0.25 to 0.55), 0.43 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.63), and 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.5), respectively, when compared with the control groups. The severity of POST also reduced significantly (mean difference [MD] -16.43 mm, 95% CI: -21.48 to -11.38) at 1 h and (MD -10.22 mm, 95% CI: -13.5 to -6.94) at 24 h. Both alkalinized and non-alkalinized lidocaine in the subgroup analyses showed significant benefits in emergence phenomena prevention compared with the control. Conclusion Our results indicate that both alkalinized and non-alkalinized intracuff lidocaine may prevent and alleviate POST and postintubation-related emergence phenomena. PMID:26288276

  12. Just a sore throat? Uncommon causes of significant respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Dalia; Bichard, Julia; Shah, Anand; Mann, Bhupinder

    2013-01-01

    We present two uncommon underlying causes of a sore throat which, if missed or delayed in diagnosis, can lead to disastrous consequences. Our first case is of Lemierre's syndrome diagnosed in a 21-year-old man presenting with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and bilateral pulmonary nodules on CT imaging. Fusobacterium necrophorum cultured from peripheral blood and an occluded left internal jugular vein on ultrasound lead to an eventual diagnosis. Our second case presents a 29-year-old woman with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever and right-sided pleuritic chest pain. A left-sided quinsy was diagnosed and aspirated and the patient was discharged home. She represented shortly with worsening pleuritic pain and was found to have a right-sided pleural effusion with descending mediastinitis originating from the tonsillar abscess. Delayed diagnosis resulted in open thoracotomy, decortication and prolonged intravenous antibiotics. PMID:23632177

  13. Just a sore throat? Uncommon causes of significant respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Dalia; Bichard, Julia; Shah, Anand; Mann, Bhupinder

    2013-01-01

    We present two uncommon underlying causes of a sore throat which, if missed or delayed in diagnosis, can lead to disastrous consequences. Our first case is of Lemierre's syndrome diagnosed in a 21-year-old man presenting with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and bilateral pulmonary nodules on CT imaging. Fusobacterium necrophorum cultured from peripheral blood and an occluded left internal jugular vein on ultrasound lead to an eventual diagnosis. Our second case presents a 29-year-old woman with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever and right-sided pleuritic chest pain. A left-sided quinsy was diagnosed and aspirated and the patient was discharged home. She represented shortly with worsening pleuritic pain and was found to have a right-sided pleural effusion with descending mediastinitis originating from the tonsillar abscess. Delayed diagnosis resulted in open thoracotomy, decortication and prolonged intravenous antibiotics. PMID:23632177

  14. School Nurses on the Front Lines of Medicine: A Student With Fever and Sore Throat.

    PubMed

    Olympia, Robert P

    2016-05-01

    Fever and sore throat are common chief complaints encountered by school nurses. This article explains the etiology of both fever and sore throat in children, describes the office assessment, and delineates life-threatening complications associated with fever and sore throat that may prompt the school nurse to transfer the child to a local emergency department. PMID:27091630

  15. Group A streptococcal sore throat in a periurban population of northern India: a one-year prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, S.; Kumar, R.; Ray, P.; Vohra, H.; Ganguly, N. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and risk factors of group A streptococcus (GAS) sore throat among school-aged children living in a periurban slum area of Chandigarh, North India. METHODS: A total of 536 children aged 5-15 years from 261 families identified by a systematic random selection method were enrolled in the study. Episodes of sore throat were recorded through fortnightly home visits over a one-year period. The local vernacular (Hindi) terms gala kharab (bad throat) and khansi jukam (cough and cold) were used to identify symptoms of sore throat, and throat swab specimens were collected from children who had these symptoms on the day of the home visit. Bacterial culture was carried out and the isolation of GAS was confirmed using group-A-specific antiserum. FINDINGS: The incidences of sore throat and GAS sore throat were, respectively, 7.05 and 0.95 episodes per child-year. The incidence was higher in the following situations: among 11-year-olds, during the winter (November to January) and rainy (August) months (a bimodal peak), among children living in houses where there was no separate room for the kitchen, and in homes that included a tobacco smoker. CONCLUSION: The results show that the incidence of GAS sore throat was related to age, season, and indoor air pollution. PMID:11436474

  16. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children

    PubMed Central

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  17. [Tonsillitis and sore throat in childhood].

    PubMed

    Stelter, K

    2014-03-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcome after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy slowly change in Germany since that. However, there exist no national guidelines and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies in the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under 6 years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i. e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (= tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  18. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children.

    PubMed

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  19. Life threatening complication of sore throat: Lemierre's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif; Ganesan, Subramanian; Arora, Manish; Hussain, Nahin

    2013-12-01

    The authors report a case of previously healthy toddler who presented with acute sore throat that led to bacteremia, septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, encephalopathy and pleural effusion. Magnetic resonance imaging and venogram showed thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. He was successfully treated with antibiotics and low molecular weight heparin. The authors review the literature and explore the presentation, management and the role of anticoagulation in this condition. To the authors' knowledge, this is one of the youngest patient reports with this condition in the literature. PMID:23275185

  20. Sore throat in a young man: guess what…

    PubMed Central

    Lazarescu, Roxana Elena; Prabhu, Vinay; Wallace, Camari; Htet, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Sore throat is a common complaint in the outpatient and emergency room settings. Typically, little workup is necessary and includes visual inspection with or without swabs for bacterial infection. We present a case that demonstrates an important entity to be excluded by simple history and physical examination in patients presenting with pain in the throat or neck. The most important cause of pneumomediastinum is previous instrumentation. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is uncommonly seen in young adults. Most cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum are uncomplicated, as mediastinal pressures rarely mount to dangerous levels. However, when the patient presents with distended neck veins, cyanosis or marked dyspnoea, further action is necessary. Lastly, since pneumomediastinum can be caused by oesophageal rupture and occasionally present with concurrent pneumothorax, these dangerous entities must be excluded. PMID:24951599

  1. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  2. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  3. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food and... anesthetic, chewing gum containing aspirin, various mouth washes and gargles and other articles sold over...

  4. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food and... anesthetic, chewing gum containing aspirin, various mouth washes and gargles and other articles sold over...

  5. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food and... anesthetic, chewing gum containing aspirin, various mouth washes and gargles and other articles sold over...

  6. An unusual case of a sore throat and otalgia in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Siupšinskienė, Nora; Padervinskis, Evaldas; Poškienė, Lina; Endeley, Nganjo; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2012-01-01

    A sore throat, otalgia, and snoring are the common symptoms seen in children presenting to an otorhinolaryngological clinic. Sometimes, however, these symptoms may be suggestive of an aggressive malignancy. We present a rare case of Burkitt's lymphoma of the tonsil in a young child, which initially manifested as a sore throat and otalgia. PMID:22864276

  7. Reconsidering sore throats. Part I: Problems with current clinical practice.

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, W. J.; Goel, V.; Slaughter, P. M.; Parsons, G. W.; Woolnough, K. V.; Weir, P. T.; Ennet, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence-based answers to clinical questions posed by family physicians about Group A streptococcus pharyngitis and to further understanding of why management is controversial. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Evidence from randomized trials was not found for most questions. The most critical information came from high-quality community prevalence studies and criterion standard studies of physician clinical judgement. MAIN FINDINGS: Expert recommendations for physician management are not likely to help prevent rheumatic fever, as most people with sore throats do not seek medical care. Current clinical practices result in overuse of antibiotics because accuracy of clinical judgment is limited. CONCLUSIONS: Costs associated with visits for upper respiratory infections as well as increasing antibiotic resistance necessitate reconsidering the current clinical approach. An alternative management strategy is presented in part 2. PMID:9116520

  8. The usefulness of a clinical 'scorecard' in managing patients with sore throat in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of a clinical scorecard in managing sore throat in general practice. Design: Validation study of scorecard for sore throat with a throat swab culture used as the 'gold standard'. Setting: A solo family practice in rural New South Wales, Australia Participants: Patients attending with sore throat. Methods Patients from the age of 5 years and above presenting with the main symptom of a sore throat, and who have not had any antibiotic treatment in the previous two weeks, were invited to participate in the study. The doctor completed a scorecard for each patient participating and took a throat swab for culture. Adult patients (> 16 yrs) were asked to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire, while guardians accompanying children (5 yr to < 16 yrs old) were asked to complete a similar, guardian questionnaire. Main outcome measures: 1. Ability of a new scorecard to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial sore throat. 2. Patients' trust in the scorecard. Results The scorecard has a sensitivity of 93.33%, a specificity of 63.16%, a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity is better than other sore throat scorecards that have been published but with a slightly lower specificity. There was a high level of patient trust in the scorecard was (85.8% agreement). Patients also trusted their doctor's judgement based on the scorecard (90.6% agreement). Conclusions As the scorecard has a high sensitivity but only a moderate specificity, this means that it is more reliable for negative results, i.e. when the result suggests a viral infection. When the result favours a bacterial sore throat, then a high sensitivity can mean that there are a number of false positives. GPs can be confident in withholding antibiotics when the scorecard indicates a viral infection. PMID:20670439

  9. Awareness about sore-throat, rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in a rural community.

    PubMed

    Arya, R K

    1992-01-01

    This I.C.M.R. study was conducted in 74 villages of Chiraigaon block, Varanasi, U.P., during the period March 1983 and December 1986. Before and after health education awareness survey about sore throat, rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease was carried out by interviewing 315 persons by stratified random sampling. The study shows that there is significant increase in the knowledge about most of the symptoms, causes, consequences and preventive measures of sore throat, rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. This paper highlights the importance of health education as a vital component of rheumatic heart disease control programme. PMID:1303991

  10. Difference between a Sore Throat, Strep, and Tonsillitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  11. When a Sore Throat Is a More Serious Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  12. Predictive Factors for Medical Consultation for Sore Throat in Adults with Recurrent Pharyngotonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Koskenkorva, T.; Koivunen, P.; Alho, O.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Objects. To seek patient- and episode-related factors that associate with medical consultation for acute sore throat because these factors may affect the patient being referred to specialist care and tonsillectomy for recurrent pharyngotonsillitis. Methods. In a secondary analysis of two prior randomised controlled trials, sore throat episodes and medical visits were explored among 156 adult patients referred for tonsillectomy because of recurrent pharyngotonsillitis. Results. The 156 patients (104 females, mean age of 26 years) suffered from 208 acute pharyngotonsillitis episodes during 5-6 months of follow-up. Forty (25%) patients visited a physician, and female gender (adjusted hazard ratio, HR, 3.3; 95% confidence interval 1.4–8.0) and finding of chronically infected tonsils (HR 2.7; 1.2–6.1) were associated with medical consultation. Thirty-six (17%) episodes led to medical consultation during the first 7 days of symptoms. Presence of severe throat pain was related to medical visit (HR 4.3; 1.0–18.5). Conclusions. Even among patients with recurrent pharyngotonsillitis, the acute sore throat episodes were usually mild and only few resulted in medical consultation, with female gender, chronically infected tonsils, and having severe throat pain increasing the consultation rate.

  13. Sore throat may be a clue to the early diagnosis of spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Wei; Chiu, Wen-Yi; Lo, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is defined as presence of air in the mediastinum without obvious cause such as esophageal perforation or abscess formation. It is a benign condition and usually resolved by itself in 1 to 2 weeks. The main symptom of spontaneous pneumomediastinum is retrosternal chest pain. Here, we present a young adult who complained about sore throat initially. Marked retropharyngeal emphysema was noted by neck x-ray. Pneumomediastinum was confirmed with chest x-ray and computed tomographic scan later on.We want to emphasize the importance of thorough history taking and lateral soft tissue neck radiograph on retropharyngeal emphysema in real time, which is key to the diagnostic workup for patients who present with persistent sore throat and dysphagia in young adult. PMID:25070194

  14. The prophylactic effect of dexamethasone on postoperative sore throat in prone position surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Yoon Chan; Choi, So Ron; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Jong Hwan; Chung, Chan Jong

    2016-01-01

    Background Sore throat and hoarseness are common complications after general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The position for patients can affect the incidence of postoperative sore throat (POST) by causing displacement of the endotracheal tube. This study investigated the prophylactic effect of dexamethasone in prone position surgeries. Methods One hundred-fifty patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery (18-75 yr) were randomly allocated into the normal saline group (group P, n = 50), dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg group (group D1, n = 50) or dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg group (group D2, n = 50). The incidence and severity of POST, hoarseness, and cough were measured using direct interview at 1, 6, and 24 h after tracheal extubation. The severity of POST, hoarseness, and cough were graded using a 4-point scale. Results At 1, 6, and 24 h after extubation, the incidence of sore throat was significantly lower in group D1 (1 h; P = 0.015, 6 h; P < 0.001, 24 h; P = 0.038) and group D2 (1 h; P < 0.001, 6 h; P < 0.001, 24 h; P = 0.017) compared to group P. There were less number of patients in the groups D1 and D2 than group P suffering from moderate grade of POST at 1, 24 h after extubation. The incidence of hoarseness at 1, 6, and 24 h after extubation was significantly lower in groups D2 than group P (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of cough among the three groups. Conclusions The prophylactic use of dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg in prone surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative sore throat and dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg decreases the incidence of hoarseness. PMID:27274371

  15. The Evolution of Web-based Medical Information on Sore Throat: a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Buonuomo, Paola Sabrina; De Rose, Paola; Onesimo, Roberta; Vituzzi, Andrea; D'Atri, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    Background The content of a page can change and is likely to change over time; this is one of the useful qualities of the Web, but also a dangerous one. Objective To monitor the evolution of Web page contents on sore throat over a 3 year period. Methods Two medical doctors independently evaluated 34 Web pages on sore throat. Pages were found using a metasearch engine. The evaluation factors were: the adherence of medical contents to a gold standard (American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations) composed of 5 subfactors (epidemiological, clinical, complications, diagnosis, and therapy); the completeness of the contents in terms of considered/missed factors of the gold standard; references to medical literature; and a specified last update of the page. During the observation period these sites were revisited twice, after 28 and 39 months, to examine any changes therein since the first visit. Results The degree of adherence to the gold standard did not significantly change. Variations (both positive and negative) were recorded solely with regard to the update and references factors as well as with regard to the availability of the pages over time (18% disappeared during the observation period). Conclusions In 3 years medical contents have not changed significantly and despite the contemporary epochal Internet revolution (in terms of, eg, technology, graphics, and access) and the increase in the number of sites dealing with the issue of sore throat, there has been no corresponding qualitative increase in the contents of the pages monitored. PMID:12857666

  16. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Sore Throat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews of Outpatient Stewardship Audit and Feedback ...

  17. Prophylactic Effects of Lidocaine or Beclomethasone Spray on Post-Operative Sore Throat and Cough after Orotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Banihashem, Nadia; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Hasannasab, Bahman; Zarei, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Post-operative sore throat and cough are common complications of endotracheal intubation. These conditions may be very distressing for the patient and may lead to unpleasant memories. This study was performed in order to determine whether beclomethasone and lidocaine spray could reduce the frequency of post-operative sore throat and hoarseness after tracheal extubation. Materials and Methods: Ninety women (18–60 years of age) with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II and undergoing elective mastoidectomy were randomized into three groups of 30 patients. The endotracheal tubes in each group were sprayed with 50% beclomethasone, 10% lidocaine hydrochloride, or normal saline (control group) before endotracheal intubation. Patients were examined for sore throat (none, mild, moderate, or severe), cough, and hoarseness at 1 and 24 h after extubation. Results: There was a significantly lower incidence and severity of post-operative sore throat in the beclomethasone group than the lidocaine and control groups (P<0.05) at each observation time point. At 24 h after extubation, the incidence and severity of sore throat and cough was significantly lower in the lidocaine compared with the control group. The incidence of hoarseness was not significantly different among the three groups. Conclusion: Spraying beclomethasone and lidocaine on the endotracheal tube is a simple and effective method to reduce the incidence and severity of post-operative sore throat. PMID:26082898

  18. Postoperative Sore Throat After Laryngoscopy With Macintosh or Glide Scope Video Laryngoscope Blade in Normal Airway Patients

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Atabak; Imani, Farsad; Makarem, Jalil; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Etezadi, Farhad; Habibi, Shirin; Shariat Moharari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Glide Scope videolaryngoscope provides a suitable view for intubation, with less force required. Objectives: The present study was conducted, to compare postoperative sore throat and hoarseness after laryngoscopy and intubation, by Macintosh blade or Glide Scope video laryngoscope in normal airway patients. Patients and Methods: Three hundred patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 150: Macintosh blade laryngoscope or Glide Scope video laryngoscope. The patients were evaluated for 48 hours for sore throat and hoarseness by an interview. Results: The incidence and severity of sore throat in the Glide Scope group, at 6, 24 and 48 hours after the operation, were significantly lower than in the Macintosh laryngoscope group. In addition, the incidence of hoarseness in the Glide Scope group, at 6 and 24 hours after the operation, were significantly lower than in the Macintosh laryngoscope group. The incidence and severity of sore throat in men, at 6 and 24 hours after the operation, were significantly lower than in the women. Conclusions: The incidence and severity of sore throat and hoarseness after tracheal intubation by Glide Scope were lower than in the Macintosh laryngoscope. The incidence and severity of sore throat were increased by intubation and longer operation times. PMID:24660157

  19. Understanding variation for clinical governance: an illustration using the diagnosis and treatment of sore throat.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Tom; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Lim, Hei Toon

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of clinical governance is to improve clinical care. An understanding of the information contained in variation is central to any improvement effort. We must distinguish between variation intrinsic to a process (common cause variation) and variation caused by extrinsic factors (special cause variation). The control chart is a method of distinguishing between these two kinds of variation: it is used in industry to effect improvement and may be useful in primary care. AIM: To illustrate the use of control charts to distinguish between common cause and special cause variation and to guide appropriate action. DESIGN OF STUDY: Analysis of diagnostic and treatment decisions for sore throat. SETTING: Single practice in the West Midlands. METHODS: We identified each general practitioner's (GP's) consultations for sore throat over a two-year period. We grouped these into two diagnostic categories (tonsillitis and non-tonsillar throat infection) and two treatment categories (antibiotics and no antibiotics). These data were illustrated graphically as XY control charts. RESULTS: In this practice, a special cause affects one GP's diagnosis--he is less likely to use the term 'tonsillitis'. A special cause also affects his treatment decisions--he is more likely to prescribe antibiotics. Diagnostic and treatment differences between the remaining GPs are consistent with common cause variation. CONCLUSION: In this practice, action to improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment of sore throat shouldfocus on investigating why one practitioner's diagnosis and treatment differs from that of his colleagues. Control chart analysis is valuable because it enables users to obtain practical guidance for action. PMID:11942443

  20. Strep throat

    MedlinePlus

    Pharyngitis - streptococcal; Streptococcal pharyngitis; Tonsillitis - strep; Sore throat strep ... Strep throat is most common in children between ages 5 and 15, although anyone can get it. Strep throat ...

  1. Predictors of suppurative complications for acute sore throat in primary care: prospective clinical cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Beth; Hobbs, F D Richard; Butler, Chris C; Hay, Alastair D; Campbell, John; Delaney, Brendan; Broomfield, Sue; Barratt, Paula; Hood, Kerenza; Everitt, Hazel; Mullee, Mark; Williamson, Ian; Mant, David; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective To document whether elements of a structured history and examination predict adverse outcome of acute sore throat. Design Prospective clinical cohort. Setting Primary care. Participants 14 610 adults with acute sore throat (≤2 weeks’ duration). Main outcome measures Common suppurative complications (quinsy or peritonsillar abscess, otitis media, sinusitis, impetigo or cellulitis) and reconsultation with new or unresolving symptoms within one month. Results Complications were assessed reliably (inter-rater κ=0.95). 1.3% (177/13 445) of participants developed complications overall and 14.2% (1889/13 288) reconsulted with new or unresolving symptoms. Independent predictors of complications were severe tonsillar inflammation (documented among 13.0% (1652/12 717); odds ratio 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.28 to 2.89) and severe earache (5% (667/13 323); 3.02, 1.91 to 4.76), but the model including both variables had modest prognostic utility (bootstrapped area under the receiver operator curve 0.61, 0.57 to 0.65), and 70% of complications (124/177) occurred when neither was present. Clinical prediction rules for bacterial infection (Centor criteria and FeverPAIN) also predicted complications, but predictive values were also poor and most complications occurred with low scores (67% (118/175) scoring ≤2 for Centor; 126/173 (73%) scoring ≤2 for FeverPAIN). Previous medical problems, sex, temperature, and muscle aches were independently but weakly associated with reconsultation with new or unresolving symptoms. Conclusion Important suppurative complications after an episode of acute sore throat in primary care are uncommon. History and examination and scores to predict bacterial infection cannot usefully identify those who will develop complications. Clinicians will need to rely on strategies such as safety netting or delayed prescription in managing the uncertainty and low risk of complications. PMID:24277339

  2. A clinical score to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in patients with sore throat

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, W J; White, D; Tannenbaum, D; Low, D E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate a score based on clinical symptoms and signs for the identification of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection in general practice patients with score throat. DESIGN: A single throat swab was used as the gold standard for diagnosing GAS infection. Clinical information was recorded by experienced family physicians on standardized encounter forms. Score criteria were identified by means of logistic regression modelling of data from patients enrolled in the first half of the study. The score was then validated among the remaining patients. SETTING: University-affiliated family medicine centre in Toronto. PATIENTS: A total of 521 patients aged 3 to 76 years presenting with a new upper respiratory tract infection from December 1995 to February 1997. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios for identification of GAS infection with the score approach compared with throat culture. Proportion of patients prescribed antibiotics, throat culture use, and sensitivity and specificity with usual physician care and with score-based recommendations were compared. RESULTS: A score was developed ranging in value from 0 to 4. The sensitivity of the score for identifying GAS infection was 83.1%, compared with 69.4% for usual physician care (p = 0.06); the specificity values of the 2 approaches were similar. Among patients aged 3 to 14 years, the sensitivity of the score approach was higher than that of usual physician care (96.9% v. 70.6%) (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients receiving initial antibiotic prescriptions would have been reduced 48% by following score-based recommendations compared with observed physician prescribing (p < 0.001), without any increase in throat culture use. CONCLUSIONS: An age-appropriate sore throat score identified GAS infection in children and adults with sore throat better than usual care by family physicians, with significant reductions in unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics. A randomized trial

  3. A comparative study of the diagnostic methods for Group A streptococcal sore throat in two reference hospitals in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Gonsu, Hortense Kamga; Bomki, Cynthia Mbimenyuy; Djomou, François; Toukam, Michel; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Lyonga, Emilia Enjema; Mbakop, Calixte Didier; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sore throat is a common complaint in general practice which is more frequent in children. The most frequent pathogenic bacteria associated with this infection is Streptococcus pyogenes. Rapid Antigen Diagnostic Test (RADT) facilitates the rapid identification and consequently prompt treatment of patients, prevents complications, and also reduces the risk of spread of Group A Streptococcus (GAS). The main objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of a rapid streptococcal antigen detection test in patients with sore throat. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from January to April 2011 on patients aged 3 to 72 years consulting for pharyngitis or sore throat at the paediatric and Ear, Nose and Throat units of the University Teaching Hospital Yaounde and the Central Hospital Yaounde. Two throat swabs were collected per patient. One was used for the rapid test and the other for standard bacteriological analysis. Results The prevalence of GAS in the study population was 22.5%. Out of the 71 samples collected, the RADT detected group A streptococcal antigens in 12 of 16 positive cultures giving a sensitivity of 75%. The specificity of the rapid test was 96%, with positive predictive value of 85.7%, and negative predictive value of 93% respectively. Conclusion Rapid test may have an additional value in the management of patients with high risk of having GAS infection. However, tests with a higher sensitivity are needed for accurate and reliable results for early diagnosis of patients with sore throat caused by GAS.

  4. Salient beliefs and intentions to prescribe antibiotics for patients with a sore throat.

    PubMed

    Walker, A. E.; Grimshaw, J. M.; Armstrong, E. M.

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: General practitioners (GPs) in the UK continue to prescribe antibiotics for patients with sore throats despite evidence that they are ineffective and can contribute to the growth of antibiotic resistance in the population. This study uses the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate the strength of intention to prescribe antibiotics, and to identify the salient beliefs associated with this intention. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study testing hypotheses derived from the TPB. METHOD: A 66-item postal questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of GPs in one NHS region (N = 185). The questionnaire included measures of intention to prescribe antibiotics, attitude, behavioural beliefs and evaluations, normative beliefs and evaluations, perceived behavioural control, control beliefs, and past prescribing. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the GPs returned complete questionnaires (N = 126, 68%). The majority intended to prescribe antibiotics for less than half of their patients with sore throats (N = 69, 55%). The variables specified in TPB predicted 48% of the variance in intention, with past behaviour adding a further 15%. Seven salient beliefs distinguished between doctors who intend to prescribe antibiotics and those who do not. CONCLUSIONS: Attitudes towards antibiotics and control beliefs are important predictors of intention to prescribe, as predicted by TPB. Interventions could target salient beliefs associated with motivation to prescribe. PMID:12614509

  5. The Effect of Flurbiprofen on Postoperative Sore Throat and Hoarseness After LMA-ProSeal Insertion: A Randomised, Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Uztüre, Neslihan; Menda, Ferdi; Bilgen, Sevgi; Keskin, Özgül; Temur, Sibel; Köner, Özge

    2014-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that flurbiprofen lozenges reduce the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (LMA) related symptoms of Post Operative Sore Throat (POST), hoarseness and dysphagia compared to placebo lozenges. Methods Eighty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I–II patients undergoing general anaesthesia with LMA were included in this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical and single centre (university hospital) study. Group F received an 8.75 mg flurbiprofen lozenge (Strefen®) and Group P received a placebo lozenge 45 minutes before the induction of anaesthesia. Postoperative sore throat, hoarseness and dysphagia were evaluated 30 minutes after removal of the LMA in the recovery room and then at 4, 12 and 24 h after surgery using a 4-point scale. Data were analysed using Student’s t test, and Fisher’s exact and Mann-Whitney U tests. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The 8.75 mg flurbiprofen lozenges reduced the severity of early (30 mins) POST and dysphagia. The severity of dysphagia at 4 h and hoarseness at 12 h were also significantly reduced in Group F. There were no significant differences betweeen the groups regarding incidence of sore throat, dysphagia and hoarseness throughout the study period. Conclusion Preoperative flurbiprofen lozenges reduce the severity of early postoperative sore throat and dysphagia. PMID:27366405

  6. Reconsidering sore throats. Part 2: Alternative approach and practical office tool.

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, W. J.; Goel, V.; Slaughter, P. M.; Parsons, G. W.; Woolnough, K. V.; Weir, P. T.; Ennet, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a management approach for Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis that would address overuse of antibiotics and could be implemented immediately. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: No randomized, controlled trials were found; four observational studies met our criteria: simplicity, discrimination ability for GAS pharyngitis compared with throat culture, and validation in a different patient population. Only one scoring system fulfilled all three criteria. MAIN FINDINGS: Formal clinical scoring systems have the potential to improve family physicians' ability to identify and manage GAS pharyngitis. One system had been sufficiently validated to support its use in clinical practice. Four clinical characteristics (no cough, fever higher than 38 degrees C, exudate, and tender cervical nodes) linked to explicit management decisions form the basis for a sore throat score. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a clinical score for management of GAS pharyngitis can be recommended on the basis of the rarity of rheumatic fever in modern society, the resources devoted to management of upper respiratory tract illnesses, the volume of antibiotics prescribed, and the emergence of antibiotic resistance as a growing health issue. PMID:9116521

  7. Strep throat

    MedlinePlus

    Strep throat is a disease that causes a sore throat (pharyngitis). It is an infection with a germ called ... Strep throat is most common in children between ages 5 and 15, although anyone can get it. Strep throat ...

  8. Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this trial was to assess the relative efficacy of a sage/echinacea spray and a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray in the treatment of acute sore throats. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy controlled trial carried out in eleven general practices in Switzerland. A total of 154 patients (133 analyzed in per protocol collective) at least 12 years old with acute sore throat present for not more than 72 hours prior to inclusion and with a throat score ≥6 participated in the study. They used either an echinacea/sage spray or a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray with two puffs every 2 hours, in a double-dummy blinded manner, up to 10 times daily until they were symptom-free, for a maximum of 5 days. The main outcome measures was the comparison of response rates during the first three days. A response was defined as a decrease of at least 50% of the total symptoms compared to baseline. Results The echinacea/sage treatment exhibited similar efficacy to the chlorhexidine/lidocaine treatment in reducing sore throat symptoms during the first 3 days (P(x < Y) = .5083). Response rates after 3 days were 63.8% in the echinacea/sage group and 57.8% in the chlorhexidine/lidocaine group. For all secondary parameters, such as time to becoming symptom free, throat pain, and global assessments of efficacy by the physician and patient, no difference between the two treatments was seen. They were both very well tolerated. Conclusion An echinacea/sage preparation is as efficacious and well tolerated as a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray in the treatment of acute sore throats. PMID:19748859

  9. The effect of intravenous low dose ketamine for reducing postoperative sore throat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Noh, Jung Il; Lee, Su Myoung; Kim, Mun Gyu; Kim, Sang Ho; Ok, Si Young; Kim, Soon Im

    2010-01-01

    Background This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous low dose ketamine for reducing the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat (POST). Methods This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. The study population consisted of 70 patients between 20 and 70 years old who were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II and were scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were divided randomly into two groups. Patients in the ketamine group received an intravenous injection of 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine just before induction, followed by 10 µg/kg/min throughout the operation. Patients in the control group received intravenous saline instead of ketamine. The patients were interviewed 1, 6, and 24 h after the operation. The incidence and severity of POST were recorded. Results No significant differences in the incidence and severity of POST during the 24 h after the operation were found between the two groups (21/31 in the ketamine group vs. 26/34 in the control group, P = 0.398). Conclusions Intravenous injection of low dose ketamine was not effective for reducing POST. PMID:20651994

  10. Evaluation of preoperative Strepsils lozenges on incidence of postextubation cough and sore throat in smokers undergoing anesthesia with endotracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Divya; Agrawal, Sanjay; Sharma, Jagdish P.

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative sore throat (POST) is an undesirable side effect of endotracheal intubation. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures have been utilized for minimizing the morbidity caused by POST. We have tested use of Strepsils lozenges in providing efficacy for decreasing POST in smokers presenting for surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: 100 patients, 20-65 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II, either sex, history of smoking, posted for elective surgical procedure of more than 1 hour, requiring general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were included and randomly divided into groups (n = 50) to receive Strepsils (Group A) and sugar candy (Group B). The patients were assessed for cough, sore throat, and hoarseness of voice after extubation, 30 min, 12 hrs, and 24 hrs after extubation. Results: At extubation no cough was seen in 39 (78%) patients (group A) compared to 23 (46%) patients (Group B), and mild cough in 22% (Group A) and 52% (Group B). Incidence of sore throat at extubation was lower in group A compared to Group B (P = 0.04). At other times of observations (30 min,12 hrs and 24 hrs) there was a significant decrease in incidence of sore throat in Group A compared to Group B (P = 0.000). Hoarseness of voice was not observed in any patient in either group. Conclusions: Use of preoperative Strepsils lozenges decreases incidence of POST and maybe utilized as a simple and cost-effective measure for decreasing the symptoms of POST and increasing the satisfaction of patients. PMID:24843341

  11. Effect of magnesium sulfate nebulization on the incidence of postoperative sore throat

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Monu; Chalumuru, Nitish; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a well-recognized complication after general anesthesia (GA). Numerous nonpharmacological and pharmacological measures have been used for attenuating POST with variable success. The present study was conducted to compare the efficiency of preoperative nebulization of normal saline and magnesium sulfate in reducing the incidence of POST following GA. Materials and Methods: Following institutional ethical committee approval and written informed consent, a prospective randomized double-blinded study was conducted in 100 cases divided into two equal groups. Patients included in the study were of either gender belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) status 1 or 2 undergoing elective surgery of approximately 2 h or more duration requiring tracheal intubation. Patients in Group A are nebulized with 3 ml of normal saline and the patients in Group B are nebulized with 3 ml of 225 mg isotonic nebulized magnesium sulfate for 15 min, 5 min before induction of anesthesia. The incidence of POST at rest and on swallowing and any undue complaints at 0, 2, 4, and 24 h in the postoperative period are evaluated. Results: There is no significant difference in POST at rest during 0th, 2nd and 4th h between normal saline and MgSO4. Significant difference is seen at 24th h, where MgSO4 lessens POST. There is no significant difference in POST on swallowing during 0th and 2nd h between normal saline and MgSO4. Significant difference is seen at 4th h, where MgSO4 has been shown to lessen POST. Conclusions: MgSO4 significantly reduces the incidence of POST compared to normal saline. PMID:27275043

  12. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat.

    PubMed

    Mehreen, Arifa; Waheed, Muzzamil; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Najma

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17-21 mm, MIC: 7.12-62.5 μg/mL), Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16-20 mm, MIC: 15.62-31.25 μg/mL), Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16-20 mm, MIC: 12.62-62.5 μg/mL), Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20-22 mm, MIC: 3-15.62 μg/mL), Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21-25 mm, MIC: 7.81-31.25 μg/mL), and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14-20 mm, MIC: 7.81-31.25 μg/mL) showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93-0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27429983

  13. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat

    PubMed Central

    Mehreen, Arifa; Waheed, Muzzamil; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Najma

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17–21 mm, MIC: 7.12–62.5 μg/mL), Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 15.62–31.25 μg/mL), Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 12.62–62.5 μg/mL), Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20–22 mm, MIC: 3–15.62 μg/mL), Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21–25 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL), and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14–20 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL) showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93–0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27429983

  14. Comparison of illumigene Group A Streptococcus Assay with Culture of Throat Swabs from Children with Sore Throats in the New Zealand School-Based Rheumatic Fever Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Upton, Arlo; Bissessor, Liselle; Farrell, Elizabeth; Shulman, Stanford T; Zheng, Xiaotian; Lennon, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a particularly important condition in areas of New Zealand where the incidence of acute rheumatic fever remains unacceptably high. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of GAS pharyngitis are cornerstones of the Rheumatic Fever Prevention Programme, but these are hindered by the turnaround time of culture. Tests with excellent performance and rapid turnaround times are needed. For this study, throat swabs (Copan ESwabs) were collected from schoolchildren self-identifying with a sore throat. Samples were tested by routine culture and the illumigene GAS assay using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Discrepant results were resolved by retesting of the same specimen by an alternative molecular assay. Seven hundred fifty-seven throat swab specimens were tested by both methods. The performance characteristics of the illumigene assay using culture on blood agar as the "gold standard" and following discrepancy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 82% and 87%, respectively; specificity, 93% and 98%, respectively; positive predictive value, 61% and 88%, respectively; and negative predictive value, 97% and 97%, respectively. In our unique setting of a school-based throat swabbing program, the illumigene assay did not perform quite as well as described in previous reports. Despite this, its improved sensitivity and rapid turnaround time compared with those of culture are appealing. PMID:26560542

  15. Comparison of illumigene Group A Streptococcus Assay with Culture of Throat Swabs from Children with Sore Throats in the New Zealand School-Based Rheumatic Fever Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bissessor, Liselle; Farrell, Elizabeth; Shulman, Stanford T.; Zheng, Xiaotian; Lennon, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a particularly important condition in areas of New Zealand where the incidence of acute rheumatic fever remains unacceptably high. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of GAS pharyngitis are cornerstones of the Rheumatic Fever Prevention Programme, but these are hindered by the turnaround time of culture. Tests with excellent performance and rapid turnaround times are needed. For this study, throat swabs (Copan ESwabs) were collected from schoolchildren self-identifying with a sore throat. Samples were tested by routine culture and the illumigene GAS assay using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Discrepant results were resolved by retesting of the same specimen by an alternative molecular assay. Seven hundred fifty-seven throat swab specimens were tested by both methods. The performance characteristics of the illumigene assay using culture on blood agar as the “gold standard” and following discrepancy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 82% and 87%, respectively; specificity, 93% and 98%, respectively; positive predictive value, 61% and 88%, respectively; and negative predictive value, 97% and 97%, respectively. In our unique setting of a school-based throat swabbing program, the illumigene assay did not perform quite as well as described in previous reports. Despite this, its improved sensitivity and rapid turnaround time compared with those of culture are appealing. PMID:26560542

  16. Throat swab culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... bacteria or other germs that may cause a sore throat were found. What Abnormal Results Mean An abnormal ... bacteria or other germs that can cause a sore throat were seen on the throat swab. Risks This ...

  17. Do patients with sore throat benefit from penicillin? A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with penicillin V in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Dagnelie, C F; van der Graaf, Y; De Melker, R A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of antibiotic therapy in sore throat is questionable and this dilemma has been complicated by the emergence of multiple resistant strains of micro-organisms. AIM: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was undertaken in patients aged 4-60 years to assess the efficacy of penicillin V on the clinical course and bacteriological response in patients with sore throat in general practice. METHOD: Two hundred and thirty-nine patients presenting with an acute sore throat to 37 general practices in the Netherlands who were clinically suspected of group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS) were randomized for treatment with penicillin V (n = 121) or placebo (n = 118). Resolution of sore throat, fever and return to daily activities were evaluated by the general practitioner 2 days after the start of treatment and by the patients keeping a diary for 7 days. The result of throat culture after 2 days was evaluated. RESULTS: A difference in resolution of sore throat was present after 2 days in all patients, but was a result of GABHS-positive patients (n = 111; 46%) in favour of those randomized for penicillin V (adjusted odds ratio 5.3; 95% CI 1.9-15.1). An effect in the course of fever was also seen in GABHS-positive patients (adjusted odds ratio 5.3; 95% CI 1.02-27.7). A difference of 1-2 days was seen in clinical recovery. No difference was found in daily activities between the treatment groups. After 2 days, 4% of the penicillin-treated patients harboured GABHS compared with 75% of the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Only GABHS-positive patients benefit from penicillin V in their clinical cure in the first few days. Therefore, rapid testing is necessary. Treatment may be beneficial with regard to the clinical course, but it is not necessary. PMID:8945796

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Ambroxol Lozenges in the Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Sore Throat - a Pooled Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Mey, C; Koelsch, S; Richter, E; Pohlmann, T; Sousa, R

    2016-07-01

    A pooled analysis is presented of 7 placebo-controlled RCT that investigated lozenges containing ambroxol for pain relief in acute sore throat.2 242 patients were treated with different ambroxol doses or control treatments, 2 183 were evaluable for efficacy. The present analysis is focused on the recommended dose of 20 mg (AXL20): 856 patients were treated with AXL20, 847 with matched placebo lozenges (PL).The average reduction in pain intensity over the first 3 h after the first AXL20 ranged from 38% to 52% of the maximum achievable effect (MAE). The overall treatment difference between AXL20 and PL was 11% (95% CI: 8-13%) of the MAE (post-hoc meta-analysis). The corresponding NNT was 6.0 (CI: 4.7-8.4) for an average pain reduction from baseline of 33% of the MAE over the first 3 h.71.9, 79.0, and 85.3% of the AXL20-patients scored the efficacy as "very good or good" at the end of the 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) day, respectively, vs. 57.5, 64.4, and 70.4% of the PL-patients resulting in odds ratios of 1.9 (CI: 1.5-2.3) for the 1(st), 2.1 (CI: 1.7-2.6) for the 2(nd) and 2.43 (CI: 1.8-3.3) for the 3(rd) day.At the end of treatment 'no redness' or 'slightly red' was scored on pharyngeal inspection in 84.4% and 77.3% of AXL20- and PL-patients (OR: 1.6, CI: 1.3-1.9).AXL20-treatment was well tolerated and is safe and efficacious for acute uncomplicated sore throat of recent onset in adolescent and adult patients. PMID:27281448

  19. Throat Problems (Symptom Checker)

    MedlinePlus

    ... See complete list of charts. Throat pain and mouth sores, along with other cold and flu symptoms, are ... or on the sides or back of your mouth? Yes These sores are called CANKER SORES. They usually occur by ...

  20. Efficacy of disintegrating aspirin in two different models for acute mild-to-moderate pain: sore throat pain and dental pain.

    PubMed

    Voelker, M; Schachtel, B P; Cooper, S A; Gatoulis, S C

    2016-02-01

    A recently developed fast-release aspirin tablet formulation has been evaluated in two different pain models. The dental impaction pain model and the sore throat pain model are widely used for assessing analgesia, including acute mild-to-moderate pain. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, parallel group and compared a single dose of 1000 mg aspirin with 1000 mg paracetamol and with placebo and investigated the onset and overall time course of pain relief. Speed of onset was measured by the double-stopwatch method for time to meaningful pain relief and time to first perceptible pain relief. Pain intensity and pain relief were rated subjectively over a 6-h (dental pain) and 2-h (sore throat pain) time period. In both models fast-release aspirin and commercial paracetamol were statistically significantly different from placebo for onset of action, summed pain intensity differences and total pain relief. Meaningful pain relief was achieved within a median of 42.3 and 42.9 min for aspirin and paracetamol, respectively, in the dental pain model. The corresponding numbers in sore throat pain were 48.0 and 40.4 min. All treatments in both studies were safe and well tolerated. No serious adverse events were reported and no subject was discontinued due to an adverse event. Overall the two studies clearly demonstrated efficacy over placebo in the two pain models and a comparable efficacy and safety profile between aspirin and an equivalent dose of paracetamol under the conditions of acute dental pain and acute sore throat pain. Trial registration These trials were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01420094, registration date: July 27, 2011 and registration number: NCT01453400, registration date: October 13, 2011. PMID:26603742

  1. A 44-Year-Old Man With Sore Throat and Fatigue After Using an Old Camper Van.

    PubMed

    Yap, Vanessa; Abrantes, Jessica; Cruz, Lucas; Wu, Ulysses; Lahiri, Bimalin

    2016-08-01

    A 44-year-old man from Connecticut with no significant past medical history presented to the ED with a 2-week history of sore throat and fatigue, subsequently developing cough, dyspnea, fevers, and chills. The patient reported buying an old camper van and noticed a large infestation of rodent droppings, which he had cleaned thoroughly from the cabin. He used the camper van on several camping trips in Vermont, and symptoms started on his return. PMID:27502993

  2. Clinical symptoms and signs in sore throat patients with large colony variant β-haemolytic streptococci groups C or G versus group A

    PubMed Central

    Lindbæk, Morten; Høiby, Ernst Arne; Lermark, Gro; Steinsholt, Inger Marie; Hjortdahl, Per

    2005-01-01

    Background The role of large colony streptococci groups C or G as pathogen agents in sore throat has been questioned. Aim To analyse clinical features of patients with large colony streptococci groups C or G compared with patients with group A streptococci (GAS) and with negative cultures. Design of study Prospective study of patients with sore throat. Setting Two Norwegian general practices in Stokke and Kongsberg communities with 6500 patients. Method Frequency of clinical features in the three patient categories including the four Centor criteria (fever, anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, tonsillar exudates, and lack of cough), degree of pain on swallowing, pharyngeal rubor, C-reactive protein (CRP) values, patient age between 3 and 14 years, and duration of symptoms before seeing the doctor. A logistic regression analysis to find independent predictors was performed. Results Out of 306 patients with a sore throat, 244 were adults and 62 were children under 10 years old; 40% were men. One hundred and twenty-seven had GAS, 33 had streptococci groups C or G, and 146 had negative throat cultures. Forty-eight per cent of the GAS patients and 45% of the C or G patients met three or four of the Centor criteria. The logistic regression revealed that in patients with GAS considerable pain on swallowing, an age of 3–14 years and a duration of symptoms of ≤3 days or less were significantly associated with GAS infection in addition to the Centor criteria. The same results were found when all streptococci were analysed together, in addition elevated CRP was significant. In patients with streptococci group C or G an elevated CRP-value was significantly associated. Conclusion Patients with tonsillitis caused by streptococcus groups C or G have, to a large extent, the same clinical picture as patients with GAS. Large colony streptococci groups C and G should be considered as throat pathogens in line with GAS. PMID:16105370

  3. Pharyngitis - sore throat

    MedlinePlus

    Flores AR, Caserta MT. Pharyngitis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  4. Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Rob D; Gabriel, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness after exercise, risk of injury, and athletic performance. Method Systematic review. Data sources Randomised or quasi-randomised studies identified by searching Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro, and by recursive checking of bibliographies. Main outcome measures Muscle soreness, incidence of injury, athletic performance. Results Five studies, all of moderate quality, reported sufficient data on the effects of stretching on muscle soreness to be included in the analysis. Outcomes seemed homogeneous. Stretching produced small and statistically non-significant reductions in muscle soreness. The pooled estimate of reduction in muscle soreness 24 hours after exercising was only 0.9 mm on a 100 mm scale (95% confidence interval −2.6 mm to 4.4 mm). Data from two studies on army recruits in military training show that muscle stretching before exercising does not produce useful reductions in injury risk (pooled hazard ratio 0.95, 0.78 to 1.16). Conclusions Stretching before or after exercising does not confer protection from muscle soreness. Stretching before exercising does not seem to confer a practically useful reduction in the risk of injury, but the generality of this finding needs testing. Insufficient research has been done with which to determine the effects of stretching on sporting performance. What is already known on this topicReviews of the effects of stretching before exercising have drawn conflicting conclusionsThe literature on effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury has not been systematically reviewedWhat this study addsStretching before and after exercising does not confer protection from muscle soreness and stretching before exercise does not seem to confer a practically useful reduction in the risk of injury PMID:12202327

  5. PRImary care Streptococcal Management (PRISM) study: identifying clinical variables associated with Lancefield group A β-haemolytic streptococci and Lancefield non-Group A streptococcal throat infections from two cohorts of patients presenting with an acute sore throat

    PubMed Central

    Little, Paul; Moore, Michael; Hobbs, F D R; Mant, David; McNulty, Cliodna; Williamson, Ian; Cheng, Edith; Stuart, Beth; Kelly, Joanne; Barnett, Jane; Mullee, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between features of acute sore throat and the growth of streptococci from culturing a throat swab. Design Diagnostic cohort. Setting UK general practices. Participants Patients aged 5 or over presenting with an acute sore throat. Patients were recruited for a second cohort (cohort 2, n=517) consecutively after the first (cohort 1, n=606) from similar practices. Main outcome Predictors of the presence of Lancefield A/C/G streptococci. Results The clinical score developed from cohort 1 had poor discrimination in cohort 2 (bootstrapped estimate of area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (0.65), due to the poor validity of the individual items in the second data set. Variables significant in multivariate analysis in both cohorts were rapid attendance (prior duration 3 days or less; multivariate adjusted OR 1.92 cohort, 1.67 cohort 2); fever in the last 24 h (1.69, 2.40); and doctor assessment of severity (severely inflamed pharynx/tonsils (2.28, 2.29)). The absence of coryza or cough and purulent tonsils were significant in univariate analysis in both cohorts and in multivariate analysis in one cohort. A five-item score based on Fever, Purulence, Attend rapidly (3 days or less), severely Inflamed tonsils and No cough or coryza (FeverPAIN) had moderate predictive value (bootstrapped area under the ROC curve 0.73 cohort 1, 0.71 cohort 2) and identified a substantial number of participants at low risk of streptococcal infection (38% in cohort 1, 36% in cohort 2 scored ≤1, associated with a streptococcal percentage of 13% and 18%, respectively). A Centor score of ≤1 identified 23% and 26% of participants with streptococcal percentages of 10% and 28%, respectively. Conclusions Items widely used to help identify streptococcal sore throat may not be the most consistent. A modified clinical scoring system (FeverPAIN) which requires further validation may be clinically helpful in identifying individuals who are

  6. A Hyperhemolytic/Hyperpigmented Group B Streptococcus Strain with a CovR Mutation Isolated from an Adolescent Patient with Sore Throat

    PubMed Central

    Gendrin, Claire; Vornhagen, Jay; Frando, Andrew; Harrell, Maria Isabel; McAdams, Ryan; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococci (GBS) are ß-hemolytic, gram-positive bacteria that are typically associated with infections in human newborns or immunocompromised adults. However, mutation in the two-component regulator CovR/S relieves repression of hemolysin, potentially increasing virulence of GBS. We report the isolation of hyperhemolytic/hyperpigmented GBS strain from an adolescent patient who presented to the University of Washington clinic with symptoms of sore throat. While the patient also tested positive for mononucleosis, a GBS strain with increased hemolysis was isolated from the throat swab obtained from the patient. As hyperhemolytic/hyperpigmented GBS strains are typically associated with mutations in the regulator CovR/CovS, we sequenced the covR/S loci in the clinical isolate. An adenine to cytosine mutation resulting in a change in amino acid coding sequence from glutamine at position 120 to proline in CovR (Q120P) was identified. Introduction of the Q120P amino acid substitution in a CovR complementation plasmid abolished complementation of a ΔcovR mutant derived from the wild type GBS serotype Ia strain A909; these results confirm that the hyperhemolysis observed in the clinical isolate is due to the Q120P substitution in CovR. Antibiotic was prescribed and the patient's symptoms resolved without reported complications. This study represents the first report of the isolation of a hyperhemolytic/hyperpigmented GBS strain due to a covR/S mutation from an adolescent patient with persistent sore throat who was also diagnosed with mononucleosis. The isolation of GBS CovR/S mutants indicates their presence in settings of co-infections and includes adolescents. PMID:26913295

  7. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Are Cold Sores? Article Chapters What Are Cold Sores? Cold ... January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Canker and Cold Sores Aloe Vera May Help Relieve Mouth Sores ...

  8. Intravenous dexamethasone versus ketamine gargle versus intravenous dexamethasone combined with ketamine gargle for evaluation of post-operative sore throat and hoarseness: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Mohammadreza; Honarmand, Azim; Fariborzifar, Arghavan; Attari, Mohammadali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sore throat and hoarseness are the most frequent subjective complaints after tracheal intubation for general anesthesia. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous (IV) dexamethasone plus ketamine gargle for reducing the incidence and severity of post-operative sore throat (POST) and hoarseness. Materials and Methods: 140 patients (aged 16-65 year) scheduled for elective surgery were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated into four groups of 35 subjects each: Group K, gargled 40 mg ketamine in 30 ml saline; Group D, were infused 0.2 mg/kg IV dexamethasone; Group KD, gargled 40 mg ketamine in 30 ml saline plus 0.2 mg/kg IV dexamethasone; Group P (placebo) that received saline (gargle and IV). POST was graded at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 h after operation on a four-point scale (0-3). Results: The incidence and severity of POST were significantly lower in Group KD, compared with the other groups at all times after tracheal extubation for up to 24 h (P < 0.05). Also the incidence and severity of hoarseness were significantly lower in each Groups of KD and K and D compared with group placebo (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The prophylactic use of 0.2 mg/kg of IV dexamethasone plus ketamine gargle significantly reduced the incidence and severity of POST compared with using each of these drugs alone or using placebo. PMID:25371869

  9. Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... may form. Pressure sores are also called bedsores, pressure ulcers and decubitus ulcers. Symptoms What are the symptoms ... do to help pressure sores heal: Relieving the pressure that caused the sore Treating the sore itself Improving nutrition and other conditions to help the sore heal ...

  10. Mononucleosis - view of the throat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes a sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes, and fatigue. The throat may appear red and the tonsils covered with a whitish material. Mononucleosis and severe streptococcal tonsillitis appear quite similar. ...

  11. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes canker sores. Mouth injuries, stress, poor nutrition, food allergies and menstrual periods are some of the things that may increase your chances of getting a canker sore. Treatment How are canker sores treated? There is no cure for canker sores, but they usually go away ...

  12. Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which ...

  13. Mouth sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... minerals in the diet, including vitamin B12 or folate Less commonly, mouth sores can be a sign ... sores often, talk to your provider about taking folate and vitamin B12 to prevent outbreaks. To prevent ...

  14. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... cycle . Some research suggests that using products containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) can be associated with canker sores. SLS ... with toothpastes and mouthwashes that don't contain sodium lauryl sulfate. And avoid brushing the sore itself with a ...

  15. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  16. A qualitative study of GP, NP and patient views about the use of rapid streptococcal antigen detection tests (RADTs) in primary care: ‘swamped with sore throats?’

    PubMed Central

    Leydon, Gerry M; McDermott, Lisa; Moore, Mike; Williamson, Ian; Hobbs, F D Richard; Lambton, Tessa; Cooper, Rebecca; Henderson, Hugo; Little, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore patient and healthcare professionals’ (HCP) views of clinical scores and rapid streptococcal antigen detection tests (RADTs) for acute sore throat. Design Qualitative semistructured interview study. Setting UK primary care. Participants General practitioners (GPs), nurse practitioners (NPs) and patients from general practices across Hampshire, Oxfordshire and the West Midlands who were participating in the Primary Care Streptococcal Management (PRISM) study. Method Semistructured, face-to-face and phone interviews were conducted with GPs, NPs and patients from general practices across Hampshire, Oxfordshire and the West Midlands. Results 51 participants took part in the study. Of these, 42 were HCPs (29 GPs and 13 NPs) and 9 were patients. HCPs could see a positive role for RADTs in terms of reassurance, as an educational tool for patients, and for aiding inexperienced practitioners, but also had major concerns about RADT use in clinical practice. Particular concerns included the validity of the tests (the role of other bacteria, and carrier states), the tension and possible disconnect with clinical assessment and intuition, the issues of time and resource use and the potential for medicalisation of self-limiting illness. In contrast, however, experience of using RADTs over time seemed to make some participants more positive about using the tests. Moreover, patients were much more positive about the place of RADTs in providing reassurance and in limiting their antibiotic use. Conclusions It is unlikely that RADTs will have a (comfortable) place in clinical practice in the near future until health professionals’ concerns are met, and they have direct experience of using them. The routine use of clinical scoring systems for acute upper respiratory illness also face important barriers related to clinicians’ perceptions of their utility in the face of clinician experience and intuition. PMID:23558734

  17. Mouth sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... begin as blisters and then crust over. The herpes virus can live in your body for years. It only appears as a mouth sore when something triggers it, such as: Another ... medicines, penicillamine, sulfa drugs, and phenytoin.

  18. Mouth or Throat Pain or Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Soft, non-acidic fruit and vegetables, if tolerated Citrus fruit and raw vegetables Drinks, desserts, and other ... cookies (as tolerated), pie Gelatin Ice cream, sherbet Citrus juices (grapefruit, orange, lemon, and lime), tomato juice ...

  19. Canker sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... most cases, the canker sores go away without treatment. Try not to eat hot or spicy foods, which can cause pain. Use over-the-counter medicines that ease pain in the area. Rinse your mouth with salt water or mild, over-the-counter mouthwashes. (DO NOT ...

  20. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  1. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... be triggered by stress, food allergies, lack of vitamins and minerals, hormonal changes or menstrual periods. In some cases the cause is unknown. In most cases, the sores go away by themselves. Some ointments, creams or rinses may help with the pain. Avoiding ...

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to ...

  3. Throat Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harling, B. v.

    2010-02-01

    In this thesis, we study throats in the early, hot universe. Throats are a common feature of the landscape of type IIB string theory. If a throat is heated during cosmological evolution, energy is subsequently transferred to other throats and to the standard model. We calculate the heat transfer rate and the decay rate of throat-localized Kaluza-Klein states in a ten-dimensional model. For the calculation, we employ the dual description of the throats in terms of gauge theories. We discuss modifications of the decay rate which arise in flux compactifications and for Klebanov-Strassler throats and emphasize the role of tachyonic scalars in such throats in mediating decays of Kaluza-Klein modes. Our results are also applicable to the energy transfer from the heated standard model to throats. We determine the resulting energy density in throats at our epoch in dependence of their infrared scales and of the reheating temperature. The Kaluza-Klein modes in the throats decay to other sectors with a highly suppressed rate. If their lifetime is longer than the age of the universe, they are an interesting dark matter candidate. We show that, if the reheating temperature was 10^10 - 10^11 GeV, throats with infrared scales in the range of 10^5 GeV to 10^10 GeV can account for the observed dark matter. We identify several scenarios where this type of dark matter is sufficiently stable but where decays to the standard model can be discovered via gamma-ray observations.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Low Glutathione in Common Ear, Nose, and Throat Conditions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Asher, Benjamin Finkelhor; Guilford, Frederick Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Context • Oxidative stress and tissue-damaging, oxygen (O2)-related, free-radical formation is inherent in human metabolism, and the tissues of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) have an increased exposure to injury from those substances. Because glutathione (GSH) is a major component in an antioxidant defense against oxidative damage in ENT tissues, a review of the impact of lowered GSH and oxidative stress in conditions associated with the upper respiratory tract is warranted. Objective • The review intended to summarize the role that oxidative stress and GSH play. Design • The research team performed a literature review from 1980 to the present that was based on the following keywords: oxidative stress, oxidation, antioxidant, and GSH in common ENT conditions. The review found the following conditions: (1) rhinitis, (2) allergic rhinitis, (3) chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), (4) CRS with polyps, (5) otitis media with effusion, (6) chronic otitis media (COM), (7) COM and cholesteatoma, (8) tympanic membrane sclerosis, (9) tonsillitis, (10) Meniere's disease, (11) laryngeal conditions, and (12) chronic cough. Results • ENT conditions have been found to be associated with oxidative stress and with low GSH. A limited number of the reviewed studies discussed antioxidant use or repletion of GSH. Although only a few reports support the use of GSH or antioxidants as adjuncts in the management of ENT conditions, no reports of side effects were found related to their use. Conclusions • Many ENT conditions are associated with oxidative stress and decreased GSH, both locally in the affected tissues and systemically. The oxidative stress of those conditions may be related to depletion of GSH, which is increased by the higher levels of O2 in the upper respiratory tract. A small number of studies have reported clinical benefits from the use of an antioxidant or GSH support. The findings of benefits and the lack of reports of side effects suggest that the clinical use of

  5. Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection in the tonsils Pharyngitis - inflammation of the pharynx Cancers Croup - inflammation, usually in small children, which causes a barking cough Most throat problems are minor and go away on their own. Treatments, when needed, depend on the problem.

  6. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  7. Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes) Information for adults A A ... face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is a common, recurrent ...

  8. Throat infections are associated with exacerbation in a substantial proportion of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Thorleifsdottir, Ragna H.; Eysteinsdottir, Jenna H.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Sigurdsson, Martin I.; Johnston, Andrew; Valdimarsson, Helgi; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcal throat infections are known to trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, and several studies support the benefit of tonsillectomy. To evaluate the potential of tonsillectomy as a treatment, we used a retrospective study-specific questionnaire to assess the proportion of psoriasis patients with sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations. Our survey sampled 275 psoriasis patients. 42% of patients with plaque psoriasis reported sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations, and 72% of patients with confirmed streptococcal infections reported aggravation. Notably, women and early onset psoriasis patients were more likely to report psoriasis exacerbation after a sore throat (p<0.001, p=0.046 respectively). Other psoriasis aggravation factors were more common in patients with sore throat-associated exacerbations (p<0.01). 49% of tonsillectomized patients reported subsequent improvement and had more frequent sore throat-associated aggravation of psoriasis than patients who did not improve after tonsillectomy (p=0.015). These findings suggest a closer association between sore throats, streptococcal throat infections and plaque psoriasis than previously reported. PMID:26984718

  9. Throat Infections are Associated with Exacerbation in a Substantial Proportion of Patients with Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Thorleifsdottir, Ragna H; Eysteinsdóttir, Jenna H; Olafsson, Jón H; Sigurdsson, Martin I; Johnston, Andrew; Valdimarsson, Helgi; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur

    2016-08-23

    Streptococcal throat infections are known to trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, and several studies support the benefit of tonsillectomy. To evaluate the potential of tonsillectomy as a treatment, we used a retrospective study-specific questionnaire to assess the proportion of psoriasis patients with sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations. Our survey sampled 275 psoriasis patients. Of patients with plaque psoriasis, 42% reported sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations, and of patients with confirmed streptococcal infections, 72% reported aggravation. Notably, women and patients with early onset psoriasis were more likely to report psoriasis exacerbation after a sore throat (p < 0.001, p = 0.046, respectively). Other psoriasis aggravation factors were more common in patients with sore throat-associated exacerbations (p < 0.01). Of tonsillectomized patients, 49% reported subsequent improvement and had more frequent sore throat-associated aggravation of psoriasis than patients who did not improve after tonsillectomy (p = 0.015). These findings suggest a closer association between sore throats, streptococcal throat infections and plaque psoriasis than reported previously. PMID:26984718

  10. Cold Sores (HSV-1)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cold Sores (HSV-1) KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold Sores (HSV-1) Print A A A Text Size What's in ... person's lips, are caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) . But they don't just show ...

  11. Canker Sores (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the sores appear more than two or three times a year. Diagnosis Tests are usually not done to diagnose canker sores, as a doctor can identify them based on medical history and physical exam alone. If your child has very frequent or severe bouts of recurrent ...

  12. Sore Throat? Know When To Call the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... be. According to Phillip L. Accardo, DO, an osteopathic physician from Lee’s Summit, Mo., the key to treating ... does not support this functionality. About Osteopathic Medicine Osteopathic physicians, or DOs, are fully licensed to prescribe medicine ...

  13. Mouth and Throat

    MedlinePlus

    ... lips) or the oropharynx (the part of the throat at the back of the mouth). PDF Learning ... booklet covers: The anatomy of the mouth and throat Treatments for oral cancer, including taking part in ...

  14. Strep Throat Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Was this page helpful? Also known as: Throat Culture; Culture, Throat; Rapid Strep Test; Rapid Antigen Detection Test; ... beta hemolytic streptococcus Related tests: Influenza Tests ; Blood Culture ; ASO ; Anti-DNase B All content on Lab ...

  15. Throat or larynx cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  16. Throat or larynx cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... or use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long ...

  17. Lemierre's syndrome: the link between a simple sore throat, sore neck and pleuritic chest pain.

    PubMed Central

    Ajulo, P.; Qayyum, A.; Brewis, C.; Innes, A.

    2005-01-01

    An unusual case of tonsillitis which showed progression to this rare syndrome despite treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Lemierre's syndrome is a rare condition characterised by a triad of: sepsis, thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein along with pleuropulmonary and/or distant metastatic abscesses. Diagnosis rests on a high index of suspicion and is confirmed by culture of Fusobacterium spp. from blood or infected sites. Radiological investigations are established aids for confirmation of diagnosis. Treatment is with appropriate antibiotics for at least 6 weeks and surgical drainage of abscesses if required. This case has been presented to highlight the mode of presentation, diagnostic tools employed and the management of the complications that featured in this condition. PMID:16053693

  18. Osteomyelitis beneath pressure sores

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.; Hawes, S.; Musher, D.M.; Klima, M.; Young, E.J.; Pircher, F.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-eight pressure sores were evaluated prospectively. Osteomyelitis was reported histologically in nine of 28 bones and pressure-related changes were reported in 14 bones. Roentgenograms suggested the presence of osteomyelitis in four instances of histologically proved osteomyelitis. Technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scans were highly sensitive, showing increased uptake in all cases of osteomyelitis; however, increased uptake also occurred commonly in uninfected bones due to pressure-related changes or other noninfectious causes. Cultures of bone biopsy samples usually disclosed anaerobic bacteria, gram-negative bacilli, or both. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis must be considered if a pressure sore does not respond to local therapy. If the technetium Tc 99m medronate uptake is increased in the involved area, or roentgenographic findings are abnormal, the diagnosis can only be made with certainty by histologic examination of bone. Antibacterial treatment should be selected based on the results of bone culture.

  19. Taking Care of Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... between dressing changes. 6. Check for signs of wound healing with each dressing change. 7. If there are ... Surgery is frequently required for this type of wound. How to know if the sore is healing The sore will get smaller. Pinkish tissue usually ...

  20. Curvatons in Warped Throats

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2010-06-23

    We present a curvaton model from type IIB string theory compactified on a warped throat with approximate isometries. Considering an (anti-)D3-brane sitting at the throat tip as a prototype standard model brane, we show that the brane's position in the isometry directions can play the role of curvatons. The basic picture is that the fluctuations of the (anti-)D3-brane in the angular isometry directions during inflation eventually turns into the primordial curvature perturbations, and subsequently the brane's oscillation excites other open string modes on the brane and reheat the universe. We find in the explicit case of the KS throat that a wide range of parameters allows a consistent curvaton scenario. It is also shown that the oscillations of branes at throat tips are capable of producing large non-Gaussianity, either through curvature or isocurvature perturbations. Since such setups naturally arise in warped (multi-)throat compactifications and are constrained by observational data, the model can provide tests for compactification scenarios. This work gives an explicit example of string theory providing light fields for generating curvature perturbations. Such mechanisms free the inflaton from being responsible for the perturbations, thus open up new possibilities for inflation models. The discussions in this paper are based on [1].

  1. Curvatons in warped throats

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Mukohyama, Shinji E-mail: shinji.mukohyama@ipmu.jp

    2009-07-01

    We present a curvaton model from type IIB string theory compactified on a warped throat with approximate isometries. Considering an (anti-)D3-brane sitting at the throat tip as a prototype standard model brane, we show that the brane's position in the isometry directions can play the role of curvatons. The basic picture is that the fluctuations of the (anti-)D3-brane in the angular isometry directions during inflation eventually turns into the primordial curvature perturbations, and subsequently the brane's oscillation excites other open string modes on the brane and reheat the universe. We find in the explicit case of the KS throat that a wide range of parameters allows a consistent curvaton scenario. It is also shown that the oscillations of branes at throat tips are capable of producing large non-Gaussianity, either through curvature or isocurvature perturbations. Since such setups naturally arise in warped (multi-)throat compactifications and are constrained by observational data, the model can provide tests for compactification scenarios. This work gives an explicit example of string theory providing light fields for generating curvature perturbations. Such mechanisms free the inflaton from being responsible for the perturbations, thus open up new possibilities for inflation models.

  2. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV ... virus 1 (HSV1) is the common cause of cold sores (oral herpes) around the mouth. HSV2 normally ...

  3. Why Are My Breasts Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and it is often present in guys and girls. The breast bud may be a little tender and may cause you to worry but it's a normal part of puberty. It is also common to have sore breasts around the beginning of a girl's period, or menstruation. During her menstrual cycle, a ...

  4. Scoop on Strep Throat (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Scoop on Strep Throat KidsHealth > For Kids > The Scoop on Strep Throat ... bacteria to others. How Can I Prevent Strep Throat? If someone in your house has strep throat, ...

  5. Incidence and clinical variables associated with streptococcal throat infections: a prospective diagnostic cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Little, Paul; Hobbs, FD Richard; Mant, David; McNulty, Cliodna AM; Mullee, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background Management of pharyngitis is commonly based on features which are thought to be associated with Lancefield group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS) but it is debatable which features best predict GABHS. Non-group A strains share major virulence factors with group A, but it is unclear how commonly they present and whether their presentation differs. Aim To assess the incidence and clinical variables associated with streptococcal infections. Design and setting Prospective diagnostic cohort study in UK primary care. Method The presence of pathogenic streptococci from throat swabs was assessed among patients aged ≥5 years presenting with acute sore throat. Results Pathogenic streptococci were found in 204/597 patients (34%, 95% CI = 31 to 38%): 33% (68/204) were non-group A streptococci, mostly C (n = 29), G (n = 18) and B (n = 17); rarely D (n = 3) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 1). Patients presented with similar features whether the streptococci were group A or non-group A. The features best predicting A, C or G beta-haemolytic streptococci were patient’s assessment of severity (odds ratio [OR] for a bad sore throat 3.31, 95% CI = 1.24 to 8.83); doctors’ assessment of severity (severely inflamed tonsils OR 2.28, 95% CI = 1.39 to 3.74); absence of a bad cough (OR 2.73, 95% CI = 1.56 to 4.76), absence of a coryza (OR 1.54, 95% CI = 0.99 to 2.41); and moderately bad or worse muscle aches (OR 2.20, 95% CI = 1.41 to 3.42). Conclusion Non-group A strains commonly cause streptococcal sore throats, and present with similar symptomatic clinical features to group A streptococci. The best features to predict streptococcal sore throat presenting in primary care deserve revisiting. PMID:23211183

  6. Temperature in the throat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviani, Dariush; Mosaffa, Amir Esmaeil

    2016-09-01

    We study the temperature of extended objects in string theory. Rotating probe D-branes admit horizons and temperatures a la Unruh effect. We find that the induced metrics on slow rotating probe D1-branes in holographic string solutions including warped Calabi-Yau throats have distinct thermal horizons with characteristic Hawking temperatures even if there is no black hole in the bulk Calabi-Yau. Taking the UV/IR limits of the solution, we show that the world volume black hole nucleation depends on the deformation and the warping of the throat. We find that world volume horizons and temperatures of expected features form not in the regular confining IR region but in the singular nonconfining UV solution. In the conformal limit of the UV, we find horizons and temperatures similar to those on rotating probes in the AdS throat found in the literature. In this case, we also find that activating a background gauge field form the U (1) R-symmetry modifies the induced metric with its temperature describing two different classes of black hole solutions.

  7. Pressure sores in nursing home patients.

    PubMed

    Weiler, P G; Franzi, C; Kecskes, D

    1990-09-01

    One hundred and sixty-seven patients were part of a cross-sectional study examining pressure sores in patients in skilled nursing facilities. Every patient admitted to this study was physically examined for the presence or absence of pressure sores and evaluated according to a standardized procedure. Using logistic regression analysis, the variables most significantly associated with pressure sores included a history of hypertension, infection, unwelcome response to visitors, history of poor dietary intake and a pattern of slow or poor response to commands. Knowledge of these factors may lead to more intensive efforts to develop better methods of prevention and treatment of pressure sores. PMID:2094365

  8. How to care for pressure sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... to protect the area from bodily fluids. Ask your doctor what type of moisturizer to use. Stage II pressure sores ... sore moist so it can heal. Talk with your doctor about what type of dressing to use. Depending on the size ...

  9. Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are common ... What ENT Problems Are Common in Children With Down Syndrome? External Ear Canal Stenosis Stenotic ear canals (narrow ...

  10. [Prevalence and prevention and treatment modalities for pressure sores. Study of the Emilia-Romagna region].

    PubMed

    Melotti, Rita Maria; Fortuna, Daniela; Chiari, Paolo; Cavicchioli, Andrea; Mongardi, Maria; Santullo, Antonella; Grilli, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    This audit initiative aimed at assessing the prevalence of pressure sores in the public hospitals of Emilia-Romagna, and at monitoring the rate of use of specific modalities of prevention and cure. The design was cross-sectional, with information collected on three index days during 2000 by trained personnel. Overall, the prevalence of pressure sores at the regional level was 7.1%, with remarkable variation across hospitals (from 2.9% to 9.7%), also after adjustment for case mix. As for patterns of prevention and cure, 74% of patients at risk (according to the Braden scale) of developing a pressure sores received only standard low technology devices, and 50% of those in need were included in a systematic programme of postural change. Adequate (according to the available evidence) medications were used in 45% of patients with a pressure sore. The overall prevalence of pressure sore is close (or even inferior) to that observed in similar studies. However, variation between hospitals indicates that the current health services ability to deal with pressure sore is variable and often suboptimal. This evaluation is also supported by the limited adoption of adequate preventive and curative modalities. PMID:12958732

  11. [A boy with blood blisters on his lips after having a sore throat].

    PubMed

    van Els, Anne L; Drewes, A J Noud

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy came to the Emergency Department with blood blisters on both lips, limiting him in his oral intake. He had no history of herpes simplex or use of any medication. The symptoms turned out to be caused by erythema exsudativum multiforme major, in most cases a self-limiting disease. PMID:25227887

  12. [Research on acupuncture for throat diseases in Qing Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Ji, Zheng-han; Zu, Na

    2012-06-01

    The accurate acupoint and application of acupuncture for throat diseases described in Zheng Mei-jian's book Chonglou Yuyao (Jade key to the secluded chamber) is clarified through exploration on recordings of the relative acupuncture skills in medical literatures of the mid-Qing Dynasty. It is found that the so called open-the-wind-way-acupuncture includes at least two groups of acupoints on the hand and the head, they are applied respectively for light and severe cases of sore-throat. Together with the third group of points which is used for the extremely severe cases, the three groups of points are all classified into the concept of qi-acupuncture. Although the composition of acupoints and process of application are different in recordings of various medical literatures in same periods, the treating principles are all focused on "opening the passage for elimination of the wind so as to remove the pathogenic wind-heat and promote blood circulation". PMID:22741274

  13. Doctors Report on Success of Throat Reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158217.html Doctors Report on Success of Throat Reconstruction Seven years after receiving metal stents, donated ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An American man who underwent throat reconstruction seven years ago has no swallowing problems ...

  14. Strep Test: Throat Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Strep Test: Throat Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Strep Test: Throat Culture Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Exudado faríngeo: rápido What It Is A throat culture or strep test is performed by using a ...

  15. Silicone moulding for pressure sore debridement.

    PubMed

    Erba, P; Wettstein, R; Schumacher, R; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, K; Pierer, G; Kalbermatten, D F

    2010-03-01

    The radicality of wound debridement is an important feature of the surgical treatment of pressure sores. Several methods such as injection of methylene blue or hydrogen peroxide have been proposed to facilitate and optimise the surgical debridement technique, but none of them proved to be sufficient. We present an innovative modification of the pseudo-tumour technique consisting in the injection of fluid silicone. Vulcanization of the silicone leads to pressure-sore moulding, permitting a more radical and sterile excision. In a series of 10 paraplegic patients presenting with ischial pressure sores, silicone moulding was used to facilitate debridement. Radical en bloc debridement was achieved in all patients. After a minimal follow-up of 2 years, no complications and recurrences occurred. A three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the silicone prints objectified the pyramidal shape of ischial pressure sores. Our study showed that complete resection without capsular lesion can be easily achieved. Further, it allows the surgeon to analyse the shape and size of the resected defect, which might be helpful to select the appropriate defect coverage technique. PMID:19167279

  16. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size Can you get genital herpes from a cold sore? – Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get ...

  17. Delayed onset muscle soreness: is massage effective?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    Despite the widespread occurrence of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), there is little consensus as to the exact cause or which treatments may be most effective at alleviating symptoms. Greater understanding of DOMS can give sports medicine and fitness professionals an opportunity to help prevent or speed recovery of this performance limiting condition. This article will review the DOMS literature, including the potential role of psychosocial factors and explore studies which involve massage therapy as a treatment modality. Articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and references from articles are included in this review. Search words and phrases included delayed onset muscle soreness, repeated bout effect, massage effectiveness, exercise induced muscle damage, and eccentric exercise. PMID:24139006

  18. Bifid throats for axion monodromy inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retolaza, Ander; Uranga, Angel M.; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    We construct a simple explicit local geometry providing a `bifid throat' for 5-brane axion monodromy. A bifid throat is a throat that splits into two daughter throats in the IR, containing a homologous 2-cycle family reaching down into each daughter throat. Our example consists of a deformed ℤ 3 × ℤ 2 orbifold of the conifold, which provides us with an explicit holographic dual of the bifid throat including D3-branes and fractional 5-branes at the toric singularities of our setup. Having the holographic description in terms of the dual gauge theory allows us to address the effect of 5-brane-antibrane pair backreaction including the warping effects. This leads to the size of the backreaction being small and controllable after imposing proper normalization of the inflaton potential and hence the warping scales.

  19. Pressure sore survey. Part 3: Locus of control.

    PubMed

    Maylor, M; Torrance, C

    1999-03-01

    This is the third in a three-part article which investigates the prevalence, knowledge and attitudes to pressure sores in one NHS trust. This study describes the methodology used in choosing and developing attitude scales to explore whether there are any relationships between the locus of control and pressure sore prevention. Factors to do with attitude and the value associated with pressure sore prevention have a central role. Attitudes and beliefs affect what we do and may contribute to pressure sore development. PMID:10362985

  20. Pressure sores and underlying bone infection

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.

    1987-03-01

    Pressure sores are a serious complication of hospitalized and chronically ill patients. Evaluation for underlying bone infection can be made difficult by radiographic, nuclear imaging, and soft-tissue culture studies that are abnormal and suggest the presence of bone infection, when no infection is present. Evaluation by bone biopsy with histologic and microbiological studies can accurately and promptly diagnose whether bone infection is present. This allows appropriate treatment when infection is present, and prevents unneeded and potentially toxic antibiotic therapy when preliminary studies incorrectly suggest that infection is present.

  1. Laser homeostatics on delayed onset muscle soreness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. C. Y.; Fu, D. R.; Liu, X. G.; Tian, Z. X.

    2011-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and its photobiomodulation were reviewed from the viewpoint of function-specific homeostasis (FSH) in this paper. FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific fluctuations inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A stressor may destroy a FSH. A stress is a response of a biosystem to a stressor and may also be in stress-specific homeostasis (StSH). A low level light (LLL) is so defined that it has no effects on a function in its FSH or a stress in its StSH, but it modulate a function far from its FSH or a stress far from its StSH. For DOMS recovery, protein metabolism in the Z-line streaming muscular cell is the essential process, but the inflammation, pain and soreness are non-essential processes. For many DOMS phenomena, protein metabolism in the Z-line streaming muscular cell is in protein metabolism-specific homeostasis (PmSH) so that there are no effects of LLL although the inflammation can be inhibited and the pain can be relieved. An athlete or animal in the dysfunctional conditions such as blood flow restriction and exercise exhaustion is far from PmSH and the protein metabolism can be improved with LLL.

  2. Does Postexercise Static Stretching Alleviate Delayed Muscle Soreness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buroker, Katherine C.; Schwane, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Because many experts recommend stretching after exercise to relieve muscle soreness, 23 subjects performed a 30-minute step test to induce delayed muscle soreness. There was neither temporary relief of pain immediately after stretching nor a reduction in pain during the 3-day postexercise period. (Author/SM)

  3. New concepts in the prevention of pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Bogie, Kath; Powell, Heather L; Ho, Chester H

    2012-01-01

    Pressure sores are a serious, and costly, complication for many patients with reduced mobility and sensation. Some populations, such as those with spinal cord injury (SCI), remain at high risk throughout their lifetime. Prevention is highly preferable and while the concept is readily definable, it is much more challenging to develop valid preventative measures. Subjective and objective approaches to risk factor assessment before pressure sores develop are reviewed, including risk status scales and emerging techniques to assess deep tissue injury. Devices to prevent pressure sores have traditionally focused on pressure-relieving cushions and mattresses. Technological advances being applied in the development of new pressure sore prevention devices are presented. Clinical evidence-based practice is integral to pressure sore prevention. Comprehensive assessment must include evaluation of systemic diseases, anatomical and physiological factors, together with environmental and psychosocial factors, which can all contribute to pressure sore development. Extrinsic factors need to be considered in conjunction with intrinsic tissue health factors and are reviewed together with an evaluation of currently available clinical practice guidelines. This chapter presents the broad diversity of factors associated with pressure sore development and highlights the need for an interdisciplinary team approach in order to maximize successful prevention of pressure sores. PMID:23098716

  4. Orientifolds of warped throats from toric Calabi-Yau singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retolaza, Ander; Uranga, Angel

    2016-07-01

    We study the complex deformations of orientifolds of D3-branes at toric CY singularities, using their description in terms of dimer diagrams. We describe orientifold quotients that have fixed lines or fixed points in the dimer, and characterize the possibilities to deform them in terms of the behaviour of zig-zag paths under the orientifold symmetry. The resulting models are holographic duals to warped throats with orientifold planes. Our systematic construction provides a general class of configurations which includes models recently appeared in the context of de Sitter uplift by nilpotent goldstino or dynamical supersymmetry breaking.

  5. Nozzle Aerodynamic Stability During a Throat Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawecki, Edwin J.; Ribeiro, Gregg L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the internal aerodynamic stability of a family of two-dimensional (2-D) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) nozzle concepts. These nozzles function during takeoff as mixer-ejectors to meet acoustic requirements, and then convert to conventional high-performance convergent-divergent (CD) nozzles at cruise. The transition between takeoff mode and cruise mode results in the aerodynamic throat and the minimum cross-sectional area that controls the engine backpressure shifting location within the nozzle. The stability and steadiness of the nozzle aerodynamics during this so called throat shift process can directly affect the engine aerodynamic stability, and the mechanical design of the nozzle. The objective of the study was to determine if pressure spikes or other perturbations occurred during the throat shift process and, if so, identify the caused mechanisms for the perturbations. The two nozzle concepts modeled in the test program were the fixed chute (FC) and downstream mixer (DSM). These 2-D nozzles differ principally in that the FC has a large over-area between the forward throat and aft throat locations, while the DSM has an over-area of only about 10 percent. The conclusions were that engine mass flow and backpressure can be held constant simultaneously during nozzle throat shifts on this class of nozzles, and mode shifts can be accomplished at a constant mass flow and engine backpressure without upstream pressure perturbations.

  6. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  11. Can electric beds aid pressure sore prevention in hospitals?

    PubMed

    Hampton, S

    The purchase, cleaning and maintenance of air mattresses can be an expensive part of pressure sore prevention and repositioning of patients can be time consuming and costly in terms of possible nursing injuries. The King's Fund bed has been a friend to the health service for many years but the time has come to look for an alternative system that will support patient comfort and independence, will assist nurses in implementation of a no-lifting policy and aid pressure sore prevention policies. This article describes a study that was undertaken in two medical wards to assess the value of electrically controlled beds in relation to the prevention of pressure sores, implementation of a no-lifting policy and quality of patient care. A total of 782 patients took part in the study over a 6-month period and 726 replies were obtained from nurses. The ward had similar profiles of patients' medical conditions and age; they were being medically managed by the same consultants. Results showed that patients experienced greater comfort on beds with the electric facility, produced less pressure sores, mobilized easily and pressure sore prevention costs could be reduced. There is a need to be proactive in prevention of pressure sores and not reactive to a pressure sore that is already developing. PMID:9830895

  12. Homicidal Cut Throat: The Forensic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Samaraweera, Jeewana C

    2016-01-01

    The forensic pathologists have a challenging task during the ascertainment of the manner of death in cut throat injuries when presented with no proper history or witnesses. We report a rare homicide, where a person was killed by the father of his gay partner. A 51-year-old married man was found dead in his car on the driving seat at a road. There were blood stains on the dash board and windscreen. No weapon had been recovered. At autopsy, a deep, oblique, long incised injury was found on the front of the neck. There were no hesitant or defense injuries. The cause of death was cut throat. The findings were compatible with a homicidal cut throat by a right handed person from behind after head being restrained firmly. Findings were compatible with the history provided by the suspect. PMID:27134896

  13. Transpiration cooled throat for hydrocarbon rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Lee R.; Burkhardt, Wendel M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective for the Transpiration Cooled Throat for Hydrocarbon Rocket Engines Program was to characterize the use of hydrocarbon fuels as transpiration coolants for rocket nozzle throats. The hydrocarbon fuels investigated in this program were RP-1 and methane. To adequately characterize the above transpiration coolants, a program was planned which would (1) predict engine system performance and life enhancements due to transpiration cooling of the throat region using analytical models, anchored with available data; (2) a versatile transpiration cooled subscale rocket thrust chamber was designed and fabricated; (3) the subscale thrust chamber was tested over a limited range of conditions, e.g., coolant type, chamber pressure, transpiration cooled length, and coolant flow rate; and (4) detailed data analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between the key performance and life enhancement variables.

  14. Decimal Commas Are a Problem; Actiq Is Not for Sore Throats; Dosing Error with Tasigna; Repackaging of Imbruvica Is Approved

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael R.; Smetzer, Judy L.

    2014-01-01

    These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again—perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers’ names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at ismpinfo@ismp.org. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters’ wishes as to the level of detail included in publications. PMID:25477591

  15. Dual-throat thruster thermal model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewen, R. L.; Obrien, C. J.; Matthews, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The dual-throat engine is one of the dual nozzle engine concepts studied for advanced space transportation applications. It provides a thrust change and an in-flight area ratio change through the use of two concentric combustors with their throats arranged in series. Test results are presented for a dual throat thruster burning gaseous oxygen and hydrogen at primary (inner) chamber pressures from 380 to 680 psia. Heat flux profiles were obtained from calorimetric cooling channels in the inner nozzle, outer or secondary chamber and the tip of the inner nozzle. Data were obtained for two nozzle spacings over a chamber pressure ratio (secondary/primary) range of 0.45 to 0.83 with both chambers firing (Mode I). Fluxes near the end of the inner nozzle were significantly higher than in Mode II when only the inner chamber was fired, due to the flow separation and recirculation caused by the back pressure imposed by the secondary chamber. As the pressure ratio increased, these heat fluxes increased and the region of high heat flux relative to Mode II extended farther upstream. The use of the gaseous hydrogen bleed flow in the secondary chamber to control heat fluxes in the primary plume attachment region was investigated in Mode II testing. A thermal model of a dual throat thruster was developed and upgraded using the experimental data.

  16. New definition of a wormhole throat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshimune; Izumi, Keisuke; Shiromizu, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    We present a new definition of the wormhole throat including the flare-out condition and the feature corresponding to the traversability for general dynamical spacetimes in terms of null geodesic congruences. We will examine our definition for some examples and see advantages compared to the others.

  17. CEA VARIABLE-THROAT VENTURI SCRUBBER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives detailed results of fractional and overall mass efficiency tests of a Combustion Equipment Associates(CEA) variable-throat venturi scrubber. The tests were performed on a full-scale scrubber used for controlling particles and SOx emissions from a pulverized-coal-...

  18. Throat Flow Modelling of Expansion Deflection Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. V.; Hempsell, C. M.

    Modelling of the supersonic flow within a rocket nozzle of both conventional and expansion deflection (ED) design is well handled by Method of Characteristics based algorithms. This approach provides both a predic- tion of the flowfield, and allows efficient optimisation of nozzle shape with respect to length. However, the Method of Characteristics requires a solution of the transonic flow through the nozzle throat to provide initial conditions, and the accuracy of the description of the transonic flow will clearly affect the overall accuracy of the complete nozzle flow calculation. However, it is relatively simple to show that conventional analytical methods for this process break down when applied to the more complex throat geometry of ED nozzles. This requires the use of a time marching solution method, which allows the analysis of the flow within this region even on such advanced configurations. This paper demonstrates this capability, outlines a general method for ED nozzle throat geometric definition, and examines the effect of various throat parameters on the permissible range of ED contours. It is found that the design of length optimised ED nozzles is highly sensitive to small changes in these parameters, and hence they must be selected with care.

  19. U.K. Case of Throat Gonorrhea Resists Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159536.html U.K. Case of Throat Gonorrhea Resists Antibiotics U.S. officials concerned about potential ... public health experts have confirmed a case of throat gonorrhea that proved untreatable with the standard antibiotic ...

  20. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  1. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  2. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  3. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  4. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  5. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  6. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  7. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  8. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  9. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  10. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  11. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  12. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  13. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  14. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  15. Human Error in Throat Pack Management: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Baranger, Violaine; Bon Mardion, Nicolas; Dureuil, Bertrand; Compère, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Throat packs are frequently used after tracheal intubation during ear, nose, and throat surgery. We report 2 cases of complications related to throat packs retained at the end of surgery. Miscommunication between anesthesiology and surgery teams on throat pack management led to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examination under general anesthesia in the first case and to severe respiratory distress requiring tracheal reintubation in the second case. Our 2 case reports highlight the importance of good communication between anesthesiology and surgery teams and of standardized procedures and checklists for the management of throat packs to ensure patient safety. PMID:27301056

  16. A case of "atypical homicidal" cut-throat injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar S, Ajay; Kumar Ms, Vinay; Babu, Yp Raghavendra; Prasad, Mahadeshwara

    2016-09-01

    Cut-throats can be of homicidal, suicidal or accidental origin. In cases of death from a cut-throat, distinguishing the cause is one of the important functions in crime investigation. The features that differentiate suicidal and homicidal cut-throat injuries are the presence of hesitation cuts, depth of wound, signs of struggle, edges of the wound, etc. In the case of a suicidal cut-throat, it is not uncommon to find hesitation cuts but in a homicidal cut-throat, it is uncommon. We present a case of a homicidal cut-throat injury but with hesitation cuts and tailing over the neck, unlike the classical description of homicidal cut-throat injury. This resulted from a curved, sharp and moderately heavy weapon. PMID:27381317

  17. Recommendations for the Avoidance of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the possible causes of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), which include buildup of lactic acid in muscle, increased intracellular calcium concentration, increased intramuscular inflammation, and muscle fiber and connective tissue damage. Proposed methods to reduce DOMS include warming up before exercise and performing repeated bouts…

  18. Hemispheric Asymmetry and Pun Comprehension: When Cowboys Have Sore Calves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Seana; Severens, Els

    2007-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded as healthy participants listened to puns such as ''During branding, cowboys have sore calves.'' To assess hemispheric differences in pun comprehension, visually presented probes that were either highly related (COW), moderately related (LEG), or unrelated, were presented in either the left or right…

  19. RSRM Nozzle Anomalous Throat Erosion Investigation Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Wendel, Gary M.

    1998-01-01

    In September, 1996, anomalous pocketing erosion was observed in the aft end of the throat ring of the nozzle of one of the reusable solid rocket motors (RSRM 56B) used on NASA's space transportation system (STS) mission 79. The RSRM throat ring is constructed of bias tape-wrapped carbon cloth/ phenolic (CCP) ablative material. A comprehensive investigation revealed necessary and sufficient conditions for occurrence of the pocketing event and provided rationale that the solid rocket motors for the subsequent mission, STS-80, were safe to fly. The nozzles of both of these motors also exhibited anomalous erosion similar to, but less extensive than that observed on STS-79. Subsequent to this flight, the investigation to identify both the specific causes and the corrective actions for elimination of the necessary and sufficient conditions for the pocketing erosion was intensified. A detailed fault tree approach was utilized to examine potential material and process contributors to the anomalous performance. The investigation involved extensive constituent and component material property testing, pedigree assessments, supplier audits, process audits, full scale processing test article fabrication and evaluation, thermal and thermostructural analyses, nondestructive evaluation, and material performance tests conducted using hot fire simulation in laboratory test beds and subscale and full scale solid rocket motor static test firings. This presentation will provide an over-view of the observed anomalous nozzle erosion and the comprehensive, fault-tree based investigation conducted to resolve this issue.

  20. The practical evaluation and management of patients with symptoms of a sore burning mouth.

    PubMed

    Steele, John C

    2016-01-01

    There are many etiologic factors to consider in a patient who presents with symptoms or sensations of a sore burning mouth. These range from local causes within the oral cavity to underlying systemic disease, including psychologic factors. This paper aims to describe the different clinical presentations and to outline a systematic approach to the evaluation and management of such patients. The clinician will be directed to the relevant diagnosis by following the traditional medical model of taking a focused history, performing a thorough clinical examination, considering the potential differential diagnoses, and requesting pertinent and appropriate investigations. The various differential diagnoses and broad treatment options will also be discussed and outlined. This paper will not, however, discuss burning mouth syndrome (oral dysesthesia), which is a diagnosis of exclusion, whereby the oral mucosa is clinically normal and there are no identifiable medical or dental causes to account for the patient's symptoms. PMID:27343959

  1. Adhesive tablet effective for treating canker sores in humans.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Boaz; Golenser, Jacob; Wolnerman, Joseph S; Domb, Abraham J

    2004-12-01

    A new mucoadhesive tablet, which releases natural active agents for pain reduction and rapid healing of canker sores, has been prepared and characterized. Adhesive tablets were prepared by compression molding of mixed powders of crosslinked polyacrylic acid and hydroxypropyl cellulose, absorbed with citrus oil and magnesium salt. The rate of tablet erosion and the rates of citrus oil and magnesium release were determined as well as the adhesiveness of the tablet using bovine gingival tissue and an Instron tensiometer. A clinical trial was conducted on 248 volunteers who had canker sores. Tablets adhere well to the mucosal tissue and gradually erode for 8 h releasing the citrus oil in a zero-order pattern whereas the magnesium is released during a period of 2 h. Both experimental and plain tablets were effective in reducing pain and decreasing healing time (p < 0.05) without adverse side effects. However, the tablets loaded with active agents were more effective. PMID:15459950

  2. Do Shale Pore Throats Have a Threshold Diameter for Oil Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Caineng; Jin, Xu; Zhu, Rukai; Gong, Guangming; Sun, Liang; Dai, Jinxing; Meng, Depeng; Wang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jianming; Wu, Songtao; Liu, Xiaodan; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a nanoporous template with a controllable channel diameter was used to simulate the oil storage ability of shale pore throats. On the basis of the wetting behaviours at the nanoscale solid-liquid interfaces, the seepage of oil in nano-channels of different diameters was examined to accurately and systematically determine the effect of the pore diameter on the oil storage capacity. The results indicated that the lower threshold for oil storage was a pore throat of 20 nm, under certain conditions. This proposed pore size threshold provides novel, evidence-based criteria for estimating the geological reserves, recoverable reserves and economically recoverable reserves of shale oil. This new understanding of shale oil processes could revolutionize the related industries.

  3. Do Shale Pore Throats Have a Threshold Diameter for Oil Storage?

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Caineng; Jin, Xu; Zhu, Rukai; Gong, Guangming; Sun, Liang; Dai, Jinxing; Meng, Depeng; Wang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jianming; Wu, Songtao; Liu, Xiaodan; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a nanoporous template with a controllable channel diameter was used to simulate the oil storage ability of shale pore throats. On the basis of the wetting behaviours at the nanoscale solid-liquid interfaces, the seepage of oil in nano-channels of different diameters was examined to accurately and systematically determine the effect of the pore diameter on the oil storage capacity. The results indicated that the lower threshold for oil storage was a pore throat of 20 nm, under certain conditions. This proposed pore size threshold provides novel, evidence-based criteria for estimating the geological reserves, recoverable reserves and economically recoverable reserves of shale oil. This new understanding of shale oil processes could revolutionize the related industries. PMID:26314637

  4. Electrical stimulation for pressure sore prevention and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bogie, K M; Reger, S I; Levine, S P; Sahgal, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews applications of therapeutic electrical stimulation (ES) specific to wound healing and pressure sore prevention. The application of ES for wound healing has been found to increase the rate of healing by more than 50%. Furthermore, the total number of wounds healed is also increased. However, optimal delivery techniques for ES therapy have not been established to date. A study of stimulation current effects on wound healing in a pig model has shown that direct current (DC) stimulation is most effective in wound area reduction and alternating current (AC) stimulation for wound volume reduction at current densities of 127 microA/cm2 and 1,125 microA/cm2, respectively. Preliminary studies have been carried out at two research centers to assess the role of ES in pressure sore prevention. Surface stimulation studies have shown that ES can produce positive short-term changes in tissue health variables such as regional blood flow and pressure distribution. The use of an implanted stimulation system consisting of intramuscular electrodes with percutaneous leads has been found to produce additional long-term changes. Specifically, gluteal muscle thickness increased by 50% with regular long-term ES application concurrent with a 20% decrease in regional interface pressures and increased tissue oxygen levels. These findings indicate that an implantable ES system may have great potential for pressure sore prevention, particularly for individuals who lack sensation or who are physically unable to perform regular independent pressure relief. PMID:11067577

  5. Dual throat thruster cold flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgreen, R. B.; Nickerson, G. R.; Obrien, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    The concept was evaluated with cold flow (nitrogen gas) testing and through analysis for application as a tripropellant engine for single-stage-to-orbit type missions. Three modes of operation were tested and analyzed: (1) Mode 1 Series Burn, (2) Mode 1 Parallel Burn, and (3) Mode 2. Primary emphasis was placed on the Mode 2 plume attachment aerodynamics and performance. The conclusions from the test data analysis are as follows: (1) the concept is aerodynamically feasible, (2) the performance loss is as low as 0.5 percent, (3) the loss is minimized by an optimum nozzle spacing corresponding to an AF-ATS ratio of about 1.5 or an Le/Rtp ratio of 3.0 for the dual throat hardware tested, requiring only 4% bleed flow, (4) the Mode 1 and Mode 2 geometry requirements are compatible and pose no significant design problems.

  6. Throat-cutting of accidental origin.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2008-07-01

    Incised wounds of the neck can be accidental, homicidal, or suicidal. In this paper, a death case has been presented where a spinning circular saw of a cutting machine in a workshop came off its place and cut the throat of a 30-year-old male who was operating the machine. There was an incision (15 cm x 5 cm) that began in the middle of the neck down the thyroid cartilage, extended horizontally to the left of the neck and ended on the outer part of the neck in the outer left side of m. trapezius. Death occurred because of exsanguination caused by the cutting of carotis artery and jugular vein. In the case we presented, although the cut in the neck initially suggested homicide, it was found to have occurred as a result of an accident after the autopsy and death scene investigation. PMID:18489556

  7. Experimental and raytrace results for throat-to-throat compound parabolic concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, D. B.; Leitch, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Compound parabolic concentrators are nonimaging cone-shaped optics with useful angular transmission characteristics. Two cones used throat-to-throat accept radiant flux within one well-defined acceptance angle and redistribute it into another. If the entrance cone is fed with Lambertian flux, the exit cone produces a beam whose half-angle is the exit cone's acceptance angle and whose cross section shows uniform irradiance from near the exit mouth to infinity. (The pair is a beam angle transformer). The design of one pair of cones is discussed, also an experiment to map the irradiance of the emergent beam, and a raytracing program which models the cones fed by Lambertian flux. Experimental results compare favorably with raytrace results.

  8. Lack of reliability of primary grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci by culture of throat swabs with streptocult supplemented with bacitracin disks in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, S

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-eight general practitioners took throat swabs from 434 patients with sore throats. Office cultures were performed on Streptocult supplemented with bacitracin disks in an attempt to carry out primary grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci (BHS). In 424 cases the findings were compared with those obtained in a microbiological laboratory. Streptocult showed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 84% in the detection of BHS. The office-performed grouping procedure of the correctly detected BHS, however, only had a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 87%. Overall, as many as 45% of the patients with BHS group A were misdiagnosed. The unsatisfactory results obtained with primary grouping of BHS may be due partly to incorrect determinations of the diameter of the inhibition zone around the bacitracin disks and partly to an inappropriate choice of breakpoint. It is concluded that cultures of throat swabs on Streptocult in general practice should not be accompanied by attempts to carry out primary grouping with bacitracin disks. A laboratory investigation showed that incubation at room temperature for 48 h and at 35 degrees C for 24 h gave identical BHS positivity rates. PMID:3908467

  9. Vibration Therapy in Management of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS).

    PubMed

    Veqar, Zubia; Imtiyaz, Shagufta

    2014-06-01

    Both athletic and nonathletic population when subjected to any unaccustomed or unfamiliar exercise will experience pain 24-72 hours postexercise. This exercise especially eccentric in nature caused primarily by muscle damage is known as delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). This damage is characterized by muscular pain, decreased muscle force production, reduce range of motion and discomfort experienced. DOMS is due to microscopic muscle fiber tears. The presence of DOMS increases risk of injury. A reduced range of motion may lead to the incapability to efficiently absorb the shock that affect physical activity. Alterations to mechanical motion may increase strain placed on soft tissue structures. Reduced force output may signal compensatory recruitment of muscles, thus leading to unaccustomed stress on musculature. Differences in strength ratios may also cause excessive strain on unaccustomed musculature. A range of interventions aimed at decreasing symptoms of DOMS have been proposed. Although voluminous research has been done in this regard, there is little consensus among the practitioners regarding the most effective way of treating DOMS. Mechanical oscillatory motion provided by vibration therapy. Vibration could represent an effective exercise intervention for enhancing neuromuscular performance in athletes. Vibration has shown effectiveness in flexibility and explosive power. Vibration can apply either local area or whole body vibration. Vibration therapy improves muscular strength, power development, kinesthetic awareness, decreased muscle sore, increased range of motion, and increased blood flow under the skin. VT was effective for reduction of DOMS and regaining full ROM. Application of whole body vibration therapy in postexercise demonstrates less pressure pain threshold, muscle soreness along with less reduction maximal isometric and isokinetic voluntary strength and lower creatine kinase levels in the blood. PMID:25121012

  10. Pressure-induced referred pain is expanded by persistent soreness.

    PubMed

    Doménech-García, V; Palsson, T S; Herrero, P; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2016-05-01

    Several chronic pain conditions are accompanied with enlarged referred pain areas. This study investigated a novel method for assessing referred pain. In 20 healthy subjects, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded and pressure stimuli (120% PPT) were applied bilaterally for 5 and 60 seconds at the infraspinatus muscle to induce local and referred pain. Moreover, PPTs were measured bilaterally at the shoulder, neck, and leg before, during, and after hypertonic saline-induced referred pain in the dominant infraspinatus muscle. The pressure and saline-induced pain areas were assessed on drawings. Subsequently, delayed onset muscle soreness was induced using eccentric exercise of the dominant infraspinatus muscle. The day-1 assessments were repeated the following day (day 2). Suprathreshold pressure stimulations and saline injections into the infraspinatus muscle caused referred pain to the frontal aspect of the shoulder/arm in all subjects. The 60-second pressure stimulation caused larger referred pain areas compared with the 5-second stimulation (P < 0.01). Compared with pressure stimulation, the saline-induced referred pain area was larger (P < 0.02). After saline-induced pain, the PPTs at the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles were reduced (P < 0.05), and the 5-second pressure-induced referred pain area was larger than baseline. Pressure pain thresholds at the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles were reduced at day 2 in the delayed onset muscle soreness side (P < 0.05). Compared with day 1, larger pressure and saline-induced referred pain areas were observed on day 2 (P < 0.05). Referred pain to the shoulder/arm was consistently induced and enlarged after 1 day of muscle soreness, indicating that the referred pain area may be a sensitive biomarker for sensitization of the pain system. PMID:26808146

  11. Development of a cushion to prevent ischial pressure sores.

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, P; Davidson, L M

    1979-01-01

    A study was carried out jointly by nursing staff and technologists in an attempt to develop a cushion based on scientific principles and measurement that might prevent pressure sores. At each stage in the development clinical trials were carried out, and using the results of these together with the opinions of medical staff and patients who used the cushion the design was suitably modified. Over four years a seat was evolved that was simple to construct and fulfilled the clinical requirements for a wide range of patients while providing maximum relief of high-pressure points. The design was subsequently taken up commercially. Images Fig 3 PMID:509176

  12. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity and Ear, ... all children be regularly screened for snoring. Middle ear infections Acute otitis media (AOM) and chronic ear ...

  13. Impact analysis studies of clinical prediction rules relevant to primary care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Emma; Uijen, Maike J M; Clyne, Barbara; Zarabzadeh, Atieh; Keogh, Claire; Galvin, Rose; Smith, Susan M; Fahey, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Following appropriate validation, clinical prediction rules (CPRs) should undergo impact analysis to evaluate their effect on patient care. The aim of this systematic review is to narratively review and critically appraise CPR impact analysis studies relevant to primary care. Setting Primary care. Participants Adults and children. Intervention Studies that implemented the CPR compared to usual care were included. Study design Randomised controlled trial (RCT), controlled before–after, and interrupted time series. Primary outcome Physician behaviour and/or patient outcomes. Results A total of 18 studies, incorporating 14 unique CPRs, were included. The main study design was RCT (n=13). Overall, 10 studies reported an improvement in primary outcome with CPR implementation. Of 6 musculoskeletal studies, 5 were effective in altering targeted physician behaviour in ordering imaging for patients presenting with ankle, knee and neck musculoskeletal injuries. Of 6 cardiovascular studies, 4 implemented cardiovascular risk scores, and 3 reported no impact on physician behaviour outcomes, such as prescribing and referral, or patient outcomes, such as reduction in serum lipid levels. 2 studies examined CPRs in decision-making for patients presenting with chest pain and reduced inappropriate admissions. Of 5 respiratory studies, 2 were effective in reducing antibiotic prescribing for sore throat following CPR implementation. Overall, study methodological quality was often unclear due to incomplete reporting. Conclusions Despite increasing interest in developing and validating CPRs relevant to primary care, relatively few have gone through impact analysis. To date, research has focused on a small number of CPRs across few clinical domains only. PMID:27008685

  14. Observation of the laryngeal movements for throat singing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Konishi, Tomoko; Murano, Emi Z.; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Kumada, Masanobu; Kondo, Kazumasa; Niimi, Seiji

    2002-11-01

    Throat singing is a traditional singing style of people who live around the Altai Mountains. Khoomei in Tyva and Khoomij in Mongolia are representative styles of throat singing. The laryngeal voices of throat singing is classified into (i) a drone voice which is the basic laryngeal voice in throat singing and used as drone and (ii) a kargyraa voice which is very low pitched with the range outside the modal register. In throat singing, the special features of the laryngeal movements are observed by using simultaneous recording of high-speed digital images, EGG, and sound wave forms. In the drone voice, the ventricular folds (VTFs) vibrate in the same frequency as the vocal folds (VFs) but in opposite phases. In the kargyraa voice, the VTFs can be assumed to close once for every two periods of closure of the VFs, and this closing blocks airflow and contributes to the generation of the subharmonic tone of kargyraa. Results show that in throat singing the VTFs vibrate and contribute to producing the laryngeal voice, which generates the special timbre and whistle-like overtone.

  15. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  16. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  17. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  18. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  20. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  2. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  3. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  5. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  6. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  7. Moist Heat or Dry Heat for Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Bains, Gurinder; Khowailed, Iman Akef; Hui, Timothy; Granado, Michael; Laymon, Mike; Lee, Haneul

    2013-01-01

    Background Heat is commonly used in physical therapy following exercise induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Most heat modalities used in a clinical setting for DOMS are only applied for 5 to 20 minutes. This minimal heat exposure causes little, if any, change in deep tissue temperature. For this reason, long duration dry chemical heat packs are used at home to slowly and safely warm tissue and reduce potential heat damage while reducing pain associated from DOMS. Clinically, it has been shown that moist heat penetrates deep tissue faster than dry heat. Therefore, in home use chemical moist heat may be more efficacious than dry heat to provide pain relief and reduce tissue damage following exercise DOMS. However, chemical moist heat only lasts for 2 hours compared to the 8 hours duration of chemical dry heat packs. The purpose of this study was to compare the beneficial effect of dry heat versus moist heat on 100 young subjects after exercise induce DOMS. Methods One hundred subjects exercised for 15 minutes accomplishing squats. Before and for 3 days after, strength, muscle soreness, tissue resistance, and the force to passively move the knee were recorded. Heat and moist heat were applied in different groups either immediately after exercise or 24 hours later. Results The research results of this study showed that immediate application of heat, either dry (8 hours application) or moist (2 hours application), had a similar preservation of quadriceps muscle strength and muscle activity. Results also revealed that the greatest pain reduction was shown after immediate application of moist heat. Never the less, immediate application of dry heat had a similar effect but to a lesser extent. Conclusion It should be noted that moist heat had not only similar benefits of dry heat but in some cases enhanced benefits, and with only 25% of the time of application of the dry heat. PMID:24171053

  8. Computation of the throat area of a turbine blade ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-01-01

    The throat area is a geometric parameter of the blade ring necessary to profile its blades and compute the turbine capacity. As applied to the filament flow model, the area is defined by the involute of the throat solid figure onto the plane formed by the cascade throat located on one of the cylindrical sections of the blade ring and the radius. An equation is derived for computing the area of the involute, which considers the effect of the shape of the ring's tailing outlines and the fillets at the transition from the outlines to the blade feather. Comparison of the area values for several turbines computed by the derived equation and by a more complex method based on a search for the minimum distances from the tailing edge of the blade to the suction surface of the neighboring blade in the channel revealed slight differences. The fluid-dynamic 2D analysis determined the radial boundaries of the filament bands, the parameters of the cascade that lie on a filament's cylindrical surfaces, and the flow velocity normal to the throat section of the filament. The proposed approach to computation of the throat area is common for problems of both designing and analyzing the turbine operation and allows for excluding, in practice, methodological differences in determination of the flow rate and the flow angles at the outlet of the blade ring.

  9. [The Development of a Care Protocol for Postoperative Pressure Sore Prevention].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hui-Ling; Wang, Fang; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne

    2015-12-01

    Pressure sores are a common complication caused by long periods of bed rest following major surgery. These sores may increase patient postoperative pain, increase the risk of infections, lengthen the pe-riod of hospitalization, and increase the duration and costs of nursing care. Therefore, maintaining the skin integrity of surgical patients is an important responsibility for operating room nurses and an indicator of nursing care quality. While pressure-sore risk assessment tools and interoperative strategies are available and used in foreign countries, there has been little related research conducted in Taiwan. After examining the relevant literature and considering the current postoperative pressure sore situation in Taiwan, the author developed a postoperative pressure sore care protocol as a reference for clinical staff. Protocol procedures include major breakthrough developments in areas such as post-survey risk assessment for pressure ulcers, pressure ulcer prevention strategies that take surgery-related risk factors into consideration, extra care and protection measures for surgical supine patients, and post-pressure sores. The developed postoperative pressure sore protocol may be incorporated into surgical care procedures during the post-surgical care period in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of post-surgery pressure ulcers. Furthermore, the developed protocol offers the potential to improve and strengthen the quality of surgical care in terms of both healthcare and post-surgical care. PMID:26645449

  10. Polymer quantization of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat

    SciTech Connect

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Peltola, Ari; Louko, Jorma

    2010-01-15

    We present a polymer quantization of spherically symmetric Einstein gravity in which the polymerized variable is the area of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat. In the classical polymer theory, the singularity is replaced by a bounce at a radius that depends on the polymerization scale. In the polymer quantum theory, we show numerically that the area spectrum is evenly spaced and in agreement with a Bohr-Sommerfeld semiclassical estimate, and this spectrum is not qualitatively sensitive to issues of factor ordering or boundary conditions except in the lowest few eigenvalues. In the limit of small polymerization scale we recover, within the numerical accuracy, the area spectrum obtained from a Schroedinger quantization of the wormhole throat dynamics. The prospects of recovering from the polymer throat theory a full quantum-corrected spacetime are discussed.

  11. Adult NREM Parasomnia Associated with Lancinating Throat Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bušková, Jitka; Šonka, Karel

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old woman presenting with dangerous nocturnal NREM episodes with the clinical feature of lancinating throat pain. We hypothesize that the pain may have represented sensory hallucination analogous to commonly recognized visual images associated with NREM parasomnias. This case is also unusual for probable psychological triggers that could play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease, as evidenced by successful psychotherapy. Citation: Bušková J, Šonka K. Adult NREM parasomnia associated with lancinating throat pain. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):925-926. PMID:25126041

  12. A review of tonsillectomy for recurrent throat infection.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, T

    1998-01-01

    Tonsillectomy is most frequently carried out for recurrent throat infection, but there is uncertainty about its effectiveness. This paper reviews the evidence of its effectiveness obtained from a search of the Cochrane database and MEDLINE for randomized controlled trials comparing tonsillectomy with non-surgical management of recurrent throat infection. The results show that the effectiveness of a procedure such as tonsillectomy, needs to be considered in the light of its adverse effects. Attempts should be made to inform patients about the uncertainty surrounding the procedure. PMID:9747553

  13. Using a modified nasotracheal tube to prevent nasal ala pressure sore during prolonged nasotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2010-12-01

    Nasotracheal tube induced nasal ala pressure sores or necrosis during prolonged nasotracheal intubation have been reported, and it is a serious but preventable complication. Here we introduce a modified nasotracheal tube to prevent this complication. This modified nasotracheal tube is composed of two parts, an oral endotracheal tube and a proximal part of a preformed nasotracheal tube, which are linked by a connector. The use of this modified nasotracheal tube can prevent nasal ala pressure sores during prolonged nasotracheal intubation. PMID:20809246

  14. Throat clicking as the initial symptom of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Sanjay S; Morgan, John C; Glover, Andrea L; Sethi, Kapil D

    2005-10-01

    The presenting manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) are variable, but a majority of patients note tremor as the initial symptom. Others complain of slowing of movements, loss of dexterity, fatigue, or changes in handwriting as initial symptoms. We describe a patient who developed an unusual clicking sound emanating from his throat as the initial manifestation of PD. PMID:16001408

  15. Dual-throat thruster thermal model. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ewen, R.L.; Obrien, C.J.; Matthews, L.W.

    1986-08-01

    The dual-throat engine is one of the dual nozzle engine concepts studied for advanced space transportation applications. It provides a thrust change and an in-flight area ratio change through the use of two concentric combustors with their throats arranged in series. Test results are presented for a dual throat thruster burning gaseous oxygen and hydrogen at primary (inner) chamber pressures from 380 to 680 psia. Heat flux profiles were obtained from calorimetric cooling channels in the inner nozzle, outer or secondary chamber and the tip of the inner nozzle. Data were obtained for two nozzle spacings over a chamber pressure ratio (secondary/primary) range of 0.45 to 0.83 with both chambers firing (Mode I). Fluxes near the end of the inner nozzle were significantly higher than in Mode II when only the inner chamber was fired, due to the flow separation and recirculation caused by the back pressure imposed by the secondary chamber. As the pressure ratio increased, these heat fluxes increased and the region of high heat flux relative to Mode II extended farther upstream. The use of the gaseous hydrogen bleed flow in the secondary chamber to control heat fluxes in the primary plume attachment region was investigated in Mode II testing. A thermal model of a dual throat thruster was developed and upgraded using the experimental data.

  16. Experimental study of moving throat plug in a shock tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. K.; Park, C.; Kwon, O. J.

    2015-07-01

    An experimental study has been carried out to investigate the flow in the KAIST shock tunnel with two moving throat plugs at a primary shock velocity of 1.19 km/s. The nozzle reservoir pressure and the Pitot pressure at the exit of the nozzle were measured to examine the influence of the moving throat plugs on the shock tunnel flow. To assess the present experimental results, comparisons with previous work using a stationary throat plug were made. The mechanism for closing the moving throat plug was developed and verified. The source of the force to move the plug was the pressure generated when the primary shock was reflected at the bottom of the plug. It was observed that the two plugs terminated the shock tunnel flow after the steady flow. .The time for the plugs to terminate the flow showed good agreement with the calculation of the proposed simple analytic solution. There was a negligible difference in flow values such as the reflected pressure and the Pitot pressure between the moving and the stationary plugs.

  17. Trying Not to "Shove Religion down Their Throats"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts two tasks. First, to clarify how the claim that colleges and universities may "shove religion down students' throats" has a historical background. Second, to indicate how pedagogical strategies--like service learning, discussions, paper revisions, and "Just in Time Teaching" exercises--can be used in ways…

  18. Upper Airway Hematoma Secondary to Warfarin Therapy: A Systematic Review of Reported Cases

    PubMed Central

    Karmacharya, Paras; Pathak, Ranjan; Ghimire, Sailu; Shrestha, Pragya; Ghimire, Sushil; Poudel, Dilli Ram; Khanal, Raju; Shah, Shirin; Aryal, Madan Raj; Alweis, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Upper airway hematoma (UAH) is a rare but life-threatening complication of oral anticoagulants requiring early recognition. However, no consensus exists regarding the best approach to treatment. We therefore, sought to systematically review the published literature on UAH to elaborate its demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment, complications, and outcomes. A systematic electronic search of PubMed and EMBASE for case reports, case series, and related articles of UAH related to warfarin published from inception (November 1950) to March 2015 was carried out. Categorical variables were expressed as percentage and continuous variables as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. All cases were reported to have UAH as a complication of anticoagulation therapy with warfarin. Demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment, complications and outcomes of UAH were studied. Thirty-eight cases of UAH were identified from 34 reports in the literature. No gender preponderance (male = 52.78%) was seen and the average age of presentation was 60.11 ± 12.50 years. Dysphagia, sore throat, and neck swelling were the most common symptoms and the mean international normalized ratio (INR)at presentation was 8.07 ± 4.04. Most cases had sublingual hematoma (66.57%) followed by retropharyngeal hematoma (27.03%). Of the cases, 48.65% were managed conservatively while the rest underwent either cricothyrotomy or intubation with the time to resolution being 7.69 ± 5.44 days. UAH is a rare butpotentially serious complication of warfarin therapy. It is more common in the elderly population with supratherapeutic INR; inciting events were present in many cases. Overall, it has a good prognosis with significant morbidity present only if concomitant respiratory compromise is present. Reversal of anticoagulation with low threshold for artificial airway placement in the event of airway

  19. SPECIFIC AND CROSS OVER EFFECTS OF MASSAGE FOR MUSCLE SORENESS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil; Søndergaard, Stine D.; Behm, David; Brandt, Mikkel; Særvoll, Charlotte A.; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Muscle soreness can negatively interfere with the activities of daily living as well as sports performance. In the working environment, a common problem is muscle tenderness, soreness and pain, especially for workers frequently exposed to unilateral high repetitive movements tasks. The aim of the study is therefore to investigate the acute effect of massage applied using a simple device Thera‐band roller Massager on laboratory induced hamstring muscle soreness, and the potential cross over effect to the non‐massaged limb. Methods: 22 healthy untrained men (Mean age 34 +/− 7 years; mean height 181.7 +/− 6.9 cm; mean weight 80.6 +/− 6.4 kg; BMI: 24.5 +/− 1.3) with no prior history of knee, low back or neck injury or other adverse health issues were recruited. Participants visited the researchers on two separate occasions, separated by 48 hours, each time providing a soreness rating (modified visual analog scale 0‐10), and being tested for pressure pain threshold (PPT) and active range of motion (ROM) of the hamstring muscles. During the first visit, delayed onset muscular soreness of the hamstring muscles was induced by 10 x 10 repetitions of the stiff‐legged dead‐lift. On the second visit participants received either 1) 10 minutes of roller massage on one leg, while the contralateral leg served as a cross over control, or 2) Resting for 10 minutes with no massage at all. Measurement of soreness, PPT and ROM were taken immediately before and at 0, 10, 30 and 60 min. after treatment. Results: There was a significant group by time interaction for soreness (p < 0.0001) and PPT (p = 0.0007), with the massage group experiencing reduced soreness and increasing PPT compared with the control group. There was no group by time interaction for ROM (p = 0.18). At 10 min. post massage there was a significant reduction in soreness of the non‐massaged limb in the cross over control group compared to controls but this effect was lost 30

  20. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  1. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  2. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  3. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  8. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  1. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. 874.4420 Section 874.4420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  3. Engine throat/nozzle optics for plume spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, R. L.; Duncan, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    The Task 2.0 Engine Throat/Nozzle Optics for Plume Spectroscopy, effort was performed under the NASA LeRC Development of Life Prediction Capabilities for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines program. This Task produced the engineering design of an optical probe to enable spectroscopic measurements within the SSME main chamber. The probe mounts on the SSME nozzle aft manifold and collects light emitted from the throat plane and chamber. Light collected by the probe is transferred to a spectrometer through a fiber optic cable. The design analyses indicate that the probe will function throughout the engine operating cycle and is suitable for both test stand and flight operations. By detecting metallic emissions that are indicative of component degradation or incipient failure, engine shutdown can be initiated before catastrophic failure. This capability will protect valuable test stand hardware and provide enhanced mission safety.

  4. Detection and Isolation of Digital Dermatitis Treponemes from Bovine Pressure Sores.

    PubMed

    Clegg, S R; Crosby-Durrani, H E; Bell, J; Blundell, R; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Evans, N J

    2016-05-01

    Pressure sores cause severe pain and discomfort in hospitalized people and in farmed cattle and are often infected with unknown bacteria. Pressure sores occur on the upper legs of 6-10% of recumbent cattle and are generally considered to be caused by constant pressure, commonly on bony areas of the limbs. This study analyzed pressure sores taken from the upper limbs of 14 cattle using isolation in culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect treponemes associated with digital dermatitis (DD). A 100% association of DD treponemes with the pressure sores was demonstrated, but treponemes were shown not to be part of the normal skin microbiota. Immunohistochemistry showed an association of DD treponemes with lesions and particularly with the hair follicles in lesions, identifying the bacteria deep within wounds, thereby suggesting that they could contribute to lesion pathogenesis. The bacteria isolated from the pressure sore lesions were similar or identical on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to those found in DD foot lesions in cattle, suggesting the same bacteria can infect multiple lesions. Indeed, the results of this study suggest that these spirochaetal bacteria may be expanding in host range and in their ability to colonize different tissues and contribute to a range of disease manifestations in farm animals. PMID:27040650

  5. [The plasty for the hip region sores, using the flap, consisting of M. tensor fasciae latae].

    PubMed

    Pasichniy, D A

    2015-02-01

    The method of plasty for the hip region sores, based on transposition of proximal part of m. tensor fascia latae in content of the flap, using her transsection between place of attachment to spina iliaca anterior superior and place of the main vascular pedicle entry into the muscle, was proposed, what permits to prevent vast mobilization of the muscle and to secure existing in normal conditions and formed in pathological conditions anas- tomoses between vascular net of the flap and surrounding tissues. The method proposed was successfully applied for plasty of the hip region sores of degrees III-IV in 2 patients. PMID:25985701

  6. Mononucleosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... mono, is a viral infection that causes fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, most often in the ... with fatigue, a general ill feeling, headache, and sore throat. The sore throat slowly gets worse. Your tonsils ...

  7. Male tawny dragons use throat patterns to recognize rivals.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Louise; Umbers, Kate D L; Backwell, Patricia R Y; Keogh, J Scott

    2012-10-01

    The ability to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is important for many animals, especially territorial species since it allows them to avoid unnecessary interactions with individuals that pose little threat. There are very few studies, however, that identify the proximate cues that facilitate such recognition in visual systems. Here, we show that in tawny dragons (Ctenophorus decresii), males can recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific males based on morphological features alone, without the aid of chemical or behavioural cues. We further show that it is the colour pattern of the throat patches (gular) that facilitates this recognition. PMID:22990636

  8. Throat swabs are necessary to reliably detect carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Dominik; Frei, Reno; Jaussi, Barbara; Tietz, Andreas; Stebler, Christine; Flückiger, Ursula; Widmer, Andreas F

    2007-08-15

    The anterior nares are the most important screening site of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. We screened 2966 individuals for S. aureus carriage with swabs of both nares and throat. A total of 37.1% of persons were nasal carriers, and 12.8% were solely throat carriers. Screening of throat swabs significantly increases the sensitivity of detection among carriers by 25.7%. PMID:17638197

  9. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery

    PubMed Central

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery. PMID:27390415

  10. Interleukin-6 and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Do Not Vary during the Menstrual Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffin, Morgan E.; Berg, Kris E.; Meendering, Jessica R.; Llewellyn, Tamra L.; French, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and delayed onset muscles soreness (DOMS) exists in two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine runners performed one 75-min high-intensity interval running session during the early follicular (EF) phase and once during the midluteal (ML) phase of the…

  11. Neutrophilia and an Anti-Inflammatory Drug as Markers of Inflammation in Delayed Muscle Soreness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lucille L.; And Others

    This study reexamined the concept that delayed muscle soreness (DMS) is a form of inflammatory pain. This was accomplished by having 32 male volunteers perform exercise known to induce DMS and then assess the total and differential white blood cell changes. In addition, an anti-inflammatory drug, idomethacin, was administered to determine whether…

  12. Evaluating the effects of pentoxifylline administration on experimental pressure sores in rats by biomechanical examinations

    PubMed Central

    Velaei, Kobra; Torkman, Giti; Rezaie, Fatemealsadat; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Tavassol, Azaedh; Bayat, Mehernoush

    2012-01-01

    This study used a biomechanical test to evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline administration on the wound healing process of an experimental pressure sore induced in rats. Under general anesthesia and sterile conditions, experimental pressure sores generated by no. 25 Halsted mosquito forceps were inflicted on 12 adult male rats. Pentoxifylline was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily from the day the pressure sore was generated, for a period of 20 days. At the end of 20 days, rats were sacrificed and skin samples extracted. Samples were biomechanically examined by a material testing instrument for maximum stress (N mm2), work up to maximum force (N), and elastic stiffness (N/mm). In the experimental group, maximum stress (2.05±0.15) and work up to maximum force (N/mm) (63.75±4.97) were significantly higher than the control group (1.3±0.27 and 43.3±14.96, P=0.002 and P=0.035, respectively). Pentoxifylline administration significantly accelerated the wound healing process in experimental rats with pressure sores, compared to that of the control group. PMID:23091522

  13. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery.

    PubMed

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery. PMID:27390415

  14. Performance predictions for an SSME configuration with an enlarged throat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, G. R.; Dang, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Two Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) computer program that was recently developed for NASA was used to predict the performance of a Large Throat Configuration of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Calculations indicate that the current design SSME contains a shock wave that is induced by the nozzle wall shape. In the Large Throat design an even stronger shock wave is predicted. Because of the presence of this shock wave, earlier performance predictions that have neglected shock wave effects have been questioned. The JANNAF thrust chamber performance prediction procedures given in a reference were applied. The analysis includes the effects of two dimensional reacting flow with a shock wave. The effects of the boundary layer with a regenatively cooled wall are also included. A Purdue computer program was used to compute axially symmetric supersonic nozzle flows with an induced shock, but is restricted to flows with a constant ratio of specific heats. Thus, the TDK program was also run with ths assumption and the results of the two programs were compared.

  15. -dimensional thin shell wormhole with deformed throat can be supported by normal matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2015-06-01

    From the physics standpoint the exotic matter problem is a major difficulty in thin shell wormholes (TSWs) with spherical/cylindrical throat topologies. We aim to circumvent this handicap by considering angle dependent throats in dimensions. By considering the throat of the TSW to be deformed spherical, i.e., a function of and , we present general conditions which are to be satisfied by the shape of the throat in order to have the wormhole supported by matter with positive density in the static reference frame. We provide particular solutions/examples to the constraint conditions.

  16. The Effects of Anesthesia Method on Throat Pain after Elective Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Elyassi, Hedayatollah; Mousavinasab, Masoud; Rambod, Mehdi; Hashemian, Mohammad Reza; Dabbagh, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Throat pain is a common postoperative complaint. In this study, we aimed to determine its incidence of throat pain after rhinoplasty by general anesthesia (GA) or conscious sedation (CS). Methods: We evaluated throat pain in postanesthesia care unit, 4, 12 and 24 hours after surgery using a numerical rating scale (NRS) in a clinical trial. A total number of 252 consecutive females aging over 18 years undergoing GA or CS for elective rhinoplasty entered the study after implementing inclusion and exclusion criteria. A logistic regression model was used to predict having throat pain. Results: The incidence of throat pain after CS and GA in postanesthesia care unit, 4, 12 and 24 hours after rhinoplasty were 34.9% vs. 34.9% (P = 0.99), 27.0% vs. 33.3% (P = 0.27), 14.3% vs. 22.2% (P = 0.10), 10.3% vs. 15.9% (P = 0.19), respectively. The odds ratio for throat pain was statistically significant for nausea/vomiting in postanesthesia care unit (OR = 11.1, 95% CI: 5.7-21.8; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Method of anesthesia had no independent role in predicting throat pain. Although larynx of subjects undergoing general anesthesia is manipulated by tracheal intubation, sedation has its specific risks for promoting throat pain after surgery. Therefore, neither CS nor GA is superior in terms of throat pain. PMID:22174969

  17. Passive Rocket Diffuser Theory: A Re-Examination of Minimum Second Throat Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Second-throat diffusers serve to isolate rocket engines from the effects of ambient back pressure during testing without using active control systems. Among the most critical design parameters is the relative area of the diffuser throat to that of the nozzle throat. A smaller second throat is generally desirable because it decreases the stagnation-to-ambient pressure ratio the diffuser requires for nominal operation. There is a limit, however. Below a certain size, the second throat can cause pressure buildup within the diffuser and prevent it from reaching the start condition that protects the nozzle from side-load damage. This paper presents a method for improved estimation of the minimum second throat area which enables diffuser start. The new 3-zone model uses traditional quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow theory to approximate the structure of two distinct diffuser flow fields observed in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and combines them to provide a less-conservative estimate of the second throat size limit. It is unique among second throat sizing methods in that it accounts for all major conical nozzle and second throat diffuser design parameters within its limits of application. The performance of the 3-zone method is compared to the historical normal shock and force balance methods, and verified against a large number of CFD simulations at specific heat ratios of 1.4 and 1.25. Validation is left as future work, and the model is currently intended to function only as a first-order design tool.

  18. Tonsillectomy

    MedlinePlus

    Tonsils removal; Tonsillitis - tonsillectomy; Pharyngitis - tonsillectomy; Sore throat - tonsillectomy ... can lead to frequent or very painful sore throats. In either of these cases, the child's tonsils ...

  19. Cancer of the Throat: A Physician's Experience as a Patient.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2016-01-01

    The author, a practicing physician, was diagnosed with throat cancer and lost his vocal cords. He endured the side effects of radiation, repeated surgeries, and the effects of prolonged hospitalizations; confronted medical mistakes and discrimination after losing his vocal cords; and struggled to regain his speech and find new meaning and purpose for his life. Facing the hardship and trials of becoming a laryngectomee illustrated to him how dependent and helpless a patient can become. Being unable to speak, eat, and breathe normally, while dealing with a potentially terminal illness, makes the patient very vulnerable, both physically and emotionally. A skillful, competent, error-free, empathetic, and caring approach that recognizes what the patient is experiencing can expedite recovery and well-being and help the patient return to a productive and meaningful life. PMID:27487313

  20. 78 FR 61208 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Blue-throated Macaw

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... included in the 1991 petition (56 FR 65207). On March 28, 1994, we published a document that served as our 12-month finding on the 1991 petition (59 FR 14496). In that document, we announced our finding that...-throated macaw. On January 10, 2013, we issued a proposed rule (78 FR 2239) to add the blue-throated...

  1. A life history study of the yellow throat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, R.E.

    1953-01-01

    Investigations concerning the life history of the Yellow-throat were made in southern Michigan during the spring and summer of 1938. Supplementary information was also obtained at Arlington, Virginia, in 1940 and at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, in 1947.....Resident males established territories almost immediately upon arrival in spring. In southern Michigan some resident males arrived at least as soon as, if not before, transient males. Most females appeared on their nesting ground about a week later. Adults were engaged in nesting activities from the time of their arrival in spring until the advent of the post-nuptial molt in late summer.....Typical Yellow-throat habitat consists of a mixture of a dense herbaceous vegetation and small woody plants in damp or wet situations. At Ann Arbor, the Yellow-throat was a common breeding species in its restricted suitable habitat. The population density in one area of suitable habitat was about 69 territorial males per 100 acres. Of 11 territorial males that were intensively studied, one was polygamous (with two mates), nine were monogamous, and one was probably monogamous (with at least one mate).....The song of the individual Yellow-throat was heard throughout the breeding season except for the courtship period. Two major types of song were the common song given while perched, and an occasional, more elaborate, flight song. Most males sing in spurts, singing at fairly regular intervals for a considerable period and then abruptly ceasing for another period. The vocabulary of both sexes included several types of call notes that appeared either to have special functions or to represent outward expressions of distinct emotional states of the bird.....Resident males were antagonistic toward each other throughout the breeding season. Most remained on well-established territories during this period. Territories of 10 monogamous males ranged in size from .8 to 1.8 acres but the territory of one polygamous male occupied

  2. Physical characteristics of a new synthetic fiber mattress in relation to pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Mita, K; Akataki, K; Itoh, K; Yoshida, M; Shinoda, T; Ishida, Y

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a mattress which was made of the new synthetic fibers called 'Shin-Gosen', and to determine its physical characteristics associated with pressure sores such as pressure distribution, temperature and humidity. The Shin-Gosen mattress consisted of three layers of elastic fibers made of polyester multifilaments, which were mediated by four layers of wave-like fabrics made of nylon monofilaments. The physical characteristics of the mattress were compared with (a) the conventional cotton hospital mattress and (b) the SORELESS MAT made of vacuole gel which effectively eliminated compression forces. The Shin-Gosen mattress was found to provide pressure relief effects similar to that of the SORELESS MAT the desired thermal insulation as well as that of the cotton mattress and a higher level of moisture vapor permeability. These excellent features will not only contribute to preventing pressure sores, but will also enable comfortable resting and sleeping. PMID:9444514

  3. Therapeutic Effect of External Application of Ligustrazine Combined with Holistic Nursing on Pressure Sores

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Junzhi; Han, Lin; Gong, Fen

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of external application of ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing on pressure sores, as well as the underlying mechanism. Material/Methods From February 2014 to March 2015, a total of 32 patients with Phase II and Phase III pressure sores were enrolled and randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The clinical data were comparable between the 2 groups. In addition to holistic nursing, the patients in the experimental group received 4 weeks of continuous external application of ligustrazine, whereas patients in the control group received compound clotrimazole cream. Therapeutic effect and healing time were recorded. HaCaT cells were used as an in vitro model for mechanism analysis of the effect of ligustrazine in treating pressure sores. After culturing with different concentrations of ligustrazine or the inhibitor of AKT (LY294002) for 72 h, cell viability, clone formation numbers, and levels of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-AKT, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were determined. Results Compared to the control group, the total effective rate in the experimental group was significantly higher, and the healing time was significantly reduced. Cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly upregulated by ligustrazine in a dose-dependent manner. Both the cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly inhibited by application of LY294002. Conclusions Our results suggest that ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing is an effective treatment of pressure sores. The protective effect may be associated with the promotion of cell growth by activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:27523814

  4. The user--friendliness of protective support surfaces in prevention of pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Conine, T A; Choi, A K; Lim, R

    1989-01-01

    Special mattress overlays and seat cushions for the prevention of pressure sores constitute a large portion of the rehabilitation products market. Consumers frequently face economic concerns in choosing among these products. This article summarizes the favorable and unfavorable features of major support surface types: foam, air-filled, flotation, and alternating air. A careful consideration of characteristics, such as fire safety, patient comfort, and ease of transfer and handling, may facilitate selection and result in more satisfied users and caregivers. PMID:2781130

  5. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Alessandro; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore. PMID:26495200

  6. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore. PMID:26495200

  7. Design and research on reliability-validity for 3S intraoperative risk assessment scale of pressure sore.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xing-lian; Hu, Juan-juan; Ma, Qiong; Wu, He-yu; Wang, Zeng-yan; Li, Ting-ting; Shen, Jian-hui; Yang, Ying

    2015-04-01

    The reliability and validity of risk assessment scale (RAS) of pressure sore during 3S surgery were investigated. RAS of pressure sore was designed independently during 3S surgery. Five operating room nursing experts were selected to consult and detect face validity. Convenient and purposive sampling of 707 samples was conducted. Cronbach's alpha was used to measure content reliability and evaluate the internal consistence of RAS. The structural reliability was investigated by exploratory factor analysis method. The results showed that the content validity index was 0.92, and Cronbach's alpha of content reliability was 0.71. Structural validity, detected by Bartlett sphericity test, was 135.3 for 707 samples with the difference being statistically significant (P<0.01). KMO value was 0.729. The accumulative variance contribution ratio of common factor was 64.63%. The exploratory factor analysis showed the factor load of every clause was larger than 0.596. It was concluded that RAS of pressure sore for 3S surgery has better validity and reliability, and it could be used for evaluating and screening the high risk patients with pressure sores during surgery in order to efficiently reduce the occurrence of pressure sore during surgery. RAS of pressure sore for 3S surgery is worth to be popularized. PMID:25877367

  8. Survival of red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) may be linked to marine conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Large variations in the summering population size of Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) have occurred in recent decades in Alaska. Little information exists about annual or seasonal survival rates of adult Red-throated Loons. This study used tracking data from satellite transmitters implanted into 33 Red-throated Loons captured on breeding areas in Alaska to estimate annual survival with the sampling effort split between two study periods: 2000–2002 and 2008–2010. Mortality was inferred from transmitted sensor data that indicated body temperature of the Red-throated Loon and voltage of the transmitter's battery. Two definitive mortalities occurred, resulting in an annual survival estimate of 0.920 (SE = 0.054). The fates of two additional Red-throated Loons were ambiguous and, when treated as mortalities, the annual survival estimate was 0.838 (SE = 0.074). All four putative mortalities occurred during the non-breeding season in the early study period. Oceanic conditions, indexed by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, appeared to differ between the study periods with higher Pacific Decadal Oscillation values associated with the early study period. Given that high values for Pacific Decadal Oscillation were also associated with the large decline of Red-throated Loons observed in Alaska during 1977–1993, this study suggests that survival of adult Red-throated Loons may vary in relation to the state of the marine ecosystem and thus contribute to long-term variation in population trends.

  9. The acoustic cough monitoring and manometric profile of cough and throat clearing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Carson, D; Boris, L; Mabary, J; Lin, Z; Nicodème, F; Cuttica, M; Kahrilas, P J; Pandolfino, J E

    2014-01-01

    Cough and throat clearing might be difficult to differentiate when trying to detect them acoustically or manometrically. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of acoustic monitoring for detecting cough and throat clearing, and to also determine whether these two symptoms present with different manometric profiles on esophageal pressure topography. Ten asymptomatic volunteers (seven females, mean age 31.1) were trained to simulate cough and throat clearing in a randomized order every 6 minutes during simultaneous acoustic monitoring and high-resolution manometry. The accuracy of automated acoustic analysis and two blinded reviewers were compared. The pattern of the events and the duration of the pressure changes were assessed using the 30 mmHg isobaric contour. There were 50 cough and 50 throat-clearing events according to the protocol. The sensitivity and specificity of automated acoustic analysis was 84% and 50% for cough, while the blinded analysis using sound revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 92%. The manometric profile of both cough and throat clearing was similar in terms of qualitative findings; however, cough was associated with a greater number of repetitive pressurizations and a more vigorous upper esophageal sphincter contraction compared with throat clearing. The acoustic analysis software has a moderate sensitivity and poor specificity to detect cough. The profile of cough and throat clearing in pressure topography revealed a similar qualitative pattern of pressurization with more vigorous pressure changes and a greater rate of repetitive pressurizations in cough. PMID:23442178

  10. Throat hit in users of the electronic cigarette: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey on the Internet in 2012-2014 was used to study the "throat hit," the specific sensation in the throat felt by users of e-cigarettes. Participants were 1672 current users of e-cigarettes, visitors of Websites dedicated to e-cigarettes and to smoking cessation. It was assessed whether the strength of the throat hit was associated with the characteristics of e-cigarettes and e-liquids, modifications of the devices, patterns of use, reasons for use, satisfaction with e-cigarettes, dependence on e-cigarettes, smoking behavior, and perceived effects on smoking. The strongest throat hit was obtained by using better-quality models and liquids with high nicotine content. Those who reported a "very strong" throat hit used liquids with 17.3 mg/mL nicotine, versus 7.1 mg/mL for those reporting a "very weak" hit (p < .001). The strength of the throat hit was also associated with ratings of dependence on e-cigarettes, and with the perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes to relieve craving for tobacco and to facilitate smoking cessation. All the variables assessing satisfaction with e-cigarettes were associated with a stronger throat hit. From a public health perspective, there is a trade-off between e-cigarette models that provide high levels of nicotine, a strong throat hit, high satisfaction, and more effects on smoking, but may also be addictive, and models than contain less nicotine and are less addictive, but produce a weaker throat hit, are less satisfactory, and are possibly less efficient at helping people quit smoking. This trade-off must be kept in mind when regulating e-cigarettes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26653150

  11. Prof. Sheng Canruo's experience in acupuncture treatment of throat diseases with yan si xue.

    PubMed

    Yao, W

    2000-06-01

    Yan Si Xue ([symbol: see text]) refer to four points in the throat summarized by Prof. Sheng Canruo in his long-year clinical experience based on the combination of TCM theory and the knowledge of modern medical anatomy. By taking "Yan Si Xue" as main points, and other differential adjunct points, Prof. Sheng has obtained satisfactory therapeutic results in treating various throat diseases such as hoarseness, paralysis of vocal cord, dysphonia after radiotherapy on throat tumor, vocal nodules, disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve, hysteric aphasia, and acute or chronic laryngopharyngitis. PMID:11039000

  12. Hypocycloidal throat for 2+1-dimensional thin-shell wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2015-11-01

    Recently we have shown that for 2+1-dimensional thin-shell wormholes a non-circular throat may lead to a physical wormhole in the sense that the energy conditions are satisfied. By the same token, herein we consider an angular dependent throat geometry embedded in a 2+1-dimensional flat spacetime in polar coordinates. It is shown that, remarkably, a generic, natural example of the throat geometry is provided by a hypocycloid. That is, two flat 2+1 dimensions are glued together along a hypocycloid. The energy required in each hypocycloid increases with the frequency of the roller circle inside the large one.

  13. Quantum dynamics of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Louko, Jorma; Peltola, Ari

    2011-02-01

    We consider the polymer quantization of the Einstein wormhole throat theory for an eternal Schwarzschild black hole. We numerically solve the difference equation describing the quantum evolution of an initially Gaussian, semiclassical wave packet. As expected from previous work on loop quantum cosmology, the wave packet remains semiclassical until it nears the classical singularity at which point it enters a quantum regime in which the fluctuations become large. The expectation value of the radius reaches a minimum as the wave packet is reflected from the origin and emerges to form a near-Gaussian but asymmetrical semiclassical state at late times. The value of the minimum depends in a nontrivial way on the initial mass/energy of the pulse, its width, and the polymerization scale. For wave packets that are sufficiently narrow near the bounce, the semiclassical bounce radius is obtained. Although the numerics become difficult to control in this limit, we argue that for pulses of finite width the bounce persists as the polymerization scale goes to zero, suggesting that in this model the loop quantum gravity effects mimicked by polymer quantization do not play a crucial role in the quantum bounce.

  14. Quantum dynamics of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat

    SciTech Connect

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Peltola, Ari; Louko, Jorma

    2011-02-15

    We consider the polymer quantization of the Einstein wormhole throat theory for an eternal Schwarzschild black hole. We numerically solve the difference equation describing the quantum evolution of an initially Gaussian, semiclassical wave packet. As expected from previous work on loop quantum cosmology, the wave packet remains semiclassical until it nears the classical singularity at which point it enters a quantum regime in which the fluctuations become large. The expectation value of the radius reaches a minimum as the wave packet is reflected from the origin and emerges to form a near-Gaussian but asymmetrical semiclassical state at late times. The value of the minimum depends in a nontrivial way on the initial mass/energy of the pulse, its width, and the polymerization scale. For wave packets that are sufficiently narrow near the bounce, the semiclassical bounce radius is obtained. Although the numerics become difficult to control in this limit, we argue that for pulses of finite width the bounce persists as the polymerization scale goes to zero, suggesting that in this model the loop quantum gravity effects mimicked by polymer quantization do not play a crucial role in the quantum bounce.

  15. Stable Non-Supersymmetric Throats in String Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; Trivedi, Sandip P.; /Tata Inst. /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-06-28

    We construct a large class of non-supersymmetric AdS-like throat geometries in string theory by taking non-supersymmetric orbifolds of supersymmetric backgrounds. The scale of SUSY breaking is the AdS radius, and the dual field theory has explicitly broken supersymmetry. The large hierarchy of energy scales in these geometries is stable. We establish this by showing that the dual gauge theories do not have any relevant operators which are singlets under the global symmetries. When the geometries are embedded in a compact internal space, a large enough discrete subgroup of the global symmetries can still survive to prevent any singlet relevant operators from arising. We illustrate this by embedding one case in a non-supersymmetric orbifold of a Calabi-Yau manifold. These examples can serve as a starting point for obtaining Randall-Sundrum models in string theory, and more generally for constructing composite Higgs or technicolor-like models where strongly coupled dynamics leads to the breaking of electro-weak symmetry. Towards the end of the paper, we briefly discuss how bulk gauge fields can be incorporated by introducing D7-branes in the bulk, and also show how the strongly coupled dynamics can lead to an emergent weakly coupled gauge theory in the IR with matter fields including scalars.

  16. Analytical study of striated nozzle flow with small radius of curvature ratio throats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, D. J.; White, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical method was developed which is capable of estimating the chamber and throat conditions in a nozzle with a low radius of curvature throat. The method was programmed using standard FORTRAN 4 language and includes chemical equilibrium calculation subprograms (modified NASA Lewis program CEC71) as an integral part. The method determines detailed and gross rocket characteristics in the presence of striated flows and gives detailed results for the motor chamber and throat plane with as many as 20 discrete zones. The method employs a simultaneous solution of the mass, momentum, and energy equations and allows propellant types, 0/F ratios, propellant distribution, nozzle geometry, and injection schemes to be varied so to predict spatial velocity, density, pressure, and other thermodynamic variable distributions in the chamber as well as the throat. Results for small radius of curvature have shown good comparison to experimental results. Both gaseous and liquid injection may be considered with frozen or equilibrium flow calculations.

  17. Extreme throat initial data set and horizon area-angular momentum inequality for axisymmetric black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Dain, Sergio

    2010-11-15

    We present a formula that relates the variations of the area of extreme throat initial data with the variation of an appropriate defined mass functional. From this expression we deduce that the first variation, with fixed angular momentum, of the area is zero and the second variation is positive definite evaluated at the extreme Kerr throat initial data. This indicates that the area of the extreme Kerr throat initial data is a minimum among this class of data. And hence the area of generic throat initial data is bounded from below by the angular momentum. Also, this result strongly suggests that the inequality between area and angular momentum holds for generic asymptotically flat axially symmetric black holes. As an application, we prove this inequality in the nontrivial family of spinning Bowen-York initial data.

  18. Indirect and direct methods for measuring a dynamic throat diameter in a solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbaugh, Lauren

    In a solid rocket motor, nozzle throat erosion is dictated by propellant composition, throat material properties, and operating conditions. Throat erosion has a significant effect on motor performance, so it must be accurately characterized to produce a good motor design. In order to correlate throat erosion rate to other parameters, it is first necessary to know what the throat diameter is throughout a motor burn. Thus, an indirect method and a direct method for determining throat diameter in a solid rocket motor are investigated in this thesis. The indirect method looks at the use of pressure and thrust data to solve for throat diameter as a function of time. The indirect method's proof of concept was shown by the good agreement between the ballistics model and the test data from a static motor firing. The ballistics model was within 10% of all measured and calculated performance parameters (e.g. average pressure, specific impulse, maximum thrust, etc.) for tests with throat erosion and within 6% of all measured and calculated performance parameters for tests without throat erosion. The direct method involves the use of x-rays to directly observe a simulated nozzle throat erode in a dynamic environment; this is achieved with a dynamic calibration standard. An image processing algorithm is developed for extracting the diameter dimensions from the x-ray intensity digital images. Static and dynamic tests were conducted. The measured diameter was compared to the known diameter in the calibration standard. All dynamic test results were within +6% / -7% of the actual diameter. Part of the edge detection method consists of dividing the entire x-ray image by an average pixel value, calculated from a set of pixels in the x-ray image. It was found that the accuracy of the edge detection method depends upon the selection of the average pixel value area and subsequently the average pixel value. An average pixel value sensitivity analysis is presented. Both the indirect

  19. Airway Complications during and after General Anesthesia: A Comparison, Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Using Flexible Laryngeal Mask Airways and Endotracheal Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Lian, Ying; Li, Wen Xian

    2016-01-01

    Objective Flexible laryngeal mask airways (FLMAs) have been widely used in thyroidectomy as well as cleft palate, nasal, upper chest, head and neck oncoplastic surgeries. This systematic review aims to compare the incidence of airway complications that occur during and after general anesthesia when using the FLMA and endotracheal intubation (ETT). We performed a quantitative meta-analysis of the results of randomized trials. Methods A comprehensive search of the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases was conducted using the key words "flexible laryngeal mask airway" and "endotracheal intubation". Only prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the FLMA and ETT were included. The relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using a quality effects model in MetaXL 1.3 software to analyze the outcome data. Results Ten RCTs were included in this meta-analysis. There were no significant differences between the FLMA and ETT groups in the incidence of difficulty in positioning the airway [RR = 1.75, 95% CI = (0.70–4.40)]; the occurrence of sore throat at one hour and 24 hours postoperative [RR = 0.90, 95% CI = (0.13–6.18) and RR = 0.95, 95% CI = (0.81–1.13), respectively]; laryngospasms [RR = 0.58, 95% CI = (0.27–1.23)]; airway displacement [RR = 2.88, 95% CI = (0.58–14.33)]; aspiration [RR = 0.76, 95% CI = (0.06–8.88)]; or laryngotracheal soiling [RR = 0.34, 95% CI = (0.10–1.06)]. Patients treated with the FLMA had a lower incidence of hoarseness [RR = 0.31, 95% CI = (0.15–0.62)]; coughing [RR = 0.28, 95% CI = (0.15–0.51)] during recovery in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU); and oxygen desaturation [RR = 0.43, 95% CI = (0.26–0.72)] than did patients treated with ETT. However, the incidence of partial upper airway obstruction in FLMA patients was significantly greater than it was for ETT patients [RR = 4.01, 95% CI = (1.44–11.18)]. Conclusion This systematic review showed

  20. Season-long increases in perceived muscle soreness in professional rugby league players: role of player position, match characteristics and playing surface.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ben D; Twist, Craig; Haigh, Julian D; Brewer, Clive; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2016-06-01

    Rugby League (RL) is a high-impact collision sport characterised by repeated sprints and numerous high-speed impacts and consequently players often report immediate and prolonged muscle soreness in the days after a match. We examined muscle soreness after matches during a full season to understand the extent to which match characteristics influence soreness. Thirty-one elite Super League players provided daily measures of muscle soreness after each of the 26 competitive fixtures of the 2012 season. Playing position, phase of the season, playing surface and match characteristics were recorded from each match. Muscle soreness peaked at day 1 and was still apparent at day 4 post-game with no attenuation in the magnitude of muscle soreness over the course of the season. Neither playing position, phase of season or playing surface had any effects on the extent of muscle soreness. Playing time and total number of collisions were significantly correlated with higher ratings of muscle soreness, especially in the forwards. These data indicate the absence "contact adaptations" in elite rugby players with soreness present throughout the entire season. Strategies must now be implemented to deal with the physical and psychological consequences of prolonged feeling of pain. PMID:26368285

  1. An Integration of the Turbojet and Single-Throat Ramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, C. J.; Benson, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    A turbine-engine-based hybrid propulsion system is described. Turbojet engines are integrated with a single-throat ramjet so as to minimize variable geometry and eliminate redundant propulsion components. The result is a simple, lightweight system that is operable from takeoff to high Mach numbers. Non-afterburning turbojets are mounted within the ramjet duct. They exhaust through a converging-diverging (C-D) nozzle into a common ramjet burner section. At low speed the ejector effect of the C-D nozzle aerodynamically isolates the relatively high pressure turbojet exhaust stream from the ramjet duct. As the Mach number increases, and the turbojet pressure ratio diminishes, the system is biased naturally toward ramjet operation. The common ramjet burner is fueled with hydrogen and thermally choked, thus avoiding the weight and complexity of a variable geometry, split-flow exhaust system. The mixed-compression supersonic inlet and subsonic diffuser are also common to both the turbojet and ramjet cycles. As the compressor face total temperature limit is approached, a two-position flap within the inlet is actuated, which closes off the turbojet inlet and provides increased internal contraction for ramjet operation. Similar actuation of the turbojet C-D nozzle flap completes the enclosure of the turbojet. Performance of the hybrid system is compared herein to that of the discrete turbojet and ramjet engines from takeoff to Mach 6. The specific impulse of the hybrid system falls below that of the non-integrated turbojet and ramjet because of ejector and Rayleigh losses. Unlike the discrete turbojet or ramjet however, the hybrid system produces thrust over the entire Mach number range. An alternate mode of operation for takeoff and low speed is also described. In this mode the C-D nozzle flap is deflected to a third position, which closes off the ramjet duct and eliminates the ejector total pressure loss.

  2. Eaton Throat-Valve Element prototype concept. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, M.R.; Arendts, J.G.; Berry, R.A.; Korth, G.E.; Schwieder, P.R.; Sekot, J.P.; Snow, S.D.

    1993-12-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to improve techniques for simulating nuclear blasts, the US Army Research Laboratory has been studying the merits of computer-controlled valves. The valve studies have been aimed at providing the Department of Defense with the capacity to conduct nuclear blast and thermal survivability testing on full-scale tactical vehicles. This report documents the development and findings of a computer model that simulates the behavior of the Eaton-Throat Valve Element (ETVE) prototype, and describes a proposed modification concept for the ETVE. The computer model reveals three main findings: (1) the ETVE chatters during the open cycle, (2) the chatter is caused by the high gas forces on the sliding sleeve as the driver gas passes through its portholes, and (3) the chatter is aggravated because there is insufficient damping in the system. The INEL recommends opening the ETVE by sliding the sleeve toward the downstream end of the valve instead of toward the upstream end, as the ETVE is presently configured, and to provide additional damping to the system. However, neither of these configuration changes can be achieved easily, and a redesign and analysis f the ETVE must be completed prior to performing any work on the current ETVE prototype. The ETVE simulation model proved to be an extremely valuable tool in analyzing the qualitative nature of the valve`s operation. Further development of the model is recommended for quantitative analysis and design of the ETVE. This report explains the model and stress analysis findings, and proposes a redesign concept.

  3. Supplementation with a polyphenolic blend improves post-exercise strength recovery and muscle soreness

    PubMed Central

    Herrlinger, Kelli A.; Chirouzes, Diana M.; Ceddia, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise can initiate a cascade of inflammatory and oxidative stress–related events leading to delayed onset muscle soreness. Polyphenols possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective The current study examined the effects of a proprietary polyphenolic blend (PB), containing catechins and theaflavins, on exercise performance and recovery following an eccentric exercise challenge. Design Male participants (18–35 years of age) received placebo or PB at a low dose (PB-L, 1,000 mg/d) or high dose (PB-H, 2,000 mg/d) for 13 weeks. During the 13th week of supplementation, participants completed an eccentric exercise (40 min downhill treadmill run) followed by a strength assessment (peak torque on isokinetic leg extensions) pre-exercise, and 24, 48, and 96 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness (subjective questionnaire), markers of muscle stress (cortisol and creatine phosphokinase [CK]), and antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]) were also assessed. Results PB-H attenuated the decrease in peak torque observed in the placebo group from pre-exercise to 48 h (p=0.012) and 96 h (p=0.003) post-exercise. At 48 h post-exercise, PB-H reduced whole body and hamstring soreness (p=0.029) versus placebo. Chronic consumption of PB improved serum FRAP (p=0.039). As expected, serum cortisol and CK increased from pre- to post-exercise in all groups; however, by 96 h, cortisol and CK levels returned to pre-exercise levels following PB supplementation. At 96 h, the change in cortisol from pre- to post-exercise was significantly greater in placebo versus PB-H (p=0.039). Conclusion These findings show that chronic consumption of PB improved antioxidant status, reduced markers of muscle stress, and promoted strength recovery post-exercise. PMID:26689317

  4. Resource defense and monopolization in a marked population of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris)

    PubMed Central

    Rousseu, François; Charette, Yanick; Bélisle, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Resource defense behavior is often explained by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources. However, factors such as competition, habitat complexity, and individual space use may also affect the capacity of individuals to defend and monopolize resources. Yet, studies frequently focus on one or two factors, overlooking the complexity found in natural settings. Here, we addressed defense and monopolization of nectar feeders in a population of free-ranging ruby-throated hummingbirds marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags). Our study system consisted of a 44 ha systematic grid of 45 feeders equipped with PIT tag detectors recording every visit made at feeders. We modeled the number of visits by competitors (NVC) at feeders in response to space use by a focal individual potentially defending a feeder, number of competitors, nectar sucrose concentration, and habitat visibility. Individuals who were more concentrated at certain feeders on a given day and who were more stable in their use of the grid throughout the season gained higher exclusivity in the use of those feeders on that day, especially for males competing against males. The level of spatial concentration at feeders and its negative effect on NVC was, however, highly variable among individuals, suggesting a continuum in resource defense strategies. Although the apparent capacity to defend feeders was not affected by competition or nectar sucrose concentration, the level of monopolization decreased with increasing number of competitors and higher nectar quality. Defense was enhanced by visibility near feeders, but only in forested habitats. The reverse effect of visibility in open habitats was more difficult to interpret as it was probably confounded by perch availability, from which a bird can defend its feeder. Our study is among the first to quantify the joint use of food resource by overlapping individuals unconstrained in their use of space. Our results show the importance of

  5. Mouth Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... it. Or get soft foam mouth swabs to clean your teeth. (You can buy these at a drugstore.) Rinse toothbrush well in hot water after use and store in a cool, dry place. Use a non-abrasive toothpaste that contains fluoride. Note that whitening toothpastes may contain hydrogen peroxide, ...

  6. Canker sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... with salt water or mild, over-the-counter mouthwashes. (DO NOT use mouthwashes that contain alcohol which can irritate the area ... needed for severe cases. These may include: Chlorhexidine mouthwash Stronger medicines called corticosteroids that are placed on ...

  7. Mouth Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... buds. It can be caused by poor oral hygiene, chronic oral irritation, or smoking. Torus palatinus — A ... braces, or dentures. •Chew slowly. Practice good dental hygiene, including regular visits to the dentist. •Eat a ...

  8. Vaginal Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... decisions about when and where they should receive healthcare. Unfortunately, most people lack the medical knowledge needed to make these decisions safely. FreeMD.com is powered by a computer program that performs symptom triage. The goal of ...

  9. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Executive Committee Board of Trustees Governance Past Presidents Staff/Contact History Awards Our Partners Membership Membership Categories Renew Your Membership Login Fellowship Academic Fellowship Affiliate Fellowship (AFAOM) Application Process Fellowship Study ...

  10. Slippery Elm

    MedlinePlus

    ... as medicine. People take slippery elm for coughs, sore throat, colic, diarrhea, constipation, hemorrhoids, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ... gout, rheumatism, cold sores, boils, abscesses, ulcers, toothaches, sore throat, and as a lubricant to ease labor. In ...

  11. Herpangina

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcers and sores (lesions) inside the mouth, a sore throat, and fever. Hand, foot, and mouth disease is ... Symptoms may include: Fever Headache Loss of appetite Sore throat, or painful swallowing Ulcers in the mouth and ...

  12. Efficacy of massage on muscle soreness, perceived recovery, physiological restoration and physical performance in male bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Lam, Eddie T C; Shariat, Ardalan; Shaw, Ina; Shaw, Brandon S; Tamrin, Shamsul B M

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that sport massage after intensive exercise might improve power and perceptual recovery in athletes. However, few studies have been done in this area. This study aimed to examine the effect of massage on the performance of bodybuilders. Thirty experienced male bodybuilders were randomly assigned to either a massage group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Both groups performed five repetition sets at 75-77% of 1RM of knee extensor and flexor muscle groups. The massage group then received a 30-min massage after the exercise protocol while the control group maintained their normal passive recovery. Criteria under investigation included: plasma creatine kinase (CK) level, agility test, vertical jump test, isometric torque test, and perception of soreness. All variables were measured over 6 time periods: baseline, immediately after the DOMS inducing protocol, right after the massage, and 24, 48, and 72 h after the massage. Both groups showed significant (P < .001) decreases in jumping, agility performance, and isometric torque, but significant (P < .001) increases in CK and muscle soreness levels. The massage group in general demonstrated a better recovery rate. As such, a post-exercise massage session can improve the exercise performance and recovery rate in male bodybuilders after intensive exercise. PMID:26334128

  13. Combined V-Y Fasciocutaneous Advancement and Gluteus Maximus Muscle Rotational Flaps for Treating Sacral Sores

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Jeong; Moon, Suk Ho; Lee, Yoon Jae

    2016-01-01

    The sacral area is the most common site of pressure sore in bed-ridden patients. Though many treatment methods have been proposed, a musculocutaneous flap using the gluteus muscles or a fasciocutaneous flap is the most popular surgical option. Here, we propose a new method that combines the benefits of these 2 methods: combined V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement and gluteus maximus muscle rotational flaps. A retrospective review was performed for 13 patients who underwent this new procedure from March 2011 to December 2013. Patients' age, sex, accompanying diseases, follow-up duration, surgical details, complications, and recurrence were documented. Computed tomography was performed postoperatively at 2 to 4 weeks and again at 4 to 6 months to identify the thickness and volume of the rotational muscle portion. After surgery, all patients healed within 1 month; 3 patients experienced minor complications. The average follow-up period was 13.6 months, during which time 1 patient had a recurrence (recurrence rate, 7.7%). Average thickness of the rotated muscle was 9.43 mm at 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and 9.22 mm at 4 to 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.087). Muscle thickness had not decreased, and muscle volume was relatively maintained. This modified method is relatively simple and easy for reconstructing sacral sores, provides sufficient padding, and has little muscle donor-site morbidity. PMID:27366755

  14. Effects of therapeutic massage on gait and pain after delayed onset muscle soreness

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun-Ho; Kim, Min-Jeong; Yang, Hyuk-Jin; Lee, Yu-Jin; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Unfamiliar or sudden exercise can induce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) within 12–24 h. So, several researchers have reported various interventions to treat DOMS. Massage is generally known to eliminate muscle fatigue. However, effect of massage after DOMS is still not clear. We investigated whether the massage is effective on pain and gait after DOMS. The participants were divided into a control group (n= 10) with DOMS and an experimental group (n= 11) with the massage treated after DOMS. We induced DOMS by taking isotonic exercise with going up and down 20 times in 5-story building. We applied the massage and assessment on gastrocnemius of dominant foot. The change of gait and pain was assessed using gaitrite and algometer. In the present results, the massage on gastrocnemius after DOMS showed significant difference in pain (P< 0.05). Also, there was a significant difference in gait (P< 0.05), especially, spatial parameters (distance, step length, stride length) and temporal parameters (ambulation, heel on off time, stride velocity). Moreover, the pain relief after massage-treated in DOMS correlated with gait. These results suggest that the massage on gastrocnemius after DOMS has influence on pain and gait performance. Therefore, massage can be applied as intervention for delayed onset muscle soreness. PMID:24877051

  15. Effects of therapeutic massage on gait and pain after delayed onset muscle soreness.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun-Ho; Kim, Min-Jeong; Yang, Hyuk-Jin; Lee, Yu-Jin; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Unfamiliar or sudden exercise can induce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) within 12-24 h. So, several researchers have reported various interventions to treat DOMS. Massage is generally known to eliminate muscle fatigue. However, effect of massage after DOMS is still not clear. We investigated whether the massage is effective on pain and gait after DOMS. The participants were divided into a control group (n= 10) with DOMS and an experimental group (n= 11) with the massage treated after DOMS. We induced DOMS by taking isotonic exercise with going up and down 20 times in 5-story building. We applied the massage and assessment on gastrocnemius of dominant foot. The change of gait and pain was assessed using gaitrite and algometer. In the present results, the massage on gastrocnemius after DOMS showed significant difference in pain (P< 0.05). Also, there was a significant difference in gait (P< 0.05), especially, spatial parameters (distance, step length, stride length) and temporal parameters (ambulation, heel on off time, stride velocity). Moreover, the pain relief after massage-treated in DOMS correlated with gait. These results suggest that the massage on gastrocnemius after DOMS has influence on pain and gait performance. Therefore, massage can be applied as intervention for delayed onset muscle soreness. PMID:24877051

  16. The acoustic cough monitoring and manometric profile of cough and throat clearing

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yinglian; Carlson, Dustin; Boris, Lubomyr; Mabary, Jerry; Lin, Zhiyue; Nicodème, Frédéric; Cuttica, Michael; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Pandolfino, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cough may coexist with throat clearing and it is possible that these two entities may be difficult to differentiate on acoustic monitoring and ambulatory manometry. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of acoustic monitoring for detecting cough and throat clearing and to also determine whether these two symptoms present with different manometric profiles on esophageal pressure topography. Methods Ten asymptomatic volunteers (7 females, mean age 31.1) were trained to simulate cough and throat clearing in a randomized order every 6 minutes during simultaneous acoustic monitoring and high resolution manometry. The accuracy of automated acoustic analysis and a blinded reviewer were compared against the scripted protocol. The pattern of the events and the duration of the pressure changes were assessed using the 30 mmHg isobaric contour to determine whether distinct patterns could be identified. Results In total, there were 50 cough and 50 throat clearing events according to the protocol. The sensitivity and specificity of acoustic cough monitoring was 84% and 50% for cough; while the blinded analysis based on sound alone revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 90%. The pressure topography manometric profile of both cough and throat clearing began with a decrease in esophageal pressure, followed by a distal excursion of the esophagogastric junction high-pressure zone and an increase in EGJ and UES contractile pressure that was followed immediately by a simultaneous abrupt increase in gastric and esophageal pressure. Cough was associated with a greater number of repetitive pressurizations, a more pronounced EGJ shift and a more vigorous augmentation of the UES pressure compared with throat clearing. Conclusions The automated acoustic analysis software has a moderate sensitivity and specificity to detect cough. The profile of cough and throat clearing in pressure topography revealed a similar qualitative pattern of pressurization with more

  17. Impact of an Exhaust Throat on Semi-Idealized Rotating Detonation Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of a rotating detonation engine (RDE) is used to examine the impact of an exhaust throat (i.e., a constriction) on performance. The model simulates an RDE which is premixed, adiabatic, inviscid, and which contains an inlet valve that prevents backflow from the high pressure region directly behind the rotating detonation. Performance is assessed in terms of ideal net specific impulse which is computed on the assumption of lossless expansion of the working fluid to the ambient pressure through a notional diverging nozzle section downstream of the throat. Such a semi-idealized analysis, while not real-world, allows the effect of the throat to be examined in isolation from, rather than coupled to (as it actually is) various loss mechanisms. For the single Mach 1.4 flight condition considered, it is found that the addition of a throat can yield a 9.4 percent increase in specific impulse. However, it is also found that when the exit throat restriction gets too small, an unstable type of operation ensues which eventually leads to the detonation failing. This behavior is found to be somewhat mitigated by the addition of an RDE inlet restriction across which there is an aerodynamic loss. Remarkably, this loss is overcome by the benefits of the further exhaust restrictions allowed. The end result is a configuration with a 10.3 percent improvement in ideal net specific thrust.

  18. Role of anesthesiologist in managing a rare case of homicidal cut-throat injury.

    PubMed

    Hungund, Shanta; Hirolli, Divya Aravind; Shaikh, Safiya Imtiaz

    2016-01-01

    Management of homicidal cut-throat injuries requires a multi-disciplinary approach. The role of an anesthesiologist in instituting an airway using an endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy before wound exploration and repair of transected tissues, is challenging, as, such injuries are most of the time associated with distortion of the normal anatomy of the airway. We hereby report a case of 60-year-old lady diagnosed as homicidal cut-throat injury with vocal cords exposed externally and injury of thyroid cartilage and pharyngeal muscles. Patients with cut-throat injury may present with airway compromise, aspiration, and acute blood loss with hypoxemia because of injury to the airway and major vessels. Securing an airway becomes the first priority in patients with cut-throat injuries. It could be done by an endotracheal intubation, cricothyroidotomy, or by an emergency tracheostomy. For the effective management of patients with a cut-throat injury, there is a need for a multidisciplinary approach by a team consisting of an otorhinolaryngologist, anesthesiologist, and a psychiatrist. PMID:26957703

  19. Role of anesthesiologist in managing a rare case of homicidal cut-throat injury

    PubMed Central

    Hungund, Shanta; Hirolli, Divya Aravind; Shaikh, Safiya Imtiaz

    2016-01-01

    Management of homicidal cut-throat injuries requires a multi-disciplinary approach. The role of an anesthesiologist in instituting an airway using an endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy before wound exploration and repair of transected tissues, is challenging, as, such injuries are most of the time associated with distortion of the normal anatomy of the airway. We hereby report a case of 60-year-old lady diagnosed as homicidal cut-throat injury with vocal cords exposed externally and injury of thyroid cartilage and pharyngeal muscles. Patients with cut-throat injury may present with airway compromise, aspiration, and acute blood loss with hypoxemia because of injury to the airway and major vessels. Securing an airway becomes the first priority in patients with cut-throat injuries. It could be done by an endotracheal intubation, cricothyroidotomy, or by an emergency tracheostomy. For the effective management of patients with a cut-throat injury, there is a need for a multidisciplinary approach by a team consisting of an otorhinolaryngologist, anesthesiologist, and a psychiatrist. PMID:26957703

  20. Impact of an Exhaust Throat on Semi-Idealized Rotating Detonation Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of a rotating detonation engine (RDE) is used to examine the impact of an exhaust throat (i.e. a constriction) on performance. The model simulates an RDE which is premixed, adiabatic, inviscid, and which contains an inlet valve that prevents backflow from the high pressure region directly behind the rotating detonation. Performance is assessed in terms of ideal net specific impulse which is computed on the assumption of lossless expansion of the working fluid to the ambient pressure through a notional diverging nozzle section downstream of the throat. Such a semi-idealized analysis, while not real-world, allows the effect of the throat to be examined in isolation from, rather than coupled to (as it actually is) various loss mechanisms. For the single Mach 1.4 flight condition considered, it is found that the addition of a throat can yield a 9.4 percent increase in specific impulse. However, it is also found that when the exit throat restriction gets too small, an unstable type of operation ensues which eventually leads to the detonation failing. This behavior is found to be somewhat mitigated by the addition of an RDE inlet restriction across which there is an aerodynamic loss. Remarkably, this loss is overcome by the benefits of the further exhaust restrictions allowed. The end result is a configuration with a 10.3 percent improvement in ideal net specific thrust.

  1. Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism of the Black-throated Sparrow in central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.J.; van Riper, Charles, III

    2004-01-01

    From 1994-1996 we investigated effects of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism on Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata) nesting success in the Verde Valley of central Arizona. Of 56 Black-throated Sparrow nests, 52% were parasitized. Black-throated Sparrows appear to respond to natural parasitism by accepting the cowbird egg, deserting the nest, or burying the cowbird egg. Removal and damage of host eggs by female cowbirds effectively reduced clutch size from an average of 3.4 to 1.9 eggs. Because of this reduced clutch size, Black-throated Sparrow reproductive success was significantly lower in parasitized nests (0.2 young fledged/ nest) as compared to nonparasitized nests (1.6 young fledged/nest). When comparing cowbird parasitism between two habitat types, we found significantly higher parasitism frequencies in crucifixion-thorn (Canotia holacantha) versus creosote-bush (Larrea divaricata) habitat. We argue that this difference in parasitism is due to the greater number of tall perches (e.g., shrubs >4 m) available in crucifixion-thorn habitat, providing vantage points for female cowbirds to better find Black-throated Sparrow nests.

  2. 3-dimensional throat region segmentation from MRI data based on Fourier interpolation and 3-dimensional level set methods.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sean; Doshi, Trushali; Soraghan, John; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Di Caterina, Gaetano; Grose, Derek; MacKenzie, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    A new algorithm for 3D throat region segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presented. The proposed algorithm initially pre-processes the MRI data to increase the contrast between the throat region and its surrounding tissues and to reduce artifacts. Isotropic 3D volume is reconstructed using the Fourier interpolation. Furthermore, a cube encompassing the throat region is evolved using level set method to form a smooth 3D boundary of the throat region. The results of the proposed algorithm on real and synthetic MRI data are used to validate the robustness and accuracy of the algorithm. PMID:26736782

  3. Cefpodoxime

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as pneumonia; bronchitis; gonorrhea; and ear, skin, throat, and urinary tract infections. Antibiotics will not work ... or swallowing wheezing unusual bleeding or bruising sore throat painful mouth or throat sores vaginal infection If ...

  4. Ceftibuten

    MedlinePlus

    ... by bacteria such as bronchitis and ear and throat infections. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, ... or swallowing wheezing unusual bleeding or bruising sore throat painful mouth or throat sores vaginal infection If ...

  5. Throat aurora: The ionospheric signature of magnetosheath particles penetrating into the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, D.-S.; Nishimura, Y.; Lyons, L. R.; Hu, H.-Q.; Yang, H.-G.

    2016-03-01

    Throat aurora is suggested to be generated during magnetospheric cold plasma flowing into the magnetopause reconnection site and to be the ionospheric signature of the newly opened flux from reconnection. By examining simultaneous low-altitude satellites and ground observations, we confirm that the throat auroras are associated with low-energy electron and ion precipitation of magnetosheath type and thus provide the first evidence that they occur along open magnetic field lines. Additionally, the observations have important possible implications: (1) solar wind particles can penetrate deep into the magnetosphere and may make significant contributions to the low-energy plasmas often observed in the dayside outer magnetosphere and (2) localized shapes of the magnetopause and the ionospheric open-closed field line boundary may be substantially changed, during generation of the throat aurora.

  6. Integral throat entrance development, qualification and production for the Antares 3 nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, F. I.; Dirling, R. B.; Eitman, D. A.; Loomis, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Although design analyses of a G-90 graphite integral throat entrance for the Antares 3 solid rocket motor nozzle indicated acceptable margins of safety, the nozzle throat insert suffered a thermostructural failure during the first development firing. Subsequent re-analysis using properties measured on material from the same billet as the nozzle throat insert showed negative margins. Carbon-carbon was investigated and found to result in large positive margins of safety. The G-90 graphite was replaced by SAI fast processed 4-D material which uses Hercules HM 10000 fiber as the reinforcement. Its construction allows powder filling of the interstices after preform fabrication which accelerates the densification process. Allied 15V coal tar pitch is then used to complete densification. The properties were extensively characterized on this material and six nozzles were subjected to demonstration, development and qualification firings.

  7. Enteral nutrition in dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  8. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  9. Effect of low-level phototherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nampo, Fernando Kenji; Cavalheri, Vinícius; Ramos, Solange de Paula; Camargo, Enilton Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of low-level phototherapy (i.e. light-emitting diode therapy [LEDtherapy] or light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation therapy [LASERtherapy]) on pain, skeletal muscle injury (creatine kinase [CK] levels and edema) and skeletal muscle function (range of movement and strength) in people undergoing an exercise protocol. (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro, SciELO and LILACS up to May 2014), we included randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials and crossover studies in which study participants were allocated to receive either low-level phototherapy or placebo treatment. Phototherapy should have been applied in a single treatment session, either before or after an exercise protocol. We identified 15 studies involving 317 participants. Meta-analyses were limited by substantial heterogeneity. Compared to the placebo group, reduction in CK levels was only observed when LASERtherapy was applied before an exercise protocol (standardized mean difference = -0.66; 95 % CI = -1.30, -0.02). No between-group difference in edema, range of movement and strength were detected when phototherapy was applied before or after exercise. Evidence from this review suggests that low-level phototherapy may not have substantial effect in the treatment of skeletal muscle injury and pain caused by exercise. Definitive conclusions are limited due to the small number of included studies in each meta-analysis, disparities across the included studies and small sample sizes. PMID:26563953

  10. Study of thermal throat of RBCC combustor based on one-dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-jun; Li, Jiang; Qin, Fei; He, Guo-qiang; Shi, Lei

    2015-12-01

    An analysis model was developed to better understand the formation mechanism and variation law of the thermal throat in a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) combustor. This analysis model is based on one-dimensional flow equations and consideration of the variation in factors such as the area, exothermic distribution, and the fuel-rich jet of the rocket. The influence law for the thermal throat under the interaction of the exothermic distribution and the variation of the area is consistent with the heat release models for a gaseous jet and liquid kerosene. The effective cross-sectional area of the jet was calculated and incorporated into the model. The results calculated using the one-dimensional model were found to be consistent with those obtained from a three-dimensional numerical simulation. The position of the thermal throat was predicted with an error of 0.36%. The maximum relative errors of the static pressure among the corresponding points were 7.4% and 9.3% for the static temperature and total pressure, respectively. The one-dimensional model and three-dimensional numerical simulation were validated using experimental data obtained in direct-connect testing. Except for the cavity region, the maximum relative error of the corresponding points between the simulation results and test results was less than 8.9%, and that between the model results and test results was 10.4%. Compared to the fuel equivalence ratio, the expansion ratio, injection location, and exothermic rate have a significant impact on the position of the thermal throat. An optimization study of the RBCC combustor for the ramjet mode was conducted by adjusting the thermal throat. The thrust performance improved by 31.6% at Ma3 after optimization. These results indicate the important role that the one-dimensional model can play in analyzing the thermal throat and guiding the preliminary design of an RBCC combustor.

  11. Submaximal delayed-onset muscle soreness: correlations between MR imaging findings and clinical measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, G. F.; Haller, R. G.; Wyrick, P. S.; Parkey, R. W.; Fleckenstein, J. L.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess correlations between muscle edema on magnetic resonance (MR) images and clinical indexes of muscle injury in delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) produced by submaximal exercise protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen subjects performed 36 elbow flexions ("biceps curls") at one of two submaximal workloads that emphasized eccentric contractions. Changes in MR imaging findings, plasma levels of creatine kinase, and pain scores were correlated. RESULTS: Both exercise protocols produced DOMS in all subjects. The best correlation was between change in creatine kinase level and volume of muscle edema on MR images, regardless of the workload. Correlations tended to be better with the easier exercise protocol. CONCLUSION: Whereas many previous studies of DOMS focused on intense exercise protocols to ensure positive results, the present investigation showed that submaximal workloads are adequate to produce DOMS and that correlations between conventionally measured indexes of injury may be enhanced at lighter exercise intensities.

  12. Computed tomography of pressure sores, pelvic abscess, and osteomyelitis in patients with spinal cord injury

    SciTech Connect

    Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Golimbu, C.; Lam, S.; Sokolow, J.; Kung, J.S.

    1982-11-01

    Nine patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and large pressure ulcers and other possible complications, were evaluated by computed tomography (CT), conventional radiography, tomography, bone scanning, gallium scanning, and sonography. CT revealed the depth, extent, and relationship of the ulcer-bed to the underlying structures in all 9 patients. CT also positively identified unsuspected intra- and extra-pelvic abscess and pelvic osteomyelitis in 4 patients each. Other modalities identified only 2 of these complications. We believe CT is the modality of choice for evaluation of these complications in SCI patients, because of its superior ability in evaluation of pressure sores and detection of pathologic changes in soft tissue and bone in the pelvic region.

  13. Acute effects of ginger extract on biochemical and functional symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness

    PubMed Central

    Hoseinzadeh, Khadijeh; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Baghdasar, Parvin Javad; Alizadeh, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inflammation and pain induced by delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) as a result of eccentric exercise (EE) or unaccustomed activity cause some difficulties in exercise for athletes. The purpose of this study was to survey the effect of ginger extract on biochemical and functional symptom of delayed onset muscle soreness. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study, 36 healthy female subjects, who were recruited by intra dormitory calls, randomly divided into 3 groups, including: ginger intake 1 hour before exercise (GIBE), ginger intake immediately after exercise (GIAE) and placebo group (PL). Subjects consumed capsules contain 60 mg of ginger extract (equivalent of 2 g dried ginger powder) or placebo before and after exercise. The exercise protocol consisted of a 20 minute step test using a 46cm step at a rate of 15 steps per minute. The blood samples were taken before, 1, 24 and 48 hour after exercise to assay creatine kinase (CK) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Muscle pain scores, isometric strength and circumference of thigh muscle, and hip range of motion were recorded at mentioned times. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measure was used to determine the differences between groups. Results: The results showed a significant reduction of pain in GIBE compared to GIAE after 24 and 48h of EE and GIAE compared to PL (p<0.05). IL-6 changed significantly in GIBE compared to PL (p<0.05) after 1, 24, and 48h after EE. The other factors didn’t change meaningfully. Conclusion: The finding of this study suggests that 2 grams of ginger may have anti-inflammation and analgesic effect on DOMS. PMID:26793652

  14. The nursing rounds system: effect of patient's call light use, bed sores, fall and satisfaction level.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Bassem S; Nusair, Hussam; Al Zubadi, Nariman; Al Shloul, Shams; Saleh, Usama

    2011-06-01

    The nursing round system (NRS) means checking patients on an hourly basis during the A (0700-2200 h) shift and once every 2 h during the B (2200-0700 h) by the assigned nursing staff. The overall goal of this prospective study is to implement an NRS in a major rehabilitation centre-Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Humanitarian City-in the Riyadh area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The purposes of this study are to measure the effect of the NRS on: (i) the use of patient call light; (ii) the number of incidences of patients' fall; (iii) the number of incidences of hospital-acquired bed sores; and (iv) the level of patients' satisfaction. All patients hospitalized in the male stroke unit will be involved in this study. For the period of 8 weeks (17 December 2009-17 February 2010) All Nursing staff on the unit will record each call light and the patient's need. Implementation of the NRS would start on 18 February 2010 and last for 8 weeks, until 18 April 2010. Data collected throughout this period will be compared with data collected during the 8 weeks period immediately preceding the implementation of the NRS (17 December 2009-17 February 2010) in order to measure the impact of the call light use. The following information were collected on all subjects involved in the study: (i) the Demographic Information Form; (ii) authors' developed NRS Audit Form; (iii) Patient Call Light Audit Form; (iv) Patient Fall Audit Record; (v) Hospital-Acquired Bed Sores Audit Form; and (vi) hospital developed Patient Satisfaction Records. The findings suggested that a significant reduction on the use of call bell (P < 0.001), a significant reduction of fall incidence (P < 0.01) while pressure ulcer reduced by 50% before and after the implementation of NRS. Also, the implementation of NRS increased patient satisfaction by 7/5 (P < 0.05). PMID:21605271

  15. De-agglomeration Effect of the US Pharmacopeia and Alberta Throats on Carrier-Based Powders in Commercial Inhalation Products.

    PubMed

    Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Zhou, Qi Tony; Tong, Zhenbo; Leung, Cassandra; Decharaksa, Janwit; Yang, Runyu; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-11-01

    The US pharmacopeia (USP) and Alberta throats were recently reported to cause further de-agglomeration of carrier-free powders emitted from some dry powder inhalers (DPIs). This study assessed if they have similar influences on commercially available carrier-based DPIs. A straight tube, a USP throat, and an Alberta throat (non-coated and coated) were used for cascade impaction testing. Aerosol fine particle fraction (FPF ≤ 5 μm) was computed to evaluate throat-induced de-agglomeration. Computational fluid dynamics are employed to simulate airflow patterns and particle trajectories inside the USP and Alberta throats. For all tested products, no significant differences in the in vitro aerosol performance were observed between the USP throat and the straight tube. Using fine lactose carriers (<10 μm), Symbicort(®) and Oxis(™) showed minimal impaction inside the Alberta throat and resulted in similar FPF among all induction ports. For products using coarse lactose carriers (>10 μm), impaction frequency and energy inside the Alberta throat were significant. Further de-agglomeration was noted inside the non-coated Alberta throat for Seretide(®) and Spiriva(®), but agglomerates emitted from Relenza(®), Ventolin(®), and Foradil(®) did not further break up into smaller fractions. The coated Alberta throat considerably reduced the FPF values of these products due to the high throat retention, but they generally agreed better with the in vivo data. In conclusion, depending on the powder formulation (including carrier particle size), the inhaler, and the induction port, further de-agglomeration could happen ex-inhaler and create differences in the in vitro measurements. PMID:26201967

  16. The impact of a pre-loaded multi-ingredient performance supplement on muscle soreness and performance following downhill running.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Ward, Emery G; Bach, Christopher W; Arciero, Paul J; McKune, Andrew J; Panton, Lynn B

    2015-01-01

    The effects of multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) on perceived soreness, strength, flexibility and vertical jump performance following eccentric exercise are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of MIPS (NO-Shotgun®) pre-loaded 4 weeks prior to a single bout of downhill running (DHR) on muscle soreness and performance. Trained male runners (n = 20) were stratified by VO2max, strength, and lean mass into two groups; MIPS (n = 10) ingested one serving daily of NO-Shotgun® for 28 days and 30 min prior to all post-testing visits, Control (CON; n = 10) consumed an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo in an identical manner as MIPS. Perceived soreness and performance measurements (strength, flexibility, and jump height) were tested on 6 occasions; 28 days prior to DHR, immediately before DHR (PRE), immediately post (POST) DHR, 24, 48, and 72 hr post-DHR. Perceived soreness significantly increased (p < 0.05) post DHR compared to PRE at all time-points, with no difference between groups. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased over time (p < 0.001) with no group x time interactions (p = 0.236 and p = 0.535, respectively). Significant time effects were measured for strength (p = 0.001), flexibility (p = 0.025) and vertical jump (p < 0.001). There were no group x time interactions for any performance measurements. Consumption of MIPS for 4 weeks prior to a single bout of DHR did not affect perceived soreness, muscle damage, strength, flexibility, or jump performance compared to an isocaloric placebo in trained male runners following a single bout of DHR. PMID:25628519

  17. Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Dai, Longhai; Liu, Yueping; Rong, Long; Dou, Dequan; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Lanqing

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world's most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers. PMID:27304964

  18. Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Can; Dai, Longhai; Liu, Yueping; Rong, Long; Dou, Dequan; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Lanqing

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world’s most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers. PMID:27304964

  19. Design Data for Graphical Construction of Two-Dimensional Sharp-Edge-Throat Supersonic Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shames, Harold; Seashore, Ferris L.

    1948-01-01

    Design data are presented for the graphical construction of two-dimensional sharp-edge-throat supersonic nozzles of minimum length for test-section Mach numbers from 1.20 to 10.00. The method of characteristics used in the design is briefly reviewed.

  20. Global ENT Outreach: Taking Ear, Nose, and Throat Treatment and Surgery Techniques to Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The author, as an otolaryngologist and the Director of Global ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) Outreach, traveled to Ethiopia to help 11 children who could not breathe because of respiratory papillomas blocking their airways and who had been hospitalized for years. The disease, called juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, is what affected these 11…

  1. Detection of SARS-associated Coronavirus in Throat Wash and Saliva in Early Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Kung; Chen, Shey-Ying; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chen, Hui-Ling; Yang, Chao-Fu; Chen, Pei-Jer; Yeh, Shiou-Hwei; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Huang, Li-Min; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Wang, Jann-Tay; Sheng, Wang-Hwei; Fang, Chi-Tai; Hung, Chien-Ching; Hsieh, Szu-Min; Su, Chan-Ping; Chiang, Wen-Chu; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Lin, Jih-Hui; Hsieh, Szu-Chia; Hu, Hsien-Ping; Chiang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Jin-Town; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2004-01-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is thought to be transmitted primarily through dispersal of droplets, but little is known about the load of SARS-CoV in oral droplets. We examined oral specimens, including throat wash and saliva, and found large amounts of SARS-CoV RNA in both throat wash (9.58 x 102 to 5.93 x 106 copies/mL) and saliva (7.08 x 103 to 6.38 x 108 copies/mL) from all specimens of 17 consecutive probable SARS case-patients, supporting the possibility of transmission through oral droplets. Immunofluorescence study showed replication of SARS-CoV in the cells derived from throat wash, demonstrating the possibility of developing a convenient antigen detection assay. This finding, with the high detection rate a median of 4 days after disease onset and before the development of lung lesions in four patients, suggests that throat wash and saliva should be included in sample collection guidelines for SARS diagnosis. PMID:15324540

  2. Winflume: Windows-based Software for the Design and Calibration of Long-throated Measuring Flumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs provide a practical, low-cost, flexible means of measuring open-channel flows in new and existing irrigation systems, with distinct advantages over other flume and weir devices. A primary advantage is the fact that these structures can be custom-designed ...

  3. Egg flotation estimates nest age for Pacific and Red-throated Loons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizzolo, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We used Pacific Loon (Gavia pacifica) and Red-throated Loon (G. stellata) nests with known ages to gauge the efficacy of egg flotation for determining nest age in coastal Alaska. Egg flotation accurately estimated nest age for both species; the mean ?? 1SD difference between known age and age determined with egg flotation was - 0.05 ?? 2.00 d and -0.02 ?? 1.63 d for Pacific and Red-throated Loons, respectively. Day of nest initiation did not influence the relationship between known nest age and nest age estimated with egg flotation, indicating incubation period was not shortened in nests initiated later in the season. Additionally, we found no difference in the ability of egg flotation to estimate nest age between two widely dispersed study sites for Pacific Loons, and only a small difference between two of three widely dispersed study sites for Red-throated Loons. Thus, our described relationships between egg flotation categories and nest age should be broadly applicable for these holarctic species. We conclude that for Pacific and Red-throated Loons, egg flotation is a useful technique for determining nest age in the field to better monitor nest fate, and to quantify nest age effects on nest daily survival rate.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of Blue-headed Macaw (Primolius couloni): its comparison with mitogenome of Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis).

    PubMed

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid

    2016-05-01

    Primolius is a genus of midsized Macaws comprising three species. Blue-headed Macaws (Primolius couloni) are native to eastern Peru, extreme western Brazil and north-western Bolivia. In this study, full mitochondrial genome of considered species was sequenced. It is 16,995 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. Its comparison with published Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis) mitogenome revealed their high degree of identity. Primolius couloni mitogenome is the first complete genomic sequence of this genus. It will be indispensable to refine the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Arini and will enrich the resource of markers for systematic, phylogenetic and population genetic studies. PMID:25391030

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of Critically Endangered Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis): its comparison with partial mitogenome of Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao).

    PubMed

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid

    2016-01-01

    Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis) is Critically Endangered species of parrot endemic to small Bolivian area. In this study, full mitochondrial genome of considered species was sequenced. It is 16,983 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. It`s comparison with published Ara macao mitogenome revealed their high degree of identity. On the other hand, analysis of both the genome compositions showed incompleteness of Ara macao CYTB gene. Hence, mitogenome of Ara macao species occurred only partial sequence. In consequence, Ara glaucogularis mitogenome is the first complete Macaw sequence, which will be indispensable to refine the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Arini and will enrich the resource of markers for systematic, phylogenetic and population genetic studies. PMID:24621219

  6. Pain-related fear and avoidance of physical exertion following delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    PubMed

    Trost, Zina; France, Christopher R; Thomas, James S

    2011-07-01

    The current study examined the relationship between pain-related fear, physical performance, and pain-related interference in the context of experimentally induced pain to the lower back. Thirty healthy participants completed a test of maximal trunk strength before and after induction of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) to the trunk extensors. Pain-related fear (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia and Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale) was assessed prior to DOMS induction, and measures of current pain and pain-related interference with life activities were obtained 1 day after DOMS induction. As predicted, pain-related fear was not related to strength production prior to DOMS induction. However, following DOMS induction, pain-related fear predicted reduced maximal strength production, individual decrement in maximal strength performance, and increased pain-related interference in life activities. Current pain intensity and anthropometric factors did not contribute significantly to these outcome measures. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify the impact of pain-related fear on physical performance among a healthy group of individuals following experimental acute low back injury. The findings extend previous research on psychological variables and simulated injury, and suggest that pain-related fear may be an important vulnerability factor in development of disability following acute pain experience. PMID:21419575

  7. Stress and body condition in a population of largemouth bass: implications for red-sore disease

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1980-09-01

    The body conditions, K = 10/sup 5/(weight, g)/(standard length)/sup 3/, and various hematological characters were examined for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) taken from Par Pond, a reservoir heated by effluent from a nuclear production reactor at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Largemouth bass with K less than 2.0 had significantly lower (P < 0.05) hematocrits, hemoglobin concentrations, total red blood cell counts, total white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte fractions, and significantly higher granulocyte fractions and cortisol concentrations, than those with K greater than 2.0; monocyte, thrombocyte, and reticulocyte fractions were not different between the two K-factor groupings. When data were pooled, all blood variables except the reticulocyte fraction were significantly correlated with K. Hematocrit, the lymphocyte fraction, and cortisol concentration account for 20.5% of the variation in K. These data support a previous hypothesis that elevated water temperature promotes stress. Stress within the Par Pond largemouth bass population may play an important role in the epizootiology of red-sore disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila.

  8. Control of scabies, skin sores and haematuria in children in the Solomon Islands: another role for ivermectin.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Gregor; Leafasia, Judson; Sheridan, John; Hills, Susan; Wate, Janet; Wate, Christine; Montgomery, Janet; Pandeya, Nirmala; Purdie, David

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a 3-year programme aimed at controlling scabies on five small lagoon islands in the Solomon Islands by monitoring scabies, skin sores, streptococcal skin contamination, serology and haematuria in the island children. METHODS: Control was achieved by treating almost all residents of each island once or twice within 2 weeks with ivermectin (160-250 microg/kg), except for children who weighed less than 15 kg and pregnant women, for whom 5% permethrin cream was used. Reintroduction of scabies was controlled by treating returning residents and visitors, whether or not they had evident scabies. FINDINGS: Prevalence of scabies dropped from 25% to less than 1% (P < 0.001); prevalence of sores from 40% to 21% (P < 0.001); streptococcal contamination of the fingers in those with and without sores decreased significantly (P = 0.02 and 0.047, respectively) and anti-DNase B levels decreased (P = 0.002). Both the proportion of children with haematuria and its mean level fell (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). No adverse effects of the treatments were seen. CONCLUSION: The results show that ivermectin is an effective and practical agent in the control of scabies and that control reduces the occurrence of streptococcal skin disease and possible signs of renal damage in children. Integrating community-based control of scabies and streptococcal skin disease with planned programmes for controlling filariasis and intestinal nematodes could be both practical and produce great health benefits. PMID:15682247

  9. The influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite Rugby Union.

    PubMed

    Williams, S; Trewartha, G; Kemp, S P T; Michell, R; Stokes, K A

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study investigated the influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite English Premiership Rugby Union players. Time loss (from 39.5 matches) and abrasion (from 27 matches) injury risk was compared between matches played on artificial turf and natural grass. Muscle soreness was reported over the 4 days following one match played on each surface by 95 visiting players (i.e., normally play on natural grass surfaces). There was a likely trivial difference in the overall injury burden relating to time-loss injuries between playing surfaces [rate ratio = 1.01, 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-1.38]. Abrasions were substantially more common on artificial turf (rate ratio = 7.92, 90% CI: 4.39-14.28), although the majority of these were minor and only two resulted in any reported time loss. Muscle soreness was consistently higher over the 4 days following a match on artificial turf in comparison with natural grass, although the magnitude of this effect was small (effect sizes ranging from 0.26 to 0.40). These results suggest that overall injury risk is similar for the two playing surfaces, but further surveillance is required before inferences regarding specific injury diagnoses and smaller differences in overall injury risk can be made. PMID:25644277

  10. Linear and nonlinear analyses of multi-channel mechanomyographic recordings reveal heterogeneous activation of wrist extensors in presence of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    PubMed

    Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst A; Samani, Afshin

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we applied multi-channel mechanomyographic (MMG) recordings in combination with linear and nonlinear analyses to investigate muscular and musculotendinous effects of high intensity eccentric exercise. Twelve accelerometers arranged in a 3 × 4 matrix over the dominant elbow muscles were used to detect MMG activity in 12 healthy participants. Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced by repetitive high intensity eccentric contractions of the wrist extensor muscles. Average rectified values (ARV) as well as percentage of recurrence (%REC) and percentage of determinism (%DET) extracted from recurrence quantification analysis were computed from data obtained during static-dynamic contractions performed before exercise, immediately after exercise, and in presence of muscle soreness. A linear mixed model was used for the statistical analysis. The ARV, %REC, and %DET maps revealed heterogeneous MMG activity over the wrist extensor muscles before, immediately after, and in presence of muscle soreness (P<0.01). The ARVs were higher while the %REC and %DET were lower in presence of muscle soreness compared with before exercise (P<0.05). The study provides new key information on linear and nonlinear analyses of multi-channel MMG recordings of the wrist extensor muscles following eccentric exercise that results in muscle soreness. Recurrence quantification analysis can be suggested as a tool for detection of MMG changes in presence of muscle soreness. PMID:25277830

  11. Estimating permeability using median pore-throat radius obtained from mercury intrusion porosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiye; Hu, Qinhong

    2013-04-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) has been widely used to characterize the pore structure for various types of porous media. Several relationships between permeability and pore structure information (e.g., porosity and pore-size distribution) have been developed in the literature. This work is to introduce a new, and simpler, empirical equation to predict permeability by solely using the median pore-throat radius (r50), which is the pore-throat radius corresponding to 50% mercury saturation. The total of 18 samples used in this work have a wide range of permeability, from 10-6 to 103 mD, which makes the new equation more applicable. The predicted permeabilities by using the new equation are comparable with permeability values obtained from other measurement methods, as shown from ten samples with permeability data measured with nitrogen.

  12. Transmission of an arenavirus in white-throated woodrats (Neotoma albigula), southeastern Colorado, 1995-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Calisher, C. H.; Nabity, S.; Root, J. J.; Fulhorst, C. F.; Beaty, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, we conducted longitudinal studies of white- throated woodrats (Neotoma albigula) in southeastern Colorado. Forty-five (42.9%) of 105 female and 15 (26.8%) of 56 male N. albigula had antibodies against Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV). Sixteen female and three male N. albigula seroconverted during the study period, most of them during July-November, when population densities are highest. Analyses of longevity data, minimum numbers alive and infected, movements, and weight data suggest that the dominant mode of WWAV transmission among white-throated woodrats in Colorado is direct contact. WWAV was recently reported to cause fatal infection in humans. Our findings will lead to better assessment of the public health threat posed by infected woodrats and may be useful in predicting periods of increased risk for human infection. PMID:11384515

  13. The Influence of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Muscle Strength Recovery and Soreness Following Unilateral Knee Extension Eccentric Exercise.

    PubMed

    Legault, Zachary; Bagnall, Nicholas; Kimmerly, Derek S

    2015-10-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects that L-glutamine supplementation has on quadriceps muscle strength and soreness ratings following eccentric exercise. It was hypothesized that glutamine ingestion would quicken the recovery rate of peak force production and decrease muscle soreness ratings over a 72-hr recovery period. Sixteen healthy participants (8♀/8♂; 22 ± 4 years) volunteered in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Supplement conditions consisted of isoenergetic placebo (maltodextrin, 0.6 g·kg-1·day-1) and L-glutamine (0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 + 0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 maltodextrin) ingestion once per day over 72 hr. Knee extensor peak torque at 0°, 30°, and 180° per second and muscle soreness were measured before, immediately following, 24, 48, and 72 hr posteccentric exercise. Eccentric exercise consisted of 8 sets (10 repetitions/set) of unilateral knee extension at 125% maximum concentric force with 2-min rest intervals. L-glutamine resulted in greater relative peak torque at 180°/sec both immediately after (71 ± 8% vs. 66 ± 9%), and 72 hr (91 ± 8% vs. 86 ± 7%) postexercise (all, p < .01). In men, L-glutamine produced greater (p < .01) peak torques at 30°/ sec postexercise. Men also produced greater normalized peak torques at 30°/sec (Nm/kg) in the L-glutamine condition than women (all, p < .05). In the entire sample, L-glutamine resulted in lower soreness ratings at 24 (2.8 ± 1.2 vs. 3.4 ± 1.2), 48 (2.6 ± 1.4 vs. 3.9 ± 1.2), and 72 (1.7 ± 1.2 vs. 2.9 ± 1.3) hr postexercise (p < .01). The L-glutamine supplementation resulted in faster recovery of peak torque and diminished muscle soreness following eccentric exercise. The effect of L-glutamine on muscle force recovery may be greater in men than women. PMID:25811544

  14. Static performance investigation of a skewed-throat multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    1994-01-01

    The static performance of a jet exhaust nozzle which achieves multiaxis thrust vectoring by physically skewing the geometric throat has been characterized in the static test facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle has an asymmetric internal geometry defined by four surfaces: a convergent-divergent upper surface with its ridge perpendicular to the nozzle centerline, a convergent-divergent lower surface with its ridge skewed relative to the nozzle centerline, an outwardly deflected sidewall, and a straight sidewall. The primary goal of the concept is to provide efficient yaw thrust vectoring by forcing the sonic plane (nozzle throat) to form at a yaw angle defined by the skewed ridge of the lower surface contour. A secondary goal is to provide multiaxis thrust vectoring by combining the skewed-throat yaw-vectoring concept with upper and lower pitch flap deflections. The geometric parameters varied in this investigation included lower surface ridge skew angle, nozzle expansion ratio (divergence angle), aspect ratio, pitch flap deflection angle, and sidewall deflection angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to a high of 11.5 for some configurations. The results of the investigation indicate that efficient, substantial multiaxis thrust vectoring was achieved by the skewed-throat nozzle concept. However, certain control surface deflections destabilized the internal flow field, which resulted in substantial shifts in the position and orientation of the sonic plane and had an adverse effect on thrust-vectoring and weight flow characteristics. By increasing the expansion ratio, the location of the sonic plane was stabilized. The asymmetric design resulted in interdependent pitch and yaw thrust vectoring as well as nonzero thrust-vector angles with undeflected control surfaces. By skewing the ridges of both the upper and lower surface contours, the interdependency between pitch and yaw thrust vectoring may be eliminated

  15. A rare suicidal case of a ten-year-old child stabbing himself in the throat.

    PubMed

    Hasekura, H; Fukushima, H; Yonemura, I; Ota, M

    1985-10-01

    A rare case is reported of a ten-year-old boy who committed suicide by stabbing himself in the throat with a pointed knife. Possibility of an accidental injury was excluded by the autopsy findings; suspicion of a homicide by his father was cleared through the deposition of his sister. The reason of suicide was attributed directly to his father's severe scolding and indirectly to his mother's death two years before. PMID:4067552

  16. Electroforming of a throat nozzle for a combustion facility (NASA Langley Reimbursable Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dini, J. W.; Johnson, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    Special procedures were developed and then utilized for plating nickel over channels of a throat nozzle section of a NASA Langley combustor facility. When tested hydrostatically, the part failed in the stainless-steel substrate and not at the interface between the plating and substrate. The procedures used for plating the part are detailed as are high-temperature property data which show that the part can withstand long-term, high-temperature exposure without suffering degradation of the plated bond.

  17. Scalar self-force on static charge in a long throat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A.; Aslan, O.

    2015-08-01

    We compute the self-force on a scalar charge at rest in the space-time of long throat. We consider arbitrary values of the mass of the scalar field and the constant of nonminimal coupling of the scalar field to the curvature of space-time. We also show the coincidence of explicit calculations of self-force in the limit of large mass of the field with known results.

  18. Redesign and Test of an SSME Turbopump for the Large Throat Main Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, K. J.; Lee, G. A.; Eastland, A. H.; Rojas, L.

    1994-01-01

    The preburner oxidizer turbopump for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) was successfully redesigned for use with the Large Throat Main Combustion Chamber (LTMCC) and tested in air utilizing rapid prototyping. The redesign increases the SSME's operating range with the current Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) while achieving full operational range with the LTMCC. The use of rapid prototyping and air testing to validate the redesign demonstrated the ability to design, fabricate and test designs rapidly and at a very low cost.

  19. Cut throat injuries and honor killings: review of 15 cases in eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Bora; Celbis, Osman; Kaya, Atılhan

    2013-05-01

    Throat cuts could be of homicidal, suicidal or accidental origin. In the cases of death from cut throat, suicide can be distinguished from homicide based on the type and location of the wound and crime scene investigation. The purpose of the current study is to attract attention to the instructive findings for origin determination in deaths by cut throat according to the number and characteristics of the wounds and crime scene investigation. We have reviewed the files of autopsies performed between the years of 2000 and 2010, and compared with previously published case reports; all results were summarized in the current study. The results showed that 60% of cases were male, 40% were female, with 27.9 years of average age. The mean number of wounds was calculated to be 34.3 per case for honor homicides, 7.4 per case for other homicides, and 2.0 per case for suicides. Numbers of wounds were approximately 5 times higher in the honor homicides compared to other homicides. If the number of wounds were excessive, possibility of honor killings should be taken into account. When the killer was a parent not in psychosis, hesitation cuts were detected. Additional lesions were present in 46.7% of the cases, and they were assessed as homicide. Presence of vertebral notch and spinal cord cuts, which require a substantial amount of force and pressure via sharp tools, indicates homicide. PMID:23622458

  20. Experimental and Computational Investigation of a Translating-Throat Single-Expansion-Ramp Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Asbury, Scott C.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental and computational study was conducted on a high-speed, single-expansion-ramp nozzle (SERN) concept designed for efficient off-design performance. The translating-throat SERN concept adjusts the axial location of the throat to provide a variable expansion ratio and allow a more optimum jet exhaust expansion at various flight conditions in an effort to maximize nozzle performance. Three design points (throat locations) were investigated to simulate the operation of this concept at subsonic-transonic, low supersonic, and high supersonic flight conditions. The experimental study was conducted in the jet exit test facility at the Langley Research Center. Internal nozzle performance was obtained at nozzle pressure ratios (NPR's) up to 13 for six nozzles with design nozzle pressure ratios near 9, 42, and 102. Two expansion-ramp surfaces, one concave and one convex, were tested for each design point. Paint-oil flow and focusing schlieren flow visualization techniques were utilized to acquire additional flow data at selected NPR'S. The Navier-Stokes code, PAB3D, was used with a two-equation k-e turbulence model for the computational study. Nozzle performance characteristics were predicted at nozzle pressure ratios of 5, 9, and 13 for the concave ramp, low Mach number nozzle and at 10, 13, and 102 for the concave ramp, high Mach number nozzle.

  1. A Computational Study of a New Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2005-01-01

    A computational investigation of a two-dimensional nozzle was completed to assess the use of fluidic injection to manipulate flow separation and cause thrust vectoring of the primary jet thrust. The nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring. Several design cycles with the structured-grid, computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D and with experiments in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility have been completed to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. This paper presents computational results on potential design improvements for best experimental configuration tested to date. Nozzle design variables included cavity divergence angle, cavity convergence angle and upstream throat height. Pulsed fluidic injection was also investigated for its ability to decrease mass flow requirements. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 2 to 7, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to 3 percent of the primary flow rate. Computational results indicate that increasing cavity divergence angle beyond 10 is detrimental to thrust vectoring efficiency, while increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 improves thrust vectoring efficiency at nozzle pressure ratios greater than 2, albeit at the expense of discharge coefficient. Pulsed injection was no more efficient than steady injection for the Dual Throat Nozzle concept.

  2. A CFD Study of Turbojet and Single-Throat Ramjet Ejector Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ing; Hunter, Louis

    1996-01-01

    Supersonic ejector-diffuse systems have application in driving an advanced airbreathing propulsion system, consisting of turbojet engines acting as the primary and a single throat ramjet acting as the secondary. The turbojet engines are integrated into the single throat ramjet to minimize variable geometry and eliminate redundant propulsion components. The result is a simple, lightweight system that is operable from takeoff to high Mach numbers. At this high Mach number (approximately Mach 3.0), the turbojets are turned off and the high speed ramjet/scramjet take over and drive the vehicle to Mach 6.0. The turbojet-ejector-ramjet system consists of nonafterburning turbojet engines with ducting canted at 20 degrees to supply supersonic flow (downstream of CD nozzle) to the horizontal ramjet duct at a supply total pressure and temperature. Two conditions were modelled by a 2-D full Navier Stokes code at Mach 2.0. The code modelled the Fabri choke as well as the non-Fabri non critical case, using a computational throat to supply the back pressure. The results, which primarily predict the secondary mass flow rate and the mixed conditions at the ejector exit were in reasonable agreement with the 1-D cycle code (TBCC).

  3. Utilization and Assessment of Throat Swab and Urine Specimens for Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Hanumaiah, H; Raut, Wrunda C

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infection with clinical presentation of fever, arthralgia, and rash. The etiological agent Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is generally transmitted from primates to humans through the bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Outbreaks of Chikungunya occur commonly with varied morbidity, mortality, and sequele according to the epidemiological, ecological, seasonal, and geographical impact. Investigations are required to be conducted as a part of the public health service to understand and report the suspected cases as confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Holistic sampling at a time of different types would be useful for laboratory testing, result conclusion, and reporting in a valid way. The use of serum samples for virus detection, virus isolation, and serology is routinely practiced, but sometimes serum samples from pediatric and other cases may not be easily available. In such a situation, easily available throat swabs and urine samples could be useful. It is already well reported for measles, rubella, and mumps diseases to have the virus diagnosis from throat swabs and urine. Here, we present the protocols for diagnosis of CHIKV using throat swab and urine specimens. PMID:27233262

  4. Mach Stability Improvements Using an Existing Second Throat Capability at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Walker, Eric L.; Goodliff, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data quality improvements at the National Transonic Facility have an intended goal of reducing the Mach number variation in a data point to within plus or minus 0.0005, with the ultimate goal of reducing the data repeatability of the drag coefficient for full-span subsonic transport models at transonic speeds to within half a drag count. This paper will discuss the Mach stability improvements achieved through the use of an existing second throat capability at the NTF to create a minimum area at the end of the test section. These improvements were demonstrated using both the NASA Common Research Model and the NTF Pathfinder-I model in recent experiments. Sonic conditions at the throat were verified using sidewall static pressure data. The Mach variation levels from both experiments in the baseline tunnel configuration and the choked tunnel configuration will be presented and the correlation between Mach number and drag will also be examined. Finally, a brief discussion is given on the consequences of using the second throat in its location at the end of the test section.

  5. Cold Vs. Heat After Exercise-Is There a Clear Winner for Muscle Soreness.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Khowailed, Iman Akef; Lee, Haneul; Berk, Lee; Bains, Gurinder S; Akerkar, Siddhesh; Shah, Jinal; Al-Dabbak, Fuad; Laymon, Mike S

    2015-11-01

    Because of the differences in the exercise type, temperature, and timing of the use of cold and heat after exercise in different studies, there is no clear conclusion as to the efficacy of either modality on reducing delayed onset muscle soreness. One hundred subjects at similar fitness levels were examined. They accomplished leg squats for 15 minutes and heat and cold were applied after or 24 hours after exercise using ThermaCare heat or cold wraps. Measurements obtained were strength, the force to passively move the knee, analog visual pain scales, and blood myoglobin. Control subjects lost 24% strength after exercise. Subjects with heat or cold just after exercise only lost 4% strength (p < 0.01). For strength recovery, cold applied after 24 hours was better than heat at 24 hours. Heat or cold applied after exercise was significantly better to prevent elastic tissue damage (p < 0.01), whereas heat and cold immediately after exercise caused no loss in muscle myoglobin and heat or cold after 24 hours showed no less muscle damage from myoglobin than in control subjects. Myoglobin in the control and heat and cold 24-hour groups averaged 135.1% of the baseline data but averaged 106.1% of baseline in the immediate heat and cold groups. For reducing pain, control subjects showed a significant amount of pain the days after exercise. But cold immediately after exercise or 24 hours later was superior to heat in reducing pain. In conclusion, both cold and heat appear to be efficacious in reducing muscle damage after exercise. PMID:26502272

  6. The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race.

    PubMed

    Santos, R V T; Bassit, R A; Caperuto, E C; Costa Rosa, L F B P

    2004-09-01

    We have evaluated the effect of a creatine supplementation protocol upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers: creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prostaglandin E2) (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) after running 30km. Runners with previously experience in running marathons, with their personal best between 2.5-3h were supplemented for 5 days prior to the 30km race with 4 doses of 5g of creatine and 15g of maltodextrine per day while the control group received the same amount of maltodextrine. Pre-race blood samples were collected immediately before running the 30km, and 24h after the end of the test (the post-race samples). After the test, athletes from the control group presented an increase in plasma CK (4.4-fold), LDH (43%), PGE2 6.6-fold) and TNF-alpha (2.34-fold) concentrations, indicating a high level of cell injury and inflammation. Creatine supplementation attenuated the changes observed for CK (by 19%), PGE2 and TNF-alpha (by 60.9% and 33.7%, respectively, p<0.05) and abolished the increase in LDH plasma concentration observed after running 30km, The athletes did not present any side effects such as cramping, dehydration or diarrhea, neither during the period of supplementation, nor during the 30km race. All the athletes finished the race in a time equivalent to their personal best +/- 5.8%. These results indicate that creatine supplementation reduced cell damage and inflammation after an exhaustive intense race. PMID:15306159

  7. Elimination of delayed-onset muscle soreness by pre-resistance cardioacceleration before each set.

    PubMed

    Davis, W Jackson; Wood, Daniel T; Andrews, Ryan G; Elkind, Les M; Davis, W Bart

    2008-01-01

    We compared delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induced by anaerobic resistance exercises with and without aerobic cardioacceleration before each set, under the rationale that elevated heart rate (HR) may increase blood perfusion in muscles to limit eccentric contraction damage and/or speed muscle recovery. In two identical experiments (20 men, 28 women), well-conditioned athletes paired by similar physical condition were assigned randomly to experimental or control groups. HR (independent variable) was recorded with HR monitors. DOMS (dependent variable) was self-reported using Borg's Rating of Perceived Pain scale. After identical pre-training strength testing, mean DOMS in the experimental and control groups was indistinguishable (P > or = 0.19) for musculature employed in eight resistance exercises in both genders, validating the dependent variable. Subjects then trained three times per week for 9 (men) to 11 (women) weeks in a progressive, whole-body, concurrent training protocol. Before each set of resistance exercises, experimental subjects cardioaccelerated briefly (mean HR during resistance training, 63.7% HR reserve), whereas control subjects rested briefly (mean HR, 33.5% HR reserve). Mean DOMS among all muscle groups and workouts was discernibly less in experimental than control groups in men (P = 0.0000019) and women (P = 0.0007); less for each muscle group used in nine resistance exercises in both genders, discernible (P < 0.025) in 15 of 18 comparisons; and less in every workout, discernible (P < 0.05) in 32% (men) and 55% (women) of workouts. Most effect sizes were moderate. In both genders, mean DOMS per workout disappeared by the fourth week of training in experimental but not control groups. Aerobic cardioacceleration immediately before each set of resistance exercises therefore rapidly eliminates DOMS during vigorous progressive resistance training in athletes. PMID:18296978

  8. Manual therapy ameliorates delayed-onset muscle soreness and alters muscle metabolites in rats

    PubMed Central

    Urakawa, Susumu; Takamoto, Kouichi; Nakamura, Tomoya; Sakai, Shigekazu; Matsuda, Teru; Taguchi, Toru; Mizumura, Kazue; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) can be induced by lengthening contraction (LC); it can be characterized by tenderness and movement-related pain in the exercised muscle. Manual therapy (MT), including compression of exercised muscles, is widely used as physical rehabilitation to reduce pain and promote functional recovery. Although MT is beneficial for reducing musculoskeletal pain (i.e. DOMS), the physiological mechanisms of MT remain unclear. In the present study, we first developed an animal model of MT in DOMS; LC was applied to the rat gastrocnemius muscle under anesthesia, which induced mechanical hyperalgesia 2–4 days after LC. MT (manual compression) ameliorated mechanical hyperalgesia. Then, we used capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (CE-TOFMS) to investigate early effects of MT on the metabolite profiles of the muscle experiencing DOMS. The rats were divided into the following three groups; (1) normal controls, (2) rats with LC application (LC group), and (3) rats undergoing MT after LC (LC + MT group). According to the CE-TOFMS analysis, a total of 171 metabolites were detected among the three groups, and 19 of these metabolites were significant among the groups. Furthermore, the concentrations of eight metabolites, including branched-chain amino acids, carnitine, and malic acid, were significantly different between the LC + MT and LC groups. The results suggest that MT significantly altered metabolite profiles in DOMS. According to our findings and previous data regarding metabolites in mitochondrial metabolism, the ameliorative effects of MT might be mediated partly through alterations in metabolites associated with mitochondrial respiration. PMID:25713324

  9. Prophylactic Effects of Sauna on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness of the Wrist Extensors

    PubMed Central

    Khamwong, Peanchai; Paungmali, Aatit; Pirunsan, Ubon; Joseph, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Background: High-intensity of exercise or unaccustomed eccentric exercise can cause the phenomenon of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage (EIMD) which usually results in cramps, muscle strain, impaired muscle function and delayed-onset muscle soreness. Objectives: This study investigated the prophylactic effects of sauna towards the symptoms associated with muscle damage from eccentric exercises of wrist extensor muscle group. Patients and Methods: A total of twenty-eight subjects (mean age 20.9 years old, SD = 1.6) were randomly divided into the sauna group (n = 14) and the control group (n = 14). In the sauna group, subjects received sauna before eccentric exercise of the wrist extensor. The eccentric exercises were conducted on the non-dominant arm by using an isokinetic dynamometer. Pain Intensity (PI), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) and passive range of motion of wrist flexion (PF-ROM) and extension (PE-ROM) were measured as pain variables. Grip Strength (GS) and Wrist Extension Strength (WES) were measured as variables of wrist extensor muscle function. All the measurements were performed at baseline, immediately after and from 1st to 8th days after the exercise-induced muscle damage. Results: The sauna group significantly demonstrated a lower deficit in ROM (passive flexion and passive extension), GS and WES following exercise than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Sauna application prior to the exercise-induced muscle damage demonstrated effectiveness in reduction of sensory impairment (PF-ROM and PE-ROM) and improvement of muscle functions (GS, and WES) in wrist extensor muscle group. PMID:26446307

  10. Marjolin’s Ulcer Complicating a Pressure Sore: The Clock is Ticking

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kamran; Giannone, Anna Lucia; Mehrabi, Erfan; Khan, Ayda; Giannone, Roberto E.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 85 Final Diagnosis: Marjolin’s ulcer (squamous cell carcinoma) Symptoms: None Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Ulcer excision and split thickness skin graft placement Specialty: Dermatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Malignant degeneration in any chronic wound is termed a Marjolin’s ulcer (MU). The overall metastatic rate of MU is approximately 27.5%. However, the prognosis of MU specific to pressure sores is poor, with a reported metastatic rate of 61%. This is due to insidious, asymptomatic malignant degeneration, a lack of healthcare provider awareness, and, ultimately, delayed management. Case Report: An 85-year-old white male was noted by his wound-care nurse to have a rapidly developing growth on his lower back over a period of 4 months. There was history of a non-healing, progressive pressure ulcer of the lower back for the past 10 years. On examination, there was a 4×4 cm pressure ulcer of the lower back, with a superimposed 1.5×2 cm growth in the superior region. There was an absence of palpable regional lymphadenopathy. Punch biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma consistent with Marjolin’s ulcer. The ulcer underwent excision with wide margins, and a skin graft was placed. Due to the prompt recognition of an abnormality by the patient’s wound-care nurse, metastasis was not evident on imaging. There are no signs of recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: Marjolin’s ulcer has a rapid progression from local disease to widespread metastasis. Therefore, it is essential that wound-care providers are aware of the clinical signs and symptoms of malignant degeneration in chronic wounds. PMID:26898816

  11. Construction and test of flexible walls for the throat of the ILR high-speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igeta, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Aerodynamic tests in wind tunnels are jeopardized by the lateral limitations of the throat. This influence expands with increasing size of the model in proportion to the cross-section of the throat. Wall interference of this type can be avoided by giving the wall the form of a stream surface that would be identical to the one observed during free flight. To solve this problem, flexible walls that can adapt to every contour of surface flow are needed.

  12. Experimental Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for Supersonic Aircraft Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2007-01-01

    An axisymmetric version of the Dual Throat Nozzle concept with a variable expansion ratio has been studied to determine the impacts on thrust vectoring and nozzle performance. The nozzle design, applicable to a supersonic aircraft, was guided using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code, PAB3D. The axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept was tested statically in the Jet Exit Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle geometric design variables included circumferential span of injection, cavity length, cavity convergence angle, and nozzle expansion ratio for conditions corresponding to take-off and landing, mid climb and cruise. Internal nozzle performance and thrust vectoring performance was determined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary injection rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. The 60 degree span of injection generally performed better than the 90 degree span of injection using an equivalent injection area and number of holes, in agreement with computational results. For injection rates less than 7 percent, thrust vector angle for the 60 degree span of injection was 1.5 to 2 degrees higher than the 90 degree span of injection. Decreasing cavity length improved thrust ratio and discharge coefficient, but decreased thrust vector angle and thrust vectoring efficiency. Increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 degrees increased thrust vector angle by 1 degree over the range of injection rates tested, but adversely affected system thrust ratio and discharge coefficient. The dual throat nozzle concept generated the best thrust vectoring performance with an expansion ratio of 1.0 (a cavity in between two equal minimum areas). The variable expansion ratio geometry did not provide the expected improvements in discharge coefficient and system thrust ratio throughout the flight envelope of typical a supersonic aircraft. At mid-climb and cruise conditions, the variable geometry

  13. Cut throat injuries at a university teaching hospital in northwestern Tanzania: a review of 98 cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cut throat injuries though rarely reported in literature pose a great therapeutic challenge because multiple vital structures are vulnerable to injuries in the small, confined unprotected area. A sudden increase in the number of cut throat patients in our centre in recent years prompted the authors to analyze this problem. This study was conducted in our local setting to describe the etiology, patterns and treatment outcome of these injuries. Methods This was a combined retrospective and prospective study of cut throat injury patients who were managed at Bugando Medical Centre between February 2009 and January 2013. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. Results A total of 98 patients with cut throat injuries were studied. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2.4: 1. The median age of patients was 26 years (range 8 to 78 years). Majority of patients (79.6%) had no employment and most of them (65.3%) came from rural community. Homicide was the commonest (55.1%) cause, followed by suicidal attempts (34.7%) and accidental (10.2%) injuries. Interpersonal conflict (24.4%) was the most common motivating factor for homicidal injury whereas psychiatric illness (16.2%) and road traffic accidents (9.2%) were the most frequent motivating factors of suicidal attempt and accidental injuries respectively. The majority of injuries were in Zone II accounting for 65.3% of cases and most of them had laryngeal (57.1%) injury. Surgical debridement, laryngeal/hypopharynx repair and tracheostomy were the most common surgical procedures performed in 93.9%, 73.5% and 70.4% of patients respectively. Postoperative complication rate was 57.1%, the commonest being surgical site infections in 28.1% of patients and it was significantly associated with late presentation and anatomical zones (P < 0.001). The overall median duration of hospitalization was 12 days. Patients who had postoperative complications stayed longer in the hospital and this was

  14. Heat transfer to throat tubes in a square-chambered rocket engine at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Brindley, William J.

    1989-01-01

    A gaseous H2/O2 rocket engine was constructed at the NASA-Lewis to provide a high heat flux source representative of the heat flux to the blades in the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) during startup of the space shuttle main engines. The high heat flux source was required to evaluate the durability of thermal barrier coatings being investigated for use on these blades. The heat transfer, and specifically, the heat flux to tubes located at the throat of the test rocket engine was evaluated and compared to the heat flux to the blades in the HPFTP during engine startup. Gas temperatures, pressures and heat transfer coefficients in the test rocket engine were measured. Near surface metal temperatures below thin thermal barrier coatings were also measured at various angular orientations around the throat tube to indicate the angular dependence of the heat transfer coefficients. A finite difference model for a throat tube was developed and a thermal analysis was performed using the measured gas temperatures and the derived heat transfer coefficients to predict metal temperatures in the tube. Near surface metal temperatures of an uncoated throat tube were measured at the stagnation point and showed good agreement with temperatures predicted by the thermal model. The maximum heat flux to the throat tube was calculated and compared to that predicted for the leading edge of an HPFTP blade. It is shown that the heat flux to an uncooled throat tube is slightly greater than the heat flux to an HPFTP blade during engine startup.

  15. Throat Culture

    MedlinePlus

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization ... for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by Advertisement

  16. Effects of winter military training on energy balance, whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Martini, Svein; Spitz, Marissa G; Thrane, Ingjerd; McGraw, Susan M; Blatny, Janet-Martha; Castellani, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Gundersen, Yngvar; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2014-12-01

    Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expenditure (D2(18)O) and intake were measured daily, and postabsorptive whole-body protein turnover ([(15)N]-glycine), muscle damage, soreness, and performance (vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, following a 4-day, military task training phase (MTT) and after a 3-day, 54-km ski march (SKI). Energy intake (kcal·day(-1)) increased (P < 0.01) from (mean ± SD (95% confidence interval)) 3098 ± 236 (2985, 3212) during MTT to 3461 ± 586 (3178, 3743) during SKI, while protein (g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) intake remained constant (MTT, 1.59 ± 0.33 (1.51, 1.66); and SKI, 1.71 ± 0.55 (1.58, 1.85)). Energy expenditure increased (P < 0.05) during SKI (6851 ± 562 (6580, 7122)) compared with MTT (5480 ± 389 (5293, 5668)) and exceeded energy intake. Protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown were all increased (P < 0.05) 24%, 18%, and 27%, respectively, during SKI compared with baseline and MTT. Whole-body protein balance was lower (P < 0.05) during SKI (-1.41 ± 1.11 (-1.98, -0.84) g·kg(-1)·10 h) than MTT and baseline. Muscle damage and soreness increased and performance decreased progressively (P < 0.05). The physiological consequences observed during short-term winter military training provide the basis for future studies to evaluate nutritional strategies that attenuate protein loss and sustain performance during severe energy deficits. PMID:25386980

  17. The Effects of Ice Massage, Ice Massage with Exercise, and Exercise on the Prevention and Treatment of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

    PubMed Central

    Isabell, William Kirk; Durrant, Earlene; Myrer, William; Anderson, Shauna

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ice massage, ice massage with exercise, and exercise on the prevention and treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Preexercise measures were recorded for range of motion (ROM), strength, perceived soreness, and serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. Subjects performed up to 300 concentric/eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors with 90% of their 10 repetition maximum to induce muscle soreness. Dependent variables were assessed at 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours postexercise. Significant differences occurred in all variables with respect to time (ANOVA(p<.05)). However, no significant mode of treatment, or mode of treatment/assessment time interaction was present. Decreases in range of motion and flexion strength correspond with increases in perceived soreness. The nonsignificant mode of treatment/assessment time interaction suggests that the use of ice massage, ice massage with exercise, or exercise alone is not effective in significantly reducing the symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness. In fact, though not statistically significant, the pattern of the data suggested the use of ice in the treatment of DOMS may be contraindicated. Further investigation is recommended. PMID:16558163

  18. The effects of yoga training and a single bout of yoga on delayed onset muscle soreness in the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Colleen A; Sayers, Stephen P; Jensen, Barbara E; Headley, Samuel A; Manos, Tina M

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of yoga training and a single bout of yoga on the intensity of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). 24 yoga-trained (YT; n = 12) and non-yoga-trained (CON; n = 12), matched women volunteers were administered a DOMS-inducing bench-stepping exercise. Muscle soreness was assessed at baseline, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after bench-stepping using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Groups were also compared on body awareness (BA), flexibility using the sit-and-reach test (SR), and perceived exertion (RPE). Statistical significance was accepted at p soreness in women following a bout of eccentric exercise. These findings have significant implications for coaches, athletes, and the exercising public who may want to implement yoga training as a preseason regimen or supplemental activity to lessen the symptoms associated with muscle soreness. PMID:15574074

  19. Yellow-throated and Red-eyed Vireos foraging on green anoles during migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Atherton, L.S.; Payne, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Yellow-throated (Vireo flavifrons) and Red-eyed vireos (V. olivaceus) were observed feeding on green anoles (Anolis carolinensis carolinensis) at two localities in Florida and one in South Carolina. Vireos are long-distance migrants that require foods high in fatty acid content, especially when engaging in migration. It is not unlikely that vireos have an opportunistic foraging strategy to obtain the necessary food requirements, including attacking and consuming prey items such as small lizards. This note provides the first published reports of lizards taken as prey by these two species.

  20. Gross morphological head and throat abnormalities of the tufted Araucana embryo.

    PubMed

    Pabilonia, M S; Somes, R G

    1981-09-01

    Structural abnormalities of the head and throat of ear-tufted embryos of the Araucana fowl are described. These abnormalities involved the opening to the external auditory meatus and such bones as the mandible, quadrate, columella auris, squamosal, and hyoid apparatus. Structural irregularities are believed to be due to the presence of the Et gene and its influence on the early embryonic closure of the hyomandibular cleft. The diversity of phenotypic expression probably is due to the varied closure of the cleft. PMID:7322992

  1. [Throat ache ans swelling of the neck: first symptoms of Lemierre's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ybema, A; de Lange, J; Baas, E M

    2014-03-01

    Lemierre's syndrome, a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, is a rare disorder, usually caused by the microorganism Fusobacterium necrophorum. Throat ache and swelling of the neck are often the first symptoms. Without adequate treatment, Lemierre's syndrome may result in thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and metastatic lung abscesses, with a mortality rate of 18%. On the basis of 2 cases, Lemierre's syndrome is described here. In cases where Lemierre's syndrome is suspected, hospitalization often follows, with the administration of intravenous antibiotics and drainage of the abscesses. One should be on the alert for Lemierre's syndrome when a patient is presented with swelling in the neck following an oropharyngeal infection. PMID:24684132

  2. Association of clinical signs and symptoms of Ebola viral disease with case fatality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moole, Harsha; Chitta, Swetha; Victor, Darlyn; Kandula, Manasa; Moole, Vishnu; Ghadiam, Harshavardhan; Akepati, Anusha; Yerasi, Charan; Uppu, Achuta; Dharmapuri, Sowmya; Boddireddy, Raghuveer; Fischer, Jacqueline; Lynch, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a public health emergency of international concern. There is limited laboratory and clinical data available on patients with EVD. This is a meta-analysis to assess the utility of clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory data in predicting mortality in EVD. Aim To assess the utility of clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory data in predicting mortality in EVD. Method Study selection criterion: EVD articles with more than 35 EVD cases that described the clinical features were included. Data collection and extraction: Articles were searched in Medline, PubMed, Ovid journals, and CDC and WHO official websites. Statistical methods: Pooled proportions were calculated using DerSimonian Laird method (random effects model). Results Initial search identified 634 reference articles, of which 67 were selected and reviewed. Data were extracted from 10 articles (N=5,792) of EVD which met the inclusion criteria. Bleeding events (64.5% vs. 25.1%), abdominal pain (58.3% vs. 37.5%), vomiting (60.8% vs. 31.7%), diarrhea (69.9% vs. 37.8%), cough (31.6% vs. 22.3%), sore throat (47.7% vs. 19.8%), and conjunctivitis (39.3% vs. 20.3%) were more often present in pooled proportion of fatal cases as compared to EVD survivors. Conclusions Clinical features of EVD that may be associated with higher mortality include bleeding events, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, cough, sore throat, and conjunctivitis. These patients should be identified promptly, and appropriate management should be instituted immediately. PMID:26333864

  3. Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska, USA, are exposed to PCBs while on their Asian wintering grounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Trust, K.A.; Matz, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska declined 53% during 1977-1993. We compare concentrations of environmental contaminants in red-throated loons among four nesting areas in Alaska and discuss potential ramifications of exposure on reproductive success and population trends. Eggs from the four areas had similar total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations, but eggs from the Arctic coastal plain had different congener profiles and greater toxic equivalents (TEQs) than eggs from elsewhere. Satellite telemetry data indicate that red-throated loons from the Arctic coastal plain in northern Alaska winter in southeast Asia, while those breeding elsewhere in Alaska winter in North America. Different wintering areas may lead to differential PCB accumulation among red-throated loon populations. For eggs from the Arctic coastal plain, TEQs were great enough to postulate PCB-associated reproductive effects in piscivores. The correlation between migration patterns and PCB profiles suggests that red-throated loons breeding in northern Alaska are exposed to PCBs while on their Asian wintering grounds.

  4. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Mouth and Throat Cancer Examinations in Rural Florida

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Muller, Keith E.; Guo, Yi; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the knowledge and prevalence of mouth and throat cancer examinations in a sample drawn from rural populations in north Florida. Methods. Telephone interviews were conducted across rural census tracts throughout north Florida in 2009 and 2010, in a survey that had been adapted for cultural appropriateness using cognitive interviews. The sample consisted of 2526 respondents (1132 men and 1394 women; 1797 Whites and 729 African Americans). Results. Awareness of mouth and throat cancer examination (46%) and lifetime receipt (46%) were higher than reported in statewide studies performed over the past 15 years. Only 19% of the respondents were aware of their examination, whereas an additional 27% reported having the examination when a description was provided, suggesting a lack of communication between many caregivers and rural patients. Surprisingly, anticipated racial/ethnic differences were diminished when adjustments were made for health literacy and several measures of socioeconomic status. Conclusions. These findings support the notion that health disparities are multifactorial and include characteristics such as low health literacy, lack of access to care, and poor communication between patient and provider. PMID:22390460

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the White-throated Tinamou, Tinamus guttatus (Tinamiformes, Tinamidae).

    PubMed

    An, Mei; Zhang, Zhi; Li, Xiangfeng; Yang, Shuang

    2016-07-01

    The White-throated Tinamou, Tinamus guttatus (Tinamiformes, Tinamidae) is a species of the family Tinamidae. Herein, we firstly reported the complete mitochondrial genome of White-throated Tinamou. The length of mitogenome was 16 750 bp, and composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 putative misc-feature region. Most protein-coding genes started with a traditional ATG codon, but specially, COX1 and COX2 initiated with an infrequent start codon GTG instead, ND3 and ND5 initiated with ATA instead. Protein-coding genes terminated with the mitochondria stop codon (TAA/TAG/AGG/AGA) or a single base(A/T). The mitogenome structural organization was identical to the closely related species Tinamus major. The GC content was 42.66%. To verify the accuracy and utility of new determined mitogenome sequences, we constructed the species phylogenetic tree with the 12 protein-coding genes of Tinamus guttatus together with nine other closely species. We expected that using the full mitogenome to address taxonomic issues and study the related evolution events. PMID:26195216

  6. Reproductive System of Brown-throated Sloth (Bradypus variegatus, Schinz 1825, Pilosa, Xenarthra): Anatomy and Histology.

    PubMed

    Favoretto, S M; daSilva, E G; Menezes, J; Guerra, R R; Campos, D B

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, habitat degradation led to the decline of some populations of brown-throated sloth. The aim of this study was to describe morphological features of the female reproductive system of the species. The oval ovaries were partially surrounded by ovarian bursa. An external cortex and an inner medulla were present. Corpora lutea and corpora albicans together with follicles at various stages of development each with a single oocyte were found in the cortex. Uterine tubes were tortuous, tubular, travelled around the perimeter of the ovary and possessed a folded mucosa with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium. Uterus was simplex, with no horns and divided into three parts: a pear-shaped cranial segment and a long caudal uterine segment (both forming the body of the uterus) and two cervices. Uterus presented three layers: mucosa, lined by pseudostratified epithelium, muscular and serosa. The cervices connected the uterus to the urogenital sinus, a distensible cavity with longitudinal mucosal folds lined by transitional epithelium that extended from the external urethral orifice and the external uterine ostia to the vulva, which was lined by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Brown-throated sloth presented a bipartite clitoris with paired crura, bodies and glandes. The presence of a double cervix and a bipartite clitoris was unique features of the species. PMID:26250652

  7. Computational Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for a Supersonic Aircraft Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2007-01-01

    A computational investigation of an axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept has been conducted. This fluidic thrust-vectoring nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting technique for improved thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, unsteady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver PAB3D was used to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. Nozzle design variables included extent of circumferential injection, cavity divergence angle, cavity length, and cavity convergence angle. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.89 to 10, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to zero and up to 4 percent of the primary flow rate. The effect of a variable expansion ratio on nozzle performance over a range of freestream Mach numbers up to 2 was investigated. Results indicated that a 60 circumferential injection was a good compromise between large thrust vector angles and efficient internal nozzle performance. A cavity divergence angle greater than 10 was detrimental to thrust vector angle. Shortening the cavity length improved internal nozzle performance with a small penalty to thrust vector angle. Contrary to expectations, a variable expansion ratio did not improve thrust efficiency at the flight conditions investigated.

  8. Breeding biology and natural history of the Slate-throated Whitestart in Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggera, R.A.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We provide details on the breeding biology of the Slate-throated Whitestart (Myioborus miniatus) from 126 nests found during seven breeding seasons, 2002-2008, at Yacamb?? National Park, Venezuela. Nesting activity peaked in late April and May. Only the female built the nest and incubated the eggs. Males rarely visited the nest during these stages. Mean clutch size (2.1 ?? 0.04 eggs, n = 93) was the smallest recorded for the Slate-throated Whitestart. Incubation and nestling period lengths were 15.3 ?? 0.31 (n = 21) and 10.8 ?? 0.24 (n = 7) days, respectively. Attentiveness (% of time on the nest) during incubation (59 ?? 1.6%, n = 52) was similar to other tropical warblers and much lower than northern relatives. This caused a relatively low egg temperature (34.40 ?? 0.33u C, n = ?? nests, 20 days) compared with north temperate birds. Both parents fed nestlings and increased their provisioning rates with nestling age. Growth rate based on nestling mass (k = 0.521 ?? 0.015) was faster than for other tropical passerines but slower than northern relatives. Predation was the main cause of nesting failure and rate of predation increased with age of the nest. An estimated 15% of nests were successful based on an overall Mayfield daily predation rate of 0.053 ?? 0.007. This study confirms a strong latitudinal variation in life history traits of warblers. ?? 2010 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  9. Cult of St. Blasius, patron saint of throat sufferers and of otolaryngologists, in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Skrobonja, Ante; Muzur, Amir; Jurdana, Stanko

    2005-03-01

    In the introductory part presented is a short hagiography of St. Blasius, and the legend of miraculous healing of a child in whose throat a bone had stuck, threatening to choke the child. Thanks to that legend, St. Blasius has become the traditional patron of the laryngeal diseases, and, since recently, the patron of the otolaryngologists, too. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the cult of St. Blasius, which is present in Croatia since the 10th century until present. Venerated all over the country, St. Blasius has been "elected" the heavenly protector of 10 parish communities, as well as of the city and the dioceses of Dubrovnik. Beside pilgrimage and prayers, among many traditional forms of folk piety, a ritual called "grlicenje" has been preserved-a curative and preventive blessing of the throat with crossed candles on the Saint's Day. In more recent times, the same day has been remembered among Croatian otolaryngologists and the societies of laryngectomized persons, who chose St. Blasius for their patron, too. PMID:15733587

  10. An experimental and computational investigation of a translating throat single expansion-ramp nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Asbury, Scott C.

    1996-01-01

    A translating throat single expansion-ramp nozzle (SERN) concept was designed to improve the off-design performance of a SERN with a large, fixed expansion ratio. The concept of translating the nozzle throat provides the SERN with a variable expansion ratio. An experimental and computational study was conducted to predict and verify the internal performance of this concept. Three nozzles with expansion ratios designed for low, intermediate, and high Mach number operating conditions were tested in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. Each nozzle was tested with a concave and a convex geometric expansion ramp surface design. Internal nozzle performance, paint-oil flow and focusing Schlieren flow visualization were obtained for nozzle pressure ratios (NPR's) up to 13. The Navier-Stokes code, PAB3D, with a k-epsilon turbulence model was utilized to verify experimental results at selected NPRs and to predict the performance at conditions unattainable in the test facility. Two-dimensional simulations were computed with near static free-stream conditions and at nozzle pressure ratios of 5, 9, and 13 for the concave ramp, low Mach number configuration and at the design NPR of 102 for the concave ramp, high Mach number configuration. Remarkable similarities between predicted and experimental flow characteristics, as well as performance quantities, were obtained.

  11. An Experimental and Computational Investigation of a Translating Throat Single Expansion-Ramp Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Asbury, Scott C.

    1996-01-01

    A translating throat single expansion-ramp nozzle (SERN) concept was designed to improve the off-design performance of a SERN with a large, fixed expansion ratio. The concept of translating the nozzle throat provides the SERN with a variable expansion ratio. An experimental and computational study was conducted to predict and verify the internal performance of this concept. Three nozzles with expansion ratios designed for low, intermediate, and high Mach number operating conditions were tested in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. Each nozzle was tested with a concave and a convex geometric expansion ramp surface design. Internal nozzle performance, paint-oil flow and focusing Schlieren flow visualization were obtained for nozzle pressure ratios (NPR's) up to 13. The Navier-Stokes code, PAB3D, with a k-epsilon turbulence model was utilized to verify experimental results at selected NPR's and to predict the performance at conditions unattainable in the test facility. Two-dimensional simulations were computed with near static free-stream conditions and at nozzle pressure ratios of 5, 9, and 13 for the concave ramp, low Mach number configuration and at the design NPR of 102 for the concave ramp, high Mach number configuration. Remarkable similarities between predicted and experimental flow characteristics, as well as performance quantities, were obtained.

  12. Design and Integration of a Telerobotic System for Minimally Invasive Surgery of the Throat.

    PubMed

    Simaan, Nabil; Xu, Kai; Kapoor, Ankur; Wei, Wei; Kazanzides, Peter; Flint, Paul; Taylor, Russell

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents the clinical motivation, design specifications, kinematics, statics, and actuation compensation for a newly constructed telerobotic system for Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) of the throat. A hybrid dual-arm telesurgical slave, with twenty joint-space Degrees of Freedom (DoF), is used in this telerobotic system to provide the necessary dexterity in deep surgical fields such as the throat. The telerobotic slave uses novel continuum robots that use multiple super-elastic backbones for actuation and structural integrity. The paper presents the kinematics of the telesurgical slave and methods for actuation compensation to cancel the effects of backlash, friction, and flexibility of the actuation lines. A method for actuation compensation is presented in order to overcome uncertainties of modeling, friction, and backlash. This method uses a tiered hierarchy of two novel approaches of actuation compensation for remotely actuated snake-like robots. The tiered approach for actuation compensation uses compensation in both joint space and configuration space of the continuum robots. These actuation hybrid compensation schemes use intrinsic model information and external data through a recursive linear estimation algorithm and involve compensation using configuration space and joint space variables. Experimental results validate the ability of our integrated telemanipulation system through experiments of suturing and knot tying in confined spaces. PMID:20160881

  13. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... interact with the chemo drugs. Mouth, Gum, and Throat Sores Both chemo and radiation (specifically to the ... lead to mouth sores, sensitive gums, an irritated throat, and an increased risk of tooth decay. The ...

  14. Lidocaine Viscous

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain of a sore or irritated mouth and throat often associated with cancer chemotherapy and certain medical ... Lidocaine viscous is not normally used for sore throats due to cold, flu, or infections such as ...

  15. Gemcitabine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or vomiting blood or material that looks like coffee grounds fever, sore throat, ongoing cough and congestion, or ... or vomiting blood or material that looks like coffee grounds fever, sore throat, ongoing cough and congestion, or ...

  16. Temozolomide

    MedlinePlus

    ... or vomiting blood or material that looks like coffee grounds fever, sore throat, ongoing cough and congestion, or ... or vomiting blood or material that looks like coffee grounds fever, sore throat, ongoing cough and congestion, or ...

  17. Temozolomide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or vomiting blood or material that looks like coffee grounds fever, sore throat, ongoing cough and congestion, or ... or vomiting blood or material that looks like coffee grounds fever, sore throat, ongoing cough and congestion, or ...

  18. Loratadine

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes, nose, or throat. Loratadine is also used to treat itching and ... not go away: headache dry mouth nosebleed sore throat mouth sores difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep ...

  19. Acetaminophen

    MedlinePlus

    ... headaches, muscle aches, menstrual periods, colds and sore throats, toothaches, backaches, and reactions to vaccinations (shots), and ... acetaminophen to a child who has a sore throat that is severe or does not go away, ...

  20. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Symptoms vary by age, but can include: Fever/chills Sore throat Muscle aches Fatigue Cough Headache Runny ... age: Runny nose/nasal congestion Sore throat Cough Chills Tiredness/weakness Headache Problems that could happen after ...

  1. Cold and Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Question 6.* Yes 2. Do you have a sore throat and headache--without nasal drainage? Yes You may ... a bacterial infection. See your doctor if the sore throat or fever lasts longer than 48 hours. He ...

  2. Strep Test: Rapid

    MedlinePlus

    ... tonsils, which become irritated and swollen, causing a sore throat that's especially painful when swallowing. Your child may ... coughing, or a runny or stuffy nose). Most sore throats in kids are caused by viral infections, which ...

  3. Colds, Allergies and Sinusitis - How to Tell the Difference

    MedlinePlus

    ... weather is a prime time for stuffy noses, sore throats and watery, itchy eyes. But if your symp- ... Time Similar to allergies, but may also include sore throat, fever and body aches Develops over several days ...

  4. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): General Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... lymph nodes in the neck or armpit a sore throat that is frequent or recurring These symptoms should ... lymph nodes in the neck or armpit a sore throat that is frequent or recurring The symptoms listed ...

  5. Instabilities on Nozzle-Wake Loads due to Axial Clearance and Throat Variations in a First Stage Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. C.; Sierra, F. Z.

    2013-06-01

    A study of flow unsteadiness in a high pressure first stage turbine is presented. The study is based on numerical simulations of nozzle wake using a relative reference frame sliding mesh. Pressure and loads on first stage blades needed for stage efficiency calculation in turbine design are discussed. Excessive wear occurring at engine operating conditions affects the distance between rotating and non-rotating elements by varying throat size and axial clearance. Consequently, force unsteadiness produces changes on cyclic loads amplitude, which modifies the work produced by first stage. Compared against design, increments of throat minimum area lead to maximum total force, while throat area reductions increased pressure unsteadiness across the axial clearance. Also, the amplitude of load on blade increases as axial clearance length reduces. Harmonics of force on blade were used to calibrate a useful life prediction tool for turbine components through FFT analysis.

  6. Herpangina

    MedlinePlus

    ... are too acidic and tend to irritate the mouth sores.) Avoid spicy, fried, or hot foods. Use topical ... Call your provider if: Fever, sore throat, or mouth sores last for more than 5 days Your child ...

  7. Holographic Systematics of D-brane Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Daniel; Dymarsky, Anatoly; Kachru, Shamit; Klebanov, Igor R.; McAllister, Liam; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-11-05

    We provide a systematic treatment of possible corrections to the inflaton potential for D-brane inflation in the warped deformed conifold. We consider the D3-brane potential in the presence of the most general possible corrections to the throat geometry sourced by coupling to the bulk of a compact Calabi-Yau space. This corresponds to the potential on the Coulomb branch of the dual gauge theory, in the presence of arbitrary perturbations of the Lagrangian. The leading contributions arise from perturbations by the most relevant operators that do not destroy the throat geometry. We find a generic contribution from a non-chiral operator of dimension {Delta} = 2 associated with a global symmetry current, resulting in a negative contribution to the inflaton mass-squared. If the Calabi-Yau preserves certain discrete symmetries, this is the dominant correction to the inflaton potential, and fine-tuning of the inflaton mass is possible. In the absence of such discrete symmetries, the dominant contribution comes from a chiral operator with {Delta} = 3/2, corresponding to a {phi}{sup 3/2} term in the inflaton potential. The resulting inflationary models are phenomenologically identical to the inflection point scenarios arising from specific D7-brane embeddings, but occur under far more general circumstances. Our strategy extends immediately to other warped geometries, given sufficient knowledge of the Kaluza-Klein spectrum.

  8. Systematic reviews need systematic searchers

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Jessie; Sampson, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper will provide a description of the methods, skills, and knowledge of expert searchers working on systematic review teams. Brief Description: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are very important to health care practitioners, who need to keep abreast of the medical literature and make informed decisions. Searching is a critical part of conducting these systematic reviews, as errors made in the search process potentially result in a biased or otherwise incomplete evidence base for the review. Searches for systematic reviews need to be constructed to maximize recall and deal effectively with a number of potentially biasing factors. Librarians who conduct the searches for systematic reviews must be experts. Discussion/Conclusion: Expert searchers need to understand the specifics about data structure and functions of bibliographic and specialized databases, as well as the technical and methodological issues of searching. Search methodology must be based on research about retrieval practices, and it is vital that expert searchers keep informed about, advocate for, and, moreover, conduct research in information retrieval. Expert searchers are an important part of the systematic review team, crucial throughout the review process—from the development of the proposal and research question to publication. PMID:15685278

  9. Twitching motility and possession of polar fimbriae in spreading Streptococcus sanguis isolates from the human throat.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, S D; Henrichsen, J

    1975-04-01

    A collection of 19 strains of alpha haemolytic streptococci, isolated from throat swabs and characterized by production of spreading zones around colonies on blood agar, was found to constitute a very homogeneous group with morphological, physiological and biochemical characters corresponding to those of streptococci of ser-group H, or Streptococcus sanguis, and they all appeared to possess the group H antigen. They all had a common agglutinogen and, in addition, heterogeneous agglutinogens. The spreading growth, which appears to be a common property of S. sanguis, was due to twitching motility, and the spreading cultures possessed polar fimbriae. tneither twitching motility nor the possession of polar fimbriae have been observed in gram-positive bacteria before. PMID:1171576

  10. [DR. ARIEH LEIB SHIMONI-MEKLER - EYE, EAR, NOSE AND THROAT SPECIALIST].

    PubMed

    Gilbey, Peter; Pikkel, Joseph; Netzer, Aviram; Golz, Avishay

    2016-04-01

    Although the inauguration of the new hospital in Zefat built by Baron Rothschild took place in 1910, the building was not used as a hospital until World War I when it was confiscated by the Turks for patients affected with typhus, and later it was converted into a military hospital. The second inauguration of the renewed hospital was in June 1919, and the medical activity was assigned to the American Zionist Medical Unit for Palestine' (AZMU), later - 'Hadassah Medical Organization'. Among the first doctors that were sent to Zefat by AZMU was Dr. Arieh Leib Shimoni-Mekler - Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat specialist. Dr. Shimoni-Mekler worked in the hospital during the years 1921-2. PMID:27323542

  11. Acephate affects migratory orientation of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Sauer, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Migratory white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) were exposed to acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), an organophosphorus pesticide, to determine its effects on migratory orientation and behavior. Birds were also exposed to polarizer sheets to determine the mechanism by which acephate may affect migratory orientation. Adult birds exposed to 256 ppm acephate a.i. were not able to establish a preferred migratory orientation and exhibited random activity. All juvenile treatment groups displayed a seasonally correct southward migratory orientation. We hypothesize that acephate may have produced aberrant migratory behavior by affecting the memory of the migratory route and wintering ground. This experiment reveals that an environmentally relevant concentration of a common organophosphorus pesticide can alter migratory orientation, but its effect is markedly different between adult and juvenile sparrows. Results suggest that the survival of free-flying adult passerine migrants may be compromised following organophosphorus pesticide exposure.

  12. Effect of radial plasma transport at the magnetic throat on axial ion beam formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2016-08-01

    Correlation between radial plasma transport and formation of an axial ion beam has been investigated in a helicon plasma reactor implemented with a convergent-divergent magnetic nozzle. The plasma discharge is sustained under a high magnetic field mode and a low magnetic field mode for which the electron energy probability function, the plasma density, the plasma potential, and the electron temperature are measured at the magnetic throat, and the two field modes show different radial parametric behaviors. Although an axial potential drop occurs in the plasma source for both field modes, an ion beam is only observed in the high field mode while not in the low field mode. The transport of energetic ions is characterized downstream of the plasma source using the delimited ion current and nonlocal ion current. A decay of ion beam strength is also observed in the diffusion chamber.

  13. Lodged in the throat: internal infinities and AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Don; Yarom, Amos

    2006-01-01

    In the context of AdS3/CFT2, we address spacetimes with a certain sort of internal infinity as typified by the extreme BTZ black hole. The internal infinity is a null circle lying at the end of the black hole's infinite throat. We argue that such spacetimes may be described by a product CFT of the form CFTLotimesCFTR, where CFTR is associated with the asymptotically AdS boundary while CFTL is associated with the null circle. Our particular calculations analyze the CFT dual of the extreme BTZ black hole in a linear toy model of AdS3/CFT2. Since the BTZ black hole is a quotient of AdS3, the dual CFT state is a corresponding quotient of the CFT vacuum state. This state turns out to live in the aforementioned product CFT. We discuss this result in the context of general issues of AdS/CFT duality and entanglement entropy.

  14. Increased technetium uptake is not equivalent to muscle necrosis: scintigraphic, morphological and intramuscular pressure analyses of sore muscles after exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crenshaw, A. G.; Friden, J.; Hargens, A. R.; Lang, G. H.; Thornell, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    A scintigraphic technique employing technetium pyrophosphate uptake was used to identify the area of skeletal muscle damage in the lower leg of four runners 24 h after an ultramarathon footrace (160 km). Most of the race had been run downhill which incorporated an extensive amount of eccentric work. Soreness was diffuse throughout the posterior region of the lower leg. In order to interpret what increased technetium uptake reflects and to express extreme endurance related damages, a biopsy was taken from the 3-D position of abnormal uptake. In addition, intramuscular pressures were determined in the deep posterior compartment. Scintigraphs revealed increased technetium pyrophosphate uptake in the medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle. For 3698 fibres analysed, 33 fibres (1%) were necrotic, while a few other fibres were either atrophic or irregular shaped. A cluster of necrotic fibres occurred at the fascicular periphery for one subject and fibre type grouping occurred for another. Ultrastructural analysis revealed Z-line streaming near many capillaries and variously altered subsarcolemmal mitochondria including some with paracrystalline inclusions. The majority of the capillaries included thickened and irregular shaped endothelial cells. Intramuscular pressures of the deep posterior compartment were slightly elevated (12-15 mmHg) for three of the four subjects. Increased technetium uptake following extreme endurance running does not just reflect muscle necrosis but also subtle fibre abnormalities. Collectively, these pathological findings are attributed to relative ischaemia occurring during the race and during pre-race training, whereas, intramuscular pressure elevations associated with muscle soreness are attributed to mechanical stress caused by extensive eccentric work during the race.

  15. Design Enhancements of the Two-Dimensional, Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2006-01-01

    A Dual Throat Nozzle fluidic thrust vectoring technique that achieves higher thrust-vectoring efficiencies than other fluidic techniques, without sacrificing thrust efficiency has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concept was designed with the aid of the structured-grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluidic dynamics code PAB3D. This new concept combines the thrust efficiency of sonic-plane skewing with increased thrust-vectoring efficiencies obtained by maximizing pressure differentials in a separated cavity located downstream of the nozzle throat. By injecting secondary flow asymmetrically at the upstream minimum area, a new aerodynamic minimum area is formed downstream of the geometric minimum and the sonic line is skewed, thus vectoring the exhaust flow. The nozzle was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal nozzle performance characteristics were defined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10, with a range of secondary injection flow rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. Most of the data included in this paper shows the effect of secondary injection rate at a nozzle pressure ratio of 4. The effects of modifying cavity divergence angle, convergence angle and cavity shape on internal nozzle performance were investigated, as were effects of injection geometry, hole or slot. In agreement with computationally predicted data, experimental data verified that decreasing cavity divergence angle had a negative impact and increasing cavity convergence angle had a positive impact on thrust vector angle and thrust efficiency. A curved cavity apex provided improved thrust ratios at some injection rates. However, overall nozzle performance suffered with no secondary injection. Injection holes were more efficient than the injection slot over the range of injection rates, but the slot generated larger thrust vector angles for injection rates less than 4 percent of the primary flow rate.

  16. Reproductive parameters in the critically endangered Blue-throated Macaw: limits to the recovery of a parrot under intensive management.

    PubMed

    Berkunsky, Igor; Daniele, Gonzalo; Kacoliris, Federico P; Díaz-Luque, José A; Silva Frias, Carmen P; Aramburu, Rosana M; Gilardi, James D

    2014-01-01

    Rediscovered in the wild twenty years ago, the breeding biology of wild Blue-throated Macaws remains largely unexplored, yet is essential to its effective conservation and recovery. Here, we analyse reproductive parameters in an intensively managed wild population of Blue-throated Macaws, providing the first data on the breeding biology of this critically endangered species. During the six-year study period, 2007-2012, the number of active breeding pairs either remained constant or decreased, depending on the site, and no new breeding pairs were discovered despite extensive searching. We documented nesting attempts in natural cavities in dead palms or live hardwoods, and artificial nest boxes. Egg-laying was concentrated during the end of dry season and the beginning of the wet season, August through December. Hatching failure was the greatest cause of egg losses. Half of the breeding attempts of Blue-throated Macaws produced at least one fledging, on average two, after a 85 days nestling period. An average of 4.3 nestlings per year fledged from all known wild nests combined. Each pair lost roughly 65% of its initial reproductive investment at each nesting attempt. In most successful nesting attempts of individualized pairs, a new nesting attempt was not detected the following year. All monitored breeding pairs showed high nest site fidelity, reusing hardwood-tree cavities and nest boxes. Our findings will aid conservation efforts by refining current actions and prompting new approaches towards the conservation and recovery of the Blue-throated Macaw. PMID:24941317

  17. Exceeding Parents' Expectations in Ear-Nose-Throat Outpatient Facilities: The Development and Analysis of a Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margaritis, Eleftherios; Katharaki, Maria; Katharakis, George

    2012-01-01

    The study attempts to develop an outpatient service quality scale by investigating the key dimensions which assess parental satisfaction and provides a recommendation on an improved health service delivery system. The survey was conducted in an Ear-Nose-Throat outpatient clinic of a Greek public pediatric hospital. A total of 127 parents in…

  18. TOOLS FOR DESIGN, CALIBRATION, CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF LONG-THROATED FLUMES AND BROAD-CRESTED WEIRS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs provide a practical, low-cost, flexible means of measuring open-channel flows in new and existing irrigation systems and have distinct advantages over other flume and weir devices. Application of these flumes and weirs has been greatly facilitated by the...

  19. Pore-throat size distributions in Permo-Triassic sandstones from the United Kingdom and some implications for contaminant hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, J. P.; Gooddy, D. C.; Bright, M. I.; Williams, P. J.

    2001-06-01

    Pore-throat size distributions (PSDs) from mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) tests have been used to characterise 153 samples of Permo-Triassic sandstones from the United Kingdom. The PSDs have been parameterised using the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten functions. Pore-throat sizes are in the range 0.01-427 µm, and dominant pore-throat sizes range from about 0.1-90 µm. Values of λ, the Brooks-Corey pore-size distribution index, range from 0.002-2.27, and values of m, the van Genuchten pore-size distribution index, range from 0.03-0.92. A number of classes of sandstone can be recognised on the basis of trends in the fitted parameters. The van Genuchten function provides the most effective method for classifying different sandstones. Additionally, a cross-plot of gas permeability against displacement pressure (derived from the van Genuchten function) shows that the data fall into two distinct sub-populations. The frequency distribution of a larger population of sandstone permeabilities can be modelled using the mean and standard deviation of the two sub-populations identified in the MICP study, assuming that the sub-populations are approximated by log-normal distributions. The distribution of sandstones with small pore-throat sizes is critical to the fate of pathogens and immiscible phase contaminants in the aquifer.

  20. Female preference for sympatric vs. allopatric male throat color morphs in the mesquite lizard (Sceloporus grammicus) species complex.

    PubMed

    Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Bastiaans, Mary Jane; Morinaga, Gen; Castañeda Gaytán, José Gamaliel; Marshall, Jonathon C; Bane, Brendan; de la Cruz, Fausto Méndez; Sinervo, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Color polymorphic sexual signals are often associated with alternative reproductive behaviors within populations, and the number, frequency, or type of morphs present often vary among populations. When these differences lead to assortative mating by population, the study of such polymorphic taxa may shed light on speciation mechanisms. We studied two populations of a lizard with polymorphic throat color, an important sexual signal. Males in one population exhibit orange, yellow, or blue throats; whereas males in the other exhibit orange, yellow, or white throats. We assessed female behavior when choosing between allopatric and sympatric males. We asked whether females discriminated more when the allopatric male was of an unfamiliar morph than when the allopatric male was similar in coloration to the sympatric male. We found that female rejection of allopatric males relative to sympatric males was more pronounced when males in a pair were more different in throat color. Our findings may help illuminate how behavioral responses to color morph differences between populations with polymorphic sexual signals contribute to reproductive isolation. PMID:24718297

  1. Reproductive Parameters in the Critically Endangered Blue-Throated Macaw: Limits to the Recovery of a Parrot under Intensive Management

    PubMed Central

    Berkunsky, Igor; Daniele, Gonzalo; Kacoliris, Federico P.; Díaz-Luque, José A.; Silva Frias, Carmen P.; Aramburu, Rosana M.; Gilardi, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Rediscovered in the wild twenty years ago, the breeding biology of wild Blue-throated Macaws remains largely unexplored, yet is essential to its effective conservation and recovery. Here, we analyse reproductive parameters in an intensively managed wild population of Blue-throated Macaws, providing the first data on the breeding biology of this critically endangered species. During the six-year study period, 2007–2012, the number of active breeding pairs either remained constant or decreased, depending on the site, and no new breeding pairs were discovered despite extensive searching. We documented nesting attempts in natural cavities in dead palms or live hardwoods, and artificial nest boxes. Egg-laying was concentrated during the end of dry season and the beginning of the wet season, August through December. Hatching failure was the greatest cause of egg losses. Half of the breeding attempts of Blue-throated Macaws produced at least one fledging, on average two, after a 85 days nestling period. An average of 4.3 nestlings per year fledged from all known wild nests combined. Each pair lost roughly 65% of its initial reproductive investment at each nesting attempt. In most successful nesting attempts of individualized pairs, a new nesting attempt was not detected the following year. All monitored breeding pairs showed high nest site fidelity, reusing hardwood-tree cavities and nest boxes. Our findings will aid conservation efforts by refining current actions and prompting new approaches towards the conservation and recovery of the Blue-throated Macaw. PMID:24941317

  2. Coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and Canine Distemper Virus in a Yellow-throated Marten ( Martes flavigula koreana) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Surim; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hae Beom; Cho, Ho Seong; Kim, Wonil; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-04-28

    We describe coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and canine distemper virus (CDV) in a yellow-throated marten ( Martes flavigula koreana). We found Hepatozoon cysts in muscular tissue and viral inclusion bodies in the brain. Hepatozoon sp., and CDV was confirmed in blood and brain, respectively, by PCR. PMID:27054471

  3. Female Preference for Sympatric vs. Allopatric Male Throat Color Morphs in the Mesquite Lizard (Sceloporus grammicus) Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Bastiaans, Mary Jane; Morinaga, Gen; Castañeda Gaytán, José Gamaliel; Marshall, Jonathon C.; Bane, Brendan; de la Cruz, Fausto Méndez; Sinervo, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Color polymorphic sexual signals are often associated with alternative reproductive behaviors within populations, and the number, frequency, or type of morphs present often vary among populations. When these differences lead to assortative mating by population, the study of such polymorphic taxa may shed light on speciation mechanisms. We studied two populations of a lizard with polymorphic throat color, an important sexual signal. Males in one population exhibit orange, yellow, or blue throats; whereas males in the other exhibit orange, yellow, or white throats. We assessed female behavior when choosing between allopatric and sympatric males. We asked whether females discriminated more when the allopatric male was of an unfamiliar morph than when the allopatric male was similar in coloration to the sympatric male. We found that female rejection of allopatric males relative to sympatric males was more pronounced when males in a pair were more different in throat color. Our findings may help illuminate how behavioral responses to color morph differences between populations with polymorphic sexual signals contribute to reproductive isolation. PMID:24718297

  4. Eye, nose, hair, and throat: external anatomy of the head of a neonate gray whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtiidae).

    PubMed

    Berta, Annalisa; Ekdale, Eric G; Zellmer, Nicholas T; Deméré, Thomas A; Kienle, Sarah S; Smallcomb, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    Information is scarce on gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) anatomy and that of mysticetes in general. Dissection of the head of a neonatal gray whale revealed novel anatomical details of the eye, blowhole, incisive papilla with associated nasopalatine ducts, sensory hairs, and throat grooves. Compared to a similar sized right whale calf, the gray whale eyeball is nearly twice as long. The nasal cartilages of the gray whale, located between the blowholes, differ from the bowhead in having accessory cartilages. A small, fleshy incisive papilla bordered by two blind nasopalatine pits near the palate's rostral tip, previously undescribed in gray whales, may be associated with the vomeronasal organ, although histological evidence is needed for definitive identification. Less well known among mysticetes are the numerous elongated, stiff sensory hairs (vibrissae) observed on the gray whale rostrum from the ventral tip to the blowhole and on the mandible. These hairs are concentrated on the chin, and those on the lower jaw are arranged in a V-shaped pattern. We confirm the presence of two primary, anteriorly converging throat grooves, confined to the throat region similar to those of ziphiid and physeteroid odontocetes. A third, shorter groove occurs lateral to the left primary groove. The throat grooves in the gray whale have been implicated in gular expansion during suction feeding. PMID:25737431

  5. Foreign bodies in the ear, nose and throat: an experience in a tertiary care hospital in central Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Ramesh

    2015-04-01

    Introduction A foreign body (FB) is an object or substance foreign to the location where it is found. FBs in the ear, nose, and throat are a common problem frequently encountered in both children and adults. Objective To analyze FBs in terms of type, site, age, and gender distribution and method of removal. Methods A retrospective study was performed in a tertiary care hospital in the central part of Nepal. The study period was from June 2013 to May 2014. The information was obtained from hospital record books. Results A total of 134 patients had FBs in the ear, nose, or throat; 94 were males and 40 were females. Of the 134 patients, 70 (52.23%) had FB in the ear, 28 (20.89%) in the nose, and 36 (26.86%) in the throat. The FB was animate (living) in 28 (40%) patients with FB in the ear and 1 (3.5%) patient with FB in the nose, but the FB was inanimate (nonliving) in any patient with FB in the throat, in 42 (60%) patients with FB in the ear FB, and in 27 (96.4%) patients with FB of the nose. The FB was removed with or without local anaesthesia (LA) in 98 (73.13%) patients, and only 36 patients (26.86%) required general anaesthesia (GA). The most common age group affected was <10 years. Conclusion FBs in the ear and nose were found more frequently in children, and the throat was the most common site of FB in adults and elderly people. Most of the FBs can be easily removed in emergency room or outpatient department. PMID:25992166

  6. Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose and Throat: An Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A foreign body (FB) is an object or substance foreign to the location where it is found. FBs in the ear, nose, and throat are a common problem frequently encountered in both children and adults. Objective To analyze FBs in terms of type, site, age, and gender distribution and method of removal. Methods A retrospective study was performed in a tertiary care hospital in the central part of Nepal. The study period was from June 2013 to May 2014. The information was obtained from hospital record books. Results A total of 134 patients had FBs in the ear, nose, or throat; 94 were males and 40 were females. Of the 134 patients, 70 (52.23%) had FB in the ear, 28 (20.89%) in the nose, and 36 (26.86%) in the throat. The FB was animate (living) in 28 (40%) patients with FB in the ear and 1 (3.5%) patient with FB in the nose, but the FB was inanimate (nonliving) in any patient with FB in the throat, in 42 (60%) patients with FB in the ear FB, and in 27 (96.4%) patients with FB of the nose. The FB was removed with or without local anaesthesia (LA) in 98 (73.13%) patients, and only 36 patients (26.86%) required general anaesthesia (GA). The most common age group affected was <10 years. Conclusion FBs in the ear and nose were found more frequently in children, and the throat was the most common site of FB in adults and elderly people. Most of the FBs can be easily removed in emergency room or outpatient department. PMID:25992166

  7. Dinosaur Systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Currie, Philip J.

    1992-07-01

    In recent years dinosaurs have captured the attention of the public at an unprecedented level. At the heart of this resurgence in popular interest is an increased level of research activity, much of which is innovative in the field of paleontology. For instance, whereas earlier paleontological studies emphasized basic morphologic description and taxonomic classification, modern studies attempt to examine the role and nature of dinosaurs as living animals. More than ever before, we understand how these extinct species functioned, behaved, interacted with each other and the environment, and evolved. Nevertheless, these studies rely on certain basic building blocks of knowledge, including facts about dinosaur anatomy and taxonomic relationships. One of the purposes of this volume is to unravel some of the problems surrounding dinosaur systematics and to increase our understanding of dinosaurs as a biological species. Dinosaur Systematics presents a current overview of dinosaur systematics using various examples to explore what is a species in a dinosaur, what separates genders in dinosaurs, what morphological changes occur with maturation of a species, and what morphological variations occur within a species.

  8. Identification of microRNAs in Throat Swab as the Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Fang; He, Jianan; Loo, Jacky Fong Chuen; Yao, Jingyu; Shi, Lei; Liu, Chunxiao; Zhao, Chunzhong; Xie, Weidong; Shao, Yonghong; Kong, Siu Kai; Gu, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a serious worldwide disease that captures global attention in the past few years after outbreaks. The recent discoveries of microRNA (miRNA) and its unique expression profile in influenza patients have offered a new method for early influenza diagnosis. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of miRNAs for the diagnosis of influenza. Methods: Thirteen selected miRNAs were investigated with the hosts' throat swabs (25 H1N1, 20 H3N2, 20 influenza B and 21 healthy controls) by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) using U6 snRNA as endogenous control for normalization, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve/Area under curve (AUC) for analysis. Results: miR-29a-3p, miR-30c-5p, miR-34c-3p and miR-181a-5p are useful biomarkers for influenza A detection; and miR-30c-5p, miR-34b-5p, miR-205-5p and miR-449b-5p for influenza B detection. Also, use of both miR-30c-5p and miR-34c-3p (AUC=0.879); and miR-30c-5p and miR-449b-5p (AUC=0.901) are better than using one miRNA to confirm influenza A and influenza B infection, respectively. Conclusions: Given its simplicity, non-invasiveness and specificity, we found that the throat swab-derived miRNAs miR-29a-3p, miR-30c-5p, miR-34b-5p, miR-34c-3p, miR-181a-5p, miR-205-5p and miR-449b-5p are a useful tool for influenza diagnosis on influenza A and B. PMID:26917988

  9. Factors influencing nest survival and productivity of Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizzolo, Daniel; Schmutz, Joel A.; McCloskey, Sarah E.; Fondell, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata) numbers in Alaska have fluctuated dramatically over the past 3 decades; however, the demographic processes contributing to these population dynamics are poorly understood. To examine spatial and temporal variation in productivity, we estimated breeding parameters at 5 sites in Alaska: at Cape Espenberg and the Copper River Delta we estimated nest survival, and at 3 sites within the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta we estimated nest survival and productivity. Nest survival varied broadly among sites and years; annual estimates (lower, upper 95% confidence interval) ranged from 0.09 (0.03, 0.29) at Cape Espenberg in 2001 to 0.93 (0.76, 0.99) at the Copper River Delta in 2002. Annual variation among sites was not concordant, suggesting that site-scale factors had a strong influence on nest survival. Models of nest survival indicated that visits to monitor nests had a negative effect on nest daily survival probability, which if not accounted for biased nest survival strongly downward. The sensitivity of breeding Red-throated Loons to nest monitoring suggests other sources of disturbance that cause incubating birds to flush from their nests may also reduce nest survival. Nest daily survival probability at the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta was negatively associated with an annual index of fox occurrence. Survival through the incubation and chick-rearing periods on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta ranged from 0.09 (0.001, 0.493) to 0.50 (0.04, 0.77). Daily survival probability during the chick-rearing period was lower for chicks that had a sibling in 2 of 3 years, consistent with the hypothesis that food availability was limited. Estimates of annual productivity on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta ranged from 0.17 to 1.0 chicks per pair. Productivity was not sufficient to maintain population stability in 2 of 3 years, indicating that nest depredation by foxes and poor foraging conditions during chick rearing can have important effects on productivity.

  10. Piroxicam fails to reduce myocellular enzyme leakage and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise

    PubMed Central

    Croisier, J-L.; Monfils, T.; Deby-Dupon, G.; Fafchamps, M.; Venneman, I.; Crielaard, J-M.; Juchmès-Ferir, A.; Lhermerout, C.; Lamy, M.; Deby, C.

    1996-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), ten healthy male subjects were studied. Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, each subject performed two isokinetic tests separated by a period of at least 6 weeks: once with placebo, and once with piroxicam (Feldene®). They were given one capsule containing either placebo or piroxicam (20 mg) per day for 6 days with initial doses given starting 3 days prior to isokinetic testing. Exercise consisted of eight stages of five maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases, on a Kin Trex device at 60°/s angular velocity. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS were evaluated using a visual analogue scale immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after each test. The mean plasma concentration of PGE2 measured at rest and after exercise was significantly lower in the group treated with piroxicam (p < 0.05). However, statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA test) revealed that exercise did not cause any significant change of mean plasma PGE2 over time in either of the two groups. Eccentric work was followed by severe muscle pain in extensor and flexor muscle groups. Maximal soreness was noted 48 h postexercise. Serum creatine kinase activity and the serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly, and reached peak values 48 h after exercise in both experimental conditions (p < 0.001). By paired t-test, it appeared that there were no significant differences in the serum levels of these two markers of muscle damage between the two groups at any time point. We conclude that: (1) oral administration of piroxicam fails to reduce muscle damage and DOMS caused by strenuous eccentric exercise; and (2) the hypothetical role of increased PGE2 production in eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, DOMS, and reduced isokinetic

  11. Doreen Norton OBE, MSc, SRN, FRCN (1922-2007): Pioneer who revolutionised pressure sore management and geriatric nursing to international acclaim.

    PubMed

    Denham, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Doreen Norton was a delightful, widely respected nurse who devoted her life to improving the care of elderly people. She researched the neglected problem of pressure sores, revolutionised their nursing care, and thus achieved international fame. Her Pressure Sore Scale was established as a management tool and is still used today. She was a key member of the design team that produced the 'King's Fund Bed', researched equipment required on geriatric wards, assessed all geriatric long stay units in Scotland and established research as a valuable nursing tool within her profession and health authorities. She lectured extensively and her publications attracted worldwide acclamation. After her retirement, she was subsequently appointed to the world's first Chair of Gerontological Nursing in Cleveland, Ohio. PMID:26968512

  12. [Current requirements for polymeric biomaterials in ear, nose and throat medicine].

    PubMed

    Sternberg, K

    2009-05-01

    In recent years the ear, nose and throat medicine (ENT medicine) has been stimulated by numerous innovations in the field of implants which are based on new biomaterials and modern implant technologies. In this context, biomaterials integrated in living organisms have to allow for the technical requirements and the biological interactions between the implant and the tissue. With regard to their suitability, functional capability of the implant, which is complementary to the mechanical implant properties, sufficient stability against physiological media, as well as high biocompatibility are to be demanded. Another purpose of the use of biomaterials is the maintenance and the enhancement of biofunctionality over a long time period. These general requirements for biomaterials also have their validity in ENT medicine. Different materials are applied as biomaterials. Metals belong to the oldest biomaterials. In addition, alloys, ceramics, inorganic glasses and composites were tested. Furthermore, natural and synthetic polymers, which are primarily presented in this article regarding their properties and their applications as materials for cochlear implants, osteosynthesis implants, stents and novel scaffolds for tissue engineering, are increasingly applied. According to their use in permanent and temporary implants, polymers are to be differentiated between biostable and biodegradable polymers. The presented general and current requirements for biomaterials and biomaterial applications in ENT medicine demonstrate key aspects of the current biomaterial research in this field. They do as well document the high impact of the interdisciplinary collaboration of natural and medical scientists and engineers. PMID:19353451

  13. Vocal tract motor patterns and resonance during constant frequency song: the white-throated sparrow.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A

    2009-02-01

    Bird song is a complex behavior that requires the coordination of several motor systems. Sound is produced in the syrinx and then modified by the upper vocal tract. Movements of the hyoid skeleton have been shown in the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) to be extensively involved in forming an oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC), which contributes a major resonance to the vocal tract transfer function. Here we report that a similar relationship exists between the volume of the OEC and the fundamental frequency in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) whose song, unlike that of the cardinal, consists of a series of almost constant frequency notes. Cineradiography of singing sparrows shows that the oropharyngeal cavity and cranial end of the esophagus expand abruptly at the start of each note and maintain a relatively constant volume until the end of the note. Computation of the vocal tract transfer function suggests a major resonance of the OEC follows the fundamental frequency, making sound transmission more efficient. The presence of similar prominent song-related vocal tract motor patterns in two Oscine families suggests that the active control of the vocal tract resonance by varying the volume of the OEC may be widespread in songbirds. PMID:19082607

  14. Unexpected strong polygyny in the brown-throated three-toed sloth.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Peery, M Zachariah

    2012-01-01

    Promiscuous mating strategies are much more common than previously appreciated. So much so, that several authors have proposed that promiscuity is the "rule" rather than the exception in vertebrate mating systems. Decreasing species mobility and increasing habitat fragmentation have both been suggested to reduce the "polygyny potential" of the environment and promote other mating strategies like promiscuity in females. We explored the social and genetic mating system for one of the most sedentary extant mammals, the brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus), within a highly fragmented Neotropical habitat. Surprisingly, we found that three-toed sloths were strongly polygynous, with males excluding male competitors from their core ranges, and exhibiting strong reproductive skew. Indeed, only 25% of all resident adult males sired offspring and one individual sired half of all sampled juveniles. Paradoxically, a sedentary life-history strategy seems to facilitate polygyny in fragmented landscapes because multiple females can persist within small patches of habitat, and be monopolized by a single male. Our work demonstrates that strong polygyny can arise in systems in which the polygyny potential should be extremely low, and other strategies, including promiscuity, would be favoured. Mating systems can be influenced by a multitude of factor and are dynamic, varying among taxa, over time, and across habitats; consequently, mating systems remain difficult to predict based on general ecological principles. PMID:23284687

  15. Unexpected Strong Polygyny in the Brown-Throated Three-Toed Sloth

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Jonathan N.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2012-01-01

    Promiscuous mating strategies are much more common than previously appreciated. So much so, that several authors have proposed that promiscuity is the “rule” rather than the exception in vertebrate mating systems. Decreasing species mobility and increasing habitat fragmentation have both been suggested to reduce the “polygyny potential” of the environment and promote other mating strategies like promiscuity in females. We explored the social and genetic mating system for one of the most sedentary extant mammals, the brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus), within a highly fragmented Neotropical habitat. Surprisingly, we found that three-toed sloths were strongly polygynous, with males excluding male competitors from their core ranges, and exhibiting strong reproductive skew. Indeed, only 25% of all resident adult males sired offspring and one individual sired half of all sampled juveniles. Paradoxically, a sedentary life-history strategy seems to facilitate polygyny in fragmented landscapes because multiple females can persist within small patches of habitat, and be monopolized by a single male. Our work demonstrates that strong polygyny can arise in systems in which the polygyny potential should be extremely low, and other strategies, including promiscuity, would be favoured. Mating systems can be influenced by a multitude of factor and are dynamic, varying among taxa, over time, and across habitats; consequently, mating systems remain difficult to predict based on general ecological principles. PMID:23284687

  16. Regional cholinesterase activity in white-throated sparrow brain is differentially affected by acephate (Orthene?)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Romo, G.A.; Komaragiri, M.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of a 14-day dietary exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), were determined on cholinesterase activity in three regions (basal ganglia, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of the white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, brain. All three regions experienced depressed cholinesterase activity between 0.5-2 ppm acephate. The regions exhibited cholinesterase recovery at 2-16 ppm acephate; however, cholinesterase activity dropped and showed no recovery at higher dietary levels (>16 ppm acephate). Evidence indicates that the recovery is initiated by the magnitude of depression, not the duration. In general, as acephate concentration increased, differences in ChE activity among brain regions decreased. Three terms are introduced to describe ChE response to acephate exposure: (1) ChE resistance threshold, (2) ChE compensation threshold, and (3) ChE depression threshold. It is hypothesized that adverse effects to birds in the field may occur at pesticide exposure levels customarily considered negligible.

  17. Effect of contact angle on capillary displacement curvatures in pore throats formed by spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Morrow, N.R. )

    1994-11-01

    The curvature of an interface in a pore depends upon the shape of the pore and the operative contact angle that the interface makes with the solid surface. Even relatively simple pores formed by the surfaces of equal spheres have a complex shape including nonaxisymmetric cross-section and converging-diverging geometry. For such pores, a theory for meniscus behavior has been devised that uses a combination of a theory for meniscus curvature in rods together with the toroidal approximation of Purcell. The results of the theory show that converging-diverging geometry tends to compensate for the effect of contact angle. This is because the position at which the nonzero contact angle meniscus has maximum curvature in a converging-diverging pore is not the narrowest part of the pore throat. Due to this compensation, the effect of contact angle on maximum meniscus curvatures for drainage is approximately proportional to cos 2/3 [theta] (rather than the cos [theta] appropriate for cylindrical tubes). Experiments on pores formed by PTFE spheres using partially wetting liquids confirmed the theoretical prediction. Contact angle measurements on the PTFE spheres also demonstrated that, because of microscopic surface roughness, receding contact angles (these being operative with respect to drainage) on ground surfaces are significantly lower than values for smooth surfaces.

  18. Signaling for food and sex? Begging by reproductive female white-throated magpie-jays

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jesse M. S.; Langen, Tom A.; Berg, Elena C.

    2012-01-01

    Food begging is common in nutritionally dependent young of many animals, but structurally homologous calls recur in adult signal repertoires of many species. We propose eight functional hypotheses for begging in adults; these stem from observations in birds but apply broadly to other taxa in which begging occurs. Adult cooperatively-breeding white-throated magpie-jays (Calocitta formosa) use loud begging vocalizations, particularly near the nest site during reproduction. We analysed the social context and behavioural phenology of loud calling and allofeeding in this species and compared these with predictions from each functional hypothesis. We found that reproductive females are the primary producers of beg calls, and their begging peaks during the fertile period when reproductive conflict among males and females was highest. Loud begging rates correlated positively with provisioning rates, but females called more in the pre-incubation fertile period than after they initiated incubation. Based on the context, phenology and active space of the signal, we conclude that female loud begging vocalizations function to signal nutritional need to group members, but also have been evolutionarily co-opted to advertise fertility to potential extra-pair partners. The location of calling is likely a consequence of nest guarding by breeding females to prevent intraspecific brood parasitism. PMID:23293376

  19. Three-dimensional flow and lift characteristics of a hovering ruby-throated hummingbird.

    PubMed

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-09-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation is performed for a ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in hovering flight. Realistic wing kinematics are adopted in the numerical model by reconstructing the wing motion from high-speed imaging data of the bird. Lift history and the three-dimensional flow pattern around the wing in full stroke cycles are captured in the simulation. Significant asymmetry is observed for lift production within a stroke cycle. In particular, the downstroke generates about 2.5 times as much vertical force as the upstroke, a result that confirms the estimate based on the measurement of the circulation in a previous experimental study. Associated with lift production is the similar power imbalance between the two half strokes. Further analysis shows that in addition to the angle of attack, wing velocity and surface area, drag-based force and wing-wake interaction also contribute significantly to the lift asymmetry. Though the wing-wake interaction could be beneficial for lift enhancement, the isolated stroke simulation shows that this benefit is buried by other opposing effects, e.g. presence of downwash. The leading-edge vortex is stable during the downstroke but may shed during the upstroke. Finally, the full-body simulation result shows that the effects of wing-wing interaction and wing-body interaction are small. PMID:25008082

  20. Three-dimensional flow and lift characteristics of a hovering ruby-throated hummingbird

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation is performed for a ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in hovering flight. Realistic wing kinematics are adopted in the numerical model by reconstructing the wing motion from high-speed imaging data of the bird. Lift history and the three-dimensional flow pattern around the wing in full stroke cycles are captured in the simulation. Significant asymmetry is observed for lift production within a stroke cycle. In particular, the downstroke generates about 2.5 times as much vertical force as the upstroke, a result that confirms the estimate based on the measurement of the circulation in a previous experimental study. Associated with lift production is the similar power imbalance between the two half strokes. Further analysis shows that in addition to the angle of attack, wing velocity and surface area, drag-based force and wing–wake interaction also contribute significantly to the lift asymmetry. Though the wing–wake interaction could be beneficial for lift enhancement, the isolated stroke simulation shows that this benefit is buried by other opposing effects, e.g. presence of downwash. The leading-edge vortex is stable during the downstroke but may shed during the upstroke. Finally, the full-body simulation result shows that the effects of wing–wing interaction and wing–body interaction are small. PMID:25008082

  1. The effect of pulsating electrostatic field application on the development of delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) symptoms after eccentric exercise

    PubMed Central

    Gatterer, Hannes; Peters, Philippe; Philippe, Marc; Burtscher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to establish whether pulsating electrostatic field application, shown to increase blood flow and metabolic activity and to function as an ion pump, is able to reduce muscle pain after exercise-induced muscle damage. [Subjects and Methods] Seven participants (4 males, 3 females) performed two sessions of downhill running separated by at least 4 weeks. After the running sessions, participants were either treated for 45 min with a pulsating electrostatic field (field intensity, 9000 V; current, <9 mA; frequency, 50 Hz) or a sham treatment. The order of the intervention was random, and the condition was blinded for the participants. Muscle soreness score, creatine kinase, and jump ability were assessed before and up to 48 hours after running. [Results] Twenty-four and 48 hours after the downhill running, the muscle soreness score tended to be less increased after pulsating electrostatic field administration when compared with the sham setting (changes in muscle soreness score: 3.7±1.6 vs. 5.7±2.2 after 24 h and 3.1±2.0 vs. 5.4±3.2 after 48 h, respectively). No further differences were detected. [Conclusion] The outcomes show that a pulsating electrostatic field might be a promising treatment to reduce muscle soreness after exercise-induced muscle damage. However, further studies are needed to confirm the present outcomes and to establish the mechanism by which a pulsating electrostatic field may reduce muscle pain. PMID:26644654

  2. Preliminary identification of beta-hemolytic streptococci in throat swab cultures with a commercial blood agar slide (streptocult).

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, P; Danielsson, D; Hovelius, B; Kjellander, J

    1982-01-01

    A commercial blood agar slide (Streptocult, Orion Diagnostica) was used for preliminary identification of beta-hemolytic streptococci of groups A, C, and G in throat swab specimens. The sensitivity of the test was 93.6% and the specificity was 94.7%, as judged from 580 specimens. A model is suggested for routine processing of throat swab specimens, involving inoculation and reading of the slide in general practice and transport of positive or inconclusive slides to a bacteriology laboratory for isolation and serological grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci. The model combines preliminary detection of beta-hemolytic streptococci within 24 h with the reliability of serological groupings, and should reduce the volume of specimens sent to the laboratory considerably. Images PMID:7050155

  3. A Case of a Very Elongated Styloid Process 8 cm in Length with Frequent Throat Pain for 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Takeshi; Homma, Hirotomo; Kidokoro, Yoshinobu; Yanai, Aya; Fujimaki, Mitsuhisa; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    We experienced a case of an elongated styloid process that was 8 cm in length. The patient was a 68-year-old Japanese man with frequent episodes of left-sided throat pain for 10 years. The elongated styloid process could be diagnosed by 3D-computed tomography (left and right length: 7.8 cm and 8.0 cm, respectively) and successfully treated with surgery, since the anatomic relationships could be fully visualized. Surgical methods for shortening an elongated styloid process involve an intraoral or external approach. The external approach to the styloid process involves a trans-cervical approach to the parapharyngeal space, which enables wider visualization in the operative field than an intraoral approach. In the present case, the styloid process reached the parapharyngal space. Therefore, we selected the external approach and shortened only the left-sided styloid process (the same side as the throat pain). The chief complaint disappeared immediately after the operation. PMID:27162604

  4. Streptococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... and group B. Group A strep causes Strep throat - a sore, red throat, sometimes with white spots on the tonsils Scarlet fever - an illness that follows strep throat. It causes a red rash on the body. ...

  5. Cefditoren

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs); pneumonia; and infections of the skin, throat, and tonsils.Cefditoren is in a class of ... itching difficulty breathing or swallowing closing of the throat a return of fever, sore throat, chills, or ...

  6. Hand-foot-mouth disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral infection caused by Coxsackievirus that usually begins in the throat. Symptoms include; fever, sore throat, ulcers in the throat, headache, and a rash with blisters on the palms of the ...

  7. Predictive power of the Braden scale for pressure sore risk in adult critical care patients: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Critical care is designed for managing the sickest patients within our healthcare system. Multiple factors associated with an increased likelihood of pressure ulcer development have been investigated in the critical care population. Nevertheless, there is a lack of consensus regarding which of these factors poses the greatest risk for pressure ulceration. While the Braden scale for pressure sore risk is the most commonly used tool for measuring pressure ulcer risk in the United States, research focusing on the cumulative Braden Scale score and subscale scores is lacking in the critical care population. This author conducted a literature review on pressure ulcer risk assessment in the critical care population, to include the predictive value of both the total score and the subscale scores. In this review, the subscales sensory perception, mobility, moisture, and friction/shear were found to be associated with an increased likelihood of pressure ulcer development; in contrast, the Activity and Nutrition subscales were not found to predict pressure ulcer development in this population. In order to more precisely quantify risk in the critically ill population, modification of the Braden scale or development of a critical care specific risk assessment tool may be indicated. PMID:22948495

  8. Flexion Relaxation Ratio Not Responsive to Acutely Induced Low Back Pain from a Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Maggie E.; Bishop, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The flexion relaxation ratio (FRR) has been suggested as a measure of muscular performance in patients with low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the FRR was responsive to acute LBP produced from a delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) protocol. Methods. Fifty-one pain-free volunteers performed DOMS to induce LBP. Current pain intensity, trunk flexion range of motion (ROM), and passive straight leg raise (SLR) were measured at baseline, 24 and 48 hours after DOMS. Participants were categorized into pain groups based on reported current pain intensity. Changes in FRR, trunk flexion ROM, and SLR ROM were examined using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Results. Pain group was not found to have a significant effect on FRR (F1,29 = 0.054, P = 0.818), nor were there any two-way interactions for changes in FRR. The pain group had decreased trunk flexion ROM compared to the minimal pain group (F1,38 = 7.21, P = 0.011), but no decreases in SLR ROM (F1,38 = 3.51, P = 0.057) over time. Interpretation. There were no differences in FRR based on reported pain intensity of LBP from a DOMS protocol. The responsiveness of FRR might be limited in patients with acute onset LBP of muscular origin. PMID:27335879

  9. The effects of kinesio taping on architecture, strength and pain of muscles in delayed onset muscle soreness of biceps brachii

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Sin; Bae, Sea Hyun; Hwang, Jin Ah; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to confirm the effects of kinesio taping (KT) on muscle function and pain due to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the biceps brachii. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven subjects with induced DOMS were randomized into either Group I (control, n=19) or Group II (KT, n=18). Outcome measures were recorded before the intervention (application of KT) and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the intervention. DOMS was induced, and muscle thickness was measured using ultrasonic radiography. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) was measured via electromyography (EMG). Subjective pain was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). [Results] Group I exhibited a positive correlation between muscle thickness and elapsed time from intervention (24, 48, and 72 hours post induction of DOMS); they also showed a significant decrease in MVIC(%). Group II showed significant increases in muscle thickness up to the 48-hour interval post induction of DOMS, along with a significant decrease in MVIC (%). However, in contrast to Group I, Group II did not show a significant difference in muscle thickness or MVIC (%) at the 72-hour interval in comparison with the values prior to DOMS induction. [Conclusion] In adults with DOMS, activation of muscles by applying KT was found to be an effective and faster method of recovering muscle strength than rest alone. PMID:25729190

  10. The effects of kinesio taping on architecture, strength and pain of muscles in delayed onset muscle soreness of biceps brachii.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Sin; Bae, Sea Hyun; Hwang, Jin Ah; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to confirm the effects of kinesio taping (KT) on muscle function and pain due to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the biceps brachii. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven subjects with induced DOMS were randomized into either Group I (control, n=19) or Group II (KT, n=18). Outcome measures were recorded before the intervention (application of KT) and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the intervention. DOMS was induced, and muscle thickness was measured using ultrasonic radiography. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) was measured via electromyography (EMG). Subjective pain was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). [Results] Group I exhibited a positive correlation between muscle thickness and elapsed time from intervention (24, 48, and 72 hours post induction of DOMS); they also showed a significant decrease in MVIC(%). Group II showed significant increases in muscle thickness up to the 48-hour interval post induction of DOMS, along with a significant decrease in MVIC (%). However, in contrast to Group I, Group II did not show a significant difference in muscle thickness or MVIC (%) at the 72-hour interval in comparison with the values prior to DOMS induction. [Conclusion] In adults with DOMS, activation of muscles by applying KT was found to be an effective and faster method of recovering muscle strength than rest alone. PMID:25729190

  11. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Simulated and True Clinical Throat Swab Specimens by Nanorod Array-Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hennigan, Suzanne L.; Driskell, Jeremy D.; Dluhy, Richard A.; Zhao, Yiping; Tripp, Ralph A.; Waites, Ken B.; Krause, Duncan C.

    2010-01-01

    The prokaryote Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in humans, accounting for 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia and the leading cause of pneumonia in older children and young adults. The limitations of existing options for mycoplasma diagnosis highlight a critical need for a new detection platform with high sensitivity, specificity, and expediency. Here we evaluated silver nanorod arrays (NA) as a biosensing platform for detection and differentiation of M. pneumoniae in culture and in spiked and true clinical throat swab samples by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Three M. pneumoniae strains were reproducibly differentiated by NA-SERS with 95%–100% specificity and 94–100% sensitivity, and with a lower detection limit exceeding standard PCR. Analysis of throat swab samples spiked with M. pneumoniae yielded detection in a complex, clinically relevant background with >90% accuracy and high sensitivity. In addition, NA-SERS correctly classified with >97% accuracy, ten true clinical throat swab samples previously established by real-time PCR and culture to be positive or negative for M. pneumoniae. Our findings suggest that the unique biochemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy, combined with reproducible spectral enhancement by silver NA, holds great promise as a superior platform for rapid and sensitive detection and identification of M. pneumoniae, with potential for point-of-care application. PMID:21049032

  12. Characterization and Persistence of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from the Anterior Nares and Throats of Healthy Carriers in a Mexican Community▿

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan-Partida, Aída; Sainz-Espuñes, Teresita; Bustos-Martínez, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Healthy carriers of Staphylococcus aureus strains have an important role in the dissemination of this bacterium. To investigate the presence of S. aureus in the throat and anterior nares, samples from 1,243 healthy volunteers in a Mexican community were examined. The percentage of healthy carriers was 59.8%. Results showed that colonization of the throat occurred more frequently than that of the nares (46.5% versus 37.1%, P < 0.0001). Of the S. aureus carriers, 22.2% were exclusive nasal carriers and 38% were exclusive throat carriers. A total of 1,039 strains were isolated; 12.6% were shown to be methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Of MRSA strains, 32.1% were isolated from exclusive throat carriers. Most of the strains isolated from the anterior nares and throat of the same carriers were the same or related; however, some were different. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern analysis of the MRSA strains isolated from the exclusive nasal carriers or exclusive throat carriers showed that they belong to different clusters. A 6-year prospective study was performed to investigate the persistence of S. aureus in the throat. Results showed that 13% of subjects were persistent carriers. Most of them were colonized with the same clone of S. aureus throughout the time of the study, and just three had different clones. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 91.1% of the strains were penicillin resistant. The presence of mecA and nucA genes (in order to confirm methicillin resistance) and of thermostable nuclease of S. aureus was examined. This study showed that some strains of S. aureus regularly colonized the throats of healthy people and could persist for years. PMID:20335416

  13. Comparison of LightCycler PCR, rapid antigen immunoassay, and culture for detection of group A streptococci from throat swabs.

    PubMed

    Uhl, J R; Adamson, S C; Vetter, E A; Schleck, C D; Harmsen, W S; Iverson, L K; Santrach, P J; Henry, N K; Cockerill, F R

    2003-01-01

    We compared the performance characteristics of a real-time PCR method, the LightCycler Strep-A assay (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, Ind.), to those of a rapid antigen immunoassay, the Directigen 1-2-3 Group A Strep Test kit (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.), and a standard culture method for detection of group A streptococci (GAS) from 384 throat swabs. The LightCycler PCR produced more positive results (n = 58) than either culture (n = 55) or the Directigen immunoassay (n = 31). The results of the LightCycler PCR and the Directigen method were independently compared to the results of the accepted "gold standard," bacterial culture. The sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values for this comparison were as follows: for the Directigen method, 55, 99, 97, and 93%, respectively; for the LightCycler PCR, 93, 98, 88, and 99%, respectively. In no case was a throat swab positive by both the LightCycler PCR and the Directigen method but negative by culture. The medical histories of patients whose throat swabs were negative by culture but positive by either the LightCycler PCR (n = 7) or the Directigen method (n = 1) were reviewed. All of these patients had signs or symptoms compatible with GAS disease, and therefore, all of these discordant positive results (along with positive results by either the Directigen method or the LightCycler PCR that agreed with the culture results) were counted as true positives for statistical analysis. For this analysis, the LightCycler PCR detected more true-positive results than the culture method (58 versus 55 swabs); however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.5465). In contrast, statistically significantly more true-positive results occurred by culture than by the Directigen method (55 versus 31 swabs; P < 0.0001) and by the LightCycler PCR than by the Directigen method (58 versus 31 swabs; P < 0.0001). The LightCycler PCR is a suitable stand-alone method for the detection of

  14. Comparison of LightCycler PCR, Rapid Antigen Immunoassay, and Culture for Detection of Group A Streptococci from Throat Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, J. R.; Adamson, S. C.; Vetter, E. A.; Schleck, C. D.; Harmsen, W. S.; Iverson, L. K.; Santrach, P. J.; Henry, N. K.; Cockerill, F. R.

    2003-01-01

    We compared the performance characteristics of a real-time PCR method, the LightCycler Strep-A assay (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, Ind.), to those of a rapid antigen immunoassay, the Directigen 1-2-3 Group A Strep Test kit (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.), and a standard culture method for detection of group A streptococci (GAS) from 384 throat swabs. The LightCycler PCR produced more positive results (n = 58) than either culture (n = 55) or the Directigen immunoassay (n = 31). The results of the LightCycler PCR and the Directigen method were independently compared to the results of the accepted “gold standard,” bacterial culture. The sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values for this comparison were as follows: for the Directigen method, 55, 99, 97, and 93%, respectively; for the LightCycler PCR, 93, 98, 88, and 99%, respectively. In no case was a throat swab positive by both the LightCycler PCR and the Directigen method but negative by culture. The medical histories of patients whose throat swabs were negative by culture but positive by either the LightCycler PCR (n = 7) or the Directigen method (n = 1) were reviewed. All of these patients had signs or symptoms compatible with GAS disease, and therefore, all of these discordant positive results (along with positive results by either the Directigen method or the LightCycler PCR that agreed with the culture results) were counted as true positives for statistical analysis. For this analysis, the LightCycler PCR detected more true-positive results than the culture method (58 versus 55 swabs); however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.5465). In contrast, statistically significantly more true-positive results occurred by culture than by the Directigen method (55 versus 31 swabs; P < 0.0001) and by the LightCycler PCR than by the Directigen method (58 versus 31 swabs; P < 0.0001). The LightCycler PCR is a suitable stand-alone method for the

  15. Disparities in Knowledge of Mouth or Throat Cancer Among Rural Floridians

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Muller, Keith E; Guo, Yi; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for reduced mouth or throat cancer (MTC) knowledge using a sample of rural North Floridian adults. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted across rural census tracts throughout North Florida in 2009-2010, using a survey adapted for cultural appropriateness. The sample consisted of 2,393 individuals (1,059 males and 1,334 females; 1,681 whites and 712 blacks). Findings Only 9% of the study respondents indicated they had not heard of MTC; however, only 12% endorsed knowing “a lot.” Higher education levels and health literacy indicated they had more MTC knowledge. Among female participants, whites had more knowledge than blacks (OR = 1.9). Among black participants, males had more knowledge than females (OR = 1.7). Conversely, greater concern with MTC was associated with lower education levels, health literacy, and financial status, but higher depression scores. Awareness that excessive sun exposure is a risk factor for MTC was lower than for earlier studies using more urban samples. Conclusions This study adds to the literature on MTC knowledge and concern because this sample was drawn exclusively from rural populations in North Florida, a group with the highest MTC morbidity and mortality. An unanticipated finding was that blacks were more concerned than their white rural counterparts. This study was also the first to report that depression was associated with increased concern about MTC. The goal is to persuade at-risk groups to obtain MTC screenings with the goal of reducing disparities in MTC whenever they occur. PMID:23802931

  16. Traditional management of ear, nose and throat (ENT) diseases in Central Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Njoroge, Grace N; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2006-01-01

    Diseases of ear, nose and throat (ENT) often have serious consequences including hearing impairment, and emotional strain that lower the quality of life of patients. In Kenya, upper respiratory infections are among the most common infections encountered in outpatient facilities. Some of these infections are becoming difficult to control because some of the causing microorganisms have acquired antibiotic resistance and hence the need to develop new drugs with higher efficacy. Ethnobotanical studies have now been found to be instrumental in improving chances of discovering plants with antimicrobial activity in new drug development. In Kenya the majority of local people are turning to herbal remedies for primary health care needs. In most cases the sources of these remedies are undocumented and the knowledge about them passed orally form generation to generation, hence under threat of disappearing with current rates of modernisation. This study explored the traditional remedies used in managing various ENT diseases in seven districts of the Central Province of Kenya. The most common ENT conditions managed using traditional therapies include: common cold, cough, tonsillitis, otitis-media, chest pains and asthma. The results indicate that 67 species belonging to 36 plant families were utilized in this region. These plants were of varying habits; herbs (37.3%), shrubs (34.4%), trees (25.4%) as well as some grasses and sedges (3%). The traditional preparations were found to be made mainly from leaves (49%), roots (20.5%) and barks (12.5%). For each of the ENT conditions multiple species are utilized mainly as individual preparations but occasionally as polyherbal concoctions. In the case of common cold for example, 30 different species are used. Plants reported in this survey are important candidates for antimicrobial tests against ENT disease causing micro-organisms, especially those with antibiotic resistance. PMID:17192184

  17. Climate effects on population fluctuations of the white-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anna L K; Knudsen, Endre; Jerstad, Kurt; Røstad, Ole W; Walseng, Bjørn; Slagsvold, Tore; Stenseth, Nils C

    2011-01-01

    1. Climate change may have profound consequences for many organisms. We have studied fluctuations in a population of the white-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus during 31 years (1978-2008) in a river system in southern Norway in relation to both large-scale and local weather conditions occurring during the non-breeding season. 2. Multiple regression and partial least squares regression were used to model the growth rate of the population, accounting for population size in the previous year. 3. Population growth was influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), mean winter temperature, precipitation and timing of ice formation on the main lake in the river system in autumn. These variables explained 84% of the variation in population growth over the 31-year study period. 4. Local winter conditions played a prominent role in explaining the population fluctuations, which is plausible because the dipper depends on open water for foraging. In the study area, winters can be harsh and rivers and lakes may freeze and severely affect the subsequent population size of the dipper in spring. 5. The breeding population of the dipper does not seem yet to have reached a level where all possible territories in the area have been occupied, even after mild winters, and the estimated carrying capacity is also decidedly lower (66 breeding pairs) than the number of available territories. If the trend of milder winters continues, the population might increase in the future. However, strong climate variation is expected to continue in the future, and hence periods of rapid growth of the dipper population will probably be followed by severe declines. PMID:20880020

  18. Optimization of Tape Winding Process Parameters to Enhance the Performance of Solid Rocket Nozzle Throat Back Up Liners using Taguchi's Robust Design Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Nayani Kishore

    2016-06-01

    The throat back up liners is used to protect the nozzle structural members from the severe thermal environment in solid rocket nozzles. The throat back up liners is made with E-glass phenolic prepregs by tape winding process. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the optimization of process parameters of tape winding process to achieve better insulative resistance using Taguchi's robust design methodology. In this method four control factors machine speed, roller pressure, tape tension, tape temperature that were investigated for the tape winding process. The presented work was to study the cogency and acceptability of Taguchi's methodology in manufacturing of throat back up liners. The quality characteristic identified was Back wall temperature. Experiments carried out using L{9/'} (34) orthogonal array with three levels of four different control factors. The test results were analyzed using smaller the better criteria for Signal to Noise ratio in order to optimize the process. The experimental results were analyzed conformed and successfully used to achieve the minimum back wall temperature of the throat back up liners. The enhancement in performance of the throat back up liners was observed by carrying out the oxy-acetylene tests. The influence of back wall temperature on the performance of throat back up liners was verified by ground firing test.

  19. Effect of inducer inlet and diffuser throat areas on performance of a low pressure ratio sweptback centrifugal compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klassen, H. A.

    1975-01-01

    A low-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor was tested with nine combinations of three diffuser throat areas and three impeller inducer inlet areas which were 75, 100, and 125 percent of design values. For a given inducer inlet area, increases in diffuser area within the range investigated resulted in increased mass flow and higher peak efficiency. Changes in both diffuser and inducer areas indicated that efficiencies within one point of the maximum efficiency were obtained over a compressor specific speed range of 27 percent. The performance was analyzed of an assumed two-spool open-cycle engine using the 75 percent area inducer with a variable area diffuser.

  20. 2D and 3D imaging resolution trade-offs in quantifying pore throats for prediction of permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Beckingham, Lauren E.; Peters, Catherine A.; Um, Wooyong; Jones, Keith W.; Lindquist, W.Brent

    2013-09-03

    Although the impact of subsurface geochemical reactions on porosity is relatively well understood, changes in permeability remain difficult to estimate. In this work, pore-network modeling was used to predict permeability based on pore- and pore-throat size distributions determined from analysis of 2D scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of thin sections and 3D X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) data. The analyzed specimens were a Viking sandstone sample from the Alberta sedimentary basin and an experimental column of reacted Hanford sediments. For the column, a decrease in permeability due to mineral precipitation was estimated, but the permeability estimates were dependent on imaging technique and resolution. X-ray CT imaging has the advantage of reconstructing a 3D pore network while 2D SEM imaging can easily analyze sub-grain and intragranular variations in mineralogy. Pore network models informed by analyses of 2D and 3D images at comparable resolutions produced permeability esti- mates with relatively good agreement. Large discrepancies in predicted permeabilities resulted from small variations in image resolution. Images with resolutions 0.4 to 4 lm predicted permeabilities differ- ing by orders of magnitude. While lower-resolution scans can analyze larger specimens, small pore throats may be missed due to resolution limitations, which in turn overestimates permeability in a pore-network model in which pore-to-pore conductances are statistically assigned. Conversely, high-res- olution scans are capable of capturing small pore throats, but if they are not actually flow-conducting predicted permeabilities will be below expected values. In addition, permeability is underestimated due to misinterpreting surface-roughness features as small pore throats. Comparison of permeability pre- dictions with expected and measured permeability values showed that the largest discrepancies resulted from the highest resolution images and the best predictions of

  1. Using a case-mix-adjusted pressure sore incidence study in a surgical directorate to improve patient outcomes in pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Watret, L

    1999-10-01

    The Glasgow Acute Clinical Audit Sub-Committee on Pressure Sores has previously carried out studies of incidence of pressure ulcers in the medical directorates and case-mix-adjusted the figures for length of hospital stay and risk assessment score. Case-mix classification is 'classification of people or treatment placed into groups using characteristics associated with condition, treatment or outcome that can be used to predict need, resource, use of outcomes'. In this instance, crude pressure ulcer incidence figures may be adjusted for length of hospital stay and pressure sore risk assessment score, and stratified into groups, which allows like to be compared with like. The value in case-mix-adjusted figures lies in repeating the exercise, thus determining the trend for individual areas and assessing whether improvement in the quality of care is being achieved. This is more positive than creation of 'league tables' comparing simultaneous studies in a number of areas. The figures showed that there was no statistically significant difference between surgical directorates in trusts with regard to risk assessment scores and length of hospital stay. Gathering data on the incidence of pressure ulcer development allows us to identify where new sores are occurring, but does not critically analyse the nursing intervention taken in individual cases, which identifies preventive strategies. The Glasgow group's primary aim was to gather data on case-mix-adjusted incidence of pressure damage; the secondary objectives were to scrutinize the data to gather more general information on intrinsic and extrinsic factors which may predispose to pressure ulcer development. The study was carried out in the surgical directorate. Findings showed that incidence was low (1.1%), with the majority of sores being superficial. There was a correlation between pressure ulcer development and incontinence, evidence of under-utilization of moving and handling aids for prevention of pressure ulcers

  2. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined the effects of a proprietary herbal/botanical supplement (StemSport, Stemtech, San Clemente, CA.) suggested to increase circulating stem cells, decrease inflammation, and attenuate exercise induced muscle damage on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Methods Sixteen subjects (male = 7, female = 9; age 23.8 ± 10 years; height 171.9 ± 10 cm, mass 72.2 ± 15 kg) were randomized in a crossover, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to receive a placebo or StemSport supplement (6150 mg/day) for 14 days. DOMS was induced on day 7 for both placebo and active conditions in the non-dominant elbow flexor group with repeated eccentric repetitions. Muscle swelling (biceps girth), elbow flexor isometric strength (hand held dynamometer), muscle pain/tenderness (visual analog scale), range of motion (active elbow flexion and extension), and inflammation (hsCRP, IL6, and TNF-α) were measured at baseline and at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h (1 week) post eccentric exercise. The crossover washout period was ≥14 days. Results No significant condition-by-time interactions between placebo and StemSport supplementation were observed with regard to measures of pain (p = 0.59), tenderness (p = 0.71), isometric strength (p = 0.32), elbow flexion (p = 0.45), muscle swelling (p = 0.90), or inflammation (p > 0.90). Decrements in elbow extension range of motion 48 h post-exercise were less after StemSport supplementation (Δ elbow extension 48 h post; StemSport, −2.0 deg; placebo, −10 deg; p = 0.003). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, StemSport supplementation does not improve outcome measures related to muscle recovery after acute upper-arm induced DOMS. PMID:24966805

  3. Can a standard dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation reduce the symptoms of delayed onset of muscle soreness?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unaccustomed exercise can result in delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) which can affect athletic performance. Although DOMS is a useful tool to identify muscle damage and remodelling, prolonged symptoms of DOMS may be associated with the over-training syndrome. In order to reduce the symptoms of DOMS numerous management strategies have been attempted with no significant effect on DOMS-associated cytokines surge. The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of a 2 × 180 mg per day dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated inflammatory response and symptoms associated with DOMS. Methods Seventeen healthy non-smoking females (age 20.4 ± 2.1 years, height 161.2 ± 8.3 cm and mass 61.48 ± 7.4 kg) were randomly assigned to either placebo (N = 10) or EPA (N = 7). Serum IL-6, isometric and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) strength, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded on four occasions: i-prior to supplementation, ii-immediately after three weeks of supplementation (basal effects), iii-48 hours following a single bout of resistance exercise (acute training response effects), and iv-48 hours following the last of a series of three bouts of resistance exercise (chronic training response effects). Results There was only a group difference in the degree of change in circulating IL-6 levels. In fact, relative to the first baseline, by the third bout of eccentric workout, the EPA group had 103 ± 60% increment in IL-6 levels whereas the placebo group only had 80 ± 26% incremented IL-6 levels (P = 0.020). We also describe a stable multiple linear regression model which included measures of strength and not IL-6 as predictors of RPE scale. Conclusion The present study suggests that in doubling the standard recommended dose of EPA, whilst this may still not be beneficial at ameliorating the symptoms of DOMS, it counter intuitively appears to enhance the cytokine response to exercise. In a

  4. The effect of pore throat size and injection flowrate on the determination and sensitivity of different capillary number values at high-capillary-number flow in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadali Jamaloei, Benyamin; Ahmadloo, Farid; Kharrat, Riyaz

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the effect of pore throat size and injection flowrate on the values of the pore-scale capillary number, the Newtonian-fluid capillary number and the apparent capillary number (Nc1, Nc2 and Nc3, respectively) and their sensitivity to change in high-capillary-number flow through porous media, which occurs in polymer-assisted dilute surfactant flooding (PADSF). Additionally, the influence of pore throat size and injection flowrate on oil recovery at breakthrough and at the end of displacement (ultimate) and the relationship between the effective shear rate γeff and the porous medium-dependent shift factor α are discussed. The results indicated that Nc2 was the smallest and Nc3 was the largest value. The difference between Nc2 and Nc3 is due to the increase in apparent viscosity of the polymer-contained surfactant solution during the flow through porous media and the change in Nc3 should be utilized to characterize the macroscopic behavior of the PADSF. Generally, the decrease in pore throat size and the increase in injection flowrate caused an increase in the ultimate oil recovery and Nc3. Moreover, the oil recovery at breakthrough decreased with an increase in pore throat size and injection flowrate. Finally, the rate of change of γeff, with change in α, increased almost uniformly with a decrease in pore throat size and an increase in injection flowrate.

  5. Sore eyes and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Colley, Samantha; Smith, John

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with sexual disinhibition and altered behaviour following an episode of optic neuritis. Her only history was of anxiety disorder. Her differential diagnosis was neurological versus psychiatric. Routine blood tests were unremarkable at this stage. MRI revealed non-specific change and lumbar puncture revealed a slight lymphocytosis and elevated protein and glucose in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PCR on the CSF was negative for viruses: Adenovirus, varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, enterovirus and parechovirus. She was initially treated with intravenous acyclovir to little effect. Antipsychotics olanzapine and haloperidol were also trialled and continued for 3 weeks in total. Once again these medications failed to affect the patient's behaviour but she did begin to show the side effects associated with these medications. Further test results became available at this point-she was anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody positive. A diagnosis of anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis was made. The patient was started on cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone to good effect. PMID:25193812

  6. Sore eyes and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Colley, Samantha; Smith, John

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with sexual disinhibition and altered behaviour following an episode of optic neuritis. Her only history was of anxiety disorder. Her differential diagnosis was neurological versus psychiatric. Routine blood tests were unremarkable at this stage. MRI revealed non-specific change and lumbar puncture revealed a slight lymphocytosis and elevated protein and glucose in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PCR on the CSF was negative for viruses: Adenovirus, varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, enterovirus and parechovirus. She was initially treated with intravenous acyclovir to little effect. Antipsychotics olanzapine and haloperidol were also trialled and continued for 3 weeks in total. Once again these medications failed to affect the patient's behaviour but she did begin to show the side effects associated with these medications. Further test results became available at this point—she was anti-N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody positive. A diagnosis of anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis was made. The patient was started on cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone to good effect. PMID:25193812

  7. Genital sores - female

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bodurka DC. Neoplastic diseases of the vulva. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds . ... Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 30. Eckert L, Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract. In: ...

  8. Genital sores - female

    MedlinePlus

    ... inguinale) Genital herpes Genital warts Melanoma Molluscum contagiosum Vulvovaginitis - overview Update Date 11/5/2015 Updated by: ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  9. Canker Sores: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Executive Committee Board of Trustees Governance Past Presidents Staff/Contact History Awards Our Partners Membership Membership Categories Renew Your Membership Login Fellowship Academic Fellowship Affiliate Fellowship (AFAOM) Application Process Fellowship Study ...

  10. Canker Sore (Aphthous Ulcer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Notice This Site and third parties who place advertisements on this Site may collect and use information ... Site and other websites in order to provide advertisements about goods and services of interest to you. ...

  11. Reviewing the literature, how systematic is systematic?

    PubMed

    MacLure, Katie; Paudyal, Vibhu; Stewart, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Professor Archibald Cochrane, after whom the Cochrane Collaboration is named, was influential in promoting evidence-based clinical practice. He called for "relevant, valid research" to underpin all aspects of healthcare. Systematic reviews of the literature are regarded as a high quality source of cumulative evidence but it is unclear how truly systematic they, or other review articles, are or 'how systematic is systematic?' Today's evidence-based review industry is a burgeoning mix of specialist terminology, collaborations and foundations, databases, portals, handbooks, tools, criteria and training courses. Aim of the review This study aims to identify uses and types of reviews, key issues in planning, conducting, reporting and critiquing reviews, and factors which limit claims to be systematic. Method A rapid review of review articles published in IJCP. Results This rapid review identified 17 review articles published in IJCP between 2010 and 2015 inclusive. It explored the use of different types of review article, the variation and widely available range of guidelines, checklists and criteria which, through systematic application, aim to promote best practice. It also identified common pitfalls in endeavouring to conduct reviews of the literature systematically. Discussion Although a limited set of IJCP reviews were identified, there is clear evidence of the variation in adoption and application of systematic methods. The burgeoning evidence industry offers the tools and guidelines required to conduct systematic reviews, and other types of review, systematically. This rapid review was limited to the database of one journal over a period of 6 years. Although this review was conducted systematically, it is not presented as a systematic review. Conclusion As a research community we have yet to fully engage with readily available guidelines and tools which would help to avoid the common pitfalls. Therefore the question remains, of not just IJCP but

  12. White-throated sparrows calibrate their magnetic compass by polarized light cues during both autumn and spring migration.

    PubMed

    Muheim, Rachel; Phillips, John B; Deutschlander, Mark E

    2009-11-01

    The interaction and hierarchy of celestial and magnetic compass cues used by migratory songbirds for orientation has long been the topic of an intense debate. We have previously shown that migratory Savannah sparrows, Passerculus sandwichensis, use polarized light cues near the horizon at sunrise and sunset to recalibrate their magnetic compass. Birds exposed to a +/-90 deg. shifted artificial polarization pattern at sunrise or sunset recalibrated their magnetic compass, but only when given full access to celestial cues, including polarized light cues near the horizon. In the current study, we carried out cue conflict experiments with white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis, during both spring and autumn migration in a transition zone between the species' breeding and wintering areas on the south shore of Lake Ontario. We show that white-throated sparrows also recalibrate their magnetic compass by polarized light cues at sunrise and sunset. Sunrise exposure to an artificial polarization pattern shifted relative to the natural magnetic field or exposure to a shift of the magnetic field relative to the natural sky both led to recalibration of the magnetic compass, demonstrating that artificial polarizing filters do not create an anomalous, unnatural orientation response. Our results further indicate that there is no evidence for a difference in compass hierarchy between different phases of migration, confirming previous work showing that polarized light cues near the horizon at sunrise and sunset provide the primary calibration reference both in the beginning and at the end of migration. PMID:19837888

  13. Addressing Potential Cumulative Impacts of Development on Threatened Species: The Case of the Endangered Black-Throated Finch

    PubMed Central

    Vanderduys, Eric Peter; Reside, April E.; Grice, Anthony; Rechetelo, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Where threatened biodiversity is adversely affected by development, policies often state that "no net loss" should be the goal and biodiversity offsetting is one mechanism available to achieve this. However, developments are often approved on an ad hoc basis and cumulative impacts are not sufficiently examined. We demonstrate the potential for serious threat to an endangered subspecies when multiple developments are planned. We modelled the distribution of the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta) using bioclimatic data and Queensland's Regional Ecosystem classification. We overlaid granted, extant extractive and exploratory mining tenures within the known and modelled ranges of black-throated finches to examine the level of incipient threat to this subspecies in central Queensland, Australia. Our models indicate that more than half of the remaining P. cincta cincta habitat is currently under extractive or exploratory tenure. Therefore, insufficient habitat exists to offset all potential development so "no net loss" is not possible. This has implications for future conservation of this and similarly distributed species and for resource development planning, especially the use of legislated offsets for biodiversity protection. PMID:26934622

  14. Addressing Potential Cumulative Impacts of Development on Threatened Species: The Case of the Endangered Black-Throated Finch.

    PubMed

    Vanderduys, Eric Peter; Reside, April E; Grice, Anthony; Rechetelo, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Where threatened biodiversity is adversely affected by development, policies often state that "no net loss" should be the goal and biodiversity offsetting is one mechanism available to achieve this. However, developments are often approved on an ad hoc basis and cumulative impacts are not sufficiently examined. We demonstrate the potential for serious threat to an endangered subspecies when multiple developments are planned. We modelled the distribution of the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta) using bioclimatic data and Queensland's Regional Ecosystem classification. We overlaid granted, extant extractive and exploratory mining tenures within the known and modelled ranges of black-throated finches to examine the level of incipient threat to this subspecies in central Queensland, Australia. Our models indicate that more than half of the remaining P. cincta cincta habitat is currently under extractive or exploratory tenure. Therefore, insufficient habitat exists to offset all potential development so "no net loss" is not possible. This has implications for future conservation of this and similarly distributed species and for resource development planning, especially the use of legislated offsets for biodiversity protection. PMID:26934622

  15. Effect of essential oil of traditional two Saudi mint types and its possible role in cardiovascular and throat health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed M; Ozbak, Hani A; Hemeg, Hassan A

    2015-01-01

    Essential Oil (EO) of two Mentha species (popularly used in Saudi Arabia), Mentha Longifolia (ML), and Mentha pulegium (MP) was isolated and subjected to inhibit LDL oxidation in 22 hypercholestrolemic samples collected from 22 subjects, and inhibited of 5 bacterial pathogen in vitro. LDL was isolated by ultracentrifugation and enhanced to oxidation with CuSO4 and EO was added to prevent this oxidation, free radical scavenging activity was measured (decrease 50% DPPH radicals). EO content of phenolic and flavonoid was estimated. Five bacterial strains infect human throat was tested against EO of ML and MP in diffusion agar method. EO of the two herbals possess highly significantresults, success to inhibit LDL oxidation (P<0.001 for both herbal than non addition against lipid peroxidase, P<0.001 ML better than MP P<0.001), decreased DPPH free radicals (P<0.001 for both than control, P<0.001 for ML than MP), and possess strong antioxidant activity for ML than MP (polyphenol and flavonoids contents was higher in EO of ML than MP, P<0.001). EO of ML possess strong antioxidant and antibacterial activity than MP, these attributed to its high flavonoid contents enable it to be a good for cardiovascular and throat health. The study supported the traditional uses of ML. PMID:26221371

  16. Timing of feather molt related to date of spring migration in male white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis.

    PubMed

    Cristol, Daniel Aaron; Johnson, Karen Michelle; Jenkins, Kendell Daly; Hawley, Dana Michelle

    2014-12-01

    In migratory birds, the ability to depart wintering grounds at the appropriate time is an important determinant of fitness. Understanding the regulation of this timing will be essential for predicting whether timing of bird migration keeps up with global climate change. We examined whether the timing of the late-winter molt, in which white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) replace head and body feathers in advance of mating, may constrain the timing of northward migratory departure. In an observational study, we found a significant correlation between timing of molt and the date on which free-living male white-throated sparrows disappeared from our study site during migration. The following year, we tested whether experimentally manipulating molt date by advancing photoperiod during temporary captivity would subsequently advance disappearance date once the birds were released. Sparrows that were experimentally induced to molt early disappeared from the wintering site before controls. However, the captive control birds also molted and disappeared from the site earlier than free-living controls, suggesting that the diet during captivity had played a role. In the third winter we completed the study by advancing or delaying molt using only dietary manipulation. Together, these results show that the ability to molt early in spring is related to early disappearance from the wintering site. Early molt likely has carry-over effects on reproduction and the requirements of molt may prevent populations from adjusting migration timing in response to global climate change. PMID:25287905

  17. The 2D versus 3D imaging trade-off: The impact of over- or under-estimating small throats for simulating permeability in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C. A.; Crandell, L. E.; Um, W.; Jones, K. W.; Lindquist, W. B.

    2011-12-01

    Geochemical reactions in the subsurface can alter the porosity and permeability of a porous medium through mineral precipitation and dissolution. While effects on porosity are relatively well understood, changes in permeability are more difficult to estimate. In this work, pore-network modeling is used to estimate the permeability of a porous medium using pore and throat size distributions. These distributions can be determined from 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of thin sections or from 3D X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images of small cores. Each method has unique advantages as well as unique sources of error. 3D CT imaging has the advantage of reconstructing a 3D pore network without the inherent geometry-based biases of 2D images but is limited by resolutions around 1 μm. 2D SEM imaging has the advantage of higher resolution, and the ability to examine sub-grain scale variations in porosity and mineralogy, but is limited by the small size of the sample of pores that are quantified. A pore network model was created to estimate flow permeability in a sand-packed experimental column investigating reaction of sediments with caustic radioactive tank wastes in the context of the Hanford, WA site. Before, periodically during, and after reaction, 3D images of the porous medium in the column were produced using the X2B beam line facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Lab. These images were interpreted using 3DMA-Rock to characterize the pore and throat size distributions. After completion of the experiment, the column was sectioned and imaged using 2D SEM in backscattered electron mode. The 2D images were interpreted using erosion-dilation to estimate the pore and throat size distributions. A bias correction was determined by comparison with the 3D image data. A special image processing method was developed to infer the pore space before reaction by digitally removing the precipitate. The different sets of pore

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of Korean yellow-throated marten, Martes flavigula (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Kuem Hee; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Martes flavigula, which is an endangered and endemic species in South Korea, was determined. The genome is 16,533 bp in length and its gene arrangement pattern, gene content, and gene organization is identical to those of martens. The control region was located between the tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes and is 1087 bp in length. This mitogenome sequence data might be an important role in the preservation of genetic resources by allowing researchers to conduct phylogenetic and systematic analyses of Mustelidae. PMID:25264839

  19. Effective porosity and pore-throat sizes of Conasauga Group mudrock: Application, test and evaluation of petrophysical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsch, J.; Katsube, T.J.; Sanford, W.E. |; Dugan, B.E.; Tourkow, L.M.

    1996-04-01

    Effective porosity (specifically referring to the interconnected pore space) was recently recognized as being essential in determining the effectiveness and extent of matrix diffusion as a transport mechanism within fractured low-permeability rock formations. The research presented in this report was performed to test the applicability of several petrophysical techniques for the determination of effective porosity of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. In addition, the aim was to gather quantitative data on the effective porosity of Conasauga Group mudrock from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The quantitative data reported here include not only effective porosities based on diverse measurement techniques, but also data on the sizes of pore throats and their distribution, and specimen bulk and grain densities. The petrophysical techniques employed include the immersion-saturation method, mercury and helium porosimetry, and the radial diffusion-cell method.

  20. Foraging behaviour of the Scale-throated Hermit Phaethornis eurynome Lesson, 1832 (Aves, Trochilidae) in Vriesea incurvata Gaudich (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, B G; Piratelli, A J

    2014-05-01

    In this study we tested for density-dependent relationships between visitation rates of the Scale-throated Hermit (Phaethornis eurynome) and the plant density and flower number of the bromeliad Vriesea incurvata, by comparing plots with varying densities of this bromeliad. Eight 100 m2 plots were established at least 200 m from each other; four plots contained 10-15 individuals of V. incurvata each, whereas the other four contained 4-5 individuals each. The visitors, number of visits, behaviour (nectar thief or potential pollinator) and the height of foraging were recorded during focal observations on the plants. The number of visits of P. eurynome varied according to the local density of V. incurvata, showing that the heterogeneous distribution of this bromeliad species may promote adjustments in the pollinator populations, through resource variation at a local scale. PMID:25166315

  1. Effect of delay in processing on the performance of Directigen for the detection of group A streptococci in throat swabs.

    PubMed Central

    Matteson, M L; Anhalt, J P

    1985-01-01

    We compared a latex agglutination method, Directigen (Hynson, Westcott & Dunning) with a culture-based system for detection of group A streptococci in 964 throat swabs. Discordants were resolved by Lancefield typing of beta-hemolytic colonies. After culture, swabs were randomly assigned to be tested by Directigen within 4 h of sampling or after overnight storage. For swabs that yielded more than 50 beta-hemolytic colonies from culture, there was a highly significant difference (P less than 0.01) in sensitivity between the group tested early and the group tested after storage overnight. For swabs tested within 4 h of sampling, a trend (P = 0.07) existed between sensitivity and length of delay before testing. PMID:3891779

  2. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to a deep neck space infection presenting with no throat or neck symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Habib; Illing, Elizabeth; Webb, Christopher; Banhegyi, Gyorgy

    2013-01-01

    A previously fit and well 44-year-old gentleman was admitted with a 3-week history of parotid swelling, malaise and feeling generally unwell. His only medical history was α-thalassaemia trait. Initial ear, nose and throat examination was unremarkable. Routine observations highlighted tachycardia, hypotension and a raised respiratory rate. Despite fluid resuscitation, his hypotension failed to resolve and he was admitted to intensive care for inotropic support. He was started on broad spectrum antibiotics and blood cultures isolated Lancefield group A Streptococcus. No obvious source of sepsis was identified. A CT scan from neck to pelvis highlighted a collection around the right tonsil, splenomegaly and widespread small volume lymphadenopathy. A right tonsillectomy, intraoral drainage of parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal abscesses and excision of an axillary lymph node were performed. With continued intravenous antibiotics and supportive measures, he recovered fully. Histology showed reactive lymphadenitis, but no cause of immunocompromise. PMID:23709536

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of Red-throated Conure (Psittacara rubritorquis): its comparison with mitogenome of Socorro Conure (Psittacara brevipes).

    PubMed

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Kroczak, Aleksandra; Strzała, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    According to some taxonomists the Red-throated Conure (Psittacara rubritorquis) is considered a subspecies of Green Conure (Psittacara holochlora). Some other classifications treat rubritorquis as a separate species based on relatively minor morphological differences between both species/subspecies. So far, taxonomic position of P. rubritorquis was determined by molecular researches using only ND2 gene sequence or incomplete combined mitochondrial ND2, COI and CYTB gene sequences. Obtained outcomes found that P. rubritorquis should be treated as a subspecies of P. holochlora. However, the lack of P. h. brewsterii and P. h. strenua samples as well as incompleteness of combined mitochondrial sequence do not exclude opposite scenario. Therefore, we sequenced P. rubritorquis mitogenome to gain a source of molecular data appropriate for future examination of evolutionary diversification of the P. holochlora group. PMID:25703849

  4. A throat-bypass stability system for a YF-12 aircraft research inlet using self-acting mechanical valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, G. L.; Dustin, M. O.; Neiner, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a wind tunnel investigation are presented. The inlet was modified so that airflow can be removed through a porous cowl-bleed region in the vicinity of the throat. Bleed plenum exit flow area is controlled by relief type mechanical valves. Unlike valves in previous systems, these are made for use in a high Mach flight environment and include refinements so that the system could be tested on a NASA YF-12 aircraft. The valves were designed to provide their own reference pressure; hence, do not respond to slowly varying disturbances. However, the results show that the system can absorb internal-airflow-transients that are too fast for a conventional bypass door control system and that the two systems complement each other quite well. Increased tolerance to angle of attack and Mach number changes is indicated. The valves should provide sufficient time for the inlet control system to make geometry changes required to keep the inlet started.

  5. A throat-bypass stability system for a YF-12 aircraft research inlet using self-acting mechanical valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, G. L.; Dustin, M. O.; Neiner, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a wind tunnel investigation are presented. The inlet was modified so that airflow can be removed through a porous cowl-bleed region in the vicinity of the throat. Bleed plenum exit flow area is controlled by relief type mechanical valves. Unlike valves in previous systems, these are made for use in a high Mach flight environment and include refinements so that the system could be tested on a NASA YF-12 aircraft. The valves were designed to provide their own reference pressure. The results show that the system can absorb internal-airflow-transients that are too fast for a conventional bypass door control system and that the two systems complement each other quite well. Increased tolerance to angle of attack and Mach number changes is indicated. The valves should provide sufficient time for the inlet control system to make geometry changes required to keep the inlet started.

  6. Human Fc(gamma) receptors for differentiation in throat cultures of group C "Streptococcus equisimilis" and group C "Streptococcus milleri".

    PubMed

    Lebrun, L; Guibert, M; Wallet, P; de Maneville, M M; Pillot, J

    1986-11-01

    The biochemical characteristics and the presence of human Fc(gamma) receptors of 52 throat isolates of group C beta-hemolytic streptococci were examined. Among these isolates, 38 were identified as "Streptococcus milleri" and 14 were identified as "Streptococcus equisimilis." The differentiation of group C "S. equisimilis" from "S. milleri" with identical group antigens was easy to perform by the measurement of the size of the hemolytic zone on a sheep blood agar plate in an anaerobic atmosphere and by biochemical tests (Voges-Proskauer test). A clear-cut criterion for differentiation was noted among these isolates, i.e., the presence of Fc(gamma) receptors. "S. equisimilis," which are generally associated with pharyngitis, possess human Fc(gamma) receptors, while "S. milleri", which are generally isolated from healthy persons, have no such receptors. PMID:3771760

  7. Pore size and pore throat types in a heterogeneous dolostone reservoir, Devonian Grosmont formation, western Canada sedimentary basin

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, P.; Machel, H. G.

    1995-11-01

    The Devonian Grosmont Formation in northeastern Alberta, Canada, is a giant heavy-oil reservoir. The main reservoir rocks are dolomitized and karstified platform and ramp carbonates, and the best reservoir facies occur in the upper Grosmont (UGM) units 3 and 2. In these units, reservoir properties are highly heterogeneous. Hand specimen, thin section, UV, and SEM petrography, as well as grading scales, mercury capillary pressure curve analysis, and statistics, have been used to characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Our investigation led to a new pore size classification for carbonate reservoirs; this new classification has four pore sizes: microporosity (pore diameters <1 {mu}m), mesoporosity (pore diameters 1-1000 {mu}m), macroporosity (pore diameters 1-256 mm), and megaporosity (pore diameters >256 mm). A combination of microscopic observations and capillary pressure curve characteristics led to the recognition of four pore throat texture types on the microporosity scale, and to five types on the mesoporosity scale. Microporosity pore types include (1) intracrystal dissolution porosity, (2) pervasive intercrystal and intracrystal dissolution porosity, (3) intergranular and/or intercrystal porosity in grainstones, and (4) primary or solution microporosity in mud matrix (only in limestones). Mesoporosity pore types include (1) intercrystal porosity, (2) solution-enhanced intercrystal porosity, (3) oversized porosity, (4) intragranular solution porosity, and (5) intergranular solution porosity. Some of these types are homogeneous (e.g., non-fabric selective dissolution porosity and intercrystal primary porosity), whereas others are heterogeneous. Generally, hydrocarbon recovery efficiency is good in the homogeneous pore throat types, but poor in the heterogeneous types.

  8. The Dusk Chorus from an Owl Perspective: Eagle Owls Vocalize When Their White Throat Badge Contrasts Most

    PubMed Central

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, Maria del Mar

    2009-01-01

    Background An impressive number of studies have investigated bird vocal displays, and many of them have tried to explain the widespread phenomenon of the so-called dawn and dusk chorus, the sunrise and sunset peaks in bird song output. As many as twelve non-exclusive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why twilight peaks in vocal display might be advantageous; but, even after more than two decades of study, the basis underlying the dusk and dawn chorus is still unclear. Moreover, to date, the majority of studies on this topic have focused on songbirds. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigate here a novel hypothesis on why nocturnal birds with patches of white feathers call at twilight. We propose that white plumage patches and the timing of visual signaling have co-evolved to maximize the effectiveness of social communication such as the dusk chorus. This hypothesis centers on the recent discovery that eagle owls can adopt specific forms of visual signaling and is supported by the observation that adult eagle owls possess a white throat badge that is only visible during vocal displays. By monitoring the calling of eagle owls at dusk, a peak time for bird call output, we found that white throat badges contrasted most with the surrounding background during the owls' twilight chorusing. Conclusions/Significance Crepuscular and nocturnal species appear to have evolved white patches that, shown in association with vocal displays, allow them to communicate in dark surroundings. The evolution of a white badge that operates jointly with call displays at dawn and dusk may be relevant to the eagle owls' social dynamics. Our explanation for the dusk chorus may possibly represent an overlooked but common pattern of signaling among crepuscular and nocturnal birds that combine patches of white feathers with twilight displays. Furthermore, our findings could be relevant to songbirds that breed in dark forest habitats and have contrasting white badges, as well as birds

  9. Short-term antibiotic treatment has differing long-term impacts on the human throat and gut microbiome

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsson, H.; Jernberg, C.; Andersson, A.F.; Sjolund-Karlsson, M.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2010-01-15

    Antibiotic administration is the standard treatment for the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, the long-term consequences of this treatment on the human indigenous microbiota are relatively unexplored. Here we studied short- and long-term effects of clarithromycin and metronidazole treatment, a commonly used therapy regimen against H. pylori, on the indigenous microbiota in the throat and in the lower intestine. The bacterial compositions in samples collected over a four year period were monitored by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene using 454-based pyrosequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). While the microbial communities of untreated control subjects were relatively stable over time, dramatic shifts were observed one week after antibiotic treatment with reduced bacterial diversity in all treated subjects in both locations. While the microbiota of the different subjects responded uniquely to the antibiotic treatment some general trends could be observed; such as a dramatic decline in Actinobacteria in both throat and feces immediately after treatment. Although the diversity of the microbiota subsequently recovered to resemble the pre treatment states, the microbiota remained perturbed in some cases for up to four years post treatment. In addition, four years after treatment high levels of the macrolide resistance gene erm(B) were found, indicating that antibiotic resistance, once selected for, can persist for longer periods of time than previously recognized. This highlights the importance of a restrictive antibiotic usage in order to prevent subsequent treatment failure and potential spread of antibiotic resistance.

  10. Warm Springs, Early Lay Dates, and Double Brooding in a North American Migratory Songbird, the Black-Throated Blue Warbler

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Sillett, T. Scott; Lany, Nina K.; Kaiser, Sara A.; Rodenhouse, Nicholas L.; Webster, Michael S.; Holmes, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have correlated the advancement of lay date in birds with warming climate trends, yet the fitness effects associated with this phenological response have been examined in only a small number of species. Most of these species–primarily insectivorous cavity nesters in Europe–exhibit fitness declines associated with increasing asynchrony with prey. Here, we use 25 years of demographic data, collected from 1986 to 2010, to examine the effects of spring temperature on breeding initiation date, double brooding, and annual fecundity in a Nearctic - Neotropical migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens). Data were collected from birds breeding at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA, where long-term trends toward warmer springs have been recorded. We found that black-throated blue warblers initiated breeding earlier in warmer springs, that early breeders were more likely to attempt a second brood than those starting later in the season, and that double brooding and lay date were linked to higher annual fecundity. Accordingly, we found selection favored earlier breeding in most years. However, in contrast to studies of several other long-distance migratory species in Europe, this selection pressure was not stronger in warmer springs, indicating that these warblers were able to adjust mean lay date appropriately to substantial inter-annual variation in spring temperature. Our results suggest that this North American migratory songbird might not experience the same fecundity declines as songbirds that are unable to adjust their timing of breeding in pace with spring temperatures. PMID:23565154

  11. Variation in preen oil composition pertaining to season, sex, and genotype in the polymorphic white-throated sparrow.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Elaina M; Sebastian, Peter J; Posto, Amanda L; Soini, Helena A; Novotny, Milos V; Gonser, Rusty A

    2014-09-01

    Evidence for the the ability of birds to detect olfactory signals is now well documented, yet it remains unclear whether birds secrete chemicals that can be used as social cues. A potential source of chemical cues in birds is the secretion from the uropygial gland, or preen gland, which is thought to waterproof, maintain, and protect feathers from ectoparasites. However, it is possible that preen oil also may be used for individual recognition, mate choice, and signalling social/sexual status. If preen oil secretions can be used as socio-olfactory signals, we should be able to identify the volatile components that could make the secretions more detectable, determine the seasonality of these secretions, and determine whether olfactory signals differ among relevant social groups. We examined the seasonal differences in volatile compounds of the preen oil of captive white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis. This species is polymorphic and has genetically determined morphs that occur in both sexes. Mating is almost exclusively disassortative with respect to morph, suggesting strong mate choice. By sampling the preen oil from captive birds in breeding and non-breeding conditions, we identified candidate chemical signals that varied according to season, sex, morph, and species. Linear alcohols with a 10-18 carbon chains, as well as methyl ketones and carboxylic acids, were the most abundant volatile compounds. Both the variety and abundances of some of these compounds were different between the sexes and morphs, with one morph secreting more volatile compounds in the non-breeding season than the other. In addition, 12 compounds were seasonally elevated in amount, and were secreted in high amounts in males. Finally, we found that preen oil signatures tended to be species-specific, with white-throated sparrows differing from the closely related Junco in the abundances and/or prevalence of at least three compounds. Our data suggest roles for preen oil secretions and

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of an Oxalate-Degrading Strain of Clostridium sporogenes from the Gastrointestinal Tract of the White-Throated Woodrat (Neotoma albigula).

    PubMed

    Oakeson, Kelly F; Miller, Aaron; Dale, Colin; Dearing, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of the white-throated woodrat Neotoma albigula harbors a diverse microbial population that functions in the degradation of ingested plant secondary compounds. Here, we present the draft genome sequence and annotation of Clostridium sporogenes strain 8-O, a novel oxalate-degrading bacterium isolated from the feces of N. albigula. PMID:27198026

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of an Oxalate-Degrading Strain of Clostridium sporogenes from the Gastrointestinal Tract of the White-Throated Woodrat (Neotoma albigula)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron; Dale, Colin; Dearing, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of the white-throated woodrat Neotoma albigula harbors a diverse microbial population that functions in the degradation of ingested plant secondary compounds. Here, we present the draft genome sequence and annotation of Clostridium sporogenes strain 8-O, a novel oxalate-degrading bacterium isolated from the feces of N. albigula. PMID:27198026

  14. Effect of entry-lip design on aerodynamics and acoustics of high throat Mach number inlets for the quiet, clean, short-haul experimental engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. A.; Dastoli, B. J.; Wesoky, H. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of scale model tests of high-throat-Mach-number inlets designed to suppress inlet-emitted engine machinery noise produced in a V/STOL wind tunnel are presented. A vacuum system was used to induce inlet airflow with a siren as a noise source. Inlet mass flow was 11.68 kilograms (25.75 lb. min) per second at a throat Mach number of 0.79. The effect of entry-lip design (contraction ratio and diameter ratio) on inlet total-pressure recovery, steady-state pressure distortion, performance at high incidence angles, and noise suppression was determined. With proper entry-lip design, total-pressure recovery in excess of 0.988 could be obtained statically at an average throat Mach number of 0.79. Total-pressure distortion was 5 percent. The reduction in the siren tone sound pressure level transmitted through the inlet was 10 to 14 db relative to that measured at throat Mach 0.6.

  15. What's a Nice Hummingbird Like You Doing at an AGU Meeting Like This? (or, Operation RubyThroat Meets The GLOBE Program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, B.

    2003-12-01

    "Operation RubyThroat: The Hummingbird Project" is an international cross-disciplinary initiative that uses Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) as a hook to excite K-12 students (and adults) about science learning. In 2002, Operation RubyThroat affiliated with The GLOBE Program as the first GLOBE protocol that involves animal behavior. Through Operation RubyThroat, students make observations about hummingbird phenology, behavior, and ecology and correlate their data against traditional GLOBE observations of atmosphere, climate, land cover, soils, hydrology, and phenology. Although Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (RTHUs) breed throughout the eastern half of the United States and southern Canada and may be the most common and most widely distributed of all 338 hummingbird species, little is known about how abiotic environmental factors affect their migration, nesting activities, and everyday behavior. Operation RubyThroat participants in the U.S. and Canada log early arrival dates of RTHUs during spring migration, note their presence throughout the breeding season, and report the last date RTHUs are seen in autumn. Conversely, participants in Mexico and all seven Central American countries (the region in which RTHUs spend their non-breeding months) watch for early arrivals in fall and late departures in spring. Participants also attempt to estimate numbers of RTHUs in local populations by counting the number of visits hummingbirds make to feeders and/or flowers in a 45-minute time block. Optional activities include observations of RTHU nesting behaviors and determining RTHU preferences for various species of native and exotic nectar sources. Participating schools are encouraged to establish Schoolyard Hummingbird Habitats in which to make their observations, but data may be collected in backyards or at local parks, nature centers, botanical gardens, and other sites where RTHUs occur. Adults not affiliated with K-12 schools are invited to become certified in

  16. Systematics and limit calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Wade; /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    This note discusses the estimation of systematic uncertainties and their incorporation into upper limit calculations. Two different approaches to reducing systematics and their degrading impact on upper limits are introduced. An improved {chi}{sup 2} function is defined which is useful in comparing Poisson distributed data with models marginalized by systematic uncertainties. Also, a technique using profile likelihoods is introduced which provides a means of constraining the degrading impact of systematic uncertainties on limit calculations.

  17. Pressure sensor-based tongue-placed electrotactile biofeedback for balance improvement--biomedical application to prevent pressure sores formation and falls.

    PubMed

    Vuillerme, N; Chenu, O; Pinsault, N; Moreau-Gaudry, A; Fleury, A; Demongeot, J; Payan, Y

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the innovative technologies, based on the concept of "sensory substitution", we are developing in the fields of biomedical engineering and human disability. Precisely, our goal is to design, develop and validate practical assistive biomedical and/or technical devices and/or rehabilitating procedures for persons with disabilities, using artificial tongue-placed tactile biofeedback systems. Proposed applications are dealing with: (1) pressure sores prevention in case of spinal cord injuries (persons with paraplegia, or tetraplegia); and (2) balance control improvement to prevent fall in older and/or disabled adults. This paper describes the architecture and the functioning principle of these biofeedback systems and presents preliminary results of two feasibility studies performed on young healthy adults. PMID:18003410

  18. Chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization with Fourier transform mass spectrometric detection to screen for local anesthetics intended to mask limb sore in walking horses.

    PubMed

    Szarka, Szabolcs; Prokai, Laszlo

    2015-03-01

    We report a high-throughput chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization method coupled with Fourier transform mass spectrometry to screen for local anesthetics in samples collected by swabbing. These drugs have been used to mask pain on the limbs of walking horses after forbidden practices of soring or physical abuse. Optimized for lidocaine, the method afforded sub-ppm mass accuracy for nine local anesthetics included in the study. From doped cotton swabs, two third and all of the analytes were detected after adding 10 ng and 100 ng of each drug, respectively. Benzocaine and/or lidocaine were found on positive swab samples collected during walking horse competitions. PMID:25800188

  19. The effects of a single bout of downhill running and ensuing delayed onset of muscle soreness on running economy performed 48 h later.

    PubMed

    Braun, William A; Dutto, Darren J

    2003-09-01

    Delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) is a common response to exercise involving significant eccentric loading. Symptoms of DOMS vary widely and may include reduced force generating capacity, significant alterations in biochemical indices of muscle and connective tissue health, alteration of neuromuscular function, and changes in mechanical performance. The purpose of the investigation was to examine the effects of downhill running and ensuing DOMS on running economy and stride mechanics. Nine, well-trained distance runners and triathletes participated in the study. Running economy was measured at three relative intensities [65, 75, and 85% of maximal aerobic capacity ( VO(2peak))] before (RE1) and 48 h after (RE2) a 30-min downhill run (-10%) at 70% VO(2peak). Dependent variables included leg muscle soreness, rate of oxygen consumption ( VO(2)), minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, lactate, heart rate, and stride length. These measurements were entered into a two-factor multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The analysis revealed a significant time effect for all variables and a significant interaction (time x intensity) for lactate. The energy cost of locomotion was elevated at RE2 by an average of 3.2%. This was coupled with a significant reduction in stride length. The change in VO(2) was inversely correlated with the change in stride length ( r= -0.535). Lactate was significantly elevated at RE2 for each run intensity, with a mean increase of 0.61 mmol l(-1). Based on these findings, it is suggested that muscle damage led to changes in stride mechanics and a greater reliance on anaerobic methods of energy production, contributing to the change in running economy during DOMS. PMID:12783232

  20. The Effect of Warm-Up and Cool-Down Exercise on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in the Quadriceps Muscle: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Olav; Sjøhaug, Mona; van Beekvelt, Mireille; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of warm-up and cool-down exercise on delayed onset of muscle soreness at the distal and central parts of rectus femoris following leg resistance exercise. Thirty-six volunteers (21 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the warm-up (20 min ergometer cycling prior to the resistance exercise), cool-down (20 min cycling after the resistance exercise), or control group performing resistance exercise only. The resistance exercise consisted of front lunges (10×5 repetitions/sets) with external loading of 40% (women) and 50% (men) of body mass. Primary outcomes were pressure pain threshold along rectus femoris and maximal isometric knee extension force. Data were recorded before the resistance exercise and on the two consecutive days. Pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced for the control group on both day 2 and 3 (p≤0.003) but not for the warm-up group (p≥0.21). For the cool-down group, pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced on day 2 (p≤0.005) and was also lower compared to the warm-up group (p=0.025). Force was significantly reduced on day 2 and 3 for all groups (p<0.001). This study indicates that aerobic warm-up exercise performed prior to resistance exercise may prevent muscle soreness at the central but not distal muscle regions, but it does not prevent loss of muscle force. PMID:23486850

  1. A systematic review of treatments for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vasa, Roma A; Carroll, Laura M; Nozzolillo, Alixandra A; Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mazurek, Micah O; Bennett, Amanda E; Wink, Logan K; Bernal, Maria Pilar

    2014-12-01

    This study systematically examined the efficacy and safety of psychopharmacological and non-psychopharmacological treatments for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four psychopharmacological, nine cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and two alternative treatment studies met inclusion criteria. Psychopharmacological studies were descriptive or open label, sometimes did not specify the anxiety phenotype, and reported behavioral activation. Citalopram and buspirone yielded some improvement, whereas fluvoxamine did not. Non-psychopharmacological studies were mainly randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with CBT demonstrating moderate efficacy for anxiety disorders in youth with high functioning ASD. Deep pressure and neurofeedback provided some benefit. All studies were short-term and included small sample sizes. Large scale and long term RCTs examining psychopharmacological and non-psychopharmacological treatments are sorely needed. PMID:25070468

  2. Morphological and molecular characterization of Isospora manorinae n. sp. in a yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula wayensis) (Gould, 1840).

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Jian, Fuchun; Ryan, Una

    2016-04-01

    A new Isospora (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) species is described from a single yellow-throated miner bird (Manorina flavigula) (subspecies M. f. wayensis) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts (n = 32) of this isolate are spherical to subspherical, 22.8 (20.3-23.8) × 18.3 (17.7-18.7) μm, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.25 (1.2-1.3); and a smooth and bilayered oocyst wall, 1.3 μm thick (outer layer 0.9 μm, inner 0.4 μm). A polar granule is present, but the micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 15.5 (14.6-15.8) × 9.5 (9.5-10.2) μm, with a shape index of 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies are present, the Stieda body being knob-like and the substieda body being subspherical-shaped. A sporocyst residuum is present and composed of numerous granules of different size scattered among the sporozoites, a spheroid or subspheroid refractile body is present in the sporozoite. Morphologically, the oocysts from this isolate are different from those of all known valid Isospora spp. Molecular analysis was conducted at 3 loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene. At the 18S locus, this new isolate exhibited 99.2% similarity to Isospora gryphoni and three other Isospora spp. Further analysis of a subgroup of 300 bp long 18S sequences (8), including Isospora anthochaerae was conducted. This new isolate grouped in a clade with I. anthochaerae and exhibited 99.3% similarity. At the 28S locus, this new isolate grouped with I. anthochaerae with which it shared 99.1% similarity. At the COI locus, this new isolate exhibited 96.8% similarity to Isospora sp. JCI-2015 from a spectacled warbler (Sylvia conspicillata) in Spain. Further analysis from a subgroup of shorter COI sequences (n = 13) was performed and this new isolate exhibited 99.1% similarity to I. anthochaerae. Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of Isospora, which is named Isospora manorinae n. sp

  3. Systematic review automation technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  4. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... streptococci are associated with infections, such as sore throat, impetigo (an infection characterized by small pustules on the skin), urinary tract infections, rheumatic fever, and kidney disease. (b)...

  5. The consequences of winter flock demography for genetic structure and inbreeding risk in vinous-throated parrotbills, Paradoxornis webbianus.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-W; Simeoni, M; Burke, T; Hatchwell, B J

    2010-05-01

    The adaptive significance of flocking behaviour has been intensively studied, especially among birds, but the demography and genetic structure of winter flocks is poorly understood, despite their importance for many biological processes. For three successive winters, we studied the demography and genetic structure of winter flocks in a small passerine, the vinous-throated parrotbill Paradoxornis webbianus. Our objectives were to determine the match between observed demography and the genetic structure of winter flocks, and to investigate the consequences of kin structure for the risk of inbreeding during the breeding season. The size of five main study flocks ranged from 60 to 120 individuals. The sex ratio of each flock did not deviate from parity and survival rates of adults were moderately low (36 and 17% in 2 years). Adults showed strong fidelity to a winter flock not only within a season but also between years. As expected from observational data, we found significant genetic differentiation and isolation by distance among males and females in winter flocks at a fine spatial scale. Likewise, relatedness among individuals within a winter flock was significantly greater than between flocks. Despite these demographic and genetic circumstances, the inbreeding rate was relatively low (4%). We conclude that fine-scale genetic structure occurs in the winter flocks of birds as a result of demographic processes without physical barriers. This genetic structure introduced a risk of inbreeding, but our evidence on whether individuals avoided incest was equivocal. PMID:19812618

  6. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Cliffe, Rebecca N; Haupt, Ryan J; Avey-Arroyo, Judy A; Wilson, Rory P

    2015-01-01

    Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths) had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg(-1)day(-1) (SD 4.2). Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths. PMID:25861559

  7. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus)

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Ryan J.; Avey-Arroyo, Judy A.; Wilson, Rory P.

    2015-01-01

    Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths) had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg−1day−1 (SD 4.2). Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths. PMID:25861559

  8. Exceeding parents' expectations in Ear-Nose-Throat outpatient facilities: the development and analysis of a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Margaritis, Eleftherios; Katharaki, Maria; Katharakis, George

    2012-05-01

    The study attempts to develop an outpatient service quality scale by investigating the key dimensions which assess parental satisfaction and provides a recommendation on an improved health service delivery system. The survey was conducted in an Ear-Nose-Throat outpatient clinic of a Greek public pediatric hospital. A total of 127 parents in outpatient waiting areas were chosen; 74.8% of the sampled parents were under 40, and 78% were mothers. A factor analysis was performed; while a Fischer's exact test and multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted. All Cronbach's α exceeded 0.70 and all factor loadings exceeded 0.50. Twenty-three items were retained through the scale development process and seven factors were formed that appear to be statistically valid and clinically meaningful: access and convenience, doctor's attention, customization, reliability, assurance, satisfaction and loyalty. Findings were discussed in relation to parents' overall satisfaction and intention of reusing and recommending outpatient clinic. Satisfaction was found to be positively affected by access and convenience and doctors' attention. Staff attitude and the telephone procedure of scheduling the child's examination found positively correlated to the likelihood of recommending services to friends and relatives. Time and communication in the waiting room influenced parents' satisfaction. Overall, results reveal the measures that need to be taken in order to improve outpatient service quality. PMID:22221890

  9. "Not one single case of throat irritation": misuse of the image of the otolaryngologist in cigarette advertising.

    PubMed

    Samji, Hussein A; Jackler, Robert K

    2008-03-01

    Early in the last century, when questions about the health effects of smoking became a topic of widespread discussion, tobacco companies undertook a multi-faceted campaign to allay the public's fears. As terms like "smoker's cough" and "coffin nails" (referring to cigarettes) began to appear in the popular vernacular, tobacco marketers recognized the need to counter this threat to their livelihood. One strategy was to use endorsements by healthy and vigorous-appearing singers, radio stars, and actors. Another was to raise fears over weight gain: "Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet." Among the more reprehensible tactics was the utilization of the image of the noble and caring physician to sell cigarettes: doctors were depicted both as satisfied and enthusiastic partakers of the smoking habit (e.g., "More doctors smoke Camels"). Images of medical men (and a few token women) appeared under warm reassurances of the safety of smoking. Frequently, images appeared of a head-mirrored "throat doctor," smiling benignly, while indicating that the company's product would do no harm. Indeed, many cigarette ads, especially for menthol brands, suggested a therapeutic soothing benefit from smoking. Liberal use was also made of pseudo-scientific medical reports and surveys. Our intention is to tell, principally through advertising images-the story of how, between the late 1920s and the early 1950s, tobacco companies used deceptive and often patently false claims in an effort to reassure the public of the safety of their products. PMID:18197139

  10. Observations of the relationship between ionospheric central polar cap and dayside throat convection velocities, and solar wind/IMF driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, W. A.; Amata, E.; Spaleta, J.; Marcucci, M. F.

    2015-06-01

    Convection observations from the Southern Hemisphere Super Dual Auroral Radar Network are presented and examined for their relationship to solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, restricted to periods of steady IMF. Analysis is concentrated on two specific regions, the central polar cap and the dayside throat region. An example time series is discussed in detail with specific examples of apparent direct control of the convection velocity by the solar wind driver. Closer examination, however, shows that there is variability in the flows that cannot be explained by the driving. Scatterplots and histograms of observations from all periods in the year 2013 that met the selection criteria are given and their dependence on solar wind driving is examined. It is found that on average the flow velocity depends on the square root of the rate of flux entry to the polar cap. It is also found that there is a large level of variability that is not strongly related to the solar wind driving.

  11. Meningococcal carriage rates in healthy individuals in Japan determined using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification and oral throat wash specimens.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Haga, Masae; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Saitoh, Takehito; Kitahara, Takeru; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    The detailed epidemiology of meningococcal diseases in Japan has yet to be determined and, moreover, the healthy carriage rate is also unknown. In this study, to obtain insight into the carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis in healthy individuals in Japan, we developed a new method to detect the N. meningitidis-specific ctrB gene, one of the genes encoding enzymes for capsule synthesis, by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and examined the meningococcal carriage rate by using self-collected oral throat wash specimens from 836 students at a university. Examination by LAMP showed that 7 out of 836 samples were positive for N. meningitidis DNA, and the results were also verified by the nested PCR method for the meningococcus specific ggt gene. The N. meningitidis carriage rate in healthy individuals was estimated to be 0.84%. Moreover, we further confirmed by the nested-PCR-based serogroup typing method that 5 of the positive samples belonged to serogroup Y, 1 belonged to group B and 1 was unidentifiable. Considering the epidemiology for meningococcal diseases in Japan, the carriage rate and the serogroup profile seem to be consistent with low incidence of meningococcal diseases and serogroup distribution of clinical meningococcal isolates in Japan, respectively. PMID:26895673

  12. Annual survival and recruitment in a Ruby-throated Hummingbird population, excluding the effect of transient individuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilton, B.; Miller, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    We estimated annual apparent survival, recruitment, and rate of population growth of breeding Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris), while controlling for transients, by using 18 years of capture-mark-recapture data collected during 1984-2001 at Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History near York, South Carolina. Resident males had lower apparent survival (0.30 +/- 0.05 SE) than females (0.43 +/- 0.04). Estimates of apparent survival did not differ by age. Point estimates suggested that newly banded males were less likely than females to be residents, but standard errors of these estimates overlapped (males: 0.60 +/- 0.14 SE; females: 0.67 +/- 0.09). Estimated female recruitment was 0.60 +/- 0.06 SE, meaning that 60% of adult females present in any given year had entered the population during the previous year. Our estimate for rate of change indicated the population of female hummingbirds was stable during the study period (1.04 +/- 0.04 SE). We suggest an annual goal of greater than or equal to 64 adult females and greater than or equal to 64 immature females released per banding area to enable rigorous future tests for effects of covariates on population dynamics. Development of a broader cooperating network of hummingbird banders in eastern North America could allow tests for regional or metapopulation dynamics in this species.

  13. The effect of wall interference upon the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil spanning a closed-throat circular wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincenti, Walter G; Graham, Donald J

    1946-01-01

    The results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of wall interference for an airfoil spanning a closed-throat circular wind tunnel are presented. Analytical equations are derived which relate the characteristics of an airfoil in the tunnel at subsonic speeds with the characteristics in free air. The analysis takes into consideration the effect of fluid compressibility and is based upon the assumption that the chord of the airfoil is small as compared with the diameter of the tunnel. The development is restricted to an untwisted, constant-chord airfoil spanning the middle of the tunnel. Brief theoretical consideration is also given to the problem of choking at high speeds. Results are then presented of tests to determine the low-speed characteristics of an NACA 4412 airfoil for two chord-diameter ratios. While, on the basis of these experiments, no appraisal is possible of the accuracy of the corrections at high speeds, the data indicate that at low Mach numbers the analytical results are valid, even for relatively large values of the chord-diameter ratio.

  14. PREVALENCE OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FROM NOSE AND THROAT OF PATIENTS ON ADMISSION TO MEDICAL WARDS OF DR SOETOMO HOSPITAL, SURABAYA, INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    Kuntaman, K; Hadi, Usman; Setiawan, Firman; Koendori, Eko Budi; Rusli, Musofa; Santosaningsih, Dewi; Severin, Juliette; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in Indonesian hospitals are still scarce. These data are required for health management of infectious diseases in order to control hospital MRSA. The carriage rate of MRSA in nose and throat of patients on admission to Dr Soetomo Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia was 8.1% of 643 patients, 5.4% from throat, 3.9% from nose and 1.2% from both sites. Prevalence of MRSA among patients admitted to surgical and non-surgical ward was not different (8.2% and 8.0%, respectively). Although MRSA prevalence in Indonesian hospitals is low compared to many other countries worldwide, appropriate health strategies will be needed to be implemented if this infection is to be controlled. PMID:27086426

  15. [The short working period of the Austrian ear, nose and throat specialist Professor Erich Ruttin at Istanbul University in 1934 and 1935].

    PubMed

    Namal, Arin

    2003-07-15

    The Austrian Professor Erich Ruttin was appointed as the director of the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of Istanbul University at the beginning of September 1934. Leaving behind the directorship of the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of Rudolfspital in Wien, Ruttin no doubt tried to leave Austria due to the beginning of anti-semitic influences of the Nazi regime in Germany, which had lead him to sign a contract with the Istanbul University for a period of ten years. It is remarkable that despite this contract he stayed only one year in Turkey. This article presents his contributions in the field of otorhinolaryngology during his short stay in Turkey and explains the background of his early departure. PMID:12918188

  16. Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms of hypopharyngeal cancer include a sore throat and ear pain. These and other signs and ... A change in voice. Tests that examine the throat and neck are used to help detect (find) ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Laryngeal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms of laryngeal cancer include a sore throat and ear pain. These and other signs and ... hoarseness in the voice. Tests that examine the throat and neck are used to help detect (find), ...

  18. Stages of Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms of hypopharyngeal cancer include a sore throat and ear pain. These and other signs and ... A change in voice. Tests that examine the throat and neck are used to help detect (find) ...

  19. Hydroxyurea

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer (including cancer of the mouth, cheek, tongue, throat, tonsils, and sinuses). Hydroxyurea (Droxia) is used to ... appetite weight gain sores in the mouth and throat constipation rash pale skin dizziness headache hair loss ...

  20. Stages of Laryngeal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms of laryngeal cancer include a sore throat and ear pain. These and other signs and ... hoarseness in the voice. Tests that examine the throat and neck are used to help detect (find), ...

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Hypopharyngeal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms of hypopharyngeal cancer include a sore throat and ear pain. These and other signs and ... A change in voice. Tests that examine the throat and neck are used to help detect (find) ...

  2. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, ... symptoms are: Nasal congestion Runny nose Scratchy throat Sneezing Adults and older children with colds generally have ...

  3. Cefixime

    MedlinePlus

    ... sexually transmitted disease); and infections of the ears, throat, tonsils, and urinary tract. Cefixime is in a ... breathing or swallowing wheezing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes a return of sore ...

  4. Posaconazole

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat yeast infections of the mouth and throat including yeast infections that could not be treated ... muscle pain sores on the lips, mouth, or throat difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep increased sweating ...

  5. Tonsillitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the throat. One such infection is called pharyngitis. Tonsillitis is very common in children. Symptoms Common ... Difficulty swallowing Ear pain Fever and chills Headache Sore throat, which lasts longer than 48 hours and may ...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of emm4 Streptococcus pyogenes MEW427, a Throat Isolate from a Child Meeting Clinical Criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS)

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Kristin M.; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J.; Dawid, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome assembly of the Streptococcus pyogenes type emm4 strain MEW427 (also referred to as strain UM001 in the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome [PANS] Research Consortium), a throat isolate from a child with acute-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms meeting clinical criteria for PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus). The genome length is 1,814,455 bp with 38.51% G+C%. PMID:26988046

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of emm28 Type Streptococcus pyogenes MEW123, a Streptomycin-Resistant Derivative of a Clinical Throat Isolate Suitable for Investigation of Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Kristin M.; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J.; Dawid, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequence of Streptococcus pyogenes type emm28 strain MEW123, a streptomycin-resistant derivative of a pediatric throat isolate. The genome length is 1,878,699 bp, with 38.29% G+C% content. The genome sequence adds value to this virulent emm28 representative strain and will aid in the investigation of streptococcal pathogenesis. PMID:26988051

  8. Influence of complementary Viscum album (Iscador) administration on microcirculation and immune system of ear, nose and throat carcinoma patients treated with radiation and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Klopp, R; Schmidt, W; Werner, E; Werner, M; Niemer, W; Beuth, J

    2005-01-01

    With the techniques of vital microscopic and reflection spectrometric imaging, representative characteristics of microcirculation and immunology of white blood cells were evaluated before, during and after radiotherapy and chemotherapy of patients suffering from ear, nose and throat carcinomas. Adverse effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the microcirculation and the immune system were decreased and reconstitution processes were accelerated by complementary administration of a standardized mistletoe extract (Iscador). PMID:15816634

  9. A cost-effectiveness analysis of identifying Fusobacterium necrophorum in throat swabs followed by antibiotic treatment to reduce the incidence of Lemierre's syndrome and peritonsillar abscesses.

    PubMed

    Bank, S; Christensen, K; Kristensen, L H; Prag, J

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved by identifying Fusobacterium necrophorum in throat swabs followed by proper antibiotic treatment, to reduce the incidence of Lemierre's syndrome and peritonsillar abscesses (PTA) originating from a pharyngitis. The second purpose was to estimate the population size required to indicate that antibiotic treatment has an effect. Data from publications and our laboratory were collected. Monte Carlo simulation and one-way sensitivity analysis were used to analyse cost-effectiveness. The cost-effectiveness analysis shows that examining throat swabs from 15- to 24-year-olds for F. necrophorum followed by antibiotic treatment will probably be less costly than most other life-saving medical interventions, with a median cost of US$8,795 per QALY saved. To indicate a reduced incidence of Lemierre's syndrome and PTA in Denmark, the intervention probably has to be followed for up to 5 years. Identifying F. necrophorum in throat swabs from 15- to 24-year-olds followed by proper antibiotic treatment only requires a reduction of 20-25 % in the incidence of Lemierre's syndrome and PTA to be cost-effective. This study warrants further examination of the effect of antibiotic treatment on the outcome of F. necrophorum acute and recurrent pharyngitis, as well as the effect on Lemierre's syndrome and PTA. PMID:22886057

  10. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96 %). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

  11. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96%). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. PMID:23644520

  12. A randomised trial comparing the efficacy and safety of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free ultra-deformable Sequessome™ vesicles (TDT 064) for the treatment of muscle soreness following exercise.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Egbert J; Rother, Matthias; Regenspurger, Katja; Rother, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free Sequessome™ vesicles (FLEXISEQ(®) Sport; TDT 064) in reducing calf muscle soreness. One hundred and sixty eight healthy individuals with a pain score ≥ 3 (10-point scale) 12-16 h post-exercise (walking down stairs with an altitude of 300-400 m) were randomised to receive IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (two dose groups), oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064, or TDT 064 plus oral placebo. The primary endpoint was muscle soreness reduction from pre-dosing to Day 7. Higher pain scores were recorded with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean ± s 462.4 ± 160.4) versus IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (434.7 ± 190.8; P = 0.2931) or TDT 064 plus oral placebo (376.2 ± 159.1; P = 0.0240) in the 7 days post-exercise. Recovery from muscle soreness was longer with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean 91.0 ± 19.5 h) versus IDEA-033 plus placebo (mean 81.4 ± 22.9 h; P = 0.5964) or TDT 064 plus placebo (mean 78.9 ± 22.8 h; P = 0.0262). In conclusion, ultradeformable phospholipid vesicles ± ketoprofen did not retard recovery from muscle soreness. TDT 064 improves osteoarthritis-related pain and could be of interest as a treatment for joint pain during and post-exercise. PMID:25893979

  13. Composition of the adult digestive tract bacterial microbiome based on seven mouth surfaces, tonsils, throat and stool samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To understand the relationship between our bacterial microbiome and health, it is essential to define the microbiome in the absence of disease. The digestive tract includes diverse habitats and hosts the human body's greatest bacterial density. We describe the bacterial community composition of ten digestive tract sites from more than 200 normal adults enrolled in the Human Microbiome Project, and metagenomically determined metabolic potentials of four representative sites. Results The microbiota of these diverse habitats formed four groups based on similar community compositions: buccal mucosa, keratinized gingiva, hard palate; saliva, tongue, tonsils, throat; sub- and supra-gingival plaques; and stool. Phyla initially identified from environmental samples were detected throughout this population, primarily TM7, SR1, and Synergistetes. Genera with pathogenic members were well-represented among this disease-free cohort. Tooth-associated communities were distinct, but not entirely dissimilar, from other oral surfaces. The Porphyromonadaceae, Veillonellaceae and Lachnospiraceae families were common to all sites, but the distributions of their genera varied significantly. Most metabolic processes were distributed widely throughout the digestive tract microbiota, with variations in metagenomic abundance between body habitats. These included shifts in sugar transporter types between the supragingival plaque, other oral surfaces, and stool; hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide production were also differentially distributed. Conclusions The microbiomes of ten digestive tract sites separated into four types based on composition. A core set of metabolic pathways was present across these diverse digestive tract habitats. These data provide a critical baseline for future studies investigating local and systemic diseases affecting human health. PMID:22698087

  14. Effects of Supplementary Feeding on the Breeding Ecology of the Buff-Throated Partridge in a Tibetan Sacred Site, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Moermond, Timothy C; Lloyd, Huw; Xu, Yu; Dou, Liang; Zhang, Kai; Yue, Bisong; Ran, Jianghong

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to document effects of year-round supplemental feeding on breeding ecology of the Buff-throated Partridge, Tetraophasis szechenyii, within a Tibetan sacred site. We evaluated effects of supplemental feeding used as religious/cultural practices which could potentially aid conservation of endangered phasianids. We compared fed breeding groups to neighboring nonfed groups. Fed groups initiated first clutches significantly earlier than nonfed groups. Earlier laying groups within fed and nonfed groups showed significantly lower hatching rates than later groups; however, fed groups showed significantly higher hatching rates than nonfed groups laying in the same period. Earlier laying increased opportunities to renest. All six fed groups with clutch failures renested compared to only one of five nonfed groups with clutch failures. Fed female breeders showed significantly greater investment in their young with larger clutches and larger eggs, which likely increased survivability of early hatchlings. We observed no predation on birds at feeding sites and recorded only four cases of predation on incubating females, which showed no detectable difference between fed and nonfed groups. Ground-nesting birds typically face high risks of predation. Ten of the 48 groups nested in trees, which occurs in few phasianid species. Tree nests showed significantly higher hatching rates compared to ground nests; however, we found no significant difference in tree nesting between fed and nonfed groups. This partridge is one of four gallinaceous species with cooperative breeding. Breeding groups with helpers had significantly greater reproductive success than single pairs, and fed female breeders with helpers laid bigger eggs than single pairs. Comparing annual reproductive output per group, fed groups not only produced significantly more independent young (≥ 150 days post-hatching), their young hatched significantly earlier, which likely have greater reproductive value over

  15. Effects of Supplementary Feeding on the Breeding Ecology of the Buff-Throated Partridge in a Tibetan Sacred Site, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nan; Moermond, Timothy C.; Lloyd, Huw; Xu, Yu; Dou, Liang; Zhang, Kai; Yue, Bisong; Ran, Jianghong

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to document effects of year-round supplemental feeding on breeding ecology of the Buff-throated Partridge, Tetraophasis szechenyii, within a Tibetan sacred site. We evaluated effects of supplemental feeding used as religious/cultural practices which could potentially aid conservation of endangered phasianids. We compared fed breeding groups to neighboring nonfed groups. Fed groups initiated first clutches significantly earlier than nonfed groups. Earlier laying groups within fed and nonfed groups showed significantly lower hatching rates than later groups; however, fed groups showed significantly higher hatching rates than nonfed groups laying in the same period. Earlier laying increased opportunities to renest. All six fed groups with clutch failures renested compared to only one of five nonfed groups with clutch failures. Fed female breeders showed significantly greater investment in their young with larger clutches and larger eggs, which likely increased survivability of early hatchlings. We observed no predation on birds at feeding sites and recorded only four cases of predation on incubating females, which showed no detectable difference between fed and nonfed groups. Ground-nesting birds typically face high risks of predation. Ten of the 48 groups nested in trees, which occurs in few phasianid species. Tree nests showed significantly higher hatching rates compared to ground nests; however, we found no significant difference in tree nesting between fed and nonfed groups. This partridge is one of four gallinaceous species with cooperative breeding. Breeding groups with helpers had significantly greater reproductive success than single pairs, and fed female breeders with helpers laid bigger eggs than single pairs. Comparing annual reproductive output per group, fed groups not only produced significantly more independent young (≥150 days post-hatching), their young hatched significantly earlier, which likely have greater reproductive value over

  16. Strike Fast, Strike Hard: The Red-Throated Caracara Exploits Absconding Behavior of Social Wasps during Nest Predation

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Sean; Moeri, Onour; Jones, Tanya; Scott, Catherine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Regine; O'Donnell, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae) are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1) video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2) analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3) inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The “hit-and-run” predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests). Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps. PMID:24386338

  17. Strike fast, strike hard: the red-throated caracara exploits absconding behavior of social wasps during nest predation.

    PubMed

    McCann, Sean; Moeri, Onour; Jones, Tanya; Scott, Catherine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Regine; O'Donnell, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae) are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1) video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2) analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3) inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The "hit-and-run" predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests). Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps. PMID:24386338

  18. Writing a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ng, K H; Peh, W C

    2010-05-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) aims to combine the best available scientific evidence with clinical experience and individual judgment of patient needs. In the hierarchy of scientific evidence, systematic reviews (along with meta-analyses) occupy the highest levels in terms of the quality of evidence. A systematic review is the process of searching, selecting, appraising, synthesising and reporting clinical evidence on a particular question or topic. It is currently considered the best, least biased and most rational way to organise, gather, evaluate and integrate scientific evidence from the rapidly-changing medical and healthcare literature. Systematic reviews could be used to present current concepts or serve as review articles and replace the traditional expert opinion or narrative review. This article explains the structure and content of a systematic review. PMID:20593139

  19. Ethics in systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Nabet, Cathy; Maret, Delphine; Hamel, Olivier

    2010-12-01

    Since its introduction by the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, the place held by ethics in biomedical research has been continuously increasing in importance. The past 30 years have also seen exponential growth in the number of biomedical articles published. A systematic review of the literature is the scientific way of synthesising a plethora of information, by exhaustively searching out and objectively analysing the studies dealing with a given issue. However, the question of ethics in systematic reviews is rarely touched upon. This could lead to some drawbacks, as systematic reviews may contain studies with ethical insufficiencies, may be a possible way to publish unethical research and may also be prone to conflict of interest. Finally, informed consent given for an original study is not necessarily still valid at the systematic review level. There is no doubt that routine ethical assessment in systematic reviews would help to improve the ethical and methodological quality of studies in general. However, ethical issues change so much with time and location, and are so broad in scope and in context that it appears illusory to search for a universal, internationally accepted standard for ethical assessment in systematic reviews. Some simple suggestions could nevertheless be drawn from the present reflection and are discussed in the paper. PMID:20952493

  20. Strep Throat (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... Wash your forks, spoons, plates, and cups in hot, soapy water after you use them. Don't ...