Science.gov

Sample records for source reactor harmonie

  1. Harmony

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Harmony ; CASRN 79277 - 27 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  2. An almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm for groundwater pollution source identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, L.; Zheng, M.

    2012-12-01

    The spatiotemporal characterization of unknown groundwater pollution sources is frequently encountered in environment problems. This study adopts the use of optimization approach that combines a numerical groundwater flow and transport model with heuristic harmony search algorithm to identify the unknown pollution sources. In the proposed methodology, an almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm is developed to overcome the inherent shortcoming (tedious and skillful parameter-setting process for the algorithm parameters) in harmony search algorithm. Another advantage in the new proposed harmony search algorithm is that it uses individual parameter values for each decision variable, while the classical harmony search algorithm uses lump parameter values for all decision variables. The performance of this methodology is evaluated on an illustrative groundwater pollution source identification problem, and the identified results indicate that the proposed almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm based optimization model can give satisfactory estimations, even though the irregular geometry, erroneous monitoring data, and prior information shortage on potential locations are considered.Identification results of pollution sources; L: error level of observation dataRE: relative errorSD: standard deviationE: objective functionNEE: Source identification error Actual values of pollution sources;

  3. The harmony between nuclear reactions and nuclear reactor structures and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Popa-Simil, L.

    2012-07-01

    Advanced nuclear energy is one extremely viable approach for achieving the required goals. With its extraordinarily high energy density (both, per unit mass and per unit volume), it produces over seven orders of magnitude less waste than fossil fuels per unit of energy generated. Applying nano-technologies to nuclear reactors could potentially produce the extraordinary performance required. The actual nuclear reactors lack of performances, the complexity and hazard of the fuel cycle are in part due to the lack of understanding of the nature's laws related to energy distribution applied to fission products, and in part to the current technologic capabilities that make the economical optimum. In order to produce the desired increase of performances a novel multi-scale multi-physics and engineering approach have been developed, starting from the nuclear reactions involved, analyzing in detail the key features and requirements of the 'key players' in the process (neutrons, compound nucleus, fission products, transmutation products, decay radiation), the consequences of their interaction with matter. That complex interaction generates new reactions and new key-players (knock-on electrons, photons, phonons) that further interact with the matter represented by the nuclear fuel, cladding, cooling agents, structural materials and control systems. The understanding of this complexity of problems from fm-ps scale up to macro-system and mitigating all the requirements drives to that desired harmony that provides a safe energy delivery. (authors)

  4. From reactors to long pulse sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mezei, F. |

    1995-12-31

    We will show, that by using an adapted instrumentation concept, the performance of a continuous source can be emulated by one switch on in long pulses for only about 10% of the total time. This 10 fold gain in neutron economy opens up the way for building reactor like sources with an order of magnitude higher flux than the present technological limits. Linac accelerator driven spallation lends itself favorably for the realization of this kind of long pulse sources, which will be complementary to short pulse spallation sources, the same way continuous reactor sources are.

  5. Compact reactor/ORC power source

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, K.L.; Kirchner, W.L.; Willcutt, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for component development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite moderated reactor by heat pipes operating at 500/sup 0/C. Outside the reactor vessel and connected to the heat pipes are vaporizers in which the toluene ORC working fluid is heated to 370/sup 0/C. In the turbine-alternator-pump (TAP) combined-rotating unit, the thermal energy of the toluene is converted to 25 kWe of electric power. Lumped parameter systems analyses combined with a finite element thermal analysis have aided in the power source design. The analyses have provided assurance of reliable multiyear normal operation as well as full power operation with upset conditions, such as failed heat pipes and inoperative ORC vaporizers. Because of inherent high reliability, long life, and insensitivity to upset conditions, this power source is especially suited for use in remote, inaccessible locations where fuel delivery and maintenance costs are high. 10 refs.

  6. The advanced neutron source reactor: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will be a new user facility for all kinds of neutron research, including neutron scattering, materials testing, materials analysis, isotope production and nuclear physics experiments. The centerpiece of the facility is to be the world's highest flux beam reactor. There will be beams of hot, cold and thermal neutrons for more than 40 simultaneous scattering and nuclear physics experiments. In addition, there will be irradiation positions and rabbit tubes for in-pile experiments, testing and isotopes production (including transuranium isotopes). To reduce technical risks and to minimize safety issues, the reactor design is based on technology already employed in existing research reactors. The fuel elements are annular assemblies of aluminum clad involute fuel plates, similar to the design of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge and the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) Reactor in Grenoble. As is common with many other research reactors, the core is cooled, moderated and reflected by heavy water. The preferred fuel is U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} - a high-density fuel form developed by Argonne National Laboratory and Babcock and Wilcox that has been extensively tested in reactors in the United States, Europe and Japan. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. SELF-REACTIVATING NEUTRON SOURCE FOR A NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Newson, H.W.

    1959-02-01

    Reactors of the type employing beryllium in a reflector region around the active portion and to a neutron source for use therewith are discussed. The neutron source is comprised or a quantity of antimony permanently incorporated in, and as an integral part of, the reactor in or near the beryllium reflector region. During operation of the reactor the natural occurring antimony isotope of atomic weight 123 absorbs neutrons and is thereby transformed to the antimony isotope of atomic weight 124, which is radioactive and emits gamma rays. The gamma rays react with the beryllium to produce neutrons. The beryllium and antimony thus cooperate to produce a built in neutron source which is automatically reactivated by the operation of the reactor itself and which is of sufficient strength to maintain the slow neutron flux at a sufficiently high level to be reliably measured during periods when the reactor is shut down.

  8. Multilinguality, Education and Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnihotri, Rama Kant

    2014-01-01

    Language conceptualised as multilinguality is constitutive of being human and may be a potential site for negotiating conflict and exploring paths of harmony in education. In various domains of activity, most people would rather see "a language" as a homogeneous, pure and standard pairing of a lexicon and syntax. There is substantial…

  9. Nasal Harmony in Aguaruna.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Gui-Sun

    A discussion of the nasal harmony of Aguaruna, a language of the Jivaroan family in South America, approaches the subject from the viewpoint of generative phonology. This theory of phonology proposes an underlying nasal consonant, later deleted, that accounts for vowel nasalization. Complex rules that suppose a complex system of vowel and…

  10. The Glaciers of HARMONIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Ruth; Gleeson, Emily; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    Developed by the large ALADIN-HIRLAM consortium, the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model system HARMONIE is run by a large number of national weather services and research institutions in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa for weather forecasting. It is now being adopted for climate research purposes as a limited area model in a form known as HCLIM. It is currently run for a number of domains, mostly in Europe but also including Greenland, at a very high resolution (~2.5 km). HARMONIE is a convection permitting non-hydrostatic model that includes the multi-purpose SURFEX surface model. By improving the characterization of glacier surfaces within SURFEX we show that weather forecast errors over both the Greenland ice sheet and over Icelandic glaciers can be significantly reduced. The improvements also facilitate increasingly accurate ice melt and runoff computations, which are important both for ice surface mass balance estimations and hydropower forecasting. These improvements will also benefit the operational HARMONIE domains that cover the Svalbard archipelago, the Alps and the Scandinavian mountain glaciers. Future uses of HCLIM for these regions, where accurately characterizing glacial terrain will be crucial for climate and glaciological applications, are also expected to benefit from this improvement. Here, we report the first results with a new glacier surface scheme in the HARMONIE model, validated with observations from the PROMICE network of automatic weather stations in Greenland. The scheme upgrades the existing surface energy balance over glaciers by including a new albedo parameterization for bare glacier ice and appropriate coefficients for calculating the turbulent fluxes. In addition the snow scheme from the SURFEX land surface module has been upgraded to allow the retention and refreezing of meltwater in the snowpack. These changes allow us to estimate surface mass balance over glaciers at a range of model resolutions that can take full

  11. Secondary Startup Neutron Sources as a Source of Tritium in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Reactor Coolant System (RCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Lanning, Donald D.

    2010-02-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the Zircaloy clad fuel source is minimal and that secondary startup neutron sources are the significant contributors of the tritium in the RCS that was previously assigned to release from fuel. Currently there are large uncertainties in the attribution of tritium in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Reactor Coolant System (RCS). The measured amount of tritium in the coolant cannot be separated out empirically into its individual sources. Therefore, to quantify individual contributors, all sources of tritium in the RCS of a PWR must be understood theoretically and verified by the sum of the individual components equaling the measured values.

  12. Harmony search optimization for HDR prostate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, Aditya

    In high dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy, multiple catheters are inserted interstitially into the target volume. The process of treating the prostate involves calculating and determining the best dose distribution to the target and organs-at-risk by means of optimizing the time that the radioactive source dwells at specified positions within the catheters. It is the goal of this work to investigate the use of a new optimization algorithm, known as Harmony Search, in order to optimize dwell times for HDR prostate brachytherapy. The new algorithm was tested on 9 different patients and also compared with the genetic algorithm. Simulations were performed to determine the optimal value of the Harmony Search parameters. Finally, multithreading of the simulation was examined to determine potential benefits. First, a simulation environment was created using the Python programming language and the wxPython graphical interface toolkit, which was necessary to run repeated optimizations. DICOM RT data from Varian BrachyVision was parsed and used to obtain patient anatomy and HDR catheter information. Once the structures were indexed, the volume of each structure was determined and compared to the original volume calculated in BrachyVision for validation. Dose was calculated using the AAPM TG-43 point source model of the GammaMed 192Ir HDR source and was validated against Varian BrachyVision. A DVH-based objective function was created and used for the optimization simulation. Harmony Search and the genetic algorithm were implemented as optimization algorithms for the simulation and were compared against each other. The optimal values for Harmony Search parameters (Harmony Memory Size [HMS], Harmony Memory Considering Rate [HMCR], and Pitch Adjusting Rate [PAR]) were also determined. Lastly, the simulation was modified to use multiple threads of execution in order to achieve faster computational times. Experimental results show that the volume calculation that was

  13. Locating tritium sources in a research reactor building.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Masami

    2005-10-01

    Despite renovation of the D2O facility, tritium concentrations in the condensates of reactor room air showed tens of Bq mL before venting resumption on July 1997. This suggested the presence of tritium sources in the research reactor-containment building. An investigation was therefore initiated to locate the source and determine the distribution of tritium in the containment building. Air monitoring in the working area using a dish of water placed in the building suggested that the source of tritium was near the reactor core. Monitoring exhaust air from the two facilities (a cold neutron source and a D(2)O tank) showed high specific activity on the order of 10 Bq mL(-1), suggesting the presence of tritium in condensates near the reactor core. The major concern was whether the leakage of liquid deuterium (4 L) and heavy water (2 x 10(3) L) used as a moderator had occurred. The concentration of tritium in condensates has not increased over the past few years in either the exhaust line or working area, and the deuterium itself has not been found in the surrounding environment. The concentration of tritium measured using an ionization chamber after Ar decay was dependent on the thermal output of the research reactor, indicating that the tritium was produced by the irradiation process within shielding/moderator materials or cover gas with neutrons. PMID:16155451

  14. Typological Asymmetries in Round Vowel Harmony: Support from Artificial Grammar Learning

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Providing evidence for the universal tendencies of patterns in the world’s languages can be difficult, as it is impossible to sample all possible languages, and linguistic samples are subject to interpretation. However, experimental techniques such as artificial grammar learning paradigms make it possible to uncover the psychological reality of claimed universal tendencies. This paper addresses learning of phonological patterns (systematic tendencies in the sounds in language). Specifically, I explore the role of phonetic grounding in learning round harmony, a phonological process in which words must contain either all round vowels ([o, u]) or all unround vowels ([i, e]). The phonetic precursors to round harmony are such that mid vowels ([o, e]), which receive the greatest perceptual benefit from harmony, are most likely to trigger harmony. High vowels ([i, u]), however, are cross-linguistically less likely to trigger round harmony. Adult participants were exposed to a miniature language that contained a round harmony pattern in which the harmony source triggers were either high vowels ([i, u]) (poor harmony source triggers) or mid vowels ([o, e]) (ideal harmony source triggers). Only participants who were exposed to the ideal mid vowel harmony source triggers were successfully able to generalize the harmony pattern to novel instances, suggesting that perception and phonetic naturalness play a role in learning. PMID:23264713

  15. Harmony in linguistic cognition.

    PubMed

    Smolensky, Paul

    2006-09-10

    In this article, I survey the integrated connectionist/symbolic (ICS) cognitive architecture in which higher cognition must be formally characterized on two levels of description. At the microlevel, parallel distributed processing (PDP) characterizes mental processing; this PDP system has special organization in virtue of which it can be characterized at the macrolevel as a kind of symbolic computational system. The symbolic system inherits certain properties from its PDP substrate; the symbolic functions computed constitute optimization of a well-formedness measure called Harmony. The most important outgrowth of the ICS research program is optimality theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004), an optimization-based grammatical theory that provides a formal theory of cross-linguistic typology. Linguistically, Harmony maximization corresponds to minimization of markedness or structural ill-formedness. Cognitive explanation in ICS requires the collaboration of symbolic and connectionist principles. ICS is developed in detail in Smolensky and Legendre (2006a); this article is a précis of and guide to those volumes. PMID:21702837

  16. HARMONI instrument control electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigante, José V.; Rodríguez Ramos, Luis F.; Zins, Gerard; Schnetler, Hermine; Pecontal, Arlette; Herreros, José Miguel; Clarke, Fraser; Bryson, Ian; Thatte, Niranjan

    2014-07-01

    HARMONI is an integral field spectrograph working at visible and near-infrared wavelengths over a range of spatial scales from ground layer corrected to fully diffraction-limited. The instrument has been chosen to be part of the first-light complement at the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). This paper describes the instrument control electronics to be developed at IAC. The large size of the HARMONI instrument, its cryogenic operation, and the fact that it must operate with enhanced reliability is a challenge from the point of view of the control electronics design. The present paper describes a design proposal based on the current instrument requirements and intended to be fully compliant with the ESO E-ELT standards, as well as with the European EMC and safety standards. The modularity of the design and the use of COTS standard hardware will benefit the project in several aspects, as reduced costs, shorter schedule by the use of commercially available components, and improved quality by the use of well proven solutions.

  17. Safety status of space radioisotope and reactor power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The current overall safety criterion for both radioisotope and reactor power sources is containment or immobilization in the case of a reentry accident. In addition, reactors are designed to remain subcritical under conditions of land impact or water immersion. A very extensive safety test and analysis program was completed on the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) in use on the Galileo spacecraft and planned for use on the Ulysses spacecraft. The results of this work show that the RTGs will pose little or no risk for any credible accident. The SP-100 space nuclear reactor program has begun addressing its safety criteria, and the design is planned to be such as to ensure meeting the various safety criteria. Preliminary mission risk analyses on SP-100 show the expected value population dose from postulated accidents on the reference mission to be very small. It is concluded that the current US nuclear power sources are the safest flown.

  18. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Soffer, L.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  19. Intense steady state neutron source. The CNR reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.; Moon, R.M.; Gambill, W.R.; Moon, R.M.; Primm, R.T. III; West, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Center for Neutron Research (CNR) has been proposed in response to the needs - neutron flux, spectrum, and experimental facilities - that have been identified through workshops, studies, and discussions by the neutron-scattering, isotope, and materials irradiation research communities. The CNR is a major new experimental facility consisting of a reactor-based steady state neutron source of unprecedented flux, together with extensive facilities and instruments for neutron scattering, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other areas of research.

  20. Station Tour: Harmony, Tranquility, Unity

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams starts off her tour of the International Space Station with a look at its nodes -- Harmony, Tranquility and Unity -- which include the crew's sleeping quarters...

  1. [The pursuit of facial harmony].

    PubMed

    van Hooft, E; Becking, A G; van Spronsen, P H; Tuinzing, D B

    2010-01-01

    In the treatment of patients with an oro-facial anomaly the functioning of the masticatory system and aesthetic aspects play a role. Recently, the software programme 'Facial Harmony', which analyzes the soft tissue contour of the face, appeared. Using this programme, a research project was carried out to find out if the result of the surgical treatment of 40 patients with an oro-facial anomaly satisfied the,facial harmony requirements. Only 65% of the treatment results met the requirements. It was especially the patients who had been treated for mandibular deficiency with mandibular and horizontal lines meeting at a wide angle who showed no facial harmony. Only 30% of those patients demonstrated facial harmony postoperatively. If the surgical treatment had been completed by a genioplasty, this percentage would very probably have risen to 85. PMID:20726499

  2. Coded source neutron imaging at the PULSTAR reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Ziyu; Mishra, Kaushal; Hawari, Ayman; Bingham, Philip R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2011-01-01

    A neutron imaging facility is located on beam-tube No.5 of the 1-MW PULSTAR reactor at North Carolina State University. An investigation of high resolution imaging using the coded source imaging technique has been initiated at the facility. Coded imaging uses a mosaic of pinholes to encode an aperture, thus generating an encoded image of the object at the detector. To reconstruct the image data received by the detector, the corresponding decoding patterns are used. The optimized design of coded mask is critical for the performance of this technique and will depend on the characteristics of the imaging beam. In this work, a 34 x 38 uniformly redundant array (URA) coded aperture system is studied for application at the PULSTAR reactor neutron imaging facility. The URA pattern was fabricated on a 500 ?m gadolinium sheet. Simulations and experiments with a pinhole object have been conducted using the Gd URA and the optimized beam line.

  3. Creating experimental color harmony map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  4. Structural thermal tests on Advanced Neutron Source reactor fuel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Yahr, G.T.

    1995-08-01

    The thin aluminum-clad fuel plates proposed for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor are stressed by the high-velocity coolant flowing on each side of the plates and by the thermal gradients in the plates. The total stress, composed of the sum of the flow stress and the thermal stress at a point, could be reduced if the thermal loads tend to relax when the stress magnitude approaches the yield stress of the material. The potential of this occurring would be very significant in assessing the structural reliability of the fuel plates and has been investigated through experiment. The results of this investigation are given in this report.

  5. Fabrication development for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, B.W.; Copeland, G.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the fuel fabrication development for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The fuel element is similar to that successfully fabricated and used in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for many years, but there are two significant differences that require some development. The fuel compound is U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} rather than U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and the fuel is graded in the axial as well as the radial direction. Both of these changes can be accomplished with a straightforward extension of the HFIR technology. The ANS also requires some improvements in inspection technology and somewhat more stringent acceptance criteria. Early indications were that the fuel fabrication and inspection technology would produce a reactor core meeting the requirements of the ANS for the low volume fraction loadings needed for the highly enriched uranium design (up to 1.7 Mg U/m{sup 3}). Near the end of the development work, higher volume fractions were fabricated that would be required for a lower- enrichment uranium core. Again, results look encouraging for loadings up to {approx}3.5 Mg U/m{sup 3}; however, much less evaluation was done for the higher loadings.

  6. Flow excursion time scales in the advanced neutron source reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sulfredge, C.D.

    1995-04-01

    Flow excursion transients give rise to a key thermal limit for the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor because its core involves many parallel flow channels with a common pressure drop. Since one can envision certain accident scenarios in which the thermal limits set by flow excursion correlations might be exceeded for brief intervals, a key objective is to determine how long a flow excursion would take to bring about a system failure that could lead to fuel damage. The anticipated time scale for flow excursions has been examined by subdividing the process into its component phenomena: bubble nucleation and growth, deceleration of the resulting two-phase flow, and finally overcoming thermal inertia to heat up the reactor fuel plates. Models were developed to estimate the time required for each individual stage. Accident scenarios involving sudden reduction in core flow or core exit pressure have been examined, and the models compared with RELAP5 output for the ANS geometry. For a high-performance reactor like the ANS, flow excursion time scales were predicted to be in the millisecond range, so that even very brief transients might lead to fuel damage. These results should prove useful whenever one must determine the time involved in any portion of a flow excursion transient.

  7. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  8. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  9. Individual source positioning mechanism for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.F.; Gjertsen, R.K.; Cerni, S.

    1987-07-07

    A nuclear reactor is described including a fuel assembly, at lest one elongated neutron source rod and an upper core plate. The fuel assembly has top and bottom nozzles with a guide thimbles extending between and interconnecting the nozzles. The upper core plate is positioned adjacent to and above the top nozzle of the fuel assembly and having flow openings to allow passage of coolant from the fuel assembly. At least some of the openings is aligned over respective ones of the guide thimbles with seating means defined about the openings on a lower side of the core plate, a separate mechanism for positioning each individual neutron source rod in a respective guide thimble aligned with one of the openings defined through the upper core plate, comprising: (a) locating means registering against the core plate seating means; and (b) resilient holddown means extending partially into the guide thimble and coupling the source rod with the locating means in a manner which restrains the source rod in a lateral direction and positions the rod in a stationary axial relationship within the guide thimble.

  10. Harmony: The Art of Reconciliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Benjamin C.

    The Harmony system is a generic framework for reconciling disconnected updates to heterogeneous, replicated XML data. It can be used, for instance, to synchronize the bookmark files of several different web browsers, allowing bookmarks and bookmark folders to be added, deleted, edited, and reorganized by different users running different browser applications on disconnected machines.

  11. Optimally moderated nuclear fission reactor and fuel source therefor

    DOEpatents

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Terry, William K.; Gougar, Hans D.

    2008-07-22

    An improved nuclear fission reactor of the continuous fueling type involves determining an asymptotic equilibrium state for the nuclear fission reactor and providing the reactor with a moderator-to-fuel ratio that is optimally moderated for the asymptotic equilibrium state of the nuclear fission reactor; the fuel-to-moderator ratio allowing the nuclear fission reactor to be substantially continuously operated in an optimally moderated state.

  12. Two Notes on Kinande Vowel Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenstowicz, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents the acoustic reflexes of ATR harmony in Kinande followed by an analysis of the dominance reversal found in class 5 nominals. The principal findings are that the ATR harmony is reliably reflected in a lowering of the first formant. Depending on the vowel, ATR harmony also affects the second formant. The directional asymmetry…

  13. Fuel qualification plan for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the development and qualification plan for the fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source. The reference fuel is U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, dispersed in aluminum and clad in 6061 aluminum. This report was prepared in May 1994, at which time the reference design was for a two-element core containing highly enriched uranium (93% {sup 235}U) . The reactor was in the process of being redesigned to accommodate lowered uranium enrichment and became a three-element core containing a higher volume fraction of uranium enriched to 50% {sup 235}U. Consequently, this report was not issued at that time and would have been revised to reflect the possibly different requirements of the lower-enrichment, higher-volume fraction fuel. Because the reactor is now being canceled, this unrevised report is being issued for archival purposes. The report describes the fabrication and inspection development plan, the irradiation tests and performance modeling to qualify performance, the transient testing that is part of the safety program, and the interactions and interfaces of the fuel development with other tasks.

  14. Advanced neutron source reactor probabilistic flow blockage assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, C.T.

    1995-08-01

    The Phase I Level I Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor identified core flow blockage as the most likely internal event leading to fuel damage. The flow blockage event frequency used in the original ANS PRA was based primarily on the flow blockage work done for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) PRA. This report examines potential flow blockage scenarios and calculates an estimate of the likelihood of debris-induced fuel damage. The bulk of the report is based specifically on the conceptual design of ANS with a 93%-enriched, two-element core; insights to the impact of the proposed three-element core are examined in Sect. 5. In addition to providing a probability (uncertainty) distribution for the likelihood of core flow blockage, this ongoing effort will serve to indicate potential areas of concern to be focused on in the preliminary design for elimination or mitigation. It will also serve as a loose-parts management tool.

  15. High flux isotope reactor cold source preconceptual design study report

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Bucholz, J.A.; Burnette, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    In February 1995, the deputy director of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced Neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. The anticipated cold source will consist of a cryogenic LH{sub 2} moderator plug, a cryogenic pump system, a refrigerator that uses helium gas as a refrigerant, a heat exchanger to interface the refrigerant with the hydrogen loop, liquid hydrogen transfer lines, a gas handling system that includes vacuum lines, and an instrumentation and control system to provide constant system status monitoring and to maintain system stability. The scope of this project includes the development, design, safety analysis, procurement/fabrication, testing, and installation of all of the components necessary to produce a working cold source within an existing HFIR beam tube. This project will also include those activities necessary to transport the cold neutron beam to the front face of the present HFIR beam room. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and research and development (R and D), (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the preconceptual phase and establishes the concept feasibility. The information presented includes the project scope, the preliminary design requirements, the preliminary cost and schedule, the preliminary performance data, and an outline of the various plans for completing the project.

  16. Performance of TOF powder diffractometers on reactor sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Judith; Bleif, Hans-Jürgen; Kali, György; Rosta, Laszlo; Mezei, Ferenc

    2006-11-01

    In 1998, a prototype of a time-of-flight (TOF) powder diffractometer was built at KFKI in Budapest in collaboration with the Hahn-Meitner-Institut (HMI) in Berlin. At a reactor source the neutron pulses are produced by a chopper system, which allows for shorter pulses than those obtained at pulsed spallation sources in the wavelength range most relevant for diffraction work, i.e. λ⩾0.7 Å. Furthermore, the chopper system provides an ideal symmetric line shape. First results proved the high potential of the approach, namely an excellent resolution of 1-5×10 -3 for Δ d/d was achieved. The prototype is presently rebuilt as a user instrument at the Budapest Neutron Centre. At HMI Berlin a new much more complex TOF powder diffractometer (EXED=extreme environment diffractometer) with higher resolution is under construction. It will benefit from variable resolution to achieve either ultrahigh resolution or very high intensities at conventional resolutions. EXED is devoted to studies under extreme sample conditions, for instance the TOF technique permits the access of a broad range of Q-values or d-spacing domains under scattering angle access strongly restricted by the use of highest field magnets. The whole instrument was simulated by Monte Carlo (MC) technique, and the simulations yield promising results.

  17. Comparison of SANS instruments at reactors and pulsed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Epperson, J.E.; Crawford, R.K.; Carpenter, J.M.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    Small angle neutron scattering is a general purpose technique to study long range fluctuations and hence has been applied in almost every field of science for material characterization. SANS instruments can be built at steady state reactors and at the pulsed neutron sources where time-of-flight (TOF) techniques are used. The steady state instruments usually give data over small q ranges and in order to cover a large q range these instruments have to be reconfigured several times and SANS measurements have to be made. These instruments have provided better resolution and higher data rates within their restricted q ranges until now, but the TOF instruments are now developing to comparable performance. The TOF-SANS instruments, by using a wide band of wavelengths, can cover a wide dynamic q range in a single measurement. This is a big advantage for studying systems that are changing and those which cannot be exactly reproduced. This paper compares the design concepts and performances of these two types of instruments.

  18. Source impedance, transient response, and noise characterization of the TOPAZ 2 reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kusnierkiewicz, D.Y.

    1995-01-20

    Electrical measurements have been performed on the TOPAZ 2 V-71 and Ya-21 Reactors, in order to characterize the source impedance as a function of DC operating point and frequency. The response of the reactor to step changes in load current, as well as the frequency content of the electrical noise generated by the reactor have also been measured. These parameters are important to know in order to design power regulation circuitry which maintains a constant load on the reactor during spacecraft operations for any flight application of the TOPAZ 2 reactors. Voltage spikes at the reactor interface induced by load transients must be limited; the power regulation circuitry must have adequate bandwidth to compensate for spacecraft load dynamics. The methods used to make these measurements will be discussed. Results of the measurements on the Ya-21 reactor indicate the source impedance is dominated by a series resistance and inductance. The equivalent DC leakage resistance from the reactor output to structure was also measured. The self generated noise of the reactor is benign; load induced transients will be sufficiently controlled with capacitive filtering and active regulation circuitry external to the reactor/power distribution system. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  19. UCN sources at external beams of thermal neutrons. An example of PIK reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagin, E. V.; Mityukhlyaev, V. A.; Muzychka, A. Yu.; Nekhaev, G. V.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Onegin, M. S.; Sharapov, E. I.; Strelkov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    We consider ultracold neutron (UCN) sources based on a new method of UCN production in superfluid helium (4He). The PIK reactor is chosen as a perspective example of application of this idea, which consists of installing 4He UCN source in the beam of thermal or cold neutrons and surrounding the source with moderator-reflector, which plays the role of cold neutron (CN) source feeding the UCN source. CN flux in the source can be several times larger than the incident flux, due to multiple neutron reflections from the moderator-reflector. We show that such a source at the PIK reactor would provide an order of magnitude larger density and production rate than an analogous source at the ILL reactor. We estimate parameters of 4He source with solid methane (CH4) or/and liquid deuterium (D2) moderator-reflector. We show that such a source with CH4 moderator-reflector at the PIK reactor would provide the UCN density of ~1·105 cm-3, and the UCN production rate of ~2·107 s-1. These values are respectively 1000 and 20 times larger than those for the most intense UCN user source. The UCN density in a source with D2 moderator-reflector would reach the value of ~2·105 cm-3, and the UCN production rate would be equal ~8·107 s-1. Installation of such a source in a beam of CNs would slightly increase the density and production rate.

  20. The Vowel Harmony in the Sinhala Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The Sinhala language is characterized by the melodic shifty stress or its essence, the opposition between long and short vowels, the Ablaut variants of the vowels and the syllabic alphabet which, of course, might impact the vowel harmony and can be a feature of all the leveled Indo-European languages. The vowel harmony is a well-known concept in…

  1. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-05-01

    The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported (via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)) to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers.

  2. Competing Triggers: Transparency and Opacity in Vowel Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimper, Wendell A.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation takes up the issue of transparency and opacity in vowel harmony--that is, when a segment is unable to undergo a harmony process, will it be skipped over by harmony (transparent) or will it prevent harmony from propagating further (opaque)? I argue that the choice between transparency and opacity is best understood as a…

  3. Ethnic Identification and Perception of Racial Harmony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett

    1980-01-01

    Reports on a study of White and minority middle school and high school students' perceptions of racial tension and harmony in classrooms and schools in Louisville, Kentucky, following court-ordered busing to achieve racial desegregation. (EF)

  4. Two pathways ensuring social harmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Matthias; Pamminger, Tobias; Foitzik, Susanne

    2012-08-01

    Reproductive division of labour is a characteristic trait of social insects. The dominant reproductive individual, often the queen, uses chemical communication and/or behaviour to maintain her social status. Queens of many social insects communicate their fertility status via cuticle-bound substances. As these substances usually possess a low volatility, their range in queen-worker communication is potentially limited. Here, we investigate the range and impact of behavioural and chemical queen signals on workers of the ant Temnothorax longispinosus. We compared the behaviour and ovary development of workers subjected to three different treatments: workers with direct chemical and physical contact to the queen, those solely under the influence of volatile queen substances and those entirely separated from the queen. In addition to short-ranged queen signals preventing ovary development in workers, we discovered a novel secondary pathway influencing worker behaviour. Workers with no physical contact to the queen, but exposed to volatile substances, started to develop their ovaries, but did not change their behaviour compared to workers in direct contact to the queen. In contrast, workers in queen-separated groups showed both increased ovary development and aggressive dominance interactions. We conclude that T. longispinosus queens influence worker ovary development and behaviour via two independent signals, both ensuring social harmony within the colony.

  5. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  6. Detailed flux calculations for the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wemple, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    A detailed MCNP model of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor has been developed. All reactor components inside the reflector tank were included, and all components were highly segmented. Neutron and photon multigroup flux spectra have been calculated for each segment in the model, and thermal-to-fast neutron flux ratios were determined for each component segment. Axial profiles of the spectra are provided for all components of the reactor. Individual segment statistical uncertainties were limited wherever possible, and the group fluxes for all important reflector components have a standard deviation below 10%.

  7. The source term and waste optimization of molten salt reactors with processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Dodds, H.L.

    1993-07-01

    The source term of a molten salt reactor (MSR) with fuel processing is reduced by the ratio of processing time to refueling time as compared to solid fuel reactors. The reduction, which can be one to two orders of magnitude, is due to removal of the long-lived fission products. The waste from MSRs can be optimized with respect to its chemical composition, concentration, mixture, shape, and size. The actinides and long-lived isotopes can be separated out and returned to the reactor for transmutation. These features make MSRs more acceptable and simpler in operation and handling.

  8. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C

    2013-11-26

    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  9. A comparison of world-wide uses of severe reactor accident source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, M.L.; Frid, W.; Kersting, E.J.; Friederichs, H.G.; Lee, R.Y.; Meyer-Heine, A.; Powers, D.A.; Soda, K.; Sweet, D.

    1994-09-01

    The definitions of source terms to reactor containments and source terms to the environment are discussed. A comparison is made between the TID-14844 example source term and the alternative source term described in NUREG-1465. Comparisons of these source terms to the containments and those used in France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom are made. Source terms to the environment calculated in NUREG-1500 and WASH-1400 are discussed. Again, these source terms are compared to those now being used in France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. It is concluded that source terms to the containment suggested in NUREG-1465 are not greatly more conservative than those used in other countries. Technical bases for the source terms are similar. The regulatory use of the current understanding of radionuclide behavior varies among countries.

  10. Detailed heat load calculations for the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wemple, C.A.

    1993-12-01

    A very detailed MCNP model of the Advanced Neutron Source reactor has been developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. All reactor components inside the reflector vessel were included, and al components were highly segmented. Specific heat loads (watts per gram) have been calculated for each segment in the model, and system-integrated total powers are compared with the design value for the total reactor fission power. The calculated results agree very well with the design values. Axial profiles of the heat loads are provided for all components of the reactor. Individual segment statistical uncertainties were limited wherever possible, and the heat loads for all important reflector components have a standard deviation below 5%.

  11. A Subcritical, Gas-Cooled Fast Transmutation Reactor with a Fusion Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, W.M.; Beavers, V.L.; Casino, W.A.; Cheatham, J.R.; Friis, Z.W.; Green, R.D.; Hamilton, W.R.; Haufler, K.W.; Hutchinson, J.D.; Lackey, W.J.; Lorio, R.A.; Maddox, J.W.; Mandrekas, J.; Manzoor, A.A.; Noelke, C.A.; Oliveira, C. de; Park, M.; Tedder, D.W.; Terry, M.R.; Hoffman, E.A.

    2005-05-15

    A design is presented for a subcritical, He-cooled fast reactor, driven by a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The reactor is fueled with coated transuranic (TRU) particles and is intended for the deep-burn (>90%) transmutation of the TRUs in SNF without reprocessing of the coated fuel particles. The reactor design is based on the materials, fuel, and separations technologies under near-term development in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Program and on the plasma physics and fusion technologies under near-term development in the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program, with the objective of intermediate-term ({approx}2040) deployment. The physical and performance characteristics and research and development requirements of such a reactor are described.

  12. The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) project: A world-class research reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.B.; Meek, W.E.

    1993-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), a new research facility being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The facility is based on a 330 MW, heavy-water cooled and reflected reactor as the neutron source, with a thermal neutron flux of about 7.5{times}10{sup 19}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}sec{sup {minus}1}. Within the reflector region will be one hot source which will serve 2 hot neutron beam tubes, two cryogenic cold sources serving fourteen cold neutron beam tubes, two very cold beam tubes, and seven thermal neutron beam tubes. In addition there will be ten positions for materials irradiation experiments, five of them instrumented. The paper touches on the project status, safety concerns, cost estimates and scheduling, a description of the site, the reactor, and the arrangements of the facilities.

  13. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  14. Reactor physics analyses of the advanced neutron source three-element core

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    A reactor physics analysis was performed for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor with a three-element core configuration. The analysis was performed with a two-dimensional r-z 20-energy-group finite-difference diffusion theory model of the 17-d fuel cycle. The model included equivalent r-z geometry representations of the central control rods, the irradiation and production targets, and reflector components. Calculated quantities include fuel cycle parameters, fuel element power distributions, unperturbed neutron fluxes in the reflector and target regions, reactivity perturbations, and neutron kinetics parameters.

  15. Ultracold neutron source at the PULSTAR reactor: Engineering design and cryogenic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobkina, E.; Medlin, G.; Wehring, B.; Hawari, A. I.; Huffman, P. R.; Young, A. R.; Beaumont, B.; Palmquist, G.

    2014-12-01

    Construction is completed and commissioning is in progress for an ultracold neutron (UCN) source at the PULSTAR reactor on the campus of North Carolina State University. The source utilizes two stages of neutron moderation, one in heavy water at room temperature and the other in solid methane at ~ 40 K, followed by a converter stage, solid deuterium at 5 K, that allows a single down scattering of cold neutrons to provide UCN. The UCN source rolls into the thermal column enclosure of the PULSTAR reactor, where neutrons will be delivered from a bare face of the reactor core by streaming through a graphite-lined assembly. The source infrastructure, i.e., graphite-lined assembly, heavy-water system, gas handling system, and helium liquefier cooling system, has been tested and all systems operate as predicted. The research program being considered for the PULSTAR UCN source includes the physics of UCN production, fundamental particle physics, and material surface studies of nanolayers containing hydrogen. In the present paper we report details of the engineering and cryogenic design of the facility as well as results of critical commissioning tests without neutrons.

  16. Source-term reevaluation for US commercial nuclear power reactors: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Ball, J.R.; Ramaswami, D.

    1984-12-01

    Only results that had been discussed publicly, had been published in the open literature, or were available in preliminary reports as of September 30, 1984, are included here. More than 20 organizations are participating in source-term programs, which have been undertaken to examine severe accident phenomena in light-water power reactors (including the chemical and physical behavior of fission products under accident conditions), update and reevaluate source terms, and resolve differences between predictions and observations of radiation releases and related phenomena. Results from these source-term activities have been documented in over 100 publications to date.

  17. "Harmony with Voice:" Poetry with Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassig, Ronda

    2012-01-01

    Harmony Middle School educators recently undertook a project that combined poetry and real-service action for students. The students worked with a published poet and wrote beautiful poems and then blogged with art students in the district. The art students made ceramic bowls that represented the poems. The combined project was done for True Light,…

  18. Mathematics--A Search for Harmony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    The harmonic mean, neglected in favor of arithmetic and geometric means in modern mathematics, is defined and its historical relationship to music as presented by Pythagoras is described. Two geometric constructions present a picture of harmony, and an application in calculating the square root of a number is given. (MDH)

  19. The Magic Moment: Creating Color Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartges, Dan

    2009-01-01

    If there is a truly magic moment in art class, it must be when a student--of any age--attains a working knowledge of color's core principles. At that point, she or he becomes able to consistently create color harmony in any painting, regardless of the subject matter. From then on, that student gains greater confidence, can paint better pictures…

  20. Modeling & analysis of criticality-induced severe accidents during refueling for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Georgevich, V.; Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Jackson, S.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for evaluating the potential and resulting consequences of a hypothetical criticality accident during refueling of the 330-MW Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) research reactor. The development of an analytical capability is described. Modeling and problem formulation were conducted using concepts of reactor neutronic theory for determining power level escalation, coupled with ORIGEN and MELCOR code simulations for radionuclide buildup and containment transport Gaussian plume transport modeling was done for determining off-site radiological consequences. Nuances associated with modeling this blast-type scenario are described. Analysis results for ANS containment response under a variety of postulated scenarios and containment failure modes are presented. It is demonstrated that individuals at the reactor site boundary will not receive doses beyond regulatory limits for any of the containment configurations studied.

  1. The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) postulated limiting event initial and building source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, L F

    1992-08-01

    As part of the update of the Safety analysis Report (SAR) for the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR), operational limiting events under the category of inadvertent withdrawal of an experiment while at power or during a power pulse were determined to be the most limiting event(s) for this reactor. This report provides a summary of the assumptions, modeling, and results in evaluation of: Reactivity and thermal hydraulics analysis to determine the amount of fuel melt or fuel damage ratios; The reactor inventories following the limiting event; A literature review of post NUREG-0772 release fraction experiment results on severe fuel damages; Decontamination factors due to in-pool transport; and In-building transport modeling and building source term analysis.

  2. Social Harmony in Hong Kong: Level, Determinants and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Simon S. M.; Chan, Raymond S. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at ascertaining how Hong Kong people perceive Hong Kong as a harmonious society. It also identifies the elements that are most conducive to social harmony in Hong Kong, so that the government could take reference when formulating new policies. 1,062 adults residents were asked to rate their perceived level of social harmony and…

  3. System Construction on Psychological Harmony Education of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yan-hua; Zhou, Rong

    2008-01-01

    The psychological harmony education, oriented to the unity of Truth, Good, Beauty, and in pursuit of a healthy, balanced and harmonious development of individual psychological quality to improve the mental quality, is an important part in mental education. In order to better fulfill the psychological harmony education of the college students, as…

  4. Harmony as Language Policy in China: An Internet Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xuan; Juffermans, Kasper; Du, Caixia

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an ethnographic understanding of harmony as language policy in China, grounded in a historical analysis of "harmony" ([character omitted] "he") as a distinct traditional Chinese (Confucian) ideal that gradually finds its new expressions through the policy of Harmonious Society ([characters omitted]…

  5. Modeling perceived relationships between melody, harmony, and key.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W F

    1993-01-01

    Perceptual relationships between four-voice harmonic sequences and single voices were examined in three experiments. In Experiment 1, listeners rated the extent to which single voices were musically consistent with harmonic sequences. When harmonic sequences did not change key, judgments were influenced by three sources of congruency: melody (whether the single voice was the same as the soprano voice of the harmonic sequence), chord progression (whether the single voice could be harmonized to give rise to the chord progression of the harmonic sequence), and key structure (whether or not the single voice implied modulation). When key changes occurred, sensitivity to sources of congruency was reduced. In Experiment 2, another interpretation of the results was examined: that consistency ratings were based on congruency in well-formedness. Listeners provided well-formedness ratings of the single voices and harmonic sequences. A multiple regression analysis suggested that consistency ratings were based not merely on well-formedness but on congruency in melody, chord progression, and key structure. In Experiment 3, listeners rated the extent of modulation in harmonic sequences and in each voice of the sequences. Discrimination between modulation conditions was greater for single voices than for harmonic sequences, suggesting that abstraction of key from melody may occur without reference to implied harmony. A partially hierarchical system for processing melody, harmony, and key is proposed. PMID:8433901

  6. A comparison between a TESQ accelerator and a reactor as a neutron sources for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, A. A.; Kreiner, A. J.

    2008-03-01

    In this work, the performance of an accelerator-based neutron source design has been compared with that of a modern fluoride-filtered reactor-based epithermal beam having near-optimal quality for treatment of deep seated tumors in relation to its applicability for BNCT. The accelerator is a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator which is a design under development at the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in Buenos Aires, Argentina based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, relatively close to its energy threshold. The reactor is the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reactor upgraded with a Fission Converter Beam (MIT-FCB) and improved with an 8 mm thick 6Li filter. The comparison has been done by means of data reported on the MIT-FCB + 6Li filter performance and MCNP simulations on our TESQ design considering the neutron fluxes provided by the two sources and the doses delivered in a human phantom by both devices. The results show a deeper advantage depth (AD) for the TESQ which turns out to be a promising alternative to a reactor-based BNCT treatment.

  7. Verifying the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method using the TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon-Sam; Leyine, S.H.

    1984-07-01

    A new experimental/analytical method has been developed using the Penn State Breazeale (TRIGA) reactor, to measure the k{sub eff} of a damaged core, e.g., the TMI-2 core, and unfold its k{sub infinity} distribution. This new method, the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method, uses the response of several neutron detectors in fixed positions around the core periphery (and possibly in the core) when a neutron source is placed sequentially in different discrete core positions. Experiments have been performed with the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR) and analyzed with appropriate neutron calculations, using PSU-LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II (EXT-II), to verify the method.

  8. Loss-of-coolant accident analyses of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Yoder, G.L. ); Wendel, M.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Currently in the conceptual design stage, the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) will operate at a high heat flux, a high mass flux, an a high degree of coolant subcooling. Loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) analyses using RELAP5 have been performed as part of an early evaluation of ANSR safety issues. This paper discusses the RELAP5 ANSR conceptual design system model and preliminary LOCA simulation results. Some previous studies were conducted for the preconceptual design. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  9. The SP-100 space reactor as a power source for Mars exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, Lon; Heller, Jack A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper argues that many of the power requirements of complex, relatively long-duration space missions such as the exploration of Mars may best be met through the use of power systems which use nuclear reactors as a thermal energy source. The development of such a power system, the SP-100, and its application in Mars mission scenarios is described. The missions addressed include a freighter mission and a mission involving exploration of the Martian surface.

  10. Description and Application of a Mathematical Method for the Analysis of Harmony

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Qiting; Jin, Runfang; Ma, Junxia; Cui, Guotao

    2015-01-01

    Harmony issues are widespread in human society and nature. To analyze these issues, harmony theory has been proposed as the main theoretical approach for the study of interpersonal relationships and relationships between humans and nature. Therefore, it is of great importance to study harmony theory. After briefly introducing the basic concepts of harmony theory, this paper expounds the five elements that are essential for the quantitative description of harmony issues in water resources management: harmony participant, harmony objective, harmony regulation, harmony factor, and harmony action. A basic mathematical equation for the harmony degree, that is, a quantitative expression of harmony issues, is introduced in the paper: HD = ai − bj, where a is the uniform degree, b is the difference degree, i is the harmony coefficient, and j is the disharmony coefficient. This paper also discusses harmony assessment and harmony regulation and introduces some application examples. PMID:26167535

  11. Measurements of the subcriticality using advanced technique of shooting source during operation of NPP reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, G. V. Petrov, V. V.; Bobylyov, V. T.; Butov, R. I.; Zhukov, A. M.; Sladkov, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    According to the rules of nuclear safety, the measurements of the subcriticality of reactors should be carried out in the process of performing nuclear hazardous operations. An advanced technique of shooting source of neutrons is proposed to meet this requirement. As such a source, a pulsed neutron source (PNS) is used. In order to realize this technique, it is recommended to enable a PNS with a frequency of 1–20 Hz. The PNS is stopped after achieving a steady-state (on average) number of neutrons in the reactor volume. The change in the number of neutrons in the reactor volume is measured in time with an interval of discreteness of ∼0.1 s. The results of these measurements with the application of a system of point-kinetics equations are used in order to calculate the sought subcriticality. The basic idea of the proposed technique used to measure the subcriticality is elaborated in a series of experiments on the Kvant assembly. The conditions which should be implemented in order to obtain a positive result of measurements are formulated. A block diagram of the basic version of the experimental setup is presented, whose main element is a pulsed neutron generator.

  12. Measurements of the subcriticality using advanced technique of shooting source during operation of NPP reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, G. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Bobylyov, V. T.; Butov, R. I.; Zhukov, A. M.; Sladkov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    According to the rules of nuclear safety, the measurements of the subcriticality of reactors should be carried out in the process of performing nuclear hazardous operations. An advanced technique of shooting source of neutrons is proposed to meet this requirement. As such a source, a pulsed neutron source (PNS) is used. In order to realize this technique, it is recommended to enable a PNS with a frequency of 1-20 Hz. The PNS is stopped after achieving a steady-state (on average) number of neutrons in the reactor volume. The change in the number of neutrons in the reactor volume is measured in time with an interval of discreteness of ˜0.1 s. The results of these measurements with the application of a system of point-kinetics equations are used in order to calculate the sought subcriticality. The basic idea of the proposed technique used to measure the subcriticality is elaborated in a series of experiments on the Kvant assembly. The conditions which should be implemented in order to obtain a positive result of measurements are formulated. A block diagram of the basic version of the experimental setup is presented, whose main element is a pulsed neutron generator.

  13. The Japanese value of harmony and nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Emiko; Yahiro, Michiko; Nakajima, Naoko; Ono, Miki

    2009-09-01

    Harmony is one of the most fundamental Japanese values. It is derived from Confucianism and encompasses a state of mind, an action process and outcomes of the action. This article draws on research data and discusses Japanese nurses' perceptions of harmony as reflected in their everyday practice. The most important virtues for these nurses were reported as politeness and respect for other persons. The outcome from the nurses' harmonious practice, it is claimed, benefited patients and created peaceful, harmonious relationships for all. Because of the unique link between harmony and the location of interaction, the ideal 'workplace harmony' threatened some nurses' professional decision making. These nurses confused harmony with conformity by superficial agreement. The Japanese seniority system could be a major factor contributing to this problem. Ethics education that includes traditional values and concepts in Japanese culture is strongly urged. PMID:19671648

  14. Fukushima Daiichi reactor source term attribution using cesium isotope ratios from contaminated environmental samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.; Delmore, James E.

    2016-01-18

    Source term attribution of environmental contamination following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) disaster is complicated by a large number of possible similar emission source terms (e.g. FDNPP reactor cores 1–3 and spent fuel ponds 1–4). Cesium isotopic analyses can be utilized to discriminate between environmental contamination from different FDNPP source terms and, if samples are sufficiently temporally resolved, potentially provide insights into the extent of reactor core damage at a given time. Rice, soil, mushroom, and soybean samples taken 100–250 km from the FDNPP site were dissolved using microwave digestion. Radiocesium was extracted and purified using two sequentialmore » ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile columns, following which 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios were measured using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Results were compared with data reported previously from locations to the northwest of FDNPP and 30 km to the south of FDNPP. 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios from samples 100–250 km to the southwest of the FDNPP site show a consistent value of 0.376 ± 0.008. 135Cs/137Cs versus 134Cs/137Cs correlation plots suggest that radiocesium to the southwest is derived from a mixture of FDNPP reactor cores 1, 2, and 3. Conclusions from the cesium isotopic data are in agreement with those derived independently based upon the event chronology combined with meteorological conditions at the time of the disaster. In conclusion, cesium isotopic analyses provide a powerful tool for source term discrimination of environmental radiocesium contamination at the FDNPP site. For higher precision source term attribution and forensic determination of the FDNPP core conditions based upon cesium, analyses of a larger number of samples from locations to the north and south of the FDNPP site (particularly time-resolved air filter samples) are needed. Published in 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain

  15. Implementation of a source term control program in a mature boiling water reactor.

    PubMed

    Vargo, G J; Jarvis, A J; Remark, J F

    1991-06-01

    The implementation and results of a source term control program implemented at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAF), a mature boiling water reactor (BWR) facility that has been in commercial operation since 1975, are discussed. Following a chemical decontamination of the reactor water recirculation piping in the Reload 8/Cycle 9 refueling outage in 1988, hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and feedwater Zn addition were implemented. This is the first application of both HWC and feedwater Zn addition in a BWR facility. The radiological benefits and impacts of combined operation of HWC and feedwater Zn addition at JAF during Cycle 9 are detailed and summarized. The implementation of hydrogen water chemistry resulted in a significant transport of corrosion products within the reactor coolant system that was greater than anticipated. Feedwater Zn addition appears to be effective in controlling buildup of other activated corrosion products such as 60Co on reactor water recirculation piping; however, adverse impacts were encountered. The major adverse impact of feedwater Zn addition is the production of 65Zn that is released during plant outages and operational transients. PMID:2032839

  16. Updated pipe break analysis for Advanced Neutron Source Reactor conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, M.W.; Chen, N.C.J.; Yoder, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is a research reactor to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will supply the highest continuous neutron flux levels of any reactor in the world. It uses plate-type fuel with high-mass-flux and highly subcooled heavy water as the primary coolant. The Conceptual Safety Analysis for the ANSR was completed in June 1992. The thermal-hydraulic pipe-break safety analysis (performed with a specialized version of RELAP5/MOD3) focused primarily on double-ended guillotine breaks of the primary piping and some core-damage mitigation options for such an event. Smaller, instantaneous pipe breaks in the cold- and hot-leg piping were also analyzed to a limited extent. Since the initial analysis for the conceptual design was completed, several important changes to the RELAP5 input model have been made reflecting improvements in the fuel grading and changes in the elevation of the primary coolant pumps. Also, a new philosophy for pipe-break safety analysis (similar to that adopted for the New Production Reactor) accentuates instantaneous, limited flow area pipe-break accidents in addition to finite-opening-time, double-ended guillotine breaks of the major coolant piping. This paper discloses the results of the most recent instantaneous pipe-break calculations.

  17. Design and Construction of the Ultracold Neutron Source at the NC State PULSTAR Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmquist, Grant R.

    An ultracold neutron (UCN) source using solid deuterium is being constructed at the 1MWPULSTAR nuclear reactor on the campus of North Carolina State University. The final stages of assembly and commissioning are underway. The overall design, status of construction, and benchmarking measurements are presented. The UCN source design is based on detailed simulations including MCNP, UCN transport Monte Carlo, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the cryogenic systems. The source will be useful for developing UCN technologies, including guides and detectors, and in support of current projects including measurements of neutron beta-decay asymmetry coefficients and the electric dipolemoment of the neutron. The facility will also be available for testing new techniques using UCN in material and surface physics, as well as new fundamental physics measurements such as neutron lifetime and beta decay measurements. The expected experimental density of UCN/cm3 in a storage volume will be competitive with currently available sources, including those at significantly more powerful reactors.

  18. Update to the NARAC NNPP Non-Reactor Source Term Products

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, P

    2009-06-29

    Recent updates to NARAC plots for NNPP requires a modification to your iClient database. The steps you need to take are described below. Implementation of the non-reactor source terms in February 2009 included four plots, the traditional three instantaneous plots (1-3) and a new Gamma Dose Rate: 1. Particulate Air Concentration 2. Total Ground Deposition 3. Whole Body Inhalation Dose Rate (CEDE Rate) 4. Gamma Dose Rate These plots were all initially implemented to be instantaneous output and generated 30 minutes after the release time. Recently, Bettis and NAVSEA have requested the Whole Body CEDE rate plot to be changed to an integrated dose valid at two hours. This is consistent with the change made to the Thyroid Dose rate plot conversion to a 2-hour Integrated Thyroid dose for the Reactor and Criticality accidents.

  19. STAR: The Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor System - Encapsulated Fission Heat Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ehud Greenspan

    2003-10-31

    OAK-B135 The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) is a novel 125 MWth fast spectrum reactor concept that was selected by the 1999 DOE NERI program as a candidate ''Generation-IV'' reactor. It uses Pb-Bi or other liquid-metal coolant and is intended to be factory manufactured in large numbers to be economically competitive. It is anticipated to be most useful to developing countries. The US team studying the feasibility of the ENHS reactor concept consisted of the University of California, Berkeley, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Westinghouse. Collaborating with the US team were three Korean organizations: Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Korean Advanced Institute for Science and Technology (KAIST) and the University of Seoul, as well as the Central Research Institute of the Electrical Power Industry (CRIEPI) of Japan. Unique features of the ENHS include at least 20 years of operation without refueling; no fuel handling in the host country; no pumps and valves; excess reactivity does not exceed 1$; fully passive removal of the decay heat; very small probability of core damaging accidents; autonomous operation and capability of load-following over a wide range; very long plant life. In addition it offers a close match between demand and supply, large tolerance to human errors, is likely to get public acceptance via demonstration of superb safety, lack of need for offsite response, and very good proliferation resistance. The ENHS reactor is designed to meet the requirements of Generation IV reactors including sustainable energy supply, low waste, high level of proliferation resistance, high level of safety and reliability, acceptable risk to capital and, hopefully, also competitive busbar cost of electricity.

  20. Cold source moderator vessel development for the High Flux Isotope Reactor: Thermal-hydraulic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.T.; Lucas, A.T.; Wendel, M.W.

    1998-07-01

    A project is underway at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to design, test, and install a cold neutron source facility in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This new cold source employs supercritical hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures both as the medium for neutron moderation and as the working fluid for removal of internally-generated nuclear heating. The competing design goals of minimizing moderator vessel mass and providing adequate structural integrity for the vessel motivated the requirement of detailed multidimensional thermal-hydraulic analyses of the moderator vessel as a critical design subtask. This paper provides a summary review of the HFIR cold source moderator vessel design and a description of the thermal-hydraulic studies that were carried out to support the vessel development.

  1. Structure and validity of Family Harmony Scale: An instrument for measuring harmony.

    PubMed

    Kavikondala, Sushma; Stewart, Sunita M; Ni, Michael Y; Chan, Brandford H Y; Lee, Paul H; Li, Kin-Kit; McDowell, Ian; Johnston, Janice M; Chan, Sophia S; Lam, T H; Lam, Wendy W T; Fielding, Richard; Leung, Gabriel M

    2016-03-01

    Culture plays a role in mental health, partly by defining the characteristics that are indicative of positive adjustment. In Chinese cultures, positive family relationships are considered central to well-being. The culturally emphasized characteristic of family harmony may be an important factor associated with psychopathology. This article presents the development and psychometric examination of the Family Harmony Scale (FHS), an indigenously developed 24-item instrument tapping family harmony in 17,461 Hong Kong residents from 7,791 households. A higher-order model with 1 second-order factor and 5 first-order factors fit the data well and showed factorial invariance across sex and participants in different family roles. A 5-item short form (FHS-5) was also developed, with 1 item from each first-order factor. The short scale showed, as expected, a single-factor structure with good fit. Both scales demonstrated high internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, and good convergent and discriminant validity. The 24-item FHS was negatively associated with depressive symptoms after accounting for individual risk factors and general family function. Family harmony moderated the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms such that those individuals who reported low family harmony had stronger associations between life stress and depressive symptoms. This study adds to the literature a systematically developed, multidimensional measure of family harmony, which may be an important psychological protective factor, in a large urban Chinese sample. The FHS-5 minimizes operational and respondent burdens, making it an attractive tool for large-scale epidemiological studies with Chinese populations in urban settings, where over half of China's 1.4 billion people reside. PMID:26146946

  2. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  3. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A means is described for co-relating the essential physical requirements of a fission chain reaction in order that practical, compact, and easily controllable reactors can be built. These objects are obtained by employing a composition of fissionsble isotope and moderator in fluid form in which the amount of fissionsble isotcpe present governs the reaction. The size of the reactor is no longer a critical factor, the new criterion being the concentration of the fissionable isotope.

  4. Hydrogen Explosion Analysis for Cold Source Installation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, David Howard

    2008-01-01

    Installation of a cold neutron source in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) involved introduction of pressurized, cryogenic hydrogen into the facility and created explosion hazards to reactor safety-related equipment and personnel. Evaluation of potential hydrogen releases and facility/personnel consequences as a result of explosions was a key part of the safety analyses submitted to the DOE to obtain approval for testing and operation with hydrogen. This paper involves a description of the various hydrogen release and explosion consequence analyses that were performed. The range of explosion calculations involved (1) a detonation analysis using a 2D-transient CTH code model, (2) various BLAST/FX code models to estimate structural damage from equivalent point TNT sources, (3) a BLASTX code model to propagate shock and gas flow overpressures from a point TNT source, (4) a spreadsheet that combined a TNT-quivalence model and strong deflagration methods, and (5) a hydrogen jet model to evaluate potential high pressure jet releases.

  5. Analyses of the reflector tank, cold source, and beam tube cooling for ANS reactor. [Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, S. )

    1992-07-01

    This report describes my work as an intern with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in the summer of 1991. I was assigned to the Reactor Technology Engineering Department, working on the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). My first project was to select and analyze sealing systems for the top of the diverter/reflector tank. This involved investigating various metal seals and calculating the forces necessary to maintain an adequate seal. The force calculations led to an analysis of several bolt patterns and lockring concepts that could be used to maintain a seal on the vessel. Another project involved some pressure vessel stress calculations and the calculation of the center of gravity for the cold source assembly. I also completed some sketches of possible cooling channel patterns for the inner vessel of the cold source. In addition, I worked on some thermal design analyses for the reflector tank and beam tubes, including heat transfer calculations and assisting in Patran and Pthermal analyses. To supplement the ANS work, I worked on other projects. I completed some stress/deflection analyses on several different beams. These analyses were done with the aid of CAASE, a beam-analysis software package. An additional project involved bending analysis on a carbon removal system. This study was done to find the deflection of a complex-shaped beam when loaded with a full waste can.

  6. LAHS: A novel harmony search algorithm based on learning automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enayatifar, Rasul; Yousefi, Moslem; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Darus, Amer Nordin

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a learning automata-based harmony search (LAHS) for unconstrained optimization of continuous problems. The harmony search (HS) algorithm performance strongly depends on the fine tuning of its parameters, including the harmony consideration rate (HMCR), pitch adjustment rate (PAR) and bandwidth (bw). Inspired by the spur-in-time responses in the musical improvisation process, learning capabilities are employed in the HS to select these parameters based on spontaneous reactions. An extensive numerical investigation is conducted on several well-known test functions, and the results are compared with the HS algorithm and its prominent variants, including the improved harmony search (IHS), global-best harmony search (GHS) and self-adaptive global-best harmony search (SGHS). The numerical results indicate that the LAHS is more efficient in finding optimum solutions and outperforms the existing HS algorithm variants.

  7. Reactor target from metal chromium for "pure" high-intensive artificial neutrino source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrin, V. N.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Logachev, A. V.; Logacheva, A. I.; Lednev, I. S.; Okunkova, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the first results of development of manufacturing technology of metallic chromium targets from highly enriched isotope 50Cr for irradiation in a high flux nuclear reactor to obtain a compact high intensity neutrino source with low content of radionuclide impurities and minimum losses of enriched isotope. The main technological stages are the hydrolysis of chromyl fluoride, the electrochemical reduction of metallic chromium, the hot isostatic pressing of chromium powder and the electrical discharge machining of chromium bars. The technological stages of hot isostatic pressing of chromium powder and of electrical discharge machining of Cr rods have been tested.

  8. Chords and harmonies in mixed optical and acoustical stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Dannenberg, Florian; Dörfler, Joachim; Weber, Bernhard; Weyer, Cornelia; Gercke-Hahn, Harald; Freimuth, Steffen; Heucke, Sören; Gutzmann, Holger Ludwig

    2014-09-01

    The paper is a follow up of the work presented in last year's Optics and Music session on the perception of coherence between low frequency power modulated light and periodical acoustic stimuli. The composition of chords and harmonies from power modulated light sources and their effect as stand-alone stimulus and in conjunction with the equivalent acoustic signal is discussed. Of special interest here is the modulation near perceptible flicker frequency. The substitution of acoustical chord components by their optical counterpart and vice versa is investigated. Further, concepts of a training application for trombone players and other instrumentalists are presented: since the mean slide of the trombone does not have fixed positions, the note must be found and two players might influence each other. The possibility of helping them to synchronize by optical stimuli derived from their playing is investigated. Beside possible applications in emotional reinforcing multimedia oriented entertainment and training support for musicians, again implications for occupational medicine are discussed.

  9. Effects of musical training on key and harmony perception.

    PubMed

    Corrigall, Kathleen A; Trainor, Laurel J

    2009-07-01

    Even adults with no formal music lessons have implicit musical knowledge acquired through exposure to the music of their culture. Two of these abilities are knowledge of key membership (which notes belong in a key) and harmony (chord progressions). Studies to date suggest that perception of harmony emerges around 5-6 years of age. Using simple tasks, we found that formal music training influences key and harmony perception in 3- to 6-year-olds, and that even nonmusicians as young as 3 years have some knowledge of key membership and harmony. PMID:19673773

  10. Learning harmony: the role of serial statistics.

    PubMed

    Jonaitis, Erin McMullen; Saffran, Jenny R

    2009-07-01

    How do listeners learn about the statistical regularities underlying musical harmony? In traditional Western music, certain chords predict the occurrence of other chords: Given a particular chord, not all chords are equally likely to follow. In Experiments 1 and 2, we investigated whether adults make use of statistical information when learning new musical structures. Listeners were exposed to a novel musical system containing phrases generated using an artificial grammar. This new system contained statistical structure quite different from Western tonal music. Our results suggest that learners take advantage of the statistical patterning of chords to acquire new musical structures, similar to learning processes previously observed for language learning. PMID:21585492

  11. Harmony Search Method: Theory and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gao, X. Z.; Govindasamy, V.; Xu, H.; Wang, X.; Zenger, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Harmony Search (HS) method is an emerging metaheuristic optimization algorithm, which has been employed to cope with numerous challenging tasks during the past decade. In this paper, the essential theory and applications of the HS algorithm are first described and reviewed. Several typical variants of the original HS are next briefly explained. As an example of case study, a modified HS method inspired by the idea of Pareto-dominance-based ranking is also presented. It is further applied to handle a practical wind generator optimal design problem. PMID:25945083

  12. Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

    Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

  13. Music Theory and the Harmony Method in J. Kepler's Work " The harmony of the Universe"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. A.

    In Kepler's book The Harmony of the Universe, edited in 1619, the theory of music as a science of that time is presented. Also the investigation of the correspondence between musical proportion and orbital parameters of the planets is presented. Kepler's book The Harmony of the Universe is a work that discloses the basic physical regularities of the developing Universe, which so far had not been definitively formulated. To explain the development process, Kepler introduced the concept of a "productive force" or "forming force" that directs the development of natural phenomena with the principles of world harmony, described by him. In addition to the four known natural interactions is a fifth one, that had never been studied fully. In this way we can explain the development of natural phenomena as alive and nonalive. Arising from the "productive force" that directs the flow of processes with the laws of harmony is an explanation of the existence of "anti-entropy" processes, a contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics, but playing a fundamental part in nature. The "golden section" apparatus defines space and time frames of process flow. The contents of the book give a notion about the way or "program" of development. Which basic law of nature is hiden in the contents of book is yet to be resolved (Kepler, 1939).

  14. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  15. REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1961-10-01

    Thermonuclear reactors, methods, and apparatus are described for controlling and confining high temperature plasma. Main axial confining coils in combination with helical windings provide a rotational transform that avoids the necessity of a figure-eight shaped reactor tube. The helical windings provide a multipolar helical magnetic field transverse to the axis of the main axial confining coils so as to improve the effectiveness of the confining field by counteracting the tendency of the more central lines of force in the stellarator tube to exchange positions with the magnetic lines of force nearer the walls of the tube. (AEC)

  16. Performance of the solid deuterium ultra-cold neutron source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karch, J.; Sobolev, Yu.; Beck, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Hampel, G.; Heil, W.; Kieser, R.; Reich, T.; Trautmann, N.; Ziegner, M.

    2014-04-01

    The performance of the solid deuterium ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz with a maximum peak energy of 10MJ is described. The solid deuterium converter with a volume of cm3 (8mol), which is exposed to a thermal neutron fluence of n/cm2, delivers up to 240000 UCN ( m/s) per pulse outside the biological shield at the experimental area. UCN densities of 10 cm3 are obtained in stainless-steel bottles of 10 L. The measured UCN yields compare well with the predictions from a Monte Carlo simulation developed to model the source and to optimize its performance for the upcoming upgrade of the TRIGA Mainz into a user facility for UCN physics.

  17. Wind Forecasting Based on the HARMONIE Model and Adaptive Finite Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Albert; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Escobar, José María; Montero, Gustavo; Hortal, Mariano; Calvo, Javier; Cascón, José Manuel; Montenegro, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new method for wind field forecasting over complex terrain. The main idea is to use the predictions of the HARMONIE meso-scale model as the input data for an adaptive finite element mass-consistent wind model. The HARMONIE results (obtained with a maximum resolution of about 1 km) are refined in a local scale (about a few metres). An interface between both models is implemented in such a way that the initial wind field is obtained by a suitable interpolation of the HARMONIE results. Genetic algorithms are used to calibrate some parameters of the local wind field model in accordance to the HARMONIE data. In addition, measured data are considered to improve the reliability of the simulations. An automatic tetrahedral mesh generator, based on the meccano method, is applied to adapt the discretization to complex terrains. The main characteristic of the framework is a minimal user intervention. The final goal is to validate our model in several realistic applications on Gran Canaria island, Spain, with some experimental data obtained by the AEMET in their meteorological stations. The source code of the mass-consistent wind model is available online at http://www.dca.iusiani.ulpgc.es/Wind3D/.

  18. Underground nuclear power plant with the VK-300 reactor as a substituting power source for Zheleznogorsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Adamov, E.O.; Lebedev, V.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.N.; Samarkin, A.A.; Tokarev, Yu.I.

    1996-07-01

    Zheleznogorsk is situated near the territorial center -- Krasnoyarsk on the Yenisei river. Mining and chemical complex is the main industrial enterprise of the town, which has been constructed for generation and used for isolation of weapons-grade plutonium. Heat supply to the chemical complex and town at the moment is largely provided by nuclear co-generation plant (NCGP) on the basis of the ADEh-2 dual-purpose reactor, generating 430 Gcal/h of heat and, partially, by coal backup peak-load boiler houses. NCGP also provides 73% of electric power consumed. In line with agreements between Russia and USA on strategic arms reduction and phasing out of weapons-grade plutonium production, decommissioning of the ADEh-2 reactor by 2000 is planned. Thus, a problem arises relative to compensation for electric and thermal power generation for the needs of the town and industrial enterprises, which is now supplied by the reactor. A nuclear power plant constructed on the same site as a substituting power source should be considered as the most practical option. Basic requirements to the reactor of substituting nuclear power plant are as follows. It is to be a new generation reactor on the basis of verified technologies, having an operating prototype optimal for underground siting and permitting utmost utilization of the available mining workings and those being disengaged. NCGP with the reactor is to be constructed in the time period required and is to become competitive with other possible power sources. Analysis has shown that the VK-300 simplified vessel-type boiling reactor meets the requirements made in the maximum extent. Its design is based on the experience of the VK-50 reactor operation for a period of 30 years in Dimitrovgrad (Russia) and allows for experience in the development of the SBWR type reactors. The design of the reactor is discussed.

  19. Ion source development for a photoneutralization based NBI system for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonin, A.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Bechu, S.; Bès, A.; Lacoste, A.

    2015-04-01

    The next step after ITER is to demonstrate the viability and generation of electricity by a future fusion reactor (DEMO). The specifications required to operate an NBI system on DEMO are very demanding. The system has to provide a very high level of power and energy, ~100MW of D° beam at 1MeV, including high wall-plug efficiency (η > 60%). For this purpose, a new injector concept, called Siphore, is under investigation between CEA and French universities. Siphore is based on the stripping of the accelerated negative ions by photo-detachment provided by several Fabry-Perot cavities (3.5MW of light power per cavity) implemented along the D- beam. The beamline is designed to be tall and narrow in order that the photon flux overlaps the entire negative ion beam. The paper will describe the present R&D at CEA which addresses the development of an ion source and pre-accelerator prototypes for Siphore, the main goal being to produce an intense negative ion beam sheet. The negative ion source Cybele is based on a magnetized plasma column where hot electrons are emitted from the source center. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize the plasma and to compare with numerical models being developed in French universities.

  20. Ion source development for a photoneutralization based NBI system for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Simonin, A.; Esch, H. P. L. de; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Bechu, S.; Bès, A.; Lacoste, A.

    2015-04-08

    The next step after ITER is to demonstrate the viability and generation of electricity by a future fusion reactor (DEMO). The specifications required to operate an NBI system on DEMO are very demanding. The system has to provide a very high level of power and energy, ~100MW of D° beam at 1MeV, including high wall-plug efficiency (η > 60%). For this purpose, a new injector concept, called Siphore, is under investigation between CEA and French universities. Siphore is based on the stripping of the accelerated negative ions by photo-detachment provided by several Fabry-Perot cavities (3.5MW of light power per cavity) implemented along the D{sup −} beam. The beamline is designed to be tall and narrow in order that the photon flux overlaps the entire negative ion beam. The paper will describe the present R and D at CEA which addresses the development of an ion source and pre-accelerator prototypes for Siphore, the main goal being to produce an intense negative ion beam sheet. The negative ion source Cybele is based on a magnetized plasma column where hot electrons are emitted from the source center. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize the plasma and to compare with numerical models being developed in French universities.

  1. Awareness, Preference, Utilization, and Messaging Research for the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Rebecca; Kszos, Lynn A

    2011-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) offers the scientific community unique access to two types of world-class neutron sources at a single site - the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The 85-MW HFIR provides one of the highest steady-state neutron fluxes of any research reactor in the world, and the SNS is one of the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams. Management of these two resources is the responsibility of the Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD). NScD commissioned this survey research to develop baseline information regarding awareness of and perceptions about neutron science. Specific areas of investigative interest include the following: (1) awareness levels among those in the scientific community about the two neutron sources that ORNL offers; (2) the level of understanding members of various scientific communities have regarding benefits that neutron scattering techniques offer; and (3) any perceptions that negatively impact utilization of the facilities. NScD leadership identified users of two light sources in North America - the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory - as key publics. Given the type of research in which these scientists engage, they would quite likely benefit from including the neutron techniques available at SNS and HFIR among their scientific investigation tools. The objective of the survey of users of APS, NSLS, SNS, and HFIR was to explore awareness of and perceptions regarding SNS and HFIR among those in selected scientific communities. Perceptions of SNS and FHIR will provide a foundation for strategic communication plan development and for developing key educational messages. The survey was conducted in two phases. The first phase included qualitative methods of (1) key stakeholder meetings; (2) online interviews with user administrators of APS and NSLS; and (3) one-on-one interviews

  2. The Privileged Status of Locality in Consonant Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Sara

    2011-01-01

    While the vast majority of linguistic processes apply locally, consonant harmony appears to be an exception. In this phonological process, consonants share the same value of a phonological feature, such as secondary place of articulation. In sibilant harmony, [s] and [esh] ("sh") alternate such that if a word contains the sound [esh], all [s]…

  3. Adaptive Ambient Illumination Based on Color Harmony Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Ayano; Hirai, Keita; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    We investigated the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological effect by applying a modified color harmony model. We verified the proposed model by analyzing correlation between psychological value and modified color harmony score. Experimental results showed the possibility to obtain the best color for illumination using this model.

  4. On the Interaction of Velar Fronting and Labial Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Green, Christopher R.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Gierut, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the typological occurrence and interactions of two seemingly independent error patterns, namely Velar Fronting and Labial Harmony, in a cross-sectional investigation of the sound systems of 235 children with phonological delays (ages 3;0 to 7;9). The results revealed that the occurrence of Labial Harmony depends on the…

  5. Creating "Good Citizens" and Maintaining Religious Harmony in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the concept of "good citizens" in Singapore is linked to the principle of harmony, characterised by collectivism and a strong interventionist government. The value of religious harmony is actively promoted by the Singapore government and supported by the religious leaders. This article argues that the principle of…

  6. Coupling Social Solidarity and Social Harmony in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ma, Stephen Kan

    2011-01-01

    The various forms of social solidarity are empirically uncharted, especially in relation to social harmony. With respect to resource exchange theory, inclusive solidarity or intergroup acceptance is more conducive to social harmony than mechanical, organic, distributive, and dialogic forms of solidarity. The theoretical prediction holds in the…

  7. Evaluation of In Harmony: Year 1. Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Pippa; Sharp, Caroline; Dawson, Anneka; Mehta, Palak; White, Richard; Jeffes, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Arts Council England (ACE) commissioned NFER to undertake the national evaluation of the In Harmony social and music education programme 2012-2015. In Harmony is funded by the Department for Education (DfE) and ACE, and is currently being piloted in six areas. The evaluation is investigating the range and extent of impacts on children, families,…

  8. A station blackout simulation for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor using the integrated primary and secondary system model

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, E.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is a research reactor to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper deals with thermal-hydraulic analysis of ANSR`s cooling systems during nominal and transient conditions, with the major effort focusing upon the construction and testing of computer models of the reactor`s primary, secondary and reflector vessel cooling systems. The code RELAP5 was used to simulate transients, such as loss of coolant accidents and loss of off-site power, as well as to model the behavior of the reactor in steady state. Three stages are involved in constructing and using a RELAP5 model: (1) construction and encoding of the desired model, (2) testing and adjustment of the model until a satisfactory steady state is achieved, and (3) running actual transients using the steady-state results obtained earlier as initial conditions. By use of the ANSR design specifications, a model of the reactor`s primary and secondary cooling systems has been constructed to run a transient simulating a loss of off-site power. This incident assumes a pump coastdown in both the primary and secondary loops. The results determine whether the reactor can survive the transition from forced convection to natural circulation.

  9. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1962-01-01

    The system conteraplates ohmically heating a gas to high temperatures such as are useful in thermonuclear reactors of the stellarator class. To this end the gas is ionized and an electric current is applied to the ionized gas ohmically to heat the gas while the ionized gas is confined to a central portion of a reaction chamber. Additionally, means are provided for pumping impurities from the gas and for further heating the gas. (AEC)

  10. Activity ratios in soil contaminated by the source of different reactor condition in the FDNPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Shibayama, Nao; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Norikazu

    2014-05-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident caused radioactive contamination on the surface soil at Fukushima and its adjacent prefectures. Substantial contamination has been found in the northwestern area from the FDNPP, according to the airborne monitoring and ground base survey by the Japanese government. Activity ratios would have characteristic information on emission sources because each relevant reactor had different amount of radionuclide and different activity ratio. The ratios can be used to clarify more detailed source and process in the contamination. We have addressed to consider them in Namie town, northwestern region from the FDNPP. This study focused on the gamma-ray emitting radionuclides of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 110mAg. The activities were decay-corrected as of 11th March, 2011 when all nuclear reactors scrammed. Data of activity ratios by our results and the Japanese official report classified the investigated northwestern region into 3 groups. Ratios of 0.02 for 110mAg/137Cs and 0.90 for 134Cs/137Cs were observed in the northern region of 15 km inside from the FDNPP. On the other hand, two kinds of 110mAg/137Cs ratios of 0.005 and 0.002 were distributed broadly in the region 60 km away from the plant. The 134Cs/137Cs ratio was 0.98 there. The activity ratios of 110mAg/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs in the northern region from the FDNPP correspond to those of nuclear fuel in Unit 1 according to estimation using the ORIGEN code. The 134Cs/137Cs in the northwestern area from FDNPP agrees with that of Unit 2 and 3. The 110mAg/137Cs ratios of 0.005 and0.002 are 1/5 - 1/10 of the Unit 2 and 3. Official report has announced that discharges of the radionuclides from Unit 2 and 3 occurred on 14th March, 2011. It is known that contamination in the northwestern region from the FDNPP took place on 15th March, 2011. Plausible species for silver in reactor core, metal, and halide etc. have higher boiling point than those species for cesium. The core would

  11. RELAP5 analyses of two hypothetical flow reversal events for the advanced neutron source reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents RELAP5 results of two hypothetical, low flow transients analyzed as part of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor safety program. The reactor design features four independent coolant loops (three active and one in standby), each containing a main curculation pump (with battery powered pony motor), heat exchanger, an accumulator, and a check valve. The first transient assumes one of these pumps fails, and additionally, that the check valve in that loop remains stuck in the open position. This accident is considered extremely unlikely. Flow reverses in this loop, reducing the core flow because much of the coolant is diverted from the intact loops back through the failed loop. The second transient examines a 102-mm-diam instantaneous pipe break near the core inlet (the worst break location). A break is assumed to occur 90 s after a total loss-of-offsite power. Core flow reversal occurs because accumulator injection overpowers the diminishing pump flow. Safety margins are evaluated against four thermal limits: T{sub wall}=T{sub sat}, incipient boiling, onset of significant void, and critical heat flux. For the first transient, the results show that these limits are not exceeded (at a 95% non-exceedance probability level) if the pony motor battery lasts 30 minutes (the present design value). For the second transient, the results show that the closest approach of the fuel surface temperature to the local saturation temperature during core flow reversal is about 39{degrees}C. Therefore the fuel remains cool during this transient. Although this work is done specifically for the ANSR geometry and operating conditions, the general conclusions may be applicable to other highly subcooled reactor systems.

  12. Aesthetic response to color combinations: preference, harmony, and similarity.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies of preference for and harmony of color combinations have produced confusing results. For example, some claim that harmony increases with hue similarity, whereas others claim that it decreases. We argue that such confusions are resolved by distinguishing among three types of judgments about color pairs: (1) preference for the pair as a whole, (2) harmony of the pair as a whole, and (3) preference for its figural color when viewed against its colored background. Empirical support for this distinction shows that pair preference and harmony both increase as hue similarity increases, but preference relies more strongly on component color preference and lightness contrast. Although pairs with highly contrastive hues are generally judged to be neither preferable nor harmonious, figural color preference ratings increase as hue contrast with the background increases. The present results thus refine and clarify some of the best-known and most contentious claims of color theorists. PMID:21264737

  13. Harmonious colors: from alchemy to science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a very long tradition in designing color palettes for various applications, going back to at least the Upanishad. Although color palettes have been influenced by the available colorants, starting with the advent of aniline dyes in the late 1850s there have been few physical limits on the choice of individual colors. This abundance of choices exacerbates the problem of limiting the number of colors in a palette, i.e., in keeping them into a manageable quantity. For example, it is not practical for a car company to offer each model in hundreds of colors. Instead, for each model year a small number of color palettes is offered, each containing the colors for the body, trim, interior, etc. Another example is the fashion industry, where in addition to solid colors there are also patterns, leading to a huge variety of combinations that would be impossible to stock. The traditional solution is that of "color forecasting." Color consultants assess the sentiment or affective state of a target customer class and compare it with new colorants offered by the industry. They assemble a limited color palette, name the colors according to the sentiment, and publish their result. Textile manufacturers will produce fabrics in these colors and fashion designers will design clothes, accessories, and furniture based on these fabrics. Eventually, the media will communicate these forecasts to the consumers, who will be admired by their cohorts when they choose colors from the forecast palette, which by then is widely diffused. The color forecasting business is very labor intensive and difficult, thus for years computer engineers have tried to come up with algorithms to design harmonious color palettes, alas with little commercial success. For example, Johannes Itten's color theory has been implemented many times, but despite Itten's success in the Bauhaus artifacts, the computer tools have been of little utility. Indeed, contrary to the auditory sense, there is no known

  14. Regulatory Technology Development Plan Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term Development

    SciTech Connect

    Grabaskas, David S.; Brunett, Acacia Joann; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Sienicki, James J.; Sofu, Tanju

    2015-02-28

    Construction and operation of a nuclear power installation in the U.S. requires licensing by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A vital part of this licensing process and integrated safety assessment entails the analysis of a source term (or source terms) that represents the release of radionuclides during normal operation and accident sequences. Historically, nuclear plant source term analyses have utilized deterministic, bounding assessments of the radionuclides released to the environment. Significant advancements in technical capabilities and the knowledge state have enabled the development of more realistic analyses such that a mechanistic source term (MST) assessment is now expected to be a requirement of advanced reactor licensing. This report focuses on the state of development of an MST for a sodium fast reactor (SFR), with the intent of aiding in the process of MST definition by qualitatively identifying and characterizing the major sources and transport processes of radionuclides. Due to common design characteristics among current U.S. SFR vendor designs, a metal-fuel, pool-type SFR has been selected as the reference design for this work, with all phenomenological discussions geared toward this specific reactor configuration. This works also aims to identify the key gaps and uncertainties in the current knowledge state that must be addressed for SFR MST development. It is anticipated that this knowledge state assessment can enable the coordination of technology and analysis tool development discussions such that any knowledge gaps may be addressed. Sources of radionuclides considered in this report include releases originating both in-vessel and ex-vessel, including in-core fuel, primary sodium and cover gas cleanup systems, and spent fuel movement and handling. Transport phenomena affecting various release groups are identified and qualitatively discussed, including fuel pin and primary coolant retention, and behavior in the cover gas and

  15. Preliminary fracture analysis of the core pressure boundary tube for the Advanced Neutron Source Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, K.C.; Yahr, G.T.

    1995-08-01

    The outer core pressure boundary tube (CPBT) of the Advanced neutron Source (ANS) reactor being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently specified as being composed of 6061-T6 aluminum. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code fracture analysis rules for nuclear components are based on the use of ferritic steels; the expressions, tables, charts and equations were all developed from tests and analyses conducted for ferritic steels. Because of the nature of the Code, design with thin aluminum requires analytical approaches that do not directly follow the Code. The intent of this report is to present a methodology comparable to the ASME Code for ensuring the prevention of nonductile fracture of the CPBT in the ANS reactor. 6061-T6 aluminum is known to be a relatively brittle material; the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) approach is utilized to determine allowable flaw sizes for the CPBT. A J-analysis following the procedure developed by the Electric Power Research Institute was conducted as a check; the results matched those for the LEFM analysis for the cases analyzed. Since 6061-T6 is known to embrittle when irradiated, the reduction in K{sub Q} due to irradiation is considered in the analysis. In anticipation of probable requirements regarding maximum allowable flaw size, a survey of nondestructive inspection capabilities is also presented. A discussion of probabilistic fracture mechanics approaches, principally Monte Carlo techniques, is included in this report as an introduction to what quantifying the probability of nonductile failure of the CPBT may entail.

  16. Analysis and numerical optimization of gas turbine space power systems with nuclear fission reactor heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-07-01

    A new three objective optimization technique is developed and applied to find the operating conditions for fission reactor heated Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) space power systems at which maximum efficiency, minimum radiator area, and minimum total system mass is achieved. Such CCGT space power systems incorporate a nuclear reactor heat source with its radiation shield; the rotating turbo-alternator, consisting of the compressor, turbine and the electric generator (three phase AC alternator); and the heat rejection subsystem, principally the space radiator, which enables the hot gas working fluid, emanating from either the turbine or a regenerative heat exchanger, to be cooled to compressor inlet conditions. Numerical mass models for all major subsystems and components developed during the course of this work are included in this report. The power systems modeled are applicable to future interplanetary missions within the Solar System and planetary surface power plants at mission destinations, such as our Moon, Mars, the Galilean moons (Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto), or Saturn's moon Titan. The detailed governing equations for the thermodynamic processes of the Brayton cycle have been derived and successfully programmed along with the heat transfer processes associated with cycle heat exchangers and the space radiator. System performance and mass results have been validated against a commercially available non-linear optimization code and also against data from existing ground based power plants.

  17. Analyses of the reflector tank, cold source, and beam tube cooling for ANS reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, S.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes my work as an intern with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in the summer of 1991. I was assigned to the Reactor Technology Engineering Department, working on the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). My first project was to select and analyze sealing systems for the top of the diverter/reflector tank. This involved investigating various metal seals and calculating the forces necessary to maintain an adequate seal. The force calculations led to an analysis of several bolt patterns and lockring concepts that could be used to maintain a seal on the vessel. Another project involved some pressure vessel stress calculations and the calculation of the center of gravity for the cold source assembly. I also completed some sketches of possible cooling channel patterns for the inner vessel of the cold source. In addition, I worked on some thermal design analyses for the reflector tank and beam tubes, including heat transfer calculations and assisting in Patran and Pthermal analyses. To supplement the ANS work, I worked on other projects. I completed some stress/deflection analyses on several different beams. These analyses were done with the aid of CAASE, a beam-analysis software package. An additional project involved bending analysis on a carbon removal system. This study was done to find the deflection of a complex-shaped beam when loaded with a full waste can.

  18. Loss-of-coolant accident mitigation for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    A RELAP5 Advanced Neutron Source Reactor system model has been developed for the conceptual design safety analysis. Three major regions modeled are the core, the heat exchanger loops, and letdown/pressurizing system. The model has been used to examine design alternatives for mitigation of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) transients. The safety margins to the flow excursion limit and critical heat flux are presented. The results show that the core can survive an instantaneous double-ended guillotine of the core outlet piping break (610 mm-diameter) provided a cavitating venturi is employed. RELAP5 calculations were also used to determine the effects of using a non-instantaneous break opening times. Both break opening time and break formation characteristics were included in these parametric calculations. Accumulator optimization studies were also performed which suggest that an optimum accumulator bubble size exists which improves system performance under some break scenarios.

  19. Conceptual design loss-of-coolant accident analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L. Jr. )

    1994-01-01

    A RELAP5 system model for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor has been developed for performing conceptual safety analysis report calculations. To better represent thermal-hydraulic behavior of the core, three specific changes in the RELAP5 computer code were implemented: a turbulent forced-convection heat transfer correlation, a critical heat flux (CHF) correlation, and an interfacial drag correlation. The model consists of the core region, the heat exchanger loop region, and the pressurizing/letdown system region. Results for three loss-of-coolant accident analyses are presented: (1) an instantaneous double-ended guillotine (DEG) core outlet break with a cavitating venturi installed downstream of the core, (b) a core pressure boundary tube outer wall rupture, and (c) a DEG core inlet break with a finite break-formation time. The results show that the core can survive without exceeding the flow excursion of CHF thermal limits at a 95% probability level if the proper mitigation options are provided.

  20. Neutron energy spectrum adjustment using deposited metal films on Teflon in the miniature neutron source reactor.

    PubMed

    Nassan, L; Abdallah, B; Omar, H; Sarheel, A; Alsomel, N; Ghazi, N

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article was on the experimental estimation of the neutron energy spectrum in the inner irradiation site of the miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR), using, for the first time, a selected set of deposited metal films on Teflon (DMFTs) neutron detectors. Gold, copper, zinc, titanium, aluminum, nickel, silver, and chromium were selected because of the dependence of their neutron cross-sections on neutron energy. Emphasis was placed on the usability of this new type of neutron detectors in the total neutron energy spectrum adjustment. The measured saturation activities per target nucleus values of the DMFTs, and the calculated neutron spectrum in the inner irradiation site using the MCNP-4C code were used as an input for the STAY'SL computer code during the adjustment procedure. The agreement between the numerically calculated and experimentally adjusted spectra results was discussed. PMID:26562448

  1. HSIM: a simulation pipeline for the HARMONI integral field spectrograph on the European ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieleniewski, S.; Thatte, N.; Kendrew, S.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Swinbank, A. M.; Tecza, M.; Clarke, F.; Fusco, T.

    2015-11-01

    We present HSIM: a dedicated pipeline for simulating observations with the High Angular Resolution Monolithic Optical and Near-infrared Integral field spectrograph (HARMONI) on the European Extremely Large Telescope. HSIM takes high spectral and spatial resolution input data cubes, encoding physical descriptions of astrophysical sources, and generates mock observed data cubes. The simulations incorporate detailed models of the sky, telescope and instrument to produce realistic mock data. Further, we employ a new method of incorporating the strongly wavelength-dependent adaptive optics point spread functions. HSIM provides a step beyond traditional exposure time calculators and allows us to both predict the feasibility of a given observing programme with HARMONI and perform instrument design trade-offs. In this paper, we concentrate on quantitative measures of the feasibility of planned observations. We give a detailed description of HSIM and present two studies: estimates of point source sensitivities along with simulations of star-forming emission-line galaxies at z ˜ 2-3. We show that HARMONI will provide exquisite resolved spectroscopy of these objects on sub-kpc scales, probing and deriving properties of individual star-forming regions.

  2. Harmony Search Algorithm for Word Sense Disambiguation.

    PubMed

    Abed, Saad Adnan; Tiun, Sabrina; Omar, Nazlia

    2015-01-01

    Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is the task of determining which sense of an ambiguous word (word with multiple meanings) is chosen in a particular use of that word, by considering its context. A sentence is considered ambiguous if it contains ambiguous word(s). Practically, any sentence that has been classified as ambiguous usually has multiple interpretations, but just one of them presents the correct interpretation. We propose an unsupervised method that exploits knowledge based approaches for word sense disambiguation using Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) based on a Stanford dependencies generator (HSDG). The role of the dependency generator is to parse sentences to obtain their dependency relations. Whereas, the goal of using the HSA is to maximize the overall semantic similarity of the set of parsed words. HSA invokes a combination of semantic similarity and relatedness measurements, i.e., Jiang and Conrath (jcn) and an adapted Lesk algorithm, to perform the HSA fitness function. Our proposed method was experimented on benchmark datasets, which yielded results comparable to the state-of-the-art WSD methods. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the dependency generator, we perform the same methodology without the parser, but with a window of words. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to produce effective solutions for most instances of the datasets used. PMID:26422368

  3. Harmony Search Algorithm for Word Sense Disambiguation

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Saad Adnan; Tiun, Sabrina; Omar, Nazlia

    2015-01-01

    Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is the task of determining which sense of an ambiguous word (word with multiple meanings) is chosen in a particular use of that word, by considering its context. A sentence is considered ambiguous if it contains ambiguous word(s). Practically, any sentence that has been classified as ambiguous usually has multiple interpretations, but just one of them presents the correct interpretation. We propose an unsupervised method that exploits knowledge based approaches for word sense disambiguation using Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) based on a Stanford dependencies generator (HSDG). The role of the dependency generator is to parse sentences to obtain their dependency relations. Whereas, the goal of using the HSA is to maximize the overall semantic similarity of the set of parsed words. HSA invokes a combination of semantic similarity and relatedness measurements, i.e., Jiang and Conrath (jcn) and an adapted Lesk algorithm, to perform the HSA fitness function. Our proposed method was experimented on benchmark datasets, which yielded results comparable to the state-of-the-art WSD methods. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the dependency generator, we perform the same methodology without the parser, but with a window of words. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to produce effective solutions for most instances of the datasets used. PMID:26422368

  4. A feasibility study of the Tehran research reactor as a neutron source for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kasesaz, Yaser; Khalafi, Hossein; Rahmani, Faezeh; Ezati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Hossnirokh, Ashkan; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Monshizadeh, Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    Investigation on the use of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) as a neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been performed by calculating and measuring energy spectrum and the spatial distribution of neutrons in all external irradiation facilities, including six beam tubes, thermal column, and the medical room. Activation methods with multiple foils and a copper wire have been used for the mentioned measurements. The results show that (1) the small diameter and long length beam tubes cannot provide sufficient neutron flux for BNCT; (2) in order to use the medical room, the TRR core should be placed in the open pool position, in this situation the distance between the core and patient position is about 400 cm, so neutron flux cannot be sufficient for BNCT; and (3) the best facility which can be adapted for BNCT application is the thermal column, if all graphite blocks can be removed. The epithermal and fast neutron flux at the beginning of this empty column are 4.12×10(9) and 1.21×10(9) n/cm(2)/s, respectively, which can provide an appropriate neutron beam for BNCT by designing and constructing a proper Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) structure. PMID:24742535

  5. The development of a realistic source term for sodium-cooled fast reactors : assessment of current status and future needs.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Phillips, Jesse; Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-06-01

    Sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) continue to be proposed and designed throughout the United States and the world. Although the number of SFRs actually operating has declined substantially since the 1980s, a significant interest in advancing these types of reactor systems remains. Of the many issues associated with the development and deployment of SFRs, one of high regulatory importance is the source term to be used in the siting of the reactor. A substantial amount of modeling and experimental work has been performed over the past four decades on accident analysis, sodium coolant behavior, and radionuclide release for SFRs. The objective of this report is to aid in determining the gaps and issues related to the development of a realistic, mechanistically derived source term for SFRs. This report will allow the reader to become familiar with the severe accident source term concept and gain a broad understanding of the current status of the models and experimental work. Further, this report will allow insight into future work, in terms of both model development and experimental validation, which is necessary in order to develop a realistic source term for SFRs.

  6. Research reactors - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Feasibility study of an intense pulsed neutron source based on a powerful electron accelerator and a pulsed nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bosamykin, V.S.; Voinov, M.A.; Gordeev, V.S.; Kuvshinov, M.I.; Morunov, K.A.; Pavlovskii, A.I.; Selemir, V.D.

    1995-12-31

    A promising candidate for a highly intense neutron source is a system coupling a powerful pulsed electron accelerator and a pulsed fast-neutron nuclear reactor. The LIU-10-GIR complex, located at the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), is described. Experiments were carried out during 1984--1990 to study the joint operation of these two widely differing physical systems and resolve basic scientific research problems. Experimental results are given, and the potential use of such a system as an intense neutron source is suggested.

  8. Monte Carlo Calculation of Core Reactivity and Fluxes for the Development of the BNCT Neutron Source at the Kyiv Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzay, Olena; Kalchenko, Oleksandr; Klimova, Nataliya; Razbudey, Volodymyr; Sanzhur, Andriy; Binney, Stephen

    2005-05-24

    The presented results show our consecutive steps in developing a neutron source with parameters required by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Kyiv Research Reactor (KRR). The main goal of this work was to analyze the influence of installation of different types of uranium converters close to the reactor core on neutron beam characteristics and on level of reactor safety. The general Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP, version 4B, has been used for these calculations.

  9. Accounting for taste: individual differences in preference for harmony.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen E; Griscom, William S

    2013-06-01

    Although empirical research on aesthetics has had some success in explaining the average preferences of groups of observers, relatively little is known about individual differences in preference, and especially about how such differences might covary across different domains. In this study, we identified a new factor underlying aesthetic response-preference for harmonious stimuli-and examined how it varies over four domains (color, shape, spatial location, and music) across individuals with different levels of training in art and music. We found that individual preferences for harmony are strongly correlated across all four dimensions tested and decrease consistently with training in the relevant aesthetic domains. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that cross-domain preference for harmony is well-represented as a single, unified factor, with effects separate from those of training and of common personality measures. PMID:23242798

  10. Harmony between Colors and Fragrances: Effect on Dimensions of Impressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Kumiko; Saito, Miho

    The objective of this study is to extract dimensions in impressions of colors and fragrances, and to examine their harmonious relationship. Experiment A: One hundred subjects were requested to describe their impressions of eight fragrances, and to select harmonious/disharmonious colors from color charts. Experiment B: One hundred subjects described their impression of 18 colors and each color's degree of harmonization with each of the eight fragrances. In addition, we combined the results of Experiment A and Experiment B, and conducted several analyses. The factor analysis revealed the MILD factor and CLEAR factor for the dimensions of each fragrance, color, and combination of color and fragrance. The multiple regression analysis revealed the following tendency: the smaller the distance between colors and fragrances on the dimensions, the greater is the rise in harmony; conversely, the greater the distance, the greater is the disharmony.

  11. Advanced neutron source reactor thermal-hydraulic test loop facility description

    SciTech Connect

    Felde, D.K.; Farquharson, G.; Hardy, J.H.; King, J.F.; McFee, M.T.; Montgomery, B.H.; Pawel, R.E.; Power, B.H.; Shourbaji, A.A.; Siman-Tov, M.; Wood, R.J.; Yoder, G.L.

    1994-02-01

    The Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop (THTL) is a facility for experiments constructed to support the development of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ANSR is both cooled and moderated by heavy water and uses uranium silicide fuel. The core is composed of two coaxial fuel-element annuli, each of different diameter. There are 684 parallel aluminum-clad fuel plates (252 in the inner-lower core and 432 in the outer-upper core) arranged in an involute geometry that effectively creates an array of thin rectangular flow channels. Both the fuel plates and the coolant channels are 1.27 mm thick, with a span of 87 mm (lower core), 70 mm (upper core), and 507-mm heated length. The coolant flows vertically upwards at a mass flux of 27 Mg/m{sup 2}s (inlet velocity of 25 m/s) with an inlet temperature of 45{degrees}C and inlet pressure of 3.2 MPa. The average and peak heat fluxes are approximately 6 and 12 MW/m{sup 2}, respectively. The availability of experimental data for both flow excursion (FE) and true critical heat flux (CHF) at the conditions applicable to the ANSR is very limited. The THTL was designed and built to simulate a full-length coolant subchannel of the core, allowing experimental determination of thermal limits under the expected ANSR thermal-hydraulic conditions. For these experimental studies, the involute-shaped fuel plates of the ANSR core with the narrow 1.27-mm flow gap are represented by a narrow rectangular channel. Tests in the THTL will provide both single- and two-phase thermal-hydraulic information. The specific phenomena that are to be examined are (1) single-phase heat-transfer coefficients and friction factors, (2) the point of incipient boiling, (3) nucleate boiling heat-transfer coefficients, (4) two-phase pressure-drop characteristics in the nucleate boiling regime, (5) flow instability limits, and (6) CHF limits.

  12. Modification to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 2: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code, which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented i report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is a available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output.

  13. Modifications to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 3: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented in report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in a ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output.

  14. A study of color harmony relating with area ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shing-Sheng

    2002-06-01

    Among thousands of color combination, how to arrange and create color harmony? What is the best ratio in arranging color area? This study is based on 'Tone' concept to arrange the experiments whereas it was developed and issued by Nippon Color Design Research Institute. This study aims to explore how area ratio relate to color harmony. As well the experimental results were used to verify Munsell's Law <> and Moon & Spencer' Model <>.

  15. Aluminum recycling from reactor walls: A source of contamination in a-Si:H thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Longeaud, C.; Ray, P. P.; Bhaduri, A.; Daineka, D.; Johnson, E. V.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2010-11-15

    In this article, the authors investigate the contamination of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films with aluminum recycled from the walls and electrodes of the deposition reactor. Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon were prepared under various conditions by a standard radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process in two reactors, the chambers of which were constructed of either aluminum or stainless steel. The authors have studied the electronic properties of these thin films and have found that when using an aluminum reactor chamber, the layers are contaminated with aluminum recycled from the chamber walls and electrode. This phenomenon is observed almost independently of the deposition conditions. The authors show that this contamination results in slightly p-doped films and could be detrimental to the deposition of device grade films. The authors also propose a simple way to control and eventually suppress this contamination.

  16. Calculated performance of a mercury-compressor-jet powered airplane using a nuclear reactor as an energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R B

    1951-01-01

    An analysis was made at a flight Mach number of 1.5, an altitude of 45,000 feet, a turbine-inlet temperature of 1460 degrees R, of a mercury compressor-jet powered airplane using a nuclear reactor as an energy source. The calculations covered a range of turbine-exhaust and turbine-inlet pressures and condenser-inlet Mach numbers. For a turbine--inlet pressure of 40 pounds per square inch absolute, a turbine-exhaust pressure of 14 pounds per square inch absolute, and a condenser-inlet Mach number of 0.23 the calculated airplane gross weight required to carry a 20,000 pound payload was 322000 pounds and the reactor heat release per unit volume was 8.9 kilowatts per cubic inch. These do not represent optimum operating conditions.

  17. Rotating-bed reactor as a power source for EM gun applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Botts, T.; Stickley, C.M.; Meth, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic gun applications of the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) are examined. The RBR is a compact (approx. 1 m/sup 3/), (up to several thousand MW(th)), high-power reactor concept, capable of producing a high-temperature (up to approx. 300/sup 0/K) gas stream with a MHD generator coupled to it, the RBR can generate electric power (up to approx. 1000 MW(e)) in the pulsed or cw modes. Three EM gun applications are investigated: a rail gun thruster for orbit transfer, a rapid-fire EM gun for point defense, and a direct ground-to-space launch. The RBR appears suitable for all applications.

  18. Developments and Tendencies in Fission Reactor Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, E. O.; Fuji-Ie, Y.

    This chapter describes, in two parts, new-generation nuclear energy systems that are required to be in harmony with nature and to make full use of nuclear resources. The issues of transmutation and containment of radioactive waste will also be addressed. After a short introduction to the first part, Sect. 58.1.2 will detail the requirements these systems must satisfy on the basic premise of peaceful use of nuclear energy. The expected designs themselves are described in Sect. 58.1.3. The subsequent sections discuss various types of advanced reactor systems. Section 58.1.4 deals with the light water reactor (LWR) whose performance is still expected to improve, which would extend its application in the future. The supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) will also be shortly discussed. Section 58.1.5 is mainly on the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which offers efficient and multipurpose use of nuclear energy. The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) is also included. Section 58.1.6 focuses on the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) as a promising concept for advanced nuclear reactors, which may help both to achieve expansion of energy sources and environmental protection thus contributing to the sustainable development of mankind. The molten-salt reactor (MSR) is shortly described in Sect. 58.1.7. The second part of the chapter deals with reactor systems of a new generation, which are now found at the research and development (R&D) stage and in the medium term of 20-30 years can shape up as reliable, economically efficient, and environmentally friendly energy sources. They are viewed as technologies of cardinal importance, capable of resolving the problems of fuel resources, minimizing the quantities of generated radioactive waste and the environmental impacts, and strengthening the regime of nonproliferation of the materials suitable for nuclear weapons production. Particular attention has been given to naturally safe fast reactors with a closed fuel cycle (CFC

  19. The Design and Construction of a Cold Neutron Source for Use in the Cornell University Triga Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Lydia Jane

    A cold neutron source has been designed and constructed for insertion into the 6"-radial beam port of the Cornell University TRIGA reactor for use with a neutron guide tube system. The main differences between this cold source and other existing sources are the use of heat conduction as the method of cooling and the use of mesitylene (1,3,5 -trimethylbenzene; melting point, 228(DEGREES)K; boiling point, 437(DEGREES)K) as the moderating material. This thesis describes the design and construction details of the cold neutron source, discusses its safety aspects, and presents its cryogenic performance curves and also the results of a test of its neutron moderating ability. A closed-cycle helium gas refrigerator, located outside the reactor shielding, cools the 500 cm('3) moderator chamber and its surrounding heat shield by heat conduction through two meters of copper and rod tubing. Moderator temperatures of 23 (+OR-) 3(DEGREES)K have been achieved. Mesitylene, a hydrocarbon, is an effective cold moderator because even at low temperatures the weakly hindered rotational motions of its methyl groups enable the absorption of small amounts of energy ((LESSTHEQ) 0.005 eV) from neutrons. The use of mesitylene simplifies the cold source design because it is a liquid at room temperature and thus, the usual design safeguards required for sources using gaseous moderators are not necessary. Moreover, the flammability of mesitylene is much smaller than that of hydrogen and methane, which are the commonly used cold moderators. A method of transferring and handling the mesitylene, a carcinogen, was devised to ensure minimal contact with this substance. To test the neutron moderating ability of the cold neutron source, an out-of-reactor neutron transmission experiment was performed with the moderator chamber first at room temperature and then at about 23(DEGREES)K. The results indicate that the neutron energy spectrum is strongly shifted to lower energies when the chamber is cold

  20. Analysis of the "Harmony" Education Ideas in Chinese Taijiquan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Shiliang

    2011-01-01

    In this article, many methods such as the literature study are used to analyze the harmony ideas in the sport, the education, and the development of Taijiquan, and the deep meanings contained in these three aspects are expounded in detail, and the conclusion indicates that Taijiquan is very important both for the public body-building and for the…

  1. High-contrast, adaptive-optics simulations for HARMONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladysz, Szymon; Thatte, Niranjan A.; Salter, Graeme; Clarke, Fraser; Tecza, Matthias; Jolissaint, Laurent; Galle, Roberto Baena

    2011-09-01

    HARMONI is a proposed visible and near-infrared integral field spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope. We are exploring the potential of using HARMONI for high-contrast science, e.g. observations of exoplanets. Although HARMONI is not fed by extreme adaptive optics we show that substantial contrasts can be achieved by combining single-conjugate AO with coronagraphy and post-processing of the hyperspectral data cube using spectral deconvolution. HARMONI will be well suited for follow-up spectroscopy of planets detected by 8m class instruments, emphasizing their characterisation. We implement models of telescope aberrations: due to wind buffeting on M1, due to windshake on M2, due to rolled segment edges, as well as the ones resulting from M1 phasing and individual segment warping affected by thermal and gravity effects. Additionally, we investigate the impact of post-AO differential aberrations. We also look at possible improvements to spectral deconvolution which is our method of choice for data post-processing. Finally, we make predictions of achievable contrast which translates to the ability to characterise various types of exoplanets in detail.

  2. Community Harmony Project: Real-Life Integrated Creative Arts Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Bowie, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Australian children from an urban area near Sydney used the creative arts to promote harmony among their diverse cultures including sizable immigrant populations from the Middle East, Asia, and other traditions. The project enabled children to develop leadership and artistic skills, and examine how their backgrounds influence their view of the…

  3. Vowel Harmony in Palestinian Arabic: A Metrical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Salim, I. M.

    1987-01-01

    The autosegmental rule of vowel harmony (VH) in Palestinian Arabic is shown to be constrained simultaneously by metrical and segmental boundaries. The indicative prefix bi- is no longer an exception to VH if a structure is assumed that disallows the prefix from sharing a foot with the stem, consequently blocking VH. (Author/LMO)

  4. Harmonious Learning: Yoga in the English Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at one way for teachers to make classrooms emotionally, mentally, and physically healthy places to learn--places where tensions and stresses are lessened and where teachers and students are concentrating, yet relaxed. "Harmonious language learning classroom" is the term the author coined to describe this kind of language…

  5. Children's Implicit Knowledge of Harmony in Western Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Bigand, Emmanuel; Poulin-Charronnat, Benedicte; Garnier, Cecilia; Stevens, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments examined children's knowledge of harmony in Western music. The children heard a series of chords followed by a final, target chord. In Experiment 1, French 6- and 11-year-olds judged whether the target was sung with the vowel /i/ or /u/. In Experiment 2, Australian 8- and 11-year-olds judged whether the target was played on a…

  6. Vowel Harmony: A Variable Rule in Brazilian Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Leda

    1989-01-01

    Examines vowel harmony in the "Gaucho dialect" of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Informants from four areas of the state were studied: the capital city (Porto Alegre), the border region with Uruguay, and two areas of the interior populated by descendants of nineteenth-century immigrants from Europe, mainly Germans and Italians. (VWL)

  7. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations.

  8. Relational Harmony: A New Model of Collectivism and Gender Equality among Chinese American Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quek, Karen Mui-Teng; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Rue, Deborah; Alabiso, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Social harmony is a valued relational rule in collectivism. Using data from in-depth interviews with 20 Chinese American couples, the authors study how husbands and wives interpret and negotiate marital harmony within a multicultural context and how gender relates to this process. Although all participants appear to seek harmony, the result…

  9. Measurement of the Neutron Spectrum of the HB-4 Cold Source at the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, J. L.; Iverson, E. B.

    2009-08-01

    Measurements of the cold neutron spectrum from the super critical hydrogen cold source at the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were made using time-of-flight spectroscopy. Data were collected at reactor power levels of 8.5MW, 42.5MW and 85MW. The moderator temperature was also varied. Data were collected at 17K and 25K while the reactor power was at 8.5MW, 17K and 25K while at 42.5MW and 18K and 22K while at 85MW. The purpose of these measurements was to characterize the brightness of the cold source and to better understand the relationship between reactor power, moderator temperature, and cold neutron production. The authors will discuss the details of the measurement, the changes observed in the neutron spectrum, and the process for determining the source brightness from the measured neutron intensity.

  10. Monte-Carlo calculations for the development of a BNCT neutron source at the Kyiv Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Gritzay, O O; Kalchenko, O I; Klimova, N A; Razbudey, V F; Sanzhur, A I; Binney, S E

    2004-11-01

    The results presented in this paper display our continuing steps toward development of a neutron source with parameters required by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at the Kyiv Research Reactor (KRR). The purpose of this work was: 1. calculation of the neutron flux which can be achieved at the greatest possible approach of a patient to the reactor core; 2. analysis of the influence of a nickel collimator and a nickel-60 filter on the characteristics of the neutron beam; 3. creation and validation of the MCNP calculational pattern for an actual core fuel load in the KRR. Results of calculations were carried out by means of the MCNP4C code included: 1. An epithermal neutron flux of 3x10(9)-5x10(9)neutron/cm(2)s with an epithermal-to-fast flux ratio of 80-230 could be obtained at the KRR, using a natural nickel layer on the interior borated polyethylene collimator wall and a (60)Ni filter. 2. Use of the (60)Ni filter may be useful to increase the ratio epithermal-to-fast flux without a substantial decrease in the magnitude of the epithermal neutron flux. 3. The MCNP model proposed in this paper could also be useful for reactor safety calculations. PMID:15308160

  11. Space and Terrestrial Power System Integration Optimization Code BRMAPS for Gas Turbine Space Power Plants With Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the difficult times the US and global economies are experiencing today, funds for the development of advanced fission reactors nuclear power systems for space propulsion and planetary surface applications are currently not available. However, according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 the U.S. needs to invest in developing fission reactor technology for ground based terrestrial power plants. Such plants would make a significant contribution toward drastic reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. To accomplish this goal the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP) has been established by DOE under the Generation IV Nuclear Systems Initiative. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was designated as the lead in the development of VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas Reactor) technology to be integrated with MMW (multi-megawatt) helium gas turbine driven electric power AC generators. However, the advantages of transmitting power in high voltage DC form over large distances are also explored in the seminar lecture series. As an attractive alternate heat source the Liquid Fluoride Reactor (LFR), pioneered at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the mid 1960's, would offer much higher energy yields than current nuclear plants by using an inherently safe energy conversion scheme based on the Thorium --> U233 fuel cycle and a fission process with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The power plants are to be sized to meet electric power demand during peak periods and also for providing thermal energy for hydrogen (H2) production during "off peak" periods. This approach will both supply electric power by using environmentally clean nuclear heat which does not generate green house gases, and also provide a clean fuel H2 for the future, when, due to increased global demand and the decline in discovering new deposits, our supply of liquid fossil fuels will have been used up. This is

  12. Ethnic Identification and Perception of Racial Harmony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett

    The primary objective of the court-mandated busing plan in Jefferson County (Kentucky) is to promote racially integrated schools and classrooms. The numerous protests since 1975 in Louisville over court-mandated busing are evidence of a low level of intercultural understanding and tolerance. This paper seeks to probe a source of the…

  13. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) cold source project at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.

    1998-05-01

    The scope of this project includes the development, design, procurement/fabrication, testing, and installation of all of the components necessary to produce a working cold source within an existing HFIR beam tube hole in the pressure vessel. All aspects of the cold source design will be based on demonstrated technology adapted to the HFIR design and operating conditions.

  14. Brainstem correlates of behavioral and compositional preferences of musical harmony.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-03-30

    Certain chords are preferred by listeners behaviorally and also occur with higher regularity in musical composition. Event-related potentials index the perceived consonance (i.e., pleasantness) of musical pitch relationships providing a cortical neural correlate for such behavioral preferences. Here, we show correlates of these harmonic preferences exist at subcortical stages of audition. Brainstem frequency-following responses were measured in response to four prototypical musical triads. Pitch salience computed from frequency-following responses correctly predicted the ordering of triadic harmony stipulated by music theory (i.e., major >minor >diminished >augmented). Moreover, neural response magnitudes showed high correspondence with listeners' perceptual ratings of the same chords. Results suggest that preattentive stages of pitch processing may contribute to perceptual judgments of musical harmony. PMID:21358554

  15. Brainstem correlates of behavioral and compositional preferences of musical harmony

    PubMed Central

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Certain chords are preferred by listeners behaviorally and also occur with higher regularity in musical composition. Event-related potentials index the perceived consonance (i.e., pleasantness) of musical pitch relationships providing a cortical neural correlate for such behavioral preferences. Here, we demonstrate correlates of these harmonic preferences exist at subcortical stages of audition. Brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) were measured in response to four prototypical musical triads. Pitch salience computed from FFRs correctly predicted the ordering of triadic harmony stipulated by music theory (i.e., major > minor ≫ diminished > augmented). Moreover, neural response magnitudes showed high correspondence with listeners’ perceptual ratings of the same chords. Results suggest that pre-attentive stages of pitch processing may contribute to perceptual judgments of musical harmony. PMID:21358554

  16. An improved harmony search algorithm with dynamically varying bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivarapu, J.; Jain, S.; Bag, S.

    2016-07-01

    The present work demonstrates a new variant of the harmony search (HS) algorithm where bandwidth (BW) is one of the deciding factors for the time complexity and the performance of the algorithm. The BW needs to have both explorative and exploitative characteristics. The ideology is to use a large BW to search in the full domain and to adjust the BW dynamically closer to the optimal solution. After trying a series of approaches, a methodology inspired by the functioning of a low-pass filter showed satisfactory results. This approach was implemented in the self-adaptive improved harmony search (SIHS) algorithm and tested on several benchmark functions. Compared to the existing HS algorithm and its variants, SIHS showed better performance on most of the test functions. Thereafter, the algorithm was applied to geometric parameter optimization of a friction stir welding tool.

  17. Children's implicit knowledge of harmony in Western music.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Bigand, Emmanuel; Poulin-Charronnat, Benedicte; Garnier, Cécilia; Stevens, Catherine

    2005-11-01

    Three experiments examined children's knowledge of harmony in Western music. The children heard a series of chords followed by a final, target chord. In Experiment 1, French 6- and 11-year-olds judged whether the target was sung with the vowel /i/ or /u/. In Experiment 2, Australian 8- and 11-year-olds judged whether the target was played on a piano or a trumpet. In Experiment 3, Canadian 8- and 11-year-olds judged whether the target sounded good (i.e. consonant) or bad (dissonant). The target was either the most stable chord in the established musical key (i.e. the tonic, based on do, the first note of the scale) or a less stable chord. Performance was faster (Experiments 1, 2 and 3) and more accurate (Experiment 3) when the target was the tonic chord. The findings confirm that children have implicit knowledge of syntactic functions that typify Western harmony. PMID:16246247

  18. An improved harmony search algorithm for emergency inspection scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallioras, Nikos A.; Lagaros, Nikos D.; Karlaftis, Matthew G.

    2014-11-01

    The ability of nature-inspired search algorithms to efficiently handle combinatorial problems, and their successful implementation in many fields of engineering and applied sciences, have led to the development of new, improved algorithms. In this work, an improved harmony search (IHS) algorithm is presented, while a holistic approach for solving the problem of post-disaster infrastructure management is also proposed. The efficiency of IHS is compared with that of the algorithms of particle swarm optimization, differential evolution, basic harmony search and the pure random search procedure, when solving the districting problem that is the first part of post-disaster infrastructure management. The ant colony optimization algorithm is employed for solving the associated routing problem that constitutes the second part. The comparison is based on the quality of the results obtained, the computational demands and the sensitivity on the algorithmic parameters.

  19. Analysis of SiC Deposition Rate in a Tubular Hot-Wall Reactor with Polymeric Source Using the DoE Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali Keikha, A.; Fanaei Sheikholeslami, T.; Behzadmehr, A.

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide in a tubular hot-wall reactor using a polymeric source was studied. A three-dimensional model of the reactor was solved numerically based on the finite-volume method. To achieve the best desired conditions, the effects of substrate temperature, mass fraction of polycarbosilane (-Si[CH3]2-), inlet velocity, and substrate location on the SiC deposition rate were considered. These effects were investigated to obtain the optimum conditions by using the design of experiments (DoE) method. Finally, several contours are presented to help designers find suitable reactor conditions for higher performance.

  20. Multiple Scale Music Segmentation Using Rhythm, Timbre, and Harmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2006-12-01

    The segmentation of music into intro-chorus-verse-outro, and similar segments, is a difficult topic. A method for performing automatic segmentation based on features related to rhythm, timbre, and harmony is presented, and compared, between the features and between the features and manual segmentation of a database of 48 songs. Standard information retrieval performance measures are used in the comparison, and it is shown that the timbre-related feature performs best.

  1. Stability and Harmony of Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosa, Marco; Marro, Tiziana; Paolucci, Stefano; Morelli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the stability and harmony of gait in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy (5.0 [plus or minus] 2.3 years old) who were able to walk autonomously and seventeen age-matched children with typical development (5.7 [plus or minus] 2.5 years old,…

  2. Accident source terms for boiling water reactors with high burnup cores.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Powers, Dana Auburn; Leonard, Mark Thomas

    2007-11-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide the technical basis for development of recommendations for updates to the NUREG-1465 Source Term for BWRs that will extend its applicability to accidents involving high burnup (HBU) cores. However, a secondary objective is to re-examine the fundamental characteristics of the prescription for fission product release to containment described by NUREG-1465. This secondary objective is motivated by an interest to understand the extent to which research into the release and behaviors of radionuclides under accident conditions has altered best-estimate calculations of the integral response of BWRs to severe core damage sequences and the resulting radiological source terms to containment. This report, therefore, documents specific results of fission product source term analyses that will form the basis for the HBU supplement to NUREG-1465. However, commentary is also provided on observed differences between the composite results of the source term calculations performed here and those reflected NUREG-1465 itself.

  3. BNL development of H/sup -//D/sup -/ sources for fusion reactor neutral beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Prelec, K

    1980-01-01

    The long range program of the BNL Neutral Beam Development Group is to design a neutral beam system based on neutralization of negative ions, with an energy of 200 keV or higher, a D/sup -/ beam current of 10 A and operating in pulses of 5 s duration or longer; the beam system would be used on fusion devices for plasma heating. Presently, work is concentrated on the development of an H/sup -/ or D/sup -/ ion source, to deliver about 1 A of beam current, at an energy of at least 10 keV and operating in pulses longer than 5 s. A source of the magnetron type was designed and fabricated and is to be tested soon; the paper describes the background experiments that were necessary for the source design, the source parameters and design features, as well as a method under consideration that would improve the gas efficiency by an order of magnitude.

  4. Accident source terms for pressurized water reactors with high-burnup cores calculated using MELCOR 1.8.5.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Powers, Dana Auburn; Ashbaugh, Scott G.; Leonard, Mark Thomas; Longmire, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    In this study, risk-significant pressurized-water reactor severe accident sequences are examined using MELCOR 1.8.5 to explore the range of fission product releases to the reactor containment building. Advances in the understanding of fission product release and transport behavior and severe accident progression are used to render best estimate analyses of selected accident sequences. Particular emphasis is placed on estimating the effects of high fuel burnup in contrast with low burnup on fission product releases to the containment. Supporting this emphasis, recent data available on fission product release from high-burnup (HBU) fuel from the French VERCOR project are used in this study. The results of these analyses are treated as samples from a population of accident sequences in order to employ approximate order statistics characterization of the results. These trends and tendencies are then compared to the NUREG-1465 alternative source term prescription used today for regulatory applications. In general, greater differences are observed between the state-of-the-art calculations for either HBU or low-burnup (LBU) fuel and the NUREG-1465 containment release fractions than exist between HBU and LBU release fractions. Current analyses suggest that retention of fission products within the vessel and the reactor coolant system (RCS) are greater than contemplated in the NUREG-1465 prescription, and that, overall, release fractions to the containment are therefore lower across the board in the present analyses than suggested in NUREG-1465. The decreased volatility of Cs2MoO4 compared to CsI or CsOH increases the predicted RCS retention of cesium, and as a result, cesium and iodine do not follow identical behaviors with respect to distribution among vessel, RCS, and containment. With respect to the regulatory alternative source term, greater differences are observed between the NUREG-1465 prescription and both HBU and LBU predictions than exist between HBU and LBU

  5. The NERVA Derivative Reactor - A multi-application space power source

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Wett, J.F.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force, SDI, and NASA have identified increasing needs for electric power for all types of space missions. For many of these, only nuclear-electric can provide the lowest life cycle cost. Among the many different types of nuclear space power systems proposed, the NERVA Derivative Reactor, based on the proven NERVA/ROVER technology stands out as the most attractive. It can be integrated with closed and open cycle turbo-generators and open cycle MHD generators to provide the wide range of diverse power requirements that include multikilowatts to megawatts of steady state, baseload power and multi-megawatts of burst power for weapon systems. The NDR technology can be applied to these systems with relatively little additional engineering developments, which are primarily related to demonstrating compliance with the space nuclear safety requirements.

  6. Analysis of closed cycle megawatt class space power systems with nuclear reactor heat sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Jones, B. I.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis and integration studies of multimegawatt nuclear power conversion systems for potential SDI applications is presented. A study is summarized which considered 3 separate types of power conversion systems for steady state power generation with a duty requirement of 1 yr at full power. The systems considered are based on the following conversion cycles: direct and indirect Brayton gas turbine, direct and indirect liquid metal Rankine, and in core thermionic. A complete mass analysis was performed for each system at power levels ranging from 1 to 25 MWe for both heat pipe and liquid droplet radiator options. In the modeling of common subsystems, reactor and shield calculations were based on multiparameter correlation and an in-house analysis for the heat rejection and other subsystems.

  7. A review of source term and dose estimation for the TMI-2 reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Dickerson, M.H.

    1990-09-01

    The TMI-2 nuclear reactor accident, which occurred on March 28, 1979 in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, produced environmental releases of noble gases and small quantities of radioiodine. The releases occurred over a roughly two week period with almost 90% of the noble gases being released during the first three days after the initiation of the accident. Meteorological conditions during the prolonged release period varied from strong synoptic driven flows that rapidly transported the radioactive gases out of the Harrisburg area to calm situations that allowed the radioactivity to accumulate within the low lying river area and to subsequently slowly disperse within the immediate vicinity of the reactor. The results reported by various analysts, revealed that approximately 2.4--10 million curies of noble gases (mainly Xe-133), and about 14 curies of I-131 were released. During the first two days, when most of the noble gas release occurred, the plume was transported in a northerly direction causing the most exposed area to lie within a northwesterly to northeasterly direction from TMI. Changing surface winds caused the plume to be subsequently transported in a southerly direction, followed by an easterly direction. The calculated maximum whole body dose due to plume passage exceeded 100 mrem over an area extending several kilometers north of the plant, although the highest measured dose was 75 mrem. The collective dose equivalent (within a radius of 80 km) due to the noble gas exposure ranged over several orders of magnitude with a central estimate of 3300 person-rem. The small I-131 release produced barely detectable levels of activity in air and milk samples. This may have produced thyroid doses of a few milirem to a small segment of the population. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Conceptual design of thorium-fuelled Mitrailleuse accelerator-driven subcritical reactor using D-Be neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Kokubo, Y.; Kamei, T.

    2012-07-01

    A distributed accelerator is a charged-particle accelerator that uses a new acceleration method based on repeated electrostatic acceleration. This method offers outstanding benefits not possible with the conventional radio-frequency acceleration method, including: (1) high acceleration efficiency, (2) large acceleration current, and (3) lower failure rate made possible by a fully solid-state acceleration field generation circuit. A 'Mitrailleuse Accelerator' is a product we have conceived to optimize this distributed accelerator technology for use with a high-strength neutron source. We have completed the conceptual design of a Mitrailleuse Accelerator and of a thorium-fuelled subcritical reactor driven by a Mitrailleuse Accelerator. This paper presents the conceptual design details and approach to implementing the subcritical reactor core. We will spend the next year or so on detailed design work, and then will start work on developing a prototype for demonstration. If there are no obstacles in setting up a development organization, we expect to finish verifying the prototype's performance by the third quarter of 2015. (authors)

  9. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-05-15

    Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe(2+) release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75 ± 2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22 h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. PMID:23523911

  10. Biological sulfate reduction using gas-lift reactors fed with hydrogen and carbon dioxide as energy and carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Houten, R.T. van; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G. . Dept. of Environmental Technology)

    1994-08-20

    Feasibility and engineering aspects of biological sulfate reduction in gas-lift reactors were studied. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide were used as energy and carbon source. Attention was paid to biofilm formation, sulfide toxicity, sulfate conversion rate optimization, and gas-liquid mass transfer limitations. Sulfate-reducing bacteria formed stable biofilms on pumice particles. Biofilm formation was not observed when basalt particles were used. However, use of basalt particles led to the formation of granules of sulfate-reducing biomass. The sulfate-reducing bacteria, grown on pumice, easily adapted to free H[sub 2]S concentrations up to 450 mg/L. Biofilm growth rate then equilibrated biomass loss rate. These high free H[sub 2]S concentrations caused reversible inhibition rather than acute toxicity. When free H[sub 2]S concentrations were kept below 450 mg/L, a maximum sulfate conversion rate of 30 g SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  11. Impact of the High Flux Isotope Reactor HEU to LEU Fuel Conversion on Cold Source Nuclear Heat Generation Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David

    2014-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, staff members at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducting studies to determine whether the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) can be converted from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. As part of these ongoing studies, an assessment of the impact that the HEU to LEU fuel conversion has on the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source system and its moderator vessel was performed and is documented in this report. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions and few-group neutron fluxes in the cold source moderator were also estimated. Neutronics calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle code to determine the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source and its vessel for the HEU core operating at a full reactor power (FP) of 85 MW(t) and the reference LEU core operating at an FP of 100 MW(t). Calculations were performed with beginning-of-cycle (BOC) and end-of-cycle (EOC) conditions to bound typical irradiation conditions. Average specific BOC heat generation rates of 12.76 and 12.92 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the hemispherical region of the cold source liquid hydrogen (LH2) for the HEU and LEU cores, and EOC heat generation rates of 13.25 and 12.86 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the HEU and LEU cores. Thus, the greatest heat generation rates were calculated for the EOC HEU core, and it is concluded that the conversion from HEU to LEU fuel and the resulting increase of FP from 85 MW to 100 MW will not impact the ability of the heat removal equipment to remove the heat deposited in the cold source system. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions are estimated to be about 12.0% greater at BOC and 2.7% greater at EOC for the LEU core in comparison to the HEU core. Silicon is aluminum s major transmutation product and

  12. Investigation of Coded Source Neutron Imaging at the North Carolina State University PULSTAR Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Ziyu; Mishra, Kaushal; Hawari, Ayman; Bingham, Philip R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2010-10-01

    A neutron imaging facility is located on beam-tube #5 of the 1-MWth PULSTAR reactor at the North Carolina State University. An investigation has been initiated to explore the application of coded imaging techniques at the facility. Coded imaging uses a mosaic of pinholes to encode an aperture, thus generating an encoded image of the object at the detector. To reconstruct the image recorded by the detector, corresponding decoding patterns are used. The optimized design of coded masks is critical for the performance of this technique and will depend on the characteristics of the imaging beam. In this work, Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations were utilized to explore the needed modifications to the PULSTAR thermal neutron beam to support coded imaging techniques. In addition, an assessment of coded mask design has been performed. The simulations indicated that a 12 inch single crystal sapphire filter is suited for such an application at the PULSTAR beam in terms of maximizing flux with good neutron-to-gamma ratio. Computational simulations demonstrate the feasibility of correlation reconstruction methods on neutron transmission imaging. A gadolinium aperture with thickness of 500 m was used to construct the mask using a 38 34 URA pattern. A test experiment using such a URA design has been conducted and the point spread function of the system has been measured.

  13. A Photo-neutron Source for a Sub-Critical Nuclear Reactor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, M.A.; Harmon, J.F.; Sadineni, S.B.

    2003-08-26

    Experiments to benchmark photo-neutron production calculations for an Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical System (ADS) are described. A photo-nuclear based neutron source with output > 1013 n/sec has been proposed as a driver for a program using the sub-critical assembly at Idaho State University. The program is intended to study ADS control issues arising from coupling an accelerator neutron source with a sub-critical assembly. The experiments were performed using the 20 MeV electron linear accelerator at the Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC). Results of calculations, that were made using ACCEPT, PINP, MCNP, and MCNPX codes to optimize photo-nuclear based neutron conversion targets, are compared to experimental data for a single energy measurement.

  14. Effect of various sources of organic carbon and high nitrite and nitrate concentrations on the selection of denitrifying bacteria. II. Continuous cultures in packed bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, M

    1983-01-01

    The effect of different organic compounds, nitrites and nitrates at the concentration of 1,000 mg N/l on the quantitative and strain-specific selection of denitrifying bacteria was determined in anaerobic packed bed reactors. Both the source of carbon and nitrogen form influenced strain specificity and the frequency of occurrence of denitrifying bacteria. The frequency of denitrifying bacteria within packed bed reactor ranged in different media from 11% (glucose and nitrates) to 100% (methanol and ethanol with nitrates). A single species selection was observed in the presence of nitrites within packed bed reactor: Pseudomonas aeruginosa in medium with acetate. Pseudomonas stutzeri in medium with ethanol, Pseudomonas mendocina in medium with methanol and Pseudomonas fluorescens in medium with glucose. When nitrates were present in packed bed reactor, the dominating bacteria were: P. stutzeri in medium with acetate, P. fluorescens in medium with ethanol, Paracoccus denitrificans in medium with methanol and Alcaligenes faecalis in medium with glucose. PMID:6194668

  15. Summary of dynamic analyses of the advanced neutron source reactor inner control rods

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrich, W.R.

    1995-08-01

    A summary of the structural dynamic analyses that were instrumental in providing design guidance to the Advanced Neutron source (ANS) inner control element system is presented in this report. The structural analyses and the functional constraints that required certain performance parameters were combined to shape and guide the design effort toward a prediction of successful and reliable control and scram operation to be provided by these inner control rods.

  16. Research on Bus Stop Design in Modern Cities Based on Concept of Harmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    The urbanization process and expansion have brought about the traffic growth and promoted the continuous development of urban traffic, making traffic become the principal component of urban function as the key factor maintaining the urban vitality. The traffic harmony acts as the effective approach to solve all the problems. The development of harmonious public transport, endeavor to construct the harmonious bus stations in urban areas are the inevitable paths to relieve the difficulties of urban traffic.

  17. Operation of fill-and-draw reactors fed with bisphenol A as sole carbon and energy source.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, Davide; Erekaife, Bridget; Maclean, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    While there is ample evidence in the literature that many organic xenobiotics can be biodegraded as sole carbon and energy source by pure batch cultures of selected microorganisms, the same evidence is very limited for continuous or semi-continuous mixed-culture processes simulating biological wastewater treatment plants. This study investigates for the first time whether Bisphenol A (BPA) can be removed and used as sole carbon and energy source by mixed microbial cultures in a semi-continuous process. Four fill and draw bioreactors were inoculated with unacclimated soil and operated at various hydraulic retention times (HRT), in the range of 1.7-4.2 d, using a feed composed solely of BPA (115 mg/l), and mineral salts. At steady-state, the BPA removal in the four reactors varied in the range 7.5-19% and did not show a significant trend with the HRT. The maximum growth rate on BPA was measured in the range 0.29-1.54 d-1. PMID:25509524

  18. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  19. Zen leadership: balancing energy for mind, body, and spirit harmony.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J W

    2000-01-01

    This article explores leadership characteristics and practices that assist us both professionally and personally to be authentic and integrated in mind, body, and spirit for harmony. The transformational leadership characteristics--courage; belief in people; value driven; a life-long learner and teacher; a complexity, ambiguity, and uncertainty expert; and a visionary leader--all deal with the leader's ability to develop relationships through teamwork, collaboration, networking, mentoring, and establishing boundaries. The author realized the importance of reflection to maintaining a healthy relationship not only with others but also with self. PMID:10765254

  20. Description of TASHA: Thermal Analysis of Steady-State-Heat Transfer for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.G.; Chen, N.C.; Nelson, W.R.; Yoder, G.L.

    1996-10-01

    This document describes the code used to perform Thermal Analysis of Steady-State-Heat-Transfer for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor (TASHA). More specifically, the code is designed for thermal analysis of the fuel elements. The new code reflects changes to the High Flux Isotope Reactor steady-state thermal-hydraulics code. These changes were aimed at both improving the code`s predictive ability and allowing statistical thermal-hydraulic uncertainty analysis to be performed. A significant portion of the changes were aimed at improving the correlation package in the code. This involved incorporating more recent correlations for both single-phase flow and two-phase flow thermal limits, including the addition of correlations to predict the phenomenon of flow excursion. Since the code was to be used in the design of the ANS, changes were made to allow the code to predict limiting powers for a variety of thermal limits, including critical heat flux, flow excursion, incipient boiling, oxide spallation, maximum centerline temperature, and surface temperature equal to the saturation temperature. Statistical uncertainty analysis also required several changes to the code itself as well as changes to the code input format. This report describes these changes in enough detail to allow the reader to interpret code results and also to understand where the changes were made in the code programming. This report is not intended to be a stand alone report for running the code, however, and should be used in concert with the two previous reports published on the original code. Sample input and output files are also included to help accomplish these goals. In addition, a section is included that describes requirements for a new, more modem code that the project planned to develop.

  1. Enhanced biological denitrification in the cyclic rotating bed reactor with catechol as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Jafari, Seyed Javad; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2015-08-01

    The performance of CRBR in denitrification with catechol carbon source is presented. The influence of inlet nitrate concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT), media filling ratio and rotational speed of media on the performance of CRBR was investigated. The bioreactor could denitrify over 95% of the nitrate at an inlet concentration up to 1000 mg NO3(-)/L and a short HRT as low as 18 h. The optimum media filling ratio at which the maximum denitrification was achieved in the CRBR was 30% and the contribution of media at this condition was around 36%. The optimum ratio of media filling at which the maximum denitrification was 20 rpm and the contribution of rotational speed under this condition was around 17%. According to the findings, the CRBR is a high rate bioreactor and thus serves as an appropriate technology for denitrification of wastewaters containing a high concentration of nitrate and toxic organic compounds. PMID:25898088

  2. Perfect harmony: a mathematical analysis of four historical tunings.

    PubMed

    Page, Michael F

    2004-10-01

    In Western music, a musical interval defined by the frequency ratio of two notes is generally considered consonant when the ratio is composed of small integers. Perfect harmony or an "ideal just scale," which has no exact solution, would require the division of an octave into 12 notes, each of which would be used to create six other consonant intervals. The purpose of this study is to analyze four well-known historical tunings to evaluate how well each one approximates perfect harmony. The analysis consists of a general evaluation in which all consonant intervals are given equal weighting and a specific evaluation for three preludes from Bach's "Well-Tempered Clavier," for which intervals are weighted in proportion to the duration of their occurrence. The four tunings, 5-limit just intonation, quarter-comma meantone temperament, well temperament (Werckmeister III), and equal temperament, are evaluated by measures of centrality, dispersion, distance, and dissonance. When all keys and consonant intervals are equally weighted, equal temperament demonstrates the strongest performance across a variety of measures, although it is not always the best tuning. Given C as the starting note for each tuning, equal temperament and well temperament perform strongly for the three "Well-Tempered Clavier" preludes examined. PMID:15532672

  3. Analysis of a HARMONIE-climate-mode simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haakenstad, Hilde; Haugen, Jan Erik; Homleid, Mariken; Aspelien, Trygve; Batrak, Yurii

    2015-04-01

    The NWP model HARMONIE (Hirlam Aladin Regional Mesoscale Operational NWP In Europe, Seity et al.,2011) in climate mode has become the main regional climate model at MET-Norway. A 10 year simulation for an area covering Scandinavia and large parts of the Barents Sea has been produced. HARMONIE contains physical parameterization packages tailored for different resolutions. We have used 12 km horizontal resolution and ALARO physics. A simple ice scheme has been implemented. The model has been forced by ERA-Interim (Dee et al., 2011). In sea-ice-covered areas, ERA-Interim surface temperature is used by analogy with ERA-Interim sea surface temperature in sea-ice-free areas. The simulation has been compared to the NORA10 archive (Reistad et al., 2011) and shows promising results. References Dee et al., 2011, The ERA- Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q.J.R. Meteorol.Soc. 137, pp.553-597. Reistad et al., 2011, A high-resolution hindcast of wind and waves for The North Sea, The Norwegian Sea and The Barents Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C05019, doi:10.1029/2010JC006402. Seity et al., 2011, The AROME-France Convective-Scale Operational Model. Monthly Weather Review, Vol 139, pp976-991.

  4. Perfect harmony: A mathematical analysis of four historical tunings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael F.

    2004-10-01

    In Western music, a musical interval defined by the frequency ratio of two notes is generally considered consonant when the ratio is composed of small integers. Perfect harmony or an ``ideal just scale,'' which has no exact solution, would require the division of an octave into 12 notes, each of which would be used to create six other consonant intervals. The purpose of this study is to analyze four well-known historical tunings to evaluate how well each one approximates perfect harmony. The analysis consists of a general evaluation in which all consonant intervals are given equal weighting and a specific evaluation for three preludes from Bach's ``Well-Tempered Clavier,'' for which intervals are weighted in proportion to the duration of their occurrence. The four tunings, 5-limit just intonation, quarter-comma meantone temperament, well temperament (Werckmeister III), and equal temperament, are evaluated by measures of centrality, dispersion, distance, and dissonance. When all keys and consonant intervals are equally weighted, equal temperament demonstrates the strongest performance across a variety of measures, although it is not always the best tuning. Given C as the starting note for each tuning, equal temperament and well temperament perform strongly for the three ``Well-Tempered Clavier'' preludes examined. .

  5. Simultaneous ammonia and nitrate removal in an airlift reactor using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yun-Jie; Deng, Ya-Le; Guo, Xi-Shan; Timmons, Michael B; Lu, Hui-Feng; Han, Zhi-Ying; Ye, Zhang-Ying; Shi, Ming-Ming; Zhu, Song-Ming

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an airlift inner-loop sequencing batch reactor using poly(butylene succinate) as the biofilm carrier and carbon source was operated under an alternant aerobic/anoxic strategy for nitrogen removal in recirculating aquaculture system. The average TAN and nitrate removal rates of 47.35±15.62gNH4-Nm(-3)d(-1) and 0.64±0.14kgNO3-Nm(-3)d(-1) were achieved with no obvious nitrite accumulation (0.70±0.76mg/L) and the dissolved organic carbon in effluents was maintained at 148.38±39.06mg/L. Besides, the activities of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and sulfate reduction activities were successfully inhibited. The proteome KEGG analysis illustrated that ammonia might be removed through heterotrophic nitrification, while the activities of nitrate and nitrite reductases were enhanced through aeration treatment. The microbial community analysis revealed that denitrifiers of Azoarcus and Simplicispira occupied the dominate abundance which accounted for the high nitrate removal performance. Overall, this study broadened our understanding of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification using biodegradable material as biofilm carrier. PMID:27343453

  6. Global shielding analysis for the three-element core advanced neutron source reactor under normal operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, C.O.; Bucholz, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    Two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport calculations were performed for a model of the three-element core Advanced Neutron Source reactor design under normal operating conditions. The core consists of two concentric upper elements and a lower element radially centered in the annulus between the upper elements. The initial radiation transport calculations were performed with the DORT two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport code using the 39-neutron-group/44-gamma-ray-group ANSL-V cross-section library, an S{sub 6} quadrature, and a P{sub 1} Legendre polynomial expansion of the cross sections to determine the fission neutron source distribution in the core fuel elements. These calculations were limited to neutron groups only. The final radiation transport calculations, also performed with DORT using the 39-neutron-group/44-gamma-ray-group ANSL-V cross-section library, an S{sub l0} quadrature, and a P{sub 3} Legendre polynomial expansion of the cross sections, produced neutron and gamma-ray fluxes over the full extent of the geometry model. Responses (or activities) at various locations in the model were then obtained by folding the appropriate response functions with the fluxes at those locations. Some comparisons were made with VENTURE-calculated (diffusion theory) 20-group neutron fluxes that were summed into four broad groups. Tne results were in reasonably good agreement when the effects of photoneutrons were not included, thus verifying the physics model upon which the shielding model was based. Photoneutrons increased the fast-neutron flux levels deep within the D{sub 2}0 several orders of magnitude. Results are presented as tables of activity values for selected radial and axial traverses, plots of the radial and axial traverse data, and activity contours superimposed on the calculational geometry model.

  7. Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, Leland E.

    1990-01-01

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

  8. Termination of light-water reactor core-melt accidents with a chemical core catcher: the core-melt source reduction system (COMSORS)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Kenton, M.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate light-water reactor core melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass is placed under the reactor vessel. If core debris is released onto the glass, the glass melts and the debris dissolves into the molten glass, thus creating a homogeneous molten glass. The molten glass, with dissolved core debris, spreads into a wide pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or by transfer to water on top of the molten glass. Expected equilibrium glass temperatures are approximately 600 degrees C. The creation of a low-temperature, homogeneous molten glass with known geometry permits cooling of the glass without threatening containment integrity. This report describes the technology, initial experiments to measure key glass properties, and modeling of COMSORS operations.

  9. A hybrid dynamic harmony search algorithm for identical parallel machines scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Pan, Quan-Ke; Wang, Ling; Li, Jun-Qing

    2012-02-01

    In this article, a dynamic harmony search (DHS) algorithm is proposed for the identical parallel machines scheduling problem with the objective to minimize makespan. First, an encoding scheme based on a list scheduling rule is developed to convert the continuous harmony vectors to discrete job assignments. Second, the whole harmony memory (HM) is divided into multiple small-sized sub-HMs, and each sub-HM performs evolution independently and exchanges information with others periodically by using a regrouping schedule. Third, a novel improvisation process is applied to generate a new harmony by making use of the information of harmony vectors in each sub-HM. Moreover, a local search strategy is presented and incorporated into the DHS algorithm to find promising solutions. Simulation results show that the hybrid DHS (DHS_LS) is very competitive in comparison to its competitors in terms of mean performance and average computational time.

  10. Parametric Evaluation of Large-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Using Different Advanced Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar; James E. O'Brien; J. Stephen Herring

    2009-09-01

    High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE), when coupled to an advanced nuclear reactor capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 °C to 950 °C, has the potential to efficiently produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs. To evaluate the potential benefits of nuclear-driven hydrogen production, the UniSim process analysis software was used to evaluate different reactor concepts coupled to a reference HTE process design concept. The reference HTE concept included an Intermediate Heat Exchanger and intermediate helium loop to separate the reactor primary system from the HTE process loops and additional heat exchangers to transfer reactor heat from the intermediate loop to the HTE process loops. The two process loops consisted of the water/steam loop feeding the cathode side of a HTE electrolysis stack, and the sweep gas loop used to remove oxygen from the anode side. The UniSim model of the process loops included pumps to circulate the working fluids and heat exchangers to recover heat from the oxygen and hydrogen product streams to improve the overall hydrogen production efficiencies. The reference HTE process loop model was coupled to separate UniSim models developed for three different advanced reactor concepts (a high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept and two different supercritical CO2 reactor concepts). Sensitivity studies were then performed to evaluate the affect of reactor outlet temperature on the power cycle efficiency and overall hydrogen production efficiency for each of the reactor power cycles. The results of these sensitivity studies showed that overall power cycle and hydrogen production efficiencies increased with reactor outlet temperature, but the power cycles producing the highest efficiencies varied depending on the temperature range considered.

  11. Influence of aerosols on atmospheric variables in the HARMONIE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamarchuk, Iuliia; Ivanov, Sergiy; Ruban, Igor; Pavlova, Hanna

    2016-03-01

    The mesoscale HARMONIE model is used to investigate the potential influence of aerosols on weather forecasts, and in particular, on precipitation. The study considers three numerical experiments over the Atlantic-Europe-Northern Africa region during 11-16 August 2010 with the following configurations: (a) no aerosols, (b) only the sea aerosols, and (c) the four types of the aerosols: sea, land, organic, and dust aerosols. The spatio-temporal analysis of forecast differences highlights the impact of aerosols on the prediction of main meteorological variables such as air temperature, humidity, precipitation, and cloud cover as well as their vertical profiles. The variations occur through changes in radiation fluxes and microphysics properties. The sensitivity experiments with the inclusion of climatological aerosol concentrations demonstrate the importance of aerosol effects on weather prediction.

  12. Harmony as Ideology: Questioning the Diversity-Stability Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nikisianis, Nikos; Stamou, Georgios P

    2016-03-01

    The representation of a complex but stable, self-regulated and, finally, harmonious nature penetrates the whole history of Ecology, thus contradicting the core of the Darwinian evolution. Originated in the pre-Darwinian Natural History, this representation defined theoretically the various schools of early ecology and, in the context of the cybernetic synthesis of the 1950s, it assumed a typical mathematical form on account of α positive correlation between species diversity and community stability. After 1960, these two aforementioned concepts and their positive correlation were proposed as environmental management tools, in the face of the ecological crisis arising at the time. In the early 1970s, and particularly after May's evolutionary arguments, the consensus around this positive correlation collapsed for a while, only to be promptly restored for the purpose of attaching an ecological value on biodiversity. In this paper, we explore the history of the diversity-stability hypothesis and we review the successive terms that have been used to express community stability. We argue that this hypothesis has been motivated by the nodal ideological presuppositions of order and harmony and that the scientific developments in this field largely correspond to external social pressures. We conclude that the conflict about the diversity-stability relationship is in fact an ideological debate, referring mostly to the way we see nature and society rather than to an autonomous scientific question. From this point of view, we may understand why Ecology's concepts and perceptions may decline and return again and again, forming a pluralistic scientific history. PMID:26563140

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne Thermal Source Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory - East project final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fellhauer, C.; Garlock, G.; Mathiesen, J.

    1998-12-02

    The ATSR D&D Project was directed toward the following goals: (1) Removal of radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the ATSR Reactor facility; (2) Decontamination of the ATSR Reactor facility to unrestricted use levels; and (3)Documentation of all project activities affecting quality (i.e., waste packaging, instrument calibration, audit results, and personnel exposure). These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the ATSR Reactor facility and to allow, upon completion of the project, unescorted and unmonitored access to the area. The reactor aluminum, reactor lead, graphite piles in room E-111, and the contaminated concrete in room E-102 were the primary areas of concern. NES, Incorporated (Danbury, CT) characterized the ATSR Reactor facility from January to March 1998. The characterization identified a total of thirteen radionuclides, with a total activity of 64.84 mCi (2.4 GBq). The primary radionuclides of concern were Co{sup 60}, Eu{sup 152}, Cs{sup 137}, and U{sup 238}. No additional radionuclides were identified during the D&D of the facility. The highest dose rates observed during the project were associated with the reactor tank and shield tank. Contact radiation levels of 30 mrem/hr (0.3 mSv/hr) were measured on reactor internals during dismantlement of the reactor. A level of 3 mrem/hr (0.03 mSv/hr) was observed in a small area (hot spot) in room E-102. DOE Order 5480.2A establishes the maximum whole body exposure for occupational workers at 5 rem/yr (50 mSv/yr); the administrative limit at ANL-E is 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr).

  14. Method of production H/sub 2/ using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, L.E.

    1988-05-13

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300/degree/ to 1400/degree/F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices. 1 fig.

  15. Environmental Assessment and FONSI Proposed Decontamination and Disassembly of the Argonne Thermal Source Reactor (ATSR) at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-07-15

    The purpose of this project is to protect human health and the environment from risks associated with the contaminated surplus ATSR. The proposed action is needed because the ATSR, a former experimental reactor, contains residual radioactivity and hazardous materials.

  16. The influences of harmony motives and implicit beliefs on conflict styles of the collectivist.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lena L

    2009-12-01

    The collectivist preference for nonconfrontational conflict styles is usually attributed to the influences of the Confucian value of harmony, which promotes tolerance of interpersonal transgression. Harmony has two distinct motives in collectivistic Asian societies (Leung, 1997 ): harmony enhancement is affective in nature and represents a genuine concern for relationship harmony, while disintegration avoidance is instrumental in nature and sees harmony maintenance as a means to other ends. Hence, as predicted, harmony enhancement is positively related to the use of integrating and compromising, while disintegration avoidance is positively related to the use of avoiding and obliging and is negatively related to the use of integrating during a conflict with a peer in a collectivistic society, Singapore. Besides examining this from a motivational perspective, the study also examines the role of implicit beliefs of personality on one's choice of conflict styles. The two implicit theories of personality refer to the two different assumptions the lay person has about the mutability of personal attributes; an entity theorist believes that personal attributes are fixed and nonmalleable qualities, while an incremental theorist sees personal attributes as qualities that can be developed and changed. Results reveal that incrementalist implicit beliefs also significantly predicted the use of integrating. Harmony enhancement represents a genuine concern for relationship harmony and involves feelings of closeness, unity, and trust. The finding that integrating is predicted by a harmony enhancement motivation suggests the importance of fostering collectivist values of interdependence and feelings of unity and trust so as to encourage the use of integrating to discuss the opposing views openly and constructively. The present study also underscores the benefit of learning an incremental theory to be open to the positive changes in others and work toward improving the relationship

  17. The affective profiles, psychological well-being, and harmony: environmental mastery and self-acceptance predict the sense of a harmonious life

    PubMed Central

    Al Nima, Ali; Kjell, Oscar N.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. An important outcome from the debate on whether wellness equals happiness, is the need of research focusing on how psychological well-being might influence humans’ ability to adapt to the changing environment and live in harmony. To get a detailed picture of the influence of positive and negative affect, the current study employed the affective profiles model in which individuals are categorised into groups based on either high positive and low negative affect (self-fulfilling); high positive and high negative affect (high affective); low positive and low negative affect (low affective); and high negative and low positive affect (self-destructive). The aims were to (1) investigate differences between affective profiles in psychological well-being and harmony and (2) how psychological well-being and its dimensions relate to harmony within the four affective profiles. Method. 500 participants (mean age = 34.14 years, SD. = ±12.75 years; 187 males and 313 females) were recruited online and required to answer three self-report measures: The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule; The Scales of Psychological Well-Being (short version) and The Harmony in Life Scale. We conducted a Multivariate Analysis of Variance where the affective profiles and gender were the independent factors and psychological well-being composite score, its six dimensions as well as the harmony in life score were the dependent factors. In addition, we conducted four multi-group (i.e., the four affective profiles) moderation analyses with the psychological well-being dimensions as predictors and harmony in life as the dependent variables. Results. Individuals categorised as self-fulfilling, as compared to the other profiles, tended to score higher on the psychological well-being dimensions: positive relations, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and purpose in life. In addition, 47% to 66% of the variance of the harmony in life was explained by

  18. Closed Brayton Cycle power system with a high temperature pellet bed reactor heat source for NEP applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Harper, William B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Capitalizing on past and future development of high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) technology, a low mass 15 MWe closed gas turbine cycle power system using a pellet bed reactor heating helium working fluid is proposed for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) applications. Although the design of this directly coupled system architecture, comprising the reactor/power system/space radiator subsystems, is presented in conceptual form, sufficient detail is included to permit an assessment of overall system performance and mass. Furthermore, an attempt is made to show how tailoring of the main subsystem design characteristics can be utilized to achieve synergistic system level advantages that can lead to improved reliability and enhanced system life while reducing the number of parasitic load driven peripheral subsystems.

  19. Interpersonal Harmony and Conflict for Chinese People: A Yin–Yang Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview on a series of original studies conducted by the author. The aim here is to present the ideas that the author reconstructed, based on the dialectics of harmonization, regarding harmony and conflict embodied in traditional Chinese thought, and to describe how a formal psychological theory/model on interpersonal harmony and conflict was developed based on the Yin–Yang perspective. The paper also details how essential theories on interpersonal harmony and conflict were constructed under this formal model by conducting a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 30 adults. Psychological research in Western society has, intriguingly, long been focused more on interpersonal conflict than on interpersonal harmony. By contrast, the author’s work started from the viewpoint of a materialist conception of history and dialectics of harmonization in order to reinterpret traditional Chinese thought. Next, a “dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict” was developed, as a formal psychological theory, based on the real-virtual notions in the Yin–Yang perspective. Under this model, interpersonal harmony and conflict can be classified into genuine versus superficial harmony and authentic versus virtual focus conflict, and implicit/hidden conflict is regarded as superficial harmony. Subsequently, the author conducted a series of quantitative studies on interpersonal harmony and conflict within parent–child, supervisor–subordinate, and friend–friend relationships in order to verify the construct validity and the predictive validity of the dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict. The claim presented herein is that Chinese traditional thought and the psychological theory/model based on the Yin–Yang perspective can be combined. Accordingly, by combining qualitative and quantitative empirical research, the relative substantial theory can be developed and the concepts can be validated. Thus, this work

  20. Interpersonal Harmony and Conflict for Chinese People: A Yin-Yang Perspective.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview on a series of original studies conducted by the author. The aim here is to present the ideas that the author reconstructed, based on the dialectics of harmonization, regarding harmony and conflict embodied in traditional Chinese thought, and to describe how a formal psychological theory/model on interpersonal harmony and conflict was developed based on the Yin-Yang perspective. The paper also details how essential theories on interpersonal harmony and conflict were constructed under this formal model by conducting a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 30 adults. Psychological research in Western society has, intriguingly, long been focused more on interpersonal conflict than on interpersonal harmony. By contrast, the author's work started from the viewpoint of a materialist conception of history and dialectics of harmonization in order to reinterpret traditional Chinese thought. Next, a "dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict" was developed, as a formal psychological theory, based on the real-virtual notions in the Yin-Yang perspective. Under this model, interpersonal harmony and conflict can be classified into genuine versus superficial harmony and authentic versus virtual focus conflict, and implicit/hidden conflict is regarded as superficial harmony. Subsequently, the author conducted a series of quantitative studies on interpersonal harmony and conflict within parent-child, supervisor-subordinate, and friend-friend relationships in order to verify the construct validity and the predictive validity of the dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict. The claim presented herein is that Chinese traditional thought and the psychological theory/model based on the Yin-Yang perspective can be combined. Accordingly, by combining qualitative and quantitative empirical research, the relative substantial theory can be developed and the concepts can be validated. Thus, this work represents the

  1. Color harmony represented by activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takashi; Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Observing paired colors with a different hue (in terms of chroma and lightness) engenders pleasantness from such harmonious combinations; however, negative reactions can emerge from disharmonious combinations. Currently, neural mechanisms underlying the esthetic and emotional aspects of color perception remain unknown. The current study reports evidence regarding the neural correlates of color harmony and disharmony. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess brain regions activated by harmonious or disharmonious color combinations in comparison to other stimuli. Results showed that the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and left amygdala were activated when participants observed harmonious and disharmonious stimuli, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that color disharmony may depend on stimulus properties and more automatic neural processes mediated by the amygdala, whereas color harmony is harder to discriminate based on color characteristics and is reflected by the esthetic value represented in the mOFC. This study has a limitation that we could not exclude the effect of preference for color combination, which has a strong positive correlation with color harmony. PMID:26190992

  2. Color harmony represented by activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Takashi; Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Observing paired colors with a different hue (in terms of chroma and lightness) engenders pleasantness from such harmonious combinations; however, negative reactions can emerge from disharmonious combinations. Currently, neural mechanisms underlying the esthetic and emotional aspects of color perception remain unknown. The current study reports evidence regarding the neural correlates of color harmony and disharmony. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess brain regions activated by harmonious or disharmonious color combinations in comparison to other stimuli. Results showed that the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and left amygdala were activated when participants observed harmonious and disharmonious stimuli, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that color disharmony may depend on stimulus properties and more automatic neural processes mediated by the amygdala, whereas color harmony is harder to discriminate based on color characteristics and is reflected by the esthetic value represented in the mOFC. This study has a limitation that we could not exclude the effect of preference for color combination, which has a strong positive correlation with color harmony. PMID:26190992

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  4. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    PubMed

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution. PMID:27441855

  5. Chemical and material studies to understand the source of corrosion in the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) tank liner

    SciTech Connect

    Rusling, D.H.; Millard, H.T. Jr.; Heifer, P.G.; Perryman, R.E.; Smith, W.L.

    1988-07-01

    Corrosion damage to the aluminum tank liner of the GSTR reactor was discovered and samples of various materials were collected for chemical and mineralogical analyses. The following scenario for the corrosion was suggested: 1. Cyclical temperature changes caused the tank liner to change size repeatedly. It extruded tar as it expanded and created voids as it contracted. 2. Hydrostatic pressure forced ground water through openings in the concrete into voids near the bottom of the tank, and overflow introduced tank water at the top of the tank. 3. The expansion-contraction cycle moved the water around the complex, interconnecting systems of voids and, in some locations, caused the tar-to-aluminum bond to fail. 4. Chemical interactions of the water with the tar and concrete supplied the elements capable of corroding the aluminum (e.g., Zn, Cu). 5. The corrosive solution has reacted with the aluminum over the lifetime of the reactor to produce the present corrosion damage. 6. As corrosion pits became holes, reactor tank water entered the voids.

  6. Representation of harmony rules in the human brain: further evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Leino, Sakari; Brattico, Elvira; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vuust, Peter

    2007-04-20

    In Western tonal music, the rules of harmony determine the order and music-structural importance of events in a musical piece: for instance, the tonic chord, built on the first note of the diatonic scale, is usually placed at the end of chord sequences. A brain response termed the early right anterior negativity (ERAN) is elicited when a harmonically incongruous chord is inserted within or at the end of a musical sequence. The present study was conducted to test whether the ERAN reflects the processing of harmony rather than the building of a tonal context and whether the ERAN is also elicited by violations of the tuning of the sounds upon which harmony is based. To this aim, ten subjects listened to musical sequences containing either expected chords only, a harmonically incongruous chord in one of three positions within the cadence, or a harmonically congruous but mistuned chord in one of the three positions. Simultaneously, the electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded. Incongruous chords violating the rules of harmony elicited a bilateral early anterior negativity, the amplitude of which depended on the degree of the harmony violation. On the contrary, mistuned chords, violating the rule of relations between all the sounds in the sequences, elicited a bilateral fronto-central negativity (the mismatch negativity, or MMN). The MMN was not modulated by the position of the violation within the musical sequence and had a longer peak latency than the anterior negativity elicited by the harmony rule violations. In conclusion, violations of the harmony and tuning rules of Western tonal music were found to generate specific and distinct electric responses in the human brain. PMID:17300763

  7. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD. PMID:16737396

  8. Modeling Geometric Arrangements of TiO2-Based Catalyst Substrates and Isotropic Light Sources to Enhance the Efficiency of a Photocatalystic Oxidation (PCO) Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Jeffrey T.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Husk, Geoffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    The closed confined environments of the ISS, as well as in future spacecraft for exploration beyond LEO, provide many challenges to crew health. One such challenge is the availability of a robust, energy efficient, and re-generable air revitalization system that controls trace volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) to levels below a specified spacecraft maximum allowable concentration (SMAC). Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), which is capable of mineralizing VOCs at room temperature and of accommodating a high volumetric flow, is being evaluated as an alternative trace contaminant control technology. In an architecture of a combined air and water management system, placing a PCO unit before a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control will greatly reduce the organic load into the humidity condensate loop ofthe water processing assembly (WPA) thereby enhancing the life cycle economics ofthe WPA. This targeted application dictates a single pass efficiency of greater than 90% for polar VOCs. Although this target was met in laboratory bench-scaled reactors, no commercial or SBIR-developed prototype PCO units examined to date have achieved this goal. Furthermore, the formation of partial oxidation products (e.g., acetaldehyde) was not eliminated. It is known that single pass efficiency and partial oxidation are strongly dependent upon the contact time and catalyst illumination, hence the requirement for an efficient reactor design. The objective of this study is to maximize the apparent contact time and illuminated catalyst surface area at a given reactor volume and volumetric flow. In this study, a Ti02-based photocatalyst is assumed to be immobilized on porous substrate panels and illumination derived from linear isotropic light sources. Mathematical modeling using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to investigate the effect of: 1) the geometry and configuration of catalyst-coated substrate panels, 2) porosity of the supporting substrate, and 3

  9. Bach Is the Father of Harmony: Revealed by a 1/f Fluctuation Analysis across Musical Genres

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Kendrick, Keith M.; Levitin, Daniel J.; Li, Chaoyi; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Harmony is a fundamental attribute of music. Close connections exist between music and mathematics since both pursue harmony and unity. In music, the consonance of notes played simultaneously partly determines our perception of harmony; associates with aesthetic responses; and influences the emotion expression. The consonance could be considered as a window to understand and analyze harmony. Here for the first time we used a 1/f fluctuation analysis to investigate whether the consonance fluctuation structure in music with a wide range of composers and genres followed the scale free pattern that has been found for pitch, melody, rhythm, human body movements, brain activity, natural images and geographical features. We then used a network graph approach to investigate which composers were the most influential both within and across genres. Our results showed that patterns of consonance in music did follow scale-free characteristics, suggesting that this feature is a universally evolved one in both music and the living world. Furthermore, our network analysis revealed that Bach’s harmony patterns were having the most influence on those used by other composers, followed closely by Mozart. PMID:26545104

  10. Bach Is the Father of Harmony: Revealed by a 1/f Fluctuation Analysis across Musical Genres.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Kendrick, Keith M; Levitin, Daniel J; Li, Chaoyi; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Harmony is a fundamental attribute of music. Close connections exist between music and mathematics since both pursue harmony and unity. In music, the consonance of notes played simultaneously partly determines our perception of harmony; associates with aesthetic responses; and influences the emotion expression. The consonance could be considered as a window to understand and analyze harmony. Here for the first time we used a 1/f fluctuation analysis to investigate whether the consonance fluctuation structure in music with a wide range of composers and genres followed the scale free pattern that has been found for pitch, melody, rhythm, human body movements, brain activity, natural images and geographical features. We then used a network graph approach to investigate which composers were the most influential both within and across genres. Our results showed that patterns of consonance in music did follow scale-free characteristics, suggesting that this feature is a universally evolved one in both music and the living world. Furthermore, our network analysis revealed that Bach's harmony patterns were having the most influence on those used by other composers, followed closely by Mozart. PMID:26545104

  11. Dynamic Harmony Search with Polynomial Mutation Algorithm for Valve-Point Economic Load Dispatch

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, M.; Sree Ranga Raja, T.

    2015-01-01

    Economic load dispatch (ELD) problem is an important issue in the operation and control of modern control system. The ELD problem is complex and nonlinear with equality and inequality constraints which makes it hard to be efficiently solved. This paper presents a new modification of harmony search (HS) algorithm named as dynamic harmony search with polynomial mutation (DHSPM) algorithm to solve ORPD problem. In DHSPM algorithm the key parameters of HS algorithm like harmony memory considering rate (HMCR) and pitch adjusting rate (PAR) are changed dynamically and there is no need to predefine these parameters. Additionally polynomial mutation is inserted in the updating step of HS algorithm to favor exploration and exploitation of the search space. The DHSPM algorithm is tested with three power system cases consisting of 3, 13, and 40 thermal units. The computational results show that the DHSPM algorithm is more effective in finding better solutions than other computational intelligence based methods. PMID:26491710

  12. Fields in nonaffine bundles. IV. Harmonious non-Abelian currents in string defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Brandon

    2010-11-01

    This article continues the study of the category of harmonious field models that was recently introduced as a kinetically nonlinear generalization of the well-known harmonic category of multiscalar fields over a supporting brane world sheet in a target space with a curved Riemannian metric. Like the perfectly harmonious case of which a familiar example is provided by ordinary barotropic perfect fluids, another important subcategory is the simply harmonious case, for which it is shown that as well as “wiggle” modes of the underlying brane world sheet, and sound type longitudinal modes, there will also be transverse shake modes that propagate at the speed of light. Models of this type are shown to arise from a non-Abelian generalization of the Witten mechanism for conducting string formation by ordinary scalar fields with a suitable quartic self-coupling term in the action.

  13. Effect of dissolved oxygen on nitrate removal using polycaprolactone as an organic carbon source and biofilm carrier in fixed-film denitrifying reactors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guozhi; Xu, Guimei; Gao, Jinfang; Tan, Hongxin

    2016-05-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) always accumulates in commercial recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) with aerobic nitrification units. The ability to reduce NO3(-)-N consistently and confidently could help RASs to become more sustainable. The rich dissolved oxygen (DO) content and sensitive organisms stocked in RASs increase the difficulty of denitrifying technology. A denitrifying process using biologically degradable polymers as an organic carbon source and biofilm carrier was proposed because of its space-efficient nature and strong ability to remove NO3(-)-N from RASs. The effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on heterotrophic denitrification in fixed-film reactors filled with polycaprolactone (PCL) was explored in the current experiment. DO conditions in the influent of the denitrifying reactors were set up as follows: the anoxic treatment group (Group A, average DO concentration of 0.28±0.05mg/L), the low-oxygen treatment DO group (Group B, average DO concentration of 2.50±0.24mg/L) and the aerated treatment group (Group C, average DO concentration of 5.63±0.57mg/L). Feeding with 200mg/L of NO3(-)-N, the NO3(-)-N removal rates were 1.53, 1.60 and 1.42kg/m(3) PCL/day in Groups A, B and C, respectively. No significant difference in NO3(-)-N removal rates was observed among the three treatments. It was concluded that the inhibitory effects of DO concentrations lower than 6mg/L on heterotrophic denitrification in the fixed-film reactors filled with PCL can be mitigated. PMID:27155419

  14. Combating School Bullying through Developmental Guidance for Positive Youth Development and Promoting Harmonious School Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Tsang, Sandra K. M.; Law, Bella C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying and violence, which can bring detrimental effects, are situations which young people have to face in their process of development. Though school bullying has been a spreading and explicit problem in Hong Kong schools, most of the programs or guidelines dealing with the problem lack citywide, recognized initiatives and the effectiveness of these programs is unknown due to the lack of evaluation. The present paper discusses preventing school bullying from a developmental guidance perspective, using the positive youth development paradigm and promoting the values of harmony and forgiveness at the whole-school level to cultivate a harmonious school culture as a way of combating school bullying. PMID:22194662

  15. Imagination in harmony with science: Spectral analysis as a practical pedagogic tool in the voice studio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundus, Katharin Elaine

    Traditionally, voice teachers have relied on intuition and imagination to impart technical information to their students. Spectral analysis, generated on a personal computer, is now available, affordable and accessible to the twenty-first century voice teacher. These programs provide several acoustical functions using frequency, intensity and time to provide technical information about the human singing voice. This paper advocates the use of this technology as a supplemental and supporting strategy in addition to the traditional pedagogic modes of metaphor and intuition. To begin, the paper examines the acoustical principles that reflect beautiful singing and are necessary to an understanding of spectral analysis. Several figures are used that graphically explain the source-filter theory of vowels and how it is affected by the constant manipulation of a closed-open tube like the human vocal tract. Nine functions of Real Analysis (a spectral analysis program in real time manufactured by Tiger DRS, Inc.) are then examined and explained in relation to the singing voice. The paper goes on to outline a systematic vocal pedagogy in eight parts that can be used in harmony with spectral analysis, portrayed in an octagonal spiral figure. In the fourth chapter, this systematic vocal pedagogy is then integrated with spectral analysis to suggest a holistic and artistic method to use this technology. In a table format, several singing behaviors are identified, both negative and positive; training solutions using Real Analysis functions are outlined for each behavior. The paper concludes by pointing out that this technology is valuable because it teaches teachers about their own voice in a scientific manner and allows them to share this quantifiable information with their students. Furthermore, twenty-first century students are accepting of and eager for new technologies as they learn about their voices. This new technology does not change the traditional goals of voice training

  16. "External Conditions Affecting a Harmonious Family": Lessons Learned from a School-Based Parent Education Programme in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk-Fong, Pattie Yuk Yee

    2013-01-01

    This article documents a parent education presentation on "External conditions affecting a harmonious family" within a school-based parent education programme in Hong Kong. The presentation adopted an eco-systems approach for understanding families and argued for the need to include the external conditions for a harmonious family as an important…

  17. Perspectives on Family Health, Happiness and Harmony (3H) among Hong Kong Chinese People: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, W. W. T.; Fielding, R.; McDowell, I.; Johnston, J.; Chan, Sophia; Leung, G. M.; Lam, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Family harmony, an important Confucian ideal in Chinese society is believed to determine family happiness and therefore health, but is this accurate? This is a qualitative study of 41 Hong Kong Chinese family members. Individual recorded interviews were thematically analysed describing perceived interactions between harmony, happiness and health.…

  18. Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Korpach, E.; Yi, Jing; Miley, Harry S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Ungar, R. Kurt; White, Brian; Woods, Vincent T.

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. Atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) of plumes of noble gases and particulates were performed soon after the accident to determine plausible detection locations of any radioactive releases to the atmosphere. We combine sampling data from multiple International Modeling System (IMS) locations in a new way to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of the releases. Dilution factors from the modeled plume at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of 133-Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This approach estimates that 59% of the 1.24×1019 Bq of 133-Xe present in the reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a three day period. Source term estimates from combinations of detection sites have lower spread than estimates based on measurements at single detection sites. Sensitivity cases based on data from four or more detection locations bound the source term between 35% and 255% of available xenon inventory.

  19. Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-blockage-initiated accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow blockage events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at ORNL. Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between dmaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur beause of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A parametric study was done for several uncertain variables. The study included investigating effects of plate contact area, convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity on fuel swelling, and initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects of damage propagation. Results provide useful insights into how variouss uncertain parameters affect damage propagation.

  20. Source term estimation of radioxenon released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors using measured air concentrations and atmospheric transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, P W; Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Cooper, M W; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Korpach, E; Yi, J; Miley, H S; Rishel, J P; Ungar, K; White, B; Woods, V T

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout across the northern hemisphere resulting from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Sampling data from multiple International Modeling System locations are combined with atmospheric transport modeling to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of releases of (133)Xe. Modeled dilution factors at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of (133)Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This analysis suggests that 92% of the 1.24 × 10(19) Bq of (133)Xe present in the three operating reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a 3 d period. An uncertainty analysis bounds the release estimates to 54-129% of available (133)Xe inventory. PMID:24211671

  1. Fostering Harmonious Interactions in a Boy with Congenital Deaf-Blindness: A Single-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Marleen J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Dijk, Jan P. M.; Huisman, Mark; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This article demonstrates the effectiveness of applying the Diagnostic Intervention Model for fostering harmonious interactions by describing a single-case study. Changes in the caregiver's turn-giving had substantial effects on the child's turn-taking, regulation of intensity, and approving and disapproving answers. The interaction effects were…

  2. Optical and mechanical design of the fore-optics of HARMONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Capuchino, J.; Hernández, E.; Bueno, A.; Herreros, J. M.; Thatte, N.; Bryson, I.; Clarke, F.; Tecza, M.

    2014-07-01

    HARMONI is a visible and near-infrared (0.47μm to 2.5μm) integral field spectrometer providing the E-ELT's core spectroscopic capability. It will provide ~32000 simultaneous spectra of a rectangular field of view at four foreseen different spatial sample (spaxel) scales. The HARMONI fore-optics re-formats the native telescope plate scale to suitable values for the downstream instrument optics. This telecentric adaptation includes anamorphic magnification of the plate scale to optimize the performance of the IFU, which contains the image slicer, and their four spectrographs. In addition, it provides an image of the telescope pupil to assemble a cold stop shared among all the scales allowing efficient suppression of the thermal background. A pupil imaging unit also re-images the pupil cold stop onto the image slicer to check the relative alignment between the E-ELT and HARMONI pupils. The scale changer will also host the filter wheel with the long-pass filters to select the wavelength range. The main reasoning specifying the importance of the HARMONI fore-optics and its current optical and mechanical design is described in this contribution.

  3. From Autonomy to Creativity: A Multilevel Investigation of the Mediating Role of Harmonious Passion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory, we theorized about and demonstrated, through 2 multilevel field studies, the pivotal role of harmonious passion in translating organizational autonomy support and individual autonomy orientation into job creativity. Results based on 3-level data from 856 members in 111 teams within 23 work units of a porous…

  4. On the use of harmony search algorithm in the training of wavelet neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kee Huong; Zainuddin, Zarita; Ong, Pauline

    2015-10-01

    Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) are a class of feedforward neural networks that have been used in a wide range of industrial and engineering applications to model the complex relationships between the given inputs and outputs. The training of WNNs involves the configuration of the weight values between neurons. The backpropagation training algorithm, which is a gradient-descent method, can be used for this training purpose. Nonetheless, the solutions found by this algorithm often get trapped at local minima. In this paper, a harmony search-based algorithm is proposed for the training of WNNs. The training of WNNs, thus can be formulated as a continuous optimization problem, where the objective is to maximize the overall classification accuracy. Each candidate solution proposed by the harmony search algorithm represents a specific WNN architecture. In order to speed up the training process, the solution space is divided into disjoint partitions during the random initialization step of harmony search algorithm. The proposed training algorithm is tested onthree benchmark problems from the UCI machine learning repository, as well as one real life application, namely, the classification of electroencephalography signals in the task of epileptic seizure detection. The results obtained show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional harmony search algorithm in terms of overall classification accuracy.

  5. Dine College Turns 40: Philosophy of Harmony Forms Foundation for Nation's First Tribal College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Natasha Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Since its founding in 1968, Dine College in Tsaile, Arizona, has centered the curriculum on Dine language, history, and philosophy. "Sa'ah Naaghai Bik'eh Hozhoon," the Dine traditional living system, places human life in harmony with the natural world and the universe, providing protection from the imperfections in life and development of…

  6. The Aesthetic Harmony of How Life Should Be Lived: Van Gogh, Socrates, Nietzsche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caranfa, Angelo

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the aesthetic harmony of how life should be lived through the unity of exchange between feeling and thinking, and in so doing attempts to show the importance of art or "aesthetics" as a category of philosophical instruction. His interest in this approach flows directly from his works in nineteenth- and…

  7. Social Harmony and Macroregulation of the Funding System of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingqi, Cai

    2008-01-01

    In today's steadily progressing economic transformation, and against the background of setting up a harmonious society and striving for a balanced educational development, a reform of the financing system for China's early childhood education is inevitable. However, this reform must be conducted within the framework of social and educational…

  8. Music Education in China: In Search of Social Harmony and Chinese Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Wing-Wah; Ho, Wai-Chung

    2011-01-01

    This article critically examines how interactions between social changes, social harmony, and historical memory shape school music education in China. As a historical review and documentary analysis, it traces the historical development of music education and examines the Chinese government's role in such interactions over time. The article argues…

  9. Nasal and Oral Consonant Similarity in Speech Errors: Exploring Parallels with Nasal Consonant Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that "similar" sounds interact in phonological nasal consonant harmony, wherein certain consonants become nasals when the word contains a nasal (e.g., Kikongo: /-kun-idi/ [right arrow] [-kun-ini] "planted"). Across languages, stops and approximants are chiefly affected, especially voiced consonants and ones that match…

  10. Harmony Park: A Decision Case on Gardening on a Brownfield Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Ashley Marie Raes; Presley, DeAnn Ricks; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Attanayake, Chammi; Martin, Sabine; Thien, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    In March of 2009, Mr. John Holloway and his neighbors in the Harmony Park district of Kansas City, MO, were excited to begin gardening on a vacant city lot in their neighborhood. The neighborhood, like many in urban areas, had once been residential interspersed with small establishments including restaurants, shops, and businesses such as auto…

  11. Hong Kong Chinese Community Leaders' Perspectives on Family Health, Happiness and Harmony: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sophia S. C.; Viswanath, K.; Au, Doreen W. H.; Ma, C. M. S.; Lam, W. W. T.; Fielding, R.; Leung, G. M.; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the views of Hong Kong community leaders on the underlying issues that affect family health, happiness and harmony (3Hs) in Hong Kong. Using a community reconnaissance method, a series of individual in-depth interviews with 26 leaders that represent neighbourhoods of diverse socio-economic status (SES) from June to August 2008…

  12. The Acquisition of Consonant Feature Sequences: Harmony, Metathesis, and Deletion Patterns in Phonological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Sharon Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines three processes affecting consonants in child speech: harmony (long-distance assimilation) involving major place features as in "coat" [kouk]; long-distance metathesis as in "cup" [p[wedge]k]; and initial consonant deletion as in "fish" [is]. These processes are unattested in adult phonology, leading to proposals for…

  13. Learning To Live in Harmony and Diversity: Focus on Human Rights Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special issue centers around the theme of education for peace and human rights. It contains materials concerning the practice of adult education in the Asian-South Pacific region. The journal contains 15 papers. The following papers provide regional perspectives: "Learning to Live in Harmony and Diversity" (editorial) (Rajesh Tandon); "Human…

  14. Historical Missions of Universities under the Guidance of Harmonious Socialistic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Guo-cui; Wang, Lian-sen; Chen, Guo-jun; Wang, Xiu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    The construction of harmonious socialistic society is a majestic mission proposed by Communist Party of China from the perspective of constructing a well-to-do society and initiating a new era of socialistic enterprise with Chinese characteristics. Based on this glorious objective, universities should undertake the responsibilities of educating…

  15. Mathematics and Physics: The Idea of a Pre-Established Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-01-01

    For more than a century the notion of a pre-established harmony between the mathematical and physical sciences has played an important role not only in the rhetoric of mathematicians and theoretical physicists, but also as a doctrine guiding much of their research. Strongly mathematized branches of physics, such as the vortex theory of atoms…

  16. Effect of Music Training and Musical Complexity on Focus of Attention to Melody or Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lindsey R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between music training and musical complexity and focus of attention to melody or harmony. Participants (N = 192) were divided into four groups: university jazz majors (n = 64), other university music majors (n = 64), high school instrumentalists (n = 32), and junior high…

  17. Strengthen Applied Research and Strive to Build a Multilingual and Harmonious Sociolinguistic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xinghua, Jin

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a speech delivered at the International Symposium on Minority Languages held in Beijing. In this article, Jin Xinghua conducts frank and sincere exchanges of opinions together with participating experts and scholars on the question of building a multilingual and harmonious sociolinguistic life. He hopes that experts and…

  18. STAR: The Secure Tranportable Autonomous Reactor system, Encapsulated Fission Heat Source. Progress report for period terminating March 31, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, Ehud

    2000-04-24

    Significant progress has been made since the beginning of this project, in September 1999. Part of the project findings are described in References 1 and 2. So far we have found no ''show-stopper''. In fact, based on the findings accumulated so far it appears to us that the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) is technologically feasible and looks even more attractive than initially conceived.

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  20. About one supplement of teh "Harmony of Universe" by J. Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Vladimir

    1999-08-01

    In book of J. Kepler "welt harmonik" (Munich-berlin 1939, Verlag R. Oldenburg) musical proportions are amalgamated with geometrical by means of building Platoon's right bodies, enter and described figures. By the physical sense of such association may serve total wave nature those construction. Proportions, received by J. Kepler, are possible in the case of formation of planets (as to J. Kepler constructed Platoon's figures) conform the surfaces to nodes of standing waves having as an the source of central luminary Solar system. By likeness image in experiments of Chladny at the formation of standing wave on the planes of oscillation plate scatter about along it particles collect together, sack from dots, which oscillation plate scatter about along it particles collect together, sack from dots, which oscillation with maximal amplitude, on dots the amplitude fluctuations of fluctuations is equal to zero, fill in nodes lines. Coordinates, count off from the source of wave, must correspond to the distances of planets from Sun, as explaining the physical sense of rule Bode. So, shall adopt the length of base gravitational wave ("basic one") L=0, 52 AU. Then planets the orbits of solar system must distribute in nodes lines in dots, be away from next on multiple L/2 numeral's. From such condition it may be receive the "theoretical" distances of planets from Sun. In Table are presented such distances in compare with true distances. Mecrury 0.39 0.39 Venus 0.72 0,39+0,50L=0,65 Earth 1.00 0,39+1,50L=1,17 Mars 1.52 1,00+1,00L=1.52 Main belt of asteroids 2.90 1.00+4,00L=3.08 Jupiter 5.20 1.00+8,00L=5.16 Saturn9.54 1.00+16,00L=9.32 Uranus 19.20 1.00+35,00L=19.20 Neptun 30.10 1.00+56,00L=30,12 Pluto 39.50 1.00+74,00L=39.48 As visible form Table, with the distance increasing from central body, scale filling "nodes surfaces" in space, or dost in viewed one-dimension accident, grows almost in geometrical progression. Obviously, here tell on mechanics of "gold section", ensuring

  1. Source-Term and building-Wake Consequence Modeling for the Godiva IV Reactor at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Letellier, B.C.; McClure, P.; Restrepo, L.

    1999-06-13

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate the consequences of a postulated accident to onsite security personnel stationed near the facility during operations of the Godiva IV critical assembly and to identify controls needed to protect these personnel in case of an extreme criticality excursion equivalent to the design-basis accident (DBA). This paper presents the methodology and results of the source-term calculations, building ventilation rates, air concentrations, and consequence calculations that were performed using a multidisciplinary approach with several phenomenology models. Identification of controls needed to mitigate the consequences to near-field receptors is discussed.

  2. Proof-of-Principle Experiment for Compact, Energy Efficient Neutron Source: Enabling Technology for Radioactive Waste Transmutation or Sub-Critical Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Roser, Thomas; Santarius, John

    2013-10-01

    A novel neutron source is proposed for radioactive waste transmutation or sub-critical nuclear reactors; it's based on injecting 125 keV deuterium beam through 1-inch tube filled with magnetized tritium plasma to generate 14 MeV D-T neutrons. T target thickness is chosen to slow the D ions to 75 keV. At the opposite end of the tube D ion energy is recovered. Each ion source and tube forms a module. Larger systems can be formed from multiple units. As a D beam propagates through T plasma, it is slowed down by plasma electrons, which are consequently heated. Electron temperature rises until heating is balanced by energy losses. Equilibrium electron temperature is the crucial parameter, since higher temperature, leads to lower drag on the ion beam; therefore, larger target thickness is needed to slow deuterons to 75 keV; with consequently higher neutron yield. A proof of principle experiment, to determine the equilibrium electron temperature, can be perform by injecting 62.5 keV hydrogen beam into hydrogen plasma target and measure the equilibrium electron temperature with Thomson scattering. To reduce electron equilibration with target ions, electron pre-heating can be done rather efficiently with 2.45 GHz microwaves. Supported by USDOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  3. Influence of COD/N ratio and carbon source on nitrogen removal in a structured-bed reactor subjected to recirculation and intermittent aeration (SBRRIA).

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla E D; Moura, Rafael B; Damianovic, Márcia H R Z; Foresti, Eugenio

    2016-01-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of COD/N ratio and carbon source on simultaneous nitrogen and carbon removal processes. A continuous up-flow structured-bed reactor subjected to recirculation and intermittent aeration (SBRRIA) was operated with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11.2 ± 0.6 h. The carbon sources were meat peptone and sucrose. The COD/N ratio varied by maintaining the organic loading rate fixed at 1.07 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) and changing the total-N concentration. The COD/N ratios tested were 9.7 ± 1 (sucrose); 7.6 ± 1 (meat peptone); 2.9 ± 1 (meat peptone) and 2.9 ± 0.4 (sucrose). COD removal efficiencies remained above 90% in all experimental phases. At lower COD/N ratios, NH4(+)-N oxidation efficiencies were higher than 90%. An autotrophic metabolism by anammox process was observed in Phases III and IV, which was responsible for 35% and 27% of total-N loading removal rates, respectively. Therefore, the system achieved total nitrogen removal efficiencies of 84.6 ± 10.1 and 81.5 ± 5.3%, under low availability of organic electron donors. PMID:26595179

  4. Source identification of nitrous oxide emission pathways from a single-stage nitritation-anammox granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Rathnayake, Rathnayake M L D; Zhang, Lei; Ishii, Satoshi; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Satoh, Hisashi; Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production pathway in a signal-stage nitritation-anammox sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated based on a multilateral approach including real-time N2O monitoring, N2O isotopic composition analysis, and in-situ analyses of spatial distribution of N2O production rate and microbial populations in granular biomass. N2O emission rate was high in the initial phase of the operation cycle and gradually decreased with decreasing NH4(+) concentration. The average emission of N2O was 0.98 ± 0.42% and 1.35 ± 0.72% of the incoming nitrogen load and removed nitrogen, respectively. The N2O isotopic composition analysis revealed that N2O was produced via NH2OH oxidation and NO2(-) reduction pathways equally, although there is an unknown influence from N2O reduction and/or anammox N2O production. However, the N2O isotopomer analysis could not discriminate the relative contribution of nitrifier denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification in the NO2(-) reduction pathway. Various in-situ techniques (e.g. microsensor measurements and FISH (fluorescent in-situ hybridization) analysis) were therefore applied to further identify N2O producers. Microsensor measurements revealed that approximately 70% of N2O was produced in the oxic surface zone, where nitrifiers were predominantly localized. Thus, NH2OH oxidation and NO2 reduction by nitrifiers (nitrifier-denitrification) could be responsible for the N2O production in the oxic zone. The rest of N2O (ca. 30%) was produced in the anammox bacteria-dominated anoxic zone, probably suggesting that NO2(-) reduction by coexisting putative heterotrophic denitrifiers and some other unknown pathway(s) including the possibility of anammox process account for the anaerobic N2O production. Further study is required to identify the anaerobic N2O production pathways. Our multilateral approach can be useful to quantitatively examine the relative contributions of N2O production pathways. Good understanding of the

  5. Time evolution of negative ion profile in a large cesiated negative ion source applicable to fusion reactors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Hanada, M; Kojima, A; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Hiratsuka, J; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; R Grisham, L; Tsumori, K; Kisaki, M

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physics of the cesium (Cs) recycling in the large Cs-seeded negative ion sources relevant to ITER and JT-60SA with ion extraction area of 45-60 cm × 110-120 cm, the time evolution of the negative ion profile was precisely measured in JT-60SA where the ion extraction area is longitudinally segmented into 5. The Cs was seeded from the oven at 180 °C to the ion source. After 1 g of Cs input, surface production of the negative ions appeared only in the central segment where a Cs nozzle was located. Up to 2 g of Cs, the negative ion profile was longitudinally expanded over full ion extraction area. The measured time evolution of the negative ion profile has the similar tendency of distribution of the Cs atoms that is calculated. From the results, it is suggested that Cs atom distribution is correlated with the formation of the negative ion profile. PMID:26932026

  6. Time evolution of negative ion profile in a large cesiated negative ion source applicable to fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; R. Grisham, L.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physics of the cesium (Cs) recycling in the large Cs-seeded negative ion sources relevant to ITER and JT-60SA with ion extraction area of 45-60 cm × 110-120 cm, the time evolution of the negative ion profile was precisely measured in JT-60SA where the ion extraction area is longitudinally segmented into 5. The Cs was seeded from the oven at 180 °C to the ion source. After 1 g of Cs input, surface production of the negative ions appeared only in the central segment where a Cs nozzle was located. Up to 2 g of Cs, the negative ion profile was longitudinally expanded over full ion extraction area. The measured time evolution of the negative ion profile has the similar tendency of distribution of the Cs atoms that is calculated. From the results, it is suggested that Cs atom distribution is correlated with the formation of the negative ion profile.

  7. Perspectives on family health, happiness and harmony (3H) among Hong Kong Chinese people: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lam, W W T; Fielding, R; McDowell, I; Johnston, J; Chan, Sophia; Leung, G M; Lam, T H

    2012-10-01

    Family harmony, an important Confucian ideal in Chinese society is believed to determine family happiness and therefore health, but is this accurate? This is a qualitative study of 41 Hong Kong Chinese family members. Individual recorded interviews were thematically analysed describing perceived interactions between harmony, happiness and health. Family harmony comprised four components: communication, mutual respect, lack of conflict and family time [notably 'Gou tong' (in Cantonese )-opportunity and willingness to spend time together-requiring good interpersonal communication, emphasized by female respondents]. Lack of conflict was emphasized, while diverse values, parenting styles and financial difficulties were common causes of conflict. Respect required reciprocity. Family happiness comprised four elements: family harmony, an important pre-requisite; mutual caring and supportive orientation; sense of security emphasizing financial security in middle-class versus sense of togetherness in lower social class groups and contentment. Healthy families were harmonious; 'typical' (children/two-parent/two-grandparent); happy; caring and respectful, with individual health and healthy behaviours. Family harmony, happiness and health are interrelated and built on a communicative, respectful, caring and contented set of attitudes, in particular allowing for family time. Harmony is apparently a core element of good family functioning. PMID:22907531

  8. Analysis of the in-vessel control rod guide tube and subpile room shielding design for the advanced neutron source reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F.X.; Bucholz, J.A.; Engle, W.W. Jr.; Williams, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    An extensive sheilding analysis of the control rod guide tube (CRGT) and the subpile room was performed for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. A two-dimensional model for the CRGT and subpile room was developed. Coupled 39 neutron group and 44 gamma group calculations with the multigroup DORT discrete originates transport code were done using cross sections from the ANSL-V library including photoneutron production. Different shield designs were investigated with a shield thickness of 10 to 15 mm. None of the shields affected the neutron dose rate and gamma dose rate at the top of the subpile room, which were 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 5} mrem/h and 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 3} mrem/h, respectively. An L-shaped cylindrical boral shield positioned around the core pressure boundary tube at the bottom of the reflector vessel with the horizontal part extended over the whole bottom of the reflector vessel reduced the maximal displacements per atom (DPA) level and helium production level in the primary coolant supply adapter and its flange after 40 years of reactor operation from 1 and 500 appm to 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -2} and 2 {center_dot} 10{sup -2} appm compared with the unshielded arrangement. Shields of boral and hafnium with the horizontal part of the shield restricted to a radius of 485 mm gave a maximal DPA of 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -2} and a helium production of up to 20 appm. Heat loads of up to 70 W{center_dot}cm{sup -3} were calculated at the most exposed parts of the shield both for boral and hafnium shields. A depletion/activation analysis of the hafnium shield showed that at the most exposed part of the shield, the naturally occurring isotope {sup 177}Hf is 34% depleted at the end of two years of reactor operation. This high burnup is somewhat balanced by a subsequent buildup of {sup 178}Hf, {sup 179}Hf, and {sup 180}Hf. In all other parts of the shield, the burnup is much smaller.

  9. Effusive molecular beam-sampled Knudsen flow reactor coupled to vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry using an external free radical source

    SciTech Connect

    Leplat, N.; Rossi, M. J.

    2013-11-15

    A new apparatus using vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry (VUV SPIMS) of an effusive molecular beam emanating from a Knudsen flow reactor is described. It was designed to study free radical-molecule kinetics over a significant temperature range (300–630 K). Its salient features are: (1) external free radical source, (2) counterpropagating molecular beam and diffuse VUV photon beam meeting in a crossed-beam ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with perpendicular ion extraction, (3) analog detection of the photocurrent of the free radical molecular cation, and (4) possibility of detecting both free radicals and closed shell species in the same apparatus and under identical reaction conditions owing to the presence of photoelectrons generated by the photoelectric effect of the used VUV-photons. The measured thermal molecular beam-to-background ratio was 6.35 ± 0.39 for Ar and 10.86 ± 1.59 for i-C{sub 4}H{sub 10} at 300 K, a factor of 2.52 and 1.50 smaller, respectively, than predicted from basic gas-dynamic considerations. Operating parameters as well as the performance of key elements of the instrument are presented and discussed. Coupled to an external free radical source a steady-state specific exit flow of 1.6 × 10{sup 11} and 5.0 × 10{sup 11} molecule s{sup −1} cm{sup −3} of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup •} (ethyl) and t-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}{sup •} (t-butyl) free radicals have been detected using VUV SPIMS at their molecular ion m/z 29 and 57, respectively, at 300 K.

  10. Effusive molecular beam-sampled Knudsen flow reactor coupled to vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry using an external free radical source.

    PubMed

    Leplat, N; Rossi, M J

    2013-11-01

    A new apparatus using vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry (VUV SPIMS) of an effusive molecular beam emanating from a Knudsen flow reactor is described. It was designed to study free radical-molecule kinetics over a significant temperature range (300-630 K). Its salient features are: (1) external free radical source, (2) counterpropagating molecular beam and diffuse VUV photon beam meeting in a crossed-beam ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with perpendicular ion extraction, (3) analog detection of the photocurrent of the free radical molecular cation, and (4) possibility of detecting both free radicals and closed shell species in the same apparatus and under identical reaction conditions owing to the presence of photoelectrons generated by the photoelectric effect of the used VUV-photons. The measured thermal molecular beam-to-background ratio was 6.35 ± 0.39 for Ar and 10.86 ± 1.59 for i-C4H10 at 300 K, a factor of 2.52 and 1.50 smaller, respectively, than predicted from basic gas-dynamic considerations. Operating parameters as well as the performance of key elements of the instrument are presented and discussed. Coupled to an external free radical source a steady-state specific exit flow of 1.6 × 10(11) and 5.0 × 10(11) molecule s(-1) cm(-3) of C2H5(●) (ethyl) and t-C4H9(●) (t-butyl) free radicals have been detected using VUV SPIMS at their molecular ion m/z 29 and 57, respectively, at 300 K. PMID:24289411

  11. Reactor neutrino monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuillier, D.

    2009-03-01

    Nuclear reactors are the most intense man-controlled sources of antineutrinos and as such have hosted number of key physics experiments, from the antineutrino discovery to modern oscillation measurements. At the present time, both detection technology and understanding of fundamental physics are mature enough to think about antineutrinos as a new tool for reactor monitoring. We describe below how antineutrinos can provide online information on reactor operation and amount of plutonium accumulated in the core. Reactors are the only sources of plutonium on earth and this element can be chemically separated from the rest of the nuclear fuel and diverted into nuclear weapons. We present in the next sections the unique features antineutrino detectors could provide to safeguards agencies such as IAEA. We review the worldwide efforts to develop small ( 1m scale) antineutrino detectors dedicated to automated and non-intrusive reactor monitoring.

  12. The family and harmonious medical decision making: cherishing an appropriate Confucian moral balance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Fan, Ruiping

    2010-10-01

    This essay illustrates what the Chinese family-based and harmony-oriented model of medical decision making is like as well as how it differs from the modern Western individual-based and autonomy-oriented model in health care practice. The essay discloses the roots of the Chinese model in the Confucian account of the family and the Confucian view of harmony. By responding to a series of questions posed to the Chinese model by modern Western scholars in terms of the basic individualist concerns and values embedded in the modern Western model, we conclude that the Chinese people have justifiable reasons to continue to apply the Chinese model to their contemporary health care and medical practice. PMID:20855426

  13. Segmentation of MRI Brain Images with an Improved Harmony Searching Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhang; Shufan, Ye; Li, Guo; Weifeng, Ding

    2016-01-01

    The harmony searching (HS) algorithm is a kind of optimization search algorithm currently applied in many practical problems. The HS algorithm constantly revises variables in the harmony database and the probability of different values that can be used to complete iteration convergence to achieve the optimal effect. Accordingly, this study proposed a modified algorithm to improve the efficiency of the algorithm. First, a rough set algorithm was employed to improve the convergence and accuracy of the HS algorithm. Then, the optimal value was obtained using the improved HS algorithm. The optimal value of convergence was employed as the initial value of the fuzzy clustering algorithm for segmenting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain images. Experimental results showed that the improved HS algorithm attained better convergence and more accurate results than those of the original HS algorithm. In our study, the MRI image segmentation effect of the improved algorithm was superior to that of the original fuzzy clustering method. PMID:27403428

  14. Segmentation of MRI Brain Images with an Improved Harmony Searching Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhang; Li, Guo; Weifeng, Ding

    2016-01-01

    The harmony searching (HS) algorithm is a kind of optimization search algorithm currently applied in many practical problems. The HS algorithm constantly revises variables in the harmony database and the probability of different values that can be used to complete iteration convergence to achieve the optimal effect. Accordingly, this study proposed a modified algorithm to improve the efficiency of the algorithm. First, a rough set algorithm was employed to improve the convergence and accuracy of the HS algorithm. Then, the optimal value was obtained using the improved HS algorithm. The optimal value of convergence was employed as the initial value of the fuzzy clustering algorithm for segmenting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain images. Experimental results showed that the improved HS algorithm attained better convergence and more accurate results than those of the original HS algorithm. In our study, the MRI image segmentation effect of the improved algorithm was superior to that of the original fuzzy clustering method. PMID:27403428

  15. Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-blockage-initiated accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow blockage events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between damaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur because of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A scoping study was conducted to learn what parameters are important for core damage propagation, and to obtain initial estimates of core melt mass for addressing recriticality and steam explosion events. The study included investigating the effects of the plate contact area, the convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity upon fuel swelling, and the initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects on damage propagation. The results provide useful insights into how various uncertain parameters affect damage propagation.

  16. Using a multi-parameter monitoring methodology to predict failures in the cryogenic plant of the cold neutron source at Australia's OPAL reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weijian; Thiering, Russell

    2012-06-01

    A 5 kW Brayton-cycle helium refrigeration plant provides cooling at 20 K to the Cold Neutron Source (CNS) at Australia's OPAL Reactor. During several years of operation to the present day, the plant has experienced an unusually high number of turbine and compressor failures. The root cause for some of the failures is known, but for others remains to be determined. All of the failures were catastrophic without any prior warning from standard industrial monitoring based on singular process variables such as temperature, pressure and vibration. The failures and the down time they caused have been very costly. As the operator of the plant, we have developed a multi-parameter monitoring (MPM) methodology to track the performance of the plant. The methodology utilises indicators obtained from a combination of process variables based on their thermodynamic relations. By studying the historical trends of appropriate indicators, especially during the past failures, we have found some indicators that would be able to improve our predictive capability so that we can avoid similar failures in the future.

  17. [Healing of harmony: music therapy as a historical cultural phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Gantenbein, U L

    1999-05-20

    The interaction of music and psyche constitutes a phenomenon, which is known to man since antiquity, and, for this reason, was ever since used for healing purposes. The pythagoreans developed a system of musical theory that declared consonance to be a musical interval with the frequencies in a ratio of integer numbers. The cosmical music of the spheres, the played instrumental music and the inner music of man, these all they conceived as a unity. Varied in a manyfold way, this great theme was handed down over the centuries to the present day, being a source of inspiration to music and the sciences. Modern musical therapy is, in the last analysis, based on these intuitive findings. PMID:10412284

  18. A Novel Harmony Search Algorithm Based on Teaching-Learning Strategies for 0-1 Knapsack Problems

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Shouheng; Yong, Longquan; Deng, Fang'an

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the performance of harmony search (HS) algorithm on solving the discrete optimization problems, this paper proposes a novel harmony search algorithm based on teaching-learning (HSTL) strategies to solve 0-1 knapsack problems. In the HSTL algorithm, firstly, a method is presented to adjust dimension dynamically for selected harmony vector in optimization procedure. In addition, four strategies (harmony memory consideration, teaching-learning strategy, local pitch adjusting, and random mutation) are employed to improve the performance of HS algorithm. Another improvement in HSTL method is that the dynamic strategies are adopted to change the parameters, which maintains the proper balance effectively between global exploration power and local exploitation power. Finally, simulation experiments with 13 knapsack problems show that the HSTL algorithm can be an efficient alternative for solving 0-1 knapsack problems. PMID:24574905

  19. Stability and Control Harmony in Approach and Landing. [analysis of factors affecting flight characteristics at low airspeeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the factors which affect stability and control harmony in approach and landing is made to obtain a clearer understanding of the proper relationship, the trade-offs involved, and to show how limits in stability and control harmony are established for advanced aircraft. Factors which influence stability and control harmony include the longitudinal short period response of the aircraft and the level of several pitch control characteristics including control power, control sensitivity, and control feel. At low stability levels for advanced aircraft, less conventional control techniques such as DLC are needed to improve harmony and some form of stability augmentation must be provided to improve precession of flight path control and reduce pilot work load.

  20. Regularity of Spike Trains and Harmony Perception in a Model of the Auditory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, Yu. V.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2011-09-01

    Spike train regularity of the noisy neural auditory system model under the influence of two sinusoidal signals with different frequencies is investigated. For the increasing ratio m/n of the input signal frequencies (m, n are natural numbers) the linear growth of the regularity is found at the fixed difference (m-n). It is shown that the spike train regularity in the model is high for harmonious chords of input tones and low for dissonant ones.

  1. Harmony Hurts: Participation and Silent Conflict at an Indonesian Fish Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Chui-Ling

    2006-07-01

    Participatory environmental and resource management is premised on open communication to reach consensus. However, deliberate and open communication cannot adequately address silent conflict. This begs two questions. First, how is the existence of covert communication and silent conflict to be recognized and addressed? Second, how are the wider social relations and traditions that encompass communication and conflict to be described and explained? These questions revolve around communicative power. Communication of environmental knowledge is deeply embedded in social power structures, with direct implications for participatory resource planning and implementation. Ethnographic research conducted at a failed community-managed fish farming project in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia shows that a culture of harmony and respect for authority can silence environmental conflict in the hierarchical “community.” Three propositions are offered. First, communication amnesia and exclusion jeopardize participation. Second, cultures of harmony and silent conflict shape planning processes and outcomes. Third, the weak use manipulation and communication strategy to acquire a “voice” while preserving harmony. These propositions address five unresolved issues in participatory resource management: analysis of groups, contextuality, social relationships, nonparticipants, and informal communication. Power, tradition, and social networks affect the valuing of knowledge relative to the power of different individuals and institutions to communicate priorities, values, and needs. These factors are critical to the inclusion of both participants and nonparticipants.

  2. Harmony hurts: participation and silent conflict at an Indonesian fish pond.

    PubMed

    Tam, Chui-Ling

    2006-07-01

    Participatory environmental and resource management is premised on open communication to reach consensus. However, deliberate and open communication cannot adequately address silent conflict. This begs two questions. First, how is the existence of covert communication and silent conflict to be recognized and addressed? Second, how are the wider social relations and traditions that encompass communication and conflict to be described and explained? These questions revolve around communicative power. Communication of environmental knowledge is deeply embedded in social power structures, with direct implications for participatory resource planning and implementation. Ethnographic research conducted at a failed community-managed fish farming project in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia shows that a culture of harmony and respect for authority can silence environmental conflict in the hierarchical "community." Three propositions are offered. First, communication amnesia and exclusion jeopardize participation. Second, cultures of harmony and silent conflict shape planning processes and outcomes. Third, the weak use manipulation and communication strategy to acquire a "voice" while preserving harmony. These propositions address five unresolved issues in participatory resource management: analysis of groups, contextuality, social relationships, nonparticipants, and informal communication. Power, tradition, and social networks affect the valuing of knowledge relative to the power of different individuals and institutions to communicate priorities, values, and needs. These factors are critical to the inclusion of both participants and nonparticipants. PMID:16738819

  3. From autonomy to creativity: a multilevel investigation of the mediating role of harmonious passion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Xin

    2011-03-01

    Building on self-determination theory, we theorized about and demonstrated, through 2 multilevel field studies, the pivotal role of harmonious passion in translating organizational autonomy support and individual autonomy orientation into job creativity. Results based on 3-level data from 856 members in 111 teams within 23 work units of a porous metal company (Study 1) and from 525 employees in 98 teams of 18 branches of a large commercial bank (Study 2) revealed 2 major findings. First, organizational autonomy support from a higher organizational level (unit or branch) compensated for the effect of autonomy support from a lower organizational level (team) or individual autonomy orientation on employees' harmonious passion. Second, harmonious passion mediated the interactive effects of unit (branch) autonomy support and team member autonomy orientation, of team autonomy support and team member autonomy orientation, and of unit (branch) autonomy support and team autonomy support on individual creativity. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings in the organizational context. PMID:21058804

  4. Wavelet neural networks initialization using hybridized clustering and harmony search algorithm: Application in epileptic seizure detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Zarita; Lai, Kee Huong; Ong, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful mathematical models that are used to solve complex real world problems. Wavelet neural networks (WNNs), which were developed based on the wavelet theory, are a variant of ANNs. During the training phase of WNNs, several parameters need to be initialized; including the type of wavelet activation functions, translation vectors, and dilation parameter. The conventional k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms have been used to select the translation vectors. However, the solution vectors might get trapped at local minima. In this regard, the evolutionary harmony search algorithm, which is capable of searching for near-optimum solution vectors, both locally and globally, is introduced to circumvent this problem. In this paper, the conventional k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms were hybridized with the metaheuristic harmony search algorithm. In addition to obtaining the estimation of the global minima accurately, these hybridized algorithms also offer more than one solution to a particular problem, since many possible solution vectors can be generated and stored in the harmony memory. To validate the robustness of the proposed WNNs, the real world problem of epileptic seizure detection was presented. The overall classification accuracy from the simulation showed that the hybridized metaheuristic algorithms outperformed the standard k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms.

  5. The normal-equivalent: a patient-specific assessment of facial harmony.

    PubMed

    Claes, P; Walters, M; Gillett, D; Vandermeulen, D; Clement, J G; Suetens, P

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based practice in oral and maxillofacial surgery would greatly benefit from an objective assessment of facial harmony or gestalt. Normal reference faces have previously been introduced, but they describe harmony in facial form as an average only and fail to report on harmonic variations found between non-dysmorphic faces. In this work, facial harmony, in all its complexity, is defined using a face-space, which describes all possible variations within a non-dysmorphic population; this was sampled here, based on 400 healthy subjects. Subsequently, dysmorphometrics, which involves the measurement of morphological abnormalities, is employed to construct the normal-equivalent within the given face-space of a presented dysmorphic face. The normal-equivalent can be seen as a synthetic identical but unaffected twin that is a patient-specific and population-based normal. It is used to extract objective scores of facial discordancy. This technique, along with a comparing approach, was used on healthy subjects to establish ranges of discordancy that are accepted to be normal, as well as on two patient examples before and after surgical intervention. The specificity of the presented normal-equivalent approach was confirmed by correctly attributing abnormality and providing regional depictions of the known dysmorphologies. Furthermore, it proved to be superior to the comparing approach. PMID:23582569

  6. Parameterising E-ELT AO PSFs for detailed science simulations for HARMONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Thatte, Niranjan

    2013-12-01

    With the first ELTs around the corner it is becoming ever more important to determine observational strategies and assess the prospective success of observing programs prior to making the observations. To this end, scientific simulations need to become more refined to understand the criteria required for a specific science case. We address the science simulations for HARMONI, an AO assisted first light integral field spectrograph (IFS) for the E-ELT. AO PSFs vary markedly as a function of wavelength and type of AO system used, so there is need to create detailed PSFs across all IFS wavelength channels for accurate simulations. Detailed AO simulations have shown that for LTAO on the E-ELT, Strehl ratios can vary from 0.5E-3 in V-band up to 0.5 in K-band. Using a single PSF for an entire datacube (especially with large instantaneous wavelength coverage) could introduce misleading features into simulated observations using HARMONI. We have developed a method to parameterize detailed PSFs using analytical models, which can then be interpolated as a function of wavelength. This allows us to create accurate, but computationally inexpensive, AO PSF datacubes for HARMONI simulations. This shall be developed to cover LTAO, SCAO and GLAO/no-AO PSFs for a range of observing parameters.

  7. A quantitative evaluation of the high resolution HARMONIE model for critical weather phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Plas, E. V.; Wichers Schreur, B.; Kok, K.

    2012-07-01

    The high resolution non-hydrostatic Harmonie model (Seity et al., 2012) seems capable of delivering high quality precipitation forecasts. The quality with respect to the European radar composite is assessed using the Model Evaluation Tool, as distributed by the NCAR DTC (Developmental Testbed Center, 2012), and compared to that of the reference run of Hirlam (Unden et al., 2002), the current operational NWP model at KNMI. Both neighbourhood and object-based verification methods are compared for a week with several high intensity precipitation events in July 2010. It is found that Hirlam scores very well in most metrics, and that in spite of the higher resolution the added value of the Harmonie model is sometimes hard to quantify. However, higher precipitation intensities are better represented in the Harmonie model with its higher resolution. Object-based methods do not yet yield a sharp distinction between the different models, as it proves difficult to construct a meaningful and distinguishing metric with a solid physical basis for the many settings that can be varied.

  8. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  9. Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2003-01-01

    Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1958-09-16

    Means are presenied for increasing the reproduction ratio of a gaphite- moderated neutronic reactor by diminishing the neutron loss due to absorption or capture by gaseous impurities within the reactor. This means comprised of a fluid-tight casing or envelope completely enclosing the reactor and provided with a valve through which the casing, and thereby the reactor, may be evacuated of atmospheric air.

  11. Experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source spectrum of the NBSR reactor at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J. C.; Barker, J. G.; Rowe, J. M.; Williams, R. E.; Gagnon, C.; Lindstrom, R. M.; Ibberson, R. M.; Neumann, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    The recent expansion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research facility has offered a rare opportunity to perform an accurate measurement of the cold neutron spectrum at the exit of a newly-installed neutron guide. Using a combination of a neutron time-of-flight measurement, a gold foil activation measurement, and Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron guide transmission, we obtain the most reliable experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source brightness to date. Time-of-flight measurements were performed at three distinct fuel burnup intervals, including one immediately following reactor startup. Prior to the latter measurement, the hydrogen was maintained in a liquefied state for an extended period in an attempt to observe an initial radiation-induced increase of the ortho (o)-hydrogen fraction. Since para (p)-hydrogen has a small scattering cross-section for neutron energies below 15 meV (neutron wavelengths greater than about 2.3 Å), changes in the o- p hydrogen ratio and in the void distribution in the boiling hydrogen influence the spectral distribution. The nature of such changes is simulated with a continuous-energy, Monte Carlo radiation-transport code using 20 K o and p hydrogen scattering kernels and an estimated hydrogen density distribution derived from an analysis of localized heat loads. A comparison of the transport calculations with the mean brightness function resulting from the three measurements suggests an overall o- p ratio of about 17.5(±1) % o- 82.5% p for neutron energies<15 meV, a significantly lower ortho concentration than previously assumed.

  12. Use of Zircaloy 4 material for the pressure vessels of hot and cold neutron sources and beam tubes for research reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsmiedl, Erwin; Scheuer, Anton

    2002-01-01

    The material Zircaloy 4 can be used for the pressure retaining walls for the cold and hot neutron sources and beam tubes. For the research reactor FRM-II of the Technical University Munich, Germany, the material Zircaloy 4 were chosen for the vessels of the cold and hot neutron source and for the beam tube No. 6. The sheets and forgings of Zircaloy 4 were examined in the temperature range between -256°C and 250°C. The thickness of the sheets are 3, 4, 5 and 10 mm, the maximum diameter of the forgings was 560 mm. This great forging diameters are not be treated in the ASTM rule B 351 for nuclear material, so a special approval with independent experts was necessary. The requirements for the material examinations were specified in a material specification and material test sheets which based on the ASTM rules B 351 and B 352 with additional restriction and additional requirements of the basic safety concept for nuclear power plants in Germany, which was taken into consideration in the nuclear licensing procedure. Charpy-impact-test samples were carried out in the temperature range between -256°C and 150°C to get more information on the ductile behaviour of the Zircaloy 4. The results of the sheet examination confirm the requirements of the specifications, the results of the forging examination in the tangential testing direction are lower than specified and expected for the tensile strength. The axial and transverse values confirm the specification requirements. For the strength calculation of the pressure retaining wall a reduced material value for the forgings has to be taken into consideration. The material behaviour of Zircaloy 4 under irradiation up to a fluence of ∼1×10 22 n/cm 2 was investigated. The loss of ductility was determined. As additional criteria the variation of the fracture toughness was studied. Fracture mechanic calculations of the material were carried out in the licensing procedure with the focus to fulfil the leak criteria before rupture

  13. Utilization of high-strength wastewater for the production of biogas as a renewable energy source using hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shivayogimath, C.B.; Ramanujam, T.K.

    1998-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of distillery spentwash, a high-strength wastewater, was studied using a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor for 240 days under ambient conditions. The HUASB reactor combined an open volume in the bottom two-thirds of the reactor for sludge blanket and polypropylene pall rings packing in the upper one-third of the reactor. The aim of the study was to achieve optimum biogas production and waste treatment. Using non-granular anaerobic sewage sludge as seed, the start-up of the HUASB reactor was successfully completed, with the production of active bacterial granules of 1--2 mm size, within 90 days. Examination of the bacterial granules under scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that Methanothrix like microorganisms were the dominant species besides Methanosarcina. An organic loading of 24 kg COD/m{sup 3}d at a low hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours was achieved with 82% reduction in COD. Biogas with high methane content (80%) was produced at these loadings. The specific biogas yield was 0.36 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD. Packing in the upper third of the reactor was very efficient as a gas-solid separator (GSS); and in addition it retained the biomass.

  14. Simulated stellar kinematics studies of high-redshift galaxies with the HARMONI Integral Field Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, S.; Zieleniewski, S.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Thatte, N.; Devriendt, J.; Tecza, M.; Clarke, F.; O'Brien, K.; Häußler, B.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study into the capabilities of integrated and spatially resolved integral field spectroscopy of galaxies at z = 2-4 with the future HARMONI spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) using the simulation pipeline, HSIM. We focus particularly on the instrument's capabilities in stellar absorption line integral field spectroscopy, which will allow us to study the stellar kinematics and stellar population characteristics. Such measurements for star-forming and passive galaxies around the peak star formation era will provide a critical insight into the star formation, quenching and mass assembly history of high-z, and thus present-day galaxies. First, we perform a signal-to-noise study for passive galaxies at a range of stellar masses for z = 2-4, assuming different light profiles; for this population, we estimate that integrated stellar absorption line spectroscopy with HARMONI will be limited to galaxies with M* ≳ 1010.7 M⊙. Secondly, we use HSIM to perform a mock observation of a typical star-forming 1010 M⊙ galaxy at z = 3 generated from the high-resolution cosmological simulation NUTFB. We demonstrate that the input stellar kinematics of the simulated galaxy can be accurately recovered from the integrated spectrum in a 15-h observation, using common analysis tools. Whilst spatially resolved spectroscopy is likely to remain out of reach for this particular galaxy, we estimate HARMONI's performance limits in this regime from our findings. This study demonstrates how instrument simulators such as HSIM can be used to quantify instrument performance and study observational biases on kinematics retrieval; and shows the potential of making observational predictions from cosmological simulation output data.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1959-02-10

    A reactor system incorporating a reactor of the heterogeneous boiling water type is described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a core submerged adwater in the lower half of a pressure vessel and two distribution rings connected to a source of water are disposed within the pressure vessel above the reactor core, the lower distribution ring being submerged adjacent to the uppcr end of the reactor core and the other distribution ring being located adjacent to the top of the pressure vessel. A feed-water control valve, responsive to the steam demand of the load, is provided in the feedwater line to the distribution rings and regulates the amount of feed water flowing to each distribution ring, the proportion of water flowing to the submerged distribution ring being proportional to the steam demand of the load. This invention provides an automatic means exterior to the reactor to control the reactivity of the reactor over relatively long periods of time without relying upon movement of control rods or of other moving parts within the reactor structure.

  16. Sources of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water.

  17. Expertise in folk music alters the brain processing of Western harmony.

    PubMed

    Tervaniemi, M; Tupala, T; Brattico, E

    2012-04-01

    In various paradigms of modern neurosciences of music, experts of Western classical music have displayed superior brain architecture when compared with individuals without explicit training in music. In this paper, we show that chord violations embedded in musical cadences were neurally processed in a facilitated manner also by musicians trained in Finnish folk music. This result, obtained by using early right anterior negativity (ERAN) as an index of harmony processing, suggests that tonal processing is advanced in folk musicians by their long-term exposure to both Western and non-Western music. PMID:22524352

  18. Neurobiological foundations for the theory of harmony in western tonal music.

    PubMed

    Tramo, M J; Cariani, P A; Delgutte, B; Braida, L D

    2001-06-01

    Basic principles of the theory of harmony reflect physiological and anatomical properties of the auditory nervous system and related cognitive systems. This hypothesis is motivated by observations from several different disciplines, including ethnomusicology, developmental psychology, and animal behavior. Over the past several years, we and our colleagues have been investigating the vertical dimension of harmony from the perspective of neurobiology using physiological, psychoacoustic, and neurological methods. Properties of the auditory system that govern harmony perception include (1) the capacity of peripheral auditory neurons to encode temporal regularities in acoustic fine structure and (2) the differential tuning of many neurons throughout the auditory system to a narrow range of frequencies in the audible spectrum. Biologically determined limits on these properties constrain the range of notes used in music throughout the world and the way notes are combined to form intervals and chords in popular Western music. When a harmonic interval is played, neurons throughout the auditory system that are sensitive to one or more frequencies (partials) contained in the interval respond by firing action potentials. For consonant intervals, the fine timing of auditory nerve fiber responses contains strong representations of harmonically related pitches implied by the interval (e.g., Rameau's fundamental bass) in addition to the pitches of notes actually present in the interval. Moreover, all or most of the partials can be resolved by finely tuned neurons throughout the auditory system. By contrast, dissonant intervals evoke auditory nerve fiber activity that does not contain strong representations of constituent notes or related bass notes. Furthermore, many partials are too close together to be resolved. Consequently, they interfere with one another, cause coarse fluctuations in the firing of peripheral and central auditory neurons, and give rise to perception of

  19. An Effective Hybrid Firefly Algorithm with Harmony Search for Global Numerical Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lihong; Wang, Gai-Ge; Wang, Heqi; Wang, Dinan

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid metaheuristic approach by hybridizing harmony search (HS) and firefly algorithm (FA), namely, HS/FA, is proposed to solve function optimization. In HS/FA, the exploration of HS and the exploitation of FA are fully exerted, so HS/FA has a faster convergence speed than HS and FA. Also, top fireflies scheme is introduced to reduce running time, and HS is utilized to mutate between fireflies when updating fireflies. The HS/FA method is verified by various benchmarks. From the experiments, the implementation of HS/FA is better than the standard FA and other eight optimization methods. PMID:24348137

  20. Skeletal facial balance and harmony in the cleft patient: Principles and techniques in orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Salyer, Kenneth E.; Xu, Haisong; Portnof, Jason E.; Yamada, Akira; Chong, David K.; Genecov, Edward R.

    2009-01-01

    The management of the palatal cleft, dental arch, and subsequent maxillary form is a challenge for the craniomaxillofacial surgeon. The purpose of this paper is to present the experience of a senior surgeon (KES) who has treated over 2000 patients with cleft lip and palate. This paper focuses on the experience of a recent series of 103 consecutive orthognathic cases treated by one surgeon with a surgical-orthodontic, speech-oriented approach. It will concentrate on not only correcting the occlusion, as others have described, but also on how a surgeon who was trying to achieve optimal aesthetic balance, harmony, and beauty, approached this problem. PMID:19884671

  1. Wind-Farm Forecasting Using the HARMONIE Weather Forecast Model and Bayes Model Averaging for Bias Removal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Enda; McKinstry, Alastair; Ralph, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Building on previous work presented at EGU 2013 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610213016068 ), more results are available now from a different wind-farm in complex terrain in southwest Ireland. The basic approach is to interpolate wind-speed forecasts from an operational weather forecast model (i.e., HARMONIE in the case of Ireland) to the precise location of each wind-turbine, and then use Bayes Model Averaging (BMA; with statistical information collected from a prior training-period of e.g., 25 days) to remove systematic biases. Bias-corrected wind-speed forecasts (and associated power-generation forecasts) are then provided twice daily (at 5am and 5pm) out to 30 hours, with each forecast validation fed back to BMA for future learning. 30-hr forecasts from the operational Met Éireann HARMONIE model at 2.5km resolution have been validated against turbine SCADA observations since Jan. 2014. An extra high-resolution (0.5km grid-spacing) HARMONIE configuration has been run since Nov. 2014 as an extra member of the forecast "ensemble". A new version of HARMONIE with extra filters designed to stabilize high-resolution configurations has been run since Jan. 2015. Measures of forecast skill and forecast errors will be provided, and the contributions made by the various physical and computational enhancements to HARMONIE will be quantified.

  2. BOILING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  3. A secure image encryption method based on dynamic harmony search (DHS) combined with chaotic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei Talarposhti, Khadijeh; Khaki Jamei, Mehrzad

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the security of digital images. This study focuses on the gray scale image encryption using dynamic harmony search (DHS). In this research, first, a chaotic map is used to create cipher images, and then the maximum entropy and minimum correlation coefficient is obtained by applying a harmony search algorithm on them. This process is divided into two steps. In the first step, the diffusion of a plain image using DHS to maximize the entropy as a fitness function will be performed. However, in the second step, a horizontal and vertical permutation will be applied on the best cipher image, which is obtained in the previous step. Additionally, DHS has been used to minimize the correlation coefficient as a fitness function in the second step. The simulation results have shown that by using the proposed method, the maximum entropy and the minimum correlation coefficient, which are approximately 7.9998 and 0.0001, respectively, have been obtained.

  4. Engineering technology development in the UK for HARMONI: an E-ELT first light instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Fraser; Gallie, Angus; Montgomery, David; Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan

    2012-09-01

    HARMONI is an integral field spectrograph working at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, over a range of spatial scales from ground layer corrected to fully diffraction-limited. The instrument has been chosen to be part of the first-light complement at the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). This paper describes the engineering technology development being undertaken at the UKATC and Oxford to support E-ELT HARMONI instrument in its pre-phase-B stage. This includes the description of technology demonstrators for a tracking optical de-rotator to be located within the instrument vacuum vessel, a cryogenic shutter and a compact thermally compensating lens mount system. In addition the material testing facilities available at the UKATC are described which will enable the measurement of material and bolted joint thermal conductivities to 4K and friction/wear properties of material combinations to 20K. This work is undertaken to improve the instrument performance and reduce technical, cost and schedule risk.

  5. Recent experiments investigating the harmony interval based color space of the coloroid color system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemcsics, Antal

    2002-06-01

    Coloroid Color System has been created for people dealing with colors constructively, first of all architects and artists. Its color space is being based on experiments measuring harmony threshold, being perceptively uniform. This uniformity is the uniformity of big color differences rather than that of small color differences, it is being based on human judgement capability rather than color differentiating capability of human eye. During its elaboration we have investigated aesthetic uniformity of hues along color circles of colors with different saturation and lightness, and - in different hue planes - that of saturation and lightness sequences. During mathematical formulation of the establishment of harmony relations in Coloroid color space it has been necessary to refine aesthetic uniformity of Coloroid color space. In the interest of it we have started a new, large scale series of experiments. Within the framework of experiments we produced aesthetically uniform changing scales between distant points of Coloroid color space, possessing different lightness - partly by painting, partly by selection from a considerable number of color samples. We then investigated, which path those color scales in the color space describe.

  6. Application of Harmony Search algorithm to the solution of groundwater management models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamer Ayvaz, M.

    2009-06-01

    This study proposes a groundwater resources management model in which the solution is performed through a combined simulation-optimization model. A modular three-dimensional finite difference groundwater flow model, MODFLOW is used as the simulation model. This model is then combined with a Harmony Search (HS) optimization algorithm which is based on the musical process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. The performance of the proposed HS based management model is tested on three separate groundwater management problems: (i) maximization of total pumping from an aquifer (steady-state); (ii) minimization of the total pumping cost to satisfy the given demand (steady-state); and (iii) minimization of the pumping cost to satisfy the given demand for multiple management periods (transient). The sensitivity of HS algorithm is evaluated by performing a sensitivity analysis which aims to determine the impact of related solution parameters on convergence behavior. The results show that HS yields nearly same or better solutions than the previous solution methods and may be used to solve management problems in groundwater modeling.

  7. Language influences music harmony perception: effects of shared syntactic integration resources beyond attention.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have revealed shared music-language processing resources by finding an influence of music harmony manipulations on concurrent language processing. However, the nature of the shared resources has remained ambiguous. They have been argued to be syntax specific and thus due to shared syntactic integration resources. An alternative view regards them as related to general attention and, thus, not specific to syntax. The present experiments evaluated these accounts by investigating the influence of language on music. Participants were asked to provide closure judgements on harmonic sequences in order to assess the appropriateness of sequence endings. At the same time participants read syntactic garden-path sentences. Closure judgements revealed a change in harmonic processing as the result of reading a syntactically challenging word. We found no influence of an arithmetic control manipulation (experiment 1) or semantic garden-path sentences (experiment 2). Our results provide behavioural evidence for a specific influence of linguistic syntax processing on musical harmony judgements. A closer look reveals that the shared resources appear to be needed to hold a harmonic key online in some form of syntactic working memory or unification workspace related to the integration of chords and words. Overall, our results support the syntax specificity of shared music-language processing resources. PMID:26998339

  8. A Method for Estimating View Transformations from Image Correspondences Based on the Harmony Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Erik; Díaz, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for robustly estimating multiple view relations from point correspondences is presented. The approach combines the popular random sampling consensus (RANSAC) algorithm and the evolutionary method harmony search (HS). With this combination, the proposed method adopts a different sampling strategy than RANSAC to generate putative solutions. Under the new mechanism, at each iteration, new candidate solutions are built taking into account the quality of the models generated by previous candidate solutions, rather than purely random as it is the case of RANSAC. The rules for the generation of candidate solutions (samples) are motivated by the improvisation process that occurs when a musician searches for a better state of harmony. As a result, the proposed approach can substantially reduce the number of iterations still preserving the robust capabilities of RANSAC. The method is generic and its use is illustrated by the estimation of homographies, considering synthetic and real images. Additionally, in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach within a real engineering application, it is employed to solve the problem of position estimation in a humanoid robot. Experimental results validate the efficiency of the proposed method in terms of accuracy, speed, and robustness. PMID:26339228

  9. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    PubMed Central

    Iosa, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number ϕ known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with ϕ, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from ϕ (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait. PMID:23862161

  10. Urban-Water Harmony model to evaluate the urban water management.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yifan; Tang, Deshan; Wei, Yuhang; Yin, Sun

    2014-01-01

    Water resources in many urban areas are under enormous stress due to large-scale urban expansion and population explosion. The decision-makers are often faced with the dilemma of either maintaining high economic growth or protecting water resources and the environment. Simple criteria of water supply and drainage do not reflect the requirement of integrated urban water management. The Urban-Water Harmony (UWH) model is based on the concept of harmony and offers a more integrated approach to urban water management. This model calculates four dimensions, namely urban development, urban water services, water-society coordination, and water environment coordination. And the Analytic Hierarchy Process has been used to determine the indices weights. We applied the UWH model to Beijing, China for an 11-year assessment. Our findings show that, despite the severe stress inherent in rapid development and water shortage, the urban water relationship of Beijing is generally evolving in a positive way. The social-economic factors such as the water recycling technologies contribute a lot to this change. The UWH evaluation can provide a reasonable analysis approach to combine various urban and water indices to produce an integrated and comparable evaluation index. This, in turn, enables more effective water management in decision-making processes. PMID:25500466

  11. Lay Definitions of Happiness across Nations: The Primacy of Inner Harmony and Relational Connectedness

    PubMed Central

    Delle Fave, Antonella; Brdar, Ingrid; Wissing, Marié P.; Araujo, Ulisses; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Freire, Teresa; Hernández-Pozo, María Del Rocío; Jose, Paul; Martos, Tamás; Nafstad, Hilde E.; Nakamura, Jeanne; Singh, Kamlesh; Soosai-Nathan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In well-being research the term happiness is often used as synonymous with life satisfaction. However, little is known about lay people's understanding of happiness. Building on the available literature, this study explored lay definitions of happiness across nations and cultural dimensions, analyzing their components and relationship with participants' demographic features. Participants were 2799 adults (age range = 30–60, 50% women) living in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, Croatia, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, and United States. They completed the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI), reporting, among other information, their own definition of happiness. Answers comprised definitions referring to a broad range of life domains, covering both the contextual-social sphere and the psychological sphere. Across countries and with little variation by age and gender, inner harmony predominated among psychological definitions, and family and social relationships among contextual definitions. Whereas relationships are widely acknowledged as basic happiness components, inner harmony is substantially neglected. Nevertheless, its cross-national primacy, together with relations, is consistent with the view of an ontological interconnectedness characterizing living systems, shared by several conceptual frameworks across disciplines and cultures. At the methodological level, these findings suggest the potential of a bottom-up, mixed method approach to contextualize psychological dimensions within culture and lay understanding. PMID:26858677

  12. A Method for Estimating View Transformations from Image Correspondences Based on the Harmony Search Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Díaz, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for robustly estimating multiple view relations from point correspondences is presented. The approach combines the popular random sampling consensus (RANSAC) algorithm and the evolutionary method harmony search (HS). With this combination, the proposed method adopts a different sampling strategy than RANSAC to generate putative solutions. Under the new mechanism, at each iteration, new candidate solutions are built taking into account the quality of the models generated by previous candidate solutions, rather than purely random as it is the case of RANSAC. The rules for the generation of candidate solutions (samples) are motivated by the improvisation process that occurs when a musician searches for a better state of harmony. As a result, the proposed approach can substantially reduce the number of iterations still preserving the robust capabilities of RANSAC. The method is generic and its use is illustrated by the estimation of homographies, considering synthetic and real images. Additionally, in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach within a real engineering application, it is employed to solve the problem of position estimation in a humanoid robot. Experimental results validate the efficiency of the proposed method in terms of accuracy, speed, and robustness. PMID:26339228

  13. Learning and liking of melody and harmony: Further studies in artificial grammar learning

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche

    2012-01-01

    Much of what we know and love about music is based on implicitly acquired mental representations of musical pitches and the relationships between them. While previous studies have shown that these mental representations of music can be acquired rapidly and can influence preference, it is still unclear which aspects of music influence learning and preference formation. This article reports two experiments that use an artificial musical system to examine two questions: 1) which aspects of music matter most for learning, and 2) which aspects of music matter most for preference formation. Two aspects of music are tested: melody and harmony. In Experiment 1 we tested the learning and liking of a new musical system that is manipulated melodically so that only some of the possible conditional probabilities between successive notes are presented. In Experiment 2 we administered the same tests for learning and liking, but using a musical system that is manipulated harmonically to eliminate the property of harmonic whole-integer ratios between pitches. Results show that disrupting melody (Experiment 1) disabled the learning of music without disrupting preference formation, whereas disrupting harmony (Experiment 2) does not affect learning and memory, but disrupts preference formation. Results point to a possible dissociation between learning and preference in musical knowledge. PMID:22760940

  14. Language influences music harmony perception: effects of shared syntactic integration resources beyond attention

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Roel M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have revealed shared music–language processing resources by finding an influence of music harmony manipulations on concurrent language processing. However, the nature of the shared resources has remained ambiguous. They have been argued to be syntax specific and thus due to shared syntactic integration resources. An alternative view regards them as related to general attention and, thus, not specific to syntax. The present experiments evaluated these accounts by investigating the influence of language on music. Participants were asked to provide closure judgements on harmonic sequences in order to assess the appropriateness of sequence endings. At the same time participants read syntactic garden-path sentences. Closure judgements revealed a change in harmonic processing as the result of reading a syntactically challenging word. We found no influence of an arithmetic control manipulation (experiment 1) or semantic garden-path sentences (experiment 2). Our results provide behavioural evidence for a specific influence of linguistic syntax processing on musical harmony judgements. A closer look reveals that the shared resources appear to be needed to hold a harmonic key online in some form of syntactic working memory or unification workspace related to the integration of chords and words. Overall, our results support the syntax specificity of shared music–language processing resources. PMID:26998339

  15. Mathematics and Physics: The Idea of a Pre-Established Harmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-07-01

    For more than a century the notion of a pre-established harmony between the mathematical and physical sciences has played an important role not only in the rhetoric of mathematicians and theoretical physicists, but also as a doctrine guiding much of their research. Strongly mathematized branches of physics, such as the vortex theory of atoms popular in Victorian Britain, were not unknown in the nineteenth century, but it was only in the environment of fin-de-siècle Germany that the idea of a pre-established harmony really took off and became part of the mathematicians' ideology. Important historical figures were in this respect David Hilbert, Hermann Minkowski and, somewhat later, Albert Einstein. Roughly similar ideas can be found also among British theorists, among whom Arthur Eddington, Arthur Milne, and Paul Dirac are singled out. Although largely limited to the period 1870-1940, the paper also considers Max Tegmark's recent hypothesis of the universe (or multiverse) being a one-to-one reflection of mathematical structures.

  16. Mathematics and Physics: The Idea of a Pre-Established Harmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2014-09-01

    For more than a century the notion of a pre-established harmony between the mathematical and physical sciences has played an important role not only in the rhetoric of mathematicians and theoretical physicists, but also as a doctrine guiding much of their research. Strongly mathematized branches of physics, such as the vortex theory of atoms popular in Victorian Britain, were not unknown in the nineteenth century, but it was only in the environment of fin-de-siècle Germany that the idea of a pre-established harmony really took off and became part of the mathematicians' ideology. Important historical figures were in this respect David Hilbert, Hermann Minkowski and, somewhat later, Albert Einstein. Roughly similar ideas can be found also among British theorists, among whom Arthur Eddington, Arthur Milne, and Paul Dirac are singled out. Although largely limited to the period 1870-1940, the paper also considers Max Tegmark's recent hypothesis of the universe (or multiverse) being a one-to-one reflection of mathematical structures.

  17. Simulating observations with HARMONI: the integral field spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Thatte, Niranjan; Kendrew, Sarah; Houghton, Ryan; Tecza, Matthias; Clarke, Fraser; Fusco, Thierry; Swinbank, Mark

    2014-07-01

    With the next generation of extremely large telescopes commencing construction, there is an urgent need for detailed quantitative predictions of the scientific observations that these new telescopes will enable. Most of these new telescopes will have adaptive optics fully integrated with the telescope itself, allowing unprecedented spatial resolution combined with enormous sensitivity. However, the adaptive optics point spread function will be strongly wavelength dependent, requiring detailed simulations that accurately model these variations. We have developed a simulation pipeline for the HARMONI integral field spectrograph, a first light instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope. The simulator takes high-resolution input data-cubes of astrophysical objects and processes them with accurate atmospheric, telescope and instrumental effects, to produce mock observed cubes for chosen observing parameters. The output cubes represent the result of a perfect data reduc- tion process, enabling a detailed analysis and comparison between input and output, showcasing HARMONI's capabilities. The simulations utilise a detailed knowledge of the telescope's wavelength dependent adaptive op- tics point spread function. We discuss the simulation pipeline and present an early example of the pipeline functionality for simulating observations of high redshift galaxies.

  18. Lay Definitions of Happiness across Nations: The Primacy of Inner Harmony and Relational Connectedness.

    PubMed

    Delle Fave, Antonella; Brdar, Ingrid; Wissing, Marié P; Araujo, Ulisses; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Freire, Teresa; Hernández-Pozo, María Del Rocío; Jose, Paul; Martos, Tamás; Nafstad, Hilde E; Nakamura, Jeanne; Singh, Kamlesh; Soosai-Nathan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In well-being research the term happiness is often used as synonymous with life satisfaction. However, little is known about lay people's understanding of happiness. Building on the available literature, this study explored lay definitions of happiness across nations and cultural dimensions, analyzing their components and relationship with participants' demographic features. Participants were 2799 adults (age range = 30-60, 50% women) living in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, Croatia, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, and United States. They completed the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI), reporting, among other information, their own definition of happiness. Answers comprised definitions referring to a broad range of life domains, covering both the contextual-social sphere and the psychological sphere. Across countries and with little variation by age and gender, inner harmony predominated among psychological definitions, and family and social relationships among contextual definitions. Whereas relationships are widely acknowledged as basic happiness components, inner harmony is substantially neglected. Nevertheless, its cross-national primacy, together with relations, is consistent with the view of an ontological interconnectedness characterizing living systems, shared by several conceptual frameworks across disciplines and cultures. At the methodological level, these findings suggest the potential of a bottom-up, mixed method approach to contextualize psychological dimensions within culture and lay understanding. PMID:26858677

  19. Learning and liking of melody and harmony: further studies in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Loui, Psyche

    2012-10-01

    Much of what we know and love about music is based on implicitly acquired mental representations of musical pitches and the relationships between them. While previous studies have shown that these mental representations of music can be acquired rapidly and can influence preference, it is still unclear which aspects of music influence learning and preference formation. This article reports two experiments that use an artificial musical system to examine two questions: (1) which aspects of music matter most for learning, and (2) which aspects of music matter most for preference formation. Two aspects of music are tested: melody and harmony. In Experiment 1 we tested the learning and liking of a new musical system that is manipulated melodically so that only some of the possible conditional probabilities between successive notes are presented. In Experiment 2 we administered the same tests for learning and liking, but we used a musical system that is manipulated harmonically to eliminate the property of harmonic whole-integer ratios between pitches. Results show that disrupting melody (Experiment 1) disabled the learning of music without disrupting preference formation, whereas disrupting harmony (Experiment 2) does not affect learning and memory but disrupts preference formation. Results point to a possible dissociation between learning and preference in musical knowledge. PMID:22760940

  20. Hong Kong Chinese community leaders' perspectives on family health, happiness and harmony: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sophia S C; Viswanath, K; Au, Doreen W H; Ma, C M S; Lam, W W T; Fielding, R; Leung, G M; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2011-08-01

    This paper examines the views of Hong Kong community leaders on the underlying issues that affect family health, happiness and harmony (3Hs) in Hong Kong. Using a community reconnaissance method, a series of individual in-depth interviews with 26 leaders that represent neighbourhoods of diverse socio-economic status (SES) from June to August 2008 were conducted. Participants considered that changing family structure, economic situation and strong work ethic are the most salient factors that affect family 3Hs. The deprived comprehensive social security assistance recipients, single-parent families and migrant women were considered to be the most vulnerable groups to breakdown in family 3Hs and particularly, they lack family resources. Families from different SES have to overcome different challenges in order to achieve and sustain family 3Hs. Leaders from low SES neighbourhood were concerned more about providing tangible help such as child care facilities to improve family resources, whereas leaders from high SES neighbourhood focused more on preventive interventions such as education on relationship skills to achieve better family well-being. The findings offer insights in designing effective social marketing education campaigns and family-friendly workplace policy to promote social harmony through the maintenance of 3Hs families. PMID:21536713

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor in which at least a portion of the moderator is in the form of movable refractory balls is described. In addition to their moderating capacity, these balls may serve as carriers for fissionable material or fertile material, or may serve in a coolant capacity to remove heat from the reactor. A pneumatic system is used to circulate the balls through the reactor.

  2. Research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world`s research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted.

  3. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  4. Environmental Harmony and Evaluation of Advertisement Billboards with Digital Photogrammetry Technique and GIS Capabilities: A Case Study in the City of Ankara

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Cevdet C.; Nişancı, Recep

    2008-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been gaining a growing interest in Turkey. Many local governments and public agencies have been struggling to set up such systems to serve the needs and meet public requirements. Urban life shelters the advertisement reality which is presented at various places, on vehicles, shops etc. in daily life. It can be said that advertisement is a part of daily life in urban area, especially in city centers. In addition, one of the main sources of revenue for municipalities comes from advertising and notices. The advertising sector provides a great level of income today. Therefore advertising is individually very important for local governments and urban management. Although it is valuable for local governments, it is also very important for urban management to place these advertisement signs and billboards in an orderly fashion which is pleasing to the eye. Another point related to this subject is the systematic control mechanism which is necessary for collecting taxes regularly and updating. In this paper, first practical meaning of notice and advertisement subject, problem definition and objectives are described and then legal support and daily practice are revised. Current practice and problems are mentioned. Possibilities of measuring and obtaining necessary information by using digital images and transferring them to spatial databases are studied. By this study, a modern approach was developed for urban management and municipalities by using information technology which is an alternative to current application. Criteria which provide environmental harmony such as urban beauty, colour, compatibility and safety were also evaluated. It was finally concluded that measuring commercial signs and keeping environmental harmony under control for urban beauty can be provided by Digital Photogrammetry (DP) technique and GIS capabilities which were studied with pilot applications in the city center of Ankara.

  5. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  6. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  7. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  8. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Wen, L J; Zhang, C

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  9. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  10. An Analysis of the Angry Youth and Spoofing Phenomena in the Context of Building a Harmonious Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bo, Lu

    2011-01-01

    This article specifically analyzes the negative impact exerted by angry youth and spoofers on the construction of a harmonious society from four aspects: the way these intensify social contradictions, affect the social mentality, undermine mainstream values, and interfere with freedom of speech. It purports that importance must be attached to the…

  11. "Improving and Embellishing the Wilderness": Spreading the Gospel of Proper Land Use, New Harmony, Indiana, 1814-1824

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the westward imposition of specific kinds of land use by focusing on the Harmony Society's transformation of Posey County, Indiana. The German pietistic society carried their vision of proper land use from Europe to Pennsylvania and, in 1814, to what was then considered the West: Indiana Territory. During their decade in…

  12. A Critical View on Building Learning Cities in China: Lifelong Learning as a Vehicle towards a Harmonious Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2007-01-01

    The rapid economic development in some regions of China over the past couple of decades has created disparities within the nation and has raised various social issues. To reduce these disparities and resolve these issues, the Chinese government has called for the creation of a more harmonious society through encouraging lifelong learning, learning…

  13. 78 FR 40696 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... harmony with the Department's Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value; Honey from the People's Republic of China, 66 FR 50608 (October 4, 2001) (Final Determination) and is amending... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not...

  14. Some Implications for Moral Education of the Confucian Principle of Harmony: Learning from Sustainability Education Practice in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Ling; Newton, Derek

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "harmony" was taught by the Chinese sages as the practice of acceptance, tolerance, mutual respect, equality and patience, and is now given great importance by the Chinese government in its attempts to promote the stability and sustainability of the country. The concept could have significant implications for moral education. This…

  15. (Harmonious) Community Life as the Goal of Education: A Bilingual Dialogue between Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Francis W. Parker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Francis W. Parker's (1837-1902) and Tsunesaburo Makiguchi's (1871-1944) views of harmonious community life as the goal of education through bilingual analysis of Parker's "My Pedagogic Creed" (1897) and Makiguchi's On the Significance of Social Aspects that Mr. Parker Says Should be Incorporated into the School Experience…

  16. Harmony in Career Learning and Scholastic System (Project HI-CLASS) 1989-90. OREA Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of New York City Board of Education's Project Harmony in Career Learning and Scholastic System (Project HI-CLASS) for 1989-90. In its second year of a funding cycle, the project offered 635 Chinese- and Spanish-speaking high school students of limited English proficiency instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL),…

  17. Harmony in Career Learning and Scholastic System (Project HI-CLASS). Final Evaluation Report 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duque, Diana L.

    Harmony in Career Learning and Scholastic System (Project HI-CLASS) was a Transitional Bilingual Education Title VII-funded program in its fifth and final year in 1992-93. The project offered instructional and support services to 641 students of limited English proficiency (LEP) at three sites, all of which had many immigrant students, in…

  18. Harmony in Career Learning and Scholastic System: Project Hi-Class 1988-89. OREA Evaluation Section Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Tomi D.; Hriskos, Constantine

    The report presents an evaluation of the New York City Harmony in Career Learning and Scholastic System (Project HI-CLASS) based on results from the 1988-89 school year. The project provided support services to 420 Spanish- and Chinese-speaking students of limited English proficiency (LEP). It also proposed to instill pride in and respect for…

  19. Products and Processes of Agri-Scientific Service-Learning: Adding Harmony to Dopico and Garcia-Vazquez

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, George L.

    2011-01-01

    This forum response adds a conceptualization of harmony to Dopico and Vazquez' investigation of pedagogy that combines citizen science, environmental and cross-cultural research, and service-learning. Placing many appropriate and significant aspects of culturally situated science education in an authentically relational context beyond the…

  20. Harmony as the Basis for Education for Sustainable Development: A Case Example of Yew Chung International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Betty; Choy, Grace; Lee, Angie

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that Chinese value of "He" (13158_2009_BF03168877_f1.jpg) or Harmony can contribute to understanding sustainable development as the concept encompasses the relationships between human and nature (ecological sustainability), and between human and human (social and economic sustainability). This interconnectedness with the "other"…

  1. In Harmony: A Technology-Based Music Education Model to Enhance Musical Understanding and General Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portowitz, Adena; Peppler, Kylie A.; Downton, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the practice and evaluation of a music education model, In Harmony, which utilizes new technologies and current theories of learning to mediate the music learning experience. In response to the needs of twenty-first century learners, the educational software programs Teach, Learn, Evaluate! and Impromptu served as central…

  2. Effect of Voice-Part Training and Music Complexity on Focus of Attention to Melody or Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of choral voice-part training/experience and music complexity on focus of attention to melody or harmony. Participants (N = 150) were members of auditioned university choral ensembles divided by voice-part (sopranos, n = 44; altos, n = 33; tenors, n = 35; basses, n = 38). The music…

  3. Harmony perception and regularity of spike trains in a simple auditory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, B.; Ushakov, Y. V.; Dubkov, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    A probabilistic approach for investigating the phenomena of dissonance and consonance in a simple auditory sensory model, composed by two sensory neurons and one interneuron, is presented. We calculated the interneuron's firing statistics, that is the interspike interval statistics of the spike train at the output of the interneuron, for consonant and dissonant inputs in the presence of additional "noise", representing random signals from other, nearby neurons and from the environment. We find that blurry interspike interval distributions (ISIDs) characterize dissonant accords, while quite regular ISIDs characterize consonant accords. The informational entropy of the non-Markov spike train at the output of the interneuron and its dependence on the frequency ratio of input sinusoidal signals is estimated. We introduce the regularity of spike train and suggested the high or low regularity level of the auditory system's spike trains as an indicator of feeling of harmony during sound perception or disharmony, respectively.

  4. Advances on BYY harmony learning: information theoretic perspective, generalized projection geometry, and independent factor autodetermination.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei

    2004-07-01

    The nature of Bayesian Ying-Yang harmony learning is reexamined from an information theoretic perspective. Not only its ability for model selection and regularization is explained with new insights, but also discussions are made on its relations and differences from the studies of minimum description length (MDL), Bayesian approach, the bit-back based MDL, Akaike information criterion (AIC), maximum likelihood, information geometry, Helmholtz machines, and variational approximation. Moreover, a generalized projection geometry is introduced for further understanding such a new mechanism. Furthermore, new algorithms are also developed for implementing Gaussian factor analysis (FA) and non-Gaussian factor analysis (NFA) such that selecting appropriate factors is automatically made during parameter learning. PMID:15461081

  5. Point-Specific Wind Forecasting using the HARMONIE Mesoscale Forecast Model with Bayes Model Averaging for Fine-Tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Martin; McKinstry, Alastair; O'Brien, Enda; Ralph, Adam; Sheehy, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Two distinct elements seem to be required to make accurate wind-speed forecasts for wind-farms: the first is deterministic output from a weather forecast model, and the second is some probabilistic or statistical post-processing to account for local biases, or systematic errors in the model. A variety of statistical post-processing schemes are available, and are generally worthwhile since they are cheap and at worst do no harm. More typically, they demonstrably improve the accuracy of the deterministic forecast. Gridded output from the operational HARMONIE mesoscale weather forecast model has been interpolated to forecast winds at the precise (3-dimensional) location of the met-mast of a wind farm in southwest Ireland. A sequence of 48-hour forecasts run at 6-hourly intervals for over one year have been validated against winds recorded at turbine height on the mast. All the interpolated deterministic forecasts are also post-processed using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to remove systematic local bias, and to provide forecasts in a calibrated probabilistic format. Three variants of the HARMONIE model were also run during October 2010 and validated against the winds recorded at the met-mast. The HARMONIE variant with the most advanced physics and the larger domain was the most accurate in forecasting met-mast windspeed, with mean average error (MAE) of 1.5 ms-1 (i.e., about 10% of mean wind speed). The BMA analysis for this short period (using a 25-day training period) did not change the MAE for the best HARMONIE configuration, but did improve the MAE of the other two by about 15%. The most advanced HARMONIE configuration proved more accurate than an ensemble of all three. There was negligible degradation in the skill of the hourly forecasts, at least out to 24 hours (i.e., 24-hr forecasts were only marginally less accurate than 0-hr analyses or 1-hr forecasts). Results are presented from the operational 48-hr HARMONIE forecasts collected during Jan.-Mar. 2012, as

  6. Effect of electron donor source on the treatment of Cr(VI)-containing textile wastewater using sulfate-reducing fluidized bed reactors (FBRs).

    PubMed

    Cirik, Kevser; Dursun, Nesrin; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Cinar, Ozer

    2013-04-01

    The treatment of Cr(VI) containing textile wastewater was studied in ethanol and glucose-fed sulfate-reducing fluidized bed reactors at 35°C for around 250 days. The synthetic wastewater contained Cr(VI) (5-45 mg L(-1)), azo dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R) (100-200 mg L(-1)), sulfate (2000 mg L(-1)) and ethanol or glucose (2000 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)). The robustness of two FBRs was assessed under varying Cr(VI) and azo dye loadings. Both reactors performed well in terms of COD, sulfate, color and Cr(VI) removals. However, ethanol-fed FBR performed better than glucose-fed one. The COD, sulfate, chromium and color removals at the highest Cr(VI) concentration (45 mg L(-1)) in ethanol-fed FBR were around 75%, 95%, 93%, and 99%, respectively. Further increase in influent Cr(VI) concentration adversely effected reactor performance. The COD, sulfate, chromium and color removals at 45 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) in glucose-fed FBR were around 60%, 50%, 93%, and 76%, respectively. PMID:23454387

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Mills, C.B.

    1961-11-21

    A neutronic reactor in which neutron moderation is achieved primarily in its reflector is described. The reactor structure consists of a cylindrical central "island" of moderator and a spherical moderating reflector spaced therefrom, thereby providing an annular space. An essentially unmoderated liquid fuel is continuously passed through the annular space and undergoes fission while contained therein. The reactor, because of its small size, is particularly adapted for propulsion uses, including the propulsion of aircraft. (AEC)

  8. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  9. Reactor for making uniform capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

  10. Pulsed reactor experiments at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes dynamic experiments for 3 pulsed reactors. 1st reactor was pulsed from some average power by rotating a partial Be reflector past an unreflected core face; the other 2 reactors were pulsed by rapid insertion of a fuel rod into the unmoderated and unreflected reactor at essentially zero neutron level with no significant neutron source present. The first reactor was a mockup of an EURATOM design (never constructed) of the proposed SORA Reactor, and the other two were the Health Physics Research Reactor and the Army Pulse Radiation Facility Reactor (APRFR). This paper describes the experiments performed in initial testing of these systems, including destructive tests of APRFR, to set operating limits for this type of reactor in pulsed operation. All the experiments described were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility.

  11. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  12. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Camp, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  13. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  14. Breeder reactors in France

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, C.P.

    1980-04-11

    France relies on nuclear power as an important part of her energy program. Anticipating problems with the availability of natural uranium before the year 2020, the French have been pursuing a three-stage program of development of breeder reactors. The third reactor in this program, the near-commercial plant Super Phenix Mark I, is expected to reach power operation in 1983. Although there are still some uncertainties, particularly about the date when the breeder will become competitive with other energy sources, the outlook is considered favorable and preliminary designs for commercial plants are under way.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1958-04-22

    A nuclear reactor for isotope production is described. This reactor is designed to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux in a region adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the center of the reactor. The core of the reactor is generally centrally located with respect tn a surrounding first reflector, constructed of beryllium. The beryllium reflector is surrounded by a second reflector, constructed of graphite, which, in tune, is surrounded by a conventional thermal shield. Water is circulated through the core and the reflector and functions both as a moderator and a coolant. In order to produce a greatsr maximum thermal neutron flux adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the core, the reactor is designed so tbat the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the materials in the reflector is approximately twice the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the material of the core of the reactor.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.; Johnson, H.W.

    1961-04-01

    BS>A nuclear reactor incorporating fuel rods passing through a moderator and including tubes of a material of higher Thermal conductivity than the fuel in contact with the fuel is described. The tubes extend beyond the active portion of the reactor into contant with a fiuld coolant.

  17. Operation performance and granule characterization of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating wastewater with starch as the sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueqin; Zhen, Guangyin; Estrada, Adriana Ledezma; Chen, Mo; Ni, Jialing; Hojo, Toshimasa; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-03-01

    Long-term performance of a lab-scale UASB reactor treating starch wastewater was investigated under different hydraulic retention times (HRT). Successful start-up could be achieved after 15days' operation. The optimal HRT was 6h with organic loading rate (OLR) 4g COD/Ld at COD concentration 1000mg/L, attaining 81.1-98.7% total COD removal with methane production rate of 0.33L CH4/g CODremoved. Specific methane activity tests demonstrated that methane formation via H2-CO2 and acetate were the principal degradation pathways. Vertical characterizations revealed that main reactions including starch hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis occurred at the lower part of reactor ("main reaction zone"); comparatively, at the up converting acetate into methane predominated ("substrate-shortage zone"). Further reducing HRT to 3h caused volatile fatty acids accumulation, sludge floating and performance deterioration. Sludge floating was ascribed to the excess polysaccharides in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). More efforts are required to overcome sludge floating-related issues. PMID:25617619

  18. Modelling derecho dynamics and the direct radiative effect of wildfire smoke upon it with NWP model HARMONIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne

    2014-05-01

    Convection permitting numerical weather prediction model HARMONIE was used to simulate the dynamics of the derecho that swept over Eastern Europe on August 8, 2010. The storm moved over Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland and the strongest wind gusts (up to 36.5 m/s) were measured in Estonia. The storm path is recorded on the radar images where characteristic bow echo was observed. The model setup was similar to near-future operational, nearly kilometre-scale environments in European national weather services. Hindcast experiments show the ability of the HARMONIE model to predict the severe convective storm and forecast concurrent strong wind gusts. Wind gusts with very similar intensity to observed ones were simulated by the HARMONIE model and 2.5-km horizontal resolution appears sufficient for reliable forecast of the derecho event. The timing of the modelled storm was in good agreement with the observations. The simulated average storm propagation speed was 25 m/s, similar to the radar observations. Hindcast experiments suggest that more precise warning for the storm could have been issued if the HARMONIE model would have been utilised. The derecho event was accompanied by the remarkable smoke aerosol concentrations (maximum total aerosol optical depth more than 4 at 550 nm) originating from the wildfires from Russia. Smoke plume travelled clockwise around Moscow from August 5 to 9. On August 8, 2010, smoke plume was situated on the Eastern border of Estonia. The derecho occurred on the western side of the smoke plume path. HARMONIE experiments were performed to study the direct radiative effect of wildfire smoke on a severe convective storm. The impact of smoke aerosol on the derecho dynamics was investigated. Reduction in the shortwave radiation flux at the surface resulting from aerosol influence simulated by the HARMONIE model is up to 200 W/m2 in the area with the highest aerosol concentrations. This causes near surface cooling of up to 3 º

  19. Hydrogasification reactor and method of operating same

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, Raymond; Karner, Donald; Sun, Xiaolei; Boyle, John; Noguchi, Fuyuki

    2013-09-10

    The present invention provides a system and method for evaluating effects of process parameters on hydrogasification processes. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, a pressurized feed system, a hopper system, a hydrogen gas source, and a carrier gas source. Pressurized carbonaceous material, such as coal, is fed to the reactor using the carrier gas and reacted with hydrogen to produce natural gas.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor... reactor batch process vent located at a new affected source shall control organic HAP emissions...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor... reactor batch process vent located at a new affected source shall control organic HAP emissions...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor... reactor batch process vent located at a new affected source shall control organic HAP emissions...

  3. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  4. Simulation of the alpha particle heating and the helium ash source in an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like tokamak with an internal transport barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Lei Guo, Wenfeng; Xiao, Xiaotao; Dai, Zongliang; Wang, Shaojie

    2014-12-15

    A guiding center orbit following code, which incorporates a set of non-singular coordinates for orbit integration, was developed and applied to investigate the alpha particle heating in an ITER-like tokamak with an internal transport barrier. It is found that a relatively large q (safety factor) value can significantly broaden the alpha heating profile in comparison with the local heating approximation; this broadening is due to the finite orbit width effects; when the orbit width is much smaller than the scale length of the alpha particle source profile, the heating profile agrees with the source profile, otherwise, the heating profile can be significantly broadened. It is also found that the stagnation particles move to the magnetic axis during the slowing-down process, thus the effect of stagnation orbits is not beneficial to the helium ash removal. The source profile of helium ash is broadened in comparison with the alpha source profile, which is similar to the heating profile.

  5. Design of a californium source-driven measurement system for accountability of material recovered from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment charcoal bed

    SciTech Connect

    Bentzinger, D.L.; Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1998-05-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility (MSRE) operated from 1965 to 1969. The fuel was a molten salt that flowed through the reactor core which consisted of uranium tetrafluoride with molten lithium and beryllium salt used as the coolant. In 1968 the fuel was switched from {sup 235}U to {sup 233}U. The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment was canceled in 1969 at which time approximately 4800 kg of salt was transferred to the fuel drain tanks. There was about 36.3 kg of uranium, 675 grams of plutonium and various fission products present in the fuel salt. The salt was allowed to solidify in the fuel drain tanks. The salt was heated on a yearly basis to recombine the fluorine gas with the uranium salt mixture. In March 1994, a gas sample was taken from the off gas system that indicated {sup 233}U had migrated from the fuel drain tank system to the off gas system. It was found that approximately 2.6 kg of uranium had migrated to the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB). The ACB is located in the concrete-lined charcoal bed cell which is below ground level located outside the MSRE building. Therefore, there was a concern for the potential of a nuclear criticality accident, although water would have to leak into the chamber for a criticality accident to occur. Unstable carbon/fluorine compounds were also formed when the fluorine reacted with the charcoal in the charcoal bed. The purpose of the proposed measurement system was to perform an accountability measurement to determine the fissile mass of {sup 233}U in the primary vessel. The contents of the primary containment assembly will then be transferred to three smaller containers for long term storage. Calculations were performed using MCNP-DSP to determine the configuration of the measurement system. The information obtained from the time signatures can then be compared to the measurement data to determine the amount of {sup 233}U present in the primary containment assembly.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  7. Design of a target and moderator at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) as a neutron source for fusion reactor materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, P.D.; Mueller, G.E.; Sommer, W.F.; Farnum, E.H.

    1993-10-01

    The LASREF facility is located in the beam stop area at LAMPF. The neutron spectrum is fission-like with the addition of a 3% to 5% component with E > 20 MeV. The present study evaluates the limits on geometry and material selection that will maximize the neutron flux. MCNP and LAHET were used to predict the neutron flux and energy spectrum for a variety of geometries. The problem considers 760 MeV protons incident on tungsten. The resulting neutrons are multiplied in uranium through (n,xn) reactions. Calculations show that a neutron flux greater than 10{sup 19} n/m{sup 2}/s is achievable. The helium to dpa ratio and the transmutation product generation are calculated. These results are compared to expectations for the proposed DEMO fusion reactor and to FFTF.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hurwitz, H. Jr.; Brooks, H.; Mannal, C.; Payne, J.H.; Luebke, E.A.

    1959-03-24

    A reactor of the heterogeneous, liquid cooled type is described. This reactor is comprised of a central region of a plurality of vertically disposed elongated tubes surrounded by a region of moderator material. The central region is comprised of a central core surrounded by a reflector region which is surrounded by a fast neutron absorber region, which in turn is surrounded by a slow neutron absorber region. Liquid sodium is used as the primary coolant and circulates through the core which contains the fuel elements. Control of the reactor is accomplished by varying the ability of the reflector region to reflect neutrons back into the core of the reactor. For this purpose the reflector is comprised of moderator and control elements having varying effects on reactivity, the control elements being arranged and actuated by groups to give regulation, shim, and safety control.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  11. REACTOR SHIELD

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.

    1960-04-01

    A nuclear reactor is described consisting of blocks of graphite arranged in layers, natural uranium bodies disposed in holes in alternate layers of graphite blocks, and coolant tubes disposed in the layers of graphite blocks which do not contain uranium.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Breden, C.R.; Dietrich, J.R.

    1961-06-20

    A water-soluble non-volatile poison may be introduced into a reactor to nullify excess reactivity. The poison is removed by passing a side stream of the water containing the soluble poison to an evaporation chamber. The vapor phase is returned to the reactor to decrease the concentration of soluble poison and the liquid phase is returned to increase the concentration of soluble poison.

  16. Losing the music: aging affects the perception and subcortical neural representation of musical harmony.

    PubMed

    Bones, Oliver; Plack, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    When two musical notes with simple frequency ratios are played simultaneously, the resulting musical chord is pleasing and evokes a sense of resolution or "consonance". Complex frequency ratios, on the other hand, evoke feelings of tension or "dissonance". Consonance and dissonance form the basis of harmony, a central component of Western music. In earlier work, we provided evidence that consonance perception is based on neural temporal coding in the brainstem (Bones et al., 2014). Here, we show that for listeners with clinically normal hearing, aging is associated with a decline in both the perceptual distinction and the distinctiveness of the neural representations of different categories of two-note chords. Compared with younger listeners, older listeners rated consonant chords as less pleasant and dissonant chords as more pleasant. Older listeners also had less distinct neural representations of consonant and dissonant chords as measured using a Neural Consonance Index derived from the electrophysiological "frequency-following response." The results withstood a control for the effect of age on general affect, suggesting that different mechanisms are responsible for the perceived pleasantness of musical chords and affective voices and that, for listeners with clinically normal hearing, age-related differences in consonance perception are likely to be related to differences in neural temporal coding. PMID:25740534

  17. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  18. The connection between anthropometry and gait harmony unveiled through the lens of the golden ratio.

    PubMed

    Iosa, Marco; Morone, Giovanni; Bini, Fabiano; Fusco, Augusto; Paolucci, Stefano; Marinozzi, Franco

    2016-01-26

    In nature, many systems have a harmonic organization due to their fractal structure related to an irrational number called golden ratio. That is a constant proportion found in phases of human gait cycle, and is also found in the lengths of human body segments. In this study we tested if artificial alterations in anthropometric proportions may alter gait proportions. Twenty healthy subjects (29.15±5.66years) were enrolled in this study and asked to walk normally and with special shoes altering their anthropometric proportions. Further, to test if the relationship between gait phases and anthropometry could be due to the pendular mechanism of walking, subjects were also asked to walk with extra masses located on their shanks. Results showed that the artificial alteration of body segment proportions affected the gait ratio based on the proportion of time between stance and swing (p=0.015). Conversely, no changes occurred during walking in weighted condition (p=0.394). These results confirm the connection between anthropometric proportions and gait ratio, and suggest the idea that humans may have evolved into the actual anthropometric proportions for favoring a walking having a golden ratio based harmony, but research is required to verify this hypothesis. PMID:26700875

  19. "Lesbians are not women": feminine and lesbian sensibilities in Harmony Hammond's late-1970s sculpture.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Margo Hobbs

    2008-01-01

    Harmony Hammond's wrapped fabric sculptures are placed in context of the theories of gender and sexuality that circulated among lesbian and straight feminists at the time they were made, the late 1970s. Hammond has cited in particular Monique Wittig's novels, such as The Lesbian Body, and her essays including "The Straight Mind" where Wittig concludes that the lesbian is not a woman. The critique to which Wittig's lesbian separatism has been subjected by Judith Butler in her consideration of the appeal and limitations of essentialism also applies to Hammond's art. Hammond's use of vaginal imagery was instrumental to visualizing a lesbian sensibility, but the proposition of such a sensibility established a new problematic: a new essential category. The article concludes that because Hammond's work was produced in the context of a complex set of discourses, lesbian, feminist, and aesthetic, it resisted reduction to a singular meaning. Her sculptures avoided the pitfall of substituting one essence for another, lesbian for feminine sensibility, but activated both. The sculptures effectively queered vaginal imagery: When Hammond used vaginal imagery to represent lesbian sensibility, she subverted the equation of sex and gender and the essentialist notion of feminine sensibility. PMID:19042751

  20. South Harmony Church field, Southwest Louisiana - Further insights on uppermost Wilcox shelf-margin trend

    SciTech Connect

    Belvedere, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The uppermost Wilcox Group (Eocene) in the South Harmony Church field is a 2,000-ft thick sequence of single and multistory sandstones and shales. Cores of three separate intervals from four different wells display sedimentologic and lithologic features characteristic of inner shelf and shoreface deposition, representing an offshore bar complex. Typical lithofacies assemblages within an interval include, from top to bottom, (1) bioturbated, muddy sandstone--inner shelf, (2) less bioturbated, arenaceous sandstone--mostly inner shelf, (3) structureless to faintly horizontally laminated sandstone--mostly lower shoreface, and (4) horizontal to cross-laminated, and commonly deformed sandstone with shale and siltstone interbeds--lower surface. Sandstones are fine to very fine-grained, poorly to moderately well-sorted sublitharenites. Optimum reservoir quality is observed in the bioturbated, clean sandstones of the self-shoreface transition zone, where porosity ranges from 5 to 23% and permeability from less than 0.01 to 31 md. Porosity is mostly secondary and attributed to the leaching of labile constituents.

  1. Losing the Music: Aging Affects the Perception and Subcortical Neural Representation of Musical Harmony

    PubMed Central

    Plack, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    When two musical notes with simple frequency ratios are played simultaneously, the resulting musical chord is pleasing and evokes a sense of resolution or “consonance”. Complex frequency ratios, on the other hand, evoke feelings of tension or “dissonance”. Consonance and dissonance form the basis of harmony, a central component of Western music. In earlier work, we provided evidence that consonance perception is based on neural temporal coding in the brainstem (Bones et al., 2014). Here, we show that for listeners with clinically normal hearing, aging is associated with a decline in both the perceptual distinction and the distinctiveness of the neural representations of different categories of two-note chords. Compared with younger listeners, older listeners rated consonant chords as less pleasant and dissonant chords as more pleasant. Older listeners also had less distinct neural representations of consonant and dissonant chords as measured using a Neural Consonance Index derived from the electrophysiological “frequency-following response.” The results withstood a control for the effect of age on general affect, suggesting that different mechanisms are responsible for the perceived pleasantness of musical chords and affective voices and that, for listeners with clinically normal hearing, age-related differences in consonance perception are likely to be related to differences in neural temporal coding. PMID:25740534

  2. Seeking more Opportunities of Check Dams' harmony with nearby Circumstances via Design Thinking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huan-Chun; Chen, Su-Chin; Tsai, Chen-Chen

    2014-05-01

    The contents of engineering design should indeed contain both science and art fields. However, the art aspect is too less discussed to cause an inharmonic impact with natural surroundings, and so are check dams. This study would like to seek more opportunities of check dams' harmony with nearby circumstances. According to literatures review of philosophy and cognition science fields, we suggest a thinking process of three phases to do check dams design work for reference. The first phase, conceptualization, is to list critical problems, such as the characteristics of erosion or deposition, and translate them into some goal situations. The second phase, transformation, is to use cognition methods such as analogy, association and metaphors to shape an image and prototypes. The third phase, formation, is to decide the details of the construction, such as stable safety analysis of shapes or materials. According to the previous descriptions, Taiwan's technological codes or papers about check dam design mostly emphasize the first and third phases, still quite a few lacks of the second phase. We emphases designers shouldn't ignore any phase of the framework especially the second one, or they may miss some chances to find more suitable solutions. Otherwise, this conceptual framework is simple to apply and we suppose it's a useful tool to design a more harmonic check dam with nearby natural landscape. Key Words: check dams, design thinking process, conceptualization, transformation, formation.

  3. Hybrid feature selection algorithm using symmetrical uncertainty and a harmony search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh Shreem, Salam; Abdullah, Salwani; Nazri, Mohd Zakree Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Microarray technology can be used as an efficient diagnostic system to recognise diseases such as tumours or to discriminate between different types of cancers in normal tissues. This technology has received increasing attention from the bioinformatics community because of its potential in designing powerful decision-making tools for cancer diagnosis. However, the presence of thousands or tens of thousands of genes affects the predictive accuracy of this technology from the perspective of classification. Thus, a key issue in microarray data is identifying or selecting the smallest possible set of genes from the input data that can achieve good predictive accuracy for classification. In this work, we propose a two-stage selection algorithm for gene selection problems in microarray data-sets called the symmetrical uncertainty filter and harmony search algorithm wrapper (SU-HSA). Experimental results show that the SU-HSA is better than HSA in isolation for all data-sets in terms of the accuracy and achieves a lower number of genes on 6 out of 10 instances. Furthermore, the comparison with state-of-the-art methods shows that our proposed approach is able to obtain 5 (out of 10) new best results in terms of the number of selected genes and competitive results in terms of the classification accuracy.

  4. BYY harmony learning, independent state space, and generalized APT financial analyses.

    PubMed

    Xu, L

    2001-01-01

    First, the relationship between factor analysis (FA) and the well-known arbitrage pricing theory (APT) for financial market is discussed comparatively, with a number of to-be-improved problems listed. An overview is made from a unified perspective on the related studies in the literatures of statistics, control theory, signal processing, and neural networks. Next, we introduce the fundamentals of the Bayesian Ying Yang (BYY) system and the harmony learning principle. We further show that a specific case of the framework, called BYY independent state space (ISS) system, provides a general guide for systematically tackling various FA related learning tasks and the above to-be-improved problems for the APT analyses. Third, on various specific cases of the BYY ISS system in three typical architectures, adaptive algorithms, regularization methods and model selection criteria are provided for either or both of parameter learning with automated model selection and parameter learning followed by model selection. Finally, we introduce some other financial applications that are based on the underlying independent factors via the APT analyses. PMID:18249916

  5. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  6. Assessment of severe accident source terms in pressurized-water reactors with a 40% mixed-oxide and 60% low-enriched uranium core using MELCOR 1.8.5.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Goldmann, Andrew S.; Wagner, Kenneth C.; Powers, Dana Auburn; Ashbaugh, Scott G.; Longmire, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    As part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) research program to evaluate the impact of using mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial nuclear power plants, a study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of the usage of MOX fuel on the consequences of postulated severe accidents. A series of 23 severe accident calculations was performed using MELCOR 1.8.5 for a four-loop Westinghouse reactor with an ice condenser containment. The calculations covered five basic accident classes that were identified as the risk- and consequence-dominant accident sequences in plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments for the McGuire and Catawba nuclear plants, including station blackouts and loss-of-coolant accidents of various sizes, with both early and late containment failures. Ultimately, the results of these MELCOR simulations will be used to provide a supplement to the NRC's alternative source term described in NUREG-1465. Source term magnitude and timing results are presented consistent with the NUREG-1465 format. For each of the severe accident release phases (coolant release, gap release, in-vessel release, ex-vessel release, and late in-vessel release), source term timing information (onset of release and duration) is presented. For all release phases except for the coolant release phase, magnitudes are presented for each of the NUREG-1465 radionuclide groups. MELCOR results showed variation of noble metal releases between those typical of ruthenium (Ru) and those typical of molybdenum (Mo); therefore, results for the noble metals were presented for Ru and Mo separately. The collection of the source term results can be used as the basis to develop a representative source term (across all accident types) that will be the MOX supplement to NUREG-1465.

  7. Analysis of containment performance and radiological consequences under severe accident conditions for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    A severe accident study was conducted to evaluate conservatively scoped source terms and radiological consequences to support the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Conceptual Safety Analysis Report (CSAR). Three different types of severe accident scenarios were postulated with a view of evaluating conservatively scoped source terms. The first scenario evaluates maximum possible steaming loads and associated radionuclide transport, whereas the next scenario is geared towards evaluating conservative containment loads from releases of radionuclide vapors and aerosols with associated generation of combustible gases. The third scenario follows the prescriptions given by the 10 CFR 100 guidelines. It was included in the CSAR for demonstrating site-suitability characteristics of the ANS. Various containment configurations are considered for the study of thermal-hydraulic and radiological behaviors of the ANS containment. Severe accident mitigative design features such as the use of rupture disks were accounted for. This report describes the postulated severe accident scenarios, methodology for analysis, modeling assumptions, modeling of several severe accident phenomena, and evaluation of the resulting source term and radiological consequences.

  8. Reactor monitoring and safeguards using antineutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, N. S.

    2008-11-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore orer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactors, as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other reactor safeguards regimes. Several erorts to develop this monitoring technique are underway across the globe.

  9. Reactor Application for Coaching Newbies

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-17

    RACCOON is a Moose based reactor physics application designed to engage undergraduate and first-year graduate students. The code contains capabilities to solve the multi group Neutron Diffusion equation in eigenvalue and fixed source form and will soon have a provision to provide simple thermal feedback. These capabilities are sufficient to solve example problems found in Duderstadt & Hamilton (the typical textbook of senior level reactor physics classes). RACCOON does not contain any advanced capabilities as found in YAK.

  10. ANSL-V: ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor studies. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.Q.; Renier, J.P.; Bucholz, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    The original ANSL-V cross-section libraries (ORNL-6618) were developed over a period of several years for the physics analysis of the ANS reactor, with little thought toward including the materials commonly needed for shielding applications. Materials commonly used for shielding applications include calcium barium, sulfur, phosphorous, and bismuth. These materials, as well as {sup 6}Li, {sup 7}Li, and the naturally occurring isotopes of hafnium, have been added to the ANSL-V libraries. The gamma-ray production and gamma-ray interaction cross sections were completely regenerated for the ANSL-V 99n/44g library which did not exist previously. The MALOCS module was used to collapse the 99n/44g coupled library to the 39n/44g broad- group library. COMET was used to renormalize the two-dimensional (2- D) neutron matrix sums to agree with the one-dimensional (1-D) averaged values. The FRESH module was used to adjust the thermal scattering matrices on the 99n/44g and 39n/44g ANSL-V libraries. PERFUME was used to correct the original XLACS Legendre polynomial fits to produce acceptable distributions. The final ANSL-V 99n/44g and 39n/44g cross-section libraries were both checked by running RADE. The AIM module was used to convert the master cross-section libraries from binary coded decimal to binary format (or vice versa).

  11. Influence of the details of topography on weather forecast – evaluation of HARMONIE experiments in the Sochi Olympics domain over the Caucasian mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontu, Laura; Wastl, Clemens; Niemela, Sami

    2016-02-01

    New fine-resolution surface elevation data was implemented into HARMONIE-AROME-SURFEX Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. The grid-scale mean orography, used as a basis of the model's terrain-following vertical coordinate, as well as variables for suggested new parametrizations of radiation and momentum fluxes were derived. Validation against the surface observations from the Sochi Winter Olympic Games 2014, provided by the WMO FROST-2014 program at the Caucasian mountains, showed minor degradation of the of then screen-level temperature forecast when only the source orography was updated. Implementation of the orographic radiation parametrizations allowed to alleviate the degradation of scores. Detailed sensitivity studies, done by using three-dimensional and single-column experiments, showed that substantial and physically realistic changes in the downwelling short- and longwave radiation fluxes took place locally. However, their influence on the the simulated screen-level temperature remained small. Comparison of the simulated and observed radiation fluxes would offer a reliable alternative for validation of NWP models. Unfortunately, surface-level radiation observations were not made during the Sochi Olympics.

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.; Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.; Young, G.J.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors of the heterogeneous water cooled type, and in particular to a fuel element charging and discharging means therefor. In the embodiment illustrated the reactor contains horizontal, parallel coolant tubes in which the fuel elements are disposed. A loading cart containing a magnzine for holding a plurality of fuel elements operates along the face of the reactor at the inlet ends of the coolant tubes. The loading cart is equipped with a ram device for feeding fuel elements from the magazine through the inlot ends of the coolant tubes. Operating along the face adjacent the discharge ends of the tubes there is provided another cart means adapted to receive irradiated fuel elements as they are forced out of the discharge ends of the coolant tubes by the incoming new fuel elements. This cart is equipped with a tank coataining a coolant, such as water, into which the fuel elements fall, and a hydraulically operated plunger to hold the end of the fuel element being discharged. This inveation provides an apparatus whereby the fuel elements may be loaded into the reactor, irradiated therein, and unloaded from the reactor without stopping the fiow of the coolant and without danger to the operating personnel.

  13. Thermal hydraulic analysis of two-phase closed thermosyphon cooling system for new cold neutron source moderator of Breazeale research reactor at Penn State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habte, Melaku

    A cold neutron source cooling system is required for the Penn State's next generation cold neutron source facility that can accommodate a variable heat load up to about ˜10W with operating temperature of about 28K. An existing cold neutron source cooling system operating at the University of Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) facility failed to accommodate heat loads upwards of 4W with the moderator temperature reaching a maximum of 44K, which is the critical temperature for the operating fluid neon. The cooling system that was used in the TCNS cooling system was a two-phase closed thermosyphon with a reservoir (TPCTR). The reservoir containing neon gas is kept at room temperature. In this study a detailed thermal analysis of the fundamental operating principles of a TPCTR were carried out. A detailed parametric study of the various geometric and thermo-physical factors that affect the limits of the operational capacity of the TPCTR investigated. A CFD analysis is carried out in order to further refine the heat transfer analysis and understand the flow structure inside the thermosyphon and the two-phase nucleate boiling in the evaporator section of the thermosyphon. In order to help the new design, a variety of ways of increasing the operating range and heat removal capacity of the TPCTR cooling system were analyzed so that it can accommodate the anticipated heat load of 10W or more. It is found, for example, that doubling the pressure of the system will increase the capacity index zeta by 50% for a system with an initial fill ratio FR of 1. A decrease in cryorefrigeration performance angle increases the capacity index. For example taking the current condition of the TCNS system and reducing the angle from the current value of ˜700 by half (˜350) will increase the cooling power 300%. Finally based on detailed analytic and CFD analysis the best operating condition were proposed.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  15. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for loading and unloading rod type fuel elements of a neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, solld moderator, liquid cooled type. In the embodiment illustrated, the fuel rods are disposed in vertical coolant channels in the reactor core. The fuel rods are loaded and unloaded through the upper openings of the channels which are immersed in the coolant liquid, such as water. Unloading is accomplished by means of a coffer dam assembly having an outer sleeve which is placed in sealing relation around the upper opening. A radiation shield sleeve is disposed in and reciprocable through the coffer dam sleeve. A fuel rod engaging member operates through the axial bore in the radiation shield sleeve to withdraw the fuel rod from its position in the reactor coolant channel into the shield, the shield snd rod then being removed. Loading is accomplished in the reverse procedure.

  17. Catalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Aaron, Timothy Mark; Shah, Minish Mahendra; Jibb, Richard John

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  18. Bioconversion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, P.L.; Bachmann, A.

    1992-02-25

    A bioconversion reactor is described for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible. 7 figs.

  19. Bioconversion reactor

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  20. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1962-04-24

    A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

  1. Design of Content Based Image Retrieval Scheme for Diabetic Retinopathy Images using Harmony Search Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sivakamasundari, J; Natarajan, V

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a disorder that affects the structure of retinal blood vessels due to long-standing diabetes mellitus. Automated segmentation of blood vessel is vital for periodic screening and timely diagnosis. An attempt has been made to generate continuous retinal vasculature for the design of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) application. The typical normal and abnormal retinal images are preprocessed to improve the vessel contrast. The blood vessels are segmented using evolutionary based Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) combined with Otsu Multilevel Thresholding (MLT) method by best objective functions. The segmentation results are validated with corresponding ground truth images using binary similarity measures. The statistical, textural and structural features are obtained from the segmented images of normal and DR affected retina and are analyzed. CBIR in medical image retrieval applications are used to assist physicians in clinical decision-support techniques and research fields. A CBIR system is developed using HSA based Otsu MLT segmentation technique and the features obtained from the segmented images. Similarity matching is carried out between the features of query and database images using Euclidean Distance measure. Similar images are ranked and retrieved. The retrieval performance of CBIR system is evaluated in terms of precision and recall. The CBIR systems developed using HSA based Otsu MLT and conventional Otsu MLT methods are compared. The retrieval performance such as precision and recall are found to be 96% and 58% for CBIR system using HSA based Otsu MLT segmentation. This automated CBIR system could be recommended for use in computer assisted diagnosis for diabetic retinopathy screening. PMID:25996728

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.

    1963-01-01

    This patent covers a power-producing nuclear reactor in which fuel rods of slightly enriched U are moderated by heavy water and cooled by liquid metal. The fuel rods arranged parallel to one another in a circle are contained in a large outer closed-end conduit that extends into a tank containing the heavy water. Liquid metal is introduced into the large conduit by a small inner conduit that extends within the circle of fuel rods to a point near the lower closed end of the outer conduit. (AEC) Production Reactors

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  4. Erosion-corrosion entrainment of iron-containing compounds as a source of deposits in steam generators used at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2011-03-01

    The main stages and processes through which deposits are generated, migrate, and precipitate in the metal-secondary coolant system of power units at nuclear power plants are analyzed and determined. It is shown that substances produced by the mechanism of general erosion-corrosion are the main source of the ionic-colloid form of iron, which is the main component of deposits in a steam generator. Ways for controlling the formation of deposits in a nuclear power plant's steam generator are proposed together with methods for estimating their efficiency.

  5. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.; Babcock, Dale F.; Menegus, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

  6. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.

    1976-08-17

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield.

  7. Sonochemical Reactors.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation. PMID:27573503

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1960-09-27

    A unit assembly is described for a neutronic reactor comprising a tube and plurality of spaced parallel sandwiches in the tube extending lengthwise thereof, each sandwich including a middle plate having a central opening for plutonium and other openings for fertile material at opposite ends of the plate.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Weinberg, A.M.; Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1959-10-27

    BS>A reactor cooled by water, biphenyl, helium, or other fluid with provision made for replacing the fuel rods with the highest plutonium and fission product content without disassembling the entire core and for promptly cooling the rods after their replacement in order to prevent build-up of heat from fission product activity is described.

  10. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, John T.

    1977-01-25

    A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor includes channels between blocks of graphite and also includes spacer blocks between adjacent channeled blocks with an axis of extension normal to that of the axis of elongation of the channeled blocks to minimize changes in the physical properties of the graphite as a result of prolonged neutron bombardment.

  11. Measurements of neutral beam species, impurities, spatial divergence, energy dispersion, pressure, and reionization for the TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) US Common Long Pulse Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Gammel, G.M.; Grisham, L.R.; Kaita, R.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Langley, R.A.; Magee, C.W.; Medley, S.S.; Murphy, T.J.; Roquemore, A.L.; Williams, M.D.

    1988-06-01

    Physical characteristics of TFTR neutral beams were measured during the first tests and initial operating experience with production TFTR US Common Long Pulse Ion Sources on beamlines in the TFTR experimental environment under actual user conditions. These measurements were performed with different power supply systems, controls, diagnostics, and operating methods compared to those used at LBL during the development phase. The set of diagnostics included water calorimetry, thermocouples, vacuum ionization gauges, photodiodes, neutron, gamma-ray and charged particle backscatter spectroscopy, and implantation/secondary ion mass spectroscopy. These systems were used to perform complementary measurements of neutral beam species, measurements were performed either in the neutralizer region, where the beam contained both ions and neutrals, or in the region of the output neutral beam. In general, consistent with estimates made during the LBL development phase. They can provide guidance for the optimization of TFTR neutral beam heating operations and the understanding of auxilliary heated TFTR plasmas. 21 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Investigation of the basic reactor physics characteristics of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Huy, N.Q.; Thong, H.V.; Khang, N.P.

    1994-12-31

    The Dalat nuclear research reactor was reconstructed from the TRIGA Mark II reactor, built in 1963 with a nominal power of 250 kW, and reached its planned nominal power of 500 kW for the first time in February 1984. The Dalat reactor has some characteristics distinct from the former TRIGA reactor. Investigation of its characteristics is carried out by the determination of the reactor physics parameters. This paper represents the experimental results obtained for the effective fraction of the delayed photoneutrons, the extraneous neutron source left after the reactor is shut down, the lowest power levels of reactor critical states, the relative axial and radial distributions of thermal neutrons, the safe positive reactivity inserted into the reactor at a deep subcritical state, the reactivity temperature coefficient of water, the temperature on the surface of the fuel elements, etc.

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Mims, L.S.

    1961-08-22

    A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

  14. A “Community Fit” Community-Based Participatory Research Program for Family Health, Happiness, and Harmony: Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Cissy SS; Wang, Man Ping; Mui, Moses; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia SC

    2015-01-01

    Background A principal factor in maintaining positive family functioning and well-being, family communication time is decreasing in modern societies such as Hong Kong, where long working hours and indulgent use of information technology are typical. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe an innovative study protocol, “Happy Family Kitchen,” under the project, “FAMILY: A Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society,” aimed at improving family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs) through enhancement of family communication. Methods This study employed the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, and adopted 5 principles of positive psychology and the traditional Chinese concepts of cooking and dining, as a means to connect family members to promote family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs). Results In-depth collaboration took place between an academic institution and a large nongovernmental community organization association (NGO association) with 400 social service agency members. Both groups were deeply involved in the project design, implementation, and evaluation of 23 community-based interventions. From 612 families with 1419 individuals’ findings, significant increases in mean communication time per week (from 153.44 to 170.31 minutes, P=.002) at 6 weeks after the intervention and mean communication scores (from 67.18 to 69.56 out of 100, P<.001) at 12 weeks after the intervention were shown. Significant enhancements were also found for mean happiness scores 12 weeks after the intervention (from 7.80 to 7.82 out of 10, P<.001), and mean health scores (from 7.70 to 7.73 out of 10, P<.001) and mean harmony scores (from 7.70 to 8.07 out of 10, P<.001) 6 weeks after the intervention. Conclusions This was the first CBPR study in a Hong Kong Chinese community. The results should be useful in informing collaborative intervention programs and engaging public health researchers and community social service providers, major

  15. Fast combustion waves and chemi-ionization processes in a flame initiated by a powerful local plasma source in a closed reactor.

    PubMed

    Artem'ev, K V; Berezhetskaya, N K; Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, N G; Kossyi, I A; Popov, N A; Tarasova, N M; Filimonova, E A; Firsov, K N

    2015-08-13

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the initiation of combustion in a stoichiometric methane-oxygen mixture by a freely localized laser spark and by a high-current multispark discharge in a closed chamber. It is shown that, preceding the stage of 'explosive' inflammation of a gas mixture, there appear two luminous objects moving away from the initiator along an axis: a relatively fast and uniform wave of 'incomplete combustion' under laser spark ignition and a wave with a brightly glowing plasmoid behind under ignition from high-current slipping surface discharge. The gas mixtures in both the 'preflame' and developed-flame states are characterized by a high degree of ionization as the result of chemical ionization (plasma density n(e)≈10(12) cm(-3)) and a high frequency of electron-neutral collisions (ν(en)≈10(12) s(-1)). The role of chemical ionization in constructing an adequate theory for the ignition of a gas mixture is discussed. The feasibility of the microwave heating of both the preflame and developed-flame plasma, supplementary to a chemical energy source, is also discussed. PMID:26170426

  16. Fast combustion waves and chemi-ionization processes in a flame initiated by a powerful local plasma source in a closed reactor

    PubMed Central

    Artem'ev, K. V.; Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Kazantsev, S. Yu.; Kononov, N. G.; Kossyi, I. A.; Popov, N. A.; Tarasova, N. M.; Filimonova, E. A.; Firsov, K. N.

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the initiation of combustion in a stoichiometric methane–oxygen mixture by a freely localized laser spark and by a high-current multispark discharge in a closed chamber. It is shown that, preceding the stage of ‘explosive’ inflammation of a gas mixture, there appear two luminous objects moving away from the initiator along an axis: a relatively fast and uniform wave of ‘incomplete combustion’ under laser spark ignition and a wave with a brightly glowing plasmoid behind under ignition from high-current slipping surface discharge. The gas mixtures in both the ‘preflame’ and developed-flame states are characterized by a high degree of ionization as the result of chemical ionization (plasma density ne≈1012 cm−3) and a high frequency of electron–neutral collisions (νen≈1012 s−1). The role of chemical ionization in constructing an adequate theory for the ignition of a gas mixture is discussed. The feasibility of the microwave heating of both the preflame and developed-flame plasma, supplementary to a chemical energy source, is also discussed. PMID:26170426

  17. Simplifying microbial electrosynthesis reactor design

    PubMed Central

    Giddings, Cloelle G. S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Woodward, Trevor; Lovley, Derek R.; Butler, Caitlyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata. S. ovata reduces carbon dioxide to acetate and acts as the microbial catalyst for plain graphite stick cathodes as the electron donor. In traditional ‘H-cell’ reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a potentiostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs. PMID:26029199

  18. Simplifying microbial electrosynthesis reactor design.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Cloelle G S; Nevin, Kelly P; Woodward, Trevor; Lovley, Derek R; Butler, Caitlyn S

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata. S. ovata reduces carbon dioxide to acetate and acts as the microbial catalyst for plain graphite stick cathodes as the electron donor. In traditional 'H-cell' reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a potentiostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs. PMID:26029199

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wade, E.J.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to a reflector means for a neutronic reactor. A reflector comprised of a plurality of vertically movable beryllium control members is provided surrounding the sides of the reactor core. An absorber of fast neutrons comprised of natural uramum surrounds the reflector. An absorber of slow neutrons surrounds the absorber of fast neutrons and is formed of a plurality of beryllium blocks having natural uranium members distributcd therethrough. in addition, a movable body is positioned directly below the core and is comprised of a beryllium reflector and an absorbing member attached to the botiom thereof, the absorbing member containing a substance selected from the goup consisting of natural urantum and Th/sup 232/.

  20. REACTOR MONITORING

    DOEpatents

    Bugbee, S.J.; Hanson, V.F.; Babcock, D.F.

    1959-02-01

    A neutron density inonitoring means for reactors is described. According to this invention a tunnel is provided beneath and spaced from the active portion of the reactor and extends beyond the opposite faces of the activc portion. Neutron beam holes are provided between the active portion and the tunnel and open into the tunnel near the middle thereof. A carriage operates back and forth in the tunnel and is adapted to convey a neutron detector, such as an ion chamber, and position it beneath one of the neutron beam holes. This arrangement affords convenient access of neutron density measuring instruments to a location wherein direct measurement of neutron density within the piles can be made and at the same time affords ample protection to operating personnel.

  1. REACTOR UNLOADING

    DOEpatents

    Leverett, M.C.

    1958-02-18

    This patent is related to gas cooled reactors wherein the fuel elements are disposed in vertical channels extending through the reactor core, the cooling gas passing through the channels from the bottom to the top of the core. The invention is a means for unloading the fuel elements from the core and comprises dump values in the form of flat cars mounted on wheels at the bottom of the core structure which support vertical stacks of fuel elements. When the flat cars are moved, either manually or automatically, for normal unloading purposes, or due to a rapid rise in the reproduction ratio within the core, the fuel elements are permtted to fall by gravity out of the core structure thereby reducing the reproduction ratio or stopping the reaction as desired.

  2. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-08-19

    A neuclear reactor is described of the heterogeneous type and employing replaceable tubular fuel elements and heavy water as a coolant and moderator. A pluraltty of fuel tubesa having their axes parallel, extend through a tank type pressure vessel which contatns the liquid moderator. The fuel elements are disposed within the fuel tubes in the reaetive portion of the pressure vessel during normal operation and the fuel tubes have removable plug members at each end to permit charging and discharging of the fuel elements. The fuel elements are cylindrical strands of jacketed fissionable material having helical exterior ribs. A bundle of fuel elements are held within each fuel tube with their longitudinal axes parallel, the ribs serving to space them apart along their lengths. Coolant liquid is circulated through the fuel tubes between the spaced fuel elements. Suitable control rod and monitoring means are provided for controlling the reactor.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Koch, L.J.; Rice, R.E. Jr.; Denst, A.A.; Rogers, A.J.; Novick, M.

    1961-12-01

    An active portion assembly for a fast neutron reactor is described wherein physical distortions resulting in adverse changes in the volume-to-mass ratio are minimized. A radially expandable locking device is disposed within a cylindrical tube within each fuel subassembly within the active portion assembly, and clamping devices expandable toward the center of the active portion assembly are disposed around the periphery thereof. (AEC)

  5. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A core structure for neutronic reactors adapted for the propulsion of aircraft and rockets is offered. The core is designed for cooling by gaseous media, and comprises a plurality of hollow tapered tubular segments of a porous moderating material impregniated with fissionable fuel nested about a common axis. Alternate ends of the segments are joined. In operation a coolant gas passes through the porous structure and is heated.

  7. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Ruano, W.J.

    1957-12-10

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which utilize elongited rod type fuel elements immersed in a liquid moderator and shows a design whereby control of the chain reaction is obtained by varying the amount of moderator or reflector material. A central tank for containing liquid moderator and fuel elements immersed therein is disposed within a surrounding outer tank providing an annular space between the two tanks. This annular space is filled with liquid moderator which functions as a reflector to reflect neutrons back into the central reactor tank to increase the reproduction ratio. Means are provided for circulating and cooling the moderator material in both tanks and additional means are provided for controlling separately the volume of moderator in each tank, which latter means may be operated automatically by a neutron density monitoring device. The patent also shows an arrangement for controlling the chain reaction by injecting and varying an amount of poisoning material in the moderator used in the reflector portion of the reactor.

  8. Hindcast experiments of the derecho in Estonia on 08 August, 2010: Modelling derecho with NWP model HARMONIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Rõõm, Rein

    2015-05-01

    On August 8, 2010, a derecho swept over Northern Europe, causing widespread wind damage and more than 2 million Euros in economic loss in Estonia during its most destructive stage. This paper presents a modelling study of the derecho-producing storm utilising the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Europe (HARMONIE) model. The model setup is chosen to mimic near-future, nearly kilometre-scale, operational environments in European national weather services. The model simulations are compared to remote sensing and in situ observations. The HARMONIE model is capable of reproducing the wind gust severity and precipitation intensity. Moreover, 2.5-km grid spacing is shown to be sufficient for producing a reliable signal of the severe convective storm. Storm dynamics are well simulated, including the rear inflow jet. Although the model performance is promising, a strong dependence on the initial data, a weak trailing stratiform precipitation region and an incorrect timing of the storm are identified.

  9. Theoretical generalization of normal and sick coronary arteries with fractal dimensions and the arterial intrinsic mathematical harmony

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fractal geometry is employ to characterize the irregular objects and had been used in experimental and clinic applications. Starting from a previous work, here we made a theoretical research based on a geometric generalization of the experimental results, to develop a theoretical generalization of the stenotic and restenotic process, based on fractal geometry and Intrinsic Mathematical Harmony. Methods Starting from all the possibilities of space occupation in box-counting space, all arterial prototypes differentiating normality and disease were obtained with a computational simulation. Measures from 2 normal and 3 re-stenosed arteries were used as spatial limits of the generalization. Results A new methodology in animal experimentation was developed, based on fractal geometric generalization. With this methodology, it was founded that the occupation space possibilities in the stenotic process are finite and that 69,249 arterial prototypes are obtained as a total. Conclusions The Intrinsic Mathematical Harmony reveals a supra-molecular geometric self-organization, where the finite and discrete fractal dimensions of arterial layers evaluate objectively the arterial stenosis and restenosis process. PMID:20846449

  10. Optimal design of groundwater remediation system using a probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiankun; Wu, Jianfeng; Yang, Yun; Qian, Jiazhong; Wu, Jichun

    2014-11-01

    This study develops a new probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (PMOFHS) for optimal design of groundwater remediation systems under uncertainty associated with the hydraulic conductivity (K) of aquifers. The PMOFHS integrates the previously developed deterministic multi-objective optimization method, namely multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (MOFHS) with a probabilistic sorting technique to search for Pareto-optimal solutions to multi-objective optimization problems in a noisy hydrogeological environment arising from insufficient K data. The PMOFHS is then coupled with the commonly used flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to identify the optimal design of groundwater remediation systems for a two-dimensional hypothetical test problem and a three-dimensional Indiana field application involving two objectives: (i) minimization of the total remediation cost through the engineering planning horizon, and (ii) minimization of the mass remaining in the aquifer at the end of the operational period, whereby the pump-and-treat (PAT) technology is used to clean up contaminated groundwater. Also, Monte Carlo (MC) analysis is employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Comprehensive analysis indicates that the proposed PMOFHS can find Pareto-optimal solutions with low variability and high reliability and is a potentially effective tool for optimizing multi-objective groundwater remediation problems under uncertainty.

  11. [Ecology-economy harmonious development based on the ecological services value change in Yanqi Basin, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Mamat, Zulpiya; Halik, Umut; Aji, Rouzi; Nurmemet, Ilyas; Anwar, Mirigul; Keyimu, Maierdang

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we used land use/cover ecosystem service value estimation model and ecological economic coordination degree model to analyze the changes of the ecosystem service value by the land use/cover changes during 1985, 1990, 1996, 2000, 2005 and 2011 in Yanqi Basin, Xin-jiang. Then we evaluated the ecology-economy harmony and the regional differences. The results showed that during 1985-2011, there was an increasing trend in the areas of waters, wetland, sand, cultivated land and construction land in Yanqi Basin. In contrast, that of the saline-alkali land, grassland and woodland areas exhibited a decreasing trend. The ecosystem service value in Yanqi Basin during this period presented an increasing trend, among which the waters and cultivated land contributed most to the total value of ecosystem services, while the grassland and the woodland had obviously declined contribution to the total value of ecosystem services. The research showed that the development of ecological economy in the study area was at a low conflict and low coordination level. So, taking reasonable and effective use of the regional waters and soil resources is the key element to maintain the ecosystem service function and sustainable and harmonious development of economy in Yanqi Basin. PMID:26211072

  12. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

    1996-04-02

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

  13. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

    1995-11-07

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

  14. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

    1998-06-02

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

  15. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G.; Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Basaran, Osman A.

    1998-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  16. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G.; Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Basaran, Osman A.

    1996-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  17. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G.; Basaran, Osman A.; Harris, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  18. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

    1998-04-14

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

  19. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G.; Basaran, Osman A.; Harris, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  20. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas of research

  1. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reactor batch process vent provisions... Resins § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reactor batch process vent provisions... Resins § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph...

  3. Catalog of experimental projects for a fissioning plasma reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzo, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were carried out to determine the feasibility of using a small scale fissioning uranium plasma as the power source in a driver reactor. The driver system is a light water cooled and moderated reactor of the MTR type. The eight experiments and proposed configurations for the reactor are outlined.

  4. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  5. Nuclear Reactors. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: How Reactors Work; Reactor Design; Research, Teaching, and Materials Testing; Reactors (Research, Teaching and Materials); Production Reactors; Reactors for Electric Power…

  6. ELECTRONUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.; McMillan, E.M.; Alvarez, L.W.

    1960-04-19

    An electronuclear reactor is described in which a very high-energy particle accelerator is employed with appropriate target structure to produce an artificially produced material in commercial quantities by nuclear transformations. The principal novelty resides in the combination of an accelerator with a target for converting the accelerator beam to copious quantities of low-energy neutrons for absorption in a lattice of fertile material and moderator. The fertile material of the lattice is converted by neutron absorption reactions to an artificially produced material, e.g., plutonium, where depleted uranium is utilized as the fertile material.

  7. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  8. REACTOR COMPONETN

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor fuel element comprised of a slug of fissionable material disposed in a sheath of corrosion resistantmaterial is described. The sheath is in the form of a tubular container closed at one end and is in tight-fitting engagement with the peripheral sunface of the slug. An inner cap is insented into the open end of the sheath against the slug, which end is then bent around the inner cap and welded thereto. An outer cap is then welded around its peripheny to the bent portion of the container.

  9. Flux and spectrum of reactor antineutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, V. I.

    2012-02-01

    In order to perform reactor experiments aimed at studying the nature of the neutrino and measurements in the realms of geo- and astrophysical neutrinos and to meet practical requirements in this field, it is highly desirable to obtain deeper insight into the operation of nuclear reactors as a source of antineutrinos. The fluxes and spectra of neutrinos from a reactor in the on and off modes and from a reservoir intended for storing a spent reactor fuel and situated near the reactor being considered are calculated. Features that are peculiar to the flux and spectrum of reactor antineutrinos and which are of importance for implementing and interpreting experiments, but which were disregarded previously, are analyzed here.

  10. Reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Fiorentini, Giovanni; Mantovani, Fabio; Ricci, Barbara; Strati, Virginia; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-03-01

    Antineutrinos produced at nuclear reactors constitute a severe source of background for the detection of geoneutrinos, which bring to the Earth's surface information about natural radioactivity in the whole planet. In this framework, we provide a reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors, in view of reactors operational records yearly published by the International Atomic Energy Agency. We evaluate the expected signal from commercial reactors for ongoing (KamLAND and Borexino), planned (SNO +), and proposed (Juno, RENO-50, LENA, and Hanohano) experimental sites. Uncertainties related to reactor antineutrino production, propagation, and detection processes are estimated using a Monte Carlo-based approach, which provides an overall site-dependent uncertainty on the signal in the geoneutrino energy window on the order of 3%. We also implement the off-equilibrium correction to the reference reactor spectra associated with the long-lived isotopes, and we estimate a 2.4% increase of the unoscillated event rate in the geoneutrino energy window due to the storage of spent nuclear fuels in the cooling pools. We predict that the research reactors contribute to less than 0.2% to the commercial reactor signal in the investigated 14 sites. We perform a multitemporal analysis of the expected reactor signal over a time lapse of ten years using reactor operational records collected in a comprehensive database published at www.fe.infn.it/antineutrino.

  11. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  12. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  13. DOE's way-out reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1986-03-21

    The SP-100 reactor, envisioned long before Star Wars, was to power civilian structures such as the space station and orbiting commercial labs. According to the SDI Organization, it will be the cornerstone for SDI, used as a no-maintenance, general source of energy for the military's infrastructure - weapons scale power will come later. DOE wants to spend $72 in FY 1977 to design and build these reactors. Funding problems with Congress, as well as some of the technology and timetables are discussed here.

  14. Reactor Application for Coaching Newbies

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-06-17

    RACCOON is a Moose based reactor physics application designed to engage undergraduate and first-year graduate students. The code contains capabilities to solve the multi group Neutron Diffusion equation in eigenvalue and fixed source form and will soon have a provision to provide simple thermal feedback. These capabilities are sufficient to solve example problems found in Duderstadt & Hamilton (the typical textbook of senior level reactor physics classes). RACCOON does not contain any advanced capabilities asmore » found in YAK.« less

  15. Control Means for Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Manley, J. H.

    1961-06-27

    An apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a tank just below the reactor, tubes extending from the tank into the reactor, and a thermally expansible liquid neutron absorbent material in the tank. The liquid in the tank is exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor which heats the liquid causing it to expand into the reactor when the neutron flux in the reactor rises above a predetermincd danger point. Boron triamine may be used for this purpose.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1962-12-18

    A power plant is described comprising a turbine and employing round cylindrical fuel rods formed of BeO and UO/sub 2/ and stacks of hexagonal moderator blocks of BeO provided with passages that loosely receive the fuel rods so that coolant may flow through the passages over the fuels to remove heat. The coolant may be helium or steam and fiows through at least one more heat exchanger for producing vapor from a body of fluid separate from the coolant, which fluid is to drive the turbine for generating electricity. By this arrangement the turbine and directly associated parts are free of particles and radiations emanating from the reactor. (AEC)

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1957-09-17

    A reactor of the type having coolant liquid circulated through clad fuel elements geometrically arranged in a solid moderator, such as graphite, is described. The core is enclosed in a pressure vessel and suitable shielding, wherein means is provided for circulating vapor through the core to superheat the same. This is accomplished by drawing off the liquid which has been heated in the core due to the fission of the fuel, passing it to a nozzle within a chamber where it flashes into a vapor, and then passing the vapor through separate tubes extending through the moderator to pick up more heat developed in the core due to the fission of the fuel, thereby producing superheated vapor.

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, H.B.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor of the type speclfically designed for the irradiation of materials is discussed. In this design a central cyllndrical core of moderating material ls surrounded by an active portlon comprlsed of an annular tank contalning fissionable material immersed ln a liquid moderator. The active portion ls ln turn surrounded by a reflector, and a well ls provided in the center of the core to accommodate the materlals to be irradiated. The over-all dimensions of the core ln at least one plane are equal to or greater than twice the effective slowing down length and equal to or less than twlce the effective diffuslon length for neutrons in the core materials.

  19. Synfuel production in nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Henning, C.D.

    Apparatus and method for producing synthetic fuels and synthetic fuel components by using a neutron source as the energy source, such as a fusion reactor. Neutron absorbers are disposed inside a reaction pipe and are heated by capturing neutrons from the neutron source. Synthetic fuel feedstock is then placed into contact with the heated neutron absorbers. The feedstock is heated and dissociates into its constituent synfuel components, or alternatively is at least preheated sufficiently to use in a subsequent electrolysis process to produce synthetic fuels and synthetic fuel components.

  20. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  1. Harmony in Career Learning and Scholastic System (Project HI-CLASS). Transitional Bilingual Education, 1991-92. Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelina, Edward; Duque, Diana L.

    An evaluation was done of the first year of a 2-year renewal program at three high schools in New York City, Harmony in Career Learning and Scholastic System (Project HI-CLASS), designed to provide support services to students of limited English proficiency (LEP). The project proposed to provide individualized instruction focusing on basic skills,…

  2. Optimal clustering of MGs based on droop controller for improving reliability using a hybrid of harmony search and genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Mohammad; Moradi, Mohammad H; Hosseinian, S M

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to address reliability and technical problems of microgrids (MGs) based on designing a number of self-adequate autonomous sub-MGs via adopting MGs clustering thinking. In doing so, a multi-objective optimization problem is developed where power losses reduction, voltage profile improvement and reliability enhancement are considered as the objective functions. To solve the optimization problem a hybrid algorithm, named HS-GA, is provided, based on genetic and harmony search algorithms, and a load flow method is given to model different types of DGs as droop controller. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated in two case studies. The results provide support for the performance of the proposed method. PMID:26767800

  3. The harmonious relationship between faith and science from the perspective of some great saints: A brief comment

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Manuel E.; del Río, Juan Pablo; Vigil, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this editorial is to show that a harmonious relationship between science and faith is possible, as exemplified by great saints of the Catholic Church. It begins with the definitions of science and faith, followed by an explanation of the apparent conflict between them. A few saints that constitute an example that a fruitful relationship between these two seemingly opposed realities has been possible are Saint Albert the Great, Saint John of the Cross, Saint Giuseppe Moscati, and Saint Edith Stein, among others, and this editorial highlights their deep contributions to the dialogue between faith and reason. This editorial ends with a brief discussion on whether it is possible to be both a scientist and a man of faith. PMID:25698837

  4. The harmonious relationship between faith and science from the perspective of some great saints: A brief comment.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Manuel E; Del Río, Juan Pablo; Vigil, Pilar

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this editorial is to show that a harmonious relationship between science and faith is possible, as exemplified by great saints of the Catholic Church. It begins with the definitions of science and faith, followed by an explanation of the apparent conflict between them. A few saints that constitute an example that a fruitful relationship between these two seemingly opposed realities has been possible are Saint Albert the Great, Saint John of the Cross, Saint Giuseppe Moscati, and Saint Edith Stein, among others, and this editorial highlights their deep contributions to the dialogue between faith and reason. This editorial ends with a brief discussion on whether it is possible to be both a scientist and a man of faith. PMID:25698837

  5. Products and processes of agri-scientific service-learning: adding harmony to Dopico and Garcia-Vázquez

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, George L.

    2011-06-01

    This forum response adds a conceptualization of harmony to Dopico and Vázquez' investigation of pedagogy that combines citizen science, environmental and cross-cultural research, and service-learning. Placing many appropriate and significant aspects of culturally situated science education in an authentically relational context beyond the classroom, this paper calls attention to insightful contributions and new directions for research, such as the process of inducing or eluding nihilism regarding ecological issues. How can such a question be researched effectively in order to learn about the family of pedagogies emerging in response to the need for more ecologically conscious and relationally authentic teaching across many disciplines? In this paper, I use a Vygotskian framework and an abbreviated case study of agricultural service-learning from my research, drawing attention to the importance of students' culturally-mediated construction of setting as they interact in older and newer ways.

  6. Obchs: AN Effective Harmony Search Algorithm with Oppositionbased Chaos-Enhanced Initialization for Solving Uncapacitated Facility Location Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, A. A.; Kazemizade, O.; Abbaspour, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a continuous harmony search (HS) approach is investigated for tackling the Uncapacitated Facility Location (UFL) task. This article proposes an efficient modified HS-based optimizer to improve the performance of HS on complex spatial tasks like UFL problems. For this aim, opposition-based learning (OBL) and chaotic patterns are utilized. The proposed technique is examined against several UFL benchmark challenges in specialized literature. Then, the modified HS is substantiated in detail and compared to the basic HS and some other methods. The results showed that new opposition-based chaotic HS (OBCHS) algorithm not only can exploit better solutions competently but it is able to outperform HS in solving UFL problems.

  7. A random-key encoded harmony search approach for energy-efficient production scheduling with shared resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Santiago, C. A.; Del Ser, J.; Upton, C.; Quilligan, F.; Gil-Lopez, S.; Salcedo-Sanz, S.

    2015-11-01

    When seeking near-optimal solutions for complex scheduling problems, meta-heuristics demonstrate good performance with affordable computational effort. This has resulted in a gravitation towards these approaches when researching industrial use-cases such as energy-efficient production planning. However, much of the previous research makes assumptions about softer constraints that affect planning strategies and about how human planners interact with the algorithm in a live production environment. This article describes a job-shop problem that focuses on minimizing energy consumption across a production facility of shared resources. The application scenario is based on real facilities made available by the Irish Center for Manufacturing Research. The formulated problem is tackled via harmony search heuristics with random keys encoding. Simulation results are compared to a genetic algorithm, a simulated annealing approach and a first-come-first-served scheduling. The superior performance obtained by the proposed scheduler paves the way towards its practical implementation over industrial production chains.

  8. Modal interactions due to friction in the nonlinear vibration response of the "Harmony" test structure: Experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, M.; Sinou, J.-J.; Lambelin, J.-P.; Todeschini, R.

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear vibration response of an assembly with friction joints - named "Harmony" - is studied both experimentally and numerically. The experimental results exhibit a softening effect and an increase of dissipation with excitation level. Modal interactions due to friction are also evidenced. The numerical methodology proposed groups together well-known structural dynamic methods, including finite elements, substructuring, Harmonic Balance and continuation methods. On the one hand, the application of this methodology proves its capacity to treat a complex system where several friction movements occur at the same time. On the other hand, the main contribution of this paper is the experimental and numerical study of evidence of modal interactions due to friction. The simulation methodology succeeds in reproducing complex form of dynamic behavior such as these modal interactions.

  9. Hybridisations of Variable Neighbourhood Search and Modified Simplex Elements to Harmony Search and Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithms for Process Optimisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aungkulanon, P.; Luangpaiboon, P.

    2010-10-01

    Nowadays, the engineering problem systems are large and complicated. An effective finite sequence of instructions for solving these problems can be categorised into optimisation and meta-heuristic algorithms. Though the best decision variable levels from some sets of available alternatives cannot be done, meta-heuristics is an alternative for experience-based techniques that rapidly help in problem solving, learning and discovery in the hope of obtaining a more efficient or more robust procedure. All meta-heuristics provide auxiliary procedures in terms of their own tooled box functions. It has been shown that the effectiveness of all meta-heuristics depends almost exclusively on these auxiliary functions. In fact, the auxiliary procedure from one can be implemented into other meta-heuristics. Well-known meta-heuristics of harmony search (HSA) and shuffled frog-leaping algorithms (SFLA) are compared with their hybridisations. HSA is used to produce a near optimal solution under a consideration of the perfect state of harmony of the improvisation process of musicians. A meta-heuristic of the SFLA, based on a population, is a cooperative search metaphor inspired by natural memetics. It includes elements of local search and global information exchange. This study presents solution procedures via constrained and unconstrained problems with different natures of single and multi peak surfaces including a curved ridge surface. Both meta-heuristics are modified via variable neighbourhood search method (VNSM) philosophy including a modified simplex method (MSM). The basic idea is the change of neighbourhoods during searching for a better solution. The hybridisations proceed by a descent method to a local minimum exploring then, systematically or at random, increasingly distant neighbourhoods of this local solution. The results show that the variant of HSA with VNSM and MSM seems to be better in terms of the mean and variance of design points and yields.

  10. Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

  11. Reactor and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  12. Final Report DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER83817 Integrated Reactor Design for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Sourced Reactants Streams Using the Aqueous-Phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Randy D. Cortright

    2005-05-04

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation research project Virent Energy Systems (Virent) attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of generating high yields of hydrogen by developing the appropriate reactor system for the novel liquid-phase reforming of aqueous-phase carbohydrate streams derived from biomass. In this project platinum-based catalysts were initially utilized to establish the technical feasibility of reactor design for reforming carbohydrates found in biomass to hydrogen.

  13. Advanced Neutron Source equipment data base. [Advanced Neutron Source Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coffin, D.B. )

    1990-08-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new experimental facility planned to meet the national need for an intense, steady-state source of neutrons. It will be open for use by scientists from universities, industry, and other federal laboratories. The ANS will be equipped with an initial complement of advanced instruments for neutron scattering and nuclear physics research, with facilities for isotope production and for the study of materials in high radiation fields. The central structure is a 60-m ({approximately}200-ft) diam cylindrical, domed reactor building. This building will house the reactor itself, with its lower floors dedicated to beam and irradiation experiments and with a high-bay floor dedicated to reactor operations. A reactor support building, to be adjacent to the reactor building, will house other large reactor equipment and the general support equipment not located in the reactor building. The primary heat exchanger and circulating pumps will be located in cell banks within reactor containment. The guide hall building, connected to the reactor dome outside reactor containment, is dedicated to beam experiment use. The fourth building will be an office building serving both the extensive user community and the reactor operations staff. These buildings will contain many of the systems needed for operation of the ANS and will be comprised of equipment requiring specification of performance, test, and operating parameters. The number of equipment items, the possibility for multiple application of a particular piece of equipment, and the need for a single source of information for all equipment led to a requirement to develop and equipment-related data base. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Reactor safety method

    DOEpatents

    Vachon, Lawrence J.

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR MANIPULATING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1962-08-01

    A cable connecting a control rod in a reactor with a motor outside the reactor for moving the rod, and a helical conduit in the reactor wall, through which the cable passes are described. The helical shape of the conduit prevents the escape of certain harmful radiations from the reactor. (AEC)

  16. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  17. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  18. Cooperative Monitoring of Reactors with Antineutrino Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefer, Greg

    2010-11-01

    The current state-of-the-art in antineutrino detection is such that it is now possible to monitor the operational status, power levels and fissile content of nuclear reactors in real-time at standoff distances of a few tens of meters, well outside of the reactor containment. This has been demonstrated at civilian power reactors in both Russia and the United States. In the last few years, the International Atomic Energy Agency has begun to consider the potential of this technology for its reactor safeguards regime. In this talk, I describe the state of the art for this application, and emphasize the natural overlap with ongoing efforts in fundamental physics to measure the oscillations of antineutrinos using reactor sources.

  19. ICP Reactor Modeling: CF4 Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.

    1999-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactors are widely used now for etching and deposition applications due to their simpler design compared to other high density sources. Plasma reactor modeling has been playing an important role since it can, in principle, reduce the number of trial and error iterations in the design process and provide valuable understanding of mechanisms. Fluorocarbon precursors have been the choice for oxide etching. We have data available on CF4 from our laboratory. These are current voltage characteristics, La.ngmuir probe data, UV-absorption, and mass spectrometry measurements in a GEC-ICP reactor. We have developed a comprehensive model for ICP reactors which couples plasma generation and transport and neutral species dynamics with the gas flow equations. The model has been verified by comparison with experimental results for a nitrogen discharge in an ICP reactor. In the present work, the model has been applied to CF4 discharge and compared to available experimental data.

  20. Graphite moderated (252)Cf source.

    PubMed

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Barros, Haydn; Greaves, Eduardo D; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2015-06-01

    The Thorium molten-salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid-fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a (252)Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the (252)Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. PMID:25770393

  1. Programmable AC power supply for simulating power transient expected in fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Halimi, B.; Suh, K. Y.

    2012-07-01

    This paper focus on control engineering of the programmable AC power source which has capability to simulate power transient expected in fusion reactor. To generate the programmable power source, AC-AC power electronics converter is adopted to control the power of a set of heaters to represent the transient phenomena of heat exchangers or heat sources of a fusion reactor. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma operation scenario is used as the basic reference for producing this transient power source. (authors)

  2. Optimal design of groundwater remediation systems using a probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Q.; Wu, J.; Qian, J.

    2013-12-01

    This study develops a new probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (PMOFHS) for optimal design of groundwater remediation system under uncertainty associated with the hydraulic conductivity of aquifers. The PMOFHS integrates the previously developed deterministic multi-objective optimization method, namely multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (MOFHS) with a probabilistic Pareto domination ranking and probabilistic niche technique to search for Pareto-optimal solutions to multi-objective optimization problems in a noisy hydrogeological environment arising from insufficient hydraulic conductivity data. The PMOFHS is then coupled with the commonly used flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to identify the optimal groundwater remediation system of a two-dimensional hypothetical test problem involving two objectives: (i) minimization of the total remediation cost through the engineering planning horizon, and (ii) minimization of the percentage of mass remaining in the aquifer at the end of the operational period, which uses the Pump-and-Treat (PAT) technology to clean up contaminated groundwater. Also, Monte Carlo (MC) analysis is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The MC analysis is taken to each Pareto solutions for every K realization. Then the statistical mean and the upper and lower bounds of uncertainty intervals of 95% confidence level are calculated. The MC analysis results show that all of the Pareto-optimal solutions are located between the upper and lower bounds of the MC analysis. Moreover, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) between the Pareto-optimal solutions by the PMOFHS and the average values of optimal solutions by the MC analysis are 0.0204 for the first objective and 0.0318 for the second objective, quite smaller than those RMSEs between the results by the existing probabilistic multi-objective genetic algorithm (PMOGA) and the MC analysis, 0.0384 and 0.0397, respectively. In

  3. Early neuronal responses in right limbic structures mediate harmony incongruity processing in musical experts.

    PubMed

    James, Clara E; Britz, Juliane; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hauert, Claude-Alain; Michel, Christoph M

    2008-10-01

    In western tonal music, musical phrases end with an explicit harmonic consequent which is highly expected. As such expectation is a consequence of musical background, cerebral processing of incongruities of musical grammar might be a function of expertise. We hypothesized that a subtle incongruity of standard closure should evoke a profound and rapid reaction in an expert's brain. If such a reaction is due to neuroplasticity as a consequence of musical training, it should be correlated with distinctive activations in sensory, motor and/or cognitive function related brain areas in response to the incongruent closure. Using event related potential (ERP) source imaging, we determined the temporal dynamics of neuronal activity in highly trained pianists and musical laymen in response to syntactic harmonic incongruities in expressive music, which were easily detected by the experts but not by the laymen. Our results revealed that closure incongruity evokes a selective early response in musical experts, characterized by a strong, right lateralized negative ERP component. Statistical source analysis could demonstrate putative contribution to the generation of this component in right temporal-limbic areas, encompassing hippocampal complex and amygdala, and in right insula. Its early onset (approximately 200 ms) preceded responses in frontal areas that may reflect more conscious processing. These results go beyond previous work demonstrating that musical training can change activity of sensory and motor areas during musical or audio-motor tasks, and suggest that functional plasticity in right medial-temporal structures and insula also modulates processing of subtle harmonic incongruities. PMID:18640279

  4. FHSA-SED: Two-Locus Model Detection for Genome-Wide Association Study with Harmony Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Shouheng; Zhang, Junying; Yuan, Xiguo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Zhaowen

    2016-01-01

    Motivation Two-locus model is a typical significant disease model to be identified in genome-wide association study (GWAS). Due to intensive computational burden and diversity of disease models, existing methods have drawbacks on low detection power, high computation cost, and preference for some types of disease models. Method In this study, two scoring functions (Bayesian network based K2-score and Gini-score) are used for characterizing two SNP locus as a candidate model, the two criteria are adopted simultaneously for improving identification power and tackling the preference problem to disease models. Harmony search algorithm (HSA) is improved for quickly finding the most likely candidate models among all two-locus models, in which a local search algorithm with two-dimensional tabu table is presented to avoid repeatedly evaluating some disease models that have strong marginal effect. Finally G-test statistic is used to further test the candidate models. Results We investigate our method named FHSA-SED on 82 simulated datasets and a real AMD dataset, and compare it with two typical methods (MACOED and CSE) which have been developed recently based on swarm intelligent search algorithm. The results of simulation experiments indicate that our method outperforms the two compared algorithms in terms of detection power, computation time, evaluation times, sensitivity (TPR), specificity (SPC), positive predictive value (PPV) and accuracy (ACC). Our method has identified two SNPs (rs3775652 and rs10511467) that may be also associated with disease in AMD dataset. PMID:27014873

  5. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  6. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.

    1993-09-28

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur. 2 figures.

  7. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Charles D.; Davison, Brian H.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  8. Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1981-01-06

    A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

  9. An Account of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Thirteen Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Murray Wilford

    2009-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has built and operated 13 nuclear reactors in its 66-year history. The first was the graphite reactor, the world's first operational nuclear reactor, which served as a plutonium production pilot plant during World War II. It was followed by two aqueous-homogeneous reactors and two red-hot molten-salt reactors that were parts of power-reactor development programs and by eight others designed for research and radioisotope production. One of the eight was an all-metal fast burst reactor used for health physics studies. All of the others were light-water cooled and moderated, including the famous swimming-pool reactor that was copied dozens of times around the world. Two of the reactors were hoisted 200 feet into the air to study the shielding needs of proposed nuclear-powered aircraft. The final reactor, and the only one still operating today, is the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) that was built particularly for the production of californium and other heavy elements. With the world's highest flux and recent upgrades that include the addition of a cold neutron source, the 44-year-old HFIR continues to be a valuable tool for research and isotope production, attracting some 500 scientific visitors and guests to Oak Ridge each year. This report describes all of the reactors and their histories.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  11. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  12. Reactor System Transient Code.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-07-14

    RELAP3B describes the behavior of water-cooled nuclear reactors during postulated accidents or power transients, such as large reactivity excursions, coolant losses or pump failures. The program calculates flows, mass and energy inventories, pressures, temperatures, and steam qualities along with variables associated with reactor power, reactor heat transfer, or control systems. Its versatility allows one to describe simple hydraulic systems as well as complex reactor systems.

  13. Austrian contributions to reactor safety research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sdouz, Gert

    1992-03-01

    An overview of Austrian contributions to reactor safety research is given. Starting with licensing for the power plant Zwenkendorf and participation in the safety projects PBF (Power Burst Facility) and LOFT (Loss Of Fluid Test), the work shifted later to participation in the study of international standard problems of the OECD and the IAEA. Since 1988 the center of activity is the calculation of the source term behavior of accident sequences, especially for reactors of Russian types. As an illustration the results of a source term calculation for a TMLB' sequence are presented.

  14. Exotic SiO2H2 Isomers: Theory and Experiment Working in Harmony.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael C; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-19

    Replacing carbon with silicon can result in dramatic and unanticipated changes in isomeric stability, as the well-studied CO2H2 and the essentially unknown SiO2H2 systems illustrate. Guided by coupled-cluster calculations, three SiO2H2 isomers have been detected and spectroscopically characterized in a molecular beam discharge source using rotational spectroscopy. The cis,trans conformer of dihydroxysilylene HOSiOH, the ground-state isomer, and the high-energy, metastable dioxasilirane c-H2SiO2 are abundantly produced in a dilute SiH4/O2 electrical discharge, enabling precise structural determinations of both by a combination of isotopic measurements and calculated vibrational corrections. The isotopic studies also provide insight into their formation route, suggesting that c-H2SiO2 is formed promptly in the expansion but that cis,trans-HOSiOH is likely formed by secondary reactions following formation of the most stable dissociation pair, SiO + H2O. Although less abundant, the rotational spectrum of trans-silanoic acid, the silicon analogue of formic acid, HSi(O)OH, has also been observed. PMID:27139016

  15. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McBee, M.R.; Chance, C.M. ); Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Peretz, F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the advanced neutron source: quality assurance (QA) program; reactor core development; fuel element specification; corrosion loop tests and analyses; thermal-hydraulic loop tests; reactor control concepts; critical and subcritical experiments; material data, structural tests, and analysis; cold source development; beam tube, guide, and instrument development; hot source development; neutron transport and shielding; I C research and development; facility concepts; design; and safety.

  16. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2013-05-28

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SHIELDING

    DOEpatents

    Borst, L.B.

    1961-07-11

    A special hydrogenous concrete shielding for reactors is described. In addition to Portland cement and water, the concrete essentially comprises 30 to 60% by weight barytes aggregate for enhanced attenuation of fast neutrons. The biological shields of AEC's Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor and Materials Testing Reactor are particular embodiments.

  18. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  19. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  1. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  2. University Reactor Instrumentation Grant

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Bajorek

    2000-02-01

    A noble gas air monitoring system was purchased through the University Reactor Instrumentation Grant Program. This monitor was installed in the Kansas State TRIGA reactor bay at a location near the top surface of the reactor pool according to recommendation by the supplier. This system is now functional and has been incorporated into the facility license.

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  4. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.

    1992-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1991. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is an American company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4, in each section). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  5. Proposal of Space Reactor for Nuclear Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Hidetaka; Nishiyama, Takaaki; Nakashima, Hideki

    Currently, the solar battery, the chemical cell, and the RI battery are used for the energy source in space. However, it is difficult for them to satisfy requirements for deep space explorations. Therefore, other electric power sources which can stably produce high electric energy output, regardless of distance from the sun, are necessary to execute such missions. Then, we here propose small nuclear reactors as power sources for deep space exploration, and consider a conceptual design of a small nuclear reactor for Nuclear Electric Propulsion System. It is found from nuclear analyses that the Gas-Cooled reactor could not meet the design requirement imposed on the core mass. On the other hand, a light water reactor is found to be a promising alternative to the Gas-Cooled reactor.

  6. Neutron behavior, reactor control, and reactor heat transfer. Volume four

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume four covers neutron behavior (neutron absorption, how big are nuclei, neutron slowing down, neutron losses, the self-sustaining reactor), reactor control (what is controlled in a reactor, controlling neutron population, is it easy to control a reactor, range of reactor control, what happens when the fuel burns up, controlling a PWR, controlling a BWR, inherent safety of reactors), and reactor heat transfer (heat generation in a nuclear reactor, how is heat removed from a reactor core, heat transfer rate, heat transfer properties of the reactor coolant).

  7. Fluidized bed reactor utilizing a plate support and method of operating the reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, J.

    1984-10-09

    A bed support, and a fluidizing bed reactor incorporating the bed support, the bed support including a horizontal support surface with a centrally disposed conduit for removing tramp material and/or agglomerated material from the reactor. The horizontal support surface has fluidizing air source jet nozzles for directing pressurized air toward the area above the conduit. In a first embodiment, the conduit has downwardly diverging walls. In a second embodiment, the horizontal support surface further includes a bar grate having central fluidizing air source jet nozzles positioned within the conduit. The method of operating the fluidized bed reactor includes directing pressurized air at an angle to the horizontal support surface both for fluidizing the bed and for moving the tramp material and/or agglomerated material toward the conduit for removal from the reactor through the conduit.

  8. Reactor vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Holley, John C.

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  9. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  10. Requirements for Reactor Physics Design

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond,D.J.

    2008-04-11

    It has been recognized that there is a need for requirements and guidance for design and operation of nuclear power plants. This is becoming more important as more reactors are being proposed to be built. In parallel with activities in individual countries are norms established by international organizations. This paper discusses requirements/guidance for neutronic design and operation as promulgated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). As an example, details are given for one reactor physics parameter, namely, the moderator temperature reactivity coefficient. The requirements/guidance from the NRC are discussed in the context of those generated for the International Atomic Energy Agency. The requirements/guidance are not identical from the two sources although they are compatible.

  11. Physics design of the upgraded TREAT reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Lell, R.M.; Liaw, J.R.; Ulrich, A.J.; Wade, D.C.; Yang, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    With the deferral of the Safety Test Facility (STF), the TREAT Upgrade (TU) reactor has assumed a lead role in the US LMFBR safety test program for the foreseeable future. The functional requirements on TU require a significant enhancement of the capability of the current TREAT reactor. A design of the TU reactor has been developed that modifies the central 11 x 11 fuel assembly array of the TREAT reactor such as to provide the increased source of hard spectrum neutrons necessary to meet the functional requirements. A safety consequence of the increased demands on TU is that the self limiting operation capability of TREAT has proved unattainable, and reliance on a safety grade Plant Protection System is necessary to ensure that no clad damage occurs under postulated low-probability reactivity accidents. With that constraint, the physics design of TU provides a means of meeting the functional requirements with a high degree of confidence.

  12. Gaseous fuel reactors for power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. S.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors have significant advantages as energy sources for closed-cycle power systems. The advantages arise from the removal of temperature limits associated with conventional reactor fuel elements, the wide variety of methods of extracting energy from fissioning gases, and inherent low fissile and fission product in-core inventory due to continuous fuel reprocessing. Example power cycles and their general performance characteristics are discussed. Efficiencies of gaseous fuel reactor systems are shown to be high with resulting minimal environmental effects. A technical overview of the NASA-funded research program in gaseous fuel reactors is described and results of recent tests of uranium hexafluoride (UF6)-fueled critical assemblies are presented.

  13. Space nuclear reactor shielding optimization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Richard D.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    The Institute for Space Nuclear Reactor Studies is investigating optimal techniques for shielding spacecraft (payload) electronics from the combined radiation effects of the SP-100 system nuclear reactor core and the natural space environment. The academic challenge of this research includes the investigation of the combined influences of radiation from the space environment and the radiations from the reactor power source. The technical application includes a series of shielding mass penalty tradeoffs for the SP-100 Program concept between the reactor core shield and the additional shielding of the spacecraft enclosure. These mass penalty tradeoffs are being conducted for several space flight orbits of future interest to the space military and civilian communities. It was shown that several potential mission orbits may pose environmental radiation dosages which are more severe than the SP-100 specification of core escape neutron and gamma ray particle fluences incident on the spacecraft.

  14. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  15. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  16. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIOACTIVITY IN THE REACTOR VESSEL OF THE HEAVY WATER COMPONENT TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, Dennis

    2010-06-01

    The Heavy Water Component Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility is a pressurized heavy water reactor that was used to test candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. The reactor operated at nominal power of 50 MW{sub th}. The reactor coolant loop operated at 1200 psig and 250 C. Two isolated test loop were designed into the reactor to provide special test conditions. Fig. 1 shows a cut-away view of the reactor. The two loops are contained in four inch diameter stainless steel piping. The HWCTR was operated for only a short duration, from March 1962 to December 1964 in order to test the viability of test fuel elements and other reactor components for use in a heavy water power reactor. The reactor achieved 13,882 MWd of total power while testing 36 different fuel assemblies. In the course of operation, HWCTR experienced the cladding failures of 10 separate test fuel assemblies. In each case, the cladding was breached with some release of fuel core material into the isolated test loop, causing fission product and actinide contamination in the main coolant loop and the liquid and boiling test loops. Despite the contribution of the contamination from the failed fuel, the primary source of radioactivity in the HWCTR vessel and internals is the activation products in the thermal shields, and to a lesser degree, activation products in the reactor vessel walls and liner. A detailed facility characterization report of the HWCTR facility was completed in 1996. Many of the inputs and assumptions in the 1996 characterization report were derived from the HWCTR decommissioning plan published in 1975. The current paper provides an updated assessment of the radioisotopic characteristics of the HWCTR vessel and internals to support decommissioning activities on the facility.

  18. Neutron sources and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Rush, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  19. ACCELERATOR BASED CONTINUOUS NEUTRON SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAPIRO,S.M.; RUGGIERO,A.G.; LUDEWIG,H.

    2003-03-25

    Until the last decade, most neutron experiments have been performed at steady-state, reactor-based sources. Recently, however, pulsed spallation sources have been shown to be very useful in a wide range of neutron studies. A major review of neutron sources in the US was conducted by a committee chaired by Nobel laureate Prof. W. Kohn: ''Neutron Sources for America's Future-BESAC Panel on Neutron Sources 1/93''. This distinguished panel concluded that steady state and pulsed sources are complementary and that the nation has need for both to maintain a balanced neutron research program. The report recommended that both a new reactor and a spallation source be built. This complementarity is recognized worldwide. The conclusion of this report is that a new continuous neutron source is needed for the second decade of the 20 year plan to replace aging US research reactors and close the US neutron gap. it is based on spallation production of neutrons using a high power continuous superconducting linac to generate protons impinging on a heavy metal target. There do not appear to be any major technical challenges to the building of such a facility since a continuous spallation source has been operating in Switzerland for several years.

  20. Solid0Core Heat-Pipe Nuclear Batterly Type Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ehud Greenspan

    2008-09-30

    This project was devoted to a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of designing an Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactor to have a solid core from which heat is removed by liquid-metal heat pipes (HP).