Science.gov

Sample records for source pollution concept

  1. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article. PMID:27620104

  2. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  3. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

  4. AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION (AGNPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) model addresses concerns related to the potential impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on surface and groundwater quality (Young et al., 1989). It was designed to quantit...

  5. NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-point source pollution is a diffuse source that is difficult to measure and is highly variable due to different rain patterns and other climatic conditions. In many areas, however, non-point source pollution is the greatest source of water quality degradation. Presently, stat...

  6. Arsenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  7. HYDROCARBON POLLUTANTS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of hydrocarbon pollutants from stationary sources. Early in the study, readily available information was assembled on stationary sources of hydrocarbon emissions and effluents. Information was also obtained on process descriptions, operating pa...

  8. Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell-Poe, Kitt

    This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants…

  9. APTI Course 450, Source Sampling for Particulate Pollutants. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldina, G. J.; Jahnke, J. A.

    This student manual is designed to accompany a four and one half day course in isokinetic air pollution source sampling. Covered in the manual under chapter headings are: (1) basic definitions; (2) basic concepts of gases; (3) United States EPA methods sampling train; (4) calibration procedures; (5) source testing; (6) source sampling…

  10. [Review of urban nonpoint source pollution models].

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Huang, Yue-Fei; Wang, Guang-Qian

    2010-10-01

    The development history of urban nonpoint source pollution models is reviewed. Features, applicability and limitations of seven popular urban nonpoint source pollution models (SWMM, STORM, SLAMM, HSPF, DR3M-QUAL, MOUSE, and HydroWorks) are discussed. The methodology and research findings of uncertainty in urban nonpoint source pollution modeling are presented. Analytical probabilistic models for estimation of urban nonpoint sources are also presented. The research achievements of urban nonpoint source pollution models in China are summarized. The shortcomings and gaps of approaches on urban nonpoint source pollution models are pointed out. Improvements in modeling of pollutants buildup and washoff, sediments and pollutants transport, and pollutants biochemical reactions are desired for those seven popular models. Most of the models developed by researchers in China are empirical models, so that they can only applied for specific small areas and have inadequate accuracy. Future approaches include improving capability in fate and transport simulation of sediments and pollutants, exploring methodologies of modeling urban nonpoint source pollution in regions with little data or incomplete information, developing stochastic models for urban nonpoint source pollution simulation, and applying GIS to facilitate urban nonpoint source pollution simulation. PMID:21229773

  11. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

  12. Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, James W.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

  13. Mining-related nonpoint-source pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.H.; Gorman, J. )

    1991-06-01

    This article describes the effects of increased mining activity on surface and groundwater. The topics covered include pollutant sources, contaminant transport and fate, trace element toxicity, pollution control and abatement, treating acid mine drainage, modern constructed wetlands and site reclamation including site stabilization, refuse burial and sludge application.

  14. Stormwater Pollutant Control from Critical Source Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Critical source areas include: vehicular maintenance facilities, parking lots and bus terminals, junk and lumber yards, industrial storage facilities, loading docks and refueling areas, manufacturing sites, etc. Addressing pollutant runoff from these areas is an important compon...

  15. Identifiability and Identification of Trace Continuous Pollutant Source

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hongquan; Liu, Shouwen; Pang, Liping; Hu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Accidental pollution events often threaten people's health and lives, and a pollutant source is very necessary so that prompt remedial actions can be taken. In this paper, a trace continuous pollutant source identification method is developed to identify a sudden continuous emission pollutant source in an enclosed space. The location probability model is set up firstly, and then the identification method is realized by searching a global optimal objective value of the location probability. In order to discuss the identifiability performance of the presented method, a conception of a synergy degree of velocity fields is presented in order to quantitatively analyze the impact of velocity field on the identification performance. Based on this conception, some simulation cases were conducted. The application conditions of this method are obtained according to the simulation studies. In order to verify the presented method, we designed an experiment and identified an unknown source appearing in the experimental space. The result showed that the method can identify a sudden trace continuous source when the studied situation satisfies the application conditions. PMID:24892041

  16. Optimal dynamic management of groundwater pollutant sources.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, S.M.; Remson, I.

    1982-01-01

    The linear programing-superposition method is presented for managing multiple sources of groundwater pollution over time. The method uses any linear solute transport simulation model to generate a unit source-concentration response matrix that is incorporated into a management model. -from Authors

  17. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test-house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: (1) para-dichloro-benzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and, (2) particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types, including solvent based materials and aerosol products.

  18. [Polluting agents and sources of urban air pollution].

    PubMed

    Cocheo, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an up-to-date review of the scientific evidence on mechanisms of pollutant generation and health effects for a number of urban air pollutants. The review focuses on main sources and health effect of ozone and photochemical smog, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. These agents are "priority pollutants", generated by vehicle traffic, and their regulation is currently being examined by the European Council and the European Commission. The aim is to reach, by the year 2010, values lower than 180 micrograms/m3 for ozone as maximum hourly concentration, 2.5 micrograms/m3 for benzene as an annual average, 93 micrograms/m3 for nitrogen dioxide as 98 degrees percentile of hourly concentrations, 50 micrograms/m3 for particulate as a daily average. The goal can be achieved only by means of immediate interventions on emissions. PMID:11293295

  19. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.A.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: (1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; (2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and (3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: (1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and (2) emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J.B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on sink surfaces.

  20. [Pollution and alternative energy sources].

    PubMed

    Melino, C

    1989-01-01

    In order to reach higher standards of living, man has always been interested in searching new energy sources. Natural energy from sun, wind and water has been overcame by more sophisticated resources such as coal, vapour, hydroelectricity, natural gas, petroleum, and, at least, nuclear energy. However all these resources present unwanted effects, namely various hazards to man and environment. On this matter society is quering the risk-benefit balance of some energy choices and optimum performance with new safety means to limit dangerousness are being pursued and developed. It is necessary to evaluate carefully every aspect of safety without under-estimating or over-evaluating problems. For each energy source a "real price" has to be paired, even more in the future, since more energy will be required to guarantee the necessary technological progress linked to a better quality of life. In the present review all risks related to different energy sources are described and discussed aiming at defining: 1) specific risks for different sources 2) benefit from their utilization 3) means of defence guaranteeing security for man and environment. Italy is strictly dependent for energy production, which comes for 80% from abroad. An appropriate balance is required considering economical and social factors and real availability of energy. This balance needs therefore to be clearly evaluated hoping in a better future for an alternative energy, less dangerous and more clear, such as that from nuclear fusion. PMID:2483087

  1. EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

  2. Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

    Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

  3. EMISSIONS PROFILE CHARACTERIZATION OF LAKE MICHIGAN POLLUTANT SOURCES - PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The southern Lake Michigan area continues to experience poor air quality despite the implementation of many measures to control particulate matter, ozone and toxic pollutants. Fortunately, the ambient atmosphere holds clues to these sources and their contributions to urban pollut...

  4. FECAL POLLUTION, PUBLIC HEALTH AND MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) seeks to provide information about sources of fecal water contamination. Without knowledge of sources, it is difficult to accurately model risk assessments, choose effective remediation strategies, or bring chronically polluted waters into complian...

  5. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

  7. Identification of the source of faecal pollution in contaminated rivers.

    PubMed

    Glipin, B J; Gregor, J E; Savill, M G

    2002-01-01

    Identifying the source of faecal pollution is important to enable appropriate management of faecal pollution of water. Four independent assays for faecal source discrimination have been developed and implemented in our lab. These assays detect fluorescent whitening agents, faecal sterols, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Rhodococcus coprophilus. The combination of these indicators is able to identify human derived faecal pollution in rivers containing inputs from septic tanks, municipal oxidation ponds, farmed animals and feral animals. PMID:12227609

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

  9. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  10. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: WATER POLLUTANTS FROM COAL STORAGE AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of water pollution levels that result from coal stockpiles maintained outdoors. A representative source was defined to characterize the pollution levels. Effluent data was obtained by placing coals, collected from various regions in the U.S., under a...

  11. ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

  12. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  13. AIR POLLUTION: GROUND-BASED SENSING OF SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some types of gaseous pollution sources, particularly extended area industrial complexes and those producing hot combustion products, cannot be monitored adequately with conventional point sampling methods. To aid in characterizing emissions from and in developing remote sensing ...

  14. EMISSIONS PROFILE CHARACTERIZATION OF LAKE MICHIGAN POLLUTANT SOURCES - PART III

    EPA Science Inventory

    The southern Lake Michigan aea continues to experience poor air quality despite the implementation of many measures to control particulate matter, ozone and toxic pollutants. Fortunately, the ambient atmosphere holds clues to these sources and their contributions to urban polluti...

  15. CONTINUOUS AIR POLLUTION SOURCE MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook provides the eetailed information necessary to develop a continuous emissions monitoring program at a stationary source facility. Federal and State EPA requirements are given, including design and performance specifications and monitoring and date reporting requirem...

  16. FUNDAMENTAL MASS TRANSFER MODELS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a simple, fundamental mass transfer model, based on Fick's Law of Diffusion, for indoor air pollution wet sorbent-based sources. (Note: Models are needed to predict emissions from indoor sources. hile empirical approaches based on dynamic chamber data are usef...

  17. RESEARCH OVERVIEW: SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper briefly traces the history of air quality problems in residential, office, and public access buildings to show the evolution of indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns. It then briefly discusses sources of IAQ problems--both known and suspected--then reviews the current state...

  18. The use of video for air pollution source monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, F.; Camara, A.

    1999-07-01

    The evaluation of air pollution impacts from single industrial emission sources is a complex environmental engineering problem. Recent developments in multimedia technologies used by personal computers improved the digitizing and processing of digital video sequences. This paper proposes a methodology where statistical analysis of both meteorological and air quality data combined with digital video images are used for monitoring air pollution sources. One of the objectives of this paper is to present the use of image processing algorithms in air pollution source monitoring. CCD amateur video cameras capture images that are further processed by computer. The use of video as a remote sensing system was implemented with the goal of determining some particular parameters, either meteorological or related with air quality monitoring and modeling of point sources. These parameters include the remote calculation of wind direction, wind speed, gases stack's outlet velocity, and stack's effective emission height. The characteristics and behavior of a visible pollutant's plume is also studied. Different sequences of relatively simple image processing operations are applied to the images gathered by the different cameras to segment the plume. The algorithms are selected depending on the atmospheric and lighting conditions. The developed system was applied to a 1,000 MW fuel power plant located at Setubal, Portugal. The methodology presented shows that digital video can be an inexpensive form to get useful air pollution related data for monitoring and modeling purposes.

  19. Compositions and pollutant sources of haze in Beijing urban sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmei; Song, Yujun; Zuo, Jiangnan; Wu, Hongwen

    2016-05-01

    Haze from urban sites in Beijing was collected with a self-assembled electrostatic dust collector. The sizes and morphologies, thermal properties, and compositions of the particles in the haze were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Based on these results, the causes and pollutant sources of the chemicals in the haze were analyzed, and some countermeasures were further advanced to reduce the related pollutant sources. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:26810665

  20. Groundwater Pollution Source Identification using Linked ANN-Optimization Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz, Md; Srivastava, Rajesh; Jain, Ashu

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is the principal source of drinking water in several parts of the world. Contamination of groundwater has become a serious health and environmental problem today. Human activities including industrial and agricultural activities are generally responsible for this contamination. Identification of groundwater pollution source is a major step in groundwater pollution remediation. Complete knowledge of pollution source in terms of its source characteristics is essential to adopt an effective remediation strategy. Groundwater pollution source is said to be identified completely when the source characteristics - location, strength and release period - are known. Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source is an ill-posed inverse problem. It becomes more difficult for real field conditions, when the lag time between the first reading at observation well and the time at which the source becomes active is not known. We developed a linked ANN-Optimization model for complete identification of an unknown groundwater pollution source. The model comprises two parts- an optimization model and an ANN model. Decision variables of linked ANN-Optimization model contain source location and release period of pollution source. An objective function is formulated using the spatial and temporal data of observed and simulated concentrations, and then minimized to identify the pollution source parameters. In the formulation of the objective function, we require the lag time which is not known. An ANN model with one hidden layer is trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to find the lag time. Different combinations of source locations and release periods are used as inputs and lag time is obtained as the output. Performance of the proposed model is evaluated for two and three dimensional case with error-free and erroneous data. Erroneous data was generated by adding uniformly distributed random error (error level 0-10%) to the analytically computed concentration

  1. Light pollution simulations for planar ground-based light sources.

    PubMed

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2008-02-20

    The light pollution model is employed to analyze spatial behavior of luminance at the night sky under cloudless and overcast conditions. Enhanced light excess is particularly identified at cloudy skies, because the clouds efficiently contribute to the downward luminous flux. It is evident that size of ground-based light sources can play an important role in the case of overcast sky conditions. Nevertheless, the realistically sized light sources are rarely embedded into light pollution modeling, and rather they are replaced by simple point sources. We discuss the discrepancies between sky luminance distributions when at first the planar light sources are considered and at second the point-source approximation is accepted. The found differences are noticeable if the size of the light source, distance to the observer, and altitude of a cloudy layer are comparable one to the other. Compared with point-source approximation, an inclusion of the size factor into modeling the light sources leads to partial elimination of the steep changes of sky luminance (typical for point sources of light). The narrow and sharp light pillars normally presented on the sky illuminated by point light sources can disappear or fuse together when two or more nearby light sources are considered with their real sizes. Sky elements situated close to the horizon will glow efficiently if luminous flux originates from two-dimensional ground-based entities (such as cities or villages). PMID:18288228

  2. Imploding plasma radiation sources: basic concepts. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Guillory, J.; Davis, J.

    1984-07-31

    This document is prepared as a briefing aid and technical primer for persons unfamiliar and uninitiated with the theory of imploding plasma radiation sources. It is hoped that it will prove helpful in introducing the basic physics concepts of these sources and in presenting these concepts to newcomers and potential users.

  3. Groundwater Pollution Source Identification Using Trained ANN Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz, M.; Srivastava, R.

    2012-04-01

    Remediation of groundwater contamination is one of the foremost challenges for the present generation. Exact knowledge of the location of the pollution source is essential to tackle this problem. Pollution sources have several important characteristics - location, strength and release period - that can be employed to single out a specific source. Breakthrough curves, which are the temporal distribution of concentration data at a given location, can be utilized to identify the location of an unknown pollution source. However, there is a lag between the time when the readings are taken at the observation well and the time when the source becomes active. In real field situations there is little or no information about this lag. We develop a methodology to identify the location of a pollution source, without using the lag time or the source strength as known parameters, by using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based technique. Breakthrough curves are primarily dependent on four variables, namely, source location, strength, release period and lag time. To develop an ANN model, the impact because of strength and lag time has been eliminated in a step-wise fashion. First, the breakthrough curve is normalized, between 0 and 1, by dividing concentration data by the maximum concentration value observed. Then, only the portion of the breakthrough curve near the peak is used as an input to train the ANN model. It has been shown that the breakthrough curve under these conditions is only dependent on the source location and release period, and is unique for a given combination of source strength and release period. An ANN model with one hidden layer is trained using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The modified breakthrough curve is used as an input to the ANN model while the source strength and release period constitute the output. The number of neurons in the hidden layer has been selected by minimizing the mean squared error for different number of hidden neurons

  4. Fate of hydrocarbon pollutants in source and non-source control sustainable drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Roinas, Georgios; Mant, Cath; Williams, John B

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable drainage (SuDs) is an established method for managing runoff from developments, and source control is part of accepted design philosophy. However, there are limited studies into the contribution source control makes to pollutant removal, especially for roads. This study examines organic pollutants, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in paired source and non-source control full-scale SuDs systems. Sites were selected to cover local roads, trunk roads and housing developments, with a range of SuDs, including porous asphalt, swales, detention basins and ponds. Soil and water samples were taken bi-monthly over 12 months to assess pollutant loads. Results show first flush patterns in storm events for solids, but not for TPH. The patterns of removal for specific PAHs were also different, reflecting varying physico-chemical properties. The potential of trunk roads for pollution was illustrated by peak runoff for TPH of > 17,000 μg/l. Overall there was no significant difference between pollutant loads from source and non-source control systems, but the dynamic nature of runoff means that longer-term data are required. The outcomes of this project will increase understanding of organic pollutants behaviour in SuDs. This will provide design guidance about the most appropriate systems for treating these pollutants. PMID:24569267

  5. Anaesthetic pollution. Potential sources, their identification and control.

    PubMed

    Barker, J P; Abdelatti, M O

    1997-11-01

    Anaesthetic gases escape into the ambient air mainly from the anaesthetic breathing system but there are many other important sources of anaesthetic pollution. These include the filling of vaporisers, inhalational induction techniques, leaks around the patient's face mask, leaks from monitoring equipment and loose-fitting or perishing equipment. The control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH) regulations together with the recent implementation of the occupational exposure standards (OES) for anaesthetic gases require that any risk to health workers from anaesthetic exposure be assessed, control measures implemented, the environment monitored and OES not exceeded. The installation of costly scavenging equipment is believed to have reduced the levels of pollution in operating theatres, but several independent reports suggest that their use has not been wholly effective. Many sources of pollution remote from scavenging equipment may be responsible for the ineffective control of anaesthetic pollution. During an initial COSHH assessment in our hospital, using an infra-red analyser specifically designed for leak testing and background monitoring, we have identified several controllable sources of pollution. These included leaks from an ill-fitting face mask, loose connections in the anaesthetic breathing system, leaks from the laryngeal mask at the end of the operation and a leak of more than 5400 ppm N2O was found near the unscavenged gas outlet at the back of the multigas monitor. Leak testing, using infra-red analysers with their rapid response, has been recommended as an important aid in the identification of hidden sources of pollution, most of which we believe are amenable to control and remedy. PMID:9404171

  6. Control of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution by Natural Wetland Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  7. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a series of documents being developed by the U.S. EPA, summarizing available information on building materials and products brought into homes and office buildings as potential sources of indoor air pollution. he documents will provide a complete list of mater...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCE EMISSIONS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the design, structure, and theory of a microcomputer-based relational database which has been created to archive and retrieve published information concerning sources of indoor air pollutants. The database is designed to be used by researchers, architects, pol...

  9. Biodetention: A best management practice for nonpoint source pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Murfee, G.; Scaief, J.; Whelan, M.

    1998-07-01

    Biodetention is an innovative nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control best management practice (BMP) developed as an alternative to sedimentation/filtration ponds. Biodetention is applicable as a runoff treatment system for concentrated point discharges from stormwater collection facilities. Treatment is facilitated by vegetative filter strips and stiff grass hedges.

  10. RECOGNIZING FARMERS' ATTITUDES AND IMPLEMENTING NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the role of farmer attitudes and corresponding communication activities in the implementation of nonpoint source water pollution control programs. The report begins with an examination of the basis for and function of attitudes in influencing behavior. The ro...

  11. Is mercury from Hawaiian volcanoes a natural source of pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, A.; Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1971-01-01

    An analysis shows that 98% of mercury from Hawaiian fumaroles is gaseous or solid particles less than 0.3 micron in diameter. It is suggested that both natural and industrial sources may be contributors to mercury pollution of the air in Hawaii.

  12. Near-source air pollution and mitigation strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Local-scale air pollution impact is of concern for populations located in close proximity to transit sources, including highway, port, rail, and other areas of concentrated diesel emissions. Previous near-road air monitoring research has prompted the U.S. EPA to implem...

  13. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment

  14. Concepts in Practice as Sources of Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    The framework for the study of concept formation embraced by the articles in this special issue makes it possible to observe and catalog the mechanisms by which conceptual structures in the wild achieve and maintain organization. I propose a provisional inventory of such mechanisms that includes the primitive mechanisms of dimensionality…

  15. A numerical experiment on light pollution from distant sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, M.

    2011-08-01

    To predict the light pollution of the night-time sky realistically over any location or measuring point on the ground presents quite a difficult calculation task. Light pollution of the local atmosphere is caused by stray light, light loss or reflection of artificially illuminated ground objects or surfaces such as streets, advertisement boards or building interiors. Thus it depends on the size, shape, spatial distribution, radiative pattern and spectral characteristics of many neighbouring light sources. The actual state of the atmospheric environment and the orography of the surrounding terrain are also relevant. All of these factors together influence the spectral sky radiance/luminance in a complex manner. Knowledge of the directional behaviour of light pollution is especially important for the correct interpretation of astronomical observations. From a mathematical point of view, the light noise or veil luminance of a specific sky element is given by a superposition of scattered light beams. Theoretical models that simulate light pollution typically take into account all ground-based light sources, thus imposing great requirements on CPU and MEM. As shown in this paper, a contribution of distant sources to the light pollution might be essential under specific conditions of low turbidity and/or Garstang-like radiative patterns. To evaluate the convergence of the theoretical model, numerical experiments are made for different light sources, spectral bands and atmospheric conditions. It is shown that in the worst case the integration limit is approximately 100 km, but it can be significantly shortened for light sources with cosine-like radiative patterns.

  16. Miniature accelerator-driven gamma source concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, R. W.; Chan, K. D.; Wangler, Thomas P.,; Wood R. L.; Carlsten, B. E.; Kirbie, H. C.

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments in W-band (-100 GHz) traveling wave tube technology at Los Alarnos may lead to a compact high-power W-band RE source. A conceptual design of a compact 8-MeV electron linac that codd be powered by this source is presented, including electromagnetic structure calculations, proposed rnicrojbbrication and manufacturing methods, supporting calculations to estimate accelerator performance, and gumma production rates based on preliminary target geometries and expected output beam current.

  17. Source apportionment of wastewater pollutants using multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Menka; Tripathi, B D

    2014-07-01

    A faster and cost-effective methodology has been developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal variations in wastewater quality and apportion the influencing sources through multivariate statistical techniques, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Partially treated or untreated wastewater is released into the river from various industrial and domestic sources, which poses a serious threat to human health. Wastewater samples were collected from five stations along the river bank. PCA performed on overall wastewater samples revealed that in present study all the five sampling stations were influenced by sewage and industrial effluents mixed together. However, the pollutant levels were significantly different in the three groups of wastewater samples, which were confirmed by univariate analysis of principal component (PC) scores. Based on wastewater similarities, cluster analysis identified three groups (central, upstream and downstream) of sampling stations, which further confirmed univariate analysis of PCs scores. Spatial variations in wastewater quality reveled that the highest pollutant concentration was noted for group 1 and lowest for group 2. Seasonal variations in the wastewater quality revealed that highest values of pollutants were observed in low flow and lowest in high flow. Results of the present study obtained through multivariate analyses may be used to classify wastewater and identify the influencing sources of pollutants. The present study may be useful in reducing 11 % of the cost in future investigations. Thus, in future quality estimation of the representative wastewater samples would be faster as well as cost-effective approach. PMID:24599147

  18. Nonpoint source pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a methodology for source analysis.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Guido; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Shorshani, Masoud Fallah; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2014-09-01

    The characterization and control of runoff pollution from nonpoint sources in urban areas are a major issue for the protection of aquatic environments. We propose a methodology to quantify the sources of pollutants in an urban catchment and to analyze the associated uncertainties. After describing the methodology, we illustrate it through an application to the sources of Cu, Pb, Zn, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a residential catchment (228 ha) in the Paris region. In this application, we suggest several procedures that can be applied for the analysis of other pollutants in different catchments, including an estimation of the total extent of roof accessories (gutters and downspouts, watertight joints and valleys) in a catchment. These accessories result as the major source of Pb and as an important source of Zn in the example catchment, while activity-related sources (traffic, heating) are dominant for Cu (brake pad wear) and PAH (tire wear, atmospheric deposition). PMID:24760596

  19. Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaushal, S.S.; Groffman, P.M.; Band, L.E.; Elliott, E.M.; Shields, C.A.; Kendall, C.

    2011-01-01

    Nonpoint source nitrogen (N) pollution is a leading contributor to U.S. water quality impairments. We combined watershed N mass balances and stable isotopes to investigate fate and transport of nonpoint N in forest, agricultural, and urbanized watersheds at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site. Annual N retention was 55%, 68%, and 82% for agricultural, suburban, and forest watersheds, respectively. Analysis of ?? 15N-NO3-, and ??18O-NO 3- indicated wastewater was an important nitrate source in urbanized streams during baseflow. Negative correlations between ??15N-NO3- and ??18O- NO3- in urban watersheds indicated mixing between atmospheric deposition and wastewater, and N source contributions changed with storm magnitude (atmospheric sources contributed ???50% at peak storm N loads). Positive correlations between ??15N-NO3- and ??18O-NO3- in watersheds suggested denitrification was removing septic system and agriculturally derived N, but N from belowground leaking sewers was less susceptible to denitrification. N transformations were also observed in a storm drain (no natural drainage network) potentially due to organic carbon inputs. Overall, nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, wastewater, and fertilizer showed different susceptibility to watershed N export. There were large changes in nitrate sources as a function of runoff, and anticipating source changes in response to climate and storms will be critical for managing nonpoint N pollution. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China’s population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7–2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China. PMID:26291610

  1. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Robert A; Muller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China's population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7-2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China. PMID:26291610

  2. Gulls identified as major source of fecal pollution in coastal waters: a microbial source tracking study.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Susana; Henriques, Isabel S; Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Alves, Artur; Pereira, Anabela; Correia, António

    2014-02-01

    Gulls were reported as sources of fecal pollution in coastal environments and potential vectors of human infections. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were rarely tested to identify this pollution origin. This study was conducted to ascertain the source of water fecal contamination in the Berlenga Island, Portugal. A total of 169 Escherichia coli isolates from human sewage, 423 isolates from gull feces and 334 water isolates were analyzed by BOX-PCR. An average correct classification of 79.3% was achieved. When an 85% similarity cutoff was applied 24% of water isolates were present in gull feces against 2.7% detected in sewage. Jackknifing resulted in 29.3% of water isolates classified as gull, and 10.8% classified as human. Results indicate that gulls constitute a major source of water contamination in the Berlenga Island. This study validated a methodology to differentiate human and gull fecal pollution sources in a real case of a contaminated beach. PMID:24140684

  3. Introduction to nonpoint-source pollution and wetland mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, L.A.

    1991-09-12

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) is the major cause of impairment of U.S. surface waters. Erosion from croplands has been declining but is not yet reflected in decreased sediment yield or phosphorus concentrations in the nation's rivers. Nitrogen pollution is of particular concern in eutophication of estuaries as a contaminant of groundwater, and as an acidifying agent in atmospheric deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer and emissions of nitrous oxides are major contributors to the problem. The outlook on pesticides is mixed: bans on organochlorine pesticides in the 1970s have resulted in decreasing concentrations in fish tissue; however, herbicides are now a problem for some surface and groundwater sources of drinking water, especially in the Upper Midwest.

  4. Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future. PMID:22177291

  5. Linnaean sources and concepts of orchids

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Charlie; Cribb, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Background Linnaeus developed a robust system for naming plants and a useful, if mechanical, system for classifying them. His binomial nomenclature proved the catalyst for the rapid development of our knowledge of orchids, with his work on the family dating back to 1737 in the first edition of his Genera Plantarum. His first work devoted to orchids, indeed the first monograph of the family, was published in 1740 and formed the basis for his account in Species Plantarum, published in 1753, in which he gave a binomial name to each species. Given the overwhelming number of orchids, he included surprisingly few – only 62 mostly European species – in Species Plantarum, his seminal work on the plants of the world. This reflects the European origin of modern botany and the concentration of extra-European exploration on other matters, such as conquest, gold and useful plants. Nevertheless, the scope of Linnaeus' work is broad, including plants from as far afield as India, Japan, China and the Philippines to the east, and eastern Canada, the West Indies and northern South America to the west. In his later publications he described and named a further 45 orchids, mostly from Europe, South Africa and the tropical Americas. Scope The philosophical basis of Linnaeus' work on orchids is discussed and his contribution to our knowledge of the family assessed. His generic and species concepts are considered in the light of current systematic ideas, but his adoption of binomial nomenclature for all plants is his lasting legacy. PMID:19182221

  6. Synchrotron based spallation neutron source concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.

    1998-07-01

    During the past 20 years, rapid-cycling synchrotrons (RCS) have been used very productively to generate short-pulse thermal neutron beams for neutron scattering research by materials science communities in Japan (KENS), the UK (ISIS) and the US (IPNS). The most powerful source in existence, ISIS in the UK, delivers a 160-kW proton beam to a neutron-generating target. Several recently proposed facilities require proton beams in the MW range to produce intense short-pulse neutron beams. In some proposals, a linear accelerator provides the beam power and an accumulator ring compresses the pulse length to the required {approx} 1 {micro}s. In others, RCS technology provides the bulk of the beam power and compresses the pulse length. Some synchrotron-based proposals achieve the desired beam power by combining two or more synchrotrons of the same energy, and others propose a combination of lower and higher energy synchrotrons. This paper presents the rationale for using RCS technology, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of synchrotron-based spallation sources.

  7. Fundamental mass transfer models for indoor air pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Guo, Z.; Sparks, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses a simple, fundamental mass transfer model, based on Fick's Law of Diffusion, for indoor air pollution wet sorbent-based sources. (Note: Models are needed to predict emissions from indoor sources. While empirical approaches based on dynamic chamber data are useful, a more fundamental approach is needed to fully elucidate the relevant mass transfer processes). In the model, the mass transfer rate is assumed to be gas-phase limited and controlled by the boundary layer mass transfer coefficient, the saturation vapor pressure of the material being emitted, and the mass of volatile material remaining. Results of static and dynamic chamber tests, as well as test house studies, are presented.

  8. Consideration of emerging pollutants in groundwater-based reuse concepts.

    PubMed

    Tiehm, A; Schmidt, N; Lipp, P; Zawadsky, C; Marei, A; Seder, N; Ghanem, M; Paris, S; Zemann, M; Wolf, L

    2012-01-01

    Elimination of pathogens and emerging pollutants represents a key factor in integrated water resources management in arid regions. Within the SMART Jordan Valley project it is the objective of this study to assess the occurrence and examine the elimination of selected emerging pollutants and pathogens in waste water treatment and aquifer recharge. In batch and soil column studies non-chlorinated organophosphorous compounds (tri-n-butylphosphate, triphenylphosphate) and endocrine disruptors (e.g. 17-ß-estradiol, bisphenol A) proved to be biodegradable, while the X-ray contrast agents iomeprol and iopromide were eliminated in the soil columns only, and the chlorinated trialkylphosphates showed persistency. Treating waste water in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination with powdered activated carbon (PAC) resulted in considerable removal rates also for the more persistent compounds such as the antiepileptic carbamazepine. Viruses were shown to be present in most of the Jordan Valley surface water samples. MBR treatment resulted in a decrease of MS2 bacteriophages used as model viruses. PMID:22828305

  9. [Microbial source tracking of water fecal pollution: a review].

    PubMed

    Feng, Guan-da; Deng, Ming-rong; Zhu, Hong-hui; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Chang-xiong; Liang, Hao-liang

    2010-12-01

    Livestock feces and domestic sewage are the one of the main factors inducing water pollution, while the identification of the pollution source is particularly important in pollution control and management. Because of this, microbial source tracking (MST) has recently been paid more and more attention by the related researchers around the world. In this paper, the research progress of two types of MST methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and existing problems in application were reviewed and discussed. It was considered that in the library- and culture-dependent MST methods, PCR genotyping based on repetitive sequences was most practicable, while in the library- and culture-independent MST methods, PCR-DGGE based on the gene of specificity in Escherichia coli had a very glaring sight. Future researches should be more focused on the library- and culture-independent MST, and the combination of library- and culture-dependent MST with library- and culture-independent MST could make the tracking results more credible. PMID:21443019

  10. Concentrations of mobile source air pollutants in urban microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Johnson, Ted; Ollison, Will

    2014-07-01

    Human exposures to criteria and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in urban areas vary greatly due to temporal-spatial variations in emissions, changing meteorology, varying proximity to sources, as well as due to building, vehicle, and other environmental characteristics that influence the amounts of ambient pollutants that penetrate or infiltrate into these microenvironments. Consequently, the exposure estimates derived from central-site ambient measurements are uncertain and tend to underestimate actual exposures. The Exposure Classification Project (ECP) was conducted to measure pollutant concentrations for common urban microenvironments (MEs) for use in evaluating the results of regulatory human exposure models. Nearly 500 sets of measurements were made in three Los Angeles County communities during fall 2008, winter 2009, and summer 2009. MEs included in-vehicle, near-road, outdoor and indoor locations accessible to the general public. Contemporaneous 1- to 15-min average personal breathing zone concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), particulate matter (< 2.5 microm diameter; PM2.5) mass, ultrafine particle (UFP; < 100 nm diameter) number black carbon (BC), speciated HAPs (e.g, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes [BTEX], 1,3-butadiene), and ozone (O3) were measured continuously. In-vehicle and inside/outside measurements were made in various passenger vehicle types and in public buildings to estimate penetration or infiltration factors. A large fraction of the observed pollutant concentrations for on-road MEs, especially near diesel trucks, was unrelated to ambient measurements at nearby monitors. Comparisons of ME concentrations estimated using the median ME/ambient ratio versus regression slopes and intercepts indicate that the regression approach may be more accurate for on-road MEs. Ranges in the ME/ambient ratios among ME categories were generally

  11. Tramline wheelings as diffuse pollution sources: integrating across spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silgram, Martyn; Collins, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    Identifying the sources of diffuse pollution, characterising transport pathways, and understanding the factors controlling delivery to water bodies, are generic challenges faced by scientists and policymakers supporting the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and other water quality legislation. Land management is intrinsically field scale, which is the scale at which much fieldwork is focused. However, processes identified at plot or field scale may not be significant in terms of water quality at catchment scale, which poses the problem of how best to upscale relevant field-scale characterisations. A consistent framework is urgently needed which is capable of bringing together experimental techniques at these disparate spatial scales (plot, field and river catchment scale), to provide high resolution evidence to support catchment characterisations (which identify "hot spots") and the spatial targeting of mitigation measures aimed at diffuse pollution control. In the absence of such frameworks, comparing existing data from disparate projects represents a starting point for assessing scaling issues. The emerging evidence base is increasingly underscoring the importance of tramline wheelings as sources and pathways for diffuse pollution loss to the edge of cereal fields. Recent UK research has demonstrated that these compacted, unvegetated areas (which are used as markers in spraying operations) can account for over 80% of surface losses of runoff, sediment and phosphorus to edge-of-field. Current government and industry-funded projects are now exploring a range of novel practical land management techniques to minimise these field-scale losses. However, given the mitigating role of field headlands and boundaries, and riparian buffer strips in limiting connectivity and delivery to water bodies, it has not been clear whether such losses represent an important element of the net pollutant load reaching catchment outlets. Such scaling issues represent an

  12. Identification of source of faecal pollution of Tirumanimuttar River, Tamilnadu, India using microbial source tracking.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kasi; Prabhakaran, Perumal; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh; Sekar, Kuppusamy

    2012-10-01

    Efficient management of deteriorating water bodies can be achieved by determining the sources of faecal pollution. Resourceful techniques for discrimination of the sources of Escherichia coli in surface water have recently been developed, including the use of river water to facilitate faecal indicator surveillance, identification of sources of faecal contamination and employing relevant management practices to maintain water quality. This study was conducted to employ microbial source tracking (MST) techniques for the determination of the sources of faecal pollution based on a water quality investigation of the physico-chemical characteristics and coliform count point of the Tirumanimuttar River. To accomplish this, an MST library-based antibiotic resistance analysis, serotyping and the genomic tool rep-PCR techniques were applied, and the obtained results were analysed statistically. Among 135 and 70 E. coli isolates present in the library and water samples collected from the river and nearby well water sources, respectively, most showed intrinsic, high or moderate resistance to antibiotics. Isolates from human and pig faecal sources were 92% homologous with the samples from the river, whereas isolates from sewage and dairy cattle showed 89% and 80% homology, respectively. These findings indicated that the Tirumanimuttar River is subjected to stress from anthropogenic activities and runoff contaminated with agricultural and human faecal contamination. The sources of faecal pollution identified in this study may facilitate the monitoring and management of the Tirumanimuttar River. PMID:22016043

  13. Laboratory studies of sources of HONO in polluted urban atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, Najat A.; Mochida, Michihiro; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara. J.

    2000-10-01

    Laboratory studies reported here and in previous work show that the reaction of NO(g) with surface adsorbed HNO3 may be a significant source of HONO in polluted urban atmospheres. If these laboratory studies can be extrapolated to ambient conditions, this heterogeneous reaction may generate HONO to about the same extent as the hydrolysis of NO2 on surfaces, which is greater than the heterogeneous reaction of NO, NO2 and water. It may also be involved in generating HONO in snowpacks, and important in reconciling the discrepancy between measured and modeled HNO3/NOx ratios in the troposphere.

  14. A model for managing sources of groundwater pollution.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The waste disposal capacity of a groundwater system can be maximized while maintaining water quality at specified locations by using a groundwater pollutant source management model that is based upon linear programing and numerical simulation. The decision variables of the management model are solute waste disposal rates at various facilities distributed over space. A concentration response matrix is used in the management model to describe transient solute transport and is developed using the US Geological Survey solute transport simulation model. The management model was applied to a complex hypothetical groundwater system. -from Author

  15. Atmospheric Pollution and Emission Sources in South Asian Urban Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, K. F.; Husain, Liaquat

    2009-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and lack of efficient monitoring and control of pollution, along with phenomena like Asian Brown Haze or prolonged episodes of winter fog, makes the South Asian atmospheric chemistry a very complex one. The anthropogenic aerosols released from this region are projected to become the dominant component of anthropogenic aerosols worldwide in the next 25 years (Nakicenovic and Swart, 2000). The region is one of the most densely populated in the world, with present population densities of 100-500 persons km-2. There are six big cities, namely, Delhi, Dhaka, Karachi, Kolkata, Lahore, and Mumbai, each housing a population around or above 10 million. There is now a real concern about the sustainability of the region's ability to support the population due to air pollution, loss of biodiversity and soil degradation. Therefore, we conducted several extensive campaigns over last 10 years in Lahore, Karachi, and Islamabad in Pakistan to (1) chemically characterize the aerosols (PM2.5 mass, concentrations of trace elements, ions, black and organic carbon), and gaseous pollutants (concentrations of NH3, SO2, HONO, HNO3, HCl and (COOH)2, and (2) identify the major emission sources in this region. Exceedingly high concentrations of all species, relative to major urban areas of US and Europe, were observed. Concentrations of PM2.5, BC, Pb, SO42-, NH4+, HONO, NH3 respectively, up to 476, 110, 12, 66, 60, 19.6 and 50 μgm-3 were observed in these cities, which were far in excess of WHO and US EPA air quality standard (Biswas et al., 2008). We use air parcel back trajectories, intercomponent relationships and meteorological observations to explain chemistry and emission sources of aerosol constituents. Carbonaceous aerosols contributed up to 69% of the PM2.5 mass (Husain et al., 2007). Source apportionment was conducted using positive matrix factorization. The analysis has classified six emission sources of aerosol components, namely, industrial activities, wood

  16. SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Source Characterization Team (SCT) develops, directs, and conducts research on sources of indoor air pollution and their interactions with indoor surfaces (i.e., sinks). Source and sink characterization studies provide quantitative information on the temporal impact of source...

  17. GIS-based source identification and apportionment of diffuse water pollution: perfluorinated compound pollution in the Tokyo Bay basin.

    PubMed

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2011-11-01

    To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse water pollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that was extracted from a constructed GIS database. The spatially distributed pollution factors were then explored by multiple linear regression analysis, after which they were visually expressed using GIS. Among the 35 PFC homologues measured in a survey of the Tokyo Bay basin, 18 homologues were analyzed. Pollution by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was explained well by the percentage of arterial traffic area in the basin, and the 84% variance of the measured PFOS concentration was explained by two geographic variables, arterial traffic area and population. Source apportionment between point and nonpoint sources was conducted based on the results of the analysis. The contribution of PFOS from nonpoint sources was comparable to that from point sources in several major rivers flowing into Tokyo Bay. Source identification and apportionment using the GIS-based approach was shown to be effective, especially for ubiquitous types of pollution, such as PFC pollution. PMID:21885084

  18. Patterns of trace gases near sources of global pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, M.A.K.; Rasmussen, R.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Many trace gases are increasing in the earth's armosphere and may couase global environmental changes in the future. Consequently there has been growing interest in the cycles of the long-lived gases that are likely to contribute the most to global change. At present there are four such gases: methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}0), trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F,F-11), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2},F-12). Methane and N{sub 2}O are involved mostly in adding to the greenhouse effect with some role in the stratospheric ozone cycle, and the two main fluorocarbons (F-11 and F-12) are involved in the depletion of the ozone layer with some role in global warming. This paper is about the patterns of these trace gases near regions of global scale pollution. Our purpose is to provide a synthesis of observations from diverse environments and ecosystems of the world and to provide readers with intuitive connections between sources and concentrations. We will consider four types of regions: rice fields in CHina that are a major source of methane, urban areas of the United States and China that are sources of fluorocarbons and other gases, rivers and surrounding wetlands, specifically the Yangtze in China and the Amazon in Brazil, and finally the environment of Boola Boola National Forest in Australia populated by many speices of termites that are a source of methane to the atmosphere. Eventually these patterns can be translated into estimeates of fluxes from the various sources of global pollution.

  19. Meteorology applied to urban air pollution problems: concepts from COST 715

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P.; Kukkonen, J.; Piringer, M.; Rotach, M. W.; Schatzmann, M.

    2005-08-01

    This selective review of the COST 715 considers simple descriptive concepts in urban meteorology with particular attention to air pollution assessment. It is shown that these are helpful for understanding the complex structure of the urban boundary layer, but that simple concepts only apply under a limited number of occasions. However such concepts are necessary for insight into how both simple and complex air pollution models perform. Wider considerations are needed when considering routine air quality assessments involving an air quality model's formulation and pedigree. It is argued that there is a reluctance from model developers to move away from familiar concepts of the atmospheric boundary layer even if they are not appropriate to urban areas. An example is given from COST 715 as to how routine urban meteorological measurements of wind speed may be used and adapted for air quality assessments. Reference to the full COST 715 study is made which provides further details.

  20. Identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources based on GIS and chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Guo, Huai-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Hao, Ze-Jia

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive and joint applications of GIS and chemometric approach were applied in identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources with a large data set (5 years (2000-2004), 17 parameters) obtained through coastal water monitoring of Southern Water Control Zone in Hong Kong. According to cluster analysis the pollution degree was significantly different between September-next May (the 1st period) and June-August (the 2nd period). Based on these results, four potential pollution sources, such as organic/eutrophication pollution, natural pollution, mineral/anthropic pollution and fecal pollution were identified by factor analysis/principal component analysis. Then the factor scores of each monitoring site were analyzed using inverse distance weighting method, and the results indicated degree of the influence by various potential pollution sources differed among the monitoring sites. This study indicated that hybrid approach was useful and effective for identification of coastal water pollution source and spatial patterns. PMID:17966867

  1. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  2. Predicting precipitation on nonpoint source pollutant exports in the source area of the Liao River, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Bian, J M; Wang, S N; Nie, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The source area of the Liao River is an important grain growing area in China which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) which is impacting the regional economy and society. In order to address the water quality issues it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of NPS in the Liao River source area. This issue has been investigated by coupling a wavelet artificial neural network (WA-ANN) precipitation model with a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to assess the export of nonpoint source pollutants from the Liao River source area. The calibration and validation of these models are outlined. The WA-ANN models and the SWAT model were run to generate the spatial distribution of nonpoint source nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) exports in the source area of the Liao River. It was found that the SWAT model identified the sub-catchments which not only receive high rainfall but are also densely populated with high agricultural production from dry fields and paddy fields, which are large users of pesticides and chemical fertilizer, as the primary source areas for nutrient exports. It is also concluded that the coupled WA-ANN models and the SWAT model provide a tool which will inform the identification of NPS issues and will facilitate the identification of management practices to improve the water environments in the source area of the Liao River. PMID:27533862

  3. The Effects of Computer-Aided Concept Cartoons and Outdoor Science Activities on Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Güliz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create an awareness of light pollution on seventh grade students via computer aided concept cartoon applications and outdoor science activities and to help them develop solutions; and to determine student opinions on the practices carried out. The study was carried out at a middle school in Mugla province of Aegean…

  4. Biocatalytic coatings for air pollution control: a proof of concept study on VOC biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Estrada, José M; Bernal, Oscar I; Flickinger, Michael C; Muñoz, Raúl; Deshusses, Marc A

    2015-02-01

    Although biofilm-based biotechnologies exhibit a large potential as solutions for off-gas treatment, the high water content of biofilms often causes pollutant mass transfer limitations, which ultimately limit their widespread application. The present study reports on the proof of concept of the applicability of bioactive latex coatings for air pollution control. Toluene vapors served as a model volatile organic compound (VOC). The results showed that Pseudomonas putida F1 cells could be successfully entrapped in nanoporous latex coatings while preserving their toluene degradation activity. Bioactive latex coatings exhibited toluene specific biodegradation rates 10 times higher than agarose-based biofilms, because the thin coatings were less subject to diffusional mass transfer limitations. Drying and pollutant starvation were identified as key factors inducing a gradual deterioration of the biodegradation capacity in these innovative coatings. This study constitutes the first application of bioactive latex coatings for VOC abatement. These coatings could become promising means for air pollution control. PMID:25115963

  5. Local sources of pollution and their impacts in Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molders, N.

    2013-12-01

    The movie 'Into the Wilde' evoke the impression of the last frontier in a great wide and pristine land. With over half a million people living in Alaska an area as larger as the distance from the US West to the East Coast, this idea comes naturally. The three major cities are the main emission source in an otherwise relative clean atmosphere. On the North Slope oil drilling and production is the main anthropogenic emission sources. Along Alaska's coasts ship traffic including cruises is another anthropogenic emission source that is expected to increase as sea-ice recedes. In summer, wildfires in Alaska, Canada and/or Siberia may cause poor air quality. In winter inversions may lead poor air quality and in spring. In spring, aged polluted air is often advected into Alaska. These different emission sources yield quite different atmospheric composition and air quality impacts. While this may make understanding Alaska's atmospheric composition at-large a challenging task, it also provides great opportunities to examine impacts without co-founders. The talk will give a review of the performed research, and insight into the challenges.

  6. Spatiotemporal patterns and source attribution of nitrogen load in a river basin with complex pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoying; Liu, Qun; Fu, Guangtao; He, Yi; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Environmental problems such as eutrophication caused by excessive nutrient discharge are global challenges. There are complex pollution sources of nitrogen (N) discharge in many river basins worldwide. Knowledge of its pollution sources and their respective load contributions is essential to developing effective N pollution control strategies. N loads from all known anthropogenic pollution sources in the Upper Huai River basin of China were simulated with the process-based SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. The performances of SWAT driven by daily and hourly rainfall inputs were assessed and it was found that the one driven by hourly rainfall outperformed the one driven by daily rainfall in simulating both total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) loads. The hourly SWAT model was hence used to examine the spatiotemporal patterns of TN and NH4-N loads and their source attributions. TN load exhibited significant seasonal variations with the largest in summer and the smallest in spring. Despite its declining proportion of contribution downstream, crop production remained the largest contributor of TN load followed by septic tanks, concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs), municipal sewage treatment plants, industries, and scattered animal feedlot operations (SAFOs). There was much less seasonal variation in NH4-N load. CAFOs remained the largest source of NH4-N load throughout the basin, while contributions from industries and municipal sewage treatment plants were more evident downstream. Our study results suggest the need to shift the focus of N load reduction from "end-of-pipe" sewage treatment to an integrated approach emphasizing stakeholder involvement and source prevention. PMID:26945962

  7. Meteorology applied to urban air pollution problems: concepts from COST 715

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B.; Kukkonen, J.; Piringer, M.; Rotach, M. W.; Schatzmann, M.

    2006-02-01

    The outcome of COST 715 is reviewed from the viewpoint of a potential user who is required to consider urban meteorology within an air pollution assessment. It is shown that descriptive concepts are helpful for understanding the complex structure of the urban boundary layer, but that they only apply under a limited number of conditions. However such concepts are necessary to gain insight into both simple and complex air pollution models. It is argued that wider considerations are needed when considering routine air quality assessments involving an air quality model's formulation and pedigree. Moreover there appears to be a reluctance from model developers to move away from familiar concepts of the atmospheric boundary layer even if they are not appropriate to urban areas. An example is given from COST 715 as to how routine urban meteorological measurements of wind speed may be used and adapted for air quality assessments. Reference to the full COST 715 study is made which provides further details.

  8. The transport sector as a source of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvile, R. N.; Hutchinson, E. J.; Mindell, J. S.; Warren, R. F.

    Transport first became a significant source of air pollution after the problems of sooty smog from coal combustion had largely been solved in western European and North American cities. Since then, emissions from road, air, rail and water transport have been partly responsible for acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change. Most recently, road traffic exhaust emissions have been the cause of much concern about the effects of urban air quality on human health and tropospheric ozone production. This article considers the variety of transport impacts on the atmospheric environment by reviewing three examples: urban road traffic and human health, aircraft emissions and global atmospheric change, and the contribution of sulphur emissions from ships to acid deposition. Each example has associated with it a different level of uncertainty, such that a variety of policy responses to the problems are appropriate, from adaptation through precautionary emissions abatement to cost-benefit analysis and optimised abatement. There is some evidence that the current concern for road transport contribution to urban air pollution is justified, but aircraft emissions should also give cause for concern given that air traffic is projected to continue to increase. Emissions from road traffic are being reduced substantially by the introduction of technology especially three-way catalysts and also, most recently, by local traffic reduction measures especially in western European cities. In developing countries and Eastern Europe, however, there remains the possibility of great increase in car ownership and use, and it remains to be seen whether these countries will adopt measures now to prevent transport-related air pollution problems becoming severe later in the 21st Century.

  9. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration). PMID:26287831

  10. Snowmelt runoff: a new focus of urban nonpoint source pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-12-01

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing constitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control. PMID:23202881

  11. Snowmelt Runoff: A New Focus of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-01-01

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing cosntitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control. PMID:23202881

  12. GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN COAL STRIP MINING: PRELIMINARY DESIGNS FOR ACTIVE MINE SOURCES OF POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three potential pollution source categories have been identified for Western coal strip mines. These sources include mine stockpiles, mine waters, and miscellaneous active mine sources. TEMPO's stepwise monitoring methodology (Todd et al., 1976) is used to develop groundwater qua...

  13. Influence of coal as an energy source on environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2007-07-01

    This article considers the influence of coal energy on environmental pollution. Coal is undoubtedly part of the greenhouse problem. The main emissions from coal combustion are sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulates, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and mercury (Hg). Since 1980, despite a 36% increase in electricity generation and more than a 50% increase in coal use, electric utility SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions have declined significantly. Globally, the largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is CO{sub 2} from the combustion of fossil fuels - around 75% of total GHG emissions covered under the Kyoto Protocol. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of world CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuels.

  14. Nonpoint source groundwater pollution and endogenous regulatory policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donna J.; Kim, C. S.

    2002-12-01

    Theory suggests that in the absence of transaction costs, pollution externalities can be mitigated efficiently by charging polluters a tax equal to the marginal social cost of pollution. All other regulatory mechanisms therefore may be no more efficient than a marginal cost pollution tax. We developed a stylized model of dynamic groundwater pollution without transaction costs to examine alternate policies. Using mitigation cost, tax burden, and excess burden we compared the relative efficiency of each tax policy under competitive market conditions. For groundwater nitrate pollution in a Midwestern farming region, results show that the least cost policy is a constant tax on the polluting input, followed by a variable tax on the polluting input and a pollution tax.

  15. AREAL test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakanov, V. M.; Amatuni, G. A.; Amirkhanyan, Z. G.; Aslyan, L. V.; Avagyan, V. Sh.; Danielyan, V. A.; Davtyan, H. D.; Dekhtiarov, V. S.; Gevorgyan, K. L.; Ghazaryan, N. G.; Grigoryan, B. A.; Grigoryan, A. H.; Hakobyan, L. S.; Haroutiunian, S. G.; Ivanyan, M. I.; Khachatryan, V. G.; Laziev, E. M.; Manukyan, P. S.; Margaryan, I. N.; Markosyan, T. M.; Martirosyan, N. V.; Mehrabyan, Sh. A.; Mkrtchyan, T. H.; Muradyan, L. Kh.; Nikogosyan, G. H.; Petrosyan, V. H.; Sahakyan, V. V.; Sargsyan, A. A.; Simonyan, A. S.; Toneyan, H. A.; Tsakanian, A. V.; Vardanyan, T. L.; Vardanyan, A. S.; Yeremyan, A. S.; Zakaryan, S. V.; Zanyan, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Research Electron Accelerator Laboratory (AREAL) is a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator project with a laser driven RF gun being constructed at the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute. In addition to applications in life and materials sciences, the project aims as a test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts. In this paper, the AREAL RF photoinjector performance, the facility design considerations and its highlights in the fields of free electron laser, the study of new high frequency accelerating structures, the beam microbunching and wakefield acceleration concepts are presented.

  16. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  17. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R.; Zhu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m−3 (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3; mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m−3 (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m−3 (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m−3), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m−3 (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m−3) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  18. Controlling sources of indoor air pollution through pollution prevention. Report for January 1994--May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Leovic, K.W.; Whitaker, D.; Brockmann, C.; Bayer, C.; Sojka, P.

    1998-12-31

    The paper is an overview of EPA research into controlling sources of indoor air pollution through pollution prevention (P2). The research focused on four approaches for P2: (1) developing methods and tools that can be used by others to evaluate emissions from equipment or products; (2) developing generic P2 solutions to IAQ problems; (3) identifying high-emitting raw materials or components of products; and (4) evaluating claimed low-emitting materials. Test method guidelines for measuring emissions from office equipment were developed and then evaluated by testing four dry-process copiers in one chamber and conducting a four-laboratory evaluation using one of the copiers. For aerosol consumer products, measurement methods and models were developed that can be used to better understand aerosol behavior so that more efficacious and less toxic products can be developed. As a generic solution for improved IAQ through P2, an innovative spray nozzle for use with precharged aerosol containers was developed and evaluated. The new design allows for the reformulation of selected aerosol consumer products using water and air in place of volatile organic compound solvents and hydrocarbon propellants, respectively.

  19. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. 414.111 Section 414.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. 414.111 Section 414.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. 414.111 Section 414.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. 414.111 Section 414.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a)...

  3. OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION FROM AGRICULTURE: AN APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is a major source of water quality impairment. When considering responses to non-point source pollution, several policy options have been considered historically, including reducing inputs (e.g. fertilizers) altering technologies on the landscape (e.g. conserv...

  4. Factors influencing the spatial extent of mobile source air pollution impacts: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-01-01

    Background There has been growing interest among exposure assessors, epidemiologists, and policymakers in the concept of "hot spots", or more broadly, the "spatial extent" of impacts from traffic-related air pollutants. This review attempts to quantitatively synthesize findings about the spatial extent under various circumstances. Methods We include both the peer-reviewed literature and government reports, and focus on four significant air pollutants: carbon monoxide, benzene, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (including both ultrafine particle counts and fine particle mass). From the identified studies, we extracted information about significant factors that would be hypothesized to influence the spatial extent within the study, such as the study type (e.g., monitoring, air dispersion modeling, GIS-based epidemiological studies), focus on concentrations or health risks, pollutant under study, background concentration, emission rate, and meteorological factors, as well as the study's implicit or explicit definition of spatial extent. We supplement this meta-analysis with results from some illustrative atmospheric dispersion modeling. Results We found that pollutant characteristics and background concentrations best explained variability in previously published spatial extent estimates, with a modifying influence of local meteorology, once some extreme values based on health risk estimates were removed from the analysis. As hypothesized, inert pollutants with high background concentrations had the largest spatial extent (often demonstrating no significant gradient), and pollutants formed in near-source chemical reactions (e.g., nitrogen dioxide) had a larger spatial extent than pollutants depleted in near-source chemical reactions or removed through coagulation processes (e.g., nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particles). Our illustrative dispersion model illustrated the complex interplay of spatial extent definitions, emission rates, background concentrations

  5. Water Quality Assessment of River Soan (Pakistan) and Source Apportionment of Pollution Sources Through Receptor Modeling.

    PubMed

    Nazeer, Summya; Ali, Zeshan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the spatiotemporal patterns in water quality of River Soan using multivariate statistics. A total of 26 sites were surveyed along River Soan and its associated tributaries during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2008. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified sampling sites into three groups according to their degree of pollution, which ranged from least to high degradation of water quality. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed that alkalinity, orthophosphates, nitrates, ammonia, salinity, and Cd were variables that significantly discriminate among three groups identified by HACA. Temporal trends as identified through DFA revealed that COD, DO, pH, Cu, Cd, and Cr could be attributed for major seasonal variations in water quality. PCA/FA identified six factors as potential sources of pollution of River Soan. Absolute principal component scores using multiple regression method (APCS-MLR) further explained the percent contribution from each source. Heavy metals were largely added through industrial activities (28 %) and sewage waste (28 %), nutrients through agriculture runoff (35 %) and sewage waste (28 %), organic pollution through sewage waste (27 %) and urban runoff (17 %) and macroelements through urban runoff (39 %), and mineralization and sewage waste (30 %). The present study showed that anthropogenic activities are the major source of variations in River Soan. In order to address the water quality issues, implementation of effective waste management measures are needed. PMID:27000830

  6. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  7. Mercury as a Global Pollutant: Sources, Pathways, and Effects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that affects human and ecosystem health. We synthesize understanding of sources, atmosphere-land-ocean Hg dynamics and health effects, and consider the implications of Hg-control policies. Primary anthropogenic Hg emissions greatly exceed natural geogenic sources, resulting in increases in Hg reservoirs and subsequent secondary Hg emissions that facilitate its global distribution. The ultimate fate of emitted Hg is primarily recalcitrant soil pools and deep ocean waters and sediments. Transfers of Hg emissions to largely unavailable reservoirs occur over the time scale of centuries, and are primarily mediated through atmospheric exchanges of wet/dry deposition and evasion from vegetation, soil organic matter and ocean surfaces. A key link between inorganic Hg inputs and exposure of humans and wildlife is the net production of methylmercury, which occurs mainly in reducing zones in freshwater, terrestrial, and coastal environments, and the subsurface ocean. Elevated human exposure to methylmercury primarily results from consumption of estuarine and marine fish. Developing fetuses are most at risk from this neurotoxin but health effects of highly exposed populations and wildlife are also a concern. Integration of Hg science with national and international policy efforts is needed to target efforts and evaluate efficacy. PMID:23590191

  8. Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

  9. ESTIMATING HEALTH EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR AND INDOOR SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individuals are exposed to wide variety of pollutants in various indoor and outdoor microenvironments during the course of a typical day. Sources of pollution in various indoor and outdoor locations produce particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants with different physical an...

  10. Lessons Learned from OMI Observations of Point Source SO2 Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, N.; Fioletov, V.; McLinden, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite makes global daily measurements of the total column of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a short-lived trace gas produced by fossil fuel combustion, smelting, and volcanoes. Although anthropogenic SO2 signals may not be detectable in a single OMI pixel, it is possible to see the source and determine its exact location by averaging a large number of individual measurements. We describe new techniques for spatial and temporal averaging that have been applied to the OMI SO2 data to determine the spatial distributions or "fingerprints" of SO2 burdens from top 100 pollution sources in North America. The technique requires averaging of several years of OMI daily measurements to observe SO2 pollution from typical anthropogenic sources. We found that the largest point sources of SO2 in the U.S. produce elevated SO2 values over a relatively small area - within 20-30 km radius. Therefore, one needs higher than OMI spatial resolution to monitor typical SO2 sources. TROPOMI instrument on the ESA Sentinel 5 precursor mission will have improved ground resolution (approximately 7 km at nadir), but is limited to once a day measurement. A pointable geostationary UVB spectrometer with variable spatial resolution and flexible sampling frequency could potentially achieve the goal of daily monitoring of SO2 point sources and resolve downwind plumes. This concept of taking the measurements at high frequency to enhance weak signals needs to be demonstrated with a GEOCAPE precursor mission before 2020, which will help formulating GEOCAPE measurement requirements.

  11. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  12. Limitation of point source pesticide pollution: results of bioremediation system.

    PubMed

    Spanoghe, P; Maes, A; Steurbaut, W

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater and surface water is at risk of contamination from the use of some agricultural pesticides. In many circumstances pesticide contamination of water resources is more likely to result from point sources than from diffuse sources following approved application to crops in the field. Such point sources include areas on farms where pesticides are handled, filled into sprayers or where sprayers are washed down. To overcome this way of contamination different kind of bio-remediation systems are nowadays in development. In Flanders, Belgium two pilot plants of bioremediation systems for the in situ retention and/or degradation of pesticides were installed. Both systems were based on the Phytobac concept, a watertight excavation filled with straw, peat, compost and soil. The channel was made in the bottom from plastic foil. All kinds of spray rests were captured by the phytobacs. This study focuses on what level pesticides leach, bio-degrade or are retained by the filling of the phytobac. The soil-properties of the filling were investigated. Pesticide tracers were added for monitoring to both phytobacs. Soil and water samples were taken during one year. Pesticides are retained at least for one month by the filling of the phytobac. Almost no pesticide leached out. In winter hardly any pesticide degradation was observed in the filling of the phytobac. In summer no detectable pesticides were still left in the phytobacs. PMID:15756863

  13. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Amato, Luís Fernando Lourenço; Kang, Choong-Min; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko

    2016-05-01

    It is of great interest to evaluate if there is a relationship between possible sources and trace elements using biomonitoring techniques. In this study, tree bark samples of 171 trees were collected using a biomonitoring technique in the inner city of São Paulo. The trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn) were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the plausible sources associated with tree bark measurements. The greatest source was vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions derived mainly from brakes and tires wear-out and road dust resuspension (characterized with Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), which was explained by 27.1% of the variance, followed by cement (14.8%), sea salt (11.6%) and biomass burning (10%), and fossil fuel combustion (9.8%). We also verified that the elements related to vehicular emission showed different concentrations at different sites of the same street, which might be helpful for a new street classification according to the emission source. The spatial distribution maps of element concentrations were obtained to evaluate the different levels of pollution in streets and avenues. Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies. PMID:26995269

  14. Sources of sulfur dioxide pollution in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Wing-Sing; Pang, Sik-Wing; Chin, H.C.P.

    1996-12-31

    Sulfur dioxide pollution problem was serious in Hong Kong before the implementation of the fuel restriction regulations in July 1990, which restricted the use of low sulfur content fossil fuels. Since then SO{sub 2} concentrations dropped drastically. There was no exceedance of the Hong Kong Air Quality Objectives (AQO) in 1991, comparing to 13 exceedance in 1989, and the Hong Kong annual average reduced from 34 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1989 to 21 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1991. However, it doesn`t mean that SO{sub 2} can be neglected. In 1993, there were two exceedances of the 1-hour AQO of 800 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and the Hong Kong annual average increased again to 26 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The major emission sources of SO{sub 2} in Hong Kong are the power stations, which accounted for 84% of the total 185 K tonnes of SO{sub 2} emissions in 1993. Though these stations are at the down-wind side of the territory, the potential impact should not be over looked. Results are given.

  15. Investigating landfill leachate as a source of trace organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Anumol, Tarun; Barlaz, Morton; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-05-01

    Landfill leachate samples (n=11) were collected from five USA municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and analyzed for ten trace organic pollutants that are commonly detected in surface and municipal wastewater effluents (viz., carbamazepine, DEET, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, PFOA, PFOS, primidone, sucralose, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). Carbamazepine, DEET, PFOA and primidone were detected in all leachate samples analyzed and gemfibrozil was detected in samples from four of the five-landfill sites. The contaminants found in the highest concentrations were DEET (6900-143000 ng L(-1)) and sucralose (<10-621000 ng L(-1)). Several compounds were not detected (fluoxetine) or detected infrequently (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and PFOS). Using the average mass of DEET in leachate amongst the five landfills and scaling the mass release from the five test landfills to the USA population of landfills, an order of magnitude estimate is that over 10000 kg DEET yr(-1) may be released in leachate. Some pharmaceuticals have similar annual mean discharges to one another, with the estimated annual discharge of carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, primidone equating to 53, 151 and 128 kg year(-1). To the authors knowledge, this is the first time that primidone has been included in a landfill leachate study. While the estimates developed in this study are order of magnitude, the values do suggest the need for further research to better quantify the amount of chemicals sent to wastewater treatment facilities with landfill leachate, potential impacts on treatment processes and the significance of landfill leachate as a source of surface water contamination. PMID:25753851

  16. Application of enteric viruses for fecal pollution source tracking in environmental waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) tools are used to identify sources of fecal pollution for accurately assessing public health risk and implementing best management practices (BMPs). This review focuses on the potential of enteric viruses for MST applications. Following host infect...

  17. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a) Any...) shall be determined by multiplying the concentrations listed in the following table for these...

  18. Management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Water quality in China shows an overall trend of deterioration in recent years. Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and rural regions is the leading source of water pollution. The agricultural nonpoint source pollutants are mainly from fertilization of cropland, excessive livestock and poultry breeding and undefined disposal of daily living wastes in rural areas. Agricultural nonpoint sources contribute the main source of pollution to most watersheds in China, but they are ignored in management strategy and policy. Due to the lack of full understanding of water pollution control and management and the lack of perfect water quality standard systems and practical legislative regulations, agricultural nonpoint source pollution will become one of the biggest challenges to the sustainable development of rural areas and to society as a whole. The system for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control in China should include an appropriate legislation and policy framework, financing mechanisms, monitoring system, and technical guidelines and standards. The management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution requires multidisciplinary approaches that will involve a range of government departments, institutions and the public. PMID:16594318

  19. Sequential Optimal Monitoring Network Design using Iterative Kriging for Identification of Unknown Groundwater Pollution Sources Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, O.; Datta, B.

    2011-12-01

    Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source characteristics, in terms of location, magnitude and activity duration is important for designing an effective pollution remediation strategy. Precise source characterization also becomes very important to ascertain liability, and to recover the cost of remediation from parties responsible for the groundwater pollution. Due to the uncertainties in accurately predicting the aquifer response to source flux injection, generally encountered sparsity of concentration observation data in the field, and the non uniqueness in the aquifer response to the subjected hydraulic and chemical stresses, groundwater pollution source characterization remains a challenging task. A scientifically designed pollutant concentration monitoring network becomes imperative for accurate pollutant source characterization. The efficiency of the unknown source locations identification process is largely determined by locations of monitoring wells where the pollutant concentration is observed. The proposed method combines spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and Simulated Annealing as optimization algorithm to find the optimum locations for monitoring wells. Initially, the observed concentration data at few sparsely and arbitrarily distributed wells are used to interpolate the concentration data for the aquifer study area. The concentration information is passed to the optimization algorithm (decision model) as concentration gradient which in turn finds the optimum locations for implementing the next sequence of monitoring wells. Concentration measurement data from these designed monitoring wells and already implemented monitoring network are iteratively used as feedback information for potential groundwater pollution source locations identification. The potential applicability of the developed methodology is demonstrated for an illustrative study area.

  20. Stochastic Assessment of Regional Groundwater Nonpoint Source Pollution with Spatially Variable, Transient Forcing: Conceptual Framework and Nitrate Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; van der Schans, M. L.; Leijnse, A.

    2003-12-01

    We introduce a general stochastic concept of regional groundwater nonpoint source pollution in production wells or other groundwater discharge areas; present an efficient numerical procedure for its implementation; and validate the approach using a case study. Our principal hypothesis is that regional variability of and uncertainty about well pollution from nonpoint sources is primarily caused by the spatio-temporal variability of the nonpoint source strength (recharge rate and recharge pollutant concentration) and the variable spatial distribution of pumping wells, pumping rates, and other groundwater discharge relative to the location of the nonpoint sources. We describe a conceptual model of random space functions (RSFs) for nonpoint sources and wells. The resulting stochastic flow and transport equations are subject to random forcing in the nonpoint source and pumping boundary conditions (external variability). The stochastic forcing analysis yields a transient probability distribution function of water quality (water quality pdf) in a regional set of randomly distributed, discrete production wells and other groundwater discharge areas. We introduce a novel three-step numerical approach for the stochastic forcing analysis and apply the method to determine the 150-year (1910-2060) nitrate pdf for an irrigated, semi-arid region with a history of high groundwater nitrate. Comparison of the simulated nitrate pdfs with results from regional and domestic well water surveys in 1970, 1986 and 2001 shows that stochastic forcing indeed accounts for the observed temporal nitrate dynamics (mean concentration) and for 70% of the spatial variability observed in domestic well water nitrate in that region.

  1. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production. PMID:21546665

  2. Concept of DT fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Anan'ev, S.; Spitsyn, A.V.; Kuteev, B.V.; Cherkez, D.I.; Shirnin, P.N.; Kazakovsky, N.T.

    2015-03-15

    A concept of DT-fusion neutron source (FNS) with the neutron yield higher than 10{sup 18} neutrons per second is under design in Russia. Such a FNS is of interest for many applications: 1) basic and applied research (neutron scattering, etc); 2) testing the structural materials for fusion reactors; 3) control of sub-critical nuclear systems and 4) nuclear waste processing (including transmutation of minor actinides). This paper describes the fuel cycle concept of a compact fusion neutron source based on a small spherical tokamak (FNS-ST) with a MW range of DT fusion power and considers the key physics issues of this device. The major and minor radii are ∼0.5 and ∼0.3 m, magnetic field ∼1.5 T, heating power less than 15 MW and plasma current 1-2 MA. The system provides the fuel mixture with equal fractions of D and T (D:T = 1:1) for all FNS technology systems. (authors)

  3. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  4. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  5. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions. (a... maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the Indian... part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established under section...

  6. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  7. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  8. Simulation of Non-point Source Pollution in the Songhua River Basin Using GBNP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Tang, L.; Chen, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    China is facing increasingly severe water pollution issue with rapid socio-economic development. Non-point source pollution, which is rarely monitored, has become the main forms of water pollution in China. In this study, the Geomorphology-Based Non-point source Pollution (GBNP) model was used to simulate the processes of rain-runoff, soil erosion, sediment routing and pollutant transport in the Songhua River basin from 2001 to 2010. The spatio-temporal variation of non-point source pollution and river water quality were analyzed based on the simulation outputs. In the entire basin, the annual mean loading of TN, TP and soil erosion are 270,000 ton/a, 42,200 ton/a and 55,900,000 ton/a, respectively. The point and non-point source pollution respectively account for 44.9% and 55.1% in TN loading. For TP loading, the proportions of point and non-point source pollution are 14.4% and 85.6%, respectively. It suggests that the non-point source pollution control and treatments should be paid more attention in the Songhua River basin. The inter-annual and intra-annual variations of non-point source pollution components and potential driving mechanisms are further examined. The annual loading of soil erosion, TN and TP are highly correlated with annual runoff, with the correlation coefficients of 0.75, 0.91 and 0.92, respectively, which implies that rain-runoff could be the main driving force of non-point pollution. The monthly sediment concentration in the watercourse is high in flood season and low in non-flood season, which agrees well with the seasonality of monthly runoff. By contrast, the concentrations of TN and TP in watercourse show the opposite features.

  9. A Bayesian Multivariate Receptor Model for Estimating Source Contributions to Particulate Matter Pollution using National Databases

    PubMed Central

    Hackstadt, Amber J.; Peng, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Time series studies have suggested that air pollution can negatively impact health. These studies have typically focused on the total mass of fine particulate matter air pollution or the individual chemical constituents that contribute to it, and not source-specific contributions to air pollution. Source-specific contribution estimates are useful from a regulatory standpoint by allowing regulators to focus limited resources on reducing emissions from sources that are major contributors to air pollution and are also desired when estimating source-specific health effects. However, researchers often lack direct observations of the emissions at the source level. We propose a Bayesian multivariate receptor model to infer information about source contributions from ambient air pollution measurements. The proposed model incorporates information from national databases containing data on both the composition of source emissions and the amount of emissions from known sources of air pollution. The proposed model is used to perform source apportionment analyses for two distinct locations in the United States (Boston, Massachusetts and Phoenix, Arizona). Our results mirror previous source apportionment analyses that did not utilize the information from national databases and provide additional information about uncertainty that is relevant to the estimation of health effects. PMID:25309119

  10. MODELING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration ...

  11. LINEAR MODELS FOR MANAGING SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Gustafson, Sven-Ake

    1984-01-01

    Mathematical models for the problem of maintaining a specified groundwater quality while permitting solute waste disposal at various facilities distributed over space are discussed. The pollutants are assumed to be chemically inert and their concentrations in the groundwater are governed by linear equations for advection and diffusion. The aim is to determine a disposal policy which maximises the total amount of pollutants released during a fixed time T while meeting the condition that the concentration everywhere is below prescribed levels.

  12. Generic guide concepts for the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zendler, C.; Martin Rodriguez, D.; Bentley, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The construction of the European Spallation Source (ESS) faces many challenges from the neutron beam transport point of view: the spallation source is specified as being driven by a 5 MW beam of protons, each with 2 GeV energy, and yet the requirements in instrument background suppression relative to measured signal vary between 10-6 and 10-8. The energetic particles, particularly above 20 MeV, which are expected to be produced in abundance in the target, have to be filtered in order to make the beamlines safe, operational and provide good quality measurements with low background. We present generic neutron guides of short and medium length instruments which are optimised for good performance at minimal cost. Direct line of sight to the source is avoided twice, with either the first point out of line of sight or both being inside the bunker (20 m) to minimise shielding costs. These guide geometries are regarded as a baseline to define standards for instruments to be constructed at ESS. They are used to find commonalities and develop principles and solutions for common problems. Lastly, we report the impact of employing the over-illumination concept to mitigate losses from random misalignment passively, and that over-illumination should be used sparingly in key locations to be effective. For more widespread alignment issues, a more direct, active approach is likely to be needed.

  13. Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period. PMID:23737126

  14. Solving inverse problems of groundwater-pollution-source identification using a differential evolution algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurarslan, Gurhan; Karahan, Halil

    2015-09-01

    In this study, an accurate model was developed for solving problems of groundwater-pollution-source identification. In the developed model, the numerical simulations of flow and pollutant transport in groundwater were carried out using MODFLOW and MT3DMS software. The optimization processes were carried out using a differential evolution algorithm. The performance of the developed model was tested on two hypothetical aquifer models using real and noisy observation data. In the first model, the release histories of the pollution sources were determined assuming that the numbers, locations and active stress periods of the sources are known. In the second model, the release histories of the pollution sources were determined assuming that there is no information on the sources. The results obtained by the developed model were found to be better than those reported in literature.

  15. Pollutant discharges to coastal areas: Improving upstream source estimates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rohmann, S.O.

    1989-10-01

    The report describes a project NOAA's Strategic Environmental Assessments Division began to improve the estimates of pollutant discharges carried into coastal areas by rivers and streams. These estimates, termed discharges from upstream sources, take into account all pollution discharged by industries, sewage treatment plants, farms, cities, and other pollution-generating operations, as well as natural phenomena such as erosion and weathering which occur inland or upstream of the coastal US.

  16. Identification of Unknown Groundwater Pollution Source Using Linked ANN-Optimization Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz, M.; Srivastava, R.

    2011-12-01

    Identification of groundwater pollution sources is a major step in groundwater pollution remediation, particularly for assigning fractions of the remediation cost to different polluters. Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source is an inverse problem which is generally ill-posed. A pollution source is said to be identified completely when its source characteristics (location, strength and release period) are known. In practice, the lag time between the first reading at observation well and the time at which the source becomes active is not known. For such cases, pollution source identification problem becomes more difficult. We propose a linked ANN-Optimization model for complete identification of unknown groundwater pollution sources. Spatial and temporal data of observed and simulated concentration is used to formulate the objective function. An optimization model is then used to minimize the objective function. We define the lag time as the time from the start of the pollutant release to the peak of the breakthrough curve observed at a monitoring well. Lag time for a particular monitoring well is then dependent only on the source location and release period. An ANN model is trained for different source locations and release periods as input data to determine the lag time for breakthrough curve. In the proposed model, the ANN model is linked externally with the optimization model to identify the pollution sources. The main advantage of the proposed model is to identify the unique solution for pollution sources when lag time is not known. The performance of the model is evaluated for a one dimensional case with error-free and erroneous data. The measurement errors incorporated in the data vary from 0% to 10% of the analytically computed values. The results indicate that the proposed linked ANN-Optimization model is able to predict the source parameters quite well for the error-free data. For the observations subjected to random measurement errors, the

  17. Mapping Air Pollution Concentrations and Sources in China from Ground-Level Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, R. A.; Muller, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    China has recently established an extensive air quality monitoring system with over 1500 sites providing hourly data on airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 / PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). Based on Kriging interpolation of these surface data, we derive a detailed map of air pollution across the eastern half of China. In northern and central China, the pollution is widespread; contrary to popular belief, pollution is not simply localized to major cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, or Chongqing, or in geologic basins. Pollution levels are lower in southern China, in part due to frequent rains. By incorporating wind measurements and estimating pollution transport, we also infer source distributions for key pollutants. Sources are widespread, but many of the largest sources are often situated in or near major population centers. A northeast corridor extending from near Shanghai to north of Beijing includes many of the most significant pollution sources in China. Roughly 5% of the study region accounts for 25% of observed particulate matter emissions. During the analysis period, roughly half of the population of China was subjected to a long-term average pollution level in the unhealthy range, according to standards used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, nearly all of China's population (>90%) was exposed to unhealthy levels of air pollution at least some of the time. Based on health impact estimates from the Huai River Study, we estimate that the observed levels of particulate matter pollution contribute to about 1.4 million deaths every year in China, about 3500 per day, in agreement with prior estimates. Identification of sources from pollution data was facilitated by the reporting of hourly measurements, and we encourage other nations around the world to follow China's example and provide such time-resolved data.

  18. Intake fraction variability between air pollution emission sources inside an urban area.

    PubMed

    Tainio, Marko; Holnicki, Piotr; Loh, Miranda M; Nahorski, Zbigniew

    2014-11-01

    The cost-effective mitigation of adverse health effects caused by air pollution requires information on the contribution of different emission sources to exposure. In urban areas the exposure potential of different sources may vary significantly depending on emission height, population density, and other factors. In this study, we quantified this intraurban variability by predicting intake fraction (iF) for 3,066 emission sources in Warsaw, Poland. iF describes the fraction of the pollutant that is inhaled by people in the study area. We considered the following seven pollutants: particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzo[a] pyrene (BaP), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Emissions for these pollutants were grouped into four emission source categories (Mobile, Area, High Point, and Other Point sources). The dispersion of the pollutants was predicted with the CALPUFF dispersion model using the year 2005 emission rate data and meteorological records. The resulting annual average concentrations were combined with population data to predict the contribution of each individual source to population exposure. The iFs for different pollutant-source category combinations varied between 51 per million (PM from Mobile sources) and 0.013 per million (sulfate PM from High Point sources). The intraurban iF variability for Mobile sources primary PM emission was from 4 per million to 100 per million with the emission-weighted iF of 44 per million. These results propose that exposure due to intraurban air pollution emissions could be decreased more effectively by specifically targeting sources with high exposure potency rather than all sources. PMID:24913007

  19. 76 FR 80597 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...On March 21, 2011, the EPA promulgated national emission standards for the control of hazardous air pollutants from new and existing industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters at major sources of hazardous air pollutants. On that same day, the EPA also published a notice announcing its intent to reconsider certain provisions of the final rule. The EPA subsequently......

  20. 77 FR 11476 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October...

  1. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  2. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: OFF-HIGHWAY MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An emission inventory of mobile off-highway sources of air pollution has been determined for the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) in St. Louis, Missouri. Emissions of HC, CO, NOx, SOx and particulate matter have been calculated with the aid of a computer for the 1,989 grid squ...

  3. GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: IDENTIFICATION AND PRIORITY RANKING OF POTENTIAL POLLUTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the development of a preliminary priority ranking of potential pollution sources with respect to groundwater quality and the associated pollutants for oil shale operations such as proposed for Federal Prototype Leases U-a and U-b in Eastern Utah. The methodol...

  4. Bacterial community composition in low-flowing river water with different sources of pollutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollution of water resources is a major risk to human health and water quality throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pollutant sources from agricultural activities, urban runoffs, and runoffs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on bacterial communitie...

  5. URBAN STORMWATER POLLUTANT SOURCES, CHARACTERIZATION AND BMP TREATABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper covers the origin and values of the various pollutants or stressors in urban stormwater including flow (shear force), pathogens, suspended solids/sediment, toxicants (organic and metals(, nutrients, oxygen demanding substances, and coarse solids. A broad overview of th...

  6. URBAN STORMWATER TOXIC POLLUTANTS: ASSESSMENT, SOURCES, AND TREATABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes an investigation to characterize and treat selected stormwater contaminants that are listed as toxic pollutants (termed toxicants in this paper) in the Clean Water Act, Section 307 (Arbuckle et al., 1991). he first project phase investigated typical toxicant...

  7. URBAN STORMWATER TOXIC POLLUTANTS: ASSESSMENT, SOURCES, AND TREATABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes an investigation to characterize and treat selected storm water contaminants that are listed as toxic pollutants (termed toxicants in this paper) in the Clean Water Act, Section 307 (Arbuckle et al., 1991). The first project phase investigated typical toxica...

  8. A hybrid simulation-optimization approach for solving the areal groundwater pollution source identification problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayvaz, M. Tamer

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a new simulation-optimization approach is proposed for solving the areal groundwater pollution source identification problems which is an ill-posed inverse problem. In the simulation part of the proposed approach, groundwater flow and pollution transport processes are simulated by modeling the given aquifer system on MODFLOW and MT3DMS models. The developed simulation model is then integrated to a newly proposed hybrid optimization model where a binary genetic algorithm and a generalized reduced gradient method are mutually used. This is a novel approach and it is employed for the first time in the areal pollution source identification problems. The objective of the proposed hybrid optimization approach is to simultaneously identify the spatial distributions and input concentrations of the unknown areal groundwater pollution sources by using the limited number of pollution concentration time series at the monitoring well locations. The applicability of the proposed simulation-optimization approach is evaluated on a hypothetical aquifer model for different pollution source distributions. Furthermore, model performance is evaluated for measurement error conditions, different genetic algorithm parameter combinations, different numbers and locations of the monitoring wells, and different heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields. Identified results indicated that the proposed simulation-optimization approach may be an effective way to solve the areal groundwater pollution source identification problems.

  9. A COMPUTER SIMULATION MODEL--FOR ANALYZING MOBILE SOURCE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes MATHAIR, a computer model that simulates the impacts of strategies for controlling mobile source air pollutants. Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) for different modes of ground transportation are predicted by a transportation module. Given VMT predictions, an inv...

  10. Differential Decay of Bacterial and Viral Fecal Indicators in Common Human Pollution Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the decomposition of different human fecal pollution sources is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decay of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fe...

  11. UNCERTAINTY IN LEACHING POTENTIAL OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTANTS WITH APPLICATION TO A GIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a stochastic framework for the assessment of groundwater pollution potential of nonpoint source pesticides. A conceptual relationship is presented that relates seasonally averaged groundwater recharge to soil properties and depths to the water table. The analy...

  12. HP-25 PROGRAMMABLE POCKET CALCULATOR APPLIED TO AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT STUDIES: STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report should be useful to persons concerned with Air Pollution Measurement Studies of Stationary Industrial Sources. It gives detailed descriptions of 22 separate programs, written specifically for the Hewlett Packard Model HP-25 manually programmable pocket calculator. Each...

  13. EMISSION FACTORS FOR IRON AND STEEL SOURCES: CRITERIA AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a comprehensive set of emission factors for sources of both criteria and toxic air pollutants in integrated iron and steel plants and specialty electric arc shops (minimills). Emission factors are identified for process sources, and process and open source fug...

  14. EMISSION FACTORS FOR IRON AND STEEL SOURCES -- CRITERIA AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a comprehensive set of emission factors for sources of both criteria and toxic air pollutants in integrated iron and steel plants and specialty electric arc shops (minimills). Emission factors are identified for process sources, and process and open source fug...

  15. Association between exposure to ambient air pollution before conception date and likelihood of giving birth to girls in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liang, Zhijiang; Liu, Tao; Di, Qian; Qian, Zhengmin; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Ma, Wenjun; Zhao, Qingguo

    2015-12-01

    A few studies have linked ambient air pollution with sex ratio at birth. Most of these studies examined the long-term effects using spatial or temporal comparison approaches. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exposure to air pollution before conception date could affect the likelihood of the offspring being male or female. We used the information collected in a major maternal hospital in Guangzhou, China. The parental exposure to air pollution was assessed using the air pollution concentration before the conception date. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between air pollution exposure and birth sex with adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as maternal age, parental education levels, long-term trend, season, and weather condition (mean temperature and relative humidity). The analysis revealed that higher air pollution was associated with higher probability of female newborns, with the effective exposure around one week prior to conception date. In the one-pollutant models, PM10, SO2 and NO2 had significant effects. For example, the excess risk was 0.61% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.36%, 0.86%) for a 10 ug/m3 increase in lag 2 day's PM10, 0.42% (95% CI: 0.21%, 0.64%) for lag 3 day's SO2 and 0.97% (95% CI: 0.44%, 1.50%) for lag 3 day's NO2; and in two-pollutant models, PM10 remained statistically significant. These results suggest that parental exposure to ambient air pollution a few days prior to conception might be a contributing factor to higher probability of giving birth to female offspring in Guangzhou.

  16. Spatially differentiated and source-specific population exposure to ambient urban air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Bin; Wilson, J. Gaines; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Zeng, Yongnian

    Models assessing exposure to air pollution often focus on macro-scale estimates of exposure to all types of sources for a particular pollutant across an urban study area. While results based on these models may aid policy makers in identifying larger areas of elevated exposure risk, they often do not differentiate the proportion of population exposure attributable to different polluting sources (e.g. traffic or industrial). In this paper, we introduce a population exposure modeling system that integrates air dispersion modeling, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and population exposure techniques to spatially characterize a source-specific exposure to ambient air pollution for an entire urban population at a fine geographical scale. By area, total population exposure in Dallas County in 2000 was more attributable to vehicle polluting sources than industrial polluting sources at all levels of exposure. Population exposure was moderately correlated with vehicle sources ( r = 0.440, p < 0.001) and weakly with industrial sources ( r = 0.069, p = 0.004). Population density was strongly correlated with total exposure ( r = 0.896, p < 0.001) but was not significantly correlated with individual or combined sources. The results of this study indicate that air quality assessments must incorporate more than industrial or vehicle polluting sources-based population exposure values alone, but should consider multiple sources. The population exposure modeling system proposed in this study shows promise for use by municipal authorities, policy makers, and epidemiologists in evaluating and controlling the quality of the air in the process of urban planning and mitigation measures.

  17. Hydrochemical evaluation of surface water quality and pollution source apportionment in the Luan River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiliang; Li, Xuyong; Xie, Ying

    2011-01-01

    In the context of rapid economic growth in China, hydrochemical characteristics of stream water quality are being influenced by a variety of natural and anthropogenic inputs. We determined 10 hydrochemical parameters of the surface water at 29 monitoring sites in the Luan River basin of northern China during 2007-2009. Water quality hydrochemistry was evaluated using fuzzy comprehensive analysis based on the National Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards of China. Our results showed that 14 sites were classified as 'meeting standard (MS)' while the other 15 sites were classified 'non-meeting standard (NS)'. According to principal component analysis, four potential pollution sources were identified that explained 80.6% of the total variance among these MS sites, and three potential pollution sources that explained 78.3% of the total variance among these NS sites. Furthermore, multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources. Most water pollution variables were influenced primarily by municipal sewage and non-point pollution in MS sites. In NS sites, chemical industry wastewater pollution dominated. Pollution in the main stream was more serious than that in the small tributaries. Our findings provide useful information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Luan River. PMID:22105137

  18. SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTANTS INDOORS: VOC AND FINE PARTICULATE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The average concentrations of a large number of fine particle aerosol and VOC species measured in ten Boise ID residences in wintertime have been apportioned according to their contributions from all inside sources and all outside sources, regarded as two composite source categor...

  19. Identifying pollutant source directions using multiple analysis methods at a rural location in New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Min-Suk; Schwab, James J.; Chen, Wei-Nai; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Rattigan, Oliver V.; Demerjian, Kenneth L.

    2011-05-01

    We identify the directionality of sources contributing to observed pollutant concentrations at a rural site through the use of the analysis methods of Conditional Probability Function (CPF) and the Source Direction Probability (SDP). Input data consists of hourly averaged PM 2.5 mass, Organic Mass (OM) from Organic Carbon (OC), optical Elemental Carbon (optical EC), SO 2, CO, NOy, O 3 concentrations and metrological data from Pinnacle State Park site in rural New York State for the period of Dec 2004 to Dec 2008. These measured pollutants are coupled with on-site wind data to identify the directionality of the sources; which are then compared to known stationary source locations from the EPA Air Data web site. Although the CPF plot of the O 3 showed no distinct directionality source area, the Pinnacle State Park site was frequently impacted by plumes of relatively high PM 2.5 mass, SO 2, CO, NOy, optical EC and OM concentrations. Further analysis of the enhanced pollution occurrence frequency from the eastern sector revealed two peaks in the time-of-day distribution of elevated CO, NOy, and optical EC, which provides additional information on the sources. This contrasts with the enhanced pollution occurrence frequency from the south for CO, OM, and optical EC, which shows a single morning peak in its time-of-day distribution and indicates a somewhat more distant, but common source for these carbon-containing pollutants. PM 2.5 mass corresponds to the source areas related to emission facilities listed in the EPA Emissions Inventory, which is further confirmed by correlation and analysis of aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) on board Terra and Aqua satellites. We present evidence that most of the high pollution episodes likely arise from emission sources located several hundred kilometers from the site, indicating mid-long range transport of pollutants to this location.

  20. Simulation of Urban Runoff Non-point Source Pollution Load and Analysis on Its Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Ruan, X.

    2013-12-01

    As the point source pollution control has advanced, the proportion of urban non-point pollution caused by rainfall in urban water pollution is increasing. For quantitative evaluation of non-point source pollution in urban rivers and to study their influencing factors, this study takes the inner Qinhuai River in Nanjing as the study area. The non-point source pollution load simulation model of the study area was built based on the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), and was calibrated using the real-time monitoring data of rainfall and the outlet of the pipes during a short duration rainfall in 2011. TSS, CODMn, TN and TP were selected as the major pollution load indicators to quantitatively assess the rainfall runoff and non-point source pollution of 328.2ha confluence area of inner Qinhuai River, emphatically probe into the variation of the rainfall runoff and non-point source pollution in response to variability in underlying surface and drainage pipes. The results show that: (1) the pollution load concentration in the outlet of the popes increases initially and then decreases, the peak concentration appears at 5~15minutes after the effluent. The concentration of TN and TP appears apparent randomness and fluctuation due to the spatial-temporal uncertainty of the distribution of the non-point source pollution. The maximum flow into the river, the total runoff, the total output of TSS, CODMn, TN and TP during a typical year rainfall in two years return period are 19.67m3/s, 81.74×103m3, 2318.59kg, 1598.08kg, 476.09kg and 24.24kg, respectively. (2)The percentage of impervious underlying surface, the slope of the underlying surface, the percentage of no depression of the impervious underlying surface and the roughness of the pipes, which are the sensitive parameters of the model, have an significant impact on the runoff and pollution load in the outlet of the pipes. Urban rainfall runoff and non-point source pollution can be reduced by reducing the percentage of

  1. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  2. Analytical dispersion model for the chain of primary and secondary air pollutants released from point source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juodis, Laurynas; Filistovič, Vitold; Maceika, Evaldas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model for dispersion of air pollutants released from a point source forming a secondary pollutant (e.g. chemical transformation or parent-daughter radionuclide chain) is formulated considering the constant wind speed and eddy diffusivities as an explicit function of downwind distance from the source in Cauchy (reflection-deposition type) boundary conditions. The dispersion of pollutants has been investigated by using the Gaussian plume dispersion parameters σy and σz instead of the diffusivity parameters Ky and Kz. For primary pollutant it was proposed to use the derived dry deposition factor instead of the source depletion alternative. An analytical solution for steady-state two-dimensional pollutant transport in the atmosphere is presented. Derived formulas include dependency from effective release height, gravitational and dry deposition velocities of primary and secondary pollutants, advection, surface roughness length and empirical dispersion parameters σy and σz. Demonstration of analytical solution application is provided by calculation of 135Xe and 135C air activity concentrations and the applicability of the model for the solution of atmospheric pollution transport problems.

  3. APTI Course 450, Source Sampling for Particulate Pollutants. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldina, G. J.; And Others

    This manual covers a four and one half day laboratory course in source sampling for particulates. The course presents principles and techniques necessary for performing isokinetic source sampling procedures. Lectures cover formulas dealing with basic fluid mechanics appropriate to the techniques employed. Laboratory exercises are intended to…

  4. An almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm for groundwater pollution source identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, L.; Zheng, M.

    2012-12-01

    The spatiotemporal characterization of unknown groundwater pollution sources is frequently encountered in environment problems. This study adopts the use of optimization approach that combines a numerical groundwater flow and transport model with heuristic harmony search algorithm to identify the unknown pollution sources. In the proposed methodology, an almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm is developed to overcome the inherent shortcoming (tedious and skillful parameter-setting process for the algorithm parameters) in harmony search algorithm. Another advantage in the new proposed harmony search algorithm is that it uses individual parameter values for each decision variable, while the classical harmony search algorithm uses lump parameter values for all decision variables. The performance of this methodology is evaluated on an illustrative groundwater pollution source identification problem, and the identified results indicate that the proposed almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm based optimization model can give satisfactory estimations, even though the irregular geometry, erroneous monitoring data, and prior information shortage on potential locations are considered.Identification results of pollution sources; L: error level of observation dataRE: relative errorSD: standard deviationE: objective functionNEE: Source identification error Actual values of pollution sources;

  5. [Spatio-temporal characteristics and source identification of water pollutants in Wenruitang River watershed].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-xue; Wang, La-chun; Liao, Ling-ling

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the temp-spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is of great significance for efficient water quality management pollution control in Wenruitang River watershed, China. A total of twelve water quality parameters, including temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+ -N), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity (Turb), nitrite-N (NO2-), nitrate-N(NO3-), phosphate-P(PO4(3-), total organic carbon (TOC) and silicate (SiO3(2-)), were analyzed from September, 2008 to October, 2009. Geographic information system(GIS) and principal component analysis(PCA) were used to determine the spatial distribution and to apportion the sources of pollutants. The results demonstrated that TN, NH4+ -N, PO4(3-) were the main pollutants during flow period, wet period, dry period, respectively, which was mainly caused by urban point sources and agricultural and rural non-point sources. In spatial terms, the order of pollution was tertiary river > secondary river > primary river, while the water quality was worse in city zones than in the suburb and wetland zone regardless of the river classification. In temporal terms, the order of pollution was dry period > wet period > flow period. Population density, land use type and water transfer affected the water quality in Wenruitang River. PMID:25898648

  6. Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources are compared for the DuPage River basin in northern Illinois. Costs are estimated for effluent standards for municipal wastewater treatment plants and for the alternative, controlling runoff from nonpoint sources such as streets, agricultural lands, and forests. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine water quality effects of various treatment plant standards and nonpoint-source controls. Costs and water quality data are combined, and the point-source and nonpoint-source plans are compared on a cost-effectiveness basis. Nonpoint-source controls are found to be more cost-effective than stricter control of pollutants from point sources.

  7. NATIONAL MANAGEMENT MEASURES TO CONTROL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION FROM HYDROMODIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydromodification What Are the Nonpoint Source-Related Problems Associated with Hydromodification? Hydromodification activities have been separated into the categories of channelization and channel modification, dams, and streambank and shoreline erosion. A frequent result of c...

  8. Methods of targeting animal sources of fecal pollution in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, proposed chemical and biological MST indicators for the determination of animal fecal sources are discussed. The biological indicators are grouped based on the phylogenetic description of the proposed target (eukarya, bacteria, and virus). A comprehensive descrip...

  9. Detection of human and animal sources of pollution by microbial and chemical methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-indicator approach comprising Enterococcus, bacterial source tracking (BST), and sterol analysis was tested for pollution source identification. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water sites tested. Enterococcus faecium was the dominant species in aged litter samples from p...

  10. Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangodoyin, A. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

  11. Air quality of Prague: traffic as a main pollution source.

    PubMed

    Branis, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Political and economical transition in the Central and Eastern Europe at the end of eighties significantly influenced all aspects of life as well as technological infrastructure. Collapse of outdated energy demanding industry and adoption of environmental legislation resulted in seeming improvements of urban environmental quality. Hand in hand with modernization the newly adopted regulations also helped to phase out low quality coal frequently used for domestic heating. However, at the same time, the number of vehicles registered in the city increased. The two processes interestingly acted as parallel but antagonistic forces. To interpret the trends in urban air quality of Prague, Czech capital, monthly averages of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2), NO, O(3) and CO concentrations from the national network of automated monitoring stations were analyzed together with long term trends in fuel consumption and number of vehicles registered in Prague within a period of 1992-2005. The results showed that concentrations of SO(2) (a pollutant strongly related to fossil fuel burning) dropped significantly during the period of concern. Similarly NO(X) and PM(10) concentrations decreased significantly in the first half of the nineties (as a result of solid fuel use drop), but remained rather stable or increased after 2000, presumably reflecting rapid increase of traffic density. In conclusion, infrastructural changes in early nineties had a strong positive effect on Prague air quality namely in the first half of the period studied, nevertheless, the current trend in concentrations of automotive exhaust related pollutants (such as PM(10), NO(X)) needs adoption of stricter measures. PMID:18709434

  12. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution. Report for March 1988-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

    1990-04-01

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes, and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types.

  13. Source attribution of particulate matter pollution over North China with the adjoint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Licheng; Zhao, Yuanhong; Gong, Sunling; Zhang, Xiaoye; Henze, Daven K.; Capps, Shannon L.; Fu, Tzung-May; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Yuxuan

    2015-08-01

    We quantify the source contributions to surface PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) pollution over North China from January 2013 to 2015 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint with improved model horizontal resolution (1/4° × 5/16°) and aqueous-phase chemistry for sulfate production. The adjoint method attributes the PM2.5 pollution to emissions from different source sectors and chemical species at the model resolution. Wintertime surface PM2.5 over Beijing is contributed by emissions of organic carbon (27% of the total source contribution), anthropogenic fine dust (27%), and SO2 (14%), which are mainly from residential and industrial sources, followed by NH3 (13%) primarily from agricultural activities. About half of the Beijing pollution originates from sources outside of the city municipality. Adjoint analyses for other cities in North China all show significant regional pollution transport, supporting a joint regional control policy for effectively mitigating the PM2.5 air pollution.

  14. Identification and quantification of indoor air pollutant sources within a residential academic campus.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Shalini; Chauhan, Amit Singh; Verma, Ritika; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing concern regarding the adverse health effects due to indoor air pollution in developing countries including India. Hence, it becomes important to study the causes and sources of indoor air pollutants. This study presents the indoor concentrations of PM0.6 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 0.6μm) and identifies sources leading to indoor air pollution. Indoor air samples were collected at IIT Kanpur campus. Ninety-eight PM0.6 samples were collected during November 2013 to September 2014. PM0.6 concentration was measured using a single stage impactor type PM0.6 sampler. The average PM0.6 concentration indoor was about 94.44μg/m(3). Samples collected were then analysed for metal concentrations using ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometer). Eight metals Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni and Pb were quantified from PM samples using ICP-OES. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was used for source apportionment of indoor air pollution. PMF is a factor analysis tool which helps in resolving the profile and contribution of the sources from an unknown mixture. Five possible sources of indoor pollutants were identified by factor analysis - (1) Coal combustion (21.8%) (2) Tobacco smoking (9.8%) (3) Wall dust (25.7%) (4) Soil particles (17.5%) (5) Wooden furniture/paper products (25.2%). PMID:27328399

  15. Advanced information technologies for assessing nonpoint source pollution in the vadose zone: Conference overview

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, D.L.; Loague, K.; Ellsworth, T.R.

    1999-03-01

    The information age has ushered in an awareness of and concern for global environmental problems such as climatic change, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification, and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Nonpoint source pollution is the single greatest threat to surface and subsurface drinking water resources. Nonpoint source pollutants also pose a threat to sustainable agriculture, which is viewed as the most viable means of meeting the food demands of a world population that is expected to reach 9.4 billion by the middle of the next century. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales would provide a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities. Assessing NPS pollutant is a multidisciplinary problem. To address the problem, advanced information technologies and methodologies are needed that draw from all areas of science and are applied in a spatial context. It was from this setting that the 1997 Joint AGU Chapman/SSSA Outreach Conference Application of GIS, Remote Sensing, Geostatistics, and Solute Transport Modeling for Assessing Nonpoint Source Pollutants in the Vadose Zone (19--24 Oct. 1997, Riverside, CA) materialized. The objective of the conference was to examine current multidisciplinary technologies and methodologies for assessing NPS pollutants in the vadose zone, and to explore new conceptual approaches. It was the conference`s goal to provide a forum to stimulate multidisciplinary interaction to enhance the development of techniques for the real-time measurement and modeling of NPS pollution in the vadose zone and subsurface waters.

  16. Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated

  17. Activity patterns of Californians: Use of and proximity to indoor pollutant sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Peggy L.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Mulberg, Elliot J.; Hui, Steve P.

    The California Air Resources Board funded a statewide survey of activity patterns of Californians over 11 years of age in order to improve the accuracy of exposure assessments for air pollutants. Telephone interviews were conducted with 1762 respondents over the four seasons from fall 1987 through summer 1988. In addition to completing a 24-h recall diary of activities and locations, participants also responded to questions about their use of and proximity to potential pollutant sources. Results are presented regarding time spent by Californians in different activities and locations relevant to pollutant exposure, and their frequency of use of or proximity to pollutant sources including cigarettes, consumer products such as paints and deodorizers, combustion appliances and motor vehicles. The results show that Californians spend, on average, 87% of their time indoors, 7% in enclosed transit and 6% outdoors. At least 62% of the population over 11 years of age and 46% of nonsmokers are near others' tobacco smoke at some time during the day. Potential exposure to different pollutant sources appears to vary among different gender and age groups. For example, women are more likely to use or be near personal care products and household cleaning agents, while men are more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, solvents and paints. Data from this study can be used to reduce significantly the uncertainty associated with risk assessments for many pollutants.

  18. Landscape Planning for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction I: A Geographical Allocation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebel, Matthew W.; Maxted, Jeffrey T.; Nowak, Peter J.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution remains a persistent environmental problem, despite the large amount of money that has been spent on its abatement. At local scales, agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been shown to be effective at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to surface waters. However, these effects have rarely been found to act in concert to produce measurable, broad-scale improvements in water quality. We investigated potential causes for this failure through an effort to develop recommendations for the use of riparian buffers in addressing nonpoint source pollution in Wisconsin. We used frequency distributions of phosphorus pollution at two spatial scales (watershed and field), along with typical stream phosphorus (P) concentration variability, to simulate benefit/cost curves for four approaches to geographically allocating conservation effort. The approaches differ in two ways: (1) whether effort is aggregated within certain watersheds or distributed without regard to watershed boundaries (dispersed), and (2) whether effort is targeted toward the most highly P-polluting fields or is distributed randomly with regard to field-scale P pollution levels. In realistic implementation scenarios, the aggregated and targeted approach most efficiently improves water quality. For example, with effort on only 10% of a model landscape, 26% of the total P load is retained and 25% of watersheds significantly improve. Our results indicate that agricultural conservation can be more efficient if it accounts for the uneven spatial distribution of potential pollution sources and the cumulative aspects of environmental benefits.

  19. Potential pollutant sources in a Choptank River subwatershed: Influence of agricultural and residential land use and aqueous and atmospheric sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture and animal feeding operations have been implicated as sources of water pollution along the Choptank River, an estuary and tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. This study examined a subwatershed within the Choptank River watershed for effects of land use on water quality. Water and sediment...

  20. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  1. RAMAN MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF STATIONARY SOURCE PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of Raman spectroscopy to the molecular characterization of individual particles from stationary sources is described. The NBS-developed Raman microprobe has been used to characterize microparticles of oil- and coal-fired power plant emissions and boiler samples co...

  2. Sources and management of urban stormwater pollution in rural catchments, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Bakri, Dhia; Rahman, Sadequr; Bowling, Lee

    2008-07-01

    SummaryThis paper assesses the impact and quantifies the relative contribution of stormwater runoff (diffuse pollution sources) and point pollution sources on the quality of receiving water in the urban catchment of Orange. The study results were employed to develop management strategies to control stormwater pollution at the catchment level. The Orange urban catchment has experienced moderate to high levels of pollution in terms of nutrients (P and N), suspended solids (SS), heavy metals, fecal coliforms, and, to a lesser extent, salinity (TDS). Treated sewage effluent (point source) contributed, on average, 5% SS, 29% total nitrogen (TN) and 41% total phosphorous (TP). The nutrient yield per unit area was 2-31-folds higher than those reported for other Australian urban catchments. The overall contribution of the urban sources accounted for 93% and 94% of the TP and TN mass loads, respectively. In contrast, stormwater pollution in coastal urban catchments, that have similar population and land use, is dominated by rural diffuse sources contributing 81-99% of nutrient mass loads. This striking difference is attributed largely to the position of the catchment with respect to the hydrological system. Orange urban catchment is situated at the headwater of its river system and as such rural runoff into the urban part of the catchment was limited. The coastal catchments, on the other hand, are located at the end of their river systems and thus rural inflow into the urban area is substantially higher than those in upland catchments. This comparative assessment may suggest that the relative impact, per capita , of urban stormwater pollution on the receiving water is more significant in the upland catchments than in the coastal catchments. A stormwater management plan (SMP), consisting of structural and non-structural strategies, was developed to control stormwater pollution and enhance the quality of receiving water.

  3. Atmospheric chemistry of some concepts for engineered intervention into large-scale pollution problems

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.

    1994-12-31

    As the era of global change approaches, serious debate has begun on the merits of regional and global-scale atmospheric engineering enterprises to repair pollution damage. Post hoc mitigation schemes often prove to be inordinately expensive, and are sometimes dangerous. Here, chemical ramifications are discussed for three engineering concepts the authors are involved in assessing. Two of their projects regard global ozone depletion. It has been proposed that additions of small quantities of the light alkanes to the ozone hole could suppress massive springtime losses over Antarctica by scavenging chlorine atoms. A newly discovered heterogeneous reaction, however, implies that hydrogen atoms released during organic oxidation will activate the scavenged chlorine and more. Alkane injections could thus deepen the hole instead of plugging it. Ground based infrared laser multiple-photon dissociation has been suggested as a means for removing chlorofluorocarbons from the atmosphere before they can reach the ozone layer and cause depletions. The process would release chlorine atoms into the tropospheric system, and might lead to localized ozone production and smog-like plumes downwind of the laser assemblages. The third engineering proposal the authors are evaluating focuses on urban pollution. Reverse convection towers can generate electricity by channeling the cooling from evaporation of water droplets into controlled downdrafts. It has been noted that if the towers were constructed in cities, the falling drops within them would sweep out visibility-degrading particles. However, alterations in NO{sub x} could increase the intensity of midday ozone episodes. Their overall experience indicates that the direction and magnitude of potential chemical side effects of post hoc environmental engineering will be difficult to predict. 99 refs.

  4. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Leonarte, Virginia; Ballester, Ferran; Tenías, José Maria

    2009-01-01

    We carried out bibliographic searches in PubMed and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DYI work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development. PMID:20168984

  5. Source attribution of PM2.5 pollution over North China using the adjoint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Liu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Conventional methods for source attribution of air pollution are based on measurement statistics (such as Positive Matrix Factorization) or sensitivity simulations with a chemical transport model (CTM). These methods generally ignore the nonlinear chemistry associated with the pollution formation or require unaffordable computational time. Here we use the adjoint of GEOS-Chem CTM at 0.25x0.3125 degree resolution to examine the sources contributing to the PM2.5 pollution over North China in winter 2013. We improved the model sulfate simulation by implementing the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) by nitrogen dioxide. The adjoint results provide detailed source information at the model underlying grid resolution including source types and sectors. We show that PM2.5 pollution over Beijing and Baoding (Hebei) in winter was largely contributed by the large-scale residential and industrial burnings, and ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture activities. Nearly half of pollution was transported from outside of the city domains, and accumulated over 2-3 days. We also show under the current emission conditions, the PM2.5 concentrations over North China are more sensitive to NH3 emissions than NOx and SO2 emissions.

  6. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  7. SOURCE TESTING AND DATA ANALYSIS FOR EXPOSURE AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF INDOOR POLLUTANT SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the source evaluation process with emphasis types of information needed from source testing and source modeling. ose of source testing is to provide information needed to determine the sources on the indoor environment. oth the source testing data and the sis ar...

  8. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (~78%) and nutrients (~30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  9. Vertical Variation of Nonpoint Source Pollutants in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Hong, Qian; Xie, Hui; Qiu, Jiali; Liu, Ruimin

    2013-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is considered the main reason for water deterioration, but there has been no attempt to incorporate vertical variations of NPS pollution into watershed management, especially in mountainous areas. In this study, the vertical variations of pollutant yields were explored in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) and the relationships between topographic attributes and pollutant yields were established. Based on our results, the pollutant yields decreased significantly from low altitude to median altitude and leveled off rapidly from median altitude to high altitude, indicating logarithmic relationships between pollutant yields and altitudes. The pollutant yields peaked at an altitude of 200–500 m, where agricultural land and gentle slopes (0–8°) are concentrated. Unlike the horizontal distributions, these vertical variations were not always related to precipitation patterns but did vary obviously with land uses and slopes. This paper also indicates that altitude data and proportions of land use could be a reliable estimate of NPS yields at different altitudes, with significant implications for land use planning and watershed management. PMID:23951110

  10. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  11. Sources of Atmospheric Pollutants Impacting Air and Water Quality in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertler, A. W.; Cahill, T. A.; Gillies, J.; Kuhns, H.

    2008-12-01

    Starting in the second half of the 20th century, decline in Lake Tahoe's water clarity and degradation in the basin's air quality have become major concerns due to its unique scenic features. Gaseous and particulate nitrogen (N) and particulate phosphorus (P) loading via direct atmospheric deposition and sediment transport to the lake have also been implicated as responsible for its eutrophication and decline in water clarity. Estimates suggest that atmospheric N deposition contributes 55% of the total N loading to the lake, while atmospheric P deposition contributes 15% of the total P loading. In order to improve both air quality and, as a consequence, water quality, it is necessary to develop an understanding of the sources of the atmospheric pollutants. Once this is accomplished, it is possible to implement cost-effective strategies to reduce this impact. This paper summarizes the findings of a series of studies performed to determine the levels and sources of ambient air pollutants in the basin. Projects have included the development of a Tahoe-specific emissions inventory, long-term measurements of road dust resuspension, modeling to determine the fraction of pollutants coming from in-basin vs. out-of-basin sources, particulate source apportionment, and estimates of nitric acid deposition. These studies found that the pollutants most closely connected to the decline in water quality come largely from within basin sources, as opposed to those coming from the Central Valley and upwind urban areas of California. These results indicate regulators need to control pollutant emissions within the Tahoe basin in order to reduce the impact of atmospheric pollutants on both air and water quality.

  12. Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics

    PubMed Central

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m3, 27.1±15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3±1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants. PMID:25883528

  13. Fast and reliable source identification of criteria air pollutants in an industrial city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Kevin; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2014-10-01

    Most of industrial cities in developed countries use automatic station networks for monitoring of Criteria Air Pollutants (CAPs), and the tremendous amount of data acquired are often used to verify that the concentrations are within safety levels and to warn the population in the other case. Furthermore, these data can be used to investigate the source-receptor relationship. In this study, the data were collected from automatic monitoring stations in Ulsan, the most industrialized city in South Korea. The dataset consists of hourly concentrations of five CAPs (SO2, CO, O3, NO2, and PM10) recorded at 13 monitoring stations in the city during a full year (March 2011-February 2012). Different types of sources were identified by studying the temporal (daily and seasonal) trends and spatial distributions of CAPs with wind directions. It was confirmed that SO2 pollution in Ulsan originated mostly from local industrial areas, whereas CO and NO2 were also substantially influenced by mobile sources. The high PM10 levels resulted from both local industries and traffic sources as well as from remote sources. The originality of this work comes from the study of the high episodes of pollutions on a case by case basis as well as on average data. Moreover, rather simple statistical tools developed in this study can be used for a real-time diagnosis of the local pollution in large urban and industrial areas.

  14. [Input Characteristics and Pollution Assessment of Nutrients Pollution in the Primary Pollution Source of the Daliao River].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying-qun; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yan-min; Qin, Yan-wen; Pan, Xiao-xue; Cao, Wei; Liu, Zhi-chao; Yang, Chen-chen

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 surface water samples were collected from sewage outfalls and 3 main tributaries ( Hunhe River, Taizi River and Haicheng River) of the Daliao River to clarify the pollution characteristics of various species of nitrogen and phosphorus in July 2013, respectively. The results showed that the concentrations of DON in the Hunhe River, NO3(-)-N in the Taizi River, NH4(+) -N, PO4(3-) -P and DOP in the Haicheng River were higher than others. In water samples from the 3 main tributaries of the Daliao River, the TN and TP contents were above the national environmental quality standards for surface water (GB 3838-2002, grade V) except for the TP that was classified as grade IV in the Taizi River. The percentages of various N species showed that NO3(-) -N was the major N species in the Taizi River and Haicheng River, meanwhile DON was the major N species in the Hunhe River. The percentages of various P species showed that TPP was the major P species in the Hunhe River and Taizi River, and DOP was the major P species in the Haicheng River. TN content was above the national environmental quality standards for surface water (GB 3838-2002, grade V) in sewage outfalls. But TP content was classified as grade IV to above grade V. And the concentrations of NH4(+) -N, TN and TP in sewage outfalls of Shachang and Gangjian were higher than those in other sewage outfalls. The percentages of various N species in sewage outfalls showed that DIN was the major N species in sewage outfalls. There were higher level of TN and TP content in the Daliao River than those of tribtaries, and NO3(-) -N and TPP were the major N and P species, respectively. In general, the nutrients analysis of tributaries, sewage outfalls and the Daliao River showed that nutrients of the Daliao River were affected by sewage outfalls. And the effect was significant and non-ignorable. PMID:26910985

  15. Effects of point-source atmospheric pollution on boreal-forest vegetation of northwestern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasova, T.M.; Kovalev, B.I.; Filipchuk, A.N.

    1992-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution from the Noril'sk Mining-Metallurgical Complex, in the form of heavy metals and sulfur components, has resulted in damage to plant communities in the area. Vegetation on over 550,000 ha has been detrimentally affected by the pollution fallout, primarily sulfur dioxide. Forests (mainly Larix sibirica) and most lichens have been killed within a 300,000-ha zone around Noril'sk and extending about 50 km to the south and southeast. Less severe damage to lichens and vascular plants extends 170 km to the south and 80 km to the east of the pollution source consistent with prevailing winds during the period of plant growth. Terricolous lichens are particularly vulnerable to the pollution products and among vascular plants Larix gmelinii, Picea obovata, Ledum palustre, Calamagrostis sp., and Salix lanata show least resistance.

  16. The economic impact of remote sensing data as the source of nonpoint pollution monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Nonpoint pollution of streams with sediment as a result of runoff from alternative uses of land has become a socially unacceptable product of economic activity. This report describes a research approach to economically achieve correction of the nonpoint pollution problem. The research approach integrates the economic model with those data which may be obtainable from remotely sensed sources. The economic problem involves measurement of the direct benefits and costs associated with the changes in land management activities necessary to reduce the level of nonpoint pollution. Remotely sensed data from ERTS-1 may provide some of the information required for the economic model which indicates efficient solutions to the nonpoint pollution problem. Three classes of data (i.e., soil categories, vegetative cover, and water turbidity) have the potential to be measured by ERTS-1 systems. There is substantial research which indicates the ability of ERTS-1 to measure these classes of data under selected conditions.

  17. Pulsed neutron source cold moderators --- concepts, design and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Guenter S.

    1997-01-01

    Moderator design for pulsed neutron sources is becoming more and more an interface area between source designers and instrument designers. Although there exists a high degree of flexibility, there are also physical and technical limitations. This paper aims at pointing out these limitations and examining ways to extend the current state of moderator technology in order to make the next generation neutron sources even more versatile and flexible tools for science in accordance with the users' requirements. (auth)

  18. Impact of medium-distance pollution sources in a Galician suburban site (NW Iberian peninsula).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carracedo, M P; Andrade, J M; Ballabio, D; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Consonni, V; Piñeiro-Iglesias, M; López-Mahía, P

    2015-04-15

    This work studies airborne quality in a geographical area that has not been investigated broadly: a suburban site nearby A Coruña (Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula). In contrast to major Spanish cities, the site has Atlantic characteristics: rainy, scarce calm weather and infrequent prolonged sunny periods. The relationships between several gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, CO, O3, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and their temporal trends (daily, monthly and seasonal) were evaluated. The aim was to unravel whether medium- and long-distance sources were impacting upon the site. Univariate studies focused on factorizing the pollutants according to a codifying factor (wind direction, hour of the day, season and month). Multivariate studies (Varimax-rotated factorial analysis) were done separately on both weekdays and weekends. The intensity of the daily maxima for NO, NO2, NOx and CO was lower during the weekends, with O3 behaving opposite. PM average values agreed with previous historical reports for a rural background station relatively close to the site and they decreased daily between 11:00 and 19:00 h, likely because of the marine breeze. With moderate wind speeds the pollutants were associated to medium-distance pollution sources, mainly the city of A Coruña and a combination of industrial pollution sources (a power plant, a solid waste incinerator and a regional airport). PMID:25616227

  19. Spatiotemporal nonpoint source pollution water quality management framework using bi-directional model-GIS linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Faizullabhoy, M.S.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    A framework for water quality assessment and management purposes was developed. In this framework, a bilateral linkage was implemented between the distributed model, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Model (AGNPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) to investigate a spatiotemporal nonpoint source pollution problem from a 750-acre watershed in the NSGA (Naval Security Group Activity) Northwest base at the Virginia/North Carolina border. AGNPS is an event-based, distributed parameter model that simulates runoff and the transport of sediment and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from predominantly agricultural watersheds. In this study rather than manually implementing AGNPS simulation, extracted data are integrated in an automated fashion through a direct bilateral linkage framework between the AGNPS model engine and the GIS. This bilateral linkage framework resulted in a powerful, up-to-date tool that would be capable of monitoring and instantaneously visualizing the transport of any pollutant as well as effectively identifying critical areas of the nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. The framework also allowed the various what if scenarios to support the decision-making processes. Best Management Practices (BMP) for the watershed can be generated in a close loop iterative scheme, until predefined management objectives are achieved. Simulated results showed that the optimal BMP scenario achieved an average reduction of about 41% in soluble and sediment-attached nitrogen and about 62% reduction in soluble and sediment phosphorus from current NPS pollution levels.

  20. Child-Rearing Concepts, 1628-1861: Historical Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Philip J., Jr.

    This collection of readings, which focuses on children's education and family influences, is taken from authors of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Puritan-evangelical concepts comprise most of the book, exemplified by such authors as (1) John Robinson, (2) John Locke, (3) Cotton Mather, (4) Susanna Wesley, (5) John Wesley, (6) Jonathan…

  1. Method development for determining the malodor source and pollution in industrial park.

    PubMed

    Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Ru; Wang, Lee; Chen, Mei-Lien; Lai, Sin-Chen; Tsai, Chung-Jung

    2012-10-15

    Malodor pollution emitted from industrial park has become an important environmental issue. However, the difficulty in investigating malodor pollution is in determining the malodor source. The objective of this study was to develop a model for determining the malodor source and pollution in industrial park, via multiple time and site measurements of odor intensity and air pollutants, together with wind direction in different seasons, and the critical environmental factors could be also identified by correlating the odor intensities with meteorological conditions and the concentrations of air pollutants. A high-malodor-polluted industrial park involving metal and petrochemistry processing industries was selected as the study subject, and sampling was performed close to residential districts. Nine sites were selected as sampling points by a chessboard design, with each site measured for 5 days in fall and spring, respectively. Odor intensity (ratings 0-5) and environmental factors, including meteorological condition, PM(10), PM(2.5), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), ammonia and reduced sulfides, were evaluated six times daily. The results indicated that the incidences of odor ratings 1-5 were 71.9% and 81.0% in two seasons in the sampling area, and an open ditch for collecting industrial wastewater for feeding to the wastewater treatment plant was identified as the main odor source. Multiple regression analysis showed that the odor rating significantly correlated with TVOC concentration and wind speed (P<0.05); odor intensity increased by 0.001 units on the rating scale for each 1 ppb increase in TVOCs, and decreased by 0.154 units for each 1m/s increase in wind speed. This study developed a method to explore malodor pollution in industrial park, providing a novel thinking to understand and resolve malodor problems. PMID:22944219

  2. Improving pollutant source characterization by better estimating wind direction with a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Christopher T.; Young, George S.; Haupt, Sue Ellen

    In homeland security applications, it is often necessary to characterize the source location and strength of a potentially harmful contaminant. Correct source characterization requires accurate meteorological data such as wind direction. Unfortunately, available meteorological data is often inaccurate or unrepresentative, having insufficient spatial and temporal resolution for precise modeling of pollutant dispersion. To address this issue, a method is presented that simultaneously determines the surface wind direction and the pollutant source characteristics. This method compares monitored receptor data to pollutant dispersion model output and uses a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the combination of source location, source strength, and surface wind direction that best matches the dispersion model output to the receptor data. A GA optimizes variables using principles from genetics and evolution. The approach is validated with an identical twin experiment using synthetic receptor data and a Gaussian plume equation as the dispersion model. Given sufficient receptor data, the GA is able to reproduce the wind direction, source location, and source strength. Additional runs incorporating white noise into the receptor data to simulate real-world variability demonstrate that the GA is still capable of computing the correct solution, as long as the magnitude of the noise does not exceed that of the receptor data.

  3. Evaluation of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Stormwater Run-Off in Neighborhoods in San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, C.; Bailey, E.; Cai, W.; Chen, K.; Duario, D.; Gonzalez, S.; Li, A.; Liu, L. W.; Matic, M.; Wu, M. L.; Wu, X. P.; Xie, J.; Yue, J.; Yuen, K.; Kirwin, J. P.; Neiss, J.

    2007-12-01

    This is the San Francisco Bay watershed encompasses 40% of California. When precipitation occurs, nonpoint source pollutants such as fertilizers, heavy metals, pesticides, gas and oil, enter the San Francisco Bay through this watershed. These pollutants contain dangerous chemicals that can potentially impact people and local ecology. The goal of Project Watershed is for high school students to design a study that investigates nonpoint source pollution in their own neighborhood and correlate these findings to the human activity in the neighborhood. Fifteen high school students participating in this study designed a stormwater collection devise that was installed in the public storm drain near each students home. Stormwater samples where collected from each device during the period of December 2006 to April 2007. Students assessed the samples for nitrates, heavy metals, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, toluene and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). This study outlines the methods students used to design the study and a summary of results found.

  4. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans. PMID:23992682

  5. A Combined Stable Isotope And Machine Learning Approach To Quantify And Classify Of Nitrate Pollution Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckx, P. F.; Xue, D.; De Baets, B.

    2011-12-01

    Stable isotope analyses of NO3- (δ15N and δ18O) are widely used to determine the sources of nitrate pollution in water. The objective of our study was (1) to quantify NO3- sources in surface water and to classify surface waters in NO3- pollution classes via a combined stable isotope and machine learning approach; and (2) to assess a decision tree model with physicochemical data for retrieving the latter classification. A logical approach has been followed: (1) 2-year monthly sampling of 30 sampling points from different river basins in Belgium, which were classified into 5 different NO3- pollution classes using experts knowledge (Agriculture (A), Agriculture with groundwater compensation (AGC), Combination of agriculture and horticulture (AH), Greenhouses in an agricultural area (G) and Households (H)); (2) estimating proportional NO3- source contribution per NO3- pollution class by applying a Bayesian isotopic mixing model (SIAR) for measured isotopic data of NO3-; (3) re-classifying the 30 sampling points into NO3- pollution classes via a k-means clustering of the SIAR outputs; and (4) building a decision tree model using physicochemical data to retrieve expert knowledge and k-means clustering classification. SIAR successfully estimated proportional contribution ranges of five potential NO3- sources: NO3- in precipitation, NO3- in fertilizer, NH4+ in fertilizer and precipitation, manure and sewage and soil N. For classes A, AGC, AH and H in winter manure and sewage were major (40 - 60%), NO3- in precipitation minor (< 10%), and the other three sources intermediate (10 - 30%) sources. For class G in winter manure and sewage was a dominant source (50%) and the other four sources contributed in an equal range (10 - 20%). The proportional source contributions shifted in summer. Manure and sewage was the dominant source (30 - 40%) for classes A and AH. For class G the source contributions of manure and sewage and NO3- in precipitation were dominant (30% each) and

  6. HUMAN HEALTH DAMAGES FROM MOBILE SOURCE AIR POLLUTION: ADDITIONAL DELPHI DATA ANALYSIS. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report contains the results of additional analyses of the data generated by a panel of medical experts for a study of Human Health Damages from Mobile Source Air Pollution (hereafter referred to as HHD) conducted by the California Air Resources Board in 1973-75 for the U.S. E...

  7. LARGE-SCALE PREDICTIONS OF MOBILE SOURCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation shows concentrations and deposition of toxic air pollutants predicted by a 3-D air quality model, the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Contributions from both on-road and non-road mobile sources are analyzed.

  8. A linked simulation-optimization model for solving the unknown groundwater pollution source identification problems.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, M Tamer

    2010-09-20

    This study proposes a linked simulation-optimization model for solving the unknown groundwater pollution source identification problems. In the proposed model, MODFLOW and MT3DMS packages are used to simulate the flow and transport processes in the groundwater system. These models are then integrated with an optimization model which is based on the heuristic harmony search (HS) algorithm. In the proposed simulation-optimization model, the locations and release histories of the pollution sources are treated as the explicit decision variables and determined through the optimization model. Also, an implicit solution procedure is proposed to determine the optimum number of pollution sources which is an advantage of this model. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated on two hypothetical examples for simple and complex aquifer geometries, measurement error conditions, and different HS solution parameter sets. Identified results indicated that the proposed simulation-optimization model is an effective way and may be used to solve the inverse pollution source identification problems. PMID:20633952

  9. Management of an Abandoned River Channel Wetland for Mitigation of Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  10. Nonpoint-Source Pollution Issues. January 1990-November 1994. QB 95-01. Quick Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makuch, Joe

    Citations in this bibliography are intended to be a substantial resource for recent investigations (January 1990-November 1994) on nonpoint source pollution and were obtained from a search of the National Agriculture Library's AGRICOLA database. The 196 citations are indexed by author and subject. A representation of the search strategy is…

  11. 76 FR 80531 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...On March 21, 2011, the EPA promulgated national emission standards for the control of hazardous air pollutants from two area source categories: industrial boilers, and commercial and institutional boilers. On that same date, the EPA announced that it was convening a proceeding for reconsideration of certain portions of those final emission standards. After promulgation, the Administrator......

  12. 76 FR 57913 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... direct final rule published at 76 FR 35750 on June 20, 2011. ADDRESSES: Docket: All documents in the... Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating and Polishing'' which was published on June 20, 2011 (76 FR... (76 FR 35806) published on the same day as a direct final rule, EPA will not institute a...

  13. Detection and monitoring of pollutant sources with Lidar/Dial techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Parracino, S.; Richetta, M.; De Leo, L.; Perrimezzi, C.; Bellecci, C.

    2015-11-01

    It's well known that air pollution due to anthropogenic sources can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. Therefore, in the last years, surveying large regions of the atmosphere in an automatic way has become a strategic objective of various public health organizations for early detection of pollutant sources in urban and industrial areas. The Lidar and Dial techniques have become well established laser based methods for the remote sensing of the atmosphere. They are often implemented to probe almost any level of the atmosphere and to acquire information to validate theoretical models about different topics of atmospheric physics. They can also be used for environment surveying by monitoring particles, aerosols and molecules. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the potential of these methods to detect pollutants emitted from local sources (such as particulate and/or chemical compounds) and to evaluate their concentration. This is exemplified with the help of experimental data acquired in an industrial area in the south of Italy by mean of experimental campaign by use of pollutants simulated source. For this purpose, two mobile systems Lidar and Dial have been developed by the authors. In this paper there will be presented the operating principles of the system and the results of the experimental campaign.

  14. BLAST FURNACE SLIPS AND ACCOMPANYING EMISSIONS AS AN AIR POLLUTION SOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to ascertain the severity of blast-furnace slips and their accompanying bleeder-valve emissions as a source of air pollution. It describes factors contributing to the occurrence of hangs and slips in the blast furnace. It discusses the mechanic...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF POLLUTED WATERS USING SOURCE TRACKING MOLECULAR TOOLS: LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Different approaches have been used to identify fecal pollution sources in water samples. Early on, the fecal coliforms - fecal streptococci ratio was proposed as a method that could discriminate between human and animal contamination. Several studies showed that the latter appro...

  16. HP-65 PROGRAMMABLE POCKET CALCULATOR APPLIED TO AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT STUDIES: STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The handbook is intended for persons concerned with air pollution measurement studies of stationary industrial sources. It gives detailed descriptions of 22 different programs written specifically for the Hewlett Packard Model HP-65 card-programmable pocket calculator. For each p...

  17. BOOK REVIEW OF "ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS: A PRACTICAL APPROACH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book is geared to environmental specialists and planners, heavy on the technical side. It goes beyond tranditional nonpoint source (NPS) approaches which typically only look at stormwater as athe sole NPS pollution driver. There is some overreaching material beyond the conte...

  18. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  19. AMBIENT AIR/SOURCE TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION RELATIONSHIPS FOR SELECTED HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was undertaken with the goal of obtaining information that could improve modeling technique for hazardous organic vapors in the atmosphere. It was proposed that both source-receptor and dispersion models be applied. Detailed examination of alternative choices for pollut...

  20. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  1. [Spatiotemporal variation analysis and identification of water pollution sources in the Zhangweinan River basin].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Xu, Zong-Xue; Tang, Fang-Fang; Yu, Wei-Dong; Cheng, Yan-Ping

    2012-02-01

    In this study, several statistical methods including cluster analysis, seasonal Kendall test, factor analysis/principal component analysis and principal component regression were used to evaluate the spatiotemporal variation of water quality and identify the sources of water pollution in the Zhangweinan River basin. Results of spatial cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated that the Zhangweinan River basin can be classified into two regions. One is the Zhang River upstream located in the northwest of the Zhangweinan River basin where water quality is good. The other one covers the Wei River and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin, where water is seriously polluted. In this region, pollutants from point sources flow into the river and the water quality changes greatly. Results of temporal cluster analysis and seasonal Kendall test indicated that the study periods may be classified into three periods and two different trends were detected during the period of 2002-2009. The first period was the year of 2002-2003, during which water quality had deteriorated and serious pollution was observed in the Wei river basin and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin. The second period was the year of 2004-2006, during which water quality became better. The year of 2007-2009 is the third period, during which water quality had been improved greatly. Despite that water quality in the Zhangweinan River basin had been improved during the period of 2004-2009, the water quality in the Wei River (southwestern part of the basin), the Wei Canal River and the Zhangweixin River (eastern plain of the basin) is still poor. Principal component analysis and multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores showed that the main pollutants of the Zhangweinan River basin came from point source discharge such as heavy industrial wastewater, municipal sewage, chemical industries wasterwater and mine drainage in upstream. Non-point source pollution

  2. Dual-mode operation of a neutron source, a concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Givens, W. W.; Mills, W. R., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Pulsed neutron source operates in conjunction with a photomultiplier tube coupled to a gamma ray scintillation crystal. This allows measurements of gamma radiation from both inelastic scattering and thermal neutron capture in a single experiment.

  3. Assessment of Non-Point Source Pollution in the Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, L.; Loague, Keith; Ellsworth, R.

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution in the vadose zone (simply defined as the layer of soil extending from the soil surface to the groundwater table) is a global environmental problem. Characteristically, NPS pollutants are widespread and occasionally ubiquitous in extent, thus making remediation efforts difficult and complex; have the potential for maintaining a relatively long active presence in the global ecosystem; and may result in long-term, chronic health effects in humans and other life forms. Similar to other global environmental issues, the knowledge and information required to address the problem of NPS pollutants in the vadose zone cross several technological and subdisciplinary lines: spatial statistics, geographic information systems (GIS), hydrology, soil science, and remote sensing. Cooperation between disciplines and scientific societies is essential to address the problem. Evidence of such cooperation was the jointly sponsored American Geophysical Union Chapman/Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) Outreach Conference that occurred in October 1997, entitled "Applications of GIS, Remote Sensing, Geostatistics, and Solute Transport Modeling to the Assessment of Non-Point Source Pollution in the Vadose Zone." The objective of the conference and this book, which was developed from the conference, was to explore current multidisciplinary research for assessing NPS pollution in soil and groundwater resources.

  4. Sources of persistent organic pollutants emission on the territory of Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakareka, Sergey V.

    The paper considers selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) atmospheric emission evaluation on the territory of Belarus for main source categories. The procedure applied was based on the UNECE EMEP methodology. Data of industrial statistics, production processes analysis and relevant emission factors were used. For a number of sources, only quality and semi-quality emission evaluation was conducted, due to the lack of information for the selection of emission factors or statistical data relevant. In the paper, emissions of the following groups of pollutants are discussed: dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as requested for EMEP database (Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants to the convention of 1979 on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe and Annexes I, II, or III to the Protocol, 1998). PAH emission and selected chlorinated pesticides input also requested by EMEP will be described in other issues. Estimations have showed that Belarus as a whole is not a large emission source of such POPs as dioxins. Its share in European emissions is significantly below 1%. This can be explained by the fact that in Belarus there are no such large dioxin emission sources like sintering, waste incineration, non-ferrous industry. But some important sources of dioxins/furans for instance, open burning are not included in quantitative estimation now. The main contribution to dioxin emissions is by firewood and peat combustion. Only electric steel smelting plant can be considered as a large emission point source. Leakage from transformers and damaged capacitors was estimated as the main source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) discharged into the environment: dielectric fluids with PCB are still in use in electrical equipment.

  5. The precipitation driven correlation based mapping method (PCM) for identifying the critical source areas of non-point source pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinhui Jeanne; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Hao

    2015-05-01

    Critical source areas (CSAs) are the areas that are relatively more erosion-prone and contribute significantly more pollutants per unit area. They have been widely recognized as optimal locations for the control of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Modeling approach has been frequently used to identify the CSAs of NPS pollution on a basin scale. In previous studies, CSAs were identified based on the simulated average annual nutrient yields for the simulation period at the levels of sub-basin or hydrologic response unit (HRU). However, this method did not consider the impact of uneven spatial distribution of precipitation, which is considered to be the driven force of NPS pollution. In many cases, due to limited length of qualified monitoring data collected, the simulation period may not cover a full spectrum of the precipitation characteristics so that some potential CSAs may be missed. In the present study, the precipitation driven correlation based mapping method (PCM) was proposed, which can reduce the impact of uncertain spatial-temporal distribution of precipitation and identify the CSAs of NPS pollution with a better coverage. This method was applied to the Zhang River Basin, a watershed in North China that occupies an area of 18,072 km2. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used for simulation purposes. By using PCM, the maps of CSAs for controlling total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were produced. This study has found that the monthly precipitation is highly correlated with the TN and TP yields. It was observed that TN yields have slightly higher correlation value with the precipitation than TP yields. Hence, the precipitation has more impacts on TN yields than TP yields. The impact is more substantial in urban areas than other areas.

  6. Probing the severe haze pollution in three typical regions of China: Characteristics, sources and regional impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiongzhen; Zhuang, Guoshun; Huang, Kan; Liu, Tingna; Deng, Congrui; Xu, Jian; Lin, Yanfen; Guo, Zhigang; Chen, Ying; Fu, Qingyan; Fu, Joshua S.; Chen, Jiakuan

    2015-11-01

    PM2.5 with its major chemical components were measured and analyzed during a concurrent haze in Jan. 1-19, 2013 at three sites (Shanghai, Beijing, and Huaniao, a remote isle over the East China Sea) to probe the sources and formation process of such a severe haze over three typical regions in China. The mean PM2.5 concentrations during the severely polluted days reached 180.8 μg m-3, 299.2 μg m-3, and 131.1 μg m-3 in Shanghai, Beijing, and the Huaniao Isle, respectively. The mass ratio of the sum of SO42- , NO3-, and NH4+ to PM2.5 were over 1/3 during the polluted days at all the three sites. Promoted gas-to-particle transformations from acidic SO2 and NOx to SO42- and NO3- under high relative humidity conditions played a major role in the formation of this severe haze. Significant contribution of traffic emissions to the haze formation over China was suggested to be one of the major sources in triggering the heavy haze over China. Specifically, there was a more contribution from traffic in Shanghai than in Beijing as indicated by the higher NO3-/SO42- ratio in Shanghai. In Beijing, the enhanced coal combustion for winter heating along with the traffic emission was suggested to be the major two sources of this haze episode. Typical pollution elements such as As, Cd, and Pb as well as Cl- and K+ were substantially enhanced in the severely polluted days. Although the Huaniao Isle is located in the remote oceanic area as a background site, pollution elements, secondary ions, and K+ all increased substantially during the polluted days. As visualized by the backward air mass trajectories associated with the potential source region identification technique, air masses that passed over Northern China and Yangtze River Delta evidently invaded the offshore areas of Eastern China. The ratios of As, Cd, Cu, Zn, and K+ to Al at the Huaniao Isle were closer to those of Beijing rather than Shanghai, indicating that the marine aerosol over the East China Sea had been

  7. Spatial variations, temporal trends, and emission sources of air pollutants in seven cities of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, WEI; TAO, SHU; WANG, CHEN

    2014-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the derivatives of PAHs (nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs) were measured each month between April, 2010 and March, 2011 in seven large cities (18 sites) in the ambient air of northern China. Similarities in the concentrations of PM, PAHs and oxy-PAHs between rural village and urban area are found, indicating the severe air pollution in the rural villages and strong contribution of solid fuels combustion. Higher nitro-PAHs concentrations in the cities than those in the rural area suggests the influence of motor vehicles, both on primary emission and secondary formation. Without local emission sources, pollutants levels in the rural field area are the lowest. Air pollution in the less developed west China is as severe as that in the east with more population and urbanization, both heavier than that in the coastal area. Such spatial patterns are caused by differences in the sources of contaminants and the removal process. A strong seasonality of all pollutants with higher concentrations in winter and lower in summer is observed due to large heating demand for solid fuel combustion in winter and rich precipitation in summer. Natural sources such as sandstorms also take effects on the spatial distribution and temporal trend of PM.

  8. Chemical composition and sources of particle pollution in affluent and poor neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng; Dionisio, Kathie L.; Verissimo, Thiago G.; Kerr, Americo S.; Coull, Brent; Arku, Raphael E.; Koutrakis, Petros; Spengler, John D.; Hughes, Allison F.; Vallarino, Jose; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-12-01

    The highest levels of air pollution in the world now occur in developing country cities, where air pollution sources differ from high-income countries. We analyzed particulate matter (PM) chemical composition and estimated the contributions of various sources to particle pollution in poor and affluent neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana. Elements from earth’s crust were most abundant during the seasonal Harmattan period between late December and late January when Saharan dust is carried to coastal West Africa. During Harmattan, crustal particles accounted for 55 μg m-3 (37%) of fine particle (PM2.5) mass and 128 μg m-3 (42%) of PM10 mass. Outside Harmattan, biomass combustion, which was associated with higher black carbon, potassium, and sulfur, accounted for between 10.6 and 21.3 μg m-3 of fine particle mass in different neighborhoods, with its contribution largest in the poorest neighborhood. Other sources were sea salt, vehicle emissions, tire and brake wear, road dust, and solid waste burning. Reducing air pollution in African cities requires policies related to energy, transportation and urban planning, and forestry and agriculture, with explicit attention to impacts of each strategy in poor communities. Such cross-sectoral integration requires emphasis on urban environment and urban poverty in the post-2015 Development Agenda.

  9. GAS-PHASE MASS TRANSFER MODEL FOR PREDICTING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) EMISSION RATES FROM INDOOR POLLUTANT SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of the impact of sources on indoor pollutant concentrations and occupant exposure to indoor pollutants requires knowledge of the emission rates from the sources. Emission rates are often determined by chamber testing and the data from the chamber test are fitted to an em...

  10. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water…

  11. Integrated watershed economic model for non-point source pollution management in Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed, OH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, non-point source pollution (NPS) is one of the major sources of water quality impairments globally (UNEP, 2007). In the US, nutrient pollution is the leading cause of water quality issues in lakes and estuaries (USEPA, 2002). The maximum concentration of nutrients in streams is found to be in...

  12. SIMULATION COASTAL PLAIN STREAM FISH COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION USING LINKED HYDROLOGIC-ECOLOGICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonpoint source pollution is the primary stress in many streams. Characteristic declines in stream fish communities are recognized in streams influenced by nonpoint source pollution, but the processes by which these declines occur are not well understood. Here, predicted time s...

  13. Contribution Assessment of Regional Air Pollution over Northeast Asia using CMAQ Source Apportionment Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K.; Woo, J.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Kim, C.

    2011-12-01

    East Asia is one of the largest emission source regions in the world because of the large population and fast economic growth for several decades. Recent observation from space also demonstrates that emissions in East Asia - especially China - have been increased impressively since 1995. A number of regional scale transport studies using comprehensive 3D modeling system such as CMAQ have been conducted to understand transboundary air pollution. The contribution assessment using such a comprehensive modeling system, however, was not extensively investigated in this region. Air pollution contributions from multiple source types and regions over East Asia were examined using CMAQ based source apportionment tool off-line coupled with a meteorological model (WRF). The simulation was conducted for the entire year of 2009. The CMAQ ozone & particle precursor tagging methodologies (OPTM) source apportionment tool were applied in our study. An anthropogenic emissions inventory and processing methodology have been developed in support of the source-receptor modeling study in East Asia region. Emissions from open biomass burning and biogenic source were also estimated to support air quality contributions assessment from various sources and source types. Remote sensing-based atmosphere information and ground based monitoring data has been included to evaluate the simulation results. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  14. Point source pollution and variability of nitrate concentrations in water from shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Jazbec, Anamarija

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the several major sources of nitrate pollution, and therefore the EU Nitrate Directive, designed to decrease pollution, has been implemented. Point sources like septic systems and broken sewage systems also contribute to water pollution. Pollution of groundwater by nitrate from 19 shallow wells was studied in a typical agricultural region, middle Podravina, in northwest Croatia. The concentration of nitrate ranged from <0.1 to 367 mg/l in water from wells, and 29.8 % of 253 total samples were above maximum acceptable value of 50 mg/l (MAV). Among regions R1-R6, there was no statistically significant difference in nitrate concentrations (F = 1.98; p = 0.15) during the years 2002-2007. Average concentrations of nitrate in all 19 wells for all the analyzed years were between recommended limit value of 25 mg/l (RLV) and MAV except in 2002 (concentration was under RLV). The results of the repeated measures ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between the wells at the point source distance (proximity) of <10 m, compared to the wells at the point source distance of >20 m (F = 10.6; p < 0.001). Average annual concentrations of nitrate during the years studied are not statistically different, but interaction between proximity and years is statistically significant (F = 2.07; p = 0.04). Results of k-means clustering confirmed division into four clusters according to the pollution. Principal component analysis showed that there is only one significant factor, proximity, which explains 91.6 % of the total variability of nitrate. Differences in water quality were found as a result of different environmental factors. These results will contribute to the implementation of the Nitrate Directive in Croatia and the EU.

  15. Nutrient pollution in central California rivers: a comparison of point and diffuse sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, D. J.; Harrison, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems resulting from nutrient pollution is a persistent problem in regions where agriculture and urban development are significant. An important question for ecosystem management in these areas is whether nutrient pollution originates from point sources (e.g., sewage effluent) or diffuse sources (e.g., runoff of fertilizers from agricultural fields). In this poster, we present spatially explicit estimates for the input of two key constituents of nutrient pollution, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), to 22 individual river basins in central California for the early 2000s using information on land cover, agricultural practices, and sewage treatment facilities. Net anthropogenic input (agricultural sources + urban sources - crop harvest) of N ranged from 194 to 11094 kg N km-2 yr-1 while net anthropogenic P inputs ranged from -22 to 346 kg P km-2 yr-1. We estimated that diffuse inputs of inorganic fertilizer and manure were the largest fraction of anthropogenic N and P inputs to these basins. Point source inputs from sewage effluent was nonexistent in 17 of the basins and contributed up to 2 and 15% of N and P inputs in the remaining 5 basins. Using measured data on riverine N and P export from these basins during the 2000 - 2003 water years, we estimate that these basins exported a median of 11 and 12% of their annual net anthropogenic N and P inputs. Among basins, export of net anthropogenic P inputs was on average 53% larger than export of net anthropogenic N inputs. This suggests either that N was retained more efficiently than P or it was lost from basins in gaseous form (e.g., N2 and N2O). Our results suggest that ecosystem management in these central California river basins should focus on diffuse agricultural sources of both N and P to reduce nutrient pollution of downstream aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Characterisation and quantification of the sources of PM10 during air pollution episodes in the UK.

    PubMed

    Muir, David; Longhurst, J W S; Tubb, A

    2006-04-01

    Data for concentrations of PM(10) and gaseous pollutants from sites in the UK Automatic Urban and Rural Network have been examined during periods of elevated concentrations of PM(10). The ratios of concentrations of PM(10) to those of the other pollutants were used to determine the most probable source of the additional particles. The hypothesis is that because the concentrations of PM(10) were divided by those of the other pollutants, the ratio should decrease when PM(10) and the other pollutants have a common source. Conversely, the ratio should increase when the sources are different. During episodes where road traffic was the most probable source of the additional particles, the ratios of concentrations of PM(10) to carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen did decrease, but the comparable ratios for sulphur dioxide and ozone increased. In contrast, during episodes known to have been caused by construction activity, all these ratios increased. This is taken to show that the basic hypothesis is valid. For prolonged episodes, it was possible to use data averaged over the total duration of the episode for the purposes of source identification. For sporadic construction, or other short-duration episodes, it was necessary to use time series data. The data have also been used to calculate the differences between hourly average concentrations of pollutants measured during episodes and long-term hourly average concentrations. These have been used to model the additional PM(10) during air pollution episodes associated with construction activities and road traffic emissions. This confirms the lack of relationship between PM(10) and other pollutants during construction works. During episodes arising from road traffic emissions, there was good agreement between measured and modelled additional concentrations of PM(10) when an appropriate factor, F, related to the contribution of road traffic emissions to PM(10) at different site types was applied. The values used were 0

  17. Investigation of spatial distributions and sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a heavily polluted industrial region using tree components.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Ozgunerge Falay, Ezgi; Tuna, Gizem; Altiok, Hasan; Kara, Melik; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Elbir, Tolga

    2016-10-01

    Spatial distributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Iskenderun industrial region in Turkey. POP concentrations were measured in different tree components (i.e., pine needle, branch, bark, and stem) collected at several industrial and background sites (n = 27). Also, air, litter, and soil samples were analyzed to determine the relationship of atmospheric pollutants with tree components, litter, and soil. Spatial variation of measured concentrations and factor analysis showed that the iron-steel plants are the most important POP sources in Iskenderun area. Correlations of ambient air levels to those measured in soil, litter, and tree components were significant showing that POPs are exchanged between atmosphere and these compartments. Results have suggested that tree components, litter and soil could be used to determine the spatial distributions and sources of atmospheric POPs in a region. POP quantities (mg/ha) accumulated in different tree components, litter, and soil were also predicted. Generally, the highest quantities were accumulated by stem and needles. In terms of overall inventory, including trees, litter and soil, the highest accumulated quantities were found in soil followed by trees and litter, indicating that in addition to soil, vegetation is a notable reservoir accumulating POPs. Ambient air POP concentrations were also estimated using a bark/air partitioning model. The estimated/measured ratios were close to 1.0 for several compounds and the results showed that the atmospheric POP concentrations could be estimated from the bark measurements within factors of 0.23-3.07, 1.02-6.67, 0.63-7.44, 1.07-3.37 for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, respectively. PMID:27367178

  18. Improved design concepts for millimeter wave power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granatstein, V. L.; Guo, H.; Carmel, Y.

    1993-03-01

    This progress report summarizes the work done during the period from 15 Mar. 1992 to 14 Mar. 1993. In the past year, we have designed a phase-locked, harmonic, inverted gyro-twistron, known as the phigtron. The phigtron combines a subharmonic gyro-TWT amplifier input section with a gyroklystron type output cavity. The phigtron is expected to reach much higher phase-locking gain and wider bandwidth than the two cavity phase-locked gyroklystron oscillator. The efficient and stable operation of this phase-locked harmonic gyrotron will be obtained through the implementation of mode selective interaction circuits. The proof-of-principle cold test results of such circuitry have recently been obtained indicating that the technical realization of this research concept is feasible. The construction of the phigtron hot test laboratory facility is now actively proceeding.

  19. Mixing of a point-source indoor pollutant: Numerical predictions and comparison with experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lobscheid, C.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In most practical estimates of indoor pollutant exposures, it is common to assume that the pollutant is uniformly and instantaneously mixed in the indoor space. It is also commonly known that this assumption is simplistic, particularly for point sources, and for short-term or localized indoor exposures. We report computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of mixing time of a point-pulse release of a pollutant in an unventilated mechanically mixed isothermal room. We aimed to determine the adequacy of the standard RANS two-equation ({kappa}-{var_epsilon}) turbulence model to predict the mixing times under these conditions. The predictions were made for the twelve mixing time experiments performed by Drescher et al. (1995). We paid attention to adequate grid resolution, suppression of numerical diffusion, and careful simulation of the mechanical blowers used in the experiments. We found that the predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  20. Surface water sewer misconnections in England and Wales: Pollution sources and impacts.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J B; Butler, D

    2015-09-01

    In urban areas served by separate sewerage consisting of separate pipe systems it is not uncommon for misconnections to be made either accidentally or deliberately, whereby the wrong effluent is connected to the wrong sewer. The main focus of this problem has been on in-household appliances that are wrongly connected to separate surface water sewers, potentially leading to pollution of receiving waters and non-compliance with statutory water quality standards. This paper examines the available evidence to evaluate the potential scale, severity and cost of the problem in England and Wales in comparison to that reported from investigations in the United States. The particular difficulties associated with distinguishing specific sewage sources in the wastewater "cocktail" discharged at polluted surface water outfalls are reviewed. The deficiencies of existing legislation and enforcing compliance with respect to misconnections are also discussed and the pollution potential resulting from domestic misconnections is explored based on sampled data. PMID:25918897

  1. Large-Eddy Simulation of Chemically Reactive Pollutant Transport from a Point Source in Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tangzheng; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Most air pollutants are chemically reactive so using inert scalar as the tracer in pollutant dispersion modelling would often overlook their impact on urban inhabitants. In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to examine the plume dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants in a hypothetical atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in neutral stratification. The irreversible chemistry mechanism of ozone (O3) titration is integrated into the LES model. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from an elevated point source in a rectangular spatial domain doped with O3. The LES results are compared well with the wind tunnel results available in literature. Afterwards, the LES model is applied to idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of unity aspect ratio to study the behaviours of chemically reactive plume over idealized urban roughness. The relation among various time scales of reaction/turbulence and dimensionless number are analysed.

  2. Contributions of artificial lighting sources on light pollution in Hong Kong measured through a night sky brightness monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Chun Shing Jason; So, Chu Wing; Leung, Wai Yan; Wong, Chung Fai

    2014-05-01

    Light pollution is a form of environmental degradation in which excessive artificial outdoor lighting, such as street lamps, neon signs, and illuminated signboards, affects the natural environment and the ecosystem. Poorly designed outdoor lighting not only wastes energy, money, and valuable Earth resources, but also robs us of our beautiful night sky. Effects of light pollution on the night sky can be evaluated by the skyglow caused by these artificial lighting sources, through measurements of the night sky brightness (NSB). The Hong Kong Night Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (NSN) was established to monitor in detail the conditions of light pollution in Hong Kong. Monitoring stations were set up throughout the city covering a wide range of urban and rural settings to continuously measure the variations of the NSB. Over 4.6 million night sky measurements were collected from 18 distinct locations between May 2010 and March 2013. This huge dataset, over two thousand times larger than our previous survey [1], forms the backbone for studies of the temporal and geographical variations of this environmental parameter and its correlation with various natural and artificial factors. The concepts and methodology of the NSN were presented here, together with an analysis of the overall night sky conditions in Hong Kong. The average NSB in Hong Kong, excluding data affected by the Moon, was 16.8 mag arcsec-2, or 82 times brighter than the dark site standard established by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) [2]. The urban night sky was on average 15 times brighter than that in a rural location, firmly establishing the effects of artificial lighting sources on the night sky.

  3. Analysis of the error associated with grid representation of point sources. [for pollutant dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karamchandani, P.; Peters, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    The steady-state, three-dimensional transport equation for inert pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere is solved analytically to obtain expressions for pollutant concentrations from both a point source and a rectangular area source. The results of this analysis have application to numerical grid models in which the smallest resolvable source is the size of a single grid. The concentrations at ground level along the plume centerline from the two types of sources are in close agreement with each other at distances greater than 10 km downwind when the horizontal dimension of the rectangular source is not less than 100 m. The dimension of the source in the vertical direction is held constant at 50 m. Similar results are obtained for concentrations along the plume centerline at the effective stack height. When the size of the source in the crosswind direction is increased to 1 km, good agreement between the two concentrations is obtained for downwind distances over 60 km for the ground level case and over 140 km for the concentration at stack height level. For the horizontal dimension equal to 10 km, good agreement between the two cases is only obtained at extremely large downwind distances at both the stack height and ground levels.

  4. [Establishment of Method for Health Risk Assessment of Pollutants from Fixed Sources].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Wu, Huan-bo

    2016-05-15

    A health risk assessment method of pollutants from fixed sources was developed by applying AERMOD model in the health risk assessment. The method could directly forecast the health risks of toxic pollutants from source by some exposure pathway. Using the established method, in combination with the data of sources and traditional health risk assessment method as well as the measured data of PAHs in inhalation particle matter (PM₁₀) in Lanzhou, the health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) in PM₁₀ from the three fire power plants and the health risk of PAHs and BaP in PM₁₀ at the receptor point by inhalation exposure in heating and non-heating seasons was calculated, respectively. Then the contribution rates of the health risk caused by the three fire power plants to the health risk at the receptor point were calculated. The results showed that the contribution rates were not associated with sex and age, but were associated with time period and risk types. The contribution rates in the non-heating seasons were greater than those in heating seasons, and the contribution rates of the carcinogenic risk index were greater than those of the cancer risk value. The reliability of the established method was validated by comparing with the traditional method. This method was applicable to health risk assessment of toxic pollutants from all fixed sources and environmental risk assessment of environmental impact assessment. PMID:27506015

  5. Potential sources of bacteriological pollution for two bays with marinas in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Christine Ann; Moonesar, Indar

    2005-05-01

    Welcome Bay and Chaguaramas Bay in the northwest peninsula of Trinidad contain large marinas and smaller sections of bathing beaches. Bacteriological surveys were conducted at both bays to assess water quality and to determine potential sources of pollution. These surveys were conducted during the wet season of 1996 and the dry season of 1997. Eleven sample stations were established at Welcome Bay and 12 at Chaguaramas Bay. Freshwater samples were collected from rivers and drains within the survey area. Marine water samples were collected from marinas, bathing beaches and inshore and outer areas at both bays. Five water samples were collected from each sampling station during the wet season of 1996 and six during the dry season of 1997. The membrane filter technique was used to determine faecal coliform and Escherichia coli levels in all samples. There was a seasonal effect on water quality, with significantly higher faecal coliform levels in the wet season, when water quality was not in compliance with international standards. This represents a potential health risk in bathing areas. Water quality was better at the outer area of both bays. Water quality at the inner bay areas was most likely adversely affected by land-based sources of pollution identified in this study. These sources include three drains and two rivers, which discharged into the bays. Yachts were apparently not a source of sewage pollution: there was no significant relationship between yacht number and faecal coliform levels. PMID:17465149

  6. Variability of Surface pollutants and aerosol concentration over Abu Dhabi, UAE - sources, transport and current levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanikumar, Devulapalli V.; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-04-01

    In the view of recent economic, industrial, and rapid development, Abu Dhabi (24.4oN; 54.4oE; 27m msl) has become one of the most populated regions in the world despite of extreme heat, frequent dust storms, and with distinctive topography. The major sources of air pollution are from the dust and sand storms, greenhouse gas emissions, and to some extent from industrial pollution. In order to realize the accurate and comprehensive understanding of air quality and plausible sources over this region, we have made a detailed analysis of three years simultaneous measurements during 2011-13 of pollutants such as O3, SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 concentrations. Diurnal variation of meteorological parameters such as temperature and wind speed/relative humidity clearly shows daytime maximum/minimum in summer followed by pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter. The prevailing winds over this region are mostly from northwesterly direction (Shamal wind). Diurnal wind pattern showed a clear contrast with the majority of the wind pattern during nighttime and early morning is from the westerly/northwesterly and daytime is from southwesterly/southeasterly directions. The diurnal pattern of O3 shows minimum during 08 LT and increases thereafter reaching maximum at 17 LT and decreases during nighttime. However, the diurnal pattern of SO2 and NO2 show a peak at ~ 08 LT and dip at ~ 14 LT during all the seasons with some variability in each season. On the other hand, the diurnal pattern of CO shows a peculiar picture of elevated levels during daytime peaking at ~ 10 LT (prominent in summer and post-monsoon) followed by a sharp decrease and minimum is ~14 LT. PM10 concentration has an early morning peak at ~ 02 LT and then decreases to a minimum value at ~11 LT and again increases in the afternoon hours (maximum at ~17 LT) depicting a forenoon-afternoon asymmetry. Monthly variation of PM10 shows maximum in pre-monsoon season and minimum in winter. Our observations show the diurnal pattern of

  7. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries. PMID:12173425

  8. Application of a constructed wetland for non-point source pollution control.

    PubMed

    Kao, C M; Wang, J Y; Lee, H Y; Wen, C K

    2001-01-01

    In Taiwan, non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the major causes of impairment of surface waters. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using constructed wetlands on NPS pollutant removal and water quality improvements. A field-scale constructed wetland system was built inside the campus of National Sun Yat-Sen University (located in southern Taiwan) to remove (1) NPS pollutants due to the stormwater runoff, and (2) part of the untreated wastewater from school drains. The constructed wetland was 40 m (L) x 30 m (W) x 1 m (D), which received approximately 85 m3 per day of untreated wastewater from school drainage pipes. The plants grown on the wetland included floating (Pistia stratiotes L.) and emergent (Phragmites communis L.) species. One major storm event and baseline water quality samples were analyzed during the monitoring period. Analytical results indicate that the constructed wetland removed a significant amount of NPS pollutants and wastewater constituents. More than 88% of nitrogen, 81% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 85% of heavy metals, and 60% of the total suspended solids (TSS) caused by the storm runoff were removed by the wetland system before discharging. Results from this study may be applied to the design of constructed wetlands for NPS pollution control and water quality improvement. PMID:11804154

  9. Reducing Nonpoint Source Pollution Through Collaboration: Policies and Programs Across the U.S. States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Scott D.; Koontz, Tomas M.

    2008-03-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has emerged as the largest threat to water quality in the United States, influencing policy makers and resource managers to direct more attention toward NPS prevention and remediation. In response, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) spent more than 204 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 on the Clean Water Act’s Section 319 program to combat NPS pollution, much of it on the development and implementation of watershed-based plans. State governments have also increasingly allocated financial and technical resources to collaborative watershed efforts within their own borders to fight NPS pollution. With increased collaboration among the federal government, states, and citizens to combat NPS pollution, more information is needed to understand how public resources are being used, by whom, and for what, and what policy changes might improve effectiveness. Analysis from a 50-state study suggests that, in addition to the average 35% of all Section 319 funds per state that are passed on to collaborative watershed groups, 35 states have provided financial assistance beyond Section 319 funding to support collaborative watershed initiatives. State programs frequently provide technical assistance and training, in addition to financial resources, to encourage collaborative partnerships. Such assistance is typically granted in exchange for requirements to generate a watershed action plan and/or follow a mutually agreed upon work plan to address NPS pollution. Program managers indicated a need for greater fiscal resources and flexibility to achieve water quality goals.

  10. Minority Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching Science: Sources of Science Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores five minority preservice teachers' conceptions of teaching science and identifies the sources of their strategies for helping students learn science. Perspectives from the literature on conceptions of teaching science and on the role constructs used to describe and distinguish minority preservice teachers from their mainstream…

  11. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, D.M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Nature of air pollution, emission sources, and management in the Indian cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Goel, Rahul; Pant, Pallavi

    2014-10-01

    The global burden of disease study estimated 695,000 premature deaths in 2010 due to continued exposure to outdoor particulate matter and ozone pollution for India. By 2030, the expected growth in many of the sectors (industries, residential, transportation, power generation, and construction) will result in an increase in pollution related health impacts for most cities. The available information on urban air pollution, their sources, and the potential of various interventions to control pollution, should help us propose a cleaner path to 2030. In this paper, we present an overview of the emission sources and control options for better air quality in Indian cities, with a particular focus on interventions like urban public transportation facilities; travel demand management; emission regulations for power plants; clean technology for brick kilns; management of road dust; and waste management to control open waste burning. Also included is a broader discussion on key institutional measures, like public awareness and scientific studies, necessary for building an effective air quality management plan in Indian cities.

  13. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition—specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by ‘good spirit beings’), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn’s ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge. PMID:25852602

  14. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition-specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by 'good spirit beings'), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn's ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge. PMID:25852602

  15. The influence of metal source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of mine water pollution abatement in catchments.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Destouni, Georgia; Gren, Ing-Marie

    2006-01-01

    In mine water pollution abatement, it is commonly assumed that known mine waste sites are the major pollution sources, thus neglecting the possibility of significant contribution from other old and diffuse sources within a catchment. We investigate the influence of different types of pollution source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of abatement measures for mine water pollution. A catchment-scale cost-minimization model is developed and applied to the catchment of the river Dalälven, Sweden, in order to exemplify important effects of such source uncertainty. Results indicate that, if the pollution distribution between point and diffuse sources is partly unknown, downstream abatement measures, such as constructed wetlands, at given compliance boundaries are often cost-effective. If downstream abatement measures are not practically feasible, the pollution source distribution between point and diffuse mine water sources is critical for cost-effective solutions to abatement measure allocation in catchments. In contrast, cost-effective solutions are relatively insensitive to uncertainty in total pollutant discharge from mine water sources. PMID:16095805

  16. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources. PMID:24218858

  17. Implementing Single Source: The STARBRITE Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Kush, Rebecca; Alschuler, Liora; Ruggeri, Roberto; Cassells, Sally; Gupta, Nitin; Bain, Landen; Claise, Karen; Shah, Monica; Nahm, Meredith

    2007-01-01

    Objective Inefficiencies in clinical trial data collection cause delays, increase costs, and may reduce clinician participation in medical research. In this proof-of-concept study, we examine the feasibility of using point-of-care data capture for both the medical record and clinical research in the setting of a working clinical trial. We hypothesized that by doing so, we could increase reuse of patient data, eliminate redundant data entry, and minimize disruption to clinic workflow. Design We developed and used a point-of-care electronic data capture system to record data during patient visits. The standards-based system was used for clinical research and to generate the clinic note for the medical record. The system worked in parallel with data collection procedures already in place for an ongoing multicenter clinical trial. Our system was iteratively designed after analyzing case report forms and clinic notes, and observing clinic workflow patterns and business procedures. Existing data standards from CDISC and HL7 were used for database insertion and clinical document exchange. Results Our system was successfully integrated into the clinic environment and used in two live test cases without disrupting existing workflow. Analyses performed during system design yielded detailed information on practical issues affecting implementation of systems that automatically extract, store, and reuse healthcare data. Conclusion Although subject to the limitations of a small feasibility study, our study demonstrates that electronic patient data can be reused for prospective multicenter clinical research and patient care, and demonstrates a need for further development of therapeutic area standards that can facilitate researcher use of healthcare data. PMID:17600107

  18. Anthropogenic Air Pollution Observed Near Dust Source Regions in Northwestern China During Springtime 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE, 1460 m a.s. 1.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO:265 ppb; SO2:3.4 ppb; NO(*y): 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 micro-g/cu m) and light scattering (159/Mm at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3/Mm at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 mn) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to Pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NO(y), NO(y)/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 x 10(exp -3), respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 x 10(exp -3) for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  19. Anthropogenic air pollution observed near dust source regions in northwestern China during springtime 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin

    2010-04-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082°N, 100.276°E, 1460 m a.s.l.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO: 265 ppb; SO2: 3.4 ppb; NOy*: 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 μg/m3) and light scattering (159 Mm-1 at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3 Mm-1 at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 nm) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NOy, NOy/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 × 10-3, respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 × 10-3 for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  20. Light-pollution model for cloudy and cloudless night skies with ground-based light sources.

    PubMed

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2007-05-20

    The scalable theoretical model of light pollution for ground sources is presented. The model is successfully employed for simulation of angular behavior of the spectral and integral sky radiance and/or luminance during nighttime. There is no restriction on the number of ground-based light sources or on the spatial distribution of these sources in the vicinity of the measuring point (i.e., both distances and azimuth angles of the light sources are configurable). The model is applicable for real finite-dimensional surface sources with defined spectral and angular radiating properties contrary to frequently used point-source approximations. The influence of the atmosphere on the transmitted radiation is formulated in terms of aerosol and molecular optical properties. Altitude and spectral reflectance of a cloud layer are the main factors introduced for simulation of cloudy and/or overcast conditions. The derived equations are translated into numerically fast code, and it is possible to repeat the entire set of calculations in real time. The parametric character of the model enables its efficient usage by illuminating engineers and/or astronomers in the study of various light-pollution situations. Some examples of numerical runs in the form of graphical results are presented. PMID:17514252

  1. Air pollution emission profiles of toxic and trace elements from energy related sources: status and needs.

    PubMed

    Lioy, P J

    1983-01-01

    The preceding was by no means a comprehensive analysis on the present state of knowledge on trace elements in combustion sources, or the differences that would be expected. However, it does point to avenues and directions of some of the future research. Also, the needs 1) to resolve source in areas of great emissions complexity, or 2) to assign sources of specific hazardous materials. Current efforts are focussed on understanding the impact of particular sources of pollutants at a receptor site. This information will provide the means for assessment of any potential hazard of a source to the general community and the size and mass distribution of these materials at a receptor. Considering the types and volume of data necessary to catalog source types and eventually assess community impacts, the development of a national resource with far more sensitive and accurate multielement analysis of air pollutants is warranted. Interaction of air quality and nuclear analytical research groups in collaborative research projects should be fostered and commitments made to develop pools of large and small users. PMID:6686299

  2. Feasibility of point-nonpoint source trading for managing agricultural pollutant loadings to coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchfield, Stephen R.; Letson, David; Malik, Arun S.

    1994-10-01

    A recent focus of water quality policy discussions has been the trading of pollution abatement between point and nonpoint sources. Point-nonpoint trading would allow point sources to sponsor nonpoint source controls rather than install further controls of their own. If nonpoint source loadings are significant and the marginal costs of their control are lower than for additional point source controls, water quality goals could be met at lower cost with trading. We isolate difficulties particular to incentive policies such as point-nonpoint trading and then screen coastal watersheds for those satisfying conditions that play a major role in determining whether trading can improve water quality. We follow the recent Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments in emphasizing agriculture, the single largest cause of nonpoint source pollution. Our screening analysis provides an initial, empirical assessment of the feasibility of trading for managing agricultural land use to protect coastal water quality. We also illustrate the additional analysis required to quantify the potential for successful trading in those watersheds which meet our screening criteria.

  3. A stable isotope model for combined source apportionment and degradation quantification of environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Stefanie; Van Breukelen, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Natural attenuation can represent a complementary or alternative approach to engineered remediation of polluted sites. In this context, compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) has proven a useful tool, as it can provide evidence of natural attenuation and assess the extent of in-situ degradation based on changes in isotope ratios of pollutants. Moreover, CSIA can allow for source identification and apportionment, which might help to identify major emission sources in complex contamination scenarios. However, degradation and mixing processes in aquifers can lead to changes in isotopic compositions, such that their simultaneous occurrence might complicate combined source apportionment (SA) and assessment of the extent of degradation (ED). We developed a mathematical model (stable isotope sources and sinks model; SISS model) based on the linear stable isotope mixing model and the Rayleigh equation that allows for simultaneous SA and quantification of the ED in a scenario of two emission sources and degradation via one reaction pathway. It was shown that the SISS model with CSIA of at least two elements contained in the pollutant (e.g., C and H in benzene) allows for unequivocal SA even in the presence of degradation-induced isotope fractionation. In addition, the model enables precise quantification of the ED provided degradation follows instantaneous mixing of two sources. If mixing occurs after two sources have degraded separately, the model can still yield a conservative estimate of the overall extent of degradation. The SISS model was validated against virtual data from a two-dimensional reactive transport model. The model results for SA and ED were in good agreement with the simulation results. The application of the SISS model to field data of benzene contamination was, however, challenged by large uncertainties in measured isotope data. Nonetheless, the use of the SISS model provided a better insight into the interplay of mixing and degradation

  4. Receptor model-based source apportionment of particulate pollution in Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Guttikunda, Sarath K; Kopakka, Ramani V; Dasari, Prasad; Gertler, Alan W

    2013-07-01

    Air quality in Hyderabad, India, often exceeds the national ambient air quality standards, especially for particulate matter (PM), which, in 2010, averaged 82.2 ± 24.6, 96.2 ± 12.1, and 64.3 ± 21.2 μg/m(3) of PM10, at commercial, industrial, and residential monitoring stations, respectively, exceeding the national ambient standard of 60 μg/m(3). In 2005, following an ordinance passed by the Supreme Court of India, a source apportionment study was conducted to quantify source contributions to PM pollution in Hyderabad, using the chemical mass balance (version 8.2) receptor model for 180 ambient samples collected at three stations for PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions for three seasons. The receptor modeling results indicated that the PM10 pollution is dominated by the direct vehicular exhaust and road dust (more than 60%). PM2.5 with higher propensity to enter the human respiratory tracks, has mixed sources of vehicle exhaust, industrial coal combustion, garbage burning, and secondary PM. In order to improve the air quality in the city, these findings demonstrate the need to control emissions from all known sources and particularly focus on the low-hanging fruits like road dust and waste burning, while the technological and institutional advancements in the transport and industrial sectors are bound to enhance efficiencies. Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board utilized these results to prepare an air pollution control action plan for the city. PMID:23132755

  5. Detection limits of pollutants in water for PGNAA using Am Be source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelifi, R.; Amokrane, A.; Bode, P.

    2007-09-01

    A basic PGNAA facility with an Am-Be neutron source is described to analyze the pollutants in water. The properties of neutron flux were determined by MCNP calculations. In order to determine the efficiency curve of a HPGe detector, the prompt-gamma rays from chlorine were used and an exponential curve was fitted. The detection limits for typical water sample are also estimated using the statistical fluctuations of the background level in the areas of recorded the prompt-gamma spectrum.

  6. Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  7. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS){reg_sign}: Source-term release formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Streile, G.P.; Shields, K.D.; Stroh, J.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P.; Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that document the mathematical models in the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, MEPAS is an integrated impact assessment software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models in air, soil, and water media. Outputs are estimates of exposures and health risk assessments for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. Each of the MEPAS formulation documents covers a major MEPAS component such as source-term, atmospheric, vadose zone/groundwater, surface water, and health exposure/health impact assessment. Other MEPAS documentation reports cover the sensitivity/uncertainty formulations and the database parameter constituent property estimation methods. The pollutant source-term release component is documented in this report. MEPAS simulates the release of contaminants from a source, transport through the air, groundwater, surface water, or overland pathways, and transfer through food chains and exposure pathways to the exposed individual or population. For human health impacts, risks are computed for carcinogens and hazard quotients for noncarcinogens. MEPAS is implemented on a desktop computer with a user-friendly interface that allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses.

  8. Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2010-05-01

    Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For

  9. Source area identification with observation from limited monitor sites for air pollution episodes in industrial parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zihan; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Qi; Ma, Weichun; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Limin

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution episodes of unknown origins are often detected by online equipment for air quality monitoring in industrial parks in China. The number of monitors available to provide observation data, as well as the source information, is often very limited. In such case, the identification of a potential source area is more practical than the precise back-calculation of the real source. The potential source area which can be deduced from the observation data from limited monitors was concerned in this paper. In order to do the source area identification, two inverse methods, a direct method and a statistical sampling method, were applied with a Gaussian puff model as the forward modeling method. The characteristic of the potential source area was illustrated by case studies. Both synthetic and real cases were presented. The distribution of the source locations and its variation with the other unknown source parameters were mainly focused in the case study. As a screening method, source area identification can be applied not only when the number of effective monitors is limited but also when an ideal number of monitors are available as long as the source information is almost uncertain.

  10. Sources identification of antibiotic pollution combining land use information and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Yongshan; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-07-01

    To quantify the extent of antibiotic contamination and to identity the dominant pollutant sources in the Tiaoxi River Watershed, surface water samples were collected at eight locations and analyzed for four tetracyclines and three sulfonamides using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The observed maximum concentrations of tetracycline (623 ng L(-1)), oxytetracycline (19,810 ng L(-1)), and sulfamethoxazole (112 ng L(-1)) exceeded their corresponding Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. In particular, high concentrations of antibiotics were observed in wet summer with heavy rainfall. The maximum concentrations of antibiotics appeared in the vicinity of intensive aquaculture areas. High-resolution land use data were used for identifying diffuse source of antibiotic pollution in the watershed. Significant correlations between tetracycline and developed (r = 0.93), tetracycline and barren (r = 0.87), oxytetracycline and barren (r = 0.82), and sulfadiazine and agricultural facilities (r = 0.71) were observed. In addition, the density of aquaculture significantly correlated with doxycycline (r = 0.74) and oxytetracycline (r = 0.76), while the density of livestock significantly correlated with sulfadiazine (r = 0.71). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were from aquaculture and domestic sources, whereas sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine were from livestock wastewater. Flood or drainage from aquaculture ponds was identified as a major source of antibiotics in the Tiaoxi watershed. A hot-spot map was created based on results of land use analysis and multi-variable statistics, which provided an effective management tool of sources identification in watersheds with multiple diffuse sources of antibiotic pollution. PMID:27338264

  11. Uncertainty Analysis of non-point source pollution control facilities design techniques in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Okjeong, L.; Gyeong, C. B.; Park, M. W.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The design of non-point sources control facilities in Korea is divided largely by the stormwater capture ratio, the stormwater load capture ratio, and the pollutant reduction efficiency of the facility. The stormwater capture ratio is given by a design formula as a function of the water quality treatment capacity, the greater the capacity, the more the amount of stormwater intercepted by the facility. The stormwater load capture ratio is defined as the ratio of the load entering the facility of the total pollutant load generated in the target catchment, and is given as a design formula represented by a function of the stormwater capture ratio. In order to estimate the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio, a lot of quantitative analysis of hydrologic processes acted in pollutant emission is required, but these formulas have been applied without any verification. Since systematic monitoring programs were insufficient, verification of these formulas was fundamentally impossible. However, recently the Korean ministry of Environment has conducted an long-term systematic monitoring project, and thus the verification of the formulas became possible. In this presentation, the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio are re-estimated using actual TP data obtained from long-term monitoring program at Noksan industrial complex located in Busan, Korea. Through the re-estimated process, the uncertainty included in the design process that has been applied until now will be shown in a quantitative extent. In addition, each uncertainty included in the stormwater capture ratio estimation and in the stormwater load capture ratio estimation will be expressed to quantify the relative impact on the overall non-point pollutant control facilities design process. Finally, the SWMM-Matlab interlocking module for model parameters estimation will be introduced. Acknowledgement This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non

  12. Estimation of river pollution source using the space-time radial basis collocation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zi; Mao, Xian-Zhong; Li, Tak Sing; Zhang, Shiyan

    2016-02-01

    River contaminant source identification problems can be formulated as an inverse model to estimate the missing source release history from the observed contaminant plume. In this study, the identification of pollution sources in rivers, where strong advection is dominant, is solved by the global space-time radial basis collocation method (RBCM). To search for the optimal shape parameter and scaling factor which strongly determine the accuracy of the RBCM method, a new cost function based on the residual errors of not only the observed data but also the specified governing equation, the initial and boundary conditions, was constructed for the k-fold cross-validation technique. The performance of three global radial basis functions, Hardy's multiquadric, inverse multiquadric and Gaussian, were also compared in the test cases. The numerical results illustrate that the new cost function is a good indicator to search for near-optimal solutions. Application to a real polluted river shows that the source release history is reasonably recovered, demonstrating that the RBCM with the k-fold cross-validation is a powerful tool for source identification problems in advection-dominated rivers.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the relationship between disease occurrence and distance from a putative source of pollution.

    PubMed

    Dreassi, Emanuela; Lagazio, Corrado; Maule, Milena M; Magnani, Corrado; Biggeri, Annibale

    2008-05-01

    The relation between disease risk and a point source of pollution is usually investigated using distance from the source as a proxy of exposure. The analysis may be based on case-control data or on aggregated data. The definition of the function relating risk of disease and distance is critical, both in a classical and in a Bayesian framework, because the likelihood is usually very flat, even with large amounts of data. In this paper we investigate how the specification of the function relating risk of disease with distance from the source and of the prior distributions on the parameters of the function affects the results when case-control data and Bayesian methods are used. We consider different popular parametric models for the risk distance function in a Bayesian approach, comparing estimates with those derived by maximum likelihood. As an example we have analyzed the relationship between a putative source of environmental pollution (an asbestos cement plant) and the occurrence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in the area of Casale Monferrato (Italy) in 1987-1993. Risk of pleural malignant mesothelioma turns out to be strongly related to distance from the asbestos cement plant. However, as the models appeared to be sensitive to modeling choices, we suggest that any analysis of disease risk around a putative source should be integrated with a careful sensitivity analysis and possibly with prior knowledge. The choice of prior distribution is extremely important and should be based on epidemiological considerations. PMID:18686274

  14. Source-specific fine particulate air pollution and systemic inflammation in ischaemic heart disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Siponen, Taina; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Aurela, Minna; Dufva, Hilkka; Hillamo, Risto; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Huttunen, Kati; Pekkanen, Juha; Pennanen, Arto; Salonen, Iiris; Tiittanen, Pekka; Salonen, Raimo O; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare short-term effects of fine particles (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) from different sources on the blood levels of markers of systemic inflammation. Methods We followed a panel of 52 ischaemic heart disease patients from 15 November 2005 to 21 April 2006 with clinic visits in every second week in the city of Kotka, Finland, and determined nine inflammatory markers from blood samples. In addition, we monitored outdoor air pollution at a fixed site during the study period and conducted a source apportionment of PM2.5 using the Environmental Protection Agency's model EPA PMF 3.0. We then analysed associations between levels of source-specific PM2.5 and markers of systemic inflammation using linear mixed models. Results We identified five source categories: regional and long-range transport (LRT), traffic, biomass combustion, sea salt, and pulp industry. We found most evidence for the relation of air pollution and inflammation in LRT, traffic and biomass combustion; the most relevant inflammation markers were C-reactive protein, interleukin-12 and myeloperoxidase. Sea salt was not positively associated with any of the inflammatory markers. Conclusions Results suggest that PM2.5 from several sources, such as biomass combustion and traffic, are promoters of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25479755

  15. Higher Education Finance Manual: Volume 3. The Source/Use Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard H.; Collier, Douglas J.

    The third volume of the revised "Higher Education Finance Manual," this guide describes the principles included in presenting financial information in a format showing where money comes from (sources) and where it goes (uses). Potential analytical applications and limitations of the source/use concept are described, and the application of the…

  16. Nonpoint source pollution responses simulation for conversion cropland to forest in mountains by SWAT in China.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fang-Hua; Wang, Xue-Lei; Cheng, Hong-Guang

    2008-01-01

    Several environmental protection policies have been implemented to prevent soil erosion and nonpoint source (NPS) pollutions in China. After severe Yangtze River floods, the "conversion cropland to forest policy" (CCFP) was carried out throughout China, especially in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River. The research area of the current study is located in Bazhong City, Sichuan Province in Yangtze River watershed, where soil erosion and NPS pollution are serious concerns. Major NPS pollutants include nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term impact of implementation of the CCFP on stream flow, sediment yields, and the main NPS pollutant loading at watershed level. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a watershed environmental model and is applied here to simulate and quantify the impacts. Four scenarios are constructed representing different patterns of conversion from cropland to forest under various conditions set by the CCFP. Scenario A represented the baseline, i.e., the cropland and forest area conditions before the implementation of CCFP. Scenario B represents the condition under which all hillside cropland with slope larger than 25 degrees was converted into forest. In scenario C and D, hillside cropland with slope larger than 15 degrees and 7.5 degrees was substituted by forest, respectively. Under the various scenarios, the NPS pollution reduction due to CCFP implementation from 1996-2005 is estimated by SWAT. The results are presented as percentage change of water flow, sediment, organic N, and organic P at watershed level. Furthermore, a regression analysis is conducted between forest area ratio and ten years' average NPS load estimations, which confirmed the benefits of implementing CCFP in reducing nonpoint source pollution by increasing forest area in mountainous areas. The reduction of organic N and organic P is significant (decrease 42.1% and 62.7%, respectively) at watershed level. In

  17. Modeling non-point source pollutants in the vadose zone: Back to the basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Dennis L.; Letey, John, Jr.; Carrillo, Marcia L. K.

    More than ever before in the history of scientific investigation, modeling is viewed as a fundamental component of the scientific method because of the relatively recent development of the computer. No longer must the scientific investigator be confined to artificially isolated studies of individual processes that can lead to oversimplified and sometimes erroneous conceptions of larger phenomena. Computer models now enable scientists to attack problems related to open systems such as climatic change, and the assessment of environmental impacts, where the whole of the interactive processes are greater than the sum of their isolated components. Environmental assessment involves the determination of change of some constituent over time. This change can be measured in real time or predicted with a model. The advantage of prediction, like preventative medicine, is that it can be used to alter the occurrence of potentially detrimental conditions before they are manifest. The much greater efficiency of preventative, rather than remedial, efforts strongly justifies the need for an ability to accurately model environmental contaminants such as non-point source (NPS) pollutants. However, the environmental modeling advances that have accompanied computer technological development are a mixed blessing. Where once we had a plethora of discordant data without a holistic theory, now the pendulum has swung so that we suffer from a growing stockpile of models of which a significant number have never been confirmed or even attempts made to confirm them. Modeling has become an end in itself rather than a means because of limited research funding, the high cost of field studies, limitations in time and patience, difficulty in cooperative research and pressure to publish papers as quickly as possible. Modeling and experimentation should be ongoing processes that reciprocally enhance one another with sound, comprehensive experiments serving as the building blocks of models and models

  18. An overview of key emissions sources and ambient pollution characteristics from major cities in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, Scott; Fortner, Edward; Knighton, Berk; Floerchinger, Cody; Yacovitch, Tara; Roscioli, Rob; Zahniser, Mark; Nelson, David; Kolb, Charles; Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa

    2013-04-01

    Many urban anthropogenic emission sources are difficult to characterize. They can be distributed across a spatial scale that precludes specific vector sampling. Others are difficult to identify a specific point of emissions. Novel emissions quantification methods, including fuel-based emission indicies and tracer flux ratio, are described and evaluated for a variety of urban pollution sources. These techniques can be used to quantify emissions for a large range of species including methane and carbon dioxide isotopes, formaldehyde and other toxic volatile organic carbon compounds, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and black carbon particulate matter. Results from urban emissions source case-studies using a mobile laboratory either alone or in conjunction with tracer-release will be described. These include on road light duty and heavy duty vehicle emissions, in-use aircraft engine emissions at airports, and industrial emission sources.

  19. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl(-) concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM(ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl(-) concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl(-) concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM(ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015-2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl(-) concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175mg/l and 200mg/l. PMID:26620978

  20. A Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Non-Point Groundwater Pollution Sources, Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuler, C. K.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Dulaiova, H.; Glenn, C. R.; Fackrell, J.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of municipal groundwater supplies on Tutuila, the main island in American Samoa, is currently in question. A high vulnerability for contamination from surface activities has been recognized, and there exists a strong need to clearly identify anthropogenic sources of pollution and quantify their influence on the aquifer. This study examines spatial relationships and time series measurements of nutrients and other tracers to identify predominant pollution sources and determine the water quality impacts of the island's diverse land uses. Elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations are correlated with areas of human development, however, the mixture of residential and agricultural land use in this unique village based agrarian setting makes specific source identification difficult using traditional geospatial analysis. Spatial variation in anthropogenic impact was assessed by linking NO3- concentrations and δ15N(NO3) from an extensive groundwater survey to land-use types within well capture zones and groundwater flow-paths developed with MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater model. Land use types were obtained from high-resolution GIS data and compared to water quality results with multiple-regression analysis to quantify the impact that different land uses have on water quality. In addition, historical water quality data and new analyses of δD and δ18O in precipitation, groundwater, and mountain-front recharge waters were used to constrain the sources and mechanisms of contamination. Our analyses indicate that groundwater nutrient levels on Tutuila are controlled primarily by residential, not agricultural activity. Also a lack of temporal variation suggests that episodic pollution events are limited to individual water sources as opposed to the entire aquifer. These results are not only valuable for water quality management on Tutuila, but also provide insight into the sustainability of groundwater supplies on other islands with similar hydrogeology and land

  1. Novel approach to the reduction of pollution from low emission sources

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W.; Natschke, D.F.; Steer, J.; Smolka, A.

    1994-12-31

    The novel approach is described for the reduction of pollution from coal-fired low emission sources (LES) in Krakow, Poland. Coal-based clean burning briquettes will be manufactured and sold in Poland by a new US/Polish joint venture company formed as a result of a program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Agency for International Development (AID). Briquettes will be primarily distributed to the residential market; however, their potential for use in boiler houses and district heating systems will also be investigated. The key advantage of this project is that the level of pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and hydrocarbons) currently generated from the stove burning of coal in private houses and in small hand-fed boiler houses will be reduced by approximately 70 percent. This significant air pollution reduction will take place without disrupting traffic or requiring heavy investment like other air pollution methods considered. An additional benefit to the consumer is that there is absolutely no cost or investment by home or apartment owners.

  2. Introduction: Assessing non-point source pollution in the vadose zone with advanced information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Dennis L.; Loague, Keith; Ellsworth, Timothy R.

    The information age has ushered in a global awareness of complex environmental problems that do not respect political or physical boundaries: climatic change, ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, and non-point source (NPS) pollution. Among these global environmental problems, NPS pollutants represent a perfect example of a complex multidisciplinary problem that exists over multiple scales with tremendous spatial and temporal complexity. To address the NPS problem, specific to the vadose zone, advanced information technologies must be applied in a spatial context. An integrated system of advanced information technologies (i.e., global positioning, geographic information system, geostatistics, remote sensing, solute transport modeling, neural networks, transfer functions, fuzzy logic, hierarchical theory, and uncertainty analysis) provides a framework from which real-time and/or simulated assessments of NPS pollution can be made. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS-pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales provides a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities.

  3. Soils as sinks or sources for diffuse pollution of the water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Numerous chemical compounds have been released into the environment by human activities and can nowadays be found everywhere, i.e. in the compartments water, soil, and air, at the poles and in high mountains. Examples for a global distribution of toxic compounds are the persistent organic pollutants (PCB, dioxins, PAH, fluorinated surfactants and flame retardants, etc.: "the Stockholm dirty dozen") but also mercury and other metals. Many of these compounds reached a global distribution via the atmo¬sphere; others have been and are still directly applied to top soils at the large scale by agriculture or are released into groundwater at landfill sites or by discharge of treated or untreated waste waters. Sooner or later such compounds end up in the water cycle - often via an intermediate storage in soils. Pollutants in soils are leached by seepage waters, transferred to ground¬water, and transported to rivers via groundwater flow. Adsorbed compounds may be transported from soils into surface waters by erosion processes and will end up in the sediments. Diffuse pollution of the subsurface environment not only reflects the history of the economic development of the modern society but it is still ongoing - e.g. the number of organic pollutants released into the environment is increasing even though the con¬centrations may decrease compared to the past. Evidence shows that many compounds are persistent in the subsurface environment at large time scales (up to centuries). Thus polluted soils already are or may become a future source for pollution of adjacent compartments such as the atmosphere and groundwater. A profound understanding on how diffuse pollutants are stored and processed in the subsurface environment is crucial to assess their long term fate and transport at large scales. Thus integrated studies e.g. at the catchment scale and models are needed which couple not only the relevant compartments (soil - atmosphere - groundwater/surface waters) but also flow

  4. Estimation of Release History of Pollutant Source and Dispersion Coefficient of Aquifer Using Trained ANN Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R.; Ayaz, M.; Jain, A.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the release history of a groundwater pollutant source is critical in the prediction of the future trend of the pollutant movement and in choosing an effective remediation strategy. Moreover, for source sites which have undergone an ownership change, the estimated release history can be utilized for appropriate allocation of the costs of remediation among different parties who may be responsible for the contamination. Estimation of the release history with the help of concentration data is an inverse problem that becomes ill-posed because of the irreversible nature of the dispersion process. Breakthrough curves represent the temporal variation of pollutant concentration at a particular location, and contain significant information about the source and the release history. Several methodologies have been developed to solve the inverse problem of estimating the source and/or porous medium properties using the breakthrough curves as a known input. A common problem in the use of the breakthrough curves for this purpose is that, in most field situations, we have little or no information about the time of measurement of the breakthrough curve with respect to the time when the pollutant source becomes active. We develop an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model to estimate the release history of a groundwater pollutant source through the use of breakthrough curves. It is assumed that the source location is known but the time dependent contaminant source strength is unknown. This temporal variation of the strength of the pollutant source is the output of the ANN model that is trained using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm utilizing synthetically generated breakthrough curves as inputs. A single hidden layer was used in the neural network and, to utilize just sufficient information and reduce the required sampling duration, only the upper half of the curve is used as the input pattern. The second objective of this work was to identify the aquifer parameters. An

  5. Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment: Source code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1991-01-01

    Research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center is presented. A computer code for source codes is presented. The file contains the routines which allow source code files to be created and compiled. The build process assumes that all elements and the COMP exist in the current directory. The build process places as much code generation as possible on the preprocessor as possible. A summary is given of the source files as used and/or manipulated by the build routine.

  6. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities. PMID:27294785

  7. Evaluating agricultural nonpoint-source pollution programs in two Lake Erie tributaries.

    PubMed

    Forster, D Lynn; Rausch, Jonathan N

    2002-01-01

    During the past three decades, numerous government programs have encouraged Lake Erie basin farmers to adopt practices that reduce water pollution. The first section of this paper summarizes these state and federal government agricultural pollution abatement programs in watersheds of two prominent Lake Erie tributaries, the Maumee River and Sandusky River. Expenditures are summarized for each program, total expenditures in each county are estimated, and cost effectiveness of program expenditures (i.e., cost per metric ton of soil saved) are analyzed. Farmers received nearly $143 million as incentive payments to implement agricultural nonpoint source pollution abatement programs in the Maumee and Sandusky River watersheds from 1987 to 1997. About 95% of these funds was from federal sources. On average, these payments totaled about $7000 per farm or about $30 per farm acre (annualized equivalent of $2 per acre) within the watersheds. Our analysis raises questions about how efficiently these incentive payments were allocated. The majority of Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) funds appear to have been spent on less cost-effective practices. Also, geographic areas with relatively low (high) soil erosion rates received relatively large (small) funding. PMID:11837427

  8. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale Utilizing a Mobile Monitoring Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseous po...

  9. IN VIVO EVIDENCE OF FREE RADICAL FORMATION IN THE RAT LUNG AFTER EXPOSURE TO AN EMISSION SOURCE AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution particles can be associated with increased human morbidity and mortality. The mechanism(s) of lung injury remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that lung exposure to oil fly ash (an emission source air pollution particle) causes in vivo free radical ...

  10. IDENTIFYING THE COGNITIVE AND VASCULAR EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION SOURCES AND MIXTURES IN THE FRAMINGHARN OFFSPRING AND THIRD GENERATION COHORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We will estimate health risks associated with short- and long-term exposure to individual air pollutants, sources and air pollution mixtures within the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation populations. We will address which individual and area-level factors, measuring vul...

  11. ASSESSMENT OF FECAL POLLUTION SOURCES IN PLUM CREEK WATERSHED USING PCR AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF BACTEROIDETES 16S RDNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional methods for assessing fecal pollution in environmental systems, such as monitoring for fecal coliforms are not capable of discriminating between different sources fecal pollution. Recently, 16S rDNA Bacteroidetes-targeted PCR assays were developed to discriminate betw...

  12. Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) for the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. Concept Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janz, Scott; Smith, James C.; Mannino, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of the Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) which will be used on the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. The primary science requirements require scans of the U.S. Coastal waters 3 times per day during the daylight hours. Included in the overview are presentations about the systems, the optics, the detectors, the mechanical systems, the electromechanical systems, the electrical design, the flight software, the thermal systems, and the contamination prevention requirements.

  13. Temporal-spatial distribution of non-point source pollution in a drinking water source reservoir watershed based on SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Cheng, W.; Yu, B.-S.; Fang, Y.

    2015-05-01

    The conservation of drinking water source reservoirs has a close relationship between regional economic development and people's livelihood. Research on the non-point pollution characteristics in its watershed is crucial for reservoir security. Tang Pu Reservoir watershed was selected as the study area. The non-point pollution model of Tang Pu Reservoir was established based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. The model was adjusted to analyse the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The results showed that the loss of TN and TP in the reservoir watershed were related to precipitation in flood season. And the annual changes showed an "M" shape. It was found that the contribution of loss of TN and TP accounted for 84.5% and 85.3% in high flow years, and for 70.3% and 69.7% in low flow years, respectively. The contributions in normal flow years were 62.9% and 63.3%, respectively. The TN and TP mainly arise from Wangtan town, Gulai town, and Wangyuan town, etc. In addition, it was found that the source of TN and TP showed consistency in space.

  14. Sources of indoor air pollution in New York City residences of asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Habre, Rima; Coull, Brent; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Grunin, Avi; Nath, Amit; Castro, William; Schachter, Neil; Rohr, Annette; Kattan, Meyer; Spengler, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend ∼90% of their time indoors in proximity to sources of particulate and gaseous air pollutants. The sulfur tracer method was used to separate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM) PM2.5 mass, elements and thermally resolved carbon fractions by origin in New York City residences of asthmatic children. Enrichment factors relative to sulfur concentrations were used to rank species according to the importance of their indoor sources. Mixed effects models were used to identify building characteristics and resident activities that contributed to observed concentrations. Significant indoor sources were detected for OC1, Cl, K and most remaining OC fractions. We attributed 46% of indoor PM2.5 mass to indoor sources related to OC generation indoors. These sources include cooking (NO2, Si, Cl, K, OC4 and OP), cleaning (most OC fractions), candle/incense burning (black carbon, BC) and smoking (K, OC1, OC3 and EC1). Outdoor sources accounted for 28% of indoor PM2.5 mass, mainly photochemical reaction products, metals and combustion products (EC, EC2, Br, Mn, Pb, Ni, Ti, V and S). Other indoor sources accounted for 26% and included re-suspension of crustal elements (Al, Zn, Fe, Si and Ca). Indoor sources accounted for ∼72% of PM2.5 mass and likely contributed to differences in the composition of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 exposures. PMID:24169876

  15. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    PubMed

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  16. Rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments: an important source of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Frey, S K; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Grégoire, D S; Topp, E; Pintar, K D M; Sunohara, M; Marti, R; Lapen, D R

    2015-01-01

    When surface water levels decline, exposed streambed sediments can be mobilized and washed into the water course when subjected to erosive rainfall. In this study, rainfall simulations were conducted over exposed sediments along stream banks at four distinct locations in an agriculturally dominated river basin with the objective of quantifying the potential for contaminant loading from these often overlooked runoff source areas. At each location, simulations were performed at three different sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, fecal indicator bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers were examined in both prerainfall sediments and rainfall-induced runoff water. Runoff generation and sediment mobilization occurred quickly (10-150 s) after rainfall initiation. Temporal trends in runoff concentrations were highly variable within and between locations. Total runoff event loads were considered large for many pollutants considered. For instance, the maximum observed total phosphorus runoff load was on the order of 1.5 kg ha. Results also demonstrate that runoff from exposed sediments can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. spp. and spp. were present in runoff from one and three locations, respectively. Ruminant MST markers were also present in runoff from two locations, one of which hosted pasturing cattle with stream access. Overall, this study demonstrated that rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments can be an important source of surface water pollution. PMID:25602339

  17. Source apportionment of secondary airborne particulate matter in a polluted atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Mysliwiec, Mitchell J; Kleeman, Michael J

    2002-12-15

    Secondary airborne particulate matter formed from gas-phase pollutants contributes significantly to the most severe particulate air quality events that occur in the United States each year. In this study, a mechanistic air quality model is demonstrated that can predict source contributions to the size distribution of secondary airborne particulate matter. Calculations performed for a typical air quality episode in Southern California show that NOx released from diesel engines and catalyst-equipped gasoline engines account for the majority of the secondary particulate nitrate aerosol measured at inland locations. NH3 released from catalyst-equipped gasoline engines, farm animals, and residential sources account for the majority of the secondary particulate ammonium ion at inland locations in the region. When both tailpipe and road dust emissions are considered, transportation sources dominate the size distribution of total (primary plus secondary) airborne particulate matter in the South Coast Air Basin during the episode studied. These findings suggest that the public health risk associated with air pollution released from transportation sources is significant relative to other public health threats such as traffic accidents. PMID:12521164

  18. Identification of pollutant sources in a rapidly developing urban river catchment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingshui; Yin, Hailong; Jomma, Seifeddine; Rode, Michael; Zhou, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Rapid economic development and urbanization worldwide cause serious ecological and environmental problems. A typical region that is in transition and requires systemic research for effective intervention is the rapidly developing city of Hefei in central P. R. China. In order to investigate the sources of pollutants over a one-year period in Nanfei River catchment that drains the city of Hefei, discharges were measured and water samples were taken and measured along the 14km river section at 10 sites for 4 times from 2013 to 2014. Overflow concentrations of combined sewer and separate storm drains were also measured by selecting 15 rain events in 4 typical drainage systems. Loads and budgets of water and different pollutant sources i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, urban drainage overflow, unknown wastewater were calculated. The water balance demonstrated that >70% of the discharge originated from WWTP effluent. Lack of clean upstream inflow thereby is threatening ecological safety and water quality. Furthermore, mass fluxes calculations revealed that >40% of the COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) loads were from urban drainage overflow because of a large amount of discharge of untreated wastewater in pumping stations during rain events. WWTP effluent was the predominant source of the total nitrogen loads (>60%) and ammonia loads (>45%). However, the total phosphorous loads from three different sources are similar (˜1/3). Thus, our research provided a basis for appropriate and prior mitigation strategies (state-of-art of WWTP upgrade, sewer systems modification, storm water regulation and storage capacity improvement, etc.) for different precedence-controlled pollutants with the limited infrastructure investments in these rapidly developing urban regions.

  19. Modeling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Using a Geographic Information System Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Lisa A.; Greene, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients, is the leading source of water-quality impacts to surface waters in North America. The overall goal of this study was to develop geographic information system (GIS) protocols to facilitate the spatial and temporal modeling of changes in soils, hydrology, and land-cover change at the watershed scale. In the first part of this article, we describe the use of GIS to spatially integrate watershed scale data on soil erodibility, land use, and runoff for the assessment of potential source areas within an intensively agricultural watershed. The agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) model was used in the Muddy Creek, Ontario, watershed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in decreasing sediment and nutrient [phosphorus (P)] pollution. This analysis was accompanied by the measurement of water-quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, hardness, alkalinity, and turbidity) as well as sediment and P loadings to the creek. Practices aimed at increasing year-round soil cover would be most effective in decreasing sediment and P losses in this watershed. In the second part of this article, we describe a method for characterizing land-cover change in a dynamic urban fringe watershed. The GIS method we developed for the Blackberry Creek, Illinois, watershed will allow us to better account for temporal changes in land use, specifically corn and soybean cover, on an annual basis and to improve on the modeling of watershed processes shown for the Muddy Creek watershed. Our model can be used at different levels of planning with minimal data preprocessing, easily accessible data, and adjustable output scales.

  20. [The erosion of asbestos cement roofs: an important source of environmental pollution].

    PubMed

    Chiappino, G; Venerandi, I

    1991-01-01

    A microscopic investigation on samples of asbestos cement roofs weathered from 2 months to 15 years or more was carried out. Surface alterations begin as early as 2 months, are well visible after a few years and become very severe after 5-10 years. The deterioration of the cement structure, due mainly to the chemical attack of the acid rains produces a release of fibres that is more evident with increasing duration of the exposure. The surface of the "old" roofs must be considered as important source of environmental pollution, that increases the total carcinogenic potential of the polluted atmosphere in a non-negligible way, considering also the enormous extension of the surfaces. Instead of replacing the roofs, adequate primers and sealants can be applied after careful preparatory cleaning: gross contamination of water and/or surrounding areas must be avoided by appropriate work procedures. The deteriorated materials containing amphiboles must be considered with priority. PMID:1770878

  1. Human teratogenic and mutagenic markers in monitoring about point sources of pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, E.B.

    1981-06-01

    For most pollutants a full range of short-term adverse reproductive outcomes should be considered as possible markers in monitoring populations. These include sex ratio, birthweight, intrauterine growth retardations, neonatal motality, birth defects manifest at birth or very shortly thereafter, embryonic and fetal deaths (EFD), germinal chromosome abnormalities in EFD and in livebirths, specific locus mutations detectable at birth, and indicators of somatic mutation including chromosome breakage and sister chromatid exchange. It is suggested (in the absence of a defined expected effect) that the highest priority be given to study of rates of EFD and of somatic chromosome rearrangement. Where possible, data on reproductive and mutagenic outcomes in the potential target population should be sought systematically before a putative pollution source comes into operation. Reference data on human mutagenic and teratogenic outcomes are presented.

  2. An auto-adaptive optimization approach for targeting nonpoint source pollution control practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Wei, Guoyuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2015-10-01

    To solve computationally intensive and technically complex control of nonpoint source pollution, the traditional genetic algorithm was modified into an auto-adaptive pattern, and a new framework was proposed by integrating this new algorithm with a watershed model and an economic module. Although conceptually simple and comprehensive, the proposed algorithm would search automatically for those Pareto-optimality solutions without a complex calibration of optimization parameters. The model was applied in a case study in a typical watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. The results indicated that the evolutionary process of optimization was improved due to the incorporation of auto-adaptive parameters. In addition, the proposed algorithm outperformed the state-of-the-art existing algorithms in terms of convergence ability and computational efficiency. At the same cost level, solutions with greater pollutant reductions could be identified. From a scientific viewpoint, the proposed algorithm could be extended to other watersheds to provide cost-effective configurations of BMPs.

  3. Two-stroke scooters are a dominant source of air pollution in many cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, S. M.; Haddad, I. El.; Pieber, S. M.; Huang, R.-J.; Zardini, A. A.; Clairotte, M.; Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Barmet, P.; Pfaffenberger, L.; Wolf, R.; Slowik, J. G.; Fuller, S. J.; Kalberer, M.; Chirico, R.; Dommen, J.; Astorga, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Marchand, N.; Hellebust, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2014-05-01

    Fossil fuel-powered vehicles emit significant particulate matter, for example, black carbon and primary organic aerosol, and produce secondary organic aerosol. Here we quantify secondary organic aerosol production from two-stroke scooters. Cars and trucks, particularly diesel vehicles, are thought to be the main vehicular pollution sources. This needs re-thinking, as we show that elevated particulate matter levels can be a consequence of ‘asymmetric pollution’ from two-stroke scooters, vehicles that constitute a small fraction of the fleet, but can dominate urban vehicular pollution through organic aerosol and aromatic emission factors up to thousands of times higher than from other vehicle classes. Further, we demonstrate that oxidation processes producing secondary organic aerosol from vehicle exhaust also form potentially toxic ‘reactive oxygen species’.

  4. Supplement B to compilation of air pollutant emission factors, volume 1. Stationary point and area sources

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document contains emission factors and process information for more than 200 air pollution source categories. This Supplement to AP-42 addresses pollutant-generating activity from Bituminous And Subbituminous Coal Combustion, Anthracite Coal Combustion, Fuel Oil Combustion, Natural Gas Combustion, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Combustion, Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers, Lignite Combustion, Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills, Residential Fireplaces, Residential Wood Stoves, Waste Oil Combustion, Stationary Gas Turbines For Electricity Generation, Heavy-duty Natural Gas-fired Pipeline Compressor Engines And Turbines, Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines, Large Stationary Diesel And All Stationary Dual-fuel Engines, Adipic Acid, Cotton Ginning, Alfafalfa Dehydrating, Malt Beverages, Ceramic Products Manufacturing, Electroplating, Wildfires And Prescribed Burning, Emissions From Soils-Greenhouse Gases, Termites-Greenhouse Gases, and Lightning Emissions-Greenhouse Gases.

  5. Polybromobenzene pollutants in the atmosphere of North China: levels, distribution, and sources.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhu, Tong

    2013-11-19

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are important persistent organic pollutants. Analysis of BFRs in atmospheric samples in a previous study led us to suspect the presence of unidentified organic bromides, other than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the atmosphere. In this study, we identified and quantified polybromobenzenes, a group of organic bromides, in air samples collected through passive sampling in gridded observations in North China. We investigated their concentrations and spatial distribution, and estimated the proportion due to different sources. We detected seven species of polybromobenzenes, including hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), pentabromobenzene (PeBB), tetrabromobenzenes (TeBBs), and tribromotoluene (TrBT), in all or most of the field samples, indicating widespread occurrence of this class of pollutants. The median concentrations of each pollutant ranged from 20.0 to 144 pg/sample (or from 0.07 to 1.16 pg/m(3)), with relatively high concentrations found near e-waste recycling sites, BFR manufacturing sites, and areas of high population density. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis revealed that ∼70% of HBB, PBT, PBEB, and PeBB was from commercial products, while ∼80% of 1,2,3,5-TeBB, 1,2,4,5-TeBB, and 2,4,5-TrBT was linked with BFR manufacturing. This study provides essential information on widespread polybromobenzene pollutants in the atmosphere, particularly TeBBs and TrBT, for which this is the first report of their presence as atmospheric pollutants. PMID:24144297

  6. [Estimation of nonpoint source pollutant loads and optimization of the best management practices (BMPs) in the Zhangweinan River basin].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Xu, Zong-Xue; Liu, Pin

    2013-03-01

    One of the key techniques in establishing and implementing TMDL (total maximum daily load) is to utilize hydrological model to quantify non-point source pollutant loads, establish BMPs scenarios, reduce non-point source pollutant loads. Non-point source pollutant loads under different years (wet, normal and dry year) were estimated by using SWAT model in the Zhangweinan River basin, spatial distribution characteristics of non-point source pollutant loads were analyzed on the basis of the simulation result. During wet years, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) accounted for 0.07% and 27.24% of the total non-point source pollutant loads, respectively. Spatially, agricultural and residential land with steep slope are the regions that contribute more non-point source pollutant loads in the basin. Compared to non-point source pollutant loads with those during the baseline period, 47 BMPs scenarios were set to simulate the reduction efficiency of different BMPs scenarios for 5 kinds of pollutants (organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus and mineral phosphorus) in 8 prior controlled subbasins. Constructing vegetation type ditch was optimized as the best measure to reduce TN and TP by comparing cost-effective relationship among different BMPs scenarios, and the costs of unit pollutant reduction are 16.11-151.28 yuan x kg(-1) for TN, and 100-862.77 yuan x kg(-1) for TP, which is the most cost-effective measure among the 47 BMPs scenarios. The results could provide a scientific basis and technical support for environmental protection and sustainable utilization of water resources in the Zhangweinan River basin. PMID:23745390

  7. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  8. Analysis of non-point and point source pollution in China: case study in Shima Watershed in Guangdong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Huaiyang; Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    China economy has been rapidly increased since 1978. Rapid economic growth led to fast growth of fertilizer and pesticide consumption. A significant portion of fertilizers and pesticides entered the water and caused water quality degradation. At the same time, rapid economic growth also caused more and more point source pollution discharge into the water. Eutrophication has become a major threat to the water bodies. Worsening environment problems forced governments to take measures to control water pollution. We extracted land cover from Landsat TM images; calculated point source pollution with export coefficient method; then SWAT model was run to simulate non-point source pollution. We found that the annual TP loads from industry pollution into rivers are 115.0 t in the entire watershed. Average annual TP loads from each sub-basin ranged from 0 to 189.4 ton. Higher TP loads of each basin from livestock and human living mainly occurs in the areas where they are far from large towns or cities and the TP loads from industry are relatively low. Mean annual TP loads that delivered to the streams was 246.4 tons and the highest TP loads occurred in north part of this area, and the lowest TP loads is mainly distributed in middle part. Therefore, point source pollution has much high proportion in this area and governments should take measures to control point source pollution.

  9. [Spatial discharge characteristics and total load control of non-point source pollutants based on the catchment scale].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia-Hui; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Qing-Zhong; Wang, Bo; Yao, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Hui-Yuan; Huang, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. Based on the analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics and intensity of major pollutants from the agricultural pollution source, the establishment of spatial management subzones for controlling agricultural non-point pollution and a design of a plan for total load control of pollutants from each subzone is an important way to improve the efficiency of control measures. In this paper the Four Lake basin in Hubei Province is adopted as the research case region and a systematic research of the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point pollution based on the catchment scale is carried out. The results shows that in the Four Lake basin, the COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen load of the water environment are mainly caused by agricultural non-point pollution. These four kinds of non-point source pollutants respectively account for 67.6%, 82.2%, 84.7% and 50.9% of the total pollutant discharge amount in the basin. The analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics of non-point source pollutants in the Four Lake basin shows that the major contributor source regions of non-point source pollutant in the basin are the four counties, including Honghu, Jianli, Qianjiang and Shayang where the aquatic and livestock production are relatively developed. According to the spatial discharge characteristics of the pollutants and the evaluation of the discharge intensity of pollutants, the Four Lake basin is divided into three agricultural non-point pollution management subzones, which including Changhu upstream aquatic and livestock production pollution control subzone, Four-lake trunk canal rural non-point source pollution control subzone and Honghu aquatic production pollution control subzone. Specific pollution control measures are put forward for each subzone. With a comprehensive consideration of the water quality amelioration and the

  10. a Study on the Comprehensive Simulation of Nonpoint Source Pollution for Er-Hai Lake's Watershed in Dali of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Xu, Q. L.; Ye, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Er-hai Lake lies in state of Dali of Yunnan Province in China, which is so important to the local people that they revere her as the Mother Lake. Unfortunately, she is threatened by the more serious pollution of water. And from the water quality assessment of Er-hai Lake over the years, it is indicated that the major water pollution source come from nonpoint source pollution. The argument is that what has formed the nonpoint source pollution? As we known, the land use and cover change of watershed called LUCC is deemed as the major reason for Non-point pollution of water. However, what has made the land use and cover changes? It is another important question we should give an answer for water pollution. Many evidences have given that the change of LUCC is more due to the human activities in watershed, especially those for agriculture production. Thereby, there is a chain process for water pollution formation in Er-hai Lake Watershed, which could be described like this: Human activities (more in agriculture) have changed LUCC, and LUCC leads non-point source pollution. As a result, in this paper, those have been discussed according to the driving mechanism of nonpoint source water pollution in Er-hai Lake, which include three explorations. The first is how to build a ABM-LUCC model by using Repast and GIS technology, and the second is the method and implementation for hydrological and water quality model by using SWAT model and GIS, as well as Remote Sensing technology. And establishing a platform for comprehensively simulating the whole process of water pollution by integrating GIS, ABM-LUCC models and hydrological models is the last work for this study.

  11. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  12. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  13. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  14. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  15. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  16. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  17. A new concept Tandem thermal dissociator/electron impact ion source for RIB generation

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Williams, C.

    1995-12-31

    An innovative thermal dissociation/electron impact ionization positive ion source is presently under design at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for potential use for generating RIBs at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). Because of the low probability of simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources, the ion beams extracted from these sources often appear as a mixture of several molecular sideband beams. In this way, the intensity of the species of interest is diluted. We have conceived an Ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source. If the concept proves to be a viable option, the source will be used as a complement to the electron beam plasma ion sources already in use at the HRIBF. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article.

  18. Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Western Washington: Landowner Learning Methods and Motivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Clare M.

    2009-06-01

    States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation’s existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.

  19. Natural Wetlands Mediate Non-point Source Water Pollution From Irrigated Pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, K.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Tate, K. W.

    2005-12-01

    Non-point source discharge from grazed pastures may be high in nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, three major contributors to water quality impairment in California. Intercepting pollution at its source and managing water quality within the landscape are essential to maintaining healthy downstream waters. We investigated the efficacy of flow-through wetlands interspersed throughout the agricultural landscape to reduce non-point source pollution of tailwater from cattle-grazed, irrigated pastures in the Sierra Nevada Foothills of California. Wetlands are known to positively impact water quality through ecological processes such as filtration, sedimentation, microbial transformations and plant uptake of nutrients. Influent and effluent water of small (0.25 ha), natural wetlands located downstream from flood irrigated pastures was analyzed for Escherichia coli, NO3-N, total N, total suspended solids (TSS), total P, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) throughout two summer irrigation seasons (June to October). We compared reductions of sediment, nutrients and E. coli provided by a healthy, non-degraded wetland with reductions from flow through a channelized, degraded wetland. Large reductions in E. coli (>75%) and TSS (>50%) were observed in water exiting the healthy wetland while nutrient and DOC (~ 20%) concentrations were less affected by flow through the wetland. The channelized wetland provided smaller reductions in all constituents than did the non-degraded wetland. Results from this study demonstrate that small flow-through wetlands can improve water quality through the attenuation of E. coli and suspended sediments, and to a lesser degree DOC and nutrients.

  20. Use of Antibiotic Resistance Analysis To Identify Nonpoint Sources of Fecal Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, B. A.; Andrews, R. W.; Conway, R. A.; Corr, C. L.; Dobratz, E. J.; Dougherty, D. P.; Eppard, J. R.; Knupp, S. R.; Limjoco, M. C.; Mettenburg, J. M.; Rinehardt, J. M.; Sonsino, J.; Torrijos, R. L.; Zimmerman, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the reliability and repeatability of antibiotic resistance analysis as a method of identifying the sources of fecal pollution in surface water and groundwater. Four large sets of isolates of fecal streptococci (from 2,635 to 5,990 isolates per set) were obtained from 236 samples of human sewage and septage, cattle and poultry feces, and pristine waters. The patterns of resistance of the isolates to each of four concentrations of up to nine antibiotics were analyzed by discriminant analysis. When isolates were classified individually, the average rate of correct classification (ARCC) into four possible types (human, cattle, poultry, and wild) ranged from 64 to 78%. When the resistance patterns of all isolates from each sample were averaged and the resulting sample-level resistance patterns were classified, the ARCCs were much higher (96 to 100%). These data confirm that there are measurable and consistent differences in the antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci isolated from various sources of fecal pollution and that antibiotic resistance analysis can be used to classify and identify these sources. PMID:10427038

  1. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. PMID:26298247

  2. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area. PMID:23369182

  3. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area. PMID:23369182

  4. A land use regression model incorporating data on industrial point source pollution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Wang, Yuming; Li, Peiwu; Ji, Yaqin; Kong, Shaofei; Li, Zhiyong; Bai, Zhipeng

    2012-01-01

    Advancing the understanding of the spatial aspects of air pollution in the city regional environment is an area where improved methods can be of great benefit to exposure assessment and policy support. We created land use regression (LUR) models for SO2, NO2 and PM10 for Tianjin, China. Traffic volumes, road networks, land use data, population density, meteorological conditions, physical conditions and satellite-derived greenness, brightness and wetness were used for predicting SO2, NO2 and PM10 concentrations. We incorporated data on industrial point sources to improve LUR model performance. In order to consider the impact of different sources, we calculated the PSIndex, LSIndex and area of different land use types (agricultural land, industrial land, commercial land, residential land, green space and water area) within different buffer radii (1 to 20 km). This method makes up for the lack of consideration of source impact based on the LUR model. Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with gaseous pollutant concentrations such as SO2 and NO2. R2 values of the multiple linear regression equations for SO2, NO2 and PM10 were 0.78, 0.89 and 0.84, respectively, and the RMSE values were 0.32, 0.18 and 0.21, respectively. Model predictions at validation monitoring sites went well with predictions generally within 15% of measured values. Compared to the relationship between dependent variables and simple variables (such as traffic variables or meteorological condition variables), the relationship between dependent variables and integrated variables was more consistent with a linear relationship. Such integration has a discernable influence on both the overall model prediction and health effects assessment on the spatial distribution of air pollution in the city region. PMID:23513446

  5. Simulation of spatial and temporal distributions of non-point source pollution load in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenyao; Qiu, Jiali; Hong, Qian; Chen, Lei

    2014-09-15

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution has become the largest threat to water quality in recent years. Major pollutants, particularly from agricultural activities, which include nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment that have been released into aquatic environments, have caused a range of problems in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), China. It is necessary to identify the spatial and temporal distributions of NPS pollutants and the highly polluted areas for the purpose of watershed management. In this study, the NPS pollutant load was simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the small-scale watershed extended method (SWEM). The simulation results for four typical small catchments were extended to the entire watershed leading to estimates of the NPS load from 2001 to 2009. The results demonstrated that the NPS pollution load in the western area was the highest and that agricultural land was the primary pollutant source. The similar annual variation trends of runoff and sediment loads demonstrated that the sediment load was closely related to runoff. The loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were relatively stable from 2001 to 2007, except for high loads in 2006. The increase in pollution source strength was an important reason for the significant upward trend of TN and TP loads from 2008 to 2009. The rainfall from April to October contributed to the largest amount of runoff, sediment and nutrient loads for the year. The NPS load intensities in each sub-basin reveal large variations in the spatial distribution of different pollutants. It was shown that the temporal and spatial distributions of pollutant loads were positively correlated with the annual rainfall amounts and with human activities. Furthermore, this finding illustrates that conservation practices and nutrient management should be implemented in specific sites during special periods for the purpose of NPS pollution control in the TGRR. PMID:24946028

  6. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

  7. A model for dispersion from area sources in convective turbulence. [for air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, G.; Panofsky, H. A.; Zeman, O.

    1977-01-01

    Four independent estimates of the vertical distribution of the eddy coefficient for dispersion of a passive contaminant from an extensive area source in a convective layer have been presented. The estimates were based on the following methods: (1) a second-order closure prediction, (2) field data of pollutant concentrations over Los Angeles, (3) lab measurements of particle dispersion, and (4) assumption of equality between momentum and mass transfer coefficients in the free convective limit. It is suggested that K-values estimated both from second-order closure theory and from Los Angeles measurements are systematically underestimated.

  8. Source apportionment of size resolved particulate matter at a European air pollution hot spot.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, P; Hovorka, J; Klán, M; Hopke, P K

    2015-01-01

    Positive Matrix Factorization-PMF was applied to hourly resolved elemental composition of fine (PM0.15-1.15) and coarse (PM1.15-10) aerosol particles to apportion their sources in the airshed of residential district, Ostrava-Radvanice and Bartovice in winter 2012. Multiple-site measurement by PM2.5 monitors complements the source apportionment. As there were no statistical significant differences amongst the monitors, the source apportionment derived for the central site data is expected to apply to whole residential district. The apportioned sources of the fine aerosol particles were coal combustion (58.6%), sinter production-hot phase (22.9%), traffic (15%), raw iron production (3.5%), and desulfurization slag processing (<0.5%) whilst road dust (47.3%), sinter production-cold phase (27.7%), coal combustion (16.8%), and raw iron production (8.2%) were resolved being sources of the coarse aerosol particles. The shape and elemental composition of size-segregated aerosol airborne-sampled by an airship aloft presumed air pollution sources helped to interpret the PMF solution. PMID:25260163

  9. The impact of an air quality advisory program on voluntary mobile source air pollution reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanken, Peter D.; Dillon, Jennifer; Wismann, Genevieve

    Air pollution from mobile source emissions is a major cause of air quality degradation in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The projected increase in both population and vehicle miles driven, coupled with the high altitude, predominantly clear skies, and prevalent wintertime temperature inversions aid in the formation and retention of pollutants. The Colorado Department of Public Health issues an air quality advisory daily during the high pollution season (November 1-March 31) with the objective of improving air quality through voluntary driving restrictions and a mandatory wood burning ban. We hypothesized that the advisory had no effect on commuter behavior due to lack of awareness and understanding, lack of alternative means of travel, or lack of concern. We mailed an anonymous, self-administered survey to 1000 commuters living in the cities of Boulder and Westminster, Colorado. Despite the fact that the vast majority of the respondents were aware of the daily advisory (94%), understood what it meant (93%), and heard the posting at least once a day (71%) in time to choose alternative forms of transportation, the advisory did not alter commuter travel. Commuters traveled mainly as the sole occupant of a car and most (76%) never changed the way they commuted based on the daily advisory. Many claimed schedules or work locations did not allow them to use alternative transportation methods. We suggested a practical way to improve the advisory would be to reduce or eliminate public transit fares on poor air quality days.

  10. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    PubMed

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  11. Sources and characteristics of lead pollution in the urban environment of Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S

    2007-10-15

    Guangzhou, the capital of the southeastern province of Guangdong, is one of the largest and most rapidly developing industrial cities in China. In recent years its rapid economic development has brought great prosperity to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, but has also given rise to a wide variety of environmental problems. The current level of lead (Pb) contamination (75-926 mg/kg) in the surface environment of Guangzhou remains a major concern, even though the use of leaded petrol in the city was banned in 1997. The Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/207Pb(min-max) : 1.1612-1.1961 and 208Pb/207Pb(min-max) : 2.4495-2.4838) of the urban dusts from unconfined (road dusts and gully sediments) and relatively confined (vehicular tunnel) settings in Guangzhou remains in a relatively narrow range, comparable with those of the regional natural and anthropogenic sources. This study highlights the inherent shortcomings of the Pb isotope fingerprinting technique for provenancing Pb sources, as both the target media (urban dusts) and potential sources have similar and highly radiogenic Pb isotope values. This could not only lead to an overestimation of the effectiveness of phasing-out of leaded petrol, but also an underestimation of the ever-increasing relative contributions from other potential sources of pollution, including coal combustion, industrial emissions of local Pb-ores and non-additive Pb contents of crude oils. Re-suspended Pb-bearing particulates deposited from early vehicular exhaust emission of leaded petrol with distinctly low Pb isotope compositions are still an important source of Pb pollution in the region. PMID:17692900

  12. Source identification of PM10 pollution in subway passenger cabins using positive matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Duckshin; Oh, Miseok; Yoon, Younghun; Park, Eunyoung; Lee, Kiyoung

    2012-03-01

    Monitoring the air quality in subway passenger cabins is important because of the large number of passengers and potentially high levels of air pollution. This report characterized PM10 levels in subway cabins in Seoul, Korea, and identified PM10 sources using elemental analysis and receptor modeling. PM10 levels in subway cabins were continuously measured using a light scattering monitor during rush and non-rush hours. A total of 41 measurements were taken during rush and non-rush hours, and the measurements were repeated in all four seasons. Filter samples were also collected for elemental composition analysis. Major PM10 sources were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The in-cabin PM10 concentrations were the highest in the winter at 152.8 μg m-3 during rush hours and 90.2 μg m-3 during non-rush hours. While PM10 levels were higher during rush hours than during non-rush hours in three seasons (excluding summer), these levels were not associated with number of passenger. Elemental analysis showed that the PM10 was composed of 52.5% inorganic elements, 10.2% anions, and 37.3% other. Fe was the most abundant element and significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with Mn (r = 0.97), Ti (r = 0.91), Cr (r = 0.88), Ni (r = 0.89), and Cu (r = 0.88). Fe, Mn, Cr, and Cu are indicators of railroad-related PM10 sources. The PM10 sources characterized by PMF were soil and road dust sources (27.2%), railroad-related sources (47.6%), secondary nitrate sources (16.2%), and a chlorine factor mixed with a secondary sulfate source (9.1%). Overall, railroad-related sources contributed the most PM10 to subway cabin air.

  13. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  14. A novel modelling framework to prioritize estimation of non-point source pollution parameters for quantifying pollutant origin and discharge in urban catchments.

    PubMed

    Fraga, I; Charters, F J; O'Sullivan, A D; Cochrane, T A

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater runoff in urban catchments contains heavy metals (zinc, copper, lead) and suspended solids (TSS) which can substantially degrade urban waterways. To identify these pollutant sources and quantify their loads the MEDUSA (Modelled Estimates of Discharges for Urban Stormwater Assessments) modelling framework was developed. The model quantifies pollutant build-up and wash-off from individual impervious roof, road and car park surfaces for individual rain events, incorporating differences in pollutant dynamics between surface types and rainfall characteristics. This requires delineating all impervious surfaces and their material types, the drainage network, rainfall characteristics and coefficients for the pollutant dynamics equations. An example application of the model to a small urban catchment demonstrates how the model can be used to identify the magnitude of pollutant loads, their spatial origin and the response of the catchment to changes in specific rainfall characteristics. A sensitivity analysis then identifies the key parameters influencing each pollutant load within the stormwater given the catchment characteristics, which allows development of a targeted calibration process that will enhance the certainty of the model outputs, while minimizing the data collection required for effective calibration. A detailed explanation of the modelling framework and pre-calibration sensitivity analysis is presented. PMID:26613353

  15. Towards a nutrient export risk matrix approach to managing agricultural pollution at source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, C. J. M.; Quinn, P. F.; Whitehead, P. G.; Heathwaite, A. L.; Flynn, N. J.

    A generic Nutrient Export Risk Matrix (NERM) approach is presented. This provides advice to farmers and policy makers on good practice for reducing nutrient loss and, hopefully, persuades them to implement such measures. Combined with a range of nutrient transport modelling tools and field experiments, NERMs can play an important role in reducing nutrient export from agricultural land. The Phosphorus Export Risk Matrix (PERM) is presented as an example NERM. The PERM integrates hydrological understanding of runoff with a number of agronomic and policy factors into a clear problem-solving framework. This allows farmers and policy makers to visualise strategies for reducing phosphorus loss through proactive land management. The risk of pollution is assessed by a series of informed questions relating to farming intensity and practice. This information is combined with the concept of runoff management to point towards simple, practical remedial strategies which do not compromise farmers’ ability to obtain sound economic returns from their crop and livestock.

  16. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yanxu; Nielsen, Chris; McElroy, Michael B; Hao, Jiming

    2014-07-01

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35-50% of THg concentration and 50-70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China. PMID:24768744

  17. Multivariate statistical assessment of the pollution sources along the stream of Kamchia River, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Mihailov, G; Simeonov, V; Nikolov, N; Mirinchev, G

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen sampling sites along the stream of Kamchia River were considered as environmental objects in the multivariate statistical study aimed to identify and apportion patterns of sampling sites, latent factors responsible for the data structure and their relation to the emitter industrial and anthropogenic sources in the vicinity of the sampling sites. As variables 11 surface water parameters monitored for a long time period (up to 11 years) were used. Four main site patterns were revealed by cluster analysis (urban, rural, near-to dam and estuary) and for each site latent factors were identified and apportioned (among them "metallurgical", "food production", "winery", domestic wastes", "natural"). The relative contribution of each identified pollution source to the formation of the total concentration of each chemical species or physicochemical parameter was determined and compared to the real emitters in the region of interest. PMID:16114615

  18. Spreadsheet WATERSHED modeling for nonpoint-source pollution management in a Wisconsin basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, J.F.; Pickard, S.A.; Sonzogni, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Although several sophisticated nonpoint pollution models exist, few are available that are easy to use, cover a variety of conditions, and integrate a wide range of information to allow managers and planners to assess different control strategies. Here, a straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.A straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.

  19. The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Evans, J. S.; Fnais, M.; Giannadaki, D.; Pozzer, A.

    2015-09-01

    Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050.

  20. User's Guide for the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) Pollution Model Data Generator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Michael P.; Scheidt, Douglas J.; Jaromack, Gregory M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Throughout this user guide, we refer to datasets that we used in conjunction with developing of this software for supporting cartographic research and producing the datasets to conduct research. However, this software can be used with these datasets or with more 'generic' versions of data of the appropriate type. For example, throughout the guide, we refer to national land cover data (NLCD) and digital elevation model (DEM) data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at a 30-m resolution, but any digital terrain model or land cover data at any appropriate resolution will produce results. Another key point to keep in mind is to use a consistent data resolution for all the datasets per model run. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed the Agricultural Nonpoint Source (AGNPS) pollution model of watershed hydrology in response to the complex problem of managing nonpoint sources of pollution. AGNPS simulates the behavior of runoff, sediment, and nutrient transport from watersheds that have agriculture as their prime use. The model operates on a cell basis and is a distributed parameter, event-based model. The model requires 22 input parameters. Output parameters are grouped primarily by hydrology, sediment, and chemical output (Young and others, 1995.) Elevation, land cover, and soil are the base data from which to extract the 22 input parameters required by the AGNPS. For automatic parameter extraction, follow the general process described in this guide of extraction from the geospatial data through the AGNPS Data Generator to generate input parameters required by the pollution model (Finn and others, 2002.)

  1. The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Evans, J S; Fnais, M; Giannadaki, D; Pozzer, A

    2015-09-17

    Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050. PMID:26381985

  2. Point and non-point microbial source pollution: A case study of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamwal, Priyanka; Mittal, Atul K.; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    The present study identifies major point and non-point sources of microbial pollution during dry and wet weather in Delhi watershed which is the first prerequisite for planning and management of water quality of the river Yamuna. Fecal coliforms (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) levels were determined from two types of sources - point source (effluent from sewage treatment plants) and non-point source (stormwater runoff during dry and wet weather). FC and FS levels in the river Yamuna were also monitored, which is an ultimate sink for all microbial loads in Delhi watershed. Effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) employing different treatment technologies were evaluated. FC and FS levels greater than the effluent discharge standard (1000 MPN/100 ml) were observed in the effluents from all STPs except “oxidation pond Timarpur”. This study also involved field program for characterization of urban runoff from different land-uses. Results indicated that the microbial quality of urban runoff produced during wet weather from different land-uses was similar to that of raw sewage. Sewage overflows along with human and animal sources were responsible for high FC and FS levels in the runoff samples. Wet weather FC and FS levels in river Yamuna were higher as compared to the dry weather levels suggesting that dilution of the river water during wet weather does not affect its microbiological quality. Thus on the basis of this study it was found that urban runoff also contributes to the microbial quality of the river Yamuna.

  3. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  4. Space-based detection of missing sulfur dioxide sources of global air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world--over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf--and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr-1, or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  5. Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County southeast China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jian; Qiu, Haiyuan; Lin, Huangbin; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Zhi; Zhao, Rurong

    2016-09-01

    Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in the regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County, southeast China, has been analyzed by means of monitoring F(-) ion change characteristics in this area. Meanwhile, pollution sources and influencing factors of the shallow groundwater have been uncovered by studying the correlation between F(-) and other related ions such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), as well as (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) ratio (R) and pH effect. The results show that F(-) ions in shallow groundwater at the study area come mainly from the dissolution of fluorinated minerals in a form of fluorite (CaF2), the so-called water-rock interaction, and there is a higher possibility for the occurrence of fluorine water where the ratio of (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) exceeds a value of 2.1. Moreover, the release and migration of F(-) ions have been favored by the alkaline environment in this study area. PMID:27239970

  6. Development of a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai using pollution source census data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianzhe; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weichun

    2016-03-01

    This study utilizes 521,631 activity data points from the 2007 Shanghai Pollution Source Census to compile a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai. The inventory generated from our dataset shows that a large portion of Shanghai's total energy use consists of coal-oriented energy consumption. The electricity and heat production industries, iron and steel mills, and the petroleum refining industry are the main carbon emitters. In addition, most of these industries are located in Baoshan District, which is Shanghai's largest contributor of carbon emissions. Policy makers can use the enterpriselevel carbon emission inventory and the method designed in this study to construct sound carbon emission reduction policies. The carbon trading scheme to be established in Shanghai based on the developed carbon inventory is also introduced in this paper with the aim of promoting the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon trading. Moreover, we believe that it might be useful to consider the participation of industries, such as those for food processing, beverage, and tobacco, in Shanghai's carbon trading scheme. Based on the results contained herein, we recommend establishing a comprehensive carbon emission inventory by inputting data from the pollution source census used in this study.

  7. Report on land-based sources of marine pollution in the Caribbean. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The report is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The document presents information gathered during a series of interviews with professionals from governmental agencies in each of the Caribbean nations, with the exception of the U.S. possessions. The report provides, on a nation-by-nation basis, background information regarding the sources of pollution and the agencies within each nation which retain some authority to remedy or otherwise manage these problems. Names of contact persons within these agencies, their phone numbers and addresses are also provided. The audience for the report is persons within organizations in the Caribbean Basin nations working to coordinate activities aimed at identifying and reducing land based sources of marine pollution. The report is a resource for achieving unified environmental efforts in the region. The final section briefly notes factors which may work in favor of regional solutions and those that may not.

  8. Air pollution source/receptor relationships in South Coast Air Basin, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, N.

    1993-12-31

    This research project includes the application of some existing receptor models to study the air pollution source/receptor relationships in the South Coast Air Basin of southern California, the development of a new receptor model and the testing and the modifications of some existing models. These existing receptor models used include principal component factor analysis, potential source contribution function analysis, Kohonen`s neural network combined with Prim`s minimal spanning tree, and direct trilinear decomposition followed by a matrix reconstruction. The ambient concentration measurements used in this study are a subset of the data collected during the 1987 field exercise of Southern California Air Quality Study. It consists of a number of gaseous and particulate pollutants analyzed from samples collected by SCAQS samplers at eight sampling sites. Based on the information of emission inventories, meterology and ambient concentrations this receptor modeling study has revealed mechanisms that influence the air quality in SoCAB. Some of the mechanisms affecting the air quality in SoCAB that were revealed during this study include the following aspects. The SO{sub 2} collected at sampling sites is mainly contributed by refineries in the coastal area and the ships equipped with oil-fired boilers off shore. Combustion of fossil fuel by automobiles dominates the emission of NO{sub x} that is subsequently transformed and collected at sampling sites. Electric power plants also contribute HNO{sub 3} to the sampling sites. A large feedlot in the eastern region of SoCAB has been identified as the major source of NH{sub 3}. Possible contributions from other industrial sources such as smelters and incenerators were also revealed. The results of this study also suggest the possibility of DMS (dimethylsuflide) and NH{sub 3} emissions from off-shore sediments that have been contaminated by waste sludge disposal.

  9. Multi-Scale Monitoring and Assessment of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Mathews, M. C.; Meyer, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  10. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  11. An Introduction to GIS: Concepts, Tools, Data Sources, and Types of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardine, Daniel D.; Teodorescu, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The use of geographic information systems (GIS) has seen a steady increase since the first PC-based GIS software was developed in the latter half of the 1980s. Prior to that, GIS was run on mainframe computers and was a relatively crude and arcane technology by today's standards. This chapter introduces key concepts, tools, data sources, and types…

  12. Characterization and source identification of pollutants in runoff from a mixed land use watershed using ordination analyses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin Hwi; Mendoza, Joseph A; Lee, Chang Hee; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2016-05-01

    While identification of critical pollutant sources is the key initial step for cost-effective runoff management, it is challenging due to the highly uncertain nature of runoff pollution, especially during a storm event. To identify critical sources and their quantitative contributions to runoff pollution (especially focusing on phosphorous), two ordination methods were used in this study: principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). For the ordination analyses, we used runoff quality data for 14 storm events, including data for phosphorus, 11 heavy metal species, and eight ionic species measured at the outlets of subcatchments with different land use compositions in a mixed land use watershed. Five factors as sources of runoff pollutants were identified by PCA: agrochemicals, groundwater, native soils, domestic sewage, and urban sources (building materials and automotive activities). PMF identified similar factors to those identified by PCA, with more detailed source mechanisms for groundwater (i.e., nitrate leaching and cation exchange) and urban sources (vehicle components/motor oils/building materials and vehicle exhausts), confirming the sources identified by PCA. PMF was further used to quantify contributions of the identified sources to the water quality. Based on the results, agrochemicals and automotive activities were the two dominant and ubiquitous phosphorus sources (39-61 and 16-47 %, respectively) in the study area, regardless of land use types. PMID:26850099

  13. Air Pollution Source/receptor Relationships in South Coast Air Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ning

    This research project includes the application of some existing receptor models to study the air pollution source/receptor relationships in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) of southern California, the development of a new receptor model and the testing and the modifications of some existing models. These existing receptor models used include principal component factor analysis (PCA), potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis, Kohonen's neural network combined with Prim's minimal spanning tree (TREE-MAP), and direct trilinear decomposition followed by a matrix reconstruction. The ambient concentration measurements used in this study are a subset of the data collected during the 1987 field exercise of Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS). It consists of a number of gaseous and particulate pollutants analyzed from samples collected by SCAQS samplers at eight sampling sites, Anaheim, Azusa, Burbank, Claremont, Downtown Los Angeles, Hawthorne, Long Beach, and Rubidoux. Based on the information of emission inventories, meteorology and ambient concentrations, this receptor modeling study has revealed mechanisms that influence the air quality in SoCAB. Some of the mechanisms affecting the air quality in SoCAB that were revealed during this study include the following aspects. The SO_2 collected at sampling sites is mainly contributed by refineries in the coastal area and the ships equipped with oil-fired boilers off shore. Combustion of fossil fuel by automobiles dominates the emission of NO_{rm x} that is subsequently transformed and collected at sampling sites. Electric power plants also contribute HNO_3 to the sampling sites. A large feedlot in the eastern region of SoCAB has been identified as the major source of NH_3. Possible contributions from other industrial sources such as smelters and incinerators were also revealed. The results of this study also suggest the possibility of DMS (dimethylsulfide) and NH_3 emissions from off-shore sediments

  14. Location and release time identification of pollution point source in river networks based on the Backward Probability Method.

    PubMed

    Ghane, Alireza; Mazaheri, Mehdi; Mohammad Vali Samani, Jamal

    2016-09-15

    The pollution of rivers due to accidental spills is a major threat to environment and human health. To protect river systems from accidental spills, it is essential to introduce a reliable tool for identification process. Backward Probability Method (BPM) is one of the most recommended tools that is able to introduce information related to the prior location and the release time of the pollution. This method was originally developed and employed in groundwater pollution source identification problems. One of the objectives of this study is to apply this method in identifying the pollution source location and release time in surface waters, mainly in rivers. To accomplish this task, a numerical model is developed based on the adjoint analysis. Then the developed model is verified using analytical solution and some real data. The second objective of this study is to extend the method to pollution source identification in river networks. In this regard, a hypothetical test case is considered. In the later simulations, all of the suspected points are identified, using only one backward simulation. The results demonstrated that all suspected points, determined by the BPM could be a possible pollution source. The proposed approach is accurate and computationally efficient and does not need any simplification in river geometry and flow. Due to this simplicity, it is highly recommended for practical purposes. PMID:27219462

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  16. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric contribution to nonpoint-source-runoff pollution of nitrogen, in the form of nitrite-plus-nitrate, and lead was extremely high contributing as much as 84 percent of the runoff load. In contrast, phosphorus and chloride inputs were low averaging of 6 percent of the total runoff load. Future investigations of nonpoint-source pollution in runoff might include collection of data on atmospheric deposition of nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen and lead because of the importance of that source of these constituents in runoff.

  17. Relationships Between Landscape Characteristics and Nonpoint Source Pollution Inputs to Coastal Estuaries.

    PubMed

    BASNYAT; TEETER; FLYNN; LOCKABY

    1999-05-01

    / Land-use activities affect water quality by altering sediment, chemical loads, and watershed hydrology. Some land uses may contribute to the maintenance of water quality due to a biogeochemical transformation process. These land-use/land-cover types can serve as nutrient detention zones or as nutrient transformation zones as dissolved or suspended nutrients or sediments move downstream. Despite research on the effects of individual land-use/land-cover types, very little has been done to analyze the joint contributions of multiple land-use activities. This paper examines a methodology to assess the relationships between land-use complex and nitrate and sediment concentrations [nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants] in streams. In this process, selected basins of the Fish River, Alabama, USA, were delineated, land-use/land-cover types were classified, and contributing zones were identified using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) analysis tools. Water samples collected from these basins were analyzed for selected chemical and physical properties. Based on the contributions of the NPS pollutants, a linkage model was developed. This linkage model relates land use/land cover with the pollution levels in the stream. Linkage models were constructed and evaluated at three different scales: (1) the basin scale; (2) the contributing-zone scale; and (3) the stream-buffer/riparian-zone scale. The contributing-zones linkage model suggests that forests act as a transformation zone, and as the proportion of forest inside a contributing zone increases (or agricultural land decreases), nitrate levels downstream will decrease. Residential/urban/built-up areas were identified as the strongest contributors of nitrate in the contributing-zones model and active agriculture was identified as the second largest contributor. The regression results for the streambank land-use/land-cover model (stream-buffer/riparian-zone scale) suggest that water quality is highest

  18. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  19. Contribution of base flow to nonpoint source pollution loads in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution of surface water from overland flow, drainage tiles, and ground water discharge is a major cause of water quality impairment in Iowa. Nonpoint source pollution from base flow ground water was estimated in the Walnut Creek watershed by measuring chemical loads of atrazine, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate at 18 tributary creeks and 19 tiles. Loads were measured during a stable base flow period at creeks and files that discharged into Walnut Creek between two stream gauges. Chemical concentrations of atrazine (< 0.1-12 ??g/L), nitrate (0.1 to 15 mg/L, and chloride (1.5 to 26 mg/L) in water were similar for creek and tile samples. Water draining predominantly agricultural row crop areas had much higher concentrations than water draining restored prairie areas. Three methods were used to estimate base flow discharge in the watershed: (1) Darcy flux; (2) watershed discharge budget; and (3) discharge-drainage area; each yielded similar results (31.2 L/s to 62.3 L/s). Base flow loads to the main channel were estimated by subtracting the loads from the upstream gauge; creeks and tiles, from the total load measured at the downstream gauge station. Base flow concentration for atrazine ranged from 0.15 to 0.29 ??g/L and sulfate concentration ranged from 32 to 64 mg/L, whereas concentrations for nitrate and chloride were negative (-1 to -4 mg/L). Calculated base flow concentrations of atrazine and sulfate appeared to be reasonable estimates, but negative concentrations of nitrate and chloride imply either loss of chemical mass in the stream from upstream to downstream sampling points or measurement error. Load data suggest little contribution from base flow pollutants to Walnut Creek water quality, with most of the pollutant load derived from major tributary creeks. Results from this study have implications for determining total maximum daily loads in agricultural watersheds where contributions from point sources (creeks and tiles) can he used to

  20. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  1. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  2. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  3. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  4. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  5. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  6. Atmospheric mercury pollution at an urban site in central Taiwan: mercury emission sources at ground level.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Liu, Chia-Kuan; Huang, Ci-Song; Fang, Guor-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Total gaseous mercury (Hg) (TGM), gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM), and particulate-bound Hg (PBM) concentrations and dry depositions were measured at an urban site in central Taiwan. The concentrations were 6.14±3.91 ng m(-3), 332±153, and 71.1±46.1 pg m(-3), respectively. These results demonstrate high Hg pollution at the ground level in Taiwan. A back trajectory plot shows the sources of the high TGM concentration were in the low atmosphere (<500 m) and approximately 50% of the air masses coming from upper troposphere (>500 m) were associated with low TGM concentrations. This finding implies that Hg is trapped in the low atmosphere and comes from local Hg emission sources. The conditional probability function (CPF) reveals that the plumes of high TGM concentrations come from the south and northwest of the site. The plume from the south comes from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However, no significant Hg point source is located to the northwest of the site; therefore, the plumes from the northwest are hypothesized to be related to the combustion of agricultural waste. Dry deposition fluxes of Hg measured at this site considerably exceeded those measured in North America. Overall, this area is regarded as a highly Hg contaminated area because of local Hg emission sources. PMID:22316589

  7. Proof of concept for integrating oxy-fuel combustion and the removal of all pollutants from a coal fired flame

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gross, Alex; Summers, Cathy A.; Simmons, William; Schoenfield, Mark; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    The USDOE/Albany Research Center and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, working together under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, have demonstrated proof-of-concept for the integration of Jupiter’s oxy-fuel combustion and an integrated system for the removal of all stack pollutants, including CO2, from a coal-fired flame. The components were developed using existing process technology with the addition of a new oxy-coal combustion nozzle. The results of the test showed that the system can capture SOx, NOx, particulates, and even mercury as a part of the process of producing liquefied CO2 for sequestration. This is part of an ongoing research project to explore alternative methods for CO2 capture that will be applicable to both retrofit and new plant construction.

  8. Mercury isotope signatures in contaminated sediments as a tracer for local industrial pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Drott, Andreas; Jiskra, Martin; Jonsson, Sofi; Björn, Erik; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) may cause characteristic isotope signatures of different mercury (Hg) sources and help understand transformation processes at contaminated sites. Here, we present Hg isotope data of sediments collected near industrial pollution sources in Sweden contaminated with elemental liquid Hg (mainly chlor-alkali industry) or phenyl-Hg (paper industry). The sediments exhibited a wide range of total Hg concentrations from 0.86 to 99 μg g(-1), consisting dominantly of organically-bound Hg and smaller amounts of sulfide-bound Hg. The three phenyl-Hg sites showed very similar Hg isotope signatures (MDF δ(202)Hg: -0.2‰ to -0.5‰; MIF Δ(199)Hg: -0.05‰ to -0.10‰). In contrast, the four sites contaminated with elemental Hg displayed much greater variations (δ(202)Hg: -2.1‰ to 0.6‰; Δ(199)Hg: -0.19‰ to 0.03‰) but with distinct ranges for the different sites. Sequential extractions revealed that sulfide-bound Hg was in some samples up to 1‰ heavier in δ(202)Hg than organically-bound Hg. The selectivity of the sequential extraction was tested on standard materials prepared with enriched Hg isotopes, which also allowed assessing isotope exchange between different Hg pools. Our results demonstrate that different industrial pollution sources can be distinguished on the basis of Hg isotope signatures, which may additionally record fractionation processes between different Hg pools in the sediments. PMID:25437501

  9. [Pollution Characteristics and Source Apportionment of PM₂.₅, in Lanzhou City].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Nie, Yan; Chen, Hong; Wang, Bo; Huang, Tao; Xia, Dun-sheng

    2016-05-15

    In order to understand the characteristics and sources of PM₂.₅ pollutant in Lanzhou City, two PM₂.₅ sampling sites were set up in Chengguan district and Xigu district, respectively. Samples were sampled during October (non-heating period) and December (heating period) 2013, and mass concentrations of PM₂.₅ and its 16 kinds of chemical components were analyzed. The results showed that the average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ during the sampling period was 129 µg · m⁻³. The sequence of mass concentrations of inorganic elements was: S > Ca > Fe > Al > Mg > Pb > Zn > Mn > Ti > Cu, while the mass concentrations of S, Ca, Fe, and Al, which were the major element compositions, exceeded 1 µg · m⁻³. The mass concentration of inorganic elements during heating period was higher than that during non-heating period, meanwhile, the mass concentration in Chengguan district was higher than that in Xigu district. The sequence of mass concentrations of water-soluble ions was: SO₄²⁻ > NO₃⁻ > NH₄⁺ > Cl⁻ > K⁺ > Na⁺, while the mass concentrations of SO₄²⁻, NO₃⁻, NH₄⁺, which were the main ion components, exceeded 10 µg · m⁻³. The mass concentration of water- soluble ions during heating period was higher than that during non-heating period, meanwhile, the mass concentration in Xigu district was higher than that in Chengguan district. The result of enrichment factor (EF) analysis showed that the EF values of Al, Ca, Mg and Ti were lower than 1, indicating the contribution of natural source, while the EF values of Cu, Pb, S and Zn were higher than 10, indicating the contribution of anthropogenic pollution. The result of principal component analysis showed that the sources of PM₂.₅ were mainly derived from traffic emission, biomass burning, soil and secondary particles. PMID:27506012

  10. Optimum Installation of Sorptive Building Materials Using Contribution Ratio of Pollution Source for Improvement of Indoor Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seonghyun; Seo, Janghoo

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcing the insulation and airtightness of buildings and the use of building materials containing new chemical substances have caused indoor air quality problems. Use of sorptive building materials along with removal of pollutants, constant ventilation, bake-out, etc. are gaining attention in Korea and Japan as methods for improving such indoor air quality problems. On the other hand, sorptive building materials are considered a passive method of reducing the concentration of pollutants, and their application should be reviewed in the early stages. Thus, in this research, activated carbon was prepared as a sorptive building material. Then, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was conducted, and a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials was derived according to the indoor environment using the contribution ratio of pollution source (CRP) index. The results show that a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials can be derived by predicting the contribution ratio of pollutant sources according to the CRP index. PMID:27043605

  11. Optimum Installation of Sorptive Building Materials Using Contribution Ratio of Pollution Source for Improvement of Indoor Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonghyun; Seo, Janghoo

    2016-04-01

    Reinforcing the insulation and airtightness of buildings and the use of building materials containing new chemical substances have caused indoor air quality problems. Use of sorptive building materials along with removal of pollutants, constant ventilation, bake-out, etc. are gaining attention in Korea and Japan as methods for improving such indoor air quality problems. On the other hand, sorptive building materials are considered a passive method of reducing the concentration of pollutants, and their application should be reviewed in the early stages. Thus, in this research, activated carbon was prepared as a sorptive building material. Then, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was conducted, and a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials was derived according to the indoor environment using the contribution ratio of pollution source (CRP) index. The results show that a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials can be derived by predicting the contribution ratio of pollutant sources according to the CRP index. PMID:27043605

  12. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Source Attribution of Toronto Regional Air Pollution Measured with Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, C.; Strong, K.; Jones, D. B.; Fast, H.; Fogal, P. F.; McLinden, C. A.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Pommier, M.

    2013-12-01

    Toronto is the centre of Canada's largest population and is often downwind of the industrial midwestern United States, where there is an even larger population and significant anthropogenic emissions. As a result, surface O3 in the region often exceeds the Canada-Wide Standard and the provincial Ambient Air Quality Criterion. Therefore, the Toronto region makes for an interesting North-American site to study atmospheric composition. There have been ground-based, solar-absorption Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements of tropospheric (0-5 km) O3 and CO columns (among other species) for over a decade at the Univerisity of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO, 43.66oN, 79.40oW, 174 masl) and Environment Canada's Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE, 44.23oN, 79.78oW, 251 masl). In combination with surface measurements of these species from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment Canada, and satellite overpasses of the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, we have a large number of tropospheric O3 and CO observations in both downtown Toronto and the surrounding rural area from 2002 to the present. Using these datasets, we have examined pollution events in Toronto characterized by enhanced O3 and/or CO tropospheric columns, and we have conducted source attribution analyses using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint. We will present several case studies, in which we quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions, and biogenic emissions to Toronto-area pollution events. We will discuss the conditions for which the tropospheric columns are well-correlated to the surface measurements, and when they are not. We will also present statistics on nine years of data (2002 to 2010), to better understand when and how the Toronto-area O3 and CO enhancements occur, which will be useful for future air quality policies.

  14. The main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in Hellas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumantakis, J.; Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Markantonis, K.; Grigorakou, E.; Vassiliou, E.

    2003-04-01

    The research team of the laboratory of Engineering Geology &Hydrogeology of NTUA and P.P.C. have carried out several research projects since 1990. The conclusions of these projects for the main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in Hellas are the following: Human activities : a) Urban and industrial wastes (solid and liquids) are disposed or discharged to the surface or groundwater bodies causing degradation of their quality (case studies of Athens Basin, Lavrio region, Atalanti plain), b) intensive use of pesticides and fertilizers for agriculture, through the process of percolation or leaching causes the deterioration of aquifers and surface water (case studies of Plolemais Basin, Korinth region, Elassona Basin, Atalanti plain, Thrapsana Basin Iraklio), c) current exploitations and old or abandoned mining sites, disturb the aquatic environment and create new hydraulic connections between clean and polluted aquifers or the sea (case studies of Lavrio region, Ptolemais Basin, Megalopoli Basin), d) over-pumping of aquifers mainly for irrigation but also in some cases for dewatering of mines, results in continues drawdown of the groundwater level and intrusion of sea (case studies of Korinth region, Athens basin, Naxos island, Nea Peramos Kavala, Marathon, Argolida Field, Atalanti plain, Achaia region, Stratoni area Chalkidiki, Gouves Iraklio). Geological Environment: a) extensive karstification of limestones that spread up all over the Greek region (33%) causes the intrusion of the sea far into the land (case studies of Lavrio region, Kefalonia island, Hymettus mountain), b) the chemical composition of the geological formations through the process of ion exchange and solubility pollute the groundwater resources (case studies of Vegoritis Basin, Katsika Chalkidiki, Florina region). The proposed measures to face these problems are : - the orthological management of the water resources - the artificial recharge of the aquifers, - proper waste management

  15. Source attribution of air pollution by spatial scale separation using high spatial density networks of low cost air quality sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, I.; Bright, V. B.; McLeod, M. W.; Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A. M.; Stewart, G. B.; Jones, R. L.

    2015-07-01

    To carry out detailed source attribution for air quality assessment it is necessary to distinguish pollutant contributions that arise from local emissions from those attributable to non-local or regional emission sources. Frequently this requires the use of complex models and inversion methods, prior knowledge or assumptions regarding the pollution environment. In this paper we demonstrate how high spatial density and fast response measurements from low-cost sensor networks may facilitate this separation. A purely measurement-based approach to extract underlying pollution levels (baselines) from the measurements is presented exploiting the different relative frequencies of local and background pollution variations. This paper shows that if high spatial and temporal coverage of air quality measurements are available, the different contributions to the total pollution levels, namely the regional signal as well as near and far field local sources, can be quantified. The advantage of using high spatial resolution observations, as can be provided by low-cost sensor networks, lies in the fact that no prior assumptions about pollution levels at individual deployment sites are required. The methodology we present here, utilising measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), has wide applicability, including additional gas phase species and measurements obtained using reference networks. While similar studies have been performed, this is the first study using networks at this density, or using low cost sensor networks.

  16. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Benes, V; Pĕkný, V; Skorepa, J; Vrba, J

    1989-01-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneously, in regions in which shallow, vulnerable aquifers occur. The importance of the soil organic matter's stability for maintaining the groundwater quality is emphasized. Research based on nitrogen and organic carbon balance has shown that the restoration of a soil-groundwater system is a complicated process that usually requires changes in the extent and intensity of agricultural activities and consistent attention to the effects produced by natural conditions. Regional investigation of the impact of farming on shallow aquifers in the fluvial deposits of the Elbe River in Bohemia has proved the hydrochemical instability and vertical hydrochemical heterogeneity of these aquifers. The WASTEN deterministic model was used for modeling the transport and transformation of various types of inorganic fertilizers. The input data is based on laboratory and field measurements. Special topics are the verification of model calculations and the time and spatial variability of input data with respect to the unsaturated zone. The research results are being used for making regional and national agro-groundwater managerial schemes more precise, as well as for decision-making. PMID:2559844

  17. An auto-adaptive optimization approach for targeting nonpoint source pollution control practices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Wei, Guoyuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2015-01-01

    To solve computationally intensive and technically complex control of nonpoint source pollution, the traditional genetic algorithm was modified into an auto-adaptive pattern, and a new framework was proposed by integrating this new algorithm with a watershed model and an economic module. Although conceptually simple and comprehensive, the proposed algorithm would search automatically for those Pareto-optimality solutions without a complex calibration of optimization parameters. The model was applied in a case study in a typical watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. The results indicated that the evolutionary process of optimization was improved due to the incorporation of auto-adaptive parameters. In addition, the proposed algorithm outperformed the state-of-the-art existing algorithms in terms of convergence ability and computational efficiency. At the same cost level, solutions with greater pollutant reductions could be identified. From a scientific viewpoint, the proposed algorithm could be extended to other watersheds to provide cost-effective configurations of BMPs. PMID:26487474

  18. Diversity of ndo genes in mangrove sediments exposed to different sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Newton C Marcial; Borges, Ludmila R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Pinto, Fernando N; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C S; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants originating from oil spills and wood and fuel combustion are pollutants which are among the major threats to mangrove ecosystems. In this study, the composition and relative abundance in the sediment bacterial communities of naphthalene dioxygenase (ndo) genes which are important for bacterial adaptation to environmental PAH contamination were investigated. Three urban mangrove sites which had characteristic compositions and levels of PAH compounds in the sediments were selected. The diversity and relative abundance of ndo genes in total community DNA were assessed by a newly developed ndo denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and by PCR amplification with primers targeting ndo genes with subsequent Southern blot hybridization analyses. Bacterial populations inhabiting sediments of urban mangroves under the impact of different sources of PAH contamination harbor distinct ndo genotypes. Sequencing of cloned ndo amplicons comigrating with dominant DGGE bands revealed new ndo genotypes. PCR-Southern blot analysis and ndo DGGE showed that the frequently studied nah and phn genotypes were not detected as dominant ndo types in the mangrove sediments. However, ndo genotypes related to nagAc-like genes were detected, but only in oil-contaminated mangrove sediments. The long-term impact of PAH contamination, together with the specific environmental conditions at each site, may have affected the abundance and diversity of ndo genes in sediments of urban mangroves. PMID:17905873

  19. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Benes, V.; Pekny, V.; Skorepa, J.; Vrba, J. )

    1989-11-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneously, in regions in which shallow, vulnerable aquifers occur. The importance of the soil organic matter's stability for maintaining the groundwater quality is emphasized. Regional investigation of the impact of farming on shallow aquifers in the fluvial deposits of the Elbe River in Bohemia has proved the hydrochemical instability and vertical hydrochemical heterogeneity of these aquifers. The WASTEN deterministic model was used for modeling the transport and transformation of various types of inorganic fertilizers. The input data is based on laboratory and field measurements. Special topics are the verification of model calculations and the time and spatial variability of input data with respect to the unsaturated zone. The research results are being used for making regional and national agro-groundwater managerial schemes more precise, as well as for decision-making.

  20. Urban contamination sources reflected in inorganic pollution in urban lake deposits, Bergen, Norway.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Malin; Eggen, Ola Anfin

    2015-04-01

    The 7000 years transition from a pristine environment towards a modern city has brought a number of chemical changes and effects to urban lake sediments in Bergen. Metals, such as Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu and Fe, display a large anthropogenic influence and reflect historical point sources that existed within the drainage area from approximately AD 1790 until today. The concentration peaks alternate with intervals of lower concentration due to phases of coarser grained sediment input but also periods of potentially reduced metal influx. All discussed elements, except Cd, increase in concentration with decreasing grain size and also correlate with the amount of clay fraction particles. The results emphasize the importance of considering grain size when interpreting sediment chemistry. Correlation with TOC is not apparent in the same extent. The transition from natural to anthropogenically influenced sediments, which is characterised by a sudden increase of several elements, is accompanied by a reduction in Cd, As and Ni concentration. This is interpreted to be the result of hypoxia, changes in pH and reduced erosional input. Factor analysis and the comparison with reference sediments indicate that the elements Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu most clearly demonstrate man-made pollution. Analyses of stormwater culvert sediments suggest that urban runoff contributes to the pollution load today, with standing building mass and traffic contributing to the load. PMID:25765459

  1. Estimation of contribution ratios of pollutant sources to a specific section based on an enhanced water quality model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bibo; Li, Chuan; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Yue; Sha, Jian; Wang, Yuqiu

    2015-05-01

    Because water quality monitoring sections or sites could reflect the water quality status of rivers, surface water quality management based on water quality monitoring sections or sites would be effective. For the purpose of improving water quality of rivers, quantifying the contribution ratios of pollutant resources to a specific section is necessary. Because physical and chemical processes of nutrient pollutants are complex in water bodies, it is difficult to quantitatively compute the contribution ratios. However, water quality models have proved to be effective tools to estimate surface water quality. In this project, an enhanced QUAL2Kw model with an added module was applied to the Xin'anjiang Watershed, to obtain water quality information along the river and to assess the contribution ratios of each pollutant source to a certain section (the Jiekou state-controlled section). Model validation indicated that the results were reliable. Then, contribution ratios were analyzed through the added module. Results show that among the pollutant sources, the Lianjiang tributary contributes the largest part of total nitrogen (50.43%), total phosphorus (45.60%), ammonia nitrogen (32.90%), nitrate (nitrite + nitrate) nitrogen (47.73%), and organic nitrogen (37.87%). Furthermore, contribution ratios in different reaches varied along the river. Compared with pollutant loads ratios of different sources in the watershed, an analysis of contribution ratios of pollutant sources for each specific section, which takes the localized chemical and physical processes into consideration, was more suitable for local-regional water quality management. In summary, this method of analyzing the contribution ratios of pollutant sources to a specific section based on the QUAL2Kw model was found to support the improvement of the local environment. PMID:25779107

  2. Source contributions to the size and composition distribution of urban particulate air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeman, Michael J.; Cass, Glen R.

    A mechanistic air quality model has been constructed which is capable of predicting the contribution of individual emissions source types to the size- and chemical-composition distribution of airborne particles. This model incorporates all of the major aerosol processes relevant to regional air pollution studies including emissions, transport, deposition, gas-to-particle conversion and fog chemistry. In addition, the aerosol is represented as a source-oriented external mixture which is allowed to age in a more realistic fashion than can be accomplished when fresh particle-phase emissions are averaged into the pre-existing atmospheric aerosol size and composition distribution. A source-oriented external mixture is created by differentiating the primary particles emitted from the following source types: catalyst-equipped gasoline engines, non-catalyst-equipped gasoline engines, diesel engines, meat cooking, paved road dust, crustal material from sources other than paved road dust, and sulfur-bearing particles from fuel burning and industrial processes. Discrete primary seed particles from each of these source types are emitted into a simulation of atmospheric transport and chemical reaction. The individual particles evolve over time in the presence of gas-to-particle conversion processes while retaining information on the initial source from which they were emitted. The source- and age-resolved particle mechanics model is applied to the 1987 August SCAQS episode and comparisons are made between model predictions and observations at Claremont, CA. The model explains the origin of the bimodal character of the sub-micron aerosol size distribution. The mode located between 0.2 and 0.3 μm particle diameter is shaped by transformed emissions from diesel engines and meat cooking operations with lesser contributions from gasolinepowered vehicles and other fuel burning. The larger mode located at 0.7-0.8 μm particle diameter is due to fine particle background aerosol that

  3. Atmospheric dispersion modeling with AERMOD for comparative impact assessment of different pollutant emission sources in an Alpine context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Gianluca; Giovannini, Lorenzo; Tomasi, Elena; Zardi, Dino

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution simulations are performed with the AERMOD model to analyze the impact on air quality of different pollutant emission sources in the area surrounding the town of Vipiteno in the northeastern Italian Alps. In this area the environmental burden of pollutant emissions is particularly high because of both its complex terrain and the presence of specific pollutant sources. In this study the effects of the main sources are analyzed and compared: the A22 motorway, which leads to the Brenner pass, the town of Vipiteno, mainly characterized by intensive use of biomass for house heating, three major plants with high emission rates, and a parking lot located near the motorway, offering park spaces for up to 260 trucks and 50 cars. To assess the impact of these pollution sources the AERMOD model is run with a spatial resolution of 25 m and with meteorological input data obtained from different datasets, such as annual series of standard meteorological variables taken from local weather stations and a set of vertical soundings. During the simulations the sources are modeled in different ways depending on the type of the emissions: the motorway is modeled as a linear source, the village as a diffuse source, the local companies as point sources and the parking lot is modeled as a composition of a diffuse source, representing the idling vehicles inside the park, and of a linear source, representing the access routes to the parking. For each type of source, specific emission factors are chosen, and hourly and seasonal emission patterns are set with particular attention to the analysis of idling vehicle emission factors. The results of the simulations are analyzed in terms of NO2 and PM10 and the impact of each source is discussed.

  4. Isotopic Tracers for Delineating Non-Point Source Pollutants in Surface Water

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L

    2001-03-01

    This study tested whether isotope measurements of surface water and dissolved constituents in surface water could be used as tracers of non-point source pollution. Oxygen-18 was used as a water tracer, while carbon-14, carbon-13, and deuterium were tested as tracers of DOC. Carbon-14 and carbon-13 were also used as tracers of dissolved inorganic carbon, and chlorine-36 and uranium isotopes were tested as tracers of other dissolved salts. In addition, large databases of water quality measurements were assembled for the Missouri River at St. Louis and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California to enhance interpretive results of the isotope measurements. Much of the water quality data has been under-interpreted and provides a valuable resource to investigative research, for which this report exploits and integrates with the isotope measurements.

  5. Applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of natural and pollutant hydrocarbons in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, J.K.; Revill, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past few years, many thousands of compounds have identified in crude oils using techniques such as capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some of these have quite distinctive chemical structures which are closely related to the organic compounds produced by plants, bacteria and algae. These {open_quote}biomarkers{close_quote} have proven to be very useful in petroleum exploration for identifying the likely source rocks from which the oils were derived. They are also very useful in studies of modern day pollution of the marine environment for identifying contamination by crude oil and petroleum-derived products. Although a wide range of hydrocarbons are available for oil spill fingerprinting, most attention has been given to some of the better-studied biomarkers which are readily analyzed using selected ion monitoring GC-MS techniques.

  6. Emergency drinking water treatment during source water pollution accidents in China: origin analysis, framework and technologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Peng-Fei; Hou, Ai-Xin; Niu, Zhang-Bin; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water. PMID:21133359

  7. Fine particulate pollution in the Nanjing northern suburb during summer: composition and sources.

    PubMed

    An, Junlin; Duan, Qing; Wang, Honglei; Miao, Qing; Shao, Ping; Wang, Jian; Zou, Jianan

    2015-09-01

    To understand the chemical composition characteristic of pollution in a northern suburb of Nanjing, particle samples were collected by two Andersen cascade impactors from May to July 2013. The positive matrix factorization version 3 (EPA-PMF 3.0) was applied to identify the source contribution of PM2.1 concentrations in the study area. Source categories were determined based on the chemical component abundances in the source profiles. Overall, results indicated that seven factors were obtained. The factors are identified as follows: (I) secondary aerosol, characterized by high concentrations of NH4 (+), NO3 (-), and SO4 (2-), accounting for 20.22 %; (II) metallurgical aerosol, characterized by high concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn, accounting for 6.71 %; (III) road dust, characterized by high concentrations of Mg, Ca, Na, Al, and Ba, accounting for 11.85 %; (IV) biomass burning, characterized by high concentrations of K(+), Na(+), Cl(-), and K, accounting for 10.17 %; (V) residual oil, characterized by high concentrations of V and Cr, accounting for 16.63 %; (VI) iron and steel industry, characterized by high concentrations of Mn and Fe, accounting for 9.48 %; and (VII) vehicle exhaust, characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon (OC), Mo, elemental carbon (EC) and K, accounting for 24.94 %. PMID:26255270

  8. Indoor air quality in Portuguese schools: levels and sources of pollutants.

    PubMed

    Madureira, J; Paciência, I; Pereira, C; Teixeira, J P; Fernandes, E de O

    2016-08-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) parameters in 73 primary classrooms in Porto were examined for the purpose of assessing levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, particulate matter, ventilation rates and bioaerosols within and between schools, and potential sources. Levels of VOCs, aldehydes, PM2.5 , PM10 , bacteria and fungi, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), carbon monoxide, temperature and relative humidity were measured indoors and outdoors and a walkthrough survey was performed concurrently. Ventilation rates were derived from CO2 and occupancy data. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm were often encountered, indicating poor ventilation. Most VOCs had low concentrations (median of individual species <5 μg/m(3) ) and were below the respective WHO guidelines. Concentrations of particulate matter and culturable bacteria were frequently higher than guidelines/reference values. The variability of VOCs, aldehydes, bioaerosol concentrations, and CO2 levels between schools exceeded the variability within schools. These findings indicate that IAQ problems may persist in classrooms where pollutant sources exist and classrooms are poorly ventilated; source control strategies (related to building location, occupant behavior, maintenance/cleaning activities) are deemed to be the most reliable for the prevention of adverse health consequences in children in schools. PMID:26182845

  9. Source regions of some persistent organic pollutants measured in the atmosphere at Birkenes, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, S.; Breivik, K.; Li, Y. F.; Manø, S.; Stohl, A.

    2009-09-01

    A key feature of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) is their potential for long-range atmospheric transport. In order to better understand and predict atmospheric source-receptor relationships of POPs, we have modified an existing Lagrangian transport model (FLEXPART) to include some of the key processes that control the atmospheric fate of POPs. We also present four years (2004-2007) of new atmospheric measurement data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) obtained at Birkenes, an EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) site in southern Norway. The model overestimates measured PCB-28 and γ-HCH concentrations by factors of 2 and 8, respectively, which is most likely because the emissions used as input to the model are overestimated. FLEXPART captures the temporal variability in the measurements very well and, depending on season, explains 31-67% (14-62%) of the variance of measured PCB-28 (γ-HCH) concentrations. FLEXPART, run in a time-reversed (adjoint) mode, was used to identify the source regions responsible for the POP loading at the Birkenes station. Emissions in Central Europe and Eastern Europe contributed 32% and 24%, respectively, to PCB-28 at Birkenes, while Western Europe was found to be the dominant source (50%) for γ-HCH. Intercontinental transport from North America contributed 13% γ-HCH. While FLEXPART has no treatment of the partitioning of POPs between different surface media, it was found a very useful tool for studying atmospheric source-receptor relationships for POPs and POP-like chemicals that do not sorb strongly to atmospheric particles and whose atmospheric levels are believed to be mainly controlled by primary sources.

  10. Path-integral method for the source apportionment of photochemical pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunker, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    A new, path-integral method is presented for apportioning the concentrations of pollutants predicted by a photochemical model to emissions from different sources. A novel feature of the method is that it can apportion the difference in a species concentration between two simulations. For example, the anthropogenic ozone increment, which is the difference between a simulation with all emissions present and another simulation with only the background (e.g., biogenic) emissions included, can be allocated to the anthropogenic emission sources. The method is based on an existing, exact mathematical equation. This equation is applied to relate the concentration difference between simulations to line or path integrals of first-order sensitivity coefficients. The sensitivities describe the effects of changing the emissions and are accurately calculated by the decoupled direct method. The path represents a continuous variation of emissions between the two simulations, and each path can be viewed as a separate emission-control strategy. The method does not require auxiliary assumptions, e.g., whether ozone formation is limited by the availability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or nitrogen oxides (NOx), and can be used for all the species predicted by the model. A simplified configuration of the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) is used to evaluate the accuracy of different numerical integration procedures and the dependence of the source contributions on the path. A Gauss-Legendre formula using three or four points along the path gives good accuracy for apportioning the anthropogenic increments of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, and nitric acid. Source contributions to these increments were obtained for paths representing proportional control of all anthropogenic emissions together, control of NOx emissions before VOC emissions, and control of VOC emissions before NOx emissions. There are similarities in the source contributions from the

  11. Assessment of PM10 pollution level and required source emission reduction in Belgrade area.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Marija N; Perišić, Mirjana D; Kuzmanoski, Maja M; Stojić, Andreja M; Sostarić, Andrej I; Mijić, Zoran R; Rajšić, Slavica F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess PM10 pollution level and estimate required source emission reduction in Belgrade area, the second largest urban center in the Balkans. Daily mass concentrations and trace metal content (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) of PM10 were evaluated for three air quality monitoring sites of different types: urban-traffic (Slavija), suburban (Lazarevac) and rural (Grabovac) under the industrial influence, during the period of 2012-13. Noncompliance with current Air Quality Standards (AQS) was noticeable: annual means were higher than AQS at Slavija and Lazarevac, and daily frequency threshold was exceeded at all three locations. Annual means of As at Lazarevac were about four times higher than the target concentration, which could be attributed to the proximity of coal-fired power plants, and dust resuspension from coal basin and nearby ash landfills. Additionally, levels of Ni and Cr were significantly higher than in other European cities. Carcinogenic health risk of inhabitants' exposure to trace metals was assessed as well. Cumulative cancer risk exceeded the upper limit of acceptable US EPA range at two sites, with Cr and As as the major contributors. To estimate source emission reduction, required to meet AQS, lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 probability distribution, functions (PDF) were used to fit daily PM10 concentrations. Based on the rollback equation and best fitting PDF, estimated reduction was within the range of 28-98%. Finally, the required reduction obtained using two-parameter exponential distribution suggested that risks associated to accidental releases of pollutants should be of greater concern. PMID:26252876

  12. Impacts of input parameter spatial aggregation on an agricultural nonpoint source pollution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzHugh, T. W.; Mackay, D. S.

    2000-09-01

    The accuracy of agricultural nonpoint source pollution models depends in part on how well model input parameters describe the relevant characteristics of the watershed. The spatial extent of input parameter aggregation has previously been shown to have a substantial impact on model output. This study investigates this problem using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a distributed-parameter agricultural nonpoint source pollution model. The primary question addressed here is: how does the size or number of subwatersheds used to partition the watershed affect model output, and what are the processes responsible for model behavior? SWAT was run on the Pheasant Branch watershed in Dane County, WI, using eight watershed delineations, each with a different number of subwatersheds. Model runs were conducted for the period 1990-1996. Streamflow and outlet sediment predictions were not seriously affected by changes in subwatershed size. The lack of change in outlet sediment is due to the transport-limited nature of the Pheasant Branch watershed and the stable transport capacity of the lower part of the channel network. This research identifies the importance of channel parameters in determining the behavior of SWAT's outlet sediment predictions. Sediment generation estimates do change substantially, dropping by 44% between the coarsest and the finest watershed delineations. This change is primarily due to the sensitivity of the runoff term in the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation to the area of hydrologic response units (HRUs). This sensitivity likely occurs because SWAT was implemented in this study with a very detailed set of HRUs. In order to provide some insight on the scaling behavior of the model two indexes were derived using the mathematics of the model. The indexes predicted SWAT scaling behavior from the data inputs without a need for running the model. Such indexes could be useful for model users by providing a direct way to evaluate alternative models

  13. A reactive transport model for mercury fate in soil--application to different anthropogenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Leterme, Bertrand; Blanc, Philippe; Jacques, Diederik

    2014-11-01

    Soil systems are a common receptor of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) contamination. Soils play an important role in the containment or dispersion of pollution to surface water, groundwater or the atmosphere. A one-dimensional model for simulating Hg fate and transport for variably saturated and transient flow conditions is presented. The model is developed using the HP1 code, which couples HYDRUS-1D for the water flow and solute transport to PHREEQC for geochemical reactions. The main processes included are Hg aqueous speciation and complexation, sorption to soil organic matter, dissolution of cinnabar and liquid Hg, and Hg reduction and volatilization. Processes such as atmospheric wet and dry deposition, vegetation litter fall and uptake are neglected because they are less relevant in the case of high Hg concentrations resulting from anthropogenic activities. A test case is presented, assuming a hypothetical sandy soil profile and a simulation time frame of 50 years of daily atmospheric inputs. Mercury fate and transport are simulated for three different sources of Hg (cinnabar, residual liquid mercury or aqueous mercuric chloride), as well as for combinations of these sources. Results are presented and discussed with focus on Hg volatilization to the atmosphere, Hg leaching at the bottom of the soil profile and the remaining Hg in or below the initially contaminated soil layer. In the test case, Hg volatilization was negligible because the reduction of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) was inhibited by the low concentration of dissolved Hg. Hg leaching was mainly caused by complexation of Hg(2+) with thiol groups of dissolved organic matter, because in the geochemical model used, this reaction only had a higher equilibrium constant than the sorption reactions. Immobilization of Hg in the initially polluted horizon was enhanced by Hg(2+) sorption onto humic and fulvic acids (which are more abundant than thiols). Potential benefits of the model for risk management and remediation of

  14. Fluorescence-based biosensor for monitoring of environmental pollutants: From concept to field application.

    PubMed

    Bidmanova, Sarka; Kotlanova, Marketa; Rataj, Tomas; Damborsky, Jiri; Trtilek, Martin; Prokop, Zbynek

    2016-10-15

    An advanced optical biosensor was developed based on the enzymatic reaction with halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons that is accompanied by the fluorescence change of pH indicator. The device is applicable for the detection of halogenated contaminants in water samples with pH ranging from 4 to 10 and temperature ranging from 5 to 60°C. Main advantages of the developed biosensor are small size (60×30×190mm(3)) and portability, which together with short measurement time of 1min belong to crucial attributes of analytical technique useful for routine environmental monitoring. The biosensor was successfully applied for the detection of several important halogenated pollutants under laboratory conditions, e.g., 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, with the limits of detection of 2.7, 1.4 and 12.1mgL(-1), respectively. The continuous monitoring was demonstrated by repetitive injection of halogenated compound into measurement solution. Consequently, field trials under environmental settings were performed. The presence of 1,2-dichloroethane (10mgL(-1)) was proved unambiguously on one of three potentially contaminated sites in Czech Republic, and the same contaminant was monitored on contaminated locality in Serbia. Equipped by Global Positioning System, the biosensor was used for creation of a precise map of contamination. Concentrations determined by biosensor and by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer exhibited the correlation coefficient of 0.92, providing a good confidence for the routine use of the biosensor system in both field screening and monitoring. PMID:26725215

  15. Determining the source of nitrate pollution in the Niger discontinuous aquifers using the natural {15N }/{14N } ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Pierre; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    1997-12-01

    In the semi-arid Niamey area (Niger), more than 10% of the deep wells exploiting the fracture network of the Precambrian aquifer are contaminated by nitrates, with concentrations as high as 10 meq l -1. In order to identify the source(s) of this pollution, nitrate and 15N contents in the polluted wells were monitored over a 20-month period. Potential sources of nitrate contamination were also analyzed for their 15N content. The isotopic compositions of nitrate in polluted waters were > + 12‰ and in rare cases exceeded +17‰. Latrines (˜ + 15‰) may be the major nitrate source for wells showing δ15N values above +15‰. Below this value, waters may be polluted by a combination of nitrates from both latrine and soil sources (˜ + 10‰). In some cases, the soil may account for up to 85% of the groundwater nitrate load. This mode of groundwater pollution is thought to be a consequence of deforestation. Despite their reputation as polluting agents, fertilizers ( +0.5 < δ 15N < + 3.6‰ ) which are used in rice paddies close to the contaminated areas, do not appear to be a significant source of nitrate contamination. Denitrification is probably not a significant process in the study area. Results suggest that nitrate contamination of the aquifer is a consequence of unregulated urbanization (home-made latrines) and deforestation. While latrines are limited to the urban zones, intensive cutting of the forest to meet the city dwellers' wood demand occurs in an ever increasing area around the capital, threatening the local water supply.

  16. Outdoor air pollution in close proximity to a continuous point source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Gabel, Etienne B.; Ott, Wayne R.; Switzer, Paul

    Data are lacking on human exposure to air pollutants occurring in ground-level outdoor environments within a few meters of point sources. To better understand outdoor exposure to tobacco smoke from cigarettes or cigars, and exposure to other types of outdoor point sources, we performed more than 100 controlled outdoor monitoring experiments on a backyard residential patio in which we released pure carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer gas for continuous time periods lasting 0.5-2 h. The CO was emitted from a single outlet at a fixed per-experiment rate of 120-400 cc min -1 (˜140-450 mg min -1). We measured CO concentrations every 15 s at up to 36 points around the source along orthogonal axes. The CO sensors were positioned at standing or sitting breathing heights of 2-5 ft (up to 1.5 ft above and below the source) and at horizontal distances of 0.25-2 m. We simultaneously measured real-time air speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and temperature at single points on the patio. The ground-level air speeds on the patio were similar to those we measured during a survey of 26 outdoor patio locations in 5 nearby towns. The CO data exhibited a well-defined proximity effect similar to the indoor proximity effect reported in the literature. Average concentrations were approximately inversely proportional to distance. Average CO levels were approximately proportional to source strength, supporting generalization of our results to different source strengths. For example, we predict a cigarette smoker would cause average fine particle levels of approximately 70-110 μg m -3 at horizontal distances of 0.25-0.5 m. We also found that average CO concentrations rose significantly as average air speed decreased. We fit a multiplicative regression model to the empirical data that predicts outdoor concentrations as a function of source emission rate, source-receptor distance, air speed and wind direction. The model described the data reasonably well, accounting for ˜50% of the log

  17. The Intense Slow Positron Source concept: A theoretical perspective on a proposed INEL Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Makowitz, H.; Abrashoff, J.D.; Landman, W.H.; Albano, R.K.; Tajima, T.; Larson, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    An analysis has been performed of the INEL Intense Slow Positron Source (ISPS) concept. The results of the theoretical study are encouraging. A full-scale device with a monoenergetic 5 KeV positron beam of {ge}10{sup 12} e{sup +}/s on a {le}0.03-cmdiameter target appears feasible and can be obtained within the existing infrastructure of INEL reactor facilities. A 30.0-cm-diameter, large area source dish, moderated at first with thin crystalline W films and later by solid Ne, is proposed as the initial device in order to explore problems with a facility scale system. A demonstration scale beam at {ge}10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s is proposed using a {sup 58}Co source plated on a 6-cm-diameter source dish insert, placed in a 30- cm adapter.

  18. Contribution of area sources to hazardous air pollutant emissions in three urban areas. Report for November 1992-October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.W.; Campbell, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    The paper discusses the contribution of area sources to hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions in three urban areas--Baltimore, Chicago, and Seattle-Tacoma (Puget Sound). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has implemented the Urban Area Source Program (UASP) required until Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The HAPs emitted in the greatest quantities in these area source inventories are from degreasing and dry cleaning. Another important source category is fossil fuel combustion. The best approach to use in developing a HAP area source emissions inventory may be to combine the top-down method with local surveys of small manufacturing facilities and service industies.

  19. Comparing Multipollutant Emissions-Based Mobile Source Indicators to Other Single Pollutant and Multipollutant Indicators in Different Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Michelle M.; Baxter, Lisa K.; Duvall, Rachelle M.; Madden, Meagan; Xie, Mingjie; Hannigan, Michael P.; Peel, Jennifer L.; Pachon, Jorge E.; Balachandran, Siv; Russell, Armistead; Long, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of single pollutant and multipollutant metrics can be used to represent exposure to traffic pollutant mixtures and evaluate their health effects. Integrated mobile source indicators (IMSIs) that combine air quality concentration and emissions data have recently been developed and evaluated using data from Atlanta, Georgia. IMSIs were found to track trends in traffic-related pollutants and have similar or stronger associations with health outcomes. In the current work, we apply IMSIs for gasoline, diesel and total (gasoline + diesel) vehicles to two other cities (Denver, Colorado and Houston, Texas) with different emissions profiles as well as to a different dataset from Atlanta. We compare spatial and temporal variability of IMSIs to single-pollutant indicators (carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC)) and multipollutant source apportionment factors produced by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Across cities, PMF-derived and IMSI gasoline metrics were most strongly correlated with CO (r = 0.31–0.98), while multipollutant diesel metrics were most strongly correlated with EC (r = 0.80–0.98). NOx correlations with PMF factors varied across cities (r = 0.29–0.67), while correlations with IMSIs were relatively consistent (r = 0.61–0.94). In general, single-pollutant metrics were more correlated with IMSIs (r = 0.58–0.98) than with PMF-derived factors (r = 0.07–0.99). A spatial analysis indicated that IMSIs were more strongly correlated (r > 0.7) between two sites in each city than single pollutant and PMF factors. These findings provide confidence that IMSIs provide a transferable, simple approach to estimate mobile source air pollution in cities with differing topography and source profiles using readily available data. PMID:25405595

  20. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake. PMID:26545892

  1. In-situ treatment of non-point source pollution part 1: Concepts and chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The loss of nutrients, particularly phosphorus (P), in agricultural and urban/suburban drainage waters is a priority conservation concern. Although several best management practices are effective in preventing particulate P losses to surface waters, they are less effective on dissolved P losses. Op...

  2. Modelling fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the Meuse catchment to assess the contribution of different pollution sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Nele; Seuntjens, Piet

    2013-04-01

    Large river basins have multiple sources of pesticides and usually the pollution sources are spread over the entire catchment. The cumulative effect of pesticides entering the river system in upstream areas and the formation of persistent degradation products can compromise downstream water use e.g. raw water quality for drinking water abstractions. For assessments at catchment scale pesticide fluxes coming from different sources and sub basins need to be taken into account. To improve management strategies, a sound understanding of the sources, emission routes, transport, environmental fate and conversion of pesticides is needed. In the Netherlands, the Meuse river basin is an important source for drinking water production. The river suffers from elevated concentrations of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). For AMPA it is rather unclear to what extent the pollution is related to glyphosate degradation and what is the contribution of other sources, especial phosphonates in domestic and industrial waste water. Based on the available monitoring data only it is difficult to distinguish between AMPA sources in such a large river basin. This hampers interpretation and decision making for water quality management in the Meuse catchment. Here, application of water quality models is very useful to obtain complementary information and insights. Modelling allows accounting for temporal and spatial variability in discharge and concentrations as well as distinguishing the contribution from conversion processes. In this study, a model for the river Meuse was developed and applied to assess the contribution of tributary and transnational influxes, glyphosate degradation and other sources to the AMPA pollution.

  3. PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY TO NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a probabilistic framework for the assessment of groundwater pollution potential by pesticides in two adjacent agricultural watersheds in the Mid-Altantic Coastal Plain. Indices for estimating streams vulnerability to pollutants' load from the surficial aquifer...

  4. Optimal characterization of pollutant sources in contaminated aquifers by integrating sequential-monitoring-network design and source identification: methodology and an application in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Om; Datta, Bithin

    2015-09-01

    Often, when pollution is first detected in groundwater, very few spatiotemporal pollutant concentration measurements are available. The contaminant concentration measurement data initially available are generally sparse and insufficient for accurate source characterization. This requires development of a contaminant monitoring plan and its field implementation to collect more data. The location of scientifically chosen monitoring points and the number of measurements are important considerations in improving the source-characterization process, especially in a complex contamination scenario. In order to improve the efficiency of source characterization, a feedback-based methodology is implemented, integrating sequential-monitoring-network design and a source identification method. The simulated annealing (SA) optimization algorithm is used to solve the models for optimal source identification and the monitoring-network-design optimization. This sequence is repeated a few times to improve the accuracy of source characterization. The methodology is based on the premise that concentration measurements from a sequence of implemented monitoring networks provide feedback information on the actual concentration in the site. This additional information, obtained as feedback from monitoring networks designed and implemented based on intermediate source characterization, can result in sequential improvement in the resulting source characterization. The performance of this methodology is evaluated by application to a contaminated aquifer site in New South Wales, Australia, where source location, source-activity initiation time and source-flux (mass per unit time) release history are considered as unknown variables. The performance evaluation results demonstrate potential applicability of the proposed sequential methodology.

  5. Clays and clay minerals in Bikaner: Sources, environment pollution and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayatri, Sharma; Anu, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Environmental pollution can also be caused by minerals which include natural as well as human activities. Rapid urbanization, consumerist life style, anthropogenic deeds are increasing environmental pollution day by day. Fluctuation in our ecosystem or polluted environment leads to many diseases and shows adverse effects on living organisms. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the environmental pollution from clays and clay minerals and their mitigation..

  6. The impact of information on behavior under an ambient-based policy for regulating nonpoint source pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Haoran; Fooks, Jacob R.; Guilfoos, Todd; Messer, Kent D.; Pradhanang, Soni M.; Suter, Jordan F.; Trandafir, Simona; Uchida, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Stemming from Segerson [1988], literature on nonpoint source pollution shows that ambient-based regulatory policies can induce polluters in a common watershed to comply with an exogenously determined pollution standard. This study uses laboratory economic experiments in a spatially heterogeneous setting to test the effectiveness of an ambient tax/subsidy policy in a setting with realistic in-stream nutrient transport dynamics when varying levels of sensor information on ambient pollution are available to the agents and the regulator. We find that increasing the frequency of ambient monitoring improves the spatial allocation of emissions reductions. In particular, with more frequent monitoring, the ambient-based policy induces firms further from the monitoring point to reduce emissions significantly more than downstream firms. Overall, the results suggest that enhanced temporal resolution of monitoring leads to efficiency gains.

  7. Increase in Metabolic Syndrome-Related Hospitalizations in Relation to Environmental Sources of Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Sergeev, Alexander V.; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from cell studies indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POP) can induce insulin resistance, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We hypothesized that residential proximity to environmental sources of POP would be associated with the MetS in the population. The present study examined the association between residency in a zip code containing or abutting environmental sources of POP and MetS-related hospitalization rates. Hospitalization data were obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Relative risks (RR) were calculated as hospitalization rate ratios. Adjusted RR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. A higher proportion of African Americans resided in POP zip codes compared to Caucasians (25.9% and 24.3%, respectively, p < 0.01). Residence in POP zip codes was associated with a statistically significant 39.2% increase in MetS-related hospitalization rates, adjusted for race, gender, and age (adjusted RR = 1.392, 95% CI: 1.032–1.879, p = 0.030). Increase in age was independently associated with higher MetS-related hospitalization rates (p for trend < 0.001). Our findings contribute to the body of evidence supporting the hypothesis of POP constituting an environmental risk factor for the MetS. Further studies investigating exposure to POP and insulin resistance are warranted. PMID:21556177

  8. Animals living in polluted environments are potential source of antimicrobials against infectious agents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Simon; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobials crisis is a ticking time bomb which could lead to millions of people dying from untreatable infections. With the worsening trends of antimicrobial resistance, we are heading towards a pre-antibiotic era. Thus, there is a need for newer and more powerful antibiotic agents. The search for new antibiotic compounds originating from natural resources is a promising research area. Animals living in germ-infested environments are a potent source of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of bacteria, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances which show potent activity in the nervous system. We hope that the discovery of antimicrobial activity in the cockroach brain will stimulate research in finding antimicrobials from unusual sources, and has potential for the development of novel antibiotics. Nevertheless, intensive research in the next few years will be required to approach or realize these expectations. PMID:23265422

  9. Elemental analysis of aerosols in Tehran's atmosphere using PIXE and identification of pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, N; Khashman, S; Lamehi-Rachti, M; Agha Aligol, D; Shokouhi, F; Oliaiy, P; Farmahini Farahani, M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been applied to measure the elemental composition and concentrations of particulate matter of 220 samples of aerosols in Tehran's atmosphere within a 450-day time interval starting from March 2009 and ending in June 2010, covering all four seasons. PIXE analysis shows the samples are comprised of various elements including Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb. Also, to obtain more information about the sources of pollution and to identify the major sources of urban particulate matter, principal component analysis (PCA) was used. Furthermore, micro-PIXE was performed to study individual aerosols in some samples. Results revealed that the concentration of elements originating from vehicle emissions increases three times in winter; whereas the concentration of elements with soil origin remains constant. Based on wind rose maps, it is inferred that the high concentrations of the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe are associated with natural dust brought by winds into Tehran from the west. PMID:25027779

  10. A multi-criteria approach to Great Barrier Reef catchment (Queensland, Australia) diffuse-source pollution problem.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R; Herr, A; Brodie, J; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria based tool for assessing the relative impact of diffuse-source pollution to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) from the river basins draining into the GBR lagoon. The assessment integrates biophysical and ecological data of water quality and pollutant concentrations with socio-economic information pertaining to non-point source pollution and (potential) pollutant impact. The tool generates scores for each river basin against four criteria, thus profiling the basins and enabling prioritization of management alternatives between and within basins. The results support policy development for pollution control through community participation, scientific data integration and expert knowledge contributed by people from across the catchment. The results specifically provided support for the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan, released in October 2003. The aim of the plan is to provide a framework for reducing discharge of sediment, nutrient and other diffuse-source loads and (potential) impact of that discharge and for prioritising management actions both between and within river basins. PMID:15757715

  11. Locating sources of hazardous gas emissions using dual pollution rose plots and open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Lung-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hou; Lu, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-30

    A new approach employing two pollution rose plots to locate the sources of multiple hazardous gas emissions was proposed and tested in an industrial area. The data used for constructing the pollution rose plots were obtained from two side-by-side measurements of open-path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers during one week of continuous analysis on the rooftop of a semiconductor plant. Hazardous gases such as CF4, C2F6, CH3OH, NH3, NO2, and SF6 were found and quantified at the ppb level by both OP-FTIR measurement sites. The data of the top 20% highest concentrations and associated wind directions were used to construct the pollution rose plots. Pollution source probability contours for each compound were constructed using the probability-product of directional probability from two pollution rose plots. Hot spots for SF6, CF4, NO2, and C2F6 pointed to the stack area of the plant, but the sources of CH3OH and NH3 were found outside of this plant. The influences of parameters for this approach such as the variation in wind direction, lower limit concentration threshold and the nearby buildings were discussed. PMID:24333712

  12. A hybrid ion-source concept for a proton driver front-end

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.; Luft, P.; Regis, M.; Wallig, J.; Monroy, M.; Ratti,A.; Syversrud, D.; Welton, R.; Anderson, D.

    2004-10-18

    A novel concept for creating intense beams of negative hydrogen ion beams has been devised, and first steps towards its realization have been taken. In this approach, an ECR plasma generator operating at 2.45 GHz frequency is utilized as a plasma cathode, and electrons are extracted instead of ions and injected at moderate energy into an SNS type multi-cusp H{sup -} ion source. This secondary source is then driven by chopped d. c. power, rather than rf power, but does not need filaments which are the cause for the rather short lifetime of conventional H{sup -} sources. The development of this ion source is primarily aimed at the future beam-power goal of 3 MW for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [1] that will be pursued after the start of SNS operations. The first two phases of this development effort have been successfully passed: assembly of a test stand and verification of the performance of an rf-driven SNS ion-source prototype and extraction of electrons with more than 200 mA current from a 2.45-GHz ECR ion source obtained on loan from Argonne National Laboratory. An electron-extraction chamber that joins these ECR and H{sup -} sources has been fabricated, and the next goal is the demonstration of actual H{sup -} ion production by this novel, hybrid ion source. This paper describes the source principle and design in detail, reports on the current status of the development work, and gives an outlook on future lines of development.

  13. Identifying sources of ozone to three rural locations in Nevada, USA, using ancillary gas pollutants, aerosol chemistry, and mercury.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Fine, Rebekka; Pierce, Ashley M; Gustin, Mae S

    2015-10-15

    Ozone (O3) is a secondary air pollutant of long standing and increasing concern for environmental and human health, and as such, the US Environmental Protection Agency will revise the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppbv to ≤ 70 ppbv. Long term measurements at the Great Basin National Park (GBNP) indicate that O3 in remote areas of Nevada will exceed a revised standard. As part of the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative, measurements of O3 and other air pollutants were made at 3 remote sites between February 2012 and March 2014, GBNP, Paradise Valley (PAVA), and Echo Peak (ECHO). Exceptionally high concentrations of each air pollutant were defined relative to each site as mixing ratios that exceeded the 90th percentile of all hourly data. Case studies were analyzed for all periods during which mean daily O3 exceeded the 90th percentile concurrently with a maximum 8-h average (MDA8) O3 that was "exceptionally high" for the site (65 ppbv at PAVA, 70 ppbv at ECHO and GBNP), and of potential regulatory significance. An MDA8 ≥ 65 ppbv occurred only five times at PAVA, whereas this occurred on 49 and 65 days at GBNP and ECHO, respectively. The overall correlation between O3 and other pollutants was poor, consistent with the large distance from significant primary emission sources. Mean CO at these locations exceeded concentrations reported for background sites in 2000. Trajectory residence time calculations and air pollutant concentrations indicate that exceedances at GBNP and ECHO were promoted by air masses originating from multiple sources, including wildfires, transport of pollution from southern California and the marine boundary layer, and transport of Asian pollution plumes. Results indicate that the State of Nevada will exceed a revised O3 standard due to sources that are beyond their control. PMID:25957787

  14. A methodology to determine pesticides pollution sources in water catchments: study case (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Limbourg, Q; Noel, S; Huyghebaert, B; Capette, L; Hallet, V

    2009-01-01

    In the Walloon Region (Belgium), a Committee of Investigation was created in 2007 to investigate and determine the potential pesticides pollution sources in drinkable water catchments. This Committee, constituted by a multidisciplinary team of experts i.e agronomists, soil scientists, phyto-chemists, hydrogeologists, is coordinated by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W) and funded by the Société Publique de Gestion des Eaux (SPGE). The diagnosis method is inspired of the AQUAPLAINE method (Arvalis, France), and is composed of four steps: 1/preparing the diagnosis using existing data, 2/diagnosis using data bank completed by field observations, 3/meeting and discussion with the pesticide users, 4/final diagnosis and remediation proposal. In a rural district of Walloon Region, a water producer who possesses two catchments ("Les marroniers" (P1) and "Puits N2" (P2)) has problems with pesticides. The pollution started in 1998 with atrazine and bromacile detected in the two catchments. In 2004, 2,6-dichlorobenzamide, metabolite of dichlobenil, was also detected in the catchments. At present, all these pesticides are still found in the catchment P1 and only the 2,6 dichlorobenzamide is found in the other catchment. These active ingredients are not used in agriculture expect atrazine. Indeed, the main user of these products is the public sector. An investigation was realised to locate the main sites which are treated with these pesticides in this commune. The conclusion of this study is that the local authority used dichlobenil, bromacile and atrazine to weed the public areas. In more, the filling and the cleaning areas of sprayer, used for the treatment, are located near the catchments. PMID:20218526

  15. Assessing the effects of non-point source pollution on American Samoa's coral reef communities.

    PubMed

    Houk, Peter; Didonato, Guy; Iguel, John; Van Woesik, Robert

    2005-08-01

    Surveys were completed on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, to characterize reef development and assess the impacts of non-point source pollution on adjacent coral reefs at six sites. Multivariate analyses of benthic and coral community data found similar modern reef development at three locations; Aoa, Alofau, and Leone. These sites are situated in isolated bays with gentle sloping foundations. Aoa reefs had the highest estimates of crustose coralline algae cover and coral species richness, while Leone and Alofau showed high abundances of macroalgae and Porites corals. Aoa has the largest reef flat between watershed discharge and the reef slope, and the lowest human population density. Masefau and Fagaalu have a different geomorphology consisting of cemented staghorn coral fragments and steep slopes, however, benthic and coral communities were not similar. Benthic data suggest Fagaalu is heavily impacted compared with all other sites. Reef communities were assessed as bio-criteria indicators for waterbody health, using the EPA aquatic life use support designations of (1) fully supportive, (2) partially supportive, and (3) non-supportive for aquatic life. All sites resulted in a partially supportive ranking except Fagaalu, which was non-supportive. The results of this rapid assessment based upon relative benthic community measures are less desirable than long-term dataset analyses from monitoring programs, however it fills an important role for regulatory agencies required to report annual waterbody assessments. Future monitoring sites should be established to increase the number of replicates within each geological and physical setting to allow for meaningful comparisons along a gradient of hypothesized pollution levels. PMID:16418902

  16. Mutagenicity and Pollutant Emission Factors of Solid-Fuel Cookstoves: Comparison with Other Combustion Sources

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Esra; Warren, Sarah H.; Ebersviller, Seth M.; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Schmid, Judith E.; Dye, Janice A.; Linak, William P.; Gilmour, M. Ian; Jetter, James J.; Higuchi, Mark; DeMarini, David M.

    2016-01-01

    JJ, Higuchi M, DeMarini DM. 2016. Mutagenicity and pollutant emission factors of solid-fuel cookstoves: comparison with other combustion sources. Environ Health Perspect 124:974–982; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509852 PMID:26895221

  17. Pollution situation and possible markers of different sources in the Ordos Region, Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jianhua; Liu, Hongjie; Dai, Tianyou; Yang, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Jun; Wang, Zifa

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the pollution situation for a fast-developing industrial area at its first stage, a systematic study on the gaseous and particulate pollution in the Ordos Region of Inner Mongolia was performed during 9-24 September 2005. The gases SO(2), NO(x), O(3), CO, and the particulates PM(10) and PM(2.5) were sampled at five sites in Ordos. Species measured in aerosol were 21 elements, 10 ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and the acid-buffering capacity of particulates. Possible markers of sources for different transport directions were firstly investigated, which was a new attempt for clarification of regional transport with different directions. None of the gases exceeded the national standards of China. PM(2.5) contributed most to PM(10) at the background site, indicating the greatest contribution of regional transport. Organic matter, crustal material, and sulfate ion were the three dominant species of aerosol, followed by EC, NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), trace elements, and other ions. The acidity of PM(2.5) was higher than that of PM(10), and the buffering capacity in PM(10) was higher than that in PM(2.5). Four peaks of pollution aerosol were observed during the 3-week study sampling period, separated by periods of cleaner air. Back-trajectories revealed that the peaks came from the south and the cleaner air from the north. It is the first time to find different markers for aerosols from different transport directions in Ordos. S and Pb, as well as SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), and NH(4)(+) appeared to be good markers of southern aerosol in the Ordos, since all showed four clear peaks on days dominated by southern direction. Extremely high peaks of Al and Ti on the 16th and 17th, especially at the dust-monitoring site, indicated good markers for soil dust. Ca and Mg showed earlier peaks on the 16th at the western site, indicating possible markers for western aerosol. PMID:19914684

  18. Checking the light pollution sources at Asiago Astrophysical Observatory from photometric and spectroscopic observations. Results from a unique experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortolani, Sergio; Bertolo, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of recent sky brightness measurements at Asiago Observatory with the goal to understand the sources and the propagation of the light pollution.There are actually two main models for the light pollution: one is based on a dominant Lambert diffusion. A recent model, instead, includes a "cavity" effect in the urban centers, limiting the low angles horizontal propagation. The effects of the local vs. distant light centers on the brightness of the light sky at the observatories are different in the two models and the regulations required to limit the light pollution are different.A unique experiment was carried out at Asiago Observatory in order to clarify this ambiguity turning off more than 5000 public street lamps in a 500 square km area around the telescopes, in a clear, moonless night. We also investigated the sources of the emission lines in the spectra and their evolution.

  19. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-05-01

    The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported (via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)) to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers.

  20. Source apportionment and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in water and sediments of Buriganga River, Bangladesh, using multivariate analysis and pollution evaluation indices.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain; Dampare, Samuel B; Islam, M A; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals in water and sediment samples of Buriganga River in the capital city Dhaka, Bangladesh, were studied to understand the level of heavy metals and their source apportionment. The results showed that the mean concentrations of heavy metals both in water and sediment samples were very high and, in most cases, exceeded the permissible limits recommended by the Bangladesh government and other international organizations. Significantly higher concentrations of Pb, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd were found in sediment samples. However, average concentrations of metals both in water and sediment samples were above the effect range median. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (Cd) yielded different results in water samples despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) showed strong correlations with HPI and Cd and provided better assessment of pollution levels. The enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) showed the elevated value of Cr, Pb, and Cd in access of background values. The measured elements were subjected to positive matrix factorization (PMF) and examining correlations in order to explain the content, behavior, and source apportionment of metals. PMF resulted in a successful partitioning of variances into sources related to background geochemistry and contaminant influences. However, the PMF approach successfully demarcated the major sources of metals from tannery, paint, municipal sewage, textiles, and agricultural activities. PMID:25416128

  1. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. PMID:27058127

  2. Special Issue of Inhalation Toxicology for Air Pollution and Health: Bridging the Gap from Sources-to-Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution and Health: Bridging the Gap from Sources to Health Outcomes”, an international specialty conference by the American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) (http://aaar.2010specialty.org/), provided one such opportunity for these interactions. The Conference was organi...

  3. Tracking the Primary Sources of Fecal Pollution in a Tropical Watershed in a One-Year Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine the primary sources of fecal pollution in a subtropical watershed using host-specific assays developed in temperate regions. Water samples (n=534) from 10 different sites along the Rio Grande de Arecibo watershed were collected every two-three w...

  4. Steady-state solution of the semi-empirical diffusion equation for area sources. [air pollution studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebedeff, S. A.; Hameed, S.

    1975-01-01

    The problem investigated can be solved exactly in a simple manner if the equations are written in terms of a similarity variable. The exact solution is used to explore two questions of interest in the modelling of urban air pollution, taking into account the distribution of surface concentration downwind of an area source and the distribution of concentration with height.

  5. Discriminant analysis of ribotype profiles of Escherichia coli for differentiating human and nonhuman sources of fecal pollution.

    PubMed

    Parveen, S; Portier, K M; Robinson, K; Edmiston, L; Tamplin, M L

    1999-07-01

    Estuarine waters receive fecal pollution from a variety of sources, including humans and wildlife. Escherichia coli is a ubiquitous bacterium in the intestines of warm-blooded animals and is used as an indicator of fecal pollution. However, its presence does not specifically differentiate sources of pollution. A total of 238 E. coli isolates from human sources (HS) and nonhuman sources (NHS) were collected from the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve, from associated sewage treatment plants, and directly from animals and tested for ribotype (RT) profile. HS and NHS isolates showed 41 and 61 RT profiles, respectively. At a similarity index of ca. 50%, HS and NHS isolates demonstrated four clusters, with the majority of HS and NHS isolates located in clusters C and D; isolates obtained directly from human and animal feces also could be grouped within these clusters. Discriminant analysis (DA) of RT profiles showed that 97% of the NHS isolates and 100% of the animal fecal isolates were correctly classified. The average rate of correct classification for HS and NHS isolates was 82%. We conclude that DA of RT profiles may be a useful method for identifying HS and NHS fecal pollution and may potentially facilitate management practices. PMID:10388715

  6. Application of soil magnetometry on urban and industrial areas affected by different sources of pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, T.; Szuszkiewicz, M.; Rachwał, M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil magnetometry as a proxy screening method has proven to be a suitable method for outlining soil pollution, connected with industrial and urban dust deposition as well as qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluation of potentially contaminated areas with considerably high concentration of technogenic iron particles and related heavy metals. In combination with geochemical method it could be also used for better targeting the geochemical sampling and reducing the number of chemical analysis. During this study the method was applied on areas dominated by 3 different sources of pollution: urban (mostly related to coal combustion), metallurgical and coke production. The three analyzed forest complexes were artificially planted and grow on anthroposols with different stage of transformation. During the study analysis of vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility (κ) in 40 topsoil profiles taken in 3 above mentioned forest areas were performed. Additionally, soil samples taken from horizons with increased magnetic susceptibility (mostly organic horizon) and from mineral horizons (considered as a background) were selected to chemical analysis of 9 heavy metal content (Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb). X-ray fluorescence method was applied for geochemical study. The highest κ values up to 1200 × 10-5 SI units were measured in the vicinity of metallurgical plant but the correlation between κ values and heavy metal content was there very low and statistically not significant. The considerably high correlation between magnetic susceptibility and some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, As) were observed on 2 other areas of study. On the base of these study in combination with former mineralogical study of industrial dusts and topsoils, the following conclusions have been drown: Steelworks - emit strongly magnetic technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) including metallic iron (α-Fe) that is strong ferromagnetic (giving high κ values) but do not contain heavy

  7. Urban increments of gaseous and aerosol pollutants and their sources using mobile aerosol mass spectrometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Miriam; Bozzetti, Carlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Teinemaa, Erik; Richter, Rene; Wolf, Robert; Slowik, Jay G.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is one of the main environmental concerns in urban areas, where anthropogenic emissions strongly affect air quality. This work presents the first spatially resolved detailed characterization of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic equivalent diameter daero ≤ 2.5 µm) in two major Estonian cities, Tallinn and Tartu. The measurements were performed in March 2014 using a mobile platform. In both cities, the non-refractory (NR)-PM2.5 was characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) using a recently developed lens which increases the transmission of super-micron particles. Equivalent black carbon (eBC) and several trace gases including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were also measured. The chemical composition of PM2.5 was found to be very similar in the two cities. Organic aerosol (OA) constituted the largest fraction, explaining on average about 52 to 60 % of the PM2.5 mass. Four sources of OA were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF): hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, from traffic emissions), biomass burning OA (BBOA, from biomass combustion), residential influenced OA (RIOA, probably mostly from cooking processes with possible contributions from waste and coal burning), and oxygenated OA (OOA, related to secondary aerosol formation). OOA was the major OA source during nighttime, explaining on average half of the OA mass, while during daytime mobile measurements the OA was affected by point sources and dominated by the primary fraction. A strong increase in the secondary organic and inorganic components was observed during periods with transport of air masses from northern Germany, while the primary local emissions accumulated during periods with temperature inversions. Mobile measurements offered the identification of different source regions within the urban areas and the assessment of the extent to which pollutants concentrations exceeded regional background

  8. Characterization of sources and loadings of fecal pollutants using microbial source tracking assays in urban and rural areas of the Grand River Watershed, Southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T; Weir, Susan C; Thomas, Janis L; Habash, Marc

    2014-04-15

    Sources of fecal water pollution were assessed in the Grand River and two of its tributaries (Ontario, Canada) using total and host-specific (human and bovine) Bacteroidales genetic markers in conjunction with reference information, such as land use and weather. In-stream levels of the markers and culturable Escherichia coli were also monitored during multiple rain events to gain information on fecal loadings to catchment from diffuse sources. Elevated human-specific marker levels were accurately identified in river water impacted by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and at a downstream site in the Grand River. In contrast, the bovine-specific marker showed high levels of cattle fecal pollution in two tributaries, both of which are characterized as intensely farmed areas. The bovine-specific Bacteroidales marker increased with rainfall in the agricultural tributaries, indicating enhanced loading of cattle-derived fecal pollutants to river from non-point sources following rain events. However, rain-triggered fecal loading was not substantiated in urban settings, indicating continuous inputs of human-originated fecal pollutants from point sources, such as WWTP effluent. This study demonstrated that the Bacteroidales source tracking assays, in combination with land use information and hydrological data, may provide additional insight into the spatial and temporal distribution of source-specific fecal contamination in streams impacted by varying land uses. Using the approach described in this study may help to characterize impacted water sources and to design targeted land use management plans in other watersheds in the future. PMID:24509346

  9. PM2.5 pollution in a megacity of southwest China: source apportionment and implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, J.; Gao, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Che, H.; Zhang, Z.; Lin, Z.; Jing, J.; Cao, J.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2014-02-01

    -Fe), defined as excessive portion in measured Fe that cannot be sustained by mineral dust, is corroborated to be a straightforward useful tracer of iron and steel manufacturing pollution. In Chengdu, Mo/Ni mass ratios were persistently higher than unity, and considerably distinct from those usually observed in ambient airs. V/Ni ratios averaged at only 0.7. Results revealed that heavy oil fuel combustion should not be a vital anthropogenic source, and additional anthropogenic sources for Mo are yet to be identified. Overall, the emission sources identified in Chengdu could be dominated by local sources located in the vicinity of Sichuan, a result differed from those found in Beijing and Shanghai, wherein cross-boundary transport is significant in contributing pronounced PM2.5. These results provided implications for PM2.5 control strategies.

  10. PM2.5 pollution in a megacity of southwest China: source apportionment and implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, J.; Gao, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Che, H.; Zhang, Z.; Lin, Z.; Jing, J.; Cao, J.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2014-08-01

    -Fe), defined as the excessive portion in measured Fe that cannot be sustained by mineral dust, is corroborated to be a straightforward useful tracer of iron and steel manufacturing pollution. In Chengdu, Mo / Ni mass ratios were persistently higher than unity, and considerably distinct from those usually observed in ambient airs. V / Ni ratios averaged only 0.7. Results revealed that heavy oil fuel combustion should not be a vital anthropogenic source, and additional anthropogenic sources for Mo are yet to be identified. Overall, the emission sources identified in Chengdu could be dominated by local sources located in the vicinity of Sichuan, a result different from those found in Beijing and Shanghai, wherein cross-boundary transport is significant in contributing pronounced PM2.5. These results provided implications for PM2.5 control strategies.

  11. Air pollution and lung cancer in Trieste, Italy: spatial analysis of risk as a function of distance from sources.

    PubMed Central

    Biggeri, A; Barbone, F; Lagazio, C; Bovenzi, M; Stanta, G

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between four sources of environmental pollution (shipyard, iron foundry, incinerator, and city center) and lung cancer risk, we conducted a case-control study of decreased men in Trieste, Italy. We identified 755 cases of lung cancer and 755 controls through the local autopsy registry. Information on smoking habits, occupational history, and place of residence were obtained from the subject's next of kin. The case-control design was used to properly account for subject-specific confounders, which represent a major problem in geographical analysis. Spatial models were used to evaluate the effect of sources of pollution on lung cancer after adjustment for age, smoking habits, likelihood of exposure to occupational carcinogens, and levels of air particulate. The models are based on distance from the sources and enable estimation of the risk gradient and directional effects separately for each source. The risk of lung cancer was highly related to the city center (p = 0.0243), with an excess relative risk at zero distance of 2.2 and a smooth decrease moving away from the source (-0.015), and related to the incinerator (p = 0.0098), with an excess relative risk of 6.7 in the source and a very steep decrease (-0.176). These results are consistent with findings of previous analyses and provide further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor of lung cancer. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3 PMID:8841761

  12. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level. PMID:26936476

  13. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA. PMID:26392092

  14. Indoor air pollution: Sources and control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning indoor air pollution in residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings. Indoor air quality assessment, health hazard evaluation, and contaminant identification and measurement are discussed. Indoor air pollution control methods and equipment are evaluated. Air quality analyses of energy efficient buildings are presented. Indoor air pollution from radon and asbestos are discussed in other bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Indoor air pollution: Sources and control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning indoor air pollution in residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings. Indoor air quality assessment, health hazard evaluation, and contaminant identification and measurement are discussed. Indoor air pollution control methods and equipment are evaluated. Air quality analyses of energy efficient buildings are presented. Indoor air pollution from radon and asbestos are discussed in other bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Indoor air pollution: Sources and control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning indoor air pollution in residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings. Indoor air quality assessment, health hazard evaluation, and contaminant identification and measurement are discussed. Indoor air pollution control methods and equipment are evaluated. Air quality analyses of energy efficient buildings are presented. Indoor air pollution from radon and asbestos are discussed in other bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Indoor air pollution: Sources and control. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning indoor air pollution in residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings. Indoor air quality assessment, health hazard evaluation, and contaminant identification and measurement are discussed. Indoor air pollution control methods and equipment are evaluated. Air quality analyses of energy efficient buildings are presented. Indoor air pollution from radon and asbestos are discussed in other bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Indoor air pollution: Sources and control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning indoor air pollution in residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings. Indoor air quality assessment, health hazard evaluation, and contaminant identification and measurement are discussed. Indoor air pollution control methods and equipment are evaluated. Air quality analyses of energy efficient buildings are presented. Indoor air pollution from radon and asbestos are discussed in other bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Multi-isotope approach: a tool to better constrain both sources and processes affecting NO3 pollution in watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.

    2006-12-01

    Nitrate is one of the major pollutants of drinking water resources worldwide. Recent European directives reduced inputs from intensive agriculture, but in most places NO3 levels are approaching the potable limit of 50 mg.l-1 in groundwater. Determining the source(s) of contamination in groundwater is an important first step for improving its quality by emission control. It is with this aim that we review here the benefit of using a multi- isotope approach (d15N, d180, d11B and 87Sr/86Sr), in addition to conventional hydrogeological analysis, to both constrain the watersheds hydrology and trace the origin of their NO3 pollution. Watersheds presented here include both fractured bedrock and alluvial (subsurface and deep) hydrogeological contexts. The strontium budget in watersheds is mainly controlled by the water-rock interactions (human inputs usually represents negligible fluxes). With the example of the Allier river (Central France), we show that, even on a very small watershed, the main water flows can usually be determined by the use of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, thus helping understanding the hydrology controlling pollution processes. The characterisation of the different usual nitrate sources of pollution in groundwater (mineral fertilisers, wastewater and animals manure) shows that they can clearly be discriminated using isotopes. The isotopic composition of the dissolved nitrogen species has been used extensively to better constrain the sources and fate of nitrate in groundwater. The possibility of quantifying both origin and secondary processes affecting N concentrations by means of a single tracer appears more limited however. Nitrogen cannot be considered conservative because it is biologically modified through nitrification and denitrification reactions, both during infiltration of the water and in the groundwater body, causing isotopic fractionation that modifies the d15N-n signatures of the dissolved N species. Discriminating multiple NO3 sources by their N

  20. A comprehensive evaluation of input data-induced uncertainty in nonpoint source pollution modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Gong, Y.; Shen, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Watershed models have been used extensively for quantifying nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, but few studies have been conducted on the error-transitivity from different input data sets to NPS modeling. In this paper, the effects of four input data, including rainfall, digital elevation models (DEMs), land use maps, and the amount of fertilizer, on NPS simulation were quantified and compared. A systematic input-induced uncertainty was investigated using watershed model for phosphorus load prediction. Based on the results, the rain gauge density resulted in the largest model uncertainty, followed by DEMs, whereas land use and fertilizer amount exhibited limited impacts. The mean coefficient of variation for errors in single rain gauges-, multiple gauges-, ASTER GDEM-, NFGIS DEM-, land use-, and fertilizer amount information was 0.390, 0.274, 0.186, 0.073, 0.033 and 0.005, respectively. The use of specific input information, such as key gauges, is also highlighted to achieve the required model accuracy. In this sense, these results provide valuable information to other model-based studies for the control of prediction uncertainty.

  1. Vascular plants for water pollution control and renewable sources of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants have demonstrated their ability to remove pollutants from domestic and chemical wastewaters. Plants such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna sp., Spirodela sp., and Wolffia sp.), and cattail (Typha sp.) thrive in nutrient-rich waters and produce tremendous quantities of biomass under favorable climatic conditions. This method of wastewater treatment is currently being used exclusively at NASA's National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL) with water hyacinths and duckweed to treat daily over 759 m/sup 3/ of domestic wastewater and 114 m/sup 3/ of chemical wastewater in four separate systems. The harvested plants from these systems have been used in various biomass utilization projects over the past five years. In laboratory batch studies of digesting vascular plants with anaerobic filters, NASA has found that 140 to 280 liters methane per kg dry weight can be obtained in an average of 23 days. Current NASA projects at NSTL seek to expand the technology required to design energy systems which produce methane through bioconversion with anaerobic filters and use the mineral residue as a nutrient source for producing new biomass.

  2. Risk assessment of lung cancer related to environmental PAH pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Vyskocil, Adolf; Viau, Claude; Camus, Michel

    2004-03-01

    We assessed the lung cancer risk in six localities with aluminium smelting activities and five with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution sources, using two quantitative risk assessment (QRA) approaches for PAH mixtures and compared their risk predictions against actual cancer incidence. In the first approach, carcinogen exposure was estimated from animal-derived BaP toxic equivalents (BaPeq) of individual PAHs. The upper bound lifetime risk estimates ranged between 0.012-4.7 x 10(-5) and 0.019-0.94 x 10(-5) in the aluminium and other localities, respectively. The second approach assumed that the potency of PAH mixtures was linked to their BaP content and lifetime lung cancer unit risk gradients were estimated from epidemiological studies based on BaP exposure measurements. Lifetime risks ranged between 0.02-89 x 10(-5) and 0.06-6.8 x 10(-5) in the aluminium and other localities, respectively. Predicted risks were generally higher in smelter towns, and higher when based on epidemiological studies than on BaPeq. In smelting communities, there was a linear relationship (R2 approximately 0.8) between female lung cancer rates and PAH exposure estimates. To conclude, animal/BaPeq-based QRAs predicted lower risks than occupational/BaP-based QRAs. Epidemiological validation of the QRA could be performed for elevated past exposure to PAHs, but not for currently lower concentrations. PMID:15119531

  3. Stochastic modeling of the rainfall-runoff process for nonpoint source pollutant load estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    A stochastic simulation methodology was developed for the rainfall runoff process to assist in the assessment of nonpoint source pollutant loads, particularly for ungaged watersheds where there is a scarcity or complete lack of historical data. The methodology was developed based on simulating individual rainfall-runoff events. A simulation model employed a rainfall simulator to stochastically generate rainfall event characteristics for input into basin hydrologic transformation functions which then predicted the corresponding runoff hydrograph characteristics. Also addressed was the impact of limited data availability on the ability to model the rainfall-runoff process. An evaluation was conducted of the degree to which committing valuable resources to expand the data base would provide measurable improvement in model results. Specifically, the probability of achieving certain levels of accuracy with the simulation model was statistically assessed as a function of the number of observed rainfall-runoff events used for model development. The probability of monitoring various numbers of rainfall-runoff events in specified time intervals was also established as an aid for planning field monitoring studies. The simulation methodology was applied to a study watershed in the Lake Ray Hubbard reservoir drainage basin near Dallas, Texas. Regional rainfall characteristics were established using historical hourly data from the Federal Aviation Administration rain gage at Love Field Airport in Dallas, Texas. Hourly rainfall data were resolved into individual rainfall events and probability density functions were identified for event volume, time between events, and event duration.

  4. Evaluating the impacts of soil data on hydrological and nonpoint source pollution prediction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Guobo; Zhong, Yucen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-09-01

    Soil data are one key input for most hydrological and nonpoint source (H/NPS) models, and quantifying the error transmission from soil data to H/NPS predictions is of great importance. In this study, two typical soil datasets were compared using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in a typical mountainous watershed, the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China. Besides, the effects of soil data resolution were evaluated, and the error transmission from soil data to watershed management strategy was assessed. The results indicate that model outputs are not sensitive to changes of soil data resolution but the choice of soil data greatly impacts the application of watershed models, in terms of the goodness-of-fit indicator, predicted data and related uncertainty. This soil data-induced error would be inevitably magnified from the flow simulation to the NPS prediction stage. This study could indicate that the choice of soil data will lead to significant differences in management schemes for specific pollution periods. These results provide information on the impacts of soil data on the functionality of watershed models and valuable information for the appropriateness of each soil database. PMID:27135563

  5. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and plasticisers in the Selangor River basin and possible pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Santhi, Veerasingam Armugam; Mustafa, Ali Mohd

    2013-02-01

    A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin from November 2008 to July 2009. Seven sampling sites representing the intake points of water treatment plants in the basin were selected to determine the occurrence and level of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), six phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA). Results indicated OCPs were still detected regularly in 66.1 % of the samples with the Σ(15)OCPs ranging from 0.6-25.2 ng/L. The first data on PAEs contamination in the basin revealed Σ(6)PAEs concentrations were between 39.0 and 1,096.6 ng/L with a median concentration of 186.0 ng/L while BPA concentration ranged from <1.2 to 120.0 ng/L. Although di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in all the samples, concentrations of di-ethyl(hexyl)phthalate were higher. Sampling sites located downstream recorded the highest concentrations, together with samples collected during the dry season. Comparison of the detected contaminants with the Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) showed some agreement between the concentration and the current classification of stream water. While the results suggest that the sites were only slightly polluted and suitable to be used as drinking water source, its presence is cause for concern especially to the fragile firefly "Pteroptyx tener" ecosystem located further downstream. PMID:22552495

  6. New Antimicrobially Amended Media for Improved Nonpoint Source Bacterial Pollution Treatment.

    PubMed

    Schifman, Laura A; Kasaraneni, Varun K; Sullivan, Ryan K; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka; Boving, Thomas B

    2015-12-15

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) such as stormwater runoff may introduce high loads of bacteria, impairing surface water bodies. The existing filter materials in stormwater best management practices (BMP) are typically not designed to inactivate bacteria. Herein, novel filtration media were extensively tested for microbial load reduction in stormwater runoff. Red cedar wood chips (RC) were amended with different loadings of either 3-(trihydroxysilyl) propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (TPA) or silver nanoparticles (AgNP). Under batch conditions at 25 °C, log10 removal values (LRV) up to 3.71 ± 0.38 (mean ± standard error) for TPA-RC and 2.25 ± 1.00 for AgNP-RC were achieved for Escherichia coli (E. coli), whereas unmodified RC achieved less than 0.5 LRV. Similar trends were observed at 17.5 °C, however at low temperature (10 °C) no statistically significant difference in E. coli inactivation between modified and unmodified RC was detected. Inactivation kinetic studies show that TPA-RC has higher inactivation rate constants compared to AgNP-RC. Under dynamic flow conditions a mass balance approach indicates that even after remobilization up to 99.8% of E. coli removal using 9 mg/g TPA-RC compared to 64.8% for unmodified RC. This study demonstrates that RC wood chips amended with antimicrobial compounds show promising applications as filtration material for the reduction of microbiological contamination load in stormwater runoff. PMID:26562065

  7. Remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants in the multi-media global environment.

    PubMed

    Göktaş, Recep Kaya; MacLeod, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Quantifying the remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can inform the design of monitoring studies and the interpretation of measurement data. Previous work on quantifying remoteness has not explicitly considered partitioning between the gas phase and aerosols, and between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. The objective of this study is to present a metric of remoteness for POPs transported through the atmosphere calculated with a global multimedia fate model, BETR-Research. We calculated the remoteness of regions covering the entire globe from emission sources distributed according to light emissions, and taking into account the multimedia partitioning properties of chemicals and using averaged global climate data. Remoteness for hypothetical chemicals with distinct partitioning properties (volatile, semi-volatile, hydrophilic, low-volatility) and having two different half-lives in air (60-day and 2-day) are presented. Differences in remoteness distribution among the hypothetical chemicals are most pronounced in scenarios assuming 60-day half-life in air. In scenarios with a 2-day half-life in air, degradation dominates over wet and dry deposition processes as a pathway for atmospheric removal of all chemicals except the low-volatility chemical. The remoteness distribution of the low-volatility chemical is strongly dependent on assumptions about degradability on atmospheric aerosols. Calculations that considered seasonal variability in temperature, hydroxyl radical concentrations in the atmosphere and global atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns indicate that variability in hydroxyl radical concentrations largely determines the seasonal variability of remoteness. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) measured in tree bark from around the world are more highly correlated with remoteness calculated using our methods than with proximity to human population, and we see considerable potential to apply remoteness

  8. Sources and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in kitchen air, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lizhong; Wang, Jing

    2003-02-01

    Twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, multi-ringed compounds known to be carcinogenic in air of six domestic kitchens and four commercial kitchens of China were measured in 1999-2000. The mean concentration of total PAHs in commercial kitchens was 17 microg/m3, consisting mainly of 3- and 4-ring PAHs, and 7.6 microg/m3 in domestic kitchens, where 2- and 3-ring PAHs were predominant, especially naphthalene. The BaP levels in domestic kitchens were 0.0061-0.024 microg/m3 and 0.15- 0.44 microg/m3 in commercial kitchens. Conventional Chinese cooking methods were responsible for such heavy PAHs pollution. The comparative study for PAH levels in air during three different cooking practices: boiling, broiling and frying were conducted. It was found that boiling produced the least levels of PAHs. For fish, a low-fat food, frying it produced a larger amount of PAHs compared to broiling practice, except pyrene and anthracene. In commercial kitchens, PAHs came from two sources, cooking practice and oil-fumes, however the cooking practice had a more predominant contribution to PAHs in commercial kitchen air. In domestic kitchens, except for cooking practice and oil-fumes, there were other PAHs sources, such as smoking and other human activities in the domestic houses, where 3-4 ring PAHs mainly came from cooking practice. Naphthalene (NA, 2-ring PAHs) was the most predominant kind, mostly resulting from the evaporation of mothball containing a large quantity of NA, used to prevent clothes against moth. A fingerprint of oil-fumes was the abundance of 3-ring PAHs. Heating at the same temperature, the PAHs concentrations in different oil-fumes were lard > soybean oil > rape-seed oil. An increase in cooking temperature increased the levels of PAHs, especially acenaphthene. PMID:12685737

  9. Aspects of petrochemical pollution in southeastern Louisiana (USA): pre-Katrina background and source characterization.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Gisclair, David; McMillin, Debra J; Portier, Ralph J

    2007-09-01

    Background petroleum pollution before Hurricane Katrina in southeastern Louisiana (USA) coastal sediments was evaluated at 320 locations in three consecutive years for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), saturated alkanes (nC9-nC35), and petroleum biomarker compounds (hopanes, steranes, pristane, and phytane). Approximately 90% of the sample locations had a total PAH concentration of less than 2.0 microg/g and total saturated alkane concentration of less than 17 microg/g, with 50% indicating a total PAH concentration of less than 200 ng/g. Upper limit or baseline high concentration for total PAHs was 1.5 microg/g, comparable to the 2.18 microg/g reported for the National Status and Trends (NST) Program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Thus, 85% of sites were below the baseline high concentration. Baseline high total PAHs at 6% of the sites (described as land) was 5.1 microg/g, comparable to the 4 microg/g benchmark calculated for NST. The three-year average total PAH concentration for 95% of the sites was less than 7.5 microg/g, a defined limit of fivefold the baseline high concentration. Samples indicated petrogenic, pyrogenic, and natural/biogenic hydrocarbon inputs. Contaminant levels exceeded the state soil screening limits at only 3% of the 320 locations. Federal screening limits proposed by the NOAA for ecological effects were exceeded at only 18% of the sites (including those sites exceeding the state limit). Only 4% of the sites had concentrations exceeding the NOAA effect range-low (ER-L) in more than one collection year. At least 61% of the analytes exceeding the ER-L were pyrogenic source indicators. Source-fingerprint analysis of these selected samples showed 10 samples with notable petroleum contamination, whereas six indicated pyrogenic input. Of all samples collected, only one site showed relatively fresh/lightly weathered petroleum. PMID:17705663

  10. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  11. Source attribution of air pollutant concentrations and trends in the southeastern aerosol research and characterization (SEARCH) network.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Charles L; Tanenbaum, Shelley; Hidy, George M

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for determining the contributions of emission sources to trends in concentrations of particulate matter and gases is developed using the chemical mass balance (CMB) method and the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory (NEI). The method extends our earlier analysis by using temporally varying emission profiles and includes accounting of primary and secondary particulate organic carbon with an empirical regression calculation. The model offers a potentially important tool for verifying that annual emission reductions by major source category have yielded changes in ambient pollutant concentrations. Using long-term measurements from well-instrumented monitoring sites, observed trends in ambient pollutant concentrations at urban and rural locations can be attributed to emission changes. Trends apportionment is conducted on 2000-2011 ambient monitoring data from the SEARCH network with NEI emissions data adjusted to improve interinventory consistency. The application accounts for major source category influences in southeastern U.S. regional trends; local anomalies are noted. In the SEARCH region, open burning is important as a source of CO and carbonaceous particles. Improved agreement between predicted and measured particulate carbon is obtained by increasing mobile diesel exhaust and area-source particulate carbon emissions by 1 and 20%, respectively, compared with NEI values. The method is general and is applicable to data from any monitoring site that is instrumented for criteria air pollutants, associated gases, and particle composition. PMID:24180677

  12. Fecal pollution source tracking in waters intended for human supply based on archaeal and bacterial genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Kayo; Barreto, Camila; Oliveira, Samara Sant'Anna; Pinto, Leonardo Henriques; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Miranda, Catia Chaia; Clementino, Maysa Mandetta

    2015-12-01

    The determination of fecal pollution sources in aquatic ecosystems is essential to estimate associated health risks. In this study, we evaluate eight microbial source tracking (MST) markers including host-specific Bacteroidales and Methanobrevibacter spp. for discrimination between human, bovine, equine, and swine fecal contamination in waters intended for human supply. Overall, the novel host-specific archaeal and bacterial primers proposed in this study demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. Markers for the Archaea domain were more prevalent in the fecal and water samples studied. We conclude that the investigations regarding the sources of fecal pollution in public water supplies can contribute to improve the quality of human health. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis using both archaeal and bacterial fecal MST markers on tropical water bodies of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. PMID:26608760

  13. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe...

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe...

  15. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe...

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe...

  17. Numerical study of atmospheric particulate matters: source apportionment to characterize 3D transport and transformation of precursors and secondary pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dongwei

    In recent years, Mainland China, and in particular the industrial hotbed of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) has experienced an increasingly serious problem of high concentrations of airborne particulate matter. Following the tightening-up of China's air quality policies in recent years, and with especially fine particles now added to a new air quality objective, the identification of major source regions and major types of pollutants has become critically important. In this study, a source-oriented method (Particulate Source Apportionment Technology: PSAT) implemented in 3-D Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx), has been applied to analyze how different emission activities impact fine particle concentration in the PRD region. By using this method, a detailed source region and emission category contribution matrix is derived for all regions within the Hong Kong/PRD region. Source appointment results shows that, in summer and spring time, emissions inside PRD region are the major fine particle sources, contribution 70.7% (11.2 mug/m3) and 52.5% (13.1 mug/m3) to the total figure. Super-regional transports are found to be significant in autumn and winter, contribution 58.5% (20.2 mug/m3) and 64.6% (27.8 mug/m3) of the total fine particles in PRD and Hong Kong region. Another important cause of high PM levels has been the transport of fine particles between cities within the PRD region, with three different regions selected for detailed analysis. Results show that mobile vehicle and industry emission are the two major sources for fine particles. Meanwhile, over the same period in Hong Kong, marine proved to be another very significant source of particle pollutant in addition to the significant impact from motor vehicle. Results show that for the Hong Kong/PRD region local reduction of mobile sources and collaboration between different areas could have succeeded in alleviating the air pollution problem.

  18. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

    2013-08-01

    Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones. PMID:23404042

  19. Source Book on Air Pollution Topics for Grade and High School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Eileen G., Ed.; McGovern, John J., Ed.

    This publication provides background information and activity suggestions on air pollution and related environmental topics. Student projects and experiments which can be adapted at both elementary and secondary levels are also provided. Information is organized in three parts. Part I covers basic facts about air pollutants including the types,…

  20. Air Pollution and Health: Bridging the Gap from Sources to Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six principal air pollutants (“criteria” pollutants): carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM) in two size ranges [...

  1. CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF MOBILE SOURCE EXPOSURES: EFFECTS OF PARTICLES AND GASEOUS CO-POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results from this study will provide critical information about the roles of pollution mixtures and motor vehicle pollution in cardiac dysfunction. Through its crossover design and use of bus trips to elevate motor vehicle exposures, this study provides a novel, efficient and ...

  2. 76 FR 14839 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Categories; State of Arizona, Maricopa County Air Quality Department; State of California, Santa Barbara... Department on May 6, 2010, and December 14, 2010, and to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control... Quality Department, and the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District. In the Rules...

  3. Predicting the impacts of climate change on nonpoint source pollutant loads from agricultural small watershed using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjeong; Seong, Chounghyun; Hakkwan, Kim; Park, Seungwoo; Kang, Moonseong

    2010-01-01

    This study described the development and validation of an artificial neural network (ANN) for the purpose of analyzing the effects of climate change on nonpoint source (NPS) pollutant loads from agricultural small watershed. The runoff discharge was estimated using ANN algorithm. The performance of ANN modelwas examined using observed data from s tudy watershed. The simulationresults agreed well with observed values during calibration and validation periods. NPS pollutant loads were calculated from load-discharge relationship driven by long-term monitoring data. LARS-WG (Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator) model was used to generate rainfall data. The calibrated ANN model and load-discharge relationship with the generated data from LARS-WGwere applied to analyze the effects of climate change on NPS pollutant loads from the agricultural small watershed. The results showed that the ANN model provided valuable approach i n estimating future runof f discharge, and the NPS pollutantloads. PMID:20923094

  4. The electron cyclotron resonance ion source with arc-shaped coils concept (invited).

    PubMed

    Koivisto, H; Suominen, P; Tarvainen, O; Spädtke, P

    2012-02-01

    The main limitation to further improve the performance of ECR ion sources is set by the magnet technology related to the multipole magnet field used for the closed minimum-B structure. The JYFL ion source group has sought different approaches to improve the strength of the minimum-B structure required for the production of highly charged ion beams. It was found out that such a configuration can be realized with arc shaped coils. The first prototype, electron cyclotron resonance ion source with arc-shaped coils (ARC-ECRIS), was constructed and tested at JYFL in 2006. It was confirmed that such an ion source can be used for the production of highly charged ion beams. Regardless of several cost-driven compromises such as extraction mirror ratio of 1.05-1.2, microwave frequency of 6.4 GHz, and beam line with limited capacity, Ar(4+) beam intensity of up to 2 μA was measured. Subsequent design study has shown that the ARC-ECRIS operating at the microwave frequency above 40 GHz could be constructed. This specific design would be based on NbTi-wires and it fulfills the experimental magnetic field scaling laws. In this article, the ARC-ECRIS concept and its potential applications will be described. PMID:22380159

  5. Aerosol composition and sources during high and low pollution periods in Ningbo, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing-Sha; Xu, Hong-Hui; Xiao, Hang; Tong, Lei; Snape, Colin E.; Wang, Cheng-Jun; He, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Due to the rapid industrialization of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China, heavy air pollution episodes have occurred frequently over the past five years which are of great concern due to their environmental and health impacts. To investigate the chemical characteristics of the highly polluted aerosols in this region, a sampling campaign had been conducted in Ningbo from 3 December 2012 to 27 June 2013, during which a month long high pollution episode had been captured. Daily average PM2.5 concentrations during high and low pollution periods were 111 μg m-3 and 53 μg m-3, respectively. The most polluted day was 8 January 2013 with a PM2.5 concentration up to 175 μg m- 3. To understand the origin of the highly polluted aerosols, meteorological conditions, air mass backward trajectories, distribution of fire spots in surrounding areas and various categories of aerosol pollutants were analyzed, including trace metals, inorganic species, PAHs and anhydrosugars. Total metal concentrations were 3.8 and 1.6 μg m-3 for the high and low pollution episodes, respectively, accounting for 3.4% and 3.1% of the total PM2.5 mass. Total concentrations of ionic species accounted for more than 50.0% of the PM2.5 by mass, with dominant ions (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium) accounting for over 42.0% of the PM2.5 mass concentrations in both periods. During the high pollution episode, enhanced Cd-Pb and biomarker (levoglucosan, mannosan) levels indicated the contributions from coal combustion, traffic and biomass burning to fine aerosol PM2.5. The average diagnostic ratio of Fla/(Fla + Pyr) was 0.54 in high pollution episode, which was intermediate between that for wood (> 0.50) and coal combustion (0.58). BaP/Bpe was 0.49 and 0.30 for the highly and lightly polluted aerosols respectively, associated with the significant non-traffic emissions (< 0.60). In addition, stagnant weather conditions during the high pollution period and long-range transport of air masses from heavy

  6. Landscape Planning for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Reduction. II. Balancing Watershed Size, Number of Watersheds, and Implementation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T.; Diebel, Matthew W.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs—i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds—have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from 2 to 200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km2; and optimal expenditure ranged from 21,000 to 35,000/km2. The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km2. These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  7. Modeling Links Between Hydrology and Non Point Source Pollution in a Data Scarce Environment, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, B. R.; Liang, X.; Hao, F.

    2005-12-01

    Hydrological behavior is a central factor in deciding the fate of agricultural pollutants, yet the exact functions of hydrology and the scales at which they are most important are understudied. A physically based hydrological model was developed to examine the transport of common agricultural pollutants (nitrogen, phosphorus, pesticides) and problems of soil salinity. This model looks to uncover the effects of different spatial and temporal scales on the dynamics of non-point source pollution loading, transport, and distribution. The principal geochemical and physical transport mechanisms such as dissolution, adsorption, advection and mass transfer from pore water to overland flow will be characterized as functions of irrigation input and soil moisture. The model is used to examine emergent behaviors at different scales and to determine which hydrological processes and conditions are most sensitive for pollutant transport. The model will be validated by comparison with data in the Inner Mongolia Irrigation District, a 5000 km2 region along the north bank of the Yellow River in northern China. The region receives very little (<200 mm) rainfall and relies heavily on irrigation water from the Yellow River and groundwater. Polluted drainage water is threatening the ecology of nearby Wuliangsuhai Lake, a wetlands ecosystem important for bird habitat. This project is supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  8. Advances in Analytical and Numerical Dispersion Modeling of Pollutants Releasing from an Area-source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmatoori, Praneeth

    The air quality near agricultural activities such as tilling, plowing, harvesting, and manure application is of main concern because they release fine particulate matter into the atmosphere. These releases are modeled as area-sources in the air quality modeling research. None of the currently available dispersion models relate and incorporate physical characteristics and meteorological conditions for modeling the dispersion and deposition of particulates emitting from such area-sources. This knowledge gap was addressed by developing the advanced analytical and numerical methods for modeling the dispersion of particulate matter. The development, application, and evaluation of new dispersion modeling methods are discussed in detail in this dissertation. In the analytical modeling, a ground-level area source analytical dispersion model known as particulate matter deposition -- PMD was developed for predicting the concentrations of different particle sizes. Both the particle dynamics (particle physical characteristics) and meteorological conditions which have significant effect on the dispersion of particulates were related and incorporated in the PMD model using the formulations of particle gravitational settling and dry deposition velocities. The modeled particle size concentrations of the PMD model were evaluated statistically after applying it to particulates released from a biosolid applied agricultural field. The evaluation of the PMD model using the statistical criteria concluded effective and successful inclusion of dry deposition theory for modeling particulate matter concentrations. A comprehensive review of analytical area-source dispersion models, which do not account for dry deposition and treat pollutants as gases, was conducted and determined three models -- the Shear, the Parker, and the Smith. A statistical evaluation of these dispersion models was conducted after applying them to two different field data sets and the statistical results concluded that

  9. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. PMID:25617855

  10. Impacts of natural emission sources on particle pollution levels in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Giannaros, Theodore M.; Kakosimos, Konstantinos E.; Stein, Olaf; Melas, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this work is the study of the impact of windblown dust, sea-salt aerosol and biogenic emissions on particle pollution levels in Europe. The Natural Emissions MOdel (NEMO) and the modelling system consisted of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the Comprehensive Air Quality model with extensions (CAMx) were applied in a 30 km horizontal resolution grid, which covered Europe and the adjacent areas for the year 2009. Air quality simulations were performed for different emission scenarios in order to study the contribution of each natural emission source individually and together to air quality levels in Europe. The simulations reveal that the exclusion of windblown dust emissions decreases the mean seasonal PM10 levels by more than 3.3 μg/m3 (∼20%) in the Eastern Mediterranean during winter while an impact of 3 μg/m3 was also found during summer. The results suggest that sea-salt aerosol has a significant effect on PM levels and composition. Eliminating sea-salt emissions reduces PM10 seasonal concentrations by around 10 μg/m3 in Mediterranean Sea during summer while a decrease of up to 6 μg/m3 is found in Atlantic Ocean during autumn. Sea-salt particles also interact with the anthropogenic component and therefore their absence in the atmosphere decreases significantly the nitrates in aerosols where shipping activities are present. The exclusion of biogenic emissions in the model runs leads to a significant reduction of secondary organic aerosols of more than 90% while an increase in PM2.5 levels in central Europe and Eastern Mediterranean is found due to their interaction with anthropogenic component.

  11. Chemical characterization and sources apportionment of fine particulate pollution in a mining town of Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Nguyen Thanh; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring for PM2.5 was conducted in a mining town in Northern Vietnam in both dry and wet seasons from 2009 to 2010. Levels and compositions of PM were characterized at two sites representing two separate air bubbles; an industrial site in Mong Duong (MD) and a reference rural site in Cam Hai (CH). Two MiniVol samplers were collocated to collect 24 h PM2.5 samples for about 30 days at each site in a season, simultaneously with meteorological data recording. All samples were analyzed for mass, black carbon (BC), water soluble ions and elements, while selected samples were also analyzed for OC (organic carbon) and EC (element carbon). Higher PM2.5 levels were observed in the dry season than the wet season at both sites in spite of abnormal rainfall occurrences observed on some days during the dry season. In both seasons, higher PM2.5 levels were observed in the industrial site than the reference rural site. The differences in PM, BC or EC and OC levels between two sites and between two seasons at one site, respectively, were all statistically significant except for that in OC between two sites, and BC between two seasons at MD. The reconstructed PM2.5 mass indicated major contributing groups being organic matter, secondary inorganic particles, crustal and soot in both seasons. Higher values of K-Smoke in the dry season suggested more contribution from biomass burning. The PMF results revealed the largest contribution to PM2.5 mass from secondary PM (35-40%); followed by biomass burning, ship and road traffic (diesel) each had a share of 15-22%; and a small contribution from miscellaneous sources such as industry and construction activities (3-8%). Analysis of HYSPLIT backward trajectory patterns showed a high potential contribution of the long range transport (LRT) pollution when air masses had long continental pathways before arriving at the study area.

  12. Low-cost photometers and open source software for Light Pollution research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, Jaime; Nievas, Miguel; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Tapia, Carlos; García, Cristóbal; Pascual, Sergio; Ocaña, Francisco; Gallego, Jesús

    2015-08-01

    Astronomical observatories have been measuring the brightness of the sky (NSB) using the methods of astronomical photometry with telescopes, photoelectric photometers and CCD cameras. The observations are disperse and sporadic. This is why some dedicated devices (including all-sky cameras) have been designed to automatically monitor the sky brightness at the observatories.These sophisticated and expensive instruments are restricted to research groups since they are out of reach for the interested citizens who wish to make a contribution to light pollution research. Most of them are using sky photometers (sky quality meter, SQM) a commercial photometer, designed to measure NSB in a photometric band that mimics the human eye response, that provide reliable data at an affordable budget.We are designing and building low cost devices to measure night sky brightness that could be widely distributed. The final designs will be calibrated and distributed to the community as open hardware. The researchers and also the interested people could acquire the parts and replicate the photometers from the instructions provided. Among the new features for these photometers we plan to add the capability to automatically send data to a repository located in a server, the autonomous operation with solar panels and batteries in remote places and the ability to measure in different spectral bands.We also present open source software for NSB research. PySQM, designed for SQM photometers, records the NSB data in the IDA-IAU standard data format and also builds the plots along the night. PyASB analyses all-sky images to determine photometric parameters and to build all-sky NSB maps

  13. Sources of salinity and urban pollution in the Quaternary sand aquifers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walraevens, Kristine; Mjemah, Ibrahimu Chikira; Mtoni, Yohana; Van Camp, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater is globally important for human consumption, and changes in quality can have serious consequences. The study area is within a coastal aquifer where groundwater quality is influenced by various potential sources of salinity that determine the composition of water extracted from wells. Groundwater chemistry data from the aquifer have been acquired to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in this area and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Analysis of groundwater samples shows that the dominant watertype is mostly NaCl with pH < 7 in both aquifers (i.e. upper and lower) except for the shallow wells where CaHCO3 prevails with pH ⩾ 7, and boreholes located near the Indian Ocean, where coral reef limestone deposits are located and the watertype evolves towards CaHCO3. In the lower aquifer, Cl- is higher than in the upper aquifer. The origin of salinity in the area is strongly influenced by groundwater ascending from deep marine Miocene Spatangid Shales through faults, seawater incursion on the border of the Indian Ocean, and throughout, there is some salinity within the Quaternary aquifer, especially in intercalated deltaic clays in the fluviatile deposits, showing some marine influences. The seawater intrusion is linked to the strongly increasing groundwater exploitation since 1997. Another process that plays a major role to the concentration of major ions in the groundwater is calcite dissolution. Next to geogenic salinity and seawater intrusion, anthropogenic pollution as well is affecting groundwater quality in the aquifer. An important result of this study is the observation of high nitrate concentrations, that call for improved sanitation in the area, where domestic sewage with on-site sanitation (mainly pit latrines) also threatens the groundwater resource.

  14. Evaluation of a non-point source pollution model, AnnAGNPS, in a tropical watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyakov, V.; Fares, A.; Kubo, D.; Jacobi, J.; Smith, C.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired water quality caused by human activity and the spread of invasive plant and animal species has been identified as a major factor of degradation of coastal ecosystems in the tropics. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of AnnAGNPS (Annualized Non-Point Source Pollution Model), in simulating runoff and soil erosion in a 48 km2 watershed located on the Island of Kauai, Hawaii. The model was calibrated and validated using 2 years of observed stream flow and sediment load data. Alternative scenarios of spatial rainfall distribution and canopy interception were evaluated. Monthly runoff volumes predicted by AnnAGNPS compared well with the measured data (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.05); however, up to 60% difference between the actual and simulated runoff were observed during the driest months (May and July). Prediction of daily runoff was less accurate (R2 = 0.55, P < 0.05). Predicted and observed sediment yield on a daily basis was poorly correlated (R2 = 0.5, P < 0.05). For the events of small magnitude, the model generally overestimated sediment yield, while the opposite was true for larger events. Total monthly sediment yield varied within 50% of the observed values, except for May 2004. Among the input parameters the model was most sensitive to the values of ground residue cover and canopy cover. It was found that approximately one third of the watershed area had low sediment yield (0-1 t ha-1 y-1), and presented limited erosion threat. However, 5% of the area had sediment yields in excess of 5 t ha-1 y-1. Overall, the model performed reasonably well, and it can be used as a management tool on tropical watersheds to estimate and compare sediment loads, and identify "hot spots" on the landscape. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacterial community composition and structure in an Urban River impacted by different pollutant sources.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, A Mark; Ma, Jincai; Murinda, Shelton E

    2016-10-01

    Microbial communities in terrestrial fresh water are diverse and dynamic in composition due to different environmental factors. The goal of this study was to undertake a comprehensive analysis of bacterial composition along different rivers and creeks and correlate these to land-use practices and pollutant sources. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to determine the total bacterial community composition, and bacterial communities that are potentially of fecal origin, and of relevance to water quality assessment. The results were analyzed using UniFrac coupled with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) to compare diversity, abundance, and community composition. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to correlate bacterial composition in streams and creeks to different environmental parameters impacting bacterial communities in the sediment and surface water within the watershed. Bacteria were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, with Bacteroidetes significantly (P<0.001) higher in all water samples than sediment, where as Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria where significantly higher (P<0.05) in all the sediment samples than surface water. Overall results, using the β diversity measures, coupled with PCoA and DCA showed that bacterial composition in sediment and surface water was significantly different (P<0.001). Also, there were differences in bacterial community composition between agricultural runoff and urban runoff based on parsimony tests using 454 pyrosequencing data. Fecal indicator bacteria in surface water along different creeks and channels were significantly correlated with pH (P<0.01), NO2 (P<0.03), and NH4N (P<0.005); and in the sediment with NO3 (P<0.015). Our results suggest that microbial community compositions were influenced by several environmental factors, and pH, NO2, and NH4 were the major environmental factors driving FIB in surface water

  16. Locating sources of surf zone pollution: a mass budget analysis of fecal indicator bacteria at Huntington Beach, California.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Ha; Grant, Stanley B; McGee, Charles D; Sanders, Brett F; Largier, John L

    2004-05-01

    The surf zone is the unique environment where ocean meets land and a place of critical ecological, economic, and recreational importance. In the United States, this natural resource is increasingly off-limits to the public due to elevated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and other contaminants, the sources of which are often unknown. In this paper, we describe an approach for calculating mass budgets of pollutants in the surf zone from shoreline monitoring data. The analysis reveals that fecal indicator bacteria pollution in the surf zone at several contiguous beaches in Orange County, California, originates from well-defined locations along the shore, including the tidal outlets of the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh. Fecal pollution flows into the ocean from the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh outlets during ebb tides and from there is transported parallel to the shoreline by wave-driven surf zone currents and/or offshore tidal currents, frequently contaminating >5 km of the surf zone. The methodology developed here for locating and quantifying sources of surf zone pollution should be applicable to a wide array of contaminants and coastal settings. PMID:15180059

  17. Spatial assessment and source identification of trace metal pollution in stream sediments of Oued El Maadene basin, northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ayari, J; Agnan, Y; Charef, A

    2016-07-01

    An extensive spatial survey was conducted on trace metal content in stream sediments from Oued El Maadene basin, northern Tunisia. Our objectives were to evaluate the level of trace metal pollution and associated ecological risk and identify the major sources of metal pollution. A total of 116 stream sediment samples were collected and analysed for total As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, and Zr concentrations. The results showed that concentrations of Cr, Ni, V, and Zr were close to natural levels. In contrast, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn had elevated concentrations and enrichment factors compared to other contaminated regions in northern Tunisia. Ecological risk to aquatic ecosystems was highlighted in most areas. Principal component analysis showed that Cr, Ni, V, and Zr mainly derived from local soil and bedrock weathering, whilst As, Cd, Pb, and Zn originated from mining wastes. Trace metals could be dispersed downstream of tailings, possibly due to surface runoff during the short rainy season. Surprisingly, Cu, and to a lesser extent As, originated from agricultural activities, related to application of Cu-based fungicides in former vineyards and orchards. This study showed that, despite the complete cessation of mining activities several decades ago, metal pollution still impacts the local environment. This large pollution, however, did not mask other additional sources, such as local agricultural applications of fungicides. PMID:27270485

  18. Developing a GIS-Based Model to Track Potential Point and Non-Point Sources of Urban Stream Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban streams are often characterized by diminished water quality resulting from an increase in polluted runoff from impervious surfaces. Storm activity further reduces urban stream water quality by temporarily increasing stormwater discharge from sewer overflows. This will often manifest itself in rapid declines of dissolved oxygen and peaks in specific conductivity in response to a rising biochemical oxygen demand which slowly recovers as the pollution load is washed through the stream system. This research developed a GIS-based model to track potential sources of pollution based on the dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity response of urban streams to a series of storm events, within the city of Louisville, Kentucky. Watershed outlet hydrographs were first obtained to determine the lag time of dissolved oxygen drops and specific conductivity peaks in response to set of storm events. Using a digital elevation model and the National Landcover Database, 10m resolution rasters were then created which calculated slope and flow direction/accumulation for both open channel and overland flow conditions across the watersheds. The rasters were merged and converted to flow velocities using a series of storms with different intensities. The final step utilized the Flow Length tool in ArcGIS which calculated the travel time to the watershed outlets from each pixel weighted by the open channel and overland flow conditions. Potential pollution sources could then be located by matching the dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity response lag times to the associated watershed travel times.

  19. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels. PMID:26897576

  20. Spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of pollution in Qiantang River (China) using neural-based modeling and multivariate statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shiliang; Zhi, Junjun; Lou, Liping; Huang, Fang; Chen, Xia; Wu, Jiaping

    Characterizing the spatio-temporal patterns and apportioning the pollution sources of water bodies are important for the management and protection of water resources. The main objective of this study is to describe the dynamics of water quality and provide references for improving river pollution control practices. Comprehensive application of neural-based modeling and different multivariate methods was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of pollution in Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites for the period of 2001-2004. A self-organizing map classified the 41 monitoring sites into three groups (Group A, B and C), representing different pollution characteristics. Four significant parameters (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total lead) were identified by discriminant analysis for distinguishing variations of different years, with about 80% correct assignment for temporal variation. Rotated principal component analysis (PCA) identified four potential pollution sources for Group A (domestic sewage and agricultural pollution, industrial wastewater pollution, mineral weathering, vehicle exhaust and sand mining), five for Group B (heavy metal pollution, agricultural runoff, vehicle exhaust and sand mining, mineral weathering, chemical plants discharge) and another five for Group C (vehicle exhaust and sand mining, chemical plants discharge, soil weathering, biochemical pollution, mineral weathering). The identified potential pollution sources explained 75.6% of the total variances for Group A, 75.0% for Group B and 80.0% for Group C, respectively. Receptor-based source apportionment was applied to further estimate source contributions for each pollution variable in the three groups, which facilitated and supported the PCA results. These results could assist managers to develop optimal strategies and determine priorities for river

  1. Calculation and analysis of the non-point source pollution in the upstream watershed of the Panjiakou Reservoir, People's Republic of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Tang, L.

    2007-05-01

    Panjiakou Reservoir is an important drinking water resource in Haihe River Basin, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. The upstream watershed area is about 35,000 square kilometers. Recently, the water pollution in the reservoir is becoming more serious owing to the non-point pollution as well as point source pollution on the upstream watershed. To effectively manage the reservoir and watershed and develop a plan to reduce pollutant loads, the loading of non-point and point pollution and their distribution on the upstream watershed must be understood fully. The SWAT model is used to simulate the production and transportation of the non-point source pollutants in the upstream watershed of the Panjiakou Reservoir. The loadings of non-point source pollutants are calculated for different hydrologic years and the spatial and temporal characteristics of non-point source pollution are studied. The stream network and topographic characteristics of the stream network and sub-basins are all derived from the DEM by ArcGIS software. The soil and land use data are reclassified and the soil physical properties database file is created for the model. The SWAT model was calibrated with observed data of several hydrologic monitoring stations in the study area. The results of the calibration show that the model performs fairly well. Then the calibrated model was used to calculate the loadings of non-point source pollutants for a wet year, a normal year and a dry year respectively. The time and space distribution of flow, sediment and non-point source pollution were analyzed depending on the simulated results. The comparison of different hydrologic years on calculation results is dramatic. The loading of non-point source pollution in the wet year is relatively larger but smaller in the dry year since the non-point source pollutants are mainly transported through the runoff. The pollution loading within a year is mainly produced in the flood season. Because SWAT is a

  2. Pollution transport efficiency toward the Arctic: Sensitivity to aerosol scavenging and source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, Quentin; Bey, Isabelle

    2011-04-01

    The processes driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate are still uncertain. In particular the relative contributions of major source regions from the midlatitudes remain a matter of debate in the literature. The objectives of this study are to better quantify the relative contributions of different processes governing the transport of pollution from the midlatitudes to the Arctic and the relative contributions of different geopolitical source regions. We use a suite of observational data sets (including the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaigns and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite instrument) to constrain a global aerosol simulation from the ECHAM5-HAMMOZ model. Preliminary comparison of model results with vertical profiles of sulfate and black carbon (BC) collected during the ARCTAS campaigns and with aerosol extinction time series retrieved from CALIOP indicates that the model underestimates export of aerosols from the planetary boundary layer to the free troposphere in the midlatitudes and long-range transport of aerosols from the midlatitudes toward the Arctic. In contrast, observed CO profiles are relatively well simulated, which points to a possible problem with wet scavenging. Decreasing the prescribed aerosol scavenging coefficients within the range of experimental data available in the literature significantly improves the agreement with observations. Sulfate and BC burdens in the Arctic increase by a factor 5-6. Annual global lifetimes of sulfate and BC increase from 3.1 to 4.6 days and from 4.4 to 5.9 days, respectively. Using the improved simulation, we find that 59% of sulfate in the Arctic troposphere comes from the oxidation of SO2 emitted in Siberia (19%), Europe (18%), Asia (13%), and North America (9%). Anthropogenic and biomass burning BC emitted in Siberia, Asia, Europe, and North America contributes 29, 27, 25, and

  3. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing.

    PubMed

    Bisht, D S; Dumka, U C; Kaskaoutis, D G; Pipal, A S; Srivastava, A K; Soni, V K; Attri, S D; Sateesh, M; Tiwari, S

    2015-07-15

    Particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO4(2-) and NO3(-)) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM2.5 samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO4(2-) and NO3(-)). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM2.5 (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM2.5 (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6μgm(-3) (annual mean of 124.6±87.9μgm(-3)) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4μgm(-3)) than daytime (103.8μgm(-3)) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO3(-)and SO4(2-), which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R(2)=0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~1.8-2.0Kday(-1)) due to agricultural burning effects during the 2012 post-monsoon season. PMID:25864155

  4. Variation of sources and mixing mechanism of mineral dust with pollution aerosol—revealed by the two peaks of a super dust storm in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiujuan; Zhuang, Guoshun; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele; Wang, Ying; Yuan, Hui

    2007-05-01

    The observation of the super dust storm in Beijing from 20 to 22 March 2002 with high-time resolution showed that there were two peaks of TSP of 10.9 and 5.1 mg m - 3 with 87% and 60% of the mineral dust to TSP, respectively. The variation of sources and mixing of mineral dust with pollution aerosol was distinguished with hourly meteorological data and lidar observation and identified by horizontal visibility and chemical tracers. The dust in PI mainly originated from source I, which included west and middle regions of northern China and the nearby Gobi desert in Mongolia, and the dust in PII was mostly from source II, which mainly included the northeast of China and the southeast of Mongolia. The source I was a relatively 'clean' one and the source II was a 'polluted' one. The dust in PI mainly mixed with the pollutants from the transport pathway, and the dust in PII was rich in pollution compositions and mixed with the resuspended pollutants and the urban dust from the local area in Beijing. The mixing of the dust aerosols originated from a relatively 'clean' source with the pollutants on the transport pathway could carry significant amounts of pollutants downwind. The dust, which came from the 'polluted' source and mixed with the local resuspended pollutants, could deliver much higher content of pollutants downwind. Though the second dust peak was weaker than the first one, it would have greater impacts on the human health for the higher fraction of pollution and water-soluble components.

  5. Search for the northwest passage: the assignation of NSP (non-point source pollution) rights in nutrient trading programs.

    PubMed

    Collentine, D

    2002-01-01

    The search for solutions to the problem of non-point source pollution (NSP) includes alternatives based on theories associated with the use of tradable pollution permits. Tradable permit programs have received significant support as a promising policy for the reduction of effluent discharges but programs in practice have not been regarded as successful. The lack of success is ascribed to the design of the programs. However, this may be a design problem which is insurmountable due to the nature of the NSP problem. Tradable permit solutions are based on an assumption that the assignation of quantifiable rights to both point and nonpoint sources, based on some predetermined ambient water quality measure, is possible. The conclusion here is that there are significant features particular to NSP that hinder the introduction of rights and significantly decrease the utility of tradable permit solutions. PMID:12079107

  6. Multi-model Estimates of Intercontinental Source-Receptor Relationships for Ozone Pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, A M; Dentener, F J; Wild, O; Cuvelier, C; Schultz, M G; Hess, P; Textor, C; Schulz, M; Doherty, R; Horowitz, L W; MacKenzie, I A; Sanderson, M G; Shindell, D T; Stevenson, D S; Szopa, S; Van Dingenen, R; Zeng, G; Atherton, C; Bergmann, D; Bey, I; Carmichael, G; Collins, W J; Duncan, B N; Faluvegi, G; Folberth, G; Gauss, M; Gong, S; Hauglustaine, D; Holloway, T; Isaksen, I A; Jacob, D J; Jonson, J E; Kaminski, J W; Keating, T J; Lupu, A; Marmer, E; Montanaro, V; Park, R; Pitari, G; Pringle, K J; Pyle, J A; Schroeder, S; Vivanco, M G; Wind, P; Wojcik, G; Wu, S; Zuber, A

    2008-10-16

    Understanding the surface O{sub 3} response over a 'receptor' region to emission changes over a foreign 'source' region is key to evaluating the potential gains from an international approach to abate ozone (O{sub 3}) pollution. We apply an ensemble of 21 global and hemispheric chemical transport models to estimate the spatial average surface O{sub 3} response over East Asia (EA), Europe (EU), North America (NA) and South Asia (SA) to 20% decreases in anthropogenic emissions of the O{sub 3} precursors, NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO (individually and combined), from each of these regions. We find that the ensemble mean surface O{sub 3} concentrations in the base case (year 2001) simulation matches available observations throughout the year over EU but overestimates them by >10 ppb during summer and early fall over the eastern U.S. and Japan. The sum of the O{sub 3} responses to NO{sub x}, CO, and NMVOC decreases separately is approximately equal to that from a simultaneous reduction of all precursors. We define a continental-scale 'import sensitivity' as the ratio of the O{sub 3} response to the 20% reductions in foreign versus 'domestic' (i.e., over the source region itself) emissions. For example, the combined reduction of emissions from the 3 foreign regions produces an ensemble spatial mean decrease of 0.6 ppb over EU (0.4 ppb from NA), less than the 0.8 ppb from the reduction of EU emissions, leading to an import sensitivity ratio of 0.7. The ensemble mean surface O{sub 3} response to foreign emissions is largest in spring and late fall (0.7-0.9 ppb decrease in all regions from the combined precursor reductions in the 3 foreign regions), with import sensitivities ranging from 0.5 to 1.1 (responses to domestic emission reductions are 0.8-1.6 ppb). High O{sub 3} values are much more sensitive to domestic emissions than to foreign emissions, as indicated by lower import sensitivities of 0.2 to 0.3 during July in EA, EU, and NA when O{sub 3} levels are typically highest

  7. Multimodel estimates of intercontinental source-receptor relationships for ozone pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, A. M.; Dentener, F. J.; Wild, O.; Cuvelier, C.; Schultz, M. G.; Hess, P.; Textor, C.; Schulz, M.; Doherty, R. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Sanderson, M. G.; Shindell, D. T.; Stevenson, D. S.; Szopa, S.; van Dingenen, R.; Zeng, G.; Atherton, C.; Bergmann, D.; Bey, I.; Carmichael, G.; Collins, W. J.; Duncan, B. N.; Faluvegi, G.; Folberth, G.; Gauss, M.; Gong, S.; Hauglustaine, D.; Holloway, T.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Jonson, J. E.; Kaminski, J. W.; Keating, T. J.; Lupu, A.; Marmer, E.; Montanaro, V.; Park, R. J.; Pitari, G.; Pringle, K. J.; Pyle, J. A.; Schroeder, S.; Vivanco, M. G.; Wind, P.; Wojcik, G.; Wu, S.; Zuber, A.

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the surface O3 response over a "receptor" region to emission changes over a foreign "source" region is key to evaluating the potential gains from an international approach to abate ozone (O3) pollution. We apply an ensemble of 21 global and hemispheric chemical transport models to estimate the spatial average surface O3 response over east Asia (EA), Europe (EU), North America (NA), and south Asia (SA) to 20% decreases in anthropogenic emissions of the O3 precursors, NOx, NMVOC, and CO (individually and combined), from each of these regions. We find that the ensemble mean surface O3 concentrations in the base case (year 2001) simulation matches available observations throughout the year over EU but overestimates them by >10 ppb during summer and early fall over the eastern United States and Japan. The sum of the O3 responses to NOx, CO, and NMVOC decreases separately is approximately equal to that from a simultaneous reduction of all precursors. We define a continental-scale "import sensitivity" as the ratio of the O3 response to the 20% reductions in foreign versus "domestic" (i.e., over the source region itself) emissions. For example, the combined reduction of emissions from the three foreign regions produces an ensemble spatial mean decrease of 0.6 ppb over EU (0.4 ppb from NA), less than the 0.8 ppb from the reduction of EU emissions, leading to an import sensitivity ratio of 0.7. The ensemble mean surface O3 response to foreign emissions is largest in spring and late fall (0.7-0.9 ppb decrease in all regions from the combined precursor reductions in the three foreign regions), with import sensitivities ranging from 0.5 to 1.1 (responses to domestic emission reductions are 0.8-1.6 ppb). High O3 values are much more sensitive to domestic emissions than to foreign emissions, as indicated by lower import sensitivities of 0.2 to 0.3 during July in EA, EU, and NA when O3 levels are typically highest and by the weaker relative response of annual

  8. 75 FR 67676 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, EPA is proposing to grant delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to Clark County,...

  9. COMPREHENSIVE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN PLAN TO RELATE POLLUTANT SOURCES TO ACIDIC DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because verifiable numerical models that incorporate all processes determining the dispersion, transformations, and deposition of emitted pollutants associated with acidic deposition from the atmosphere are only now under development, it was deemed worthwhile to determine whether...

  10. [Pollution Level and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Particles PM₂.₅ in Southwest Suburb of Chengdu in Spring].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Yang, Huai-jin; Zhang, Ju; Yin, Wei-wen; Li, Xiao-fen

    2016-05-15

    In order to understand the characteristics of PM₂.₅ pollution in the atmosphere of Chengdu southwest suburb, PM₂.₅ particles in Chengdu southwest suburb were collected and analyzed from March 18 to March 31st, 2015. The results showed that the daily average concentration of PM₂.₅ in the southwest suburb of Chengdu reached 121.21 µg · m⁻³, and the average daily concentration of 24 samples in 31 PM₂.₅ samples was over 75 µg · m⁻³, the daily excessive rate was 77%, indicating the PM₂.₅ pollution in the study area was serious in March. When studying the relationship between atmospheric and meteorological factors, it was found that there was a significant index correlation between PM₂.₅ concentration and atmospheric visibility, and it had a positive correlation with temperature and humidity, but the correlation was not obvious. NH₄⁺ (16.24%), SO₄²- (12.58%) and NO₃⁻ (9.91%) were dominant in PM₂.₅ The ratio of NO₃⁻/SO₄²⁻ was 0.77, which indicated that the pollution of stationary sources in the southwest suburb was more severe than that of mobile sources. Organic carbon (OC)/elemental carbon (EC) ratios were higher than 2, which indicated the existence of second organic carbon (SOC). Using OC/EC ratio method to estimate the concentration of SOC, it was found that the average concentration of SOC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu in March was 3.49 µ · m⁻³, and the contribution rate of OC was 20.6%, which showed that the main source of OC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu was primary discharge. The correlation analysis of OC and EC showed that the correlation coefficient reached 0.95, indicating that the OC and EC sources were similar and relatively stable, and there was a great impact of local source emissions on Chengdu southwest suburb in spring, and primary discharge played a dominant role, while the contribution of SOC to OC was relatively small, which was consistent with the SOC characteristics obtained

  11. Response of bacterial community compositions to different sources of pollutants in sediments of a tributary of Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Sediment bacterial communities are sensitive to water conditions in river ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the influences of different pollution sources, including urban areas, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), suburban areas, and agricultural areas, on sediment bacterial communities along a typical tributary of Taihu Lake, China. The dominant composition of the sediment bacterial community was determined using a combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and a 16S rRNA clone library. The results showed that the sediment bacterial communities were distinctly affected by the four pollution sources. Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria (>50 % in total) were the predominant bacterial taxa across the sediment samples. Apart from those, the sediment bacterial community composition (BCC) affected by WWTP effluent was subsequently dominated by Nitrospira (12.4 %) and Bacteroidetes (11.5 %), agriculture was dominated by Firmicutes (13.2 %) and Deltaproteobacteria (7.2 %), while urban and suburban were dominated by Bacteroidetes (7.6 and 7.9 %, respectively) and Deltaproteobacteria (7.9 and 7.6 %, respectively). Cluster analysis indicated that the BCC affected by WWTP effluent was distinct from the BCC in urban, suburban, and agricultural areas. In addition, the bacterial community richness and evenness affected by WWTP effluent were much less than those by the other pollution sources. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the variation in BCC across the sediment samples was significantly associated with ammonium (17 %), organic matter (12 %), and cadmium (3 %) (p < 0.01). Overall, the results indicated that the four different pollution sources (WWTP, urban, suburban, and agriculture) have dissimilar impacts on the sediment BCC in the tributary of Taihu Lake, while WWTPs exhibited the greatest potential to lead to biotic homogenization in river sediments. PMID:27040536

  12. Risk-Based Targeting: Identifying Disproportionalities in the Sources and Effects of Industrial Pollution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. I assessed the distribution of relative health risk from industrial air pollution in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and the extent to which risk was disproportionately attributable to a minority of facilities. Methods. I spatially linked data on airborne emissions, health risk, and sociodemographics by census tract, coupling disproportionality measurements from 2 perspectives: the health risk borne by communities and the harms produced by individual polluters. Results. Of Milwaukee's 307 census tracts, 90 warranted the highest environmental justice concern. Striking variations in risk production existed between industrial polluters. Of 299 facilities with reported emissions, 30 (10%) contributed 90% of all health risk. Conclusions. This research adds to an emerging body of work connecting environmental health risk, environmental justice, and corporate responsibility. Findings support the hypothesis that relatively few heavy polluters create most environmental health risk. Environmental policy often devotes insufficient attention to such outliers, in part because of the questionable assumption that pollution is economically necessary for jobs or essential products. Increased emphasis on risk-based targeting of the worst polluters could significantly improve environmental quality and health in overburdened communities. PMID:21836116

  13. Escherichia coli pollution in a Baltic Sea lagoon: a model-based source and spatial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Schippmann, Bianca; Schernewski, Gerald; Gräwe, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Tourism around the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon, at the southern Baltic coast, has a long tradition, is an important source of income and shall be further developed. Insufficient bathing water quality and frequent beach closings, especially in the Oder river mouth, hamper tourism development. Monitoring data gives only an incomplete picture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria sources, spatial transport patterns, risks and does neither support an efficient bathing water quality management nor decision making. We apply a 3D ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model to analyse pollution events and to obtain spatial E. coli pollution maps based on scenario simulations. Model results suggests that insufficient sewage treatment in the city of Szczecin is the major source of faecal pollution, even for beaches 20km downstream. E. coli mortality rate and emission intensity are key parameters for concentration levels downstream. Wind and river discharge play a modifying role. Prevailing southwestern wind conditions cause E. coli transport along the eastern coast and favour high concentration levels at the beaches. Our simulations indicate that beach closings in 2006 would not have been necessary according to the new EU-Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC). The implementation of the new directive will, very likely, reduce the number of beach closings, but not the risk for summer tourists. Model results suggest, that a full sewage treatment in Szczecin would allow the establishment of new beaches closer to the city (north of Dabie lake). PMID:23337127

  14. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  15. Experimental and analytical studies of shielding concepts for point sources and jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, R. L. M.

    1983-05-01

    Concepts for jet noise sh