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Sample records for sources ii

  1. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Dierker

    2008-03-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  2. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Steve Dierker

    2010-01-08

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  3. The sources of our iron ores. II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burchard, E.F.

    1933-01-01

    In this instalment** the iron ore deposits of the Lake Superior States, which normally furnish about 80 per cent, of the annual output of the United States, are described together with historical notes on discovery and transportation of ore. Deposits in the Mississippi Valley and Western States are likewise outlined and the sources of imported ore are given. Reviewing the whole field, it is indicated that the great producing deposits of the Lake Superior and southern Appalachian regions are of hematite in basin areas of sedimentary rocks, that hydrated iron oxides and iron carbonates are generally found in undisturbed comparatively recent sediments, and that magnetite occurs in metamorphic and igneous rocks; also that numerical abundance of deposits is not a criterion as to their real importance as a source of supply. Statistics of production of iron ore and estimates of reserves of present grade conclude the paper.

  4. Generalized Rayleigh scattering. II. Matrix source functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Kasaurov, A. M.; Loskutov, V. M.; Viik, T.

    1995-11-01

    Numerical and analytical data are presented on the matrix source functions S(τ) of the standard problem of multiple generalized Rayleigh scattering (GRS) in homogeneous semi-infinite atmospheres with uniformly distributed embedded primary sources of partially polarized radiation. The source matrices S(τ) are found by the discrete-ordinate solution of the relevant 2x2 matrix transfer equation and by albedo shifting technique, which is a version of the accelerated {LAMBDA}-iteration approach. The dependence of the solution of the matrix transfer equation on the parameters of the problem of multiple molecular scattering, albedo of single scattering λ_I_ and depolarization factor W, is carefully considered. (The value W=1 corresponds to Rayleigh scattering, while for scalar isotropic scattering W=0). From the pair of the parameters (λ_I_, W) we switch to (λ_I_, λ_Q_), with λ_Q_=0.7Wλ_I_, and instead of the physically natural domain of the parameter values, λ_Iin[0,1], λ_ Qin[0,0.7λ_I_], in GRS we consider a wider one, λ_ I_, λ_Qin[0,1]. On the plane with the axes (λ_I_, λ_Q_), or the λ-plane, there is a one-parameter family of curves, the isopols, along which S(0) remains constant. The λ-plane and the isopols are the basic instruments in our analysis. Along with presenting the numerical data we discuss the asymptotic behavior of S(τ) for τ->{infinity}. It is shown that the matrix counterpart of the usual scalar conservative isotropic scattering is not the ordinary conservative Rayleigh scattering (λ_I_=1, λ_ Q_=0.7), but the biconservative scattering, i.e., scattering with λ_I_=λ_Q_=1. The analysis of the remarkable properties of biconservative scattering naturally leads to matrix generalizations of the Hopf-Bronstein relation, the Hopf constant etc.

  5. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Hamzah, N. S.; J. B., Abi M.; M. Z., M. Rawi; Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-01

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  6. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Hamzah, N. S. Abi, M. J. B. Rawi, M. Z. M. Rawi Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-12

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  7. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. II. THE SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L. D.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Rood, Robert T.

    2011-06-01

    The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) H II Region Discovery Survey has doubled the number of known H II regions in the Galactic zone 343{sup 0} {<=} l {<=} 67{sup 0} with | b | {<=} 1{sup 0}. We detected 603 discrete hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) components at 9 GHz (3 cm) from 448 targets. Our targets were selected based on spatially coincident mid-infrared and 20 cm radio continuum emission. Such sources are almost invariably H II regions; we detected hydrogen RRL emission from 95% of our target sample. The sensitivity of the GBT and the power of its spectrometer together made this survey possible. Here, we provide a catalog of the measured properties of the RRL and continuum emission from the survey nebulae. The derived survey completeness limit, 180 mJy at 9 GHz, is sufficient to detect all H II regions ionized by single O-stars to a distance of 12 kpc. These recently discovered nebulae share the same distribution on the sky as does the previously known census of Galactic H II regions. On average, however, the new nebulae have fainter continuum fluxes, smaller continuum angular sizes, fainter RRL intensities, and smaller RRL line widths. Though small in angular size, many of our new nebulae show little spatial correlation with tracers associated with extremely young H II regions, implying that our sample spans a range of evolutionary states. We discovered 34 first quadrant negative-velocity H II regions, which lie at extreme distances from the Sun and appear to be part of the Outer Arm. We found RRL emission from 208 Spitzer GLIMPSE 8.0 {mu}m 'bubble' sources, 65 of which have been cataloged previously. It thus appears that nearly all GLIMPSE bubbles are H II regions and that {approx}50% of all Galactic H II regions have a bubble morphology at 8.0 {mu}m.

  8. Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stohr, J

    2011-11-16

    The LCLS-II Project is designed to support the DOE Office of Science mission, as described in the 22 April 2010 Mission Need Statement. The scope of the Project was chosen to provide an increase in capabilities and capacity for the facility both at project completion in 2017 and in the subsequent decade. The Project is designed to address all points of the Mission Need Statement (MNS): (1) Expanded spectral reach; (2) Capability to provide x-ray beams with controllable polarization; (3) Capability to provide 'pump' pulses over a vastly extended range of photon energies to a sample, synchronized to LCLS-II x-ray probe pulses with controllable inter-pulse time delay; and (4) Increase of user access through parallel rather than serial x-ray beam use within the constraint of a $300M-$400M Total Project Cost (TPC) range. The LCLS-II Project will construct: (1) A hard x-ray undulator source (2-13 keV); (2) A soft x-ray undulator source (250-2,000 eV); (3) A dedicated, independent electron source for these new undulators, using sectors 10-20 of the SLAC linac; (4) Modifications to existing SLAC facilities for the injector and new shielded enclosures for the undulator sources, beam dumps and x-ray front ends; (5) A new experiment hall capable of accommodating four experiment stations; and (6) Relocation of the two soft x-ray instruments in the existing Near Experiment Hall (NEH) to the new experiment hall (Experiment Hall-II). A key objective of LCLS-II is to maintain near-term international leadership in the study of matter on the fundamental atomic length scale and the associated ultrafast time scales of atomic motion and electronic transformation. Clearly, such studies promise scientific breakthroughs in key areas of societal needs like energy, environment, health and technology, and they are uniquely enabled by forefront X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) facilities. While the implementation of LCLS-II extends to about 2017, it is important to realize that LCLS-II only

  9. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lejeune, A.; Bourgeois, G.; Mazouffre, S.

    2012-07-15

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,v{sub x}) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  10. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeune, A.; Bourgeois, G.; Mazouffre, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,vx) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  11. A MODEL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE MODE COUPLING INSTABILITY AT NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE-II (NSLS-II).

    SciTech Connect

    BLEDNYKH, A.; WANG, J.M.

    2005-05-15

    The vertical impedances of the preliminary designs of National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) Mini Gap Undulators (MGU) are calculated by means of GdfidL code. The Transverse Mode Coupling Instability (TMCI) thresholds corresponding to these impedances are estimated using an analytically solvable model.

  12. EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF STATIONARY NOX SOURCES: VOLUME II. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is part of 10 special reports on the environmental assessment of stationary source NOx combustion modification technologies program. The program has two main objectives: (1) to identify the multimedia environmental impact of stationary combustion sources and NOx combustion m...

  13. Top-up operation at Pohang Light Source-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, I.; Huang, J. Y.; Kim, M.; Lee, B.-J.; Kim, C.; Choi, J.-Y.; Kim, M.-H.; Lee, H. S.; Moon, D.; Lee, E. H.; Kim, D.-E.; Nam, S. H.; Shin, S.; Cho, Moohyun

    2014-05-01

    After three years of upgrading work, PLS-II (S. Shin, Commissioning of the PLS-II, JINST, January 2013) is now successfully operating. The top-up operation of the 3 GeV linear accelerator had to be delayed because of some challenges encountered, and PLS-II was run in decay mode at the beginning in March 2012. The main difficulties encountered in the top-up operation of PLS-II are different levels between the linear accelerator and the storage ring, the 14 narrow gap in-vacuum undulators in operation, and the full energy injection by 3 GeV linear accelerator. Large vertical emittance and energy jitter of the linac were the major obstacles that called for careful control of injected beam to reduce beam loss in the storage ring during injection. The following measures were taken to resolve these problems: (1) The high resolution Libera BPM (see http://www.i-tech.si) was implemented to measure the beam trajectory and energy. (2) Three slit systems were installed to filter the beam edge. (3) De-Qing circuit was applied to the modulator system to improve the energy stability of injected beam. As a result, the radiation by beam loss during injection is reduced drastically, and the top-up mode has been successfully operating since 19th March 2013. In this paper, we describe the experimental results of the PLS-II top-up operation and the improvement plan.

  14. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: II. Sources of Agronomic Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers that was conducted to assess how the dealers were obtaining their agronomic information, aside from formal training sessions, and determine if these sources of information were satisfactory in fulfilling the dealers' needs. (TW)

  15. EMISSIONS PROFILE CHARACTERIZATION OF LAKE MICHIGAN POLLUTANT SOURCES - PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The southern Lake Michigan area continues to experience poor air quality despite the implementation of many measures to control particulate matter, ozone and toxic pollutants. Fortunately, the ambient atmosphere holds clues to these sources and their contributions to urban pollut...

  16. RTNS-II: irradiations at the Rotating Target Neutron Source-II. 1983 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This is the second annual report summarizing irradiation experiments and operations at RTNS-II. It covers calendar year 1983 and includes reports on all irradiations, non-fusion as well as fusion, and on utilization of Monbusho's transmission electron microscope (TEM) a RTNS-II. Each summary article has been submitted by the investigator and has been altered only to meet the style and format requirements of this report.

  17. Basic Psychiatric Literature: II. Articles and Article Sources*†

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Joan B.; Pieper, Sam; Frazier, Shervert H.

    1968-01-01

    Widely varying reading lists for general psychiatry residents were obtained from 140 three-year approved training programs. The material recommended for reading was listed on index cards, and the number of programs recommending each item was posted on the cards. Approximately 4,000 articles, 2,800 books, and 200 serials were recommended. A statistical evaluation of the book list appeared in a previous paper (3).* Part II is a similar evaluation of the article list and the limited editions and serials in which the articles appear. PMID:4883158

  18. Finding joy in social work. II: Intrapersonal sources.

    PubMed

    Pooler, David Kenneth; Wolfer, Terry; Freeman, Miriam

    2014-07-01

    Despite the social work profession's strengths orientation, research on its workforce tends to focus on problems (for example, depression, problem drinking, compassion fatigue, burnout). In contrast, this study explored ways in which social workers find joy in their work. The authors used an appreciative inquiry approach, semistructured interviews (N = 26), and a collaborative grounded theory method of analysis. Participants identified interpersonal (making connections and making a difference) and intrapersonal (making meaning and making a life) sources of joy and reflected significant personal initiative in the process of finding joy. The authors present findings regarding these intrapersonal sources of joy. PMID:25076645

  19. Bicentennial Source Book, Level II, Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Nancy; And Others

    This study activities source book is one of a series of four developed by the Carroll County Public School System, Maryland, for celebration of the Bicentennial. It is specifically designed to generate ideas integrating the Bicentennial celebration into various disciplines, classroom activities, and school-wide events at the third grade through…

  20. The Chandra Fornax Survey. II. The Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Karen; Zurek, D.; Scharf, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Fornax cluster of galaxies lies in the southern hemisphere and is second only to the richer and more well-studied Virgo cluster in its accessibility for high resolution multi-wavelength data collection. A deep \\emph{Chandra} survey of the inner one degree of this cluster was performed in 2003, with first results published in 2005 identifying 771 X-ray point sources. We present a catalog of these X-ray point sources. Possible and likely optical candidates were identified from ground-based, HST and GALEX images. This catalog will facilitate future investigations by enhancing our understanding of a cluster's fainter and smaller objects, calibrating distance rulers, and constraining cosmological models. This work was conducted by a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) position at the American Museum of Natural History and funded by the NSF.

  1. Surface photometry of radio galaxies. II - Cluster sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Frazer N.; White, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    R-band CCD photometric observations are reported for 52 radio galaxies in clusters for which good radio maps are available. Data obtained with the No. 1 0.9-m telescope at KPNO (following the procedures described by Owen and Laing, 1989) are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail. Optical and radio luminosity are found to be well correlated in twin-jet, fat-double, narrow-angle-tail, and small-twin-jet sources, all of which are clearly distinguished from the classical doubles as in the scheme of Fanaroff and Riley (1974). It is also shown that the elliptical parent galaxies of the extended radio sources form a one-parameter family with the optical luminosity as the key parameter.

  2. Outer heliospheric radio emissions. II - Foreshock source models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Kurth, William S.; Gurnett, Donald A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of LF radio emissions in the range 2-3 kHz by the Voyager spacecraft during the intervals 1983-1987 and 1989 to the present while at heliocentric distances greater than 11 AU are reported. New analyses of the wave data are presented, and the characteristics of the radiation are reviewed and discussed. Two classes of events are distinguished: transient events with varying starting frequencies that drift upward in frequency and a relatively continuous component that remains near 2 kHz. Evidence for multiple transient sources and for extension of the 2-kHz component above the 2.4-kHz interference signal is presented. The transient emissions are interpreted in terms of radiation generated at multiples of the plasma frequency when solar wind density enhancements enter one or more regions of a foreshock sunward of the inner heliospheric shock. Solar wind density enhancements by factors of 4-10 are observed. Propagation effects, the number of radiation sources, and the time variability, frequency drift, and varying starting frequencies of the transient events are discussed in terms of foreshock sources.

  3. FEASIBILITY STUDY II OF A MUON BASED NEUTRINO SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    GALLARDO,J.C.; OZAKI,S.; PALMER,R.B.; ZISMAN,M.

    2001-06-30

    The concept of using a muon storage ring to provide a well characterized beam of muon and electron neutrinos (a Neutrino Factory) has been under study for a number of years now at various laboratories throughout the world. The physics program of a Neutrino Factoryis focused on the relatively unexplored neutrino sector. In conjunction with a detector located a suitable distance from the neutrino source, the facility would make valuable contributions to the study of neutrino masses and lepton mixing. A Neutrino Factory is expected to improve the measurement accuracy of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 23}) and {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} and provide measurements of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13}) and the sign of {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}. It may also be able to measure CP violation in the lepton sector.

  4. Diffuse radio emission around FR II sources as exemplified by 3C452

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiita, Paul J.; Sirothia, S. K.; Gopal-Krishna, ..

    2014-01-01

    We have discovered a pair of megaparsec size radio lobes of extremely steep spectrum straddling the well-known classical double radio source 3C452. For the past several decades 3C452 has been regarded as a textbook example of an edge-brightened double radio source of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) but we show it to be a bonafide "double-double" radio galaxy (DDRG). The inner double fed by the jets has evolved into a perfectly normal FR II radio source. Thus, 3C452 presents a uniquely robust example of recurrent nuclear activity in which the restarted jets are expanding non-relativistically within the relic synchrotron plasma from an earlier active phase. This situation contrasts markedly with the strikingly narrow inner doubles observed in a few other DDRGs that have been interpreted in terms of compression of the synchrotron plasma of the relic outer lobes at the relativistic bow-shocks driven by the near ballistic propagation of the two inner jets through the relic plasma. We also present additional examples of the occurrence of faded outer lobes around well defined FRII sources, using our deep GMRT images at meter wavelengths processed with AIPS++ software. We also examine the statistics of the occurrence of such sources using a flux density limited sample. A key ramification of our findings are that they caution against the use of FR II classical double radio sources for testing cosmological models and unification schemes for active galactic nuclei.

  5. Light ion sources and target results on PBFA II (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.L.; Bailey, J.E.; Bieg, K.W.; Bloomquist, D.D.; Coats, R.S.; Chandler, G.C.; Cuneo, M.E.; Derzon, M.S.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Dreike, P.L.; Dukart, R.J.; Gerber, R.A.; Johnson, D.J.; Leeper, R.J.; Lockner, T.R.; McDaniel, D.H.; Maenchen, J.E.; Matzen, M.K.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Mix, L.P.; Moats, A.R.; Nelson, W.E.; Pointon, T.D.; Pregenzer, A.L.; Quintenz, J.P.; Renk, T.J.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Ruiz, C.L.; Slutz, S.A.; Stinnett, R

    1990-01-01

    Advances in ion beam theory, diagnostics, and experiments in the past two years have enabled efficient generation of intense proton beams on PBFA II, and focusing of the beam power to 5.4 TW/cm{sup 2} on a 6-mm-diameter target. Target experiments have been started with the intense proton beams, since the range of protons at 4--5 MeV is equivalent to that of lithium at 30 MeV. Three series of experiments have been conducted using planar, conical, and cylindrical targets. These tests have provided information on ion beam power density, uniformity, and energy deposition. In order to increase the power density substantially for target implosion experiments, we are now concentrating on development of high voltage lithium ion beams. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Preparation of a 238Pu standard source . II. Source preparation and standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobuo, Shinohara; Nobuaki, Kohno

    1988-07-01

    A standard source of 238Pu was prepared for calibrating the counting efficiency of alpha-ray detector. The plutonium was electrodeposited on a platinum or tantalum disk using isopropyl alcohol-hydrochloric acid solution as an electrolyte. The absolute activity was certified by isotope dilution alpha-ray spectrometry. Several types of the source, whose areas 238Pu-deposited are from 2.0 to 25.0 mm in diameter, were also prepared by the method. The overall uncertainties of the certified values for the standard sources prepared are estimated to be within 0.15 to 0.25% (1σ).

  7. Monte Carlo estimates of edge particle sources in TJ-II plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Bruna, D.; Popov, Tsv; de la Cal, E.

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional calculations of the electron source in plasmas of the TJ-II stellarator (Madrid, Spain) are performed using the Monte Carlo code EIRENE. When possible, the results are compared with diagnostic measurements in equivalent coordinates. Examples are shown for the Hα light evolution during a plasma collapse, CX fluxes, neutrals distributions along diagnostic chords and line radiation emissivities.

  8. Jet-gas interactions and hotspots in FR I/II transition sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Diana; Birkinshaw, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Sources with intermediate FR I/II morphologies, and with powers in the decade straddling the FR I/II boundary, provide an opportunity to understand triggers responsible for the different workings of the two classes. Illustrated by deep Chandra observations of several sources, this presentation will show evidence that the physics changes within the transition range, and the work done in driving shocks can exceed that in evacuating the cavities common in FR I sources. Hotspots can be absent, seen only on one side (jet-side or counter-jet-side), or both, in which case X-ray/radio correspondence can be very different on the two sides. Evidence will be shown for radio-emitting plasma running along boundaries between gas of different temperature, apparently lubricating the gas flows and inhibiting heat transfer.

  9. DIAGNOSTICS ON THE SOURCE PROPERTIES OF A TYPE II RADIO BURST WITH SPECTRAL BUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Song, H. Q.; Feng, X. S.; Guo, Fan

    2013-04-10

    In recent studies, we proposed that source properties of type II radio bursts can be inferred through a causal relationship between the special shape of the type II dynamic spectrum (e.g., bump or break) and simultaneous extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white light imaging observations (e.g., CME-shock crossing streamer structures). As a further extension of these studies, in this paper we examine the coronal mass ejection (CME) event on 2007 December 31 associated with a multiple type II radio burst. We identify the presence of two spectral bump features on the observed dynamic spectrum. By combining observational analyses of the radio spectral observations and the EUV-white light imaging data, we conclude that the two spectral bumps result from a CME-shock propagating across dense streamers on the southern and northern sides of the CME. It is inferred that the corresponding two type II emissions originate separately from the two CME-shock flanks where the shock geometries are likely quasi-perpendicular or oblique. Since the emission lanes are bumped as a whole within a relatively short time, it suggests that the type II radio bursts with bumps of this study are emitted from spatially confined sources (with a projected lateral dimension smaller than 0.05-0.1 R{sub Sun} at a fundamental frequency level of 20-30 MHz).

  10. Wormhole solutions sourced by fluids, II: three-fluid two-charged sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Lack of a consistent metric for generating rotating wormholes motivates us to present a new one endowed with interesting physical and geometrical properties. When combined with the generalized method of superposition of fields, which consists in attaching a form of matter to each moving frame, it generates massive and charged (charge without charge) two-fluid-sourced, massive and two-charged three-fluid-sourced, rotating as well as new static wormholes which, otherwise, can hardly be derived by integration. If the lapse function of the static wormhole is bounded from above, no closed timelike curves occur in the rotating counterpart. For positive energy densities dying out faster than 1 / r, the angular velocity includes in its expansion a correction term, to the leading one that corresponds to ordinary stars, proportional to ln r/r^4. Such a term is not present in the corresponding expansion for the Kerr-Newman black hole. Based on this observation and our previous work, the dragging effects of falling neutral objects may constitute a substitute for other known techniques used for testing the nature of the rotating black hole candidates that are harbored in the center of galaxies. We discuss the possibility of generating (n+1)-fluid-sourced, n-charged, rotating as well as static wormholes.

  11. RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Tracy A; Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2008-12-01

    This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications. The intent of the RadSTraM project was to determine the feasibility of tracking radioactive materials in commerce, particularly International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 3 and 4 materials. Specifically, Phase II of the project addressed tracking radiological medical isotopes in commerce. These categories of materials are susceptible to loss or theft but the problem is not being addressed by other agencies.

  12. Understanding the source: The nitrogen isotope composition of Type II mantle diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, Sami; Howell, Dan; Jones, Adrian; Milledge, Judith; Verchovsky, Sasha

    2010-05-01

    Diamonds can be broadly subdivided into 2 groups based on their nitrogen content; type I with > 10ppm nitrogen and type II with < 10ppm (1). Roughly 98 % of upper mantle diamonds are classified as type I, interestingly nearly all lower mantle diamonds are of type II (2). This study aims to identify the processes involved or source of type II diamonds from several localities by measuring their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions simultaneously for the first time. Samples have been categorised as type II using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis. The carbon and nitrogen isotopes as well as additional nitrogen content data have been acquired using a custom made a hi-sensitivity gas sourced mass spectrometer built and housed at the Open University, UK. There are two ways in which we can model the petrogenesis of type II diamonds. 1- During diamond growth nitrogen can be incorporated into diamond as a compatible element in a closed system and therefore the N/C ratio in the source can be depleted by Rayleigh fractionation as the first diamonds to crystallise will partition nitrogen atoms into their lattice as a 1:1 substitution for carbon atoms (type I diamonds). However nitrogen may behave as an incompatible element in diamond (and be a compatible element in the metasomatic fluid), this coupled with an open system would lead to the removal of nitrogen by the metasomatic fluids, thus causing the source to progressively become depleted in nitrogen. Continued diamond crystallization in either system will produce diamonds with ever decreasing nitrogen concentrations with time, possibly to the point of them being almost nitrogen free. 2- It is conceivable that type I & II diamonds found in the same deposit and sharing a common paragenesis (eclogitic or peridotitic) may have formed from different metasomatic fluids in separate diamond forming events. The latter has been proposed for samples from the Cullinan mine (South Africa) based on their carbon

  13. Low-Level Radio Frequency System Development for the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Ma,H.; Rose, J.

    2009-05-04

    The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) is a new ultra-bright 3GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. The position and timing specifications of the ultra-bright photon beam imposes a set of stringent requirements on the performance of radio frequency (RF) control. In addition, commissioning and staged installation of damping wigglers and insertion devices requires the flexibility of handling varying beam conditions. To meet these requirements, a digital implementation of the LLRF is chosen, and digital serial links are planned for the system integration. The first prototype of the controller front-end hardware has been built, and is currently being tested.

  14. Type II spectral bumps and Diagnostics on the Properties of the Radio Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, S.; CHEN, Y.; Kong, X.; Li, G.; Song, H.; Feng, X.; Liu, Y.; Guo, F.

    2012-12-01

    It is now widely accepted that type II radio bursts are due to energetic electrons accelerated at coronal shocks. Radio observations, however, have poor or no spatial resolution to pinpoint the exact acceleration locations of these electrons. In this presentation we propose a novel method to infer the source properties of type II radio bursts by combining radio and white light observations. The key assumption is to relate specific morphological features (e.g., spectral bumps) of the dynamic spectra of type II radio bursts to imaging features (e.g., CME and its driven shock entering into a streamer) along the CME propagation. To verify the above proposal, we investigate two type IIs with spectral bump features and examine their association with CME-streamer interactions. The features are interpreted as a natural result of the shock-radio-emitting region entering the dense streamer structure. It is inferred that the type II radio bursts are excited at the flanks of the CME-driven shock (where the large scale shock geometry is of quasi-perpendicular), and the radio emission is spatially confined to a very localized region.

  15. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kajos, M. K.; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Ryyppö, T.; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006-2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used for source area and source composition analysis. Two major forest fire events in Russia took place during the measurement period. The effect of these fires was clearly visible in the trajectory analysis, lending confidence to the method employed with this data set. Elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of non-biogenic VOCs related to forest fires, e.g. acetonitrile and aromatic VOCs, were observed. Ten major source areas for long-lived VOCs (methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, and toluene) observed at the SMEAR II site were identified. The main source areas for all the targeted VOCs were western Russia, northern Poland, Kaliningrad, and the Baltic countries. Industrial areas in northern continental Europe were also found to be source areas for certain VOCs. Both trajectory and receptor analysis showed that air masses from northern Fennoscandia were less polluted with respect to both the VOCs studied and other trace gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), compared to areas of eastern and western continental Europe, western Russia, and southern Fennoscandia.

  16. VLA observations of NGC 247: identification of compact radio sources including three candidate UD H II regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Christina K.; Vuolo, Matthew; Schultz, Sara

    2014-03-01

    A high resolution, Very Large Array continuum survey of NGC 247 was undertaken in order to identify compact thermal and nonthermal radio sources, such as supernova remnants (SNRs) and H II regions. NGC 247 was observed at two frequencies, 20 cm and 6 cm, in order to calculate the spectral index, and the survey resulted in the identification of 19 compact radio sources. Using the spectral index to discriminate between source types, we identify two candidate SNRs and one H II region. Three of the radio sources have inverted spectra, indicative of ultradense H II (UD H II) regions, the short-lived, dense cores where massive stars form. Four of the sources are thermal in origin, but were not detected at 20 cm, so they could be H II regions or UD H II regions. The rest of the sources are nonthermal or undetermined. We compare the radio images with Hα, V band, and infrared archive images to look for correspondences that confirm that the sources reside in NGC 247 and are not background sources. We find that over two-thirds of the radio sources have counterparts in the Hα or V band images and are associated with NGC 247. The most luminous radio source in NGC 247 is a candidate SNR, and if confirmed as an SNR, it would be a very luminous extragalactic SNR. The H II regions and UD H II regions are calculated to have ionizing luminosities of between 4-10 × 10{sup 50} s{sup –1}; each individual source would require between 41-100 O7.5V stars to produce the corresponding ionizing luminosity. The ionizing luminosity of the UD H II regions indicates that these UD H II regions represent the lower luminosity population of the known UD H II regions and thus, they may represent a more typical population of UD H II regions that can be found and studied in the nearby galaxies as opposed to more extreme examples that have been found previously.

  17. Faraday rotation from magnesium II absorbers toward polarized background radio sources

    SciTech Connect

    Farnes, J. S.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Corrigan, M. E.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2014-11-01

    Strong singly ionized magnesium (Mg II) absorption lines in quasar spectra typically serve as a proxy for intervening galaxies along the line of sight. Previous studies have found a correlation between the number of these Mg II absorbers and the Faraday rotation measure (RM) at ≈5 GHz. We cross-match a sample of 35,752 optically identified non-intrinsic Mg II absorption systems with 25,649 polarized background radio sources for which we have measurements of both the spectral index and RM at 1.4 GHz. We use the spectral index to split the resulting sample of 599 sources into flat-spectrum and steep-spectrum subsamples. We find that our flat-spectrum sample shows significant (∼3.5σ) evidence for a correlation between Mg II absorption and RM at 1.4 GHz, while our steep-spectrum sample shows no such correlation. We argue that such an effect cannot be explained by either luminosity or other observational effects, by evolution in another confounding variable, by wavelength-dependent polarization structure in an active galactic nucleus, by the Galactic foreground, by cosmological expansion, or by partial coverage models. We conclude that our data are most consistent with intervenors directly contributing to the Faraday rotation along the line of sight, and that the intervening systems must therefore have coherent magnetic fields of substantial strength ( B-bar =1.8±0.4 μG). Nevertheless, the weak nature of the correlation will require future high-resolution and broadband radio observations in order to place it on a much firmer statistical footing.

  18. Analysis of SO II point source emissions using NASA atmospheric infrared sounder data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Sylvia S.; Miller, David P.; Lewis, Paul E.

    2007-04-01

    Determining the extent to which large power plant emission sources interacting with atmospheric constituents affect the environment could play a significant role in future U.S. energy production policy. The effects on the environment caused by the interaction between power plant emissions and atmospheric constituents has not been investigated in depth due to the lack of calibrated spectral data on a suitable temporal and spatial scale. The availability of NASA's space-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data makes it possible to explore, and begin the first steps toward establishing, a correlation between known emission sources and environmental indicators. An exploratory study was conducted in which a time series of 26 cloud-free AIRS data containing two coal-fired power plants in northern New Mexico were selected, acquired, and analyzed for SO II emissions. A generic forward modeling process was also developed to derive an estimate of the expected AIRS pixel radiance containing the SO II emissions from the two power plants based on published combustion analysis data for coal and available power plant documentation. Analysis of the AIRS NEΔR calculated in this study and subsequent comparison with the radiance values for SO II calculated from the forward model provided essential information regarding the suitability and risk in the use of a modified AIRS configuration for monitoring anthropogenic point source emissions. The results of this study along with its conclusions and recommendations in conjunction with additional research collaboration in several specific topics will provide guidance for the development of the next generation infrared spectrometer system that NASA is considering building for environmental monitoring.

  19. Energy transfer from a pulsed thermal source to He II below 0.3 K.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeifer, C. D.; Luszczynski, K.

    1973-01-01

    Results of measurements of the angular distribution of the energy flux radiated from a pulsed heater immersed in He II at low temperatures (around 230 mK). It is shown that the energy transfer from a pulsed carbon heater at a relatively high temperature to ambient liquid helium maintained at low temperature cannot be adequately described by the phonon-coupling models. The experimental data on the velocity and angular distribution of the energy flux radiated from the plane of the heater indicate that the energy from the heater is transferred to a layer of hot helium adjacent to the surface of the heater and that this layer acts as the effective source of excitations radiated into the ambient liquid helium. The extent and shape of this source depend on the total energy flux produced by the heater.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GLIMPSE Source Catalog (I + II + 3D) (IPAC 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer Science, Center

    2009-06-01

    The Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE), is a survey of Galactic Plane central parts made with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST). It covers approximately 220 square degrees, between galactic longitudes +/-65° and +/-1° in galactic latitude (up to 4.2° in the central parts). The four IRAC bands are centered at approximately 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0μm. The GLIMPSE combines the 3 surveys: * GLIMPSE-I covers the longitude ranges |l|=10--65° and the latitude range |b|<=1° (Benjamin et al. 2003PASP..115..953B) * GLIMPSE-II covers the longitude range of |l|<=10°, and a latitude range |b|<=1° from |l|=5--10, |b|<=1.5 for |l|=2--5, and |b|<=2° for |l|<=2. GLIMPSE-II coverage excludes the Galactic center region |l|<=1, |b|<=0.75 observed by the GALCEN GO program (PID=3677). * GLIMPSE-3D adds vertical extensions up to |b|=4.2° near the galactic center, and up to |b|=3° in selected other parts of the Galaxy (+/-10, 18.5, 25, 30, and -15 (345)°). GLIMPSE-II had two-epoch coverage for a total of three visits on the sky. The observations consisted of two 1.2 second integrations at each position in the first epoch of data taking (September 2005) and a single 1.2 second integration at each position six months later (April 2006). The highly reliable v2.0 GLIMPSEII Catalog (v2.0_GLMIIC) consists of point sources that are detected at least twice in one band and at least once in an adjacent band and a S/N > 5 cut for the band with the two detections. There are also faint and bright flux limits on the Catalog entries. The more complete v2.0 Archive (v2.0_GLMIIA) has less stringent criteria, namely two detections in any bands, those detections having a S/N > 5. The IRAC data were bandmerged with the 2MASS All-Sky Point Source Catalog. See the GLIMPSEII v2.0 Data Products & Data Delivery document for more details. The catalog available from CDS merges the 3 surveys GLIMPSE-I (v2.0), GLIMPSE-II (v2.0), and

  1. Source Regions of the Type II Radio Burst Observed During a CME–CME Interaction on 2013 May 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, P.; Gopalswamy, N.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Krupar, V.

    2016-08-01

    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction-finding analysis of the Wind/WAVES and STEREO/WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter–hectometric wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with the interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source, indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME–CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1 MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms that the CME–CME interaction region is the source of the type II enhancement. Comparison of radio and white-light observations also showed that at lower frequencies scattering significantly affects radio wave propagation.

  2. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  3. VOC Source - Receptor Relationships in Houston during TexAQS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuchner, M.; Rappenglück, B.

    2009-04-01

    During the TexAQS-II field campaign in August and September 2006, C2 - C10 volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured continuously and online at the urban Moody Tower (MT) site. This data set was compared to corresponding VOC data sets obtained at six sites located in the highly industrialized Houston Ship Channel area (HSC). Receptor modeling was performed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) at all sites. Conditional probability functions were used to determine the origin of the polluted air masses in the Houston area. A subdivision into daytime and nighttime was carried out to discriminate photochemical influences. Eight main source categories of industrial, mobile, and biogenic emissions were identified at the urban receptor site, seven and six, respectively, at the different HSC sites. Amongst these categories, natural gas / crude oil, LPG, and vehicular exhaust contributed most to the total measured VOC mass, followed by fuel evaporation, aromatics, petrochemical sources from ethylene and propylene, and biogenic sources. Based on PMF analyses of different wind sectors, the total VOC mass was estimated to be twofold at MT with wind directions from HSC compared to air from a typical urban sector, for petrochemical compounds more than threefold. Despite the strong impact of air masses influenced by industrial sources at HSC, still a significant fraction of the total mass contributions at MT can be apportioned to other sources, mainly motor vehicles and aromatic solvents. The investigation of diurnal variation in combination with wind directional frequencies revealed the greatest HSC impact at the urban site during the morning, and the least during the evening.

  4. Excessive Copper(II) and Zinc(II) Levels in Drinkable Water Sources in Areas Along the Lake Victoria Shorelines in Siaya County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wambu, Enos W; Omwoyo, Wesley N; Akenga, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Copper(II) and zinc(II) levels in drinkable water sources in the alluvium areas of the Lake Victoria Basin in Siaya County of Kenya were evaluated to assess the risk posed to resident communities by hydrogeological accumulation of toxic residues in the sedimentary regions of the lake basin. The levels of the metals in water were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Metal concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 4.29 mg/L for Cu(II) and 0.03 to 1.62 mg/L for Zn(II), which were both higher than those normally recorded in natural waters. The Cu(II) levels also exceeded WHO guidelines for drinking water in 27% of the samples. The highest prevalence of excessive Cu(II) was found among dams and open pans (38%), piped water (33%) and spring water (25%). It was estimated that 18.2% of the resident communities in the current study area are exposed to potentially toxic levels of Cu(II) through their drinking water. PMID:26615531

  5. Boîtes quantiques II-VI comme sources de photons uniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couteau, C.; Moehl, S.; Tinjod, F.; Suffczynski, J.; Romestain, R.; Vial, J.-C.; Gérard, J.-M.; Kheng, K.; Poizat, J.-P.

    2004-11-01

    Dans le cadre de l'information et de la communication quantique, la nécessité d'avoir des photons uniques monomodes et à la demande se révèle cruciale. De récents travaux théoriques ont montré la possibilité de réaliser des portes logiques quantiques n'utilisant que de l'optique linéaire. C'est dans ce contexte que s'insère notre travail sur l'élaboration et l'utilisation de boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices II-VI comme “pistolet” à photons. Des expériences de dégroupement et d'interférences à 2 photons sont les premiers pas nécessaires pour caractériser notre source.

  6. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Emily; Snelson, Catherine M; Chipman, Veraun D; Emer, Dudley; White, Bob; Emmit, Ryan; Wright, Al; Drellack, Sigmund; Huckins-Gang, Heather; Mercadante, Jennifer; Floyd, Michael; McGowin, Chris; Cothrun, Chris; Bonal, Nedra

    2013-12-05

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined.

  7. THE COORDINATED RADIO AND INFRARED SURVEY FOR HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION. II. SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S.; Cotton, W. D.; Chandler, C.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Gledhill, T. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Hindson, L.; Jackson, J. M.; Kurtz, S. E.; Marti, J. [Departamento de Fisica, EPSJ, Universidad de Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s and others

    2013-03-01

    The CORNISH project is the highest resolution radio continuum survey of the Galactic plane to date. It is the 5 GHz radio continuum part of a series of multi-wavelength surveys that focus on the northern GLIMPSE region (10 Degree-Sign < l < 65 Degree-Sign ), observed by the Spitzer satellite in the mid-infrared. Observations with the Very Large Array in B and BnA configurations have yielded a 1.''5 resolution Stokes I map with a root mean square noise level better than 0.4 mJy beam{sup -1}. Here we describe the data-processing methods and data characteristics, and present a new, uniform catalog of compact radio emission. This includes an implementation of automatic deconvolution that provides much more reliable imaging than standard CLEANing. A rigorous investigation of the noise characteristics and reliability of source detection has been carried out. We show that the survey is optimized to detect emission on size scales up to 14'' and for unresolved sources the catalog is more than 90% complete at a flux density of 3.9 mJy. We have detected 3062 sources above a 7{sigma} detection limit and present their ensemble properties. The catalog is highly reliable away from regions containing poorly sampled extended emission, which comprise less than 2% of the survey area. Imaging problems have been mitigated by down-weighting the shortest spacings and potential artifacts flagged via a rigorous manual inspection with reference to the Spitzer infrared data. We present images of the most common source types found: H II regions, planetary nebulae, and radio galaxies. The CORNISH data and catalog are available online at http://cornish.leeds.ac.uk.

  8. The alkaline aluminium/hydrogen peroxide power source in the Hugin II unmanned underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasvold, Øistein; Johansen, Kjell Håvard; Mollestad, Ole; Forseth, Sissel; Størkersen, Nils

    In 1993, The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) demonstrated AUV-Demo, an unmanned (untethered) underwater vehicle (UUV), powered by a magnesium/dissolved oxygen seawater battery (SWB). This technology showed that an underwater range of at least 1000 nautical miles at a speed of 4 knots was possible, but also that the maximum hotel load this battery system could support was very limited. Most applications for UUV technology need more power over a shorter period of time. Seabed mapping using a multibeam echo sounder mounted on an UUV was identified as a viable application and the Hugin project was started in 1995 in cooperation with Norwegian industry. For this application, an endurance of 36 h at 4 knots was required. Development of the UUV hull and electronics system resulted in the UUV Hugin I. It carries a Ni/Cd battery of 3 kW h, allowing up to 6 h under-water endurance. In parallel, we developed a battery based on a combination of alkaline Al/air and SWB technology, using a circulating alkaline electrolyte, aluminium anodes and maintaining the oxidant concentration in the electrolyte by continuously adding hydrogen peroxide (HP) to the electrolyte. This concept resulted in a safe battery, working at ambient pressure (balanced) and with sufficient power and energy density to allow the UUV Hugin II to make a number of successive dives, each of up to 36 h duration and with only 1 h deck time between dives for HP refill and electrolyte exchange. After 100 h, an exchange of anodes takes place. The power source consists of a four-cell Al/HP battery, a DC/DC converter delivering 600 W at 30 V, circulation and dosing pumps and a battery control unit. Hugin II is now in routine use by the Norwegian Underwater Intervention AS (NUI) which operates the UUV for high-precision seabed mapping down to a water depth of 600 m.

  9. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, E. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Wright, A. A.; Drellack, S.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Floyd, M.; McGowin, C.; Cothrun, C.; Bonal, N.

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined. For Phase II of the experiment, characterization of the location is required to develop the geologic/geophysical models for the execution of the experiment. Criteria for the location are alluvium thickness of approximately 170 m and a water table below 170 m; minimal fracturing would be ideal. A P-wave mini-vibroseis survey was conducted at a potential site in alluvium to map out the subsurface geology. The seismic reflection profile consisted of 168 geophone stations, spaced 5 m apart. The mini-vibe was a 7,000-lb peak-force source, starting 57.5 m off the north end of the profile and ending 57.5 m past the southern-most geophone. The length of the profile was 835 m. The source points were placed every 5 m, equally spaced between geophones to reduce clipping. The vibroseis sweep was from 20 Hz down to 180 Hz over 8 seconds, and four sweeps were stacked at each shot location. The shot gathers show high signal-to-noise ratios with clear first arrivals across the entire spread and the suggestion of some shallow reflectors. The data were

  10. The SRP-II as a Rich Source of Data on the Psychopathic Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Whitney S.; Salekin, Randall T.; Sellbom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure, external correlates, and predictive utility of the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP-II; Hare, Harpur, & Hemphill, 1989). Despite a revision of the SRP-II to address, among other criticisms, a lack of items reflecting antisocial behavior, we hypothesized that the SRP-II would have a conceptually coherent…

  11. Radiation fields of intermediate-age stellar populations with binaries as ionizing sources of H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Li, L.; Cheng, L.; Wang, L.; Kang, X.; Zhuang, Y.; Han, Z.

    2015-02-01

    Radiation fields emitted by O- and B-type stars or young stellar populations (SPs) are generally considered as significant central ionizing sources (CISs) of classic H II regions. In our previous studies, we showed that the inclusion of binary interactions in stellar population synthesis models can significantly increase the ultraviolet spectrum hardness and the number of ionizing photons of intermediate-age (IA) SPs (7 ≲ log(t/yr) ≲ 8). In this work, we present photoionization models of H II regions ionized by radiation fields emitted by IA SPs, including binary systems, and show that these fields are in theory possible candidates for significant CISs of classic H II regions. When radiation fields of IA SPs comprising binary systems are used as the CISs of classic H II regions, the theoretical strengths of a number of lines (such as [O III] λ4959', [S II] λ6716', etc.), which are weaker than observations, are increased; the border or selection-criterion lines between star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the diagnostic diagrams (for example, [N II] λ6583/Hα versus [O III] λ5007/Hβ), move into the region occupied originally by AGNs; and the He II λ1640 line, observed in Lyman break and high-redshift gravitationally lensed galaxies, also can be produced.

  12. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, E. C.; Bencok, P.; Dobrynin, A.; Rial, E. C. M.; Rose, A.; Steadman, P.; Thompson, C.; Thomson, A.; Wang, H.

    2013-03-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  13. A maximum-likelihood search for neutrino point sources with the AMANDA-II detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, James R.

    Neutrino astronomy offers a new window to study the high energy universe. The AMANDA-II detector records neutrino-induced muon events in the ice sheet beneath the geographic South Pole, and has accumulated 3.8 years of livetime from 2000 - 2006. After reconstructing muon tracks and applying selection criteria, we arrive at a sample of 6595 events originating from the Northern Sky, predominantly atmospheric neutrinos with primary energy 100 GeV to 8 TeV. We search these events for evidence of astrophysical neutrino point sources using a maximum-likelihood method. No excess above the atmospheric neutrino background is found, and we set upper limits on neutrino fluxes. Finally, a well-known potential dark matter signature is emission of high energy neutrinos from annihilation of WIMPs gravitationally bound to the Sun. We search for high energy neutrinos from the Sun and find no excess. Our limits on WIMP-nucleon cross section set new constraints on MSSM parameter space.

  14. Measurement of coherence length and incoherent source size of hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II

    SciTech Connect

    Park, So Yeong; Hong, Chung Ki; Lim, Jun

    2014-04-15

    We measured the spatial coherence length and incoherent source size of a hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II, the stored electron energy of which has been increased from 2.5 GeV to 3 GeV. The coherence length was determined by single-slit measurement of the visibility of the Fresnel diffraction pattern. The correlated incoherent source size was cross-checked for three different optics: the single slit, beryllium parabolic compound refractive lenses, and the Fresnel zone plate. We concluded that the undulator beamline has an effective incoherent source size (FWHM) of 540 μm (horizontal) × 50 μm (vertical)

  15. D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types I, II, IIS, and III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimmelmann, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Wintsch, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Immature source rock chips containing different types of kerogen (I, II, IIS, III) were artificially matured in isotopically distinct waters by hydrous pyrolysis and by pyrolysis in supercritical water. Converging isotopic trends of inorganic (water) and organic (kerogen, bitumen, oil) hydrogen with increasing time and temperature document that water-derived hydrogen is added to or exchanged with organic hydrogen, or both, during chemical reactions that take place during thermal maturation. Isotopic mass-balance calculations show that, depending on temperature (310-381??C), time (12-144 h), and source rock type, between ca. 45 and 79% of carbon-bound hydrogen in kerogen is derived from water. Estimates for bitumen and oil range slightly lower, with oil-hydrogen being least affected by water-derived hydrogen. Comparative hydrous pyrolyses of immature source rocks at 330??C for 72 h show that hydrogen in kerogen, bitumen, and expelled oil/wax ranks from most to least isotopically influenced by water-derived hydrogen in the order IIS > II ~ III > I. Pyrolysis of source rock containing type II kerogen in supercritical water at 381 ??C for 12 h yields isotopic results that are similar to those from hydrous pyrolysis at 350??C for 72 h, or 330??C for 144 h. Bulk hydrogen in kerogen contains several percent of isotopically labile hydrogen that exchanges fast and reversibly with hydrogen in water vapor at 115??C. The isotopic equilibration of labile hydrogen in kerogen with isotopic standard water vapors significantly reduces the analytical uncertainty of D/H ratios when compared with simple D/H determination of bulk hydrogen in kerogen. If extrapolation of our results from hydrous pyrolysis is permitted to natural thermal maturation at lower temperatures, we suggest that organic D/H ratios of fossil fuels in contact with formation waters are typically altered during chemical reactions, but that D/H ratios of generated hydrocarbons are subsequently little or not affected

  16. A multifrequency study of giant radio sources - II. Spectral ageing analysis of the lobes of selected sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamrozy, M.; Konar, C.; Machalski, J.; Saikia, D. J.

    2008-04-01

    Multifrequency observations with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and the Very Large Array (VLA) are used to determine the spectral breaks in consecutive strips along the lobes of a sample of selected giant radio sources (GRSs) in order to estimate their spectral ages. The maximum spectral ages estimated for the detected radio emission in the lobes of our sources range from ~6 to 46Myr with a median value of ~23Myr using the classical equipartition fields. Using the magnetic field estimates from the Beck & Krause formalism the spectral ages range from ~5 to 58Myr with a median value of ~24Myr. These ages are significantly older than smaller sources. In all but one source (J1313+6937) the spectral age gradually increases with distance from the hotspot regions, confirming that acceleration of the particles mainly occurs in the hotspots. Most of the GRSs do not exhibit zero spectral ages in the hotspots, as is the case in earlier studies of smaller sources. This is likely to be largely due to contamination by more extended emission due to relatively modest resolutions. The injection spectral indices range from ~0.55 to 0.88 with a median value of ~0.6. We discuss these values in the light of theoretical expectations, and show that the injection spectral index appears to be correlated with luminosity and/or redshift as well as with linear size.

  17. The Seyfert II nature of the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elston, Richard; Mccarthy, Patrick J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Dickinson, Mark; Spinrad, Hyron; Januzzi, Buell T.; Maloney, Philip

    1994-01-01

    We have observed the rest-frame optical and UV spectra of the luminous, high redshift Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) source FSC 10214+4724. We find the optical emission lines to be characterized by ratios similar to those found in Seyfert II galaxies. We support the conclusion of previous work that the UV emission lines are similar to those attributed to Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) rather than to star formation. The ratio H alpha/H beta greater than or equal to 20 (2 sigma lower limit) implies substantial reddening of the narrow line region with A(sub V) greater than 5.5, sufficient to hide a broad line region in our H alpha observations. Given this large inferred reddening and the strength of the UV continuum and emission lines, we conclude (as have others) that simple screen models of reddening are not appropriate for this object. These properties are very similar to those of the infrared luminous galaxies at lower redshift, suggesting that FSC 10244+4724 is the luminous extreme of the same population. We also present H band (1.6 micrometer) imaging polarimetry observations and find that the rest-frame optical emission is unpolarized (P = 3.2% +/- 22.0%). This deep image of the field shows FSC 10214+4724 to possess an unresolved core, with several companions located within 10 sec of the point source. We find it unlikely that this group of objects is physically associated with FSC 10214+4724 at z = 2.3, and we argue that their magnitudes and colors are more consistant with those expected with those expected for galaxies in a foreground group. While galaxy number counts would suggest that such a projection has a low probability of being observed randomly, a foreground group might gravitational lens the z = 2.3 source, making such random statistics inappropriate, and contribute to the large observed luminosity of FSC 10214+4724. Comparison of H band images taken on two occasions one year apart show that FSC 10214+4724 had varied by 0.16 +/- 0.03 mag relative

  18. On the source conditions for herringbone structure in type II solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; White, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation is made of the correlation of the occurrence of the herringbone phenomenon in type II solar radio bursts with various flare properties. It is shown that herringbone is strongly correlated with the intensity of the type II burst: whereas about 21 percent of all type II bursts show herringbone, about 60 percent of the most intense bursts contain herringbone. This fact can explain most of the correlations between herringbone and other properties such as intense type III bursts, type IV emission, and high type II starting frequencies. It is also shown that when this is taken into account, there is no need to postulate two classes of type II burst in order to explain why there appears to be a difference in herringbone occurrence between the set of type II bursts associated with the leading edges of coronal mass ejections, and those not so associated. It is argued that the data are consistent with the idea that all coronal type II bursts are due to blast waves from flares.

  19. Positions of galactic X-ray sources - At longitudes /l-II/ of 55-320 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dower, R. G.; Bradt, H. V.; Doxsey, R. E.; Jernigan, J. G.; Kulik, J.; Apparao, K. M. V.

    1978-01-01

    Rotating modulation collimeter detectors on the SAS-3 X-ray observatory were used to supply precise (20-40 sec) positional data on 10 galactic X-ray sources in the l super II region between 55 and 320 deg. It is noted that the position for 2S0114+650 has led to the discovery of an optical counterpart. Attention is given to the temperature dependence of the experiments, and it is found that position measurements made at low temperatures are consistent with those obtained at normal (0 C) temperatures. Positions, error radii, and intensities (2-11 keV) are listed for each of the ten sources.

  20. QUANTIFYING SEASONAL SHIFTS IN NITROGEN SOURCES TO OREGON ESTUARIES: PART II: TRANSPORT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying the sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in estuaries is complicated by the multiple sources, temporal variability in inputs, and variations in transport. We used a hydrodynamic model to simulate the transport and uptake of three sources of DIN (oceanic, riv...

  1. HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOURCE REGIONS AND EVOLUTION OF 'TYPE II' SPICULES AT THE SOLAR POLAR LIMB

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; DeForest, Craig E. E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.gov

    2010-05-01

    We examine solar spicules using high-cadence Ca II data of the north pole coronal hole region, using the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on the Hinode spacecraft. The features we observe are referred to as 'Type II' spicules by De Pontieu et al. in 2007. By convolving the images with the inverse-point-spread function for the SOT Ca II filter, we are able to investigate the roots of some spicules on the solar disk, and the evolution of some spicules after they are ejected from the solar surface. We find that the source regions of at least some of the spicules correspond to locations of apparent-fast-moving ({approx}few x 10 km s{sup -1}), transient (few 100 s), Ca II brightenings on the disk. Frequently the spicules occur when these brightenings appear to collide and disappear. After ejection, when seen above the limb, many of the spicules fade by expanding laterally (i.e., roughly transverse to their motion away from the solar surface), splitting into two or more spicule 'strands', and the spicules then fade without showing any downward motion. Photospheric/chromospheric acoustic shocks alone likely cannot explain the high velocities ({approx}100 km s{sup -1}) of the spicules. If the Ca II brightenings represent magnetic elements, then reconnection among those elements may be a candidate to explain the spicules. Alternatively, many of the spicules could be small-scale magnetic eruptions, analogous to coronal mass ejections, and the apparent fast motions of the Ca II brightenings could be analogs of flare loops heated by magnetic reconnection in these eruptions.

  2. THE Low-level Radio Frequency System for the superconducting cavities of National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.; Rose, J.; Holub, B.; Cupolo, J.; Oliva, J.; Sikora, R.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    A digital low-level radio frequency (LLRF) field controller has been developed for the storage ring of The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). The primary performance goal for the LLRF is to support the required RF operation of the superconducting cavities with a beam current of 500mA and a 0.14 degree or better RF phase stability. The digital field controller is FPGA-based, in a standard format 19-inch/I-U chassis. It has an option of high-level control support with MATLAB running on a local host computer through a USB2.0 port. The field controller has been field tested with the high-power superconducting RF (SRF) at Canadian light Source, and successfully stored a high beam current of 250 mA. The test results show that required specifications for the cavity RF field stability are met. This digital field controller is also currently being used as a development platform for other functional modules in the NSLS-II RF systems.

  3. A method for estimating the dynamical age of FR II-type radio sources from multi-frequency data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalski, J.; Chyży, K. T.; Stawarz, Ł.; Kozieł, D.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Determining the ages of powerful radio sources is crucial for understanding galaxy evolution, the activity cycle of galactic nuclei, and their influence on the surrounding intergalactic medium. So far, several different methods for estimating the age of classical double radio galaxies have been proposed and widely used in the literature, although each of them faces difficulty due to observational limitations and/or freedom in choosing the underlying model assumptions. Aims: We propose a new approach to determining the ages of FR II type radio sources that, on one hand exploits a dynamical model developed for these objects by Kaiser et al. (1997, MNRAS, 292, 723) and, on the other hand, uses multifrequency radio observations not necessarily restricted to the high-resolution ones. Methods: In particular, we applied the assumed dynamical model to a number of FR II type radio galaxies observed at different radio frequencies and fit - for each frequency separately - the model's free parameters to the quantities of the observed sources. Such a procedure, which in fact enlarged a number of observables, enabled us to determine relatively precise ages and other crucial characteristics (like the jets' kinetic power) for the analyzed sources. Results: The resulting age estimates agree very well with those obtained with the "classical" spectral aging method for objects not older than 10 Myr, for which good-quality spectral data are available. However, this method is also applicable in the case of older sources than this and/or those for which the only available low-resolution radio data do not allow for detailed spectral aging studies. Interestingly, the estimated ages always correspond to the realistic values of the jets' advance velocity of ~0.01-0.1~c. Conclusions: . Our analysis indicates that the main factor precluding precise age determination for FR II type radio galaxies is related to the poorly known shape of the initial electron energy distribution injected

  4. Growth of II-VI thin-films from single-source precursors based on sterically encumbered sitel ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.; Seligson, A.L.; Walker, J.M.; Bourret, E.D.; Bonasia, P.J.

    1992-04-01

    We have developed a new route to MOCVD of II-VI compounds based on the use of novel single-source precursors in which the II-VI elements are combined at the molecular level in a single covalent compound. We have prepared and fully characterized a number of new derivatives of zinc, cadmium and mercury incorporating large, sterically demanding tellurolate ligands of general formula: M(sitel){sub 2} where sitel = -TeSi(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 3}. The crystalline compounds are relatively volatile and are easily manipulated under nitrogen. Several of these compounds have been tested for their suitability as precursors in the MOCVD process. Clean pyrolysis reactions and deposition of thin films were achieved. The stoichiometry of the pyrolysis reaction has been determined by analysis of the reaction by-products.

  5. Comparative Study of Vibration Stability at Operating Light Source Facilities and Lessons Learned in Achieving NSLS II Stability Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Simos,N.; Fallier, M.; Amick, H.

    2008-06-23

    In an effort to ensure that the stability goals of the NSLS II will be met once the accelerator structure is set on the selected BNL site a comprehensive evaluation of the ground vibration observed at existing light source facilities has been undertaken. The study has relied on measurement data collected and reported by the operating facilities as well as on new data collected in the course of this study. The primary goal of this comprehensive effort is to compare the green-field conditions that exist in the various sites both in terms of amplitude as well as frequency content and quantify the effect of the interaction of these accelerator facilities with the green-field vibration. The latter represents the ultimate goal of this effort where the anticipated motion of the NSLS II ring is estimated prior to its construction and compared with the required stability criteria.

  6. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. II. Evidence for High Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two papers examining Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. Here we perform detailed photoionization modeling of they infrared lines. Our analysis suggests that the luminosity and morphology of the [O IV] 25.89 micron emission line is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is matter-bounded both in the line of sight direction and to the east, and probably radiation-bounded to the west. A bolometric luminosity in excess of 1040 erg per second would be needed to produce the measured [O IV] flux. We use modeling and previously published studies to conclude that shacks likely contribute very little, if at all, to the high excitation line fluxes observed in the Holmberg II ULX. Additionally, we find that the spectral type of the companion star has a surprisingly strong effect on they predicted strength of the [O IV] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O IV] hi some starburst systems containing black hole binaries.

  7. Ambient formaldehyde source attribution in Houston during TexAQS II and TRAMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzcu Guven, Birnur; Olaguer, Eduardo P.

    2011-08-01

    An online data repository known as the Air Research Information Infrastructure (ARII) was used to discriminate large industrial sources of formaldehyde (HCHO) from mobile and secondary formaldehyde sources in Houston. Analysis of continuous online measurements at one urban and two industrial sites obtained during the summer of 2006 enabled us to isolate and evaluate major source factors associated with formaldehyde. The contribution of industrial sources to total atmospheric formaldehyde at the urban Houston site is estimated to be 17%, compared to 23% for mobile sources, 36% secondary formation, and 24% biogenic sources. The potential industrial sources include flares from petrochemical plants and refineries in the Port of Houston. The relative contribution of industrial source factors to ambient HCHO at the urban site increased to about 66% on some mornings, coinciding with the HCHO peak concentration. Secondary formation of HCHO during the day and night resulted from reactions of industrial olefins and other VOCs with OH or ozone. Some peak HCHO concentrations can also be linked to emission events of other VOCs, while a significant portion remains unexplained by the reported events. It is likely, based on the results from the SHARP campaign and our analysis, that some episodic emission events releasing primary HCHO are unreported to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ).

  8. MAGNETIC FIELDS IN LARGE-DIAMETER H II REGIONS REVEALED BY THE FARADAY ROTATION OF COMPACT EXTRAGALACTIC RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey-Smith, L.; Madsen, G. J.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2011-08-01

    We present a study of the line-of-sight magnetic fields in five large-diameter Galactic H II regions. Using the Faraday rotation of background polarized radio sources, as well as dust-corrected H{alpha} surface brightness as a probe of electron density, we estimated the strength and orientation of the magnetic field along 93 individual sight lines through the H II regions. Each of the H II regions displayed a coherent magnetic field. The magnetic field strength (line-of-sight component) in the regions ranges from 2 to 6 {mu}G, which is similar to the typical magnetic field strength in the diffuse interstellar medium. We investigated the relationship between magnetic field strength and electron density in the five H II regions. The slope of magnetic field versus density in the low-density regime (0.8 cm{sup -3} < n{sub e} <30 cm{sup -3}) is very slightly above zero. We also calculated the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure, {beta}{sub th}, for each data point, which fell in the range 1.01 < {beta}{sub th} < 25. Finally, we studied the orientation of the magnetic field in the solar neighborhood (d < 1.1 kpc) using our data from five H II regions along with existing measurements of the line-of-sight magnetic field strength from polarized pulsars whose distances have been determined from their annual parallax. We identify a net direction for the magnetic field in the solar neighborhood, but find no evidence for a preferred vertical direction of the magnetic field above or below the Galactic plane.

  9. A compendium of sources of fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth data for metallic alloys. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, C. M.; Seward, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    A compendium is presented of sources for metallic alloy fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth data, which concentrates on technical reports as the primary source of references and updates the previous Hudson and Seward (1978) compendium references on technical journals. Where available, the accession numbers which are used as code numbers for the ordering of the reports from their publishers are given. The sources of these reports include the AIAA Technical Information Service, the Defense Technical Information Center, the National Technical Information Service, and NASA.

  10. Coexistence of structure I and II gas hydrates in Lake Baikal suggesting gas sources from microbial and thermogenic origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, Masato; Khlystov, Oleg; Zemskaya, Tamara; Takahashi, Nobuo; Minami, Hirotsugu; Sakagami, Hirotoshi; Krylov, Alexey; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Yamashita, Satoshi; Shoji, Hitoshi; Poort, Jeffrey; Naudts, Lieven

    2006-12-01

    We report the field observation of hydrate deposits of different crystal structures in the same cores of a mud volcano in the Kukuy Canyon. We link those deposits to chemical fractionation during gas hydrate crystallization. Gas composition and crystallographic analyses of hydrate samples reveal involvement of two distinct gas source types in gas hydrate formation at present or in the past: microbial (methane) and thermogenic (methane and ethane) gas types. The clathrate structure II, observed for the first time in fresh water sediments, is believed to be formed by higher mixing of thermogenic gas.

  11. Formaldehyde Source Attribution in Houston during TexAQS II and TRAMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, B.; Olaguer, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    To determine the relative importance of primary vs secondary formaldehyde in Houston, source apportionment was performed on continuous online measurements of VOCs, formaldehyde (HCHO), CO, SO2, and HONO at one urban and two industrial sites. The results of source apportionment were used in conjunction with the meteorological, emission inventory, emission event, and back trajectory data catalogued in Air Research Information Infrastructure (ARII) to determine the dominant source regions and evaluate the accuracy of reported regular and upset emissions from industrial facilities. The contribution of industrial sources such as flares from petrochemical plants and refineries to total atmospheric formaldehyde concentrations at the urban site is estimated to be 17% compared to 23% for mobile sources, amounting to 40% for the total contribution of primary HCHO sources. The relative contribution of industrial sources to HCHO concentration at the urban site increased to about 66% on some mornings coinciding with the HCHO peak concentrations. Secondary formation of HCHO during the day and night resulted from the reactions of industrial olefins and other VOCs with OH or ozone was a significant contributor to HCHO concentrations at the urban site. An analysis of emission event, back trajectory and ambient concentration data in ARII showed that a large percentage of emission events were associated with trajectories that passed through the two industrial sites when peaks in concentrations were detected at those sites. Some peak HCHO concentrations can also be linked to emission events of other VOCs, while a significant portion remained unexplained by the reported events. It is likely, based on the results from the SHARP campaign and our analysis, that some episodic emission events containing HCHO are unreported to the TCEQ. Overlaid CPF plots for nighttime (green) and daytime (red) HCHO concentrations measured at three sites and the locations of the largest emitting point

  12. THE CHANDRA SURVEY OF THE COSMOS FIELD. II. SOURCE DETECTION AND PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Puccetti, S.; Vignali, C.; Cappelluti, N.; Brunner, H.; Brusa, M.; Fruscione, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Elvis, M.; Civano, F.; Miyaji, T.; Damiani, F.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mainieri, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Survey (C-COSMOS) is a large, 1.8 Ms, Chandra program that covers the central contiguous {approx}0.92 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field. C-COSMOS is the result of a complex tiling, with every position being observed in up to six overlapping pointings (four overlapping pointings in most of the central {approx}0.45 deg{sup 2} area with the best exposure, and two overlapping pointings in most of the surrounding area, covering an additional {approx}0.47 deg{sup 2}). Therefore, the full exploitation of the C-COSMOS data requires a dedicated and accurate analysis focused on three main issues: (1) maximizing the sensitivity when the point-spread function (PSF) changes strongly among different observations of the same source (from {approx}1 arcsec up to {approx}10 arcsec half-power radius); (2) resolving close pairs; and (3) obtaining the best source localization and count rate. We present here our treatment of four key analysis items: source detection, localization, photometry, and survey sensitivity. Our final procedure consists of a two step procedure: (1) a wavelet detection algorithm to find source candidates and (2) a maximum likelihood PSF fitting algorithm to evaluate the source count rates and the probability that each source candidate is a fluctuation of the background. We discuss the main characteristics of this procedure, which was the result of detailed comparisons between different detection algorithms and photometry tools, calibrated with extensive and dedicated simulations.

  13. Motion of the sources for type II and type IV radio bursts and flare-associated interplanetary disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.; Chao, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    Shock waves are indirectly observed as the source of type II radio bursts, whereas magnetic bottles are identified as the source of moving metric type IV radio bursts. The difference between the expansion speeds of these waves and bottles is examined during their generation and propagation near the flare regions. It is shown that, although generated in the explosive phase of flares, the bottles behave quite differently from the waves and that the bottles are generally much slower than the waves. It has been suggested that the waves are related to flare-associated interplanetary disturbances which produce SSC geomagnetic storms. These disturbances may, therefore, be identified as interplanetary shock waves. The relationship among magnetic bottles, shock waves near the sun, and flare-associated disturbances in interplanetary space is briefly discussed.

  14. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF 3C RADIO SOURCES WITH z < 0.3. II. COMPLETING THE SNAPSHOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Tremblay, G. R.; Harris, D. E.; O'Dea, C. P.; Kharb, P.; Axon, D.; Balmaverde, B.; Capetti, A.; Baum, S. A.; Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, F. D.; Sparks, W.; Gilli, R.; Giovannini, G.; Grandi, P.; Torresi, E.; Risaliti, G.

    2012-12-15

    We report on the second round of Chandra observations of the 3C snapshot survey developed to observe the complete sample of 3C radio sources with z < 0.3 for 8 ks each. In the first paper, we illustrated the basic data reduction and analysis procedures performed for the 30 sources of the 3C sample observed during Chandra Cycle 9, while here we present the data for the remaining 27 sources observed during Cycle 12. We measured the X-ray intensity of the nuclei and of any radio hot spots and jet features with associated X-ray emission. X-ray fluxes in three energy bands, i.e., soft, medium, and hard, for all the sources analyzed are also reported. For the stronger nuclei, we also applied the standard spectral analysis, which provides the best-fit values of the X-ray spectral index and absorbing column density. In addition, a detailed analysis of bright X-ray nuclei that could be affected by pile-up has been performed. X-ray emission was detected for all the nuclei of the radio sources in our sample except for 3C 319. Among the current sample, there are two compact steep spectrum radio sources, two broad-line radio galaxies, and one wide angle tail radio galaxy, 3C 89, hosted in a cluster of galaxies clearly visible in our Chandra snapshot observation. In addition, we also detected soft X-ray emission arising from the galaxy cluster surrounding 3C 196.1. Finally, X-ray emission from hot spots has been found in three FR II radio sources and, in the case of 3C 459, we also report the detection of X-ray emission associated with the eastern radio lobe as well as X-ray emission cospatial with radio jets in 3C 29 and 3C 402.

  15. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Kurtis H; Battista, Jerry J; Jordan, Kevin J

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1  ±  2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm(-1). For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4  ±  2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm(-1). With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements. PMID:26988107

  16. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1  ±  2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm-1. For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4  ±  2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm-1. With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements.

  17. HerMES: point source catalogues from Herschel-SPIRE observations II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Viero, M.; Clarke, C.; Bock, J.; Buat, V.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Guo, K.; Heinis, S.; Magdis, G.; Marchetti, L.; Marsden, G.; Norberg, P.; Oliver, S. J.; Page, M. J.; Roehlly, Y.; Roseboom, I. G.; Schulz, B.; Smith, A. J.; Vaccari, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) is the largest Guaranteed Time Key Programme on the Herschel Space Observatory. With a wedding cake survey strategy, it consists of nested fields with varying depth and area totalling ˜380 deg2. In this paper, we present deep point source catalogues extracted from Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) observations of all HerMES fields, except for the later addition of the 270 deg2 HerMES Large-Mode Survey (HeLMS) field. These catalogues constitute the second Data Release (DR2) made in 2013 October. A sub-set of these catalogues, which consists of bright sources extracted from Herschel-SPIRE observations completed by 2010 May 1 (covering ˜74 deg2) were released earlier in the first extensive data release in 2012 March. Two different methods are used to generate the point source catalogues, the SUSSEXTRACTOR point source extractor used in two earlier data releases (EDR and EDR2) and a new source detection and photometry method. The latter combines an iterative source detection algorithm, STARFINDER, and a De-blended SPIRE Photometry algorithm. We use end-to-end Herschel-SPIRE simulations with realistic number counts and clustering properties to characterize basic properties of the point source catalogues, such as the completeness, reliability, photometric and positional accuracy. Over 500 000 catalogue entries in HerMES fields (except HeLMS) are released to the public through the HeDAM (Herschel Database in Marseille) website (http://hedam.lam.fr/HerMES).

  18. Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part II. High dose rate {sup 192}Ir sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, Regina K. Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR){sup 192}Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper discussed the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources. Part II will discuss those used with HDR {sup 192}Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and{sup 192}Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the {sup 192}Ir sources were completed with several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally, relative dose measurements of the surface dose distributions and characteristic depth dose curves were completed in-phantom. Results: Theoretical dose distributions and depth dose curves were generated for each applicator and agreed well with the measured values. A method of output verification was created that allows users to determine the applicator-specific dose to water at the treatment surface based on a

  19. The faint radio source population at 15.7 GHz - II. Multi-wavelength properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittam, I. H.; Riley, J. M.; Green, D. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Vaccari, M.

    2015-11-01

    A complete, flux density limited sample of 96 faint (>0.5 mJy) radio sources is selected from the 10C survey at 15.7 GHz in the Lockman Hole. We have matched this sample to a range of multi-wavelength catalogues, including Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey, Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic survey, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey and optical data; multi-wavelength counterparts are found for 80 of the 96 sources and spectroscopic redshifts are available for 24 sources. Photometric redshifts are estimated for the sources with multi-wavelength data available; the median redshift of the sample is 0.91 with an interquartile range of 0.84. Radio-to-optical ratios show that at least 94 per cent of the sample are radio loud, indicating that the 10C sample is dominated by radio galaxies. This is in contrast to samples selected at lower frequencies, where radio-quiet AGN and star-forming galaxies are present in significant numbers at these flux density levels. All six radio-quiet sources have rising radio spectra, suggesting that they are dominated by AGN emission. These results confirm the conclusions of Paper I that the faint, flat-spectrum sources which are found to dominate the 10C sample below ˜1 mJy are the cores of radio galaxies. The properties of the 10C sample are compared to the Square Kilometre Array Design Studies Simulated Skies; a population of low-redshift star-forming galaxies predicted by the simulation is not found in the observed sample.

  20. The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources. II - Collisionless dissipation of wave packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, William

    1989-01-01

    The dispersion equation of Barnes (1966) is used to study the dissipation of asymptotic wave packets generated by localized periodic sources. The solutions of the equation are linear waves, damped by Landau and transit-time processes, in a collisionless warm plasma. For the case of an ideal MHD system, most of the waves emitted from a source are shown to cancel asympotically through destructive interference. The modes transporting significant flux to asymptotic distances are found to be Alfven waves and fast waves with theta (the angle between the magnetic field and the characteristics of the far-field waves) of about 0 and about pi/2.

  1. HUMAN HEALTH DAMAGES FROM MOBILE SOURCE AIR POLLUTION: ADDITIONAL DELPHI DATA ANALYSIS. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report contains the results of additional analyses of the data generated by a panel of medical experts for a study of Human Health Damages from Mobile Source Air Pollution (hereafter referred to as HHD) conducted by the California Air Resources Board in 1973-75 for the U.S. E...

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optically Bright extragalactic Radio Sources II (Petrov, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, L.

    2014-06-01

    The first VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) observing campaign in 2007 resulted in the detection of 398 targets with the European VLBI Network (EVN; Bourda et al., 2010, cat. J/A+A/520/A113). During the second observing campaign, a subset of 105 sources detected in the previous campaign was observed (Bourda et al., 2011, cat. J/A+A/526/A102). Their positions were derived by Petrov (2011, cat. J/AJ/142/105) and formed the OBRS-1 (Optically Bright extragalactic Radio Sources) catalog. The remaining sources were observed in the third campaign, called OBRS-2. During the OBRS-2 campaign, there were three observing sessions with 10 VLBA (Very Long Baseline Array) stations and 5-6 EVN stations from this list: EFLSBERG, MEDICINA, ONSALA60, YEBES40M, DSS63, HARTRAO, and NOTO. Observations were made on 2010 Mar 23 (session ID gc034a), on 2011 Nov 8 (gc034bcd), and on 2011 Mar 15 (gc034ef). The OBRS-2 catalog presents precise positions of the 295 extragalactic radio sources as well as median correlated flux densities at 8.4 and 2.2GHz at baseline lengths shorter than 900km and at baseline lengths longer than 5000km. (1 data file).

  3. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The

  4. The Brera Multiscale Wavelet ROSAT HRI Source Catalog. II. Application to the HRI and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, Sergio; Lazzati, Davide; Panzera, Maria Rosa; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    1999-10-01

    The wavelet detection algorithm (WDA) described in the accompanying paper by Lazzati et al. is suited to a fast and efficient analysis of images taken with the High-Resolution Imager (HRI) instrument on board the ROSAT satellite. An extensive testing is carried out on the detection pipeline: HRI fields with different exposure times are simulated and analyzed in the same fashion as the real data. Positions are recovered with errors of a few arcseconds, whereas fluxes are within a factor of 2 from their input values in more than 90% of the cases in the deepest images. Unlike the ``sliding-box'' detection algorithms, the WDA also provides a reliable description of the source extension, allowing for a complete search of, e.g., supernova remnants or clusters of galaxies in the HRI fields. A completeness analysis on simulated fields shows that for the deepest exposures considered (~120 ks) a limiting flux of ~3×10-15 ergs s-1 cm-2 can be reached over the entire field of view. We test the algorithm on real HRI fields selected for their crowding and/or the presence of extended or bright sources (e.g., clusters of galaxies and stars, supernova remnants). We show that our algorithm compares favorably with other X-ray detection algorithms, such as XIMAGE and EXSAS. Analysis with the WDA of the large set of HRI data will allow us to survey ~400 deg2 down to a limiting flux of ~10-13 ergs s-1 cm-2, and ~0.3 deg2 down to ~3×10-15 ergs s-1 cm-2. A complete catalog will result from our analysis, consisting of the Brera Multiscale Wavelet Bright Source Catalog (BMW-BSC), with sources detected with a significance of >~4.5 σ, and the Faint Source Catalog (BMW-FSC), with sources at >~3.5 σ. A conservative estimate based on the extragalactic log N-log S indicates that at least 16,000 sources will be revealed in the complete analysis of the entire HRI data set.

  5. VOC source-receptor relationships in Houston during TexAQS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuchner, Michael; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    2010-10-01

    During the TRAMP field campaign in August-September 2006, C 2-C 10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured continuously and online at the urban Moody Tower (MT) site. This dataset was compared to corresponding VOC data sets obtained at six sites located in the highly industrialized Houston Ship Channel area (HSC). Receptor modeling was performed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) at all sites. Conditional probability functions (CPF) were used to determine the origin of the polluted air masses in the Houston area. A subdivision into daytime and nighttime was carried out to discriminate photochemical influences. Eight main source categories of industrial, mobile, and biogenic emissions were identified at the urban receptor site, seven and six, respectively, at the different HSC sites. At MT natural gas/crude oil contributed most to the VOC mass (27.4%), followed by liquefied petroleum gas (16.7%), vehicular exhaust (15.3%), fuel evaporation (14.3%), and aromatics (13.4%). Also petrochemical sources from ethylene (4.7%) and propylene (3.6%) play an important role. A minor fraction of the VOC mass can be attributed to biogenic sources mainly from isoprene (4.4%). Based on PMF analyses of different wind sectors, the total VOC mass was estimated to be twofold at MT with wind directions from HSC compared to air from a typical urban sector, for petrochemical compounds more than threefold. Despite the strong impact of air masses influenced by industrial sources at HSC, still about a third of the total mass contributions at MT can be apportioned to other sources, mainly motor vehicles and aromatic solvents. The investigation of diurnal variation in combination with wind directional frequencies revealed the greatest HSC impact at the urban site during the morning, and the least during the evening.

  6. Transition probabilities of PrII-lines emitted from a ferroelectric plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goly, A.; Kusz, J.; Quang, B. Nguyen; Weniger, S.

    1991-03-01

    An argon-praseodymium plasma was generated under atmospheric pressure between a ceramic ferroelectric plate and a praseodymium plate. The system of plates was connected to an acoustic frequency supply. The plasma radiation was analyzed in the spectral range from 2000 to 7000 A by using a grating spectrograph with a linear dispersion near 1 mm/A, adopted to photoelectric measurements. The emission spectrum of praseodymium was recorded, and the intensities of a few hundred lines were measured. Transition probabilities were determined for 62 PrII-lines, using available lifetime data for excited levels and measured branching ratios of the corresponding lines. Reasonable agreement has been found between the experimental data of Lage and Whaling (1976) and some of the present results.

  7. A Glimpse of Optically Variable Galactic Bulge X-ray Sources: A Comparison of Mosaic-II and DECam Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher Bradley; Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, Peter; Torres, Manuel; Britt, Chris; Steeghs, Danny; Maccarone, Tom; Nelemans, Gijs; Greiss, Sandra; Baldwin, Austin

    2014-06-01

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of selected sources from the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) using the new DECam imager and the previous Mosaic-II imager on the 4m Blanco telescope at Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The goal of the GBS is to detect quiescent Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXB) and identify eclipsing systems for follow-up mass determination to test binary population models and to better determine black hole and neutron star mass distributions. We compare the light curves of spectroscopically intriguing sources with both instruments and show that the DECam observations demonstrate large improvements in sensitivity to short-period binary systems. Because of DECam's field of view of 2.2 degrees, our survey area can be covered in 4 pointings as opposed to 64 with Mosaic-II. This increased our sampling rate from 2-5 times to 28-56 times per target per night, which includes dithering. We find that combining 2x1 secs and 2x90 secs exposures over a two day observing run, we can detect targets between 12th and 23rd magnitude. Overall, we are finding that DECam is a superb instrument for detecting variability of sources in wide-field optical surveys. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-0908789 and by NASA through Chandra Award Number AR3-14002X issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics Space Administration under contract NAS8-03060.

  8. VLA observations of a complete sample of extragalactic X-ray sources. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schild, R.; Zamorani, G.; Gioia, I. M.; Feigelson, E. D.; Maccacaro, T.

    1983-01-01

    A complete sample of 35 X-ray selected sources found with the Einstein Observatory has been observed with the Very Large Array at 6 cm to investigate the relationship between radio and X-ray emission in extragalactic objects. Detections include three active galactic nuclei (AGNs), two clusters or groups of galaxies, two individual galaxies, and two BL Lac objects. The frequency of radio emission in X-ray selected AGNs is compared with that of optically selected quasars using the integral radio-optical luminosity function. The result suggests that the probability for X-ray selected quasars to be radio sources is higher than for those optically selected. No obvious correlation is found in the sample between the richness of X-ray luminosity of the cluster and the presence of a galaxy with radio luminosity at 5 GHz larger than 10 to the 30th ergs/s/Hz.

  9. Deploying quantum light sources on nanosatellites II: lessons and perspectives on CubeSat spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedington, R.; Truong-Cao, E.; Tan, Y. C.; Cheng, C.; Durak, K.; Grieve, J.; Larsen, J.; Oi, D.; Ling, A.

    2015-10-01

    To enable space-based quantum key distribution proposals the Centre for Quantum Technologies is developing a source of entangled photons ruggedized to survive deployment in space and greatly miniaturised so that it conforms to the strict form factor and power requirements of a 1U CubeSat. The Small Photon Entangling Quantum System is an integrated instrument where the pump, photon pair source and detectors are combined within a single optical tray and electronics package that is no larger than 10 cm x 10 cm x 3 cm. This footprint enables the instrument to be placed onboard nanosatellites or the CubeLab structure aboard the International Space Station. We will discuss the challenges and future prospects of CubeSat-based missions.

  10. Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

  11. Large-N Over the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Phase I and Phase II Test Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelson, C. M.; Carmichael, J. D.; Mellors, R. J.; Abbott, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    One of the current challenges in the field of monitoring and verification is source discrimination of low-yield nuclear explosions from background seismicity, both natural and anthropogenic. Work is underway at the Nevada National Security Site to conduct a series of chemical explosion experiments using a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary approach. The goal of this series of experiments, called the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is to refine the understanding of the effect of earth structures on source phenomenology and energy partitioning in the source region, the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field, and the development of S waves observed in the far field. To fully explore these problems, the SPE series includes tests in both hard and soft rock geologic environments. The project comprises a number of activities, which range from characterizing the shallow subsurface to acquiring new explosion data from both the near field (<100 m) and the far field (>100 m). SPE includes a series of planned explosions (with different yields and depths of burials), which are conducted in the same hole and monitored by a diverse set of sensors recording characteristics of the explosions, ground-shock, seismo-acoustic energy propagation. This presentation focuses on imaging the full 3D wavefield over hard rock and soft rock test beds using a large number of seismic sensors. This overview presents statistical analyses of optimal sensor layout required to estimate wavefield discriminants and the planned deployment for the upcoming experiments. This work was conducted under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. The nuclear region of low luminosity flat radio spectrum sources. II. Emission-line spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, A. C.; Serote Roos, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the spectroscopic study of 19 low luminosity Flat Radio Spectrum (LL FRS) sources selected from Marchã's et al. (\\cite{March96}) 200 mJy sample. In the optical, these objects are mainly dominated by the host galaxy starlight. After correcting the data for this effect, we obtain a new set of spectra clearly displaying weak emission lines; such features carry valuable information concerning the excitation mechanisms at work in the nuclear regions of LL FRS sources. We have used a special routine to model the spectra and assess the intensities and velocities of the emission lines; we have analyzed the results in terms of diagnostic diagrams. Our analysis shows that 79% of the studied objects harbour a Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region (or LINER) whose contribution was swamped by the host galaxy starlight. The remaining objects display a higher ionization spectrum, more typical of Seyferts; due to the poor quality of the spectra, it was not possible to identify any possible large Balmer components. The fact that we observe a LINER-type spectrum in LL FRS sources supports the idea that some of these objects could be undergoing an ADAF phase; in addition, such a low ionization emission-line spectrum is in agreement with the black hole mass values and sub-Eddington accretion rates published for some FRS sources. Based on observations collected at the Multiple Mirror Telescope on Mt. Hopkins. Full Fig. 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  13. Long-term particle measurements in Finnish Arctic: Part II - Trend analysis and source location identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laing, James R.; Hopke, Philip K.; Hopke, Eleanor F.; Husain, Liaquat; Dutkiewicz, Vincent A.; Paatero, Jussi; Viisanen, Yrjö.

    2014-05-01

    Forty-seven years (1964-2010) of weekly trace metal and major ion concentrations in total suspended particle samples from Kevo, Finland were analyzed for long-term trends and by source identification methods. Significant long-term decreasing trends were detected for most species. The largest decreases over the 47 years were Sb (-3.90% yr-1), Pb (-3.87% yr-1), Mn (-3.45% yr-1), Cd (-3.42% yr-1), and Ca (-3.13% yr-1). As, Pb, and Cd concentrations at Kevo were consistent with the reported time-trends of European emissions inventories. Pb concentrations at Kevo have dramatically decreased (92%) in the past 47 years due to the reduced use of leaded gasoline in automobiles. Back-trajectory analysis suggests that the main source areas of anthropogenic species (V, Cd, Mn, Mo, Sb, Tl, W) were predominantly in Eastern Europe, European Russia, and the Baltics. Markers of stationary fuel combustion (V, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, and Tl) pointed towards source regions in the Pechora Basin and Ural industrial areas in Russia, and near gas and oil fields in western Kazakhstan.

  14. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, Derek; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jogee, Shardha; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.

    2010-11-15

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers {approx}50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii ({approx}1.75 Mpc or 1{sup 0}) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin{sup 2}. The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for {approx}73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10{sigma} point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 < M {sub F814W} < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008

  15. A DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE GIANT H II REGION N11. I. X-RAY SOURCES IN THE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Nazé, Yaël; Wang, Q. Daniel; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert; Oskinova, Lida

    2014-08-01

    A very sensitive X-ray investigation of the giant H II region N11 in the Large Megallanic Cloud was performed using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The 300 ks observation reveals X-ray sources with luminosities down to 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1}, increasing the number of known point sources in the field by more than a factor of five. Among these detections are 13 massive stars (3 compact groups of massive stars, 9 O stars, and one early B star) with log (L {sub X}/L {sub BOL}) ∼–6.5 to –7, which may suggest that they are highly magnetic or colliding-wind systems. On the other hand, the stacked signal for regions corresponding to undetected O stars yields log (L {sub X}/L {sub BOL}) ∼–7.3, i.e., an emission level comparable to similar Galactic stars despite the lower metallicity. Other point sources coincide with 11 foreground stars, 6 late-B/A stars in N11, and many background objects. This observation also uncovers the extent and detailed spatial properties of the soft, diffuse emission regions, but the presence of some hotter plasma in their spectra suggests contamination by the unresolved stellar population.

  16. Long-term studies with the Ariel 5 ASM. II - The strong Cygnus sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The three bright 3-6 keV X-ray sources in Cygnus are examined for regular temporal variability with a 1300 day record from the Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitor. The only periods consistently observed are 5.6 days for Cyg X-1, 11.23 days for Cyg X-2, and 4.8 hours for Cyg X-3. The 78.4 day period of Kemp, Herman, and Barbour for Cyg X-1, the 9.843 day period of Cowley, Crampton, and Hutchings for Cyg X-2, and the 16.75 day period of Holt et al. for Cyg X-3 are not confirmed.

  17. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays. II. Faint Sources Detected with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunez, N. E.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I.; Mukai, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection from four symbiotic stars that were not known to be X-ray sources. These four object show a ß-type X-ray spectrum, that is, their spectra can be modeled with an absorbed optically thin thermal emission with temperatures of a few million degrees. Photometric series obtained with the Optical Monitor on board XMM-Newton from V2416 Sgr and NSV 25735 support the proposed scenario where the X-ray emission is produced in a shock-heated region inside the symbiotic nebulae.

  18. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Davies, Jonathan I.; Del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CORNISH project. II. Source catalog (Purcell+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Cotton, W. D.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S.; Chandler, C.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T.; Gledhill, T. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Hindson, L.; Jackson, J. M.; Kurtz, S. E.; Marti, J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Mundy, L. G.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Pandian, J. D.; Paredes, J. M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Smethurst, S.; Spencer, R. E.; Thompson, M. A.; Umana, G.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    CORNISH covers the 110deg2 of the northern GLIMPSE (10° 2006 Sep 16 VLA antennas only, storms II 2007 Sep 28 -> 2007 Oct 6 VLA + EVLA antennas, low Decl. IIIa 2007 Oct 27 -> 2008 Feb 4 Dec. Range: -14.9° -10.5° Range: 16.1° -> 21.1° IIIb 2007 Oct 27 -> 2008 Feb 4 Dec. Range: +14.2° +29.1° Range: 48.9° -> 65.5° --------------------------------------------------------------------- (1 data file).

  20. An ion species model for positive ion sources: II. Analysis of hydrogen isotope effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrey, E.; Holmes, A. J. T.

    2015-02-01

    A one-dimensional model of the magnetic multipole volume plasma source has been developed for application to intense ion/neutral atom beam injectors. The model uses plasma transport coefficients for particle and energy flow to create a detailed description of the plasma parameters along an axis parallel to that of the extracted beam. In this paper the isotopic modelling of positive hydrogenic ions is considered and compared with experimental data from the neutral beam injectors of the Joint European Torus. The use of the code to gain insights into the processes contributing to the ratios of the ionic species is demonstrated and the conclusion is drawn that 75% of the atomic ion species arises from ionization of dissociated molecules and 25% from dissociation of the molecular ions. However, whilst the former process is independent of the filter field, the latter is sensitive to the change in distribution of fast and thermal electrons produced by the magnetic filter field and an optimum combination of field strength and depth exists. Finally, the code is used to predict the species ratios for the JET source operating in tritium and hence the neutral beam power injected into the plasma in the JET tritium campaign planned for 2016.

  1. Stabilisation of carbonyl free amidinato-manganese(II) hydride complexes: "masked" sources of manganese(I) in organometallic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fohlmeister, Lea; Jones, Cameron

    2016-01-28

    Reaction of the amidinato-manganese(ii) bromide complex, [{(κ(2)-N,N'-Piso)Mn(μ-Br)}3(THF)2] (Piso = [(DipN)2CBu(t)](-), Dip = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl), with K[BHEt3] affords the first example of a structurally authenticated amidinato-manganese(ii) hydride complex, [{(N-,η(3)-arene-Piso)Mn(μ-H)2}2], via a process which involves a change in the amidinate coordination mode. Treatment of the bulkier precursor complex, [{(Piso'')Mn(μ-Br)}n] (Piso'' = [(Dip''N)2CBu(t)](-), Dip'' = C6H2Pr(i)2(CPh3)-2,6,4), with K[BHEt3] did not lead to an isolable manganese hydride complex, but its reaction with the magnesium(i) complex, [{((Mes)Nacnac)Mg}2] ((Mes)Nacnac = [(MesNCMe)2CH](-), Mes = mesityl), did. This reaction presumably proceeds via a reactive manganese(i) intermediate, which abstracts hydrogen from a reaction component to give [{(κ(2)-N,N'-Piso'')Mn(μ-H)}3]. A comparison of the reactivities of [{(N-,η(3)-arene-Piso)Mn(μ-H)2}2] and the isomorphous manganese(i) complex, [{(N-,η(3)-arene-Piso)Mn}2], toward CO, O2 and N2O was carried out. Reactions with the manganese(i) and manganese(ii) species gave identical results, namely the formation of the manganese(i) carbonyl complex, [(κ(2)-N,N'-Piso)Mn(CO)4] (reactions with CO), and the manganese(iii)-μ-oxo complex, [{(κ(2)-N,N'-Piso)Mn(μ-O)}2] (reactions with O2 and N2O). These results indicate that [{(N-,η(3)-arene-Piso)Mn(μ-H)2}2] can act as a "masked" source of an amidinato-manganese(i) fragment in synthetic transformations. PMID:26674008

  2. Polarization-entangled photon-pair source obtained via type-II non-collinear SPDC process with PPKTP crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Heonoh; Cha, Myoungsik; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a polarization-entangled photon-pair source obtained via a type-II non-collinear quasi-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down-conversion process with a 10-mm periodically poled KTiOPO$_4$ crystal, which is as stable and wavelength-tunable as the well-known Sagnac configuration scheme. A brightness of 4.2 kHz/mW is detected and a concurrence of 0.975 is estimated using quantum state tomography. Without loss of entanglement and brightness, the photon-pair wavelengths are tunable through control of the crystal temperature. This improvement is achieved using the non-collinear configuration and a stable interferometric distinguishability compensator.

  3. Polarization-entangled photon-pair source obtained via type-II non-collinear SPDC process with PPKTP crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Heonoh; Cha, Myoungsik; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a polarization-entangled photon-pair source obtained via a type-II non-collinear quasi-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down-conversion process with a 10-mm periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal, which is as stable and wavelength-tunable as the well-known Sagnac configuration scheme. A brightness of 4.2 kHz/mW is detected and a concurrence of 0.975 is estimated using quantum state tomography. Without loss of entanglement and brightness, the photon-pair wavelengths are tunable through control of the crystal temperature. This improvement is achieved using the non-collinear configuration and a stable interferometric distinguishability compensator. PMID:26906861

  4. THE NATURE OF THE UV/OPTICAL EMISSION OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE IN HOLMBERG II

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Lian; Feng Hua; Kaaret, Philip; Grise, Fabien

    2012-05-10

    We report on UV and X-ray spectroscopy and broadband optical observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source in Holmberg II. Fitting various stellar spectral models to the combined, non-simultaneous data set, we find that normal metallicity stellar spectra are ruled out by the data, while low-metallicity, Z = 0.1 Z{sub Sun }, late O-star spectra provide marginally acceptable fits, if we allow for the fact that X-ray ionization from the compact object may reduce or eliminate UV absorption/emission lines from the stellar wind. By contrast, an irradiated disk model fits both UV and optical data with {chi}{sup 2}/dof = 175.9/178, and matches the nebular extinction with a reddening of E(B - V) = 0.05{sup +0.05}{sub -0.04}. These results suggest that the UV/optical flux of Holmberg II X-1 may be dominated by X-ray irradiated disk emission.

  5. Inferring the Spatial and Energy Distribution of Gamma-Ray Burst Sources. II. Isotropic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas J.; Wasserman, Ira M.

    1998-07-01

    We use Bayesian methods to analyze the distribution of gamma-ray burst intensities reported in the Third BATSE Catalog (3B catalog) of gamma-ray bursts, presuming the distribution of burst sources (``bursters'') is isotropic. We study both phenomenological and cosmological source distribution models, using Bayes's theorem both to infer unknown parameters in the models and to compare rival models. We analyze the distribution of the time-averaged peak photon number flux, Φ, measured on both 64 ms and 1024 ms timescales, performing the analysis of data based on each timescale independently. Several of our findings differ from those of previous analyses that modeled burst detection less completely. In particular, we find that the width of the intrinsic luminosity function for bursters is unconstrained, and the luminosity function of the actually observed bursts can be extremely broad, in contrast to the findings of all previous studies. Useful constraints probably require observation of bursts significantly fainter than those visible to BATSE. We also find that the 3B peak flux data do not usefully constrain the redshifts of burst sources; useful constraints require the analysis of data beyond that in the 3B catalog (such as burst time histories) or data from brighter bursts than have been seen by BATSE (such as those observed by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter). In addition, we find that an accurate understanding of the peak flux distributions reported in the 3B almost certainly requires consideration of data on the temporal and spectral properties of bursts beyond that reported in the 3B catalog and more sophisticated modeling than has so far been attempted. We first analyze purely phenomenological power-law and broken power-law models for the distribution of observed peak fluxes. We find that the 64 ms data are adequately fitted by a single power law, but that the 1024 ms data significantly favor models with a sharp, steep break near the highest observed fluxes. At

  6. General relativistic radiation hydrodynamics of accretion flows - II. Treating stiff source terms and exploring physical limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roedig, C.; Zanotti, O.; Alic, D.

    2012-10-01

    We present the implementation of an implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta numerical scheme for general relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics coupled to an optically thick radiation field in two existing GR-(magneto)hydrodynamics codes. We argue that the necessity of such an improvement arises naturally in most astrophysically relevant regimes where the optical thickness is high as the equations become stiff. By performing several simple 1D tests, we verify the codes' new ability to deal with this stiffness and show consistency. Then, still in one spatial dimension, we compute a luminosity versus accretion rate diagram for the set-up of spherical accretion on to a Schwarzschild black hole and find good agreement with previous work which included more radiation processes than we currently have available. Lastly, we revisit the supersonic Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) accretion in two dimensions where we can now present simulations of realistic temperatures, down to T ˜ 106 K or less. Here we find that radiation pressure plays an important role, but also that these highly dynamical set-ups push our approximate treatment towards the limit of physical applicability. The main features of radiation hydrodynamics BHL flows manifest as (i) an effective adiabatic index approaching γeff ˜ 4/3; (ii) accretion rates two orders of magnitude lower than without radiation pressure, but still super-Eddington; (iii) luminosity estimates around the Eddington limit, hence with an overall radiative efficiency as small as ηBHL˜10-2; (iv) strong departures from thermal equilibrium in shocked regions; (v) no appearance of the flip-flop instability. We conclude that the current optically thick approximation to the radiation transfer does give physically substantial improvements over the pure hydro also in set-ups departing from equilibrium, and, once accompanied by an optically thin treatment, is likely to provide a fundamental tool for investigating accretion flows in a large variety of

  7. Ternary PVA nanocomposites containing cellulose nanocrystals from different sources and silver particles: part II.

    PubMed

    Fortunati, E; Luzi, F; Puglia, D; Terenzi, A; Vercellino, M; Visai, L; Santulli, C; Torre, L; Kenny, J M

    2013-09-12

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted from three different sources, namely flax, phormium, and commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) have been used in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to produce anti-bacterial films using two different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.1 wt% and 0.5 wt%). In general, CNC confer an effect of reinforcement to PVA film, the best values of stiffness being offered by composites produced using phormium fibres, whilst for strength those produced using flax are slightly superior. This was obtained without inducing any particular modification in transition temperatures and in the thermal degradation patterns. As regards antibacterial properties, systems with CNC from flax proved slightly better than those with CNC from phormium and substantially better than those including commercial MCC. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) has only been performed on the ternary composite containing 0.1 wt% Ag, which yielded higher values of Young's modulus, and as a whole confirmed the above results. PMID:23911522

  8. CASSIS: The Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph Sources. II. High-resolution Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Barry, D. J.; Goes, C.; Sloan, G. C.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Weedman, D. W.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Houck, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope observed about 15,000 objects during the cryogenic mission lifetime. Observations provided low-resolution (R=λ /{Δ }λ ≈ 60-127) spectra over ≈ 5-38 μm and high-resolution (R≈ 600) spectra over 10-37 μm. The Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/IRS Sources (CASSIS) was created to provide publishable quality spectra to the community. Low-resolution spectra have been available in CASSIS since 2011, and here we present the addition of the high-resolution spectra. The high-resolution observations represent approximately one-third of all staring observations performed with the IRS instrument. While low-resolution observations are adapted to faint objects and/or broad spectral features (e.g., dust continuum, molecular bands), high-resolution observations allow more accurate measurements of narrow features (e.g., ionic emission lines) as well as a better sampling of the spectral profile of various features. Given the narrow aperture of the two high-resolution modules, cosmic ray hits and spurious features usually plague the spectra. Our pipeline is designed to minimize these effects through various improvements. A super-sampled point-spread function was created in order to enable the optimal extraction in addition to the full aperture extraction. The pipeline selects the best extraction method based on the spatial extent of the object. For unresolved sources, the optimal extraction provides a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio over a full aperture extraction. We have developed several techniques for optimal extraction, including a differential method that eliminates low-level rogue pixels (even when no dedicated background observation was performed). The updated CASSIS repository now includes all the spectra ever taken by the IRS, with the exception of mapping observations.

  9. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA- booster subcritical assembly Part II : pulsed neutron source.

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Rabiti, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-10-22

    One of the most reliable experimental methods for measuring the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly is the Sjoestrand method applied to the reaction rate generated from a pulsed neutron source. This study developed a new analytical methodology for characterizing the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly using the Sjoestrand method, which allows comparing the analytical and experimental time dependent reaction rates and the reactivity measurements. In this methodology, the reaction rate, detector response, is calculated due to a single neutron pulse using MCNP/MCNPX computer code or any other neutron transport code that explicitly simulates the fission delayed neutrons. The calculation simulates a single neutron pulse over a long time period until the delayed neutron contribution to the reaction is vanished. The obtained reaction rate is superimposed to itself, with respect to the time, to simulate the repeated pulse operation until the asymptotic level of the reaction rate, set by the delayed neutrons, is achieved. The superimposition of the pulse to itself was calculated by a simple C computer program. A parallel version of the C program is used due to the large amount of data being processed, e.g. by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The new calculation methodology has shown an excellent agreement with the experimental results available from the YALINA-Booster facility of Belarus. The facility has been driven by a Deuterium-Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium pulsed neutron source and the (n,p) reaction rate has been experimentally measured by a {sup 3}He detector. The MCNP calculation has utilized the weight window and delayed neutron biasing variance reduction techniques since the detector volume is small compared to the assembly volume. Finally, this methodology was used to calculate the IAEA benchmark of the YALINA-Booster experiment.

  10. AWIPS II+: An Open-Source SOA Solution Enabling Environmental Remote Sensing Integration, Analysis, and Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardanuy, P. E.; Hood, C. A.; Moran, S. G.; Ritchie, A. A.; Tarro, A. M.; Nappi, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Our shared future demands a renewed focus on sound environment stewardship-on the GEOSS socioeconomic imperatives, as well as the interdisciplinary relationships interconnecting our environment, climate, ecosystems, energy, carbon, water-and national security. Data volumes are now measured in the many petabytes. An increasingly urgent and accelerated tempo of changing requirements and responsive solutions demands data exploitation, and transparent, seamless, effortless, bidirectional, and interdisciplinary interoperability across models and observations. There is today a robust working paradigm established with the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)-NOAA/NWS's information integration and fusion capability. This process model extends vertically, and seamlessly, from environmental sensing through the direct delivery of societal benefit. NWS, via AWIPS, is the primary source of weather forecast and warning information in the nation. AWIPS is the tested and proven "the nerve center of operations" at all 122 NWS Weather Forecast Offices and 13 River Forecast Centers. Raytheon, in partnership with NOAA, has now evolved AWIPS into an open-source 2nd generation capability to satisfy climate, ecosystems, weather, and water mission goals. Just as AWIPS II supports NOAA decision- making, it is at the same time a platform funded by Raytheon IRAD and Government investment that can be cost-effectively leveraged across all of the GEOSS and IEOS societal benefit areas. The core principles in the AWIPS II evolution to a service-oriented architecture (SOA) were to minimize coupling, increase cohesion, minimize size of code base, maximize simplicity, and incorporate a pull-style data flow. We focused on "ilities" to drive the new AWIPS architecture-our shared architecture framework vision included six elements: - Create a new, low-cost framework for hosting a full range of environmental services, including thick-client visualization via virtual Earth's and GIS

  11. The XMM-Large Scale Structure catalogue - II. X-ray sources and associated multiwavelength data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappetti, L.; Clerc, N.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Guéguen, A.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Melnyk, O.; Elyiv, A.; Surdej, J.; Faccioli, L.

    2013-02-01

    We present the final release of the multiwavelength XMM-Large Scale Structure (LSS) data set, covering the full survey area of 11.1 deg2, with X-ray data processed with the latest XMM-LSS pipeline version. The present publication supersedes the catalogue from the first paper in this series, pertaining to the initial 5 deg2. We provide X-ray source lists in the customary energy bands (0.5-2 and 2-10 keV) for a total of 6721 objects in the deep full-exposure catalogue and 5572 in the catalogue limited to 10 ks, above a detection likelihood of 15 in at least one band. We also provide a multiwavelength catalogue, cross-correlating our list with infrared, near-infrared, optical and ultraviolet catalogues. Customary data products, such as X-ray FITS images and thumbnail images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey and the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic Survey, are made available, together with our data base in Milan, which can be queried interactively. Also, a static snapshot of the catalogues has been supplied to the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS).

  12. Modeling of a negative ion source. II. Plasma-gas coupling in the extraction region

    SciTech Connect

    Taccogna, F.; Schneider, R.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2008-10-15

    The production, destruction, and transport of H{sup -} in the extraction region of a negative ion source are investigated with a 1D(z)-3V particle-in-cell electrostatic code. The motion of charged particles (e, H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sup -}) in their self-consistent electric field is coupled with the neutral particles [H(n=1) and H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, v=0,...,14)] dynamics and vibrational kinetics of H{sub 2}. Neutral influxes into the domain are determined by the simulation of the expansion region. Surface and volumetric processes involving plasma and neutrals have been included by using different Monte Carlo collision methods. Calculations show the influence of the plasma grid bias and of the magnetic filter on the plasma parameter profiles. In particular, a transition from classical to complete reverse sheath is observed using a positively biased plasma grid. The influence of the magnetic filter is small. The importance of the hot-atom mechanism on the surface negative ion production is shown.

  13. Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids flows: Part II Validation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Garg, Rahul; Galvin, Janine; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2012-01-01

    With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

  14. Open-Source MFIX-DEM Software for Gas-Solids Flows: Part II - Validation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen

    2012-04-01

    With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas–solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas–solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

  15. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE MORPHOLOGIES OF z {approx} 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES. II. BUMP SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Bussmann, R. S.; Dey, Arjun; Lotz, J.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Armus, L.; Desai, V.; Soifer, B. T.; Brown, M. J. I.; Eisenhardt, P.; Higdon, J.; Higdon, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Melbourne, J.; Weedman, D.

    2011-05-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 22 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z {approx} 2 with extremely red R - [24] colors (called dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) which have a local maximum in their spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest-frame 1.6 {mu}m associated with stellar emission. These sources, which we call 'bump DOGs', have star formation rates (SFRs) of 400-4000 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and have redshifts derived from mid-IR spectra which show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission-a sign of vigorous ongoing star formation. Using a uniform morphological analysis, we look for quantifiable differences between bump DOGs, power-law DOGs (Spitzer-selected ULIRGs with mid-IR SEDs dominated by a power law and spectral features that are more typical of obscured active galactic nuclei than starbursts), submillimeter-selected galaxies, and other less-reddened ULIRGs from the Spitzer Extragalactic First Look Survey. Bump DOGs are larger than power-law DOGs (median Petrosian radius of 8.4 {+-} 2.7 kpc versus 5.5 {+-} 2.3 kpc) and exhibit more diffuse and irregular morphologies (median M{sub 20} of -1.08 {+-} 0.05 versus -1.48 {+-} 0.05). These trends are qualitatively consistent with expectations from simulations of major mergers in which merging systems during the peak SFR period evolve from M{sub 20} = -1.0 to M{sub 20} = -1.7. Less-obscured ULIRGs (i.e., non-DOGs) tend to have more regular, centrally peaked, single-object morphologies rather than diffuse and irregular morphologies. This distinction in morphologies may imply that less-obscured ULIRGs sample the merger near the end of the peak SFR period. Alternatively, it may indicate that the intense star formation in these less-obscured ULIRGs is not the result of a recent major merger.

  16. Five years of searches for point sources of astrophysical neutrinos with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achterberg, A.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Ahrens, J.; Andeen, K.; Atlee, D. W.; Bahcall, J. N.; Bai, X.; Baret, B.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Becka, T.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Braun, J.; Burgess, C.; Burgess, T.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Davour, A.; Day, C. T.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; De Young, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feser, T.; Filimonov, K.; Fox, B. D.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Grullon, S.; Groß, A.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, D.; Hardtke, R.; Harenberg, T.; Hart, J. E.; Hauschildt, T.; Hays, D.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G. C.; Hodges, J.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hommez, B.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Hughey, B.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Hülß, J.-P.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Jones, A.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Karle, A.; Kawai, H.; Kelley, J. L.; Kestel, M.; Kitamura, N.; Klein, S. R.; Klepser, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Kowalski, M.; Köpke, L.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Landsman, H.; Leich, H.; Leier, D.; Leuthold, M.; Liubarsky, I.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McCauley, T.; McParland, C. P.; Meli, A.; Messarius, T.; Mészáros, P.; Miyamoto, H.; Mokhtarani, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morey, A.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Ögelman, H.; Olivas, A.; Patton, S.; Peña-Garay, C.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Pretz, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Razzaque, S.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Robbins, S.; Roth, P.; Rott, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Smith, A. J.; Solarz, M.; Song, C.; Sopher, J. E.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Steffen, P.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sumner, T. J.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Tluczykont, M.; Toale, P. A.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; Voigt, B.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Waldmann, H.; Walter, M.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wendt, C.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zornoza, J. D.

    2007-05-01

    We report the results of a five-year survey of the northern sky to search for point sources of high energy neutrinos. The search was performed on the data collected with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope in the years 2000 to 2004, with a live time of 1001 days. The sample of selected events consists of 4282 upward going muon tracks with high reconstruction quality and an energy larger than about 100 GeV. We found no indication of point sources of neutrinos and set 90% confidence level flux upper limits for an all-sky search and also for a catalog of 32 selected sources. For the all-sky search, our average (over declination and right ascension) experimentally observed upper limit Φ0=((E)/(1TeV))γ·(dΦ)/(dE) to a point source flux of muon and tau neutrino (detected as muons arising from taus) is Φνμ+ν¯μ0+Φντ+ν¯τ0=11.1×10-11TeV-1cm-2s-1, in the energy range between 1.6 TeV and 2.5 PeV for a flavor ratio Φνμ+ν¯μ0/Φντ+ν¯τ0=1 and assuming a spectral index γ=2. It should be noticed that this is the first time we set upper limits to the flux of muon and tau neutrinos. In previous papers we provided muon neutrino upper limits only neglecting the sensitivity to a signal from tau neutrinos, which improves the limits by 10% to 16%. The value of the average upper limit presented in this work corresponds to twice the limit on the muon neutrino flux Φνμ+ν¯μ0=5.5×10-11TeV-1cm-2s-1. A stacking analysis for preselected active galactic nuclei and a search based on the angular separation of the events were also performed. We report the most stringent flux upper limits to date, including the results of a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties.

  17. Investigations in Time and of Space Using the FIRST Survey: Radio Source Variability and the Evolution of FR II Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan

    than with Friedmann models. These earlier results can be attributed to a combination of selection effects, sample definition problems, and inconsistencies in analysis. However, some recent and more successful analyses have still failed to distinguish among different Friedmann models. A catalog of ∼ 680 FR II quasars was constructed from the FIRST sources with redshifts taken from the SDSS spectroscopic QSO catalog and a similar sized sample from the SDSS photometric QSO catalog which are the largest quasar compilations to date. Using statistical analyses, no evidence for intrinsic evolution of sizes with redshift is found. A static Euclidean model for the universe is clearly ruled out. However, new degeneracies between parameters in the multi-dimensional χ2-surface are found which can only be resolved with additional, independent information. Notable differences are found between the spectroscopic and photometric samples raising questions about the nature and origin of these populations.

  18. [Effect of Zn(II) on microbial activity in anaerobic acid mine drainage treatment system with biomass as carbon source].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Jie; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhou, Yue-Fei; Yue, Zheng-Bo; Jin, Jiez; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, with rape straw as carbon source, anaerobic batch experiments were executed to investigate the effect of Zn (II) on the activity of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the microbial treatment of simulative acid mine drainage (AMD). The results showed that during the 60 experimental days, when initial Zn2+ concentrations were in the range of 73.7 to 196.8 mg x L(-1), SRB had high culturalbility. At the end of these experiments, pH values rose from initial 5.0 to neutral, about 96% of sulphate was reduced and the concentrations of Zn2+ reduced to 0.05 mg x L(-1). The results of Tessier sequential extraction, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) showed that Zn was found to be fixed through forming organic and sulphide (mainly sphalerite) compounds. For the experiment with high Zn2+ concentration (262.97 mg x L(-1)), at the end of experiments, pH values dropped from initial 5.0 to 4.0, only 27% of sulphate was only reduced and the concentrations of Zn2+ kept in high range (25 mg x L(-1)), the activity of SRB significantly inhibited. This study indicated that: (1) Rape straw can be used as slow-release carbon source for long-term anaerobic AMD treatment; (2) Rape straw can decrease the toxicity of Zn2+ to SRB through adsorption; (3) In anaerobic AMD treatment system, Zn can be fixed by sulphide minerals with mediation of SRB. PMID:22452225

  19. A sample of mJy radio sources at 1.4 GHz in the Lynx and Hercules fields - II. Cosmic evolution of the space density of FR I radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, E. E.; Best, P. N.; Snellen, I. A. G.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper the cosmic evolution of the space density of Fanaroff-Riley Class I (FR I) radio sources is investigated out to z ~ 1, in order to understand the origin of the differences between these and the more powerful FR IIs. High-resolution radio images are presented of the best high-redshift FR I candidate galaxies, drawn from two fields of the Leiden-Berkeley Deep Survey, and previously defined by Rigby, Snellen & Best in Paper 1. Together with lower resolution radio observations (both previously published in Paper 1 and, for a subset of sources, also presented here) these are used to morphologically classify the sample. Sources which are clearly resolved are classified by morphology alone, whereas barely or unresolved sources were classified using a combination of morphology and flux density loss in the higher resolution data, indicative of resolved-out extended emission. The space densities of the FR Is are then calculated as a function of redshift, and compared to both measurements of the local value and the behaviour of the more powerful FR IIs. The space density of FR I radio sources with luminosities (at 1.4 GHz) > 1025 WHz-1 is enhanced by a factor of 5-9 by z ~ 1, implying moderately strong evolution of this population; this enhancement is in good agreement with models of FR II evolution at the same luminosity. There are also indications that the evolution is luminosity dependent, with the lower powered sources evolving less strongly.

  20. 8.4 GHz High-Resolution Observations of Fanaroff-Riley II 3CR Radio Sources with 0.3II. Ten New Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernini, Ilias

    2007-07-01

    VLA observations at 8.4 GHz of two Fanaroff-Riley class II (FR II) radio galaxies (RGs; 3C 265 and 3C 324) and eight FR II quasars (QSRs; 3C 175, 3C 204, 3C 215, 3C 249.1, 3C 263, 3C 336, 3C 351, and 3C 432) are presented as part of a program to obtain high-resolution images of the hot spots of 13 FR II QSRs and 13 FR II RGs with classical double structures. The 16 hot spots identified in these sources are well resolved. In terms of location, nine hot spots are ``edged'' hot spots, while the remaining are ``recessed'' hot spots. The previously known jets for all of the QSRs are well imaged at this resolution. We discuss the overall source morphology and the structure and location of the hot spot (i.e., whether it is located at the outer edges of the radio lobe or recessed).

  1. N2O production in the Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO reduction process: the effects of carbon source and pH.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Ji; Chen, Jianmeng

    2015-07-01

    Chemical absorption-biological reduction (BioDeNOx), which uses Fe(II)(EDTA) as a complexing agent for promoting the mass transfer efficiency of NO from gas to water, is a promising technology for removing nitric oxide (NO) from flue gases. The carbon source and pH are important parameters for Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO (the production of absorption) reduction and N2O emissions from BioDeNOx systems. Batch tests were performed to evaluate the effects of four different carbon sources (i.e., methanol, ethanol, sodium acetate, and glucose) on Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO reduction and N2O emissions at an initial pH of 7.2 ± 0.2. The removal efficiency of Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO was 93.9%, with a theoretical rate of 0.77 mmol L(-1) h(-1) after 24 h of operation. The highest N2O production was 0.025 mmol L(-1) after 3 h when glucose was used as the carbon source. The capacities of the carbon sources to enhance the activity of the Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO reductase enzyme decreased in the following order based on the C/N ratio: glucose > ethanol > sodium acetate > methanol. Over the investigated pH range of 5.5-8.5, the Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO removal efficiency was highest at a pH of 7.5, with a theoretical rate of 0.88 mmol L(-1) h(-1). However, the N2O production was lowest at a pH of 8.5. The primary effect of pH on denitrification resulted from the inhibition of nosZ in acidic conditions. PMID:25698260

  2. A rank-based transcriptional signature for predicting relapse risk of stage II colorectal cancer identified with proper data sources

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenyuan; Chen, Beibei; Guo, Xin; Wang, Ruiping; Chang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Yu; Song, Kai; Wang, Wen; Qi, Lishuang; Gu, Yunyan; Wang, Chenguang; Yang, Da; Guo, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The irreproducibility problem seriously hinders the studies on transcriptional signatures for predicting relapse risk of early stage colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Through reviewing recently published 34 literatures for the development of CRC prognostic signatures based on gene expression profiles, we revealed a surprising phenomenon that 33 of these studies analyzed CRC samples with and without adjuvant chemotherapy together in the training and/or validation datasets. This data misuse problem could be partially attributed to the unclear and incomplete data annotation in public data sources. Furthermore, all the signatures proposed by these studies were based on risk scores summarized from gene expression levels, which are sensitive to experimental batch effects and risk compositions of the samples analyzed together. To avoid the above-mentioned problems, we carefully selected three qualified large datasets to develop and validate a signature consisting of three pairs of genes. The within-sample relative expression orderings of these gene pairs could robustly predict relapse risk of stage II CRC samples assessed in different laboratories. The transcriptional and functional analyses provided clear evidence that the high risk patients predicted by the proposed signature represent patients with micro-metastases. PMID:26967049

  3. FLICKERING OF 1.3 cm SOURCES IN SGR B2: TOWARD A SOLUTION TO THE ULTRACOMPACT H II REGION LIFETIME PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    De Pree, C. G.; Monsrud, A.; Peters, T.; Mac Low, M.-M.; Wilner, D. J.; Keto, E. R.; Goss, W. M.; Galván-Madrid, R.; Klessen, R. S.

    2014-02-01

    Accretion flows onto massive stars must transfer mass so quickly that they are themselves gravitationally unstable, forming dense clumps and filaments. These density perturbations interact with young massive stars, emitting ionizing radiation, alternately exposing and confining their H II regions. As a result, the H II regions are predicted to flicker in flux density over periods of decades to centuries rather than increase monotonically in size as predicted by simple Spitzer solutions. We have recently observed the Sgr B2 region at 1.3 cm with the Very Large Array in its three hybrid configurations (DnC, CnB, and BnA) at a resolution of ∼0.''25. These observations were made to compare in detail with matched continuum observations from 1989. At 0.''25 resolution, Sgr B2 contains 41 ultracompact (UC) H II regions, 6 of which are hypercompact. The new observations of Sgr B2 allow comparison of relative peak flux densities for the H II regions in Sgr B2 over a 23 year time baseline (1989-2012) in one of the most source-rich massive star forming regions in the Milky Way. The new 1.3 cm continuum images indicate that four of the 41 UC H II regions exhibit significant changes in their peak flux density, with one source (K3) dropping in peak flux density, and the other three sources (F10.303, F1, and F3) increasing in peak flux density. The results are consistent with statistical predictions from simulations of high mass star formation, suggesting that they offer a solution to the lifetime problem for UC H II regions.

  4. Binding of mercury(II) to aquatic humic substances: Influence of pH and source of humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haitzer, M.; Aiken, G.R.; Ryan, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    Conditional distribution coefficients (KDOM???) for Hg(II) binding to seven dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolates were measured at environmentally relevant ratios of Hg(II) to DOM. The results show that KDOM??? values for different types of samples (humic acids, fulvic acids, hydrophobic acids) isolated from diverse aquatic environments were all within 1 order of magnitude (1022.5??1.0-1023.5??1.0 L kg-1), suggesting similar Hg(II) binding environments, presumably involving thiol groups, for the different isolates. KDOM??? values decreased at low pHs (4) compared to values at pH 7, indicating proton competition for the strong Hg(II) binding sites. Chemical modeling of Hg(II)-DOM binding at different pH values was consistent with bidentate binding of Hg(II) by one thiol group (pKa = 10.3) and one other group (pKa = 6.3) in the DOM, which is in agreement with recent results on the structure of Hg(II)-DOM bonds obtained by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS).

  5. APMP comparison of measurement of surface emission rate of 36Cl large area source (APMP.RI(II)-K2.Cl-36).

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Akira; Hino, Yoshio

    2012-09-01

    An international comparison of measurement of beta particle surface emission rate from a (36)Cl large area source (APMP.RI(II)-S1.Cl-36) was carried out within the framework of the Asia-Pacific Metrology Program (APMP). Participants from APMP were NMIJ (Japan), KRISS (Korea) and INER (Chinese Taipei). Participants from the other RMOs were NIST (United States), PTB (Germany), NMISA (South Africa) and VNIIM (Russia). All the results of the participants agreed within ±1%. This was the first international comparison of measurement of surface emission rate of beta particle from a large area source. PMID:22424747

  6. Thin films of tin(II) sulphide (SnS) by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) using tin(II) dithiocarbamates as single-source precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevin, Punarja; Lewis, David J.; Raftery, James; Azad Malik, M.; O'Brien, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of the asymmetric dithiocarbamates of tin(II) with the formula [Sn(S2CNRR')2] (where R=Et, R'=n-Bu (1); R=Me, R'=n-Bu (2); R=R'=Et (3)) and their use for the deposition of SnS thin films by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) is described. The effects of temperature and the concentration of the precursors on deposition were investigated. The stoichiometry of SnS was best at higher concentrations of precursors (250 mM) and at 450 °C. The direct electronic band gap of the SnS produced by this method was estimated from optical absorbance measurements as 1.2 eV. The composition of films was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) spectroscopy.

  7. Elevated Fe(II) and dissolved Fe in hypoxic shelf waters off Oregon and Washington: an enhanced source of iron to coastal upwelling regimes.

    PubMed

    Lohan, Maeve C; Bruland, Kenneth W

    2008-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in the cause and impact of hypoxic regions known as "dead zones" that have increasingly appeared along the west coast of the United States and have caused widespread destruction to the crab and fishing industry in this upwelling region. Here, we present results that demonstrate that the hypoxic conditions in the water column over the continental shelf result in a marked increase in iron(II) concentrations, which contribute to elevated dissolved and labile particulate iron concentrations. These elevated dissolved iron(II) concentrations result from two factors: (1) the hypoxic water column allows extremely elevated iron(II) concentrations in reducing porewaters to exist close to the sediment water interface, leading to an increased flux of iron(II) from the sediments; (2) the low oxygen, low pH, and low temperatures within the bottom boundary layer act in concert to markedly slow down the oxidation rate of Fe(ll). During upwelling conditions, this process can result in a greatly enhanced source of Fe available to upwell to surface waters, potentially increasing phytoplankton productivity, which can, in turn, lead to enhanced export flux, driving the system further into hypoxic or suboxic conditions. PMID:18800515

  8. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Gotthelf, Eric; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman; Bauer, Franz; Perez, Kerstin; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; Stern, Daniel; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Alexander, David M.; Aramaki, Tsuguo; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Barret, Didier; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Canipe, Alicia M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Desai, Meera A.; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Dooran; Hornstrup, Allan; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E.; Madsen, Kristen K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Perri, Matteo; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Westergaard, Niels J.; Zhang, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    We present the first survey results of hard X-ray point sources in the Galactic Center (GC) region by NuSTAR. We have discovered 70 hard (3–79 keV) X-ray point sources in a 0.6 deg{}2 region around Sgr A* with a total exposure of 1.7 Ms, and 7 sources in the Sgr B2 field with 300 ks. We identify clear Chandra counterparts for 58 NuSTAR sources and assign candidate counterparts for the remaining 19. The NuSTAR survey reaches X-ray luminosities of ˜4× and ˜8 × 10{}32 erg s{}-1 at the GC (8 kpc) in the 3–10 and 10–40 keV bands, respectively. The source list includes three persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra indicates that all the NuSTAR sources are in the central bulge or are of extragalactic origin. Spectral analysis of relatively bright NuSTAR sources suggests that magnetic cataclysmic variables constitute a large fraction (>40%–60%). Both spectral analysis and logN–logS distributions of the NuSTAR sources indicate that the X-ray spectra of the NuSTAR sources should have kT > 20 keV on average for a single temperature thermal plasma model or an average photon index of Γ = 1.5–2 for a power-law model. These findings suggest that the GC X-ray source population may contain a larger fraction of XBs with high plasma temperatures than the field population.

  9. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Gotthelf, Eric; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman; Bauer, Franz; Perez, Kerstin; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; Stern, Daniel; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Alexander, David M.; Aramaki, Tsuguo; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Barret, Didier; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Canipe, Alicia M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Desai, Meera A.; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Dooran; Hornstrup, Allan; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E.; Madsen, Kristen K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Perri, Matteo; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Westergaard, Niels J.; Zhang, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    We present the first survey results of hard X-ray point sources in the Galactic Center (GC) region by NuSTAR. We have discovered 70 hard (3–79 keV) X-ray point sources in a 0.6 deg{}2 region around Sgr A* with a total exposure of 1.7 Ms, and 7 sources in the Sgr B2 field with 300 ks. We identify clear Chandra counterparts for 58 NuSTAR sources and assign candidate counterparts for the remaining 19. The NuSTAR survey reaches X-ray luminosities of ∼4× and ∼8 × 10{}32 erg s{}-1 at the GC (8 kpc) in the 3–10 and 10–40 keV bands, respectively. The source list includes three persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra indicates that all the NuSTAR sources are in the central bulge or are of extragalactic origin. Spectral analysis of relatively bright NuSTAR sources suggests that magnetic cataclysmic variables constitute a large fraction (>40%–60%). Both spectral analysis and logN–logS distributions of the NuSTAR sources indicate that the X-ray spectra of the NuSTAR sources should have kT > 20 keV on average for a single temperature thermal plasma model or an average photon index of Γ = 1.5–2 for a power-law model. These findings suggest that the GC X-ray source population may contain a larger fraction of XBs with high plasma temperatures than the field population.

  10. RADIO SIGNATURES OF CORONAL-MASS-EJECTION-STREAMER INTERACTION AND SOURCE DIAGNOSTICS OF TYPE II RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Song, H. Q.; Feng, X. S.; Liu Ying

    2012-07-01

    It has been suggested that type II radio bursts are due to energetic electrons accelerated at coronal shocks. Radio observations, however, have poor or no spatial resolutions to pinpoint the exact acceleration locations of these electrons. In this paper, we discuss a promising approach to infer the electron acceleration location by combining radio and white light observations. The key assumption is to relate specific morphological features (e.g., spectral bumps) of the dynamic spectra of type II radio bursts to imaging features (e.g., coronal mass ejection (CME) going into a streamer) along the CME (and its driven shock) propagation. In this study, we examine the CME-streamer interaction for the solar eruption dated on 2003 November 1. The presence of spectral bump in the relevant type II radio burst is identified, which is interpreted as a natural result of the shock-radio-emitting region entering the dense streamer structure. The study is useful for further determinations of the location of type II radio burst and the associated electron acceleration by CME-driven shock.

  11. A search for precursors of ultracompact H II regions in a sample of luminous IRAS sources. III. Circumstellar dust properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molinari, S.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Palla, F.

    2000-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope has been used to obtain submillimeter and millimeter continuum photometry of a sample of 30 IRAS sources previously studied in molecular lines and centimeter radio continuum. All the sources have IRAS colours typical of very young stellar objects (YSOs) and are associated with dense gas.

  12. From chemolithoautotrophs to electrolithoautotrophs: CO2 fixation by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria coupled with direct uptake of electrons from solid electron sources.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takumi; Kawaichi, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei

    2015-01-01

    At deep-sea vent systems, hydrothermal emissions rich in reductive chemicals replace solar energy as fuels to support microbial carbon assimilation. Until recently, all the microbial components at vent systems have been assumed to be fostered by the primary production of chemolithoautotrophs; however, both the laboratory and on-site studies demonstrated electrical current generation at vent systems and have suggested that a portion of microbial carbon assimilation is stimulated by the direct uptake of electrons from electrically conductive minerals. Here we show that chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, switches the electron source for carbon assimilation from diffusible Fe(2+) ions to an electrode under the condition that electrical current is the only source of energy and electrons. Site-specific marking of a cytochrome aa3 complex (aa3 complex) and a cytochrome bc1 complex (bc1 complex) in viable cells demonstrated that the electrons taken directly from an electrode are used for O2 reduction via a down-hill pathway, which generates proton motive force that is used for pushing the electrons to NAD(+) through a bc1 complex. Activation of carbon dioxide fixation by a direct electron uptake was also confirmed by the clear potential dependency of cell growth. These results reveal a previously unknown bioenergetic versatility of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria to use solid electron sources and will help with understanding carbon assimilation of microbial components living in electronically conductive chimney habitats. PMID:26500609

  13. From chemolithoautotrophs to electrolithoautotrophs: CO2 fixation by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria coupled with direct uptake of electrons from solid electron sources

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Takumi; Kawaichi, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei

    2015-01-01

    At deep-sea vent systems, hydrothermal emissions rich in reductive chemicals replace solar energy as fuels to support microbial carbon assimilation. Until recently, all the microbial components at vent systems have been assumed to be fostered by the primary production of chemolithoautotrophs; however, both the laboratory and on-site studies demonstrated electrical current generation at vent systems and have suggested that a portion of microbial carbon assimilation is stimulated by the direct uptake of electrons from electrically conductive minerals. Here we show that chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, switches the electron source for carbon assimilation from diffusible Fe2+ ions to an electrode under the condition that electrical current is the only source of energy and electrons. Site-specific marking of a cytochrome aa3 complex (aa3 complex) and a cytochrome bc1 complex (bc1 complex) in viable cells demonstrated that the electrons taken directly from an electrode are used for O2 reduction via a down-hill pathway, which generates proton motive force that is used for pushing the electrons to NAD+ through a bc1 complex. Activation of carbon dioxide fixation by a direct electron uptake was also confirmed by the clear potential dependency of cell growth. These results reveal a previously unknown bioenergetic versatility of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria to use solid electron sources and will help with understanding carbon assimilation of microbial components living in electronically conductive chimney habitats. PMID:26500609

  14. Positions of galactic X-ray sources with l/II/ between -20 deg and +6 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernigan, J. G.; Bradt, H. V.; Doxsey, R. E.; Dower, R. G.; Mcclintock, J. E.; Apparao, K. M. V.

    1978-01-01

    The precise positions of nine X-ray sources in the vicinity of the galactic center are reported. The data were obtained as part of the comprehensive survey of the galactic plane performed with the rotating modulation collimator detectors on the SAS-3 X-ray observatory. The sources include the binary X-ray source 4U 1700-37 which has a well established optical counterpart that lies 7 sec from the reported position. The other sources GX 349+2, 4U 1702-42, 4U 1705-44, MX 1716-31, A 1742-294, 4U 1755-33, GX 5-1, and 2S 1803-245 lack established counterparts in other wavelengths. The obtained position for GX 5-1 adds confidence to the radio counterpart proposed by Braes et al. (1972). The reported position for 4U 1755-33 excludes the optical counterpart proposed by Jones et al. (1974).

  15. Improved apportionment of ambient PM constituents to sources in Tampa, FL, with pseudo-deterministic receptor model-II.

    PubMed

    Beachley, Gregory M; Ondov, John M

    2013-03-15

    In 2005, Park et al. developed a new Pseudo-Deterministic Receptor Model (PDRM) to apportion SO2 and ambient particulate matter (PM) constituents to local sources near Tampa Bay. Ambient pollutant measurements were fit to products of emission rates and dispersion factors constrained with a Gaussian Plume Model for individual sources. Although highly successful, ambient pollutant concentrations were affected by numerous contributing sources at a variety of distances and trajectories were complicated by shifting winds. In this work, we expanded the data set, modified the basic bilinear Gaussian filter equation to constrain solutions based on composition and temporal profiles of key marker species, and implemented a hierarchical approach to applying constraints in order of most-to-least stringent. To account for shifting winds and differing transport times for ground and elevated components of plumes from distant sources, a multiple-height trajectory method was implemented. These changes allowed the number of unknowns to be expanded, such that temporal profiles of the Gaussian dispersion terms could also be extracted from the data. Fits for all species were substantially improved, as was agreement with literature sources for both emission rates and source-particle compositions. PMID:22954420

  16. The biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB₃O₆ as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion.

    PubMed

    Halevy, A; Megidish, E; Dovrat, L; Eisenberg, H S; Becker, P; Bohatý, L

    2011-10-10

    We describe the full characterization of the biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB₃O₆ (BiBO) as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion. We consider the relevant parameters for crystal design, such as cutting angles, polarization of the photons, effective nonlinearity, spatial and temporal walk-offs, crystal thickness and the effect of the pump laser bandwidth. Experimental results showing entanglement generation with high rates and a comparison to the well investigated β-BaB₂O₄ (BBO) crystal are presented as well. Changing the down-conversion crystal of a polarization entangled photon source from BBO to BiBO enhances the generation rate as if the pump power was increased by 2.5 times. Such an improvement is currently required for the generation of multiphoton entangled states. PMID:21997051

  17. Searching for heavily obscured post-AGB stars and planetary nebulae. II. Near-IR observations of IRAS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Suárez, O.; Miranda, L. F.; Gómez, J. F.

    2012-09-01

    The most massive AGB stars are expected to result in heavily obscured post-AGB stars, proto-PNe and PNe with highly axisymmetric morphologies. To investigate this evolutionary connection, we have selected a sample of 165 presumably obscured IRAS post-AGB star and PN candidates and obtained near-IR JHK images for 164 of them. These images, in conjunction with DSS, 2MASS, Spitzer GLIMPSE, MSX, AKARI, and IRAS archival data, have allowed us to identify the near-IR counterparts of 154 of these sources, providing reliable finding charts and coordinates. Near-IR narrow-band Brγ, H2, and K continuum images were acquired for 6 of these sources that were found to be resolved in near-IR JHK images. Among the extended post-AGB source and PN candidates, three are round and seven have bipolar morphologies. Five of the extended sources are ionized and may have thus entered the PN stage. We note that all extended sources with water maser emission have bipolar morphology. We have investigated the Galactic distribution of sources with the largest flux drop from the 9 μm AKARI band to the near-IR J band and found that the width of the distribution in Galactic latitude is consistent with those of bipolar PNe and DUPLEX (DUst-Prominent Longitudinally EXtended) sources. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (081.D-0812), observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and on observations with AKARI, a JAXA project with the participation of ESA.

  18. Arginase I and II in Lungs of Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice Exposed to Ovalbumin: Sources and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Last, Jerold A.

    2008-01-01

    Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated

  19. Arginases I and II in lungs of ovalbumin-sensitized mice exposed to ovalbumin: Sources and consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Last, Jerold A.

    2008-08-01

    Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated

  20. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer: Evidence of High Unbeamed Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the [O IV] 25.89 micron emission line detected from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. This line is a well established signature of high excitation, usually associated with AGN. Its detection suggests that the ULX has a strong impact on the surrounding gas. A Spitzer high resolution spectral map shows that the [O IV] is coincident with the X-ray position of the Holmberg II ULX. We find that the luminosity and the morphology of the line emission is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is radiation bounded both in the line of sight direction and to the west, and probably matter bounded to the east. Evidence for a massive black hole (BH) in this ULX is mounting. Detailed photoionization models favor an intermediate mass black hole of at least 85 Solar Mass as the ionization source for the [OIV] emission. We find that the spectral type of the companion star strongly affects the expected strength of the [O IV] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O IV] in some starburst galaxies containing black hole binaries.

  1. Studies and optimization of Pohang Light Source-II superconducting radio frequency system at stable top-up operation with beam current of 400 mA

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Youngdo Yu, Inha; Park, Insoo; Chun, Myunghwan; Lee, Byung-Joon; Hwang, Ilmoon; Ha, Taekyun; Shin, Seunghwan; Sohn, Younguk

    2014-12-21

    After three years of upgrading work, the Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) is now successfully operating. The final quantitative goal of PLS-II is a top-up user-service operation with beam current of 400 mA to be completed by the end of 2014. During the beam store test up to 400 mA in the storage ring (SR), it was observed that the vacuum pressure around the radio frequency (RF) window of the superconducting cavity rapidly increases over the interlock level limiting the availability of the maximum beam current storing. Although available beam current is enhanced by setting a higher RF accelerating voltage, it is better to keep the RF accelerating voltage as low as possible in the long time top-up operation. We investigated the cause of the window vacuum pressure increment by studying the changes in the electric field distribution at the superconducting cavity and waveguide according to the beam current. In our simulation, an equivalent physical modeling was developed using a finite-difference time-domain code. The simulation revealed that the electric field amplitude at the RF window is exponentially increased as the beam current increases, thus this high electric field amplitude causes a RF breakdown at the RF window, which comes with the rapid increase of window vacuum pressure. The RF accelerating voltage of PLS-II RF system was set to 4.95 MV, which was estimated using the maximum available beam current that works as a function of RF voltage, and the top-up operation test with the beam current of 400 mA was successfully carried out.

  2. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF EXPOSURES TO VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: II. APPLICATION OF RECEPTOR MODELS TO TEAM STUDY DATA. (R826788)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four receptor-oriented source apportionment models were applied to personal exposure measurements for toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The measurements are from the total exposure assessment methodology studies conducted from 1980 to 1984 in New Jersey (NJ) and Califor...

  3. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ChemInformatics Libraries (FutureToxII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from ove...

  4. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Trace element chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Taylor, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park receives inflows from several geothermal areas, and consequently the concentrations of many trace elements are elevated compared to rivers in non-geothermal watersheds. Water samples and discharge measurements were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006 allowing for the identification of solute sources and their downstream fate. Norris Geyser Basin, and in particular Tantalus Creek, is the largest source of many trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Cs, Hg, Li, Sb, Tl, W, and REEs) to the Gibbon River. The Chocolate Pots area is a major source of Fe and Mn, and the lower Gibbon River near Terrace Spring is the major source of Be and Mo. Some of the elevated trace elements are aquatic health concerns (As, Sb, and Hg) and knowing their fate is important. Most solutes in the Gibbon River, including As and Sb, behave conservatively or are minimally attenuated over 29 km of fluvial transport. Some small attenuation of Al, Fe, Hg, and REEs occurs but primarily there is a transformation from the dissolved state to suspended particles, with most of these elements still being transported to the Madison River. Dissolved Hg and REEs loads decrease where the particulate Fe increases, suggesting sorption onto suspended particulate material. Attenuation from the water column is substantial for Mn, with little formation of Mn as suspended particulates.

  5. Energy Sources (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an energy sources course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  6. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Trace element chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Taylor, Howard E.

    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park receives inflows from several geothermal areas, and consequently the concentrations of many trace elements are elevated compared to rivers in non-geothermal watersheds. Water samples and discharge measurements were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006 allowing for the identification of solute sources and their downstream fate. Norris Geyser Basin, and in particular Tantalus Creek, is the largest source of many trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Cs, Hg, Li, Sb, Tl, W, and REEs) to the Gibbon River. The Chocolate Pots area is a major source of Fe and Mn, and the lower Gibbon River near Terrace Spring is the major source of Be and Mo. Some of the elevated trace elements are aquatic health concerns (As, Sb, and Hg) and knowing their fate is important. Most solutes in the Gibbon River, including As and Sb, behave conservatively or are minimally attenuated over 29 km of fluvial transport. Some small attenuation of Al, Fe, Hg, and REEs occurs but primarily there is a transformation from the dissolved state to suspended particles, with most of these elements still being transported to the Madison River. Dissolved Hg and REEs loads decrease where the particulate Fe increases, suggesting sorption onto suspended particulate material. Attenuation from the water column is substantial for Mn, with little formation of Mn as suspended particulates.

  7. OT2_dbrisbin_1: A z=1-2 oxygen survey. II. PAH-selected star forming and AGN sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbin, D.

    2011-09-01

    We are conducting a survey of the [CII] 158um line from galaxies at redshifts 1-2 using our grating spectrometer, ZEUS on the CSO. Our first 13 galaxy survey showed that luminous star forming galaxies in this epoch have moderate intensity kpc-scale star formation likely an extension of the Schmidt-Kennicutt law to very high gas mass fractions. Our AGN dominated systems have similarly large scale, but significantly more intense star formation suggesting punctuated, collision-induced star formation. We were awarded OT1 PACS spectroscopy and PACS/SPIRE photometry of these sources to observe the oxygen [OI], [OIII], and [OIV] fine-structure lines and far-IR continuum to characterize the star formation and AGN activity in these sources. Only two of our sources have been observed to date, but with good astrophysical success. Since the OT1 submission, we have detected 11 more z ~1-2 sources in [CII] with ZEUS. Here we propose an OT2 oxygen line/far-IR continuum study for 10 of these new sources. The new source list significantly enhances our OT1 survey in that (1) we nearly double our sample greatly increasing statistical significance of the results (2) the new group includes 7 Spitzer/PAH sources. PAH emission arises from PDRs tracing the photo-electric heating, while the [CII] and [OI] lines trace the cooling. PAHS therefore trace star formation and, since the features are extremely bright, are excellent redshift indicators. Future missions (e.g. JWST and SPICA/SAFARI) will rely on PAH spectroscopy at high z. It is therefore vital to study PAH emission and its relationship to star formation. The proposed work explores this connection at redshifts 1-2, near the peak of star formation per unit co-moving volume over cosmic time. In this interval ZEUS and PACs share a great synergy with well-matched sensitivities enabling detections of [CII] and oxygen in a wide variety of systems.

  8. The Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation of NGC 3115. II. Properties of Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Jennings, Zachary G.; Homan, Jeroen; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Brodie, Jean P.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2015-07-01

    We carried out an in-depth study of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115 using the Megasecond Chandra X-ray Visionary Project observation (total exposure time 1.1 Ms). In total we found 136 candidate LMXBs in the field and 49 in globular clusters (GCs) above 2σ detection, with 0.3-8 keV luminosity LX ˜ 1036-1039 erg s-1. Other than 13 transient candidates, the sources overall have less long-term variability at higher luminosity, at least at {L}{{X}}≳ 2× {10}37 erg s-1. In order to identify the nature and spectral state of our sources, we compared their collective spectral properties based on single-component models (a simple power law or a multicolor disk) with the spectral evolution seen in representative Galactic LMXBs. We found that in the LX versus photon index {{{Γ }}}{PL} and LX versus disk temperature kTMCD plots, most of our sources fall on a narrow track in which the spectral shape hardens with increasing luminosity below {L}{{X}}˜ 7× {10}37 erg s-1, but is relatively constant ({{{Γ }}}{PL}˜ 1.5 or {{kT}}{MCD}˜ 1.5 keV) above this luminosity, which is similar to the spectral evolution of Galactic neutron star (NS) LMXBs in the soft state in the Chandra bandpass. Therefore, we identified the track as the NS LMXB soft-state track and suggested sources with {L}{{X}}≲ 7× {10}37 erg s-1 as atolls in the soft state and those with {L}{{X}}≳ 7× {10}37 erg s-1 as Z sources. Ten other sources (five are transients) displayed significantly softer spectra and are probably black hole X-ray binaries in the thermal state. One of them (persistent) is in a metal-poor GC.

  9. The Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation of NGC 3115. II. Properties of Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Jennings, Zachary G.; Homan, Jeroen; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Brodie, Jean P.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2015-07-01

    We carried out an in-depth study of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115 using the Megasecond Chandra X-ray Visionary Project observation (total exposure time 1.1 Ms). In total we found 136 candidate LMXBs in the field and 49 in globular clusters (GCs) above 2σ detection, with 0.3–8 keV luminosity LX ∼ 1036–1039 erg s‑1. Other than 13 transient candidates, the sources overall have less long-term variability at higher luminosity, at least at {L}{{X}}≳ 2× {10}37 erg s‑1. In order to identify the nature and spectral state of our sources, we compared their collective spectral properties based on single-component models (a simple power law or a multicolor disk) with the spectral evolution seen in representative Galactic LMXBs. We found that in the LX versus photon index {{{Γ }}}{PL} and LX versus disk temperature kTMCD plots, most of our sources fall on a narrow track in which the spectral shape hardens with increasing luminosity below {L}{{X}}∼ 7× {10}37 erg s‑1, but is relatively constant ({{{Γ }}}{PL}∼ 1.5 or {{kT}}{MCD}∼ 1.5 keV) above this luminosity, which is similar to the spectral evolution of Galactic neutron star (NS) LMXBs in the soft state in the Chandra bandpass. Therefore, we identified the track as the NS LMXB soft-state track and suggested sources with {L}{{X}}≲ 7× {10}37 erg s‑1 as atolls in the soft state and those with {L}{{X}}≳ 7× {10}37 erg s‑1 as Z sources. Ten other sources (five are transients) displayed significantly softer spectra and are probably black hole X-ray binaries in the thermal state. One of them (persistent) is in a metal-poor GC.

  10. Long-range transport of acidifying substances in East Asia—Part II. Source-receptor relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meiyun; Oki, Taikan; Bengtsson, Magnus; Kanae, Shinjiro; Holloway, Tracey; Streets, David G.

    Region-to-grid source-receptor (S/R) relationships are established for sulfur and reactive nitrogen deposition in East Asia, using the Eulerian-type Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with emission and meteorology data for 2001. We proposed a source region attribution methodology by analyzing the non-linear responses of the CMAQ model to emission changes. Sensitivity simulations were conducted where emissions of SO 2, NOx, and primary particles from a source region were reduced by 25%. The difference between the base and sensitivity simulations was multiplied by a factor of four, and then defined as the contribution from that source region. The transboundary influence exhibits strong seasonal variation and generally peaks during the dry seasons. Long-range transport from eastern China contributes a significant percentage ( >20%) of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen as well as sulfur deposition in East Asia. At the same time, northwestern China receives approximately 35% of its sulfur load and 45% of its nitrogen load from foreign emissions. Sulfur emissions from Miyakejima and other volcanoes contribute approximately 50% of the sulfur load in Japan in 2001. Sulfur inflows from regions outside the study domain, which is attributed by using boundary conditions derived from the MOZART global atmospheric chemistry model, are pronounced (10-40%) over most parts of Asia. Compared with previous studies using simple Lagrangian models, our results indicate higher influence from long-range transport. The estimated S/R relationships are believed to be more realistic since they include global influence as well as internal interactions among different parts of China.

  11. Shape, shear and flexion - II. Quantifying the flexion formalism for extended sources with the ray-bundle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluke, C. J.; Lasky, P. D.

    2011-09-01

    Flexion-based weak gravitational lensing analysis is proving to be a useful adjunct to traditional shear-based techniques. As flexion arises from gradients across an image, analytic and numerical techniques are required to investigate flexion predictions for extended image/source pairs. Using the Schwarzschild lens model, we demonstrate that the ray-bundle method for gravitational lensing can be used to accurately recover second flexion, and is consistent with recovery of zero first flexion. Using lens plane to source plane bundle propagation, we find that second flexion can be recovered with an error no worse than 1 per cent for bundle radii smaller than Δθ= 0.01θE and lens plane impact pararameters greater than θE+Δθ, where θE is the angular Einstein radius. Using source plane to lens plane bundle propagation, we demonstrate the existence of a preferred flexion zone. For images at radii closer to the lens than the inner boundary of this zone, indicative of the true strong lensing regime, the flexion formalism should be used with caution (errors greater than 5 per cent for extended image/source pairs). We also define a shear-zone boundary, beyond which image shapes are essentially indistinguishable from ellipses (1 per cent error in ellipticity). While suggestive that a traditional weak lensing analysis is satisfactory beyond this boundary, a potentially detectable non-zero flexion signal remains. Research undertaken as part of the Commonwealth Cosmology Initiative (CCI, ), an international collaboration supported by the Australian Research Council.

  12. Late Quaternary loess in northeastern Colorado: Part II - Pb isotopic evidence for the variability of loess sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Muhs, D.R.; Sauer, R.R.; Fanning, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    A new application of the Pb isotopic tracer technique has been used to determine the relative importance of different silt sources for late Wisconsin loess in the central Great Plains of eastern Colorado. Samples of the Peoria Loess collected throughout the study area contain K-feldspar derived from two isotopically and genetically distinct sources: (1) glaciogenic material from Early and Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks of the Colorado province, and (2) volcaniclastic material from the Tertiary White River Group exposed on the northern Great Plains. Pb isotopic compositions of K-feldspar in loess from two dated vertical sections (at Beecher Island and Last Chance, Colorado) vary systematically, implying climatic control of source availability. We propose a model whereby relatively cold conditions promoted the advance of Front Range valley glaciers discharging relatively little glaciogenic silt, but strong winds caused eolian erosion of White River Group silt due to a decrease in vegetation cover. During warmer periods, valley glaciers receded and discharged abundant glaciogenic silt, while surfaces underlain by the White River Group were stabilized by vegetation. Isotopic data from eastern Colorado loess sections record two warm-cold-warm cycles during late Wisconsin time between about 21 000 and 11 000 radiocarbon yr B.P., similar to results from other studies in the United States and Greenland.

  13. Supplemental protein sources for steers fed corn-based diets: II. Growth and estimated metabolizable amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Ludden, P A; Jones, J M; Cecava, M J; Hendrix, K S

    1995-05-01

    Seventy Simmental-cross steers (average initial weight 301 +/- 24 kg) were individually fed in a 175-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the effects of source and level of protein in the diet on gain and feed efficiency. Steers were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments (seven steers per treatment) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a urea-supplemented control diet. Main factors were source of supplemental protein (soybean meal [SBM], a high ruminal escape soybean meal [SP; SoyPLUS], or a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal [CB; 50:50 on a nitrogen basis]) and level of each protein source (20, 30, or 40% of total dietary CP). Based on 18-h in situ ruminal incubation, escape N content of the protein sources was 66.0, 82.5, and 90.8% of total N and metabolizable amino acid (MAA) content was 29.1, 33.4, and 67.8 g/100 g of DM for SBM, SP, and CB respectively. The steers were fed 12.5% CP diets based on cracked corn (70%) on d 0 through 70 and were switched to a common 11.5% CP urea-supplemented cracked corn diet (80%) on d 71. The steers were housed in individual confinement stalls and had ad libitum access to feed. Replacing urea with SBM or SP increased (P < .05) 28- and 70-d ADG and DMI and increased (P < .05) 28-d efficiency (kg of gain/100 kg of feed). Replacing urea with CB did not improve (P > .05) 28- or 70-d ADG or DMI but did increase (P < .05) 28-d efficiency. The growth rate of steers at 28 and 70 d was correlated to a greater degree with ME intake (r2 = .83 and .85, respectively) rather than MAA supply, suggesting that the MAA supply was not first-limiting for growth. The source of supplemental protein fed during d 0 through 70 had no effect (P > .05) on 175-d DMI or efficiency; however, feeding SBM increased (P < .05) 175-d ADG compared with feeding urea, SP, or CB. Increasing supplemental true protein tended to linearly increase ADG and DMI at 28 and 70 d, but overall, ADG, DMI, and efficiency were not affected (P

  14. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States--II) untreated drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Focazio, Michael J; Kolpin, Dana W; Barnes, Kimberlee K; Furlong, Edward T; Meyer, Michael T; Zaugg, Steven D; Barber, Larry B; Thurman, Michael E

    2008-09-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a variety of manufactured and natural organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals, steroids, surfactants, flame retardants, fragrances, plasticizers and other chemicals often associated with wastewaters have been detected in the vicinity of municipal wastewater discharges and livestock agricultural facilities. To provide new data and insights about the environmental presence of some of these chemicals in untreated sources of drinking water in the United States targeted sites were sampled and analyzed for 100 analytes with sub-parts per billion detection capabilities. The sites included 25 ground- and 49 surface-water sources of drinking water serving populations ranging from one family to over 8 million people. Sixty-three of the 100 targeted chemicals were detected in at least one water sample. Interestingly, in spite of the low detection levels 60% of the 36 pharmaceuticals (including prescription drugs and antibiotics) analyzed were not detected in any water sample. The five most frequently detected chemicals targeted in surface water were: cholesterol (59%, natural sterol), metolachlor (53%, herbicide), cotinine (51%, nicotine metabolite), beta-sitosterol (37%, natural plant sterol), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (27%, caffeine metabolite); and in ground water: tetrachloroethylene (24%, solvent), carbamazepine (20%, pharmaceutical), bisphenol-A (20%, plasticizer), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (16%, caffeine metabolite), and tri (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (12%, fire retardant). A median of 4 compounds were detected per site indicating that the targeted chemicals generally occur in mixtures (commonly near detection levels) in the environment and likely originate from a variety of animal and human uses and waste sources. These data will help prioritize and determine the need, if any, for future occurrence, fate and transport, and health-effects research for subsets of these chemicals and their degradates most likely to be found in water resources

  15. Modifications to the NASA SP-8072 Distributed Source Method II for Ares I Lift-off Environment Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Jared; Kenny, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Lift-off acoustic environments for NASA's Ares I - Crew Launch Vehicle are predicted using the second source distribution methodology described in the NASA SP-8072. Three modifications made to the model include a shorter core length approximation, a core termination procedure upon plume deflection, and a new set of directivity indices measured from static test firings of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The modified sound pressure level predictions increased more than 5 dB overall, and the peak levels shifted two third-octave bands higher in frequency.

  16. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II - The IRAS faint source survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.; Conrow, T. P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-07-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling.

  17. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II - The IRAS faint source survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.; Conrow, T. P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling.

  18. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume II, appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This document contains 2 appendices. The first documents the methodologies used to calculate production, unit energy consumption, fuel type and emission estimates for 16 industries and 35 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired industrial combustion processes, located in 26 states (and the District of Columbia) east of the Mississippi River. As discussed in the text of this report, a U.S. total of 16 industries and 45 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired combustion processes were identified by an elimination type method that was developed based on evaluation of fuel use in industrial SIC codes 20-39 to identify pollutant sources contributing to acid rain. The final population included only plants that have direct-fired fuel consumption greater than or equal to 100 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/yr of equivalent energy consumption. The goal for this analysis was to provide at least a 1980 base year for the data. This was achieved for all of the industries and in fact, 1981 data were used for a number of the industries evaluated. The second contains an analysis of all consumption of major fossil fuels to: (1) identify all fuel usage categories, and (2) identify the kinds of combustion equipment used within each category. This analysis provides a frame of reference for the balance of the study and permits using an energy accounting methodology to quantify the degree to which the inventoried sources in individual consuming sectors are complete and representative of the total population for the sector.

  19. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M. Queen Mary College, London )

    1990-07-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs.

  20. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. 2; Evidence for High Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two papers examining Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. Here we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines. Our analysis suggests that the luminosity and morphology of the [O IV] 25.89 micron emission line is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is matter-bounded both in the line of sight direction and to the east, and probably radiation-bounded to the west. A bolometric luminosity in excess of 10(exp 40) erg/s would be needed to produce the measured [O IV] flux. We use modeling and previously published studies to conclude that shocks likely contribute very little, if at all, to the high-excitation line fluxes observed in the Holmberg II ULX. Additionally, we find that the spectral type of the companion star has a surprisingly strong effect on the predicted strength of the [O IV] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O IV] in some starburst systems containing black hole binaries.

  1. The First Detection of (O IV) from an Ultraluminous X-Ray Source with Spitzer. 2. Evidence for High Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C T.; Dudik, R P.; Weaver, K A.; Kallman, T R.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second of two papers examining Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. Here, we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines. Our analysis suggests that the luminosity and morphology of the [Oiv] 25.89 micronmeters emission line is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is matter bounded both in the line-of-sight direction and to the east, and probably radiation-bounded to the west. A bolometric luminosity in excess of 10(exp 40) erg s(exp -1) would be needed to produce the measured [O iv] flux. We use modeling and previously published studies to conclude that shocks likely contribute very little, if at all,to the high-ionization line fluxes observed in the Holmberg II ULX. Additionally, we find that the spectral type of the companion star has a surprisingly strong effect on the predicted strength of the [O iv] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O iv] in some starburst systems containing black hole binaries.

  2. Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: II. Effects on progeny postnatal growth, glucose tolerance, and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Relling, A E; Felix, T L; Shoup, L M; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2012-12-01

    Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 228) were used to evaluate effects of prepartum dietary energy source on postnatal growth and carcass composition of progeny in a 2-yr study. Starting at approximately 160 d of gestation, cows were fed diets consisting of 1 of 3 primary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DG). The CN and DG diets were limit-fed to achieve similar energy intakes as cows fed HY. Following parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed as a single group. Calves were weaned at an average of 185 ± 6 d of age and backgrounded for 28 d. A subset of progeny (n = 134) was individually fed a common finishing diet until slaughter, when each calf reached 1.2 ± 0.05 cm of backfat. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted in year 2 on 4 calves/treatment after 41 and 111 d on the finishing diet (DOF). Calf birth weights were greater (P = 0.002) in calves from cows fed CN and DG than calves from cows fed HY, and weaning BW (P = 0.08) was less for calves from cows fed HY vs. CN. Receiving BW, final BW, and HCW did not differ (P ≥ 0.16) among treatments. No difference (P ≥ 0.28) in ADG, morbidity, and mortality from birth to slaughter was observed among treatments. In response to a GTT, increased DOF resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.005) fasting insulin, faster glucose disappearance rate, and greater insulin:glucose area under the curve ratio. Glucose disappearance rate was greater (P = 0.01) in calves from cows fed CN than in calves from cows fed HY or DG. A greater initial insulin response (P = 0.005) was observed in calves from cows fed CN or DG than in calves from cows fed HY. Carcass traits used to measure yield grade did not differ (P ≥ 0.19) among treatments. Calves from dams fed CN had the lowest marbling score (P = 0.03) and intramuscular fat content (P = 0.07). These results indicate that prepartum maternal dietary energy source can alter fetal adipose tissue development and insulin

  3. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. II. The pre-main-sequence G star HDE 283572

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, F.M.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J.L.; Rydgren, A.E.; Vrba, F.

    1987-03-01

    This paper reports the detection of HDE 283572, a ninth-magnitude G star 8 arcmin south of RY Tau, as a bright X-ray source. The observations reveal this object to be a fairly massive (about 2 solar masses) pre-main-sequence star associated with the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex. It exhibits few of the characteristics of the classical T Tauri stars and is a good example of a naked T Tauri star. The star is a mid-G subgiant, of about three solar radii and rotates with a period of 1.5 d. The coronal and chromospheric surface fluxes are similar to those of the most active late type stars (excluding T Tauri stars). The X-ray and UV lines most likely arise in different atmospheric structures. Radiative losses are some 1000 times the quiet solar value and compare favorably with those of T Tauri stars. 49 references.

  4. Year 6 Post-Remediation Biomonitoring and Phase II Source Investigation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Evans, Nathan R.

    2004-04-02

    The Heckathorn Superfund Site in Richmond, California, encompasses the property of the former United Heckathorn pesticide packaging plant and the adjacent waterway, Lauritzen Channel. The site was used from 1945 to 1966 by several operators to produce various agricultural chemicals. The site was placed on the National Priorities List of Superfund sites in 1990, which resulted in the removal of pesticide-contaminated soil from the upland portion of the site and dredging the marine portion of the site. Post-remediation marine monitoring and associated studies conducted through 2002 indicate that the contamination in the channel continues to pose a significant risk to biota and human health. This report documents continued marine monitoring and source investigation studies conducted in 2003.

  5. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. II - The pre-main-sequence G star HDE 283572

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, F. M.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J. L.; Rydgren, A. E.; Vrba, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the detection of HDE 283572, a ninth-magnitude G star 8 arcmin south of RY Tau, as a bright X-ray source. The observations reveal this object to be a fairly massive (about 2 solar masses) pre-main-sequence star associated with the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex. It exhibits few of the characteristics of the classical T Tauri stars and is a good example of a 'naked' T Tauri star. The star is a mid-G subgiant, of about three solar radii and rotates with a period of 1.5 d. The coronal and chromospheric surface fluxes are similar to those of the most active late type stars (excluding T Tauri stars). The X-ray and UV lines most likely arise in different atmospheric structures. Radiative losses are some 1000 times the quiet solar value and compare favorably with those of T Tauri stars.

  6. Thermocline circulation and ventilation of the Japan/East Sea, part II: A source water-mass mixing (SWAM) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yuzhu

    2010-09-01

    The recently obtained high resolution conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD), Argo and bottle data combined with historical geochemical data are used in a source water-mass mixing (SWAM) model for the Japan/East Sea (JES) thermocline. The water-mass properties for resolving model source water types include two physical conservative tracers: potential temperature θ (°C) and salinity S (psu), a dynamical tracer: fN2 (10 6 s -3) (where f is the Coriolis frequency and N2 is the squared buoyancy frequency), dissolved oxygen, O2 (μmol kg -1), and nutrient silicate, H4SiO4 (μmol kg -1) and two conservative chemical tracers: initial phosphate, PO40 (μmol kg -1) and NO (μmol kg -1). The mixing scheme comprises three source water masses: North Pacific Subtropical Water (NPSW) which is the only invasion water mass from the open North Pacific and two locally formed water masses, Tatar Strait Water (TSW) and Peter the Great Bay Water (PGBW). The SWAM model is performed on three neutral density surfaces σN=25.8, 26.4 and 27.0 encompassing the thermocline from about 50 to 180 dbar. The model-derived mixing fraction provides a quantitative description of the source water masses. Results show that NPSW contributes to only about one third of the mixing ratio while PGBW mixing proportion is more than 50%. This implies that most of NPSW is actually transformed and renewed in the JES by winter convection and probable brine rejection when NPSW is considered as a sole input source and PGBW and TSW are the transformed end-members of NPSW. Also it means that what we see the JES recirculation is actually the dominant PGBW water recirculation rather than the NPSW. The high mixing fraction of PGBW explains why JES water content is highly ventilated and has a very high oxygen and renewal rate. It is found that the JES transport is contributed by NPSW for 0.72±0.13 and 1.11±0.16 Sv by PGBW and 0.27±0.05 Sv by TSW, respectively. A total annual mean transport with an error bar is thus 2

  7. Formation, reactivity, and aging of ferric oxide particles formed from Fe(II) and Fe(III) sources: Implications for iron bioavailability in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bligh, Mark W.; Waite, T. David

    2011-12-01

    Freshly formed amorphous ferric oxides (AFO) in the water column are potentially highly reactive, but with reactivity declining rapidly with age, and have the capacity to partake in reactions with dissolved species and to be a significant source of bioavailable iron. However, the controls on reactivity in aggregated oxides are not well understood. Additionally, the mechanism by which early rapid aging occurs is not clear. Aging is typically considered in terms of changes in crystallinity as the structure of an iron oxide becomes more stable and ordered with time thus leading to declining reactivity. However, there has been recognition of the role that aggregation can play in determining reactivity, although it has received limited attention. Here, we have formed AFO in seawater in the laboratory from either an Fe(II) or Fe(III) source to produce either AFO(II) or AFO(III). The changes in reactivity of these two oxides following formation was measured using both ligand-promoted dissolution (LPD) and reductive dissolution (RD). The structure of the two oxides was examined using light scattering and X-ray adsorption techniques. The dissolution rate of AFO(III) was greater than that of AFO(II), as measured by both dissolution techniques, and could be attributed to both the less ordered molecular structure and smaller primary particle size of AFO(III). From EXAFS analysis shortly (90 min) following formation, AFO(II) and AFO(III) were shown to have the same structure as aged lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite respectively. Both oxides displayed a rapid decrease in dissolution rate over the first hours following formation in a pattern that was very similar when normalised. The early establishment and little subsequent change of crystal structure for both oxides undermined the hypothesis that increasing crystallinity was responsible for early rapid aging. Also, an aging model describing this proposed process could only be fitted to the data with kinetic parameters that were

  8. A review of the sources of uncertainties in atmospheric mercury modeling II. Mercury surface and heterogeneous chemistry - A missing link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subir, Mahamud; Ariya, Parisa A.; Dastoor, Ashu P.

    2012-01-01

    Despite direct and indirect evidence suggesting that heterogeneous surfaces potentially play a key role in mercury chemistry, there is little known about mercury reactions and equilibrium processes that take place at atmospherically relevant surfaces. The lack of knowledge of mercury surface chemistry is a major gap for adequate modeling of mercury cycling. In part I of this review, we assessed the sources of uncertainty associated with existing kinetic parameters. In this part, we present evidence that supports surface-mercury interactions in the ecosystem elucidating the importance of heterogeneous and interfacial chemistry from a fundamental viewpoint. Consequently, we draw attention to the chemical processes that are missing and/or are inadequately incorporated in the atmospheric mercury models and highlight some of the recent advances in this field. We reveal that adsorption equilibrium of mercury species, most of which are not well characterized, to natural surfaces such as atmospheric particles and air/water interface are not known. Gas-liquid partitioning of mercury and its compounds are not adequately implemented. Equilibrium constants for aqueous phase complex formation with dissolved organic matters and formation of possible solid mercury clusters and nanoparticles are not considered in the global models. Potential heterogeneous mercury reduction reactions that can be important in mercury cycling require further evaluation which includes characterizing the influence of surfaces on mercury chemistry. The implementation of chemical processes for which information is available but not currently included in the models bears the potential of greatly reducing the uncertainties that are currently present in the models.

  9. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States - II) Untreated drinking water sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, M.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Barnes, K.K.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Barber, L.B.; Thurman, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-three of the 100 targeted chemicals were detected in at least one water sample. Interestingly, in spite of the low detection levels 60% of the 36 pharmaceuticals (including prescription drugs and antibiotics) analyzed were not detected in any water sample. The five most frequently detected chemicals targeted in surface water were: cholesterol (59%, natural sterol), metolachlor (53%, herbicide), cotinine (51%, nicotine metabolite), β-sitosterol (37%, natural plant sterol), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (27%, caffeine metabolite); and in ground water: tetrachloroethylene (24%, solvent), carbamazepine (20%, pharmaceutical), bisphenol-A (20%, plasticizer), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (16%, caffeine metabolite), and tri (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (12%, fire retardant). A median of 4 compounds were detected per site indicating that the targeted chemicals generally occur in mixtures (commonly near detection levels) in the environment and likely originate from a variety of animal and human uses and waste sources. These data will help prioritize and determine the need, if any, for future occurrence, fate and transport, and health-effects research for subsets of these chemicals and their degradates most likely to be found in water resources used for drinking water in the United States.

  10. Landscape Planning for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Reduction. II. Balancing Watershed Size, Number of Watersheds, and Implementation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T.; Diebel, Matthew W.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs—i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds—have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from 2 to 200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km2; and optimal expenditure ranged from 21,000 to 35,000/km2. The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km2. These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  11. Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes II: simulation for Spallation Neutron Sources and planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian; Baik, Kyungmin; Leighton, Timothy G

    2011-08-01

    This paper uses a finite element method (FEM) to compare predictions of the attenuation and sound speeds of acoustic modes in a fluid-filled pipe with those of the analytical model presented in the first paper in this series. It explains why, when the predictions of the earlier paper were compared with experimental data from a water-filled PMMA pipe, the uncertainties and agreement for attenuation data were worse than those for sound speed data. Having validated the FEM approach in this way, the versatility of FEM is thereafter demonstrated by modeling two practical applications which are beyond the analysis of the earlier paper. These applications model propagation in the mercury-filled steel pipework of the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Tennessee), and in a long-standing design for acoustic sensors for use on planetary probes. The results show that strong coupling between the fluid and the solid walls means that erroneous interpretations are made of the data if they assume that the sound speed and attenuation in the fluid in the pipe are the same as those that would be measured in an infinite volume of identical fluid, assumptions which are common when such data have previously been interpreted. PMID:21877784

  12. Sources of education about breastfeeding and breast pump use: what effect do they have on breastfeeding duration? An analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peggy G; Johnson, Lara W; Rosenthal, Marjorie S

    2012-10-01

    To examine the association between breastfeeding duration and sources of education about breastfeeding and breast pumps. We analyzed data from the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II (n = 2,586), a national longitudinal consumer-based study. We used χ(2) and ANOVA to contrast categorical and continuous variables, respectively, and logistic regression to model the association between breastfeeding duration and sources of education about breastfeeding and breast pump use. In unadjusted results, multiple sources of breastfeeding and breast pump education were significantly associated with breastfeeding duration. However, in multivariable logistic regression models, there was a negative association between longer breastfeeding duration and receiving breast pump education from a physician/physician assistant (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.93); and a positive association between longer breastfeeding duration and receiving breastfeeding education from classes/support group (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.24-2.76) and receiving breast pump education from friends/relatives (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.13-2.55). Although healthcare providers such as physicians and nurses have regular contact with women, the only statistically significant association between breastfeeding and breast pump education from healthcare providers and longer breastfeeding duration was a negative one. This likely reflects time and resource limitations of clinical practice, but may also indicate a need for more consistent training for healthcare providers who provide breastfeeding and breast pump education. Social supports, such as education from classes/support groups and friends/relatives demonstrated positive associations with longer breastfeeding duration. This emphasizes the importance of fostering a positive sphere of influence around breastfeeding women. Future work should also investigate alternative levers of action, such as policies affecting insurance coverage of breast pumps. PMID:22038565

  13. NEAR-INFRARED COUNTERPARTS TO CHANDRA X-RAY SOURCES TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER. II. DISCOVERY OF WOLF-RAYET STARS AND O SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mauerhan, J. C.; Stolovy, S. R.; Muno, M. P.; Morris, M. R.; Cotera, A.

    2010-02-10

    We present new identifications of infrared counterparts to the population of hard X-ray sources near the Galactic center detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We have spectroscopically confirmed 16 new massive stellar counterparts to the X-ray population, including nitrogen-type (WN) and carbon-type (WC) Wolf-Rayet stars, and O supergiants. These discoveries increase the total sample of massive stellar X-ray sources in the Galactic center region to 30 (possibly 31). For the majority of these sources, the X-ray photometry is consistent with thermal emission from plasma having temperatures in the range of kT = 1-8 keV or non-thermal emission having power-law indices in the range of -1 {approx}< GAMMA {approx}< 3, and X-ray luminosities in the range of L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 32}-10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} (0.5-8.0 keV). Several sources have exhibited X-ray variability of several factors between observations. These X-ray properties are not a ubiquitous feature of single massive stars but are typical of massive binaries, in which the high-energy emission is generated by the collision of supersonic winds, or by accretion onto a compact companion. However, without direct evidence for companions, the possibility of intrinsic hard X-ray generation from single stars cannot be completely ruled out. The spectral energy distributions of these sources exhibit significant infrared excess, attributable to free-free emission from ionized stellar winds, supplemented by hot dust emission in the case of the WC stars. With the exception of one object located near the outer regions of the Quintuplet cluster, most of the new stars appear isolated or in loose associations. Seven hydrogen-rich WN and O stars are concentrated near the Sagittarius B H II region, while other similar stars and more highly evolved hydrogen-poor WN and WC stars lie scattered within {approx}50 pc, in projection, of Sagitarrius A West. We discuss various mechanisms capable of generating the observed X

  14. Assessment of possible sources of microbiological contamination and water-quality characteristics of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri; phase II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Jerri V.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    August 6 to12, 2000. A 24-hour sample collection effort was conducted the weekend of July 15 and 16, 2000, to investigate the effect that large numbers of swimmers, canoeists, and tubers had on fecal coliform densities in the Jacks Fork. Five or six samples were collected at six sites between Saturday morning and the following Sunday afternoon. No fecal coliform density at any of the sites sampled exceeded the whole-body-contact recreation standard. Because bacteria survive longer in stream-bed sediments than in water, a source of bacteria in the water column could be from resuspension of accumulated bacteria from streambed sediments. Water and streambed-sediment samples were collected at three sites on August 3, 2000, 1 week before a trail ride and again at three sites on 2 Assessment of Possible Sources of Microbiological Contamination of the Jacks Fork, Missouri?Phase II August 8, 2000, during a trail ride. Results indicate that fecal coliform bacteria densities increased substantially in the streambed sediment and the water column during the trail ride.Sixty-five Escherichia coli isolates obtained from water samples collected at 9 sites and 23 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from stream-bed-sediment samples collected at 5 sites were submitted for ribotyping analysis. Samples were collected in 2000 during a variety of nonrecreational and recreational season river uses, including trail rides, canoeing, tubing, and swimming. Of the 65 isolates from water samples, 40 percent were identified as originating from sewage, 29 percent from horse, 11 percent from cow, and 20 percent from an unknown source. Of the 23 isolates from streambed-sediment samples, 39 percent were identified as originating from sewage, 35 percent from horse, 13 percent from cow, and 13 percent from unknown sources.Analysis of physical property (dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature) and nutrient (dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorus) data

  15. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. I. Observational Results for Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    We presen the first Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the [O IV] 25.89 um emission line detected from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. This line is a well established signature of high excitation usually associated with AGN. Its detection suggests that the ULX has a strong impact on the surrounding gas. A Spitzer high resolution spectral map shows that the [O IV] is coincident with the X-ray position of the ULX. The ratios of the [O IV] to lower ionization lines are similar to those observed in AGN, suggesting that a strong UV and X-ray source is responsible for the, photoionization. The best XMM-Newton data is used to model the X-ray band which is then extrapolated into the UV. We perform infrared and ultraviolet photometry, and use its previously published optical and radio data to construct the full SED for the ULX and its companion. The preferred model to describe the SED includes an accretion disk which dominates the soft X-rays but contributes little at UV and optical wavelengths. The optical counterpart is consistent with a B supergiant as previously suggested in other studies. The bolometric luminosity of the ULX suggests the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >85 M for sub-Eddington accretion or, alternatively, a stellar-mass black hole that is accreting at super-Eddington rates. In a follow-up second paper we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines in order to constrain the bolometric luminosity of the ULX.

  16. Synthesis and surface chemistry of high quality wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals using tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate as a new tin source.

    PubMed

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Gryszel, Maciej; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Malinowska, Karolina; Zukowska, Grazyna Z; Agnese, Fabio; Pron, Adam; Reiss, Peter

    2015-08-21

    A novel synthesis method for the preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals is presented using a liquid precursor of tin, namely tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, which yields small and nearly monodisperse NCs either in the kesterite or in the wurtzite phase depending on the sulfur source (elemental sulfur in oleylamine vs. dodecanethiol). PMID:26176023

  17. Sources, sinks, and mechanisms of hydroxyl radical (•OH) photoproduction and consumption in authentic acidic continental cloud waters from Whiteface Mountain, New York: The role of the Fe(r) (r = II, III) photochemical cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, Takemitsu; Faust, Bruce C.

    1998-02-01

    Hydroxyl radical (•OH) photoproduction in 25 authentic acidic (pH = 2.9-4.4) continental cloud waters from Whiteface Mountain, New York was quantified by phenol formed from the •OH-mediated oxidation of benzene (1.2 mM) that was added as an •OH scavenger. Based on the effect of added bisulfite (HSO3-/HOSO2-), an HOOH sink, the •OH photoproduction in these samples was apportioned into two categories: HOOH-dependent sources (dominant), and HOOH-independent sources (minor). On average only a small percentage (median = 9.4%, mean±standard deviation = 16±12%) of the HOOH-dependent •OH source is due to direct photolysis (313 nm) of HOOH. Nearly all of the HOOH-dependent •OH source is accounted for by an iron(II)-HOOH photo-Fenton reaction mechanism (Fe(II) + HOOH → Fe(III) + •OH + OH-) that is initiated by photoreduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) in the presence of HOOH. A photostationary state is established, involving rapid photolysis of Fe(III) to form Fe(II), and rapid reoxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). Consequently, a new term is introduced, Fe(r) (r = II, III), to represent the family of labile Fe(III) and Fe(II) species whose rapid photoredox cycling drives the Fenton production of •OH. The Fe(r) photochemical cycle, which drives the aqueous phase photoformation of •OH, is analogous to the classical NOx photochemical cycle, which drives the gas phase formation of O3 and thus •OH. Based on the cloud waters studied here, the iron(II)-HOOH photo-Fenton reaction is a significant source of •OH to acidic continental cloud waters in comparison to gas-to-drop partitioning processes. Filtering (0.5 μm Teflon) cloud water samples had little effect on the •OH photoformation kinetics. Measured lifetimes of aqueous •OH ranged from 2.4 to 10.6 μs in these cloud waters, and decreased with increasing concentration of dissolved organic carbon. In acidic atmospheric water drops, the principal aqueous sinks for •OH will be reactions with dissolved organic

  18. A Spitzer Space Telescope Far-infrared Spectral Atlas of Compact Sources in the Magellanic Clouds. II. The Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Gordon, Karl D.; Sloan, G. C.; Engelbracht, C. W.

    2010-04-01

    We present far-infrared spectra, λ = 52-93 μm, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the spectral energy distribution mode of its Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer instrument, of a selection of luminous compact far-infrared sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). These comprise nine young stellar objects (YSOs), the compact H II region N 81 and a similar object within N 84, and two red supergiants (RSGs). We use the spectra to constrain the presence and temperature of cool dust and the excitation conditions within the neutral and ionized gas, in the circumstellar environments and interfaces with the surrounding interstellar medium. We compare these results with those obtained in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The spectra of the sources in N 81 (of which we also show the Infrared Space Observatory-Long-wavelength Spectrograph spectrum between 50 and 170 μm) and N 84 both display strong [O I] λ63 μm and [O III] λ88 μm fine-structure line emission. We attribute these lines to strong shocks and photo-ionized gas, respectively, in a "champagne flow" scenario. The nitrogen content of these two H II regions is very low, definitely N(N)/N(O) < 0.04 but possibly as low as N(N)/N(O) < 0.01. Overall, the oxygen lines and dust continuum are weaker in star-forming objects in the SMC than in the LMC. We attribute this to the lower metallicity of the SMC compared to that of the LMC. While the dust mass differs in proportion to metallicity, the oxygen mass differs less; both observations can be reconciled with higher densities inside star-forming cloud cores in the SMC than in the LMC. The dust in the YSOs in the SMC is warmer (37-51 K) than in comparable objects in the LMC (32-44 K). We attribute this to the reduced shielding and reduced cooling at the low metallicity of the SMC. On the other hand, the efficiency of the photo-electric effect to heat the gas is found to be indistinguishable to that measured in the same manner in the LMC, ≈0

  19. Structural Iron (II) of Basaltic Glass as an Energy Source for Zetaproteobacteria in an Abyssal Plain Environment, Off the Mid Atlantic Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Henri, Pauline A.; Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Lesongeur, Françoise; Mumford, Adam; Emerson, David; Godfroy, Anne; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    To explore the capability of basaltic glass to support the growth of chemosynthetic microorganisms, complementary in situ and in vitro colonization experiments were performed. Microbial colonizers containing synthetic tholeitic basaltic glasses, either enriched in reduced or oxidized iron, were deployed off-axis from the Mid Atlantic Ridge on surface sediments of the abyssal plain (35°N; 29°W). In situ microbial colonization was assessed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and basaltic glass alteration was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure at the Fe-K-edge and Raman microspectroscopy. The colonized surface of the reduced basaltic glass was covered by a rind of alteration made of iron-oxides trapped in a palagonite-like structure with thicknesses up to 150 μm. The relative abundance of the associated microbial community was dominated (39% of all reads) by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) that shared 92% identity with the iron-oxidizer Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1. Conversely, the oxidized basaltic glass showed the absence of iron-oxides enriched surface deposits and correspondingly there was a lack of known iron-oxidizing bacteria in the inventoried diversity. In vitro, a similar reduced basaltic glass was incubated in artificial seawater with a pure culture of the iron-oxidizing M. ferrooxydans DIS-1 for 2 weeks, without any additional nutrients or minerals. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy revealed that the glass surface was covered by twisted stalks characteristic of this iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria. This result supported findings of the in situ experiments indicating that the Fe(II) present in the basalt was the energy source for the growth of representatives of Zetaproteobacteria in both the abyssal plain and the in vitro experiment. In accordance, the surface alteration rind observed on the reduced basaltic glass incubated in situ could at least partly result from their activity

  20. Structural Iron (II) of Basaltic Glass as an Energy Source for Zetaproteobacteria in an Abyssal Plain Environment, Off the Mid Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Henri, Pauline A; Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Lesongeur, Françoise; Mumford, Adam; Emerson, David; Godfroy, Anne; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    To explore the capability of basaltic glass to support the growth of chemosynthetic microorganisms, complementary in situ and in vitro colonization experiments were performed. Microbial colonizers containing synthetic tholeitic basaltic glasses, either enriched in reduced or oxidized iron, were deployed off-axis from the Mid Atlantic Ridge on surface sediments of the abyssal plain (35°N; 29°W). In situ microbial colonization was assessed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and basaltic glass alteration was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure at the Fe-K-edge and Raman microspectroscopy. The colonized surface of the reduced basaltic glass was covered by a rind of alteration made of iron-oxides trapped in a palagonite-like structure with thicknesses up to 150 μm. The relative abundance of the associated microbial community was dominated (39% of all reads) by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) that shared 92% identity with the iron-oxidizer Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1. Conversely, the oxidized basaltic glass showed the absence of iron-oxides enriched surface deposits and correspondingly there was a lack of known iron-oxidizing bacteria in the inventoried diversity. In vitro, a similar reduced basaltic glass was incubated in artificial seawater with a pure culture of the iron-oxidizing M. ferrooxydans DIS-1 for 2 weeks, without any additional nutrients or minerals. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy revealed that the glass surface was covered by twisted stalks characteristic of this iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria. This result supported findings of the in situ experiments indicating that the Fe(II) present in the basalt was the energy source for the growth of representatives of Zetaproteobacteria in both the abyssal plain and the in vitro experiment. In accordance, the surface alteration rind observed on the reduced basaltic glass incubated in situ could at least partly result from their activity

  1. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  2. Comparison of CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture integrating sources. I - Using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer. II - Using the SPOT-2 satellite instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, B.; Mclean, J.; Leroy, M.; Henry, P.

    1990-01-01

    CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture calibration sources are examined using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer and SPOT-2 instruments. The sources, collected at Matra in France during October 1987, are compared in terms of absolute calibration, linearity, and uniformity. The laboratory transfer spectroradiometer data reveal that the calibration results correspond to within about 7 percent absolute accuracy level and the linearity of the CNES source with lamp level is good. It is observed using the satellite data that both sources have an excellent uniformity over a 4 deg field of view.

  3. PROCEEDINGS OF THE STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION SYMPOSIUM (2ND) HELD IN NEW ORLEANS, LA. ON AUGUST 29-SEPTEMBER 1, 1977. VOLUME II. UTILITY AND LARGE INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ;Contents: Field testing--application of combustion modification to power generating combustion sources; Analysis of NOx control in stationary sources; Overfire air technology for tangentially fired utility boilers burning western U.S. coal; The EPRI program on NOx control using ...

  4. Effect of temperature on the optical and structural properties of hexadecylamine capped ZnS nanoparticles using Zinc(II) N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate as single source precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Strydom, Christien; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S.; Songca, Sandile P.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► HDA-capped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized via thermolysis of a single source precursor. ► Zinc(II) N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate was used as the single source precursor. ► The growth temperature was varied to study the optical properties of the nanocrystals. ► Change in growth temperature affects the structural properties of the ZnS nanoparticles. ► Hexagonal wurtzite phase was obtained at lower temperatures while cubic sphalerite phase was obtained at higher growth temperatures. -- Abstract: Reported in this work is the synthesis of HDA (hexadecylamine)-capped ZnS nanoparticles by a single source route using Zinc(II) N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate as a precursor. By varying the growth temperature, the temporal evolution of the optical properties and morphology of the nanocrystals were investigated. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). All the particles exhibited quantum confinement in their optical properties with band edge emission at the early stage of the reaction. The XRD showed transition from hexagonal wurtzite phase to cubic sphalerite phase as the growth temperature increases. The TEM image showed that the particles are small and spherical in shape while the HRTEM image confirmed the crystalline nature of the material.

  5. Synthesis, spectral and thermal studies of pyridyl adducts of Zn(II) and Cd(II) dithiocarbamates, and their use as single source precursors for ZnS and CdS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Onwudiwe, Damian C; Strydom, Christien A; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S; Hosten, Eric; Jordaan, Anine

    2014-06-21

    The synthesis, spectroscopic characterisation, and thermal studies of pyridyl adducts of Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of N-ethyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate, represented as [ZnL2py] and [CdL2py2], are reported. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of the Zn compound showed that it is five-coordinate with four sulphurs from dithiocarbamate and one nitrogen from pyridine in a distorted square pyramidal geometry. The thermogravimetric studies indicate that the zinc and cadmium compounds undergo fast weight loss, and the temperature at maximum rate of decomposition is at 277 °C and 265 °C respectively, to give the metal (Zn or Cd) sulphide residues. These compounds were used as single molecule precursors to produce nanocrystalline MS (M = Zn, Cd) after thermolysis in hexadecylamine. The morphological and optical properties of the resulting MS nanocrystallites were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD). By varying the growth time, the temporal evolution of the optical properties and morphology of the nanocrystals were investigated. PMID:24769861

  6. IIS – Integrated Interactome System: A Web-Based Platform for the Annotation, Analysis and Visualization of Protein-Metabolite-Gene-Drug Interactions by Integrating a Variety of Data Sources and Tools

    PubMed Central

    Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; de Carvalho, Lucas Miguel; Slepicka, Hugo Henrique; Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Kobarg, Jörg; Vaz Meirelles, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Background High-throughput screening of physical, genetic and chemical-genetic interactions brings important perspectives in the Systems Biology field, as the analysis of these interactions provides new insights into protein/gene function, cellular metabolic variations and the validation of therapeutic targets and drug design. However, such analysis depends on a pipeline connecting different tools that can automatically integrate data from diverse sources and result in a more comprehensive dataset that can be properly interpreted. Results We describe here the Integrated Interactome System (IIS), an integrative platform with a web-based interface for the annotation, analysis and visualization of the interaction profiles of proteins/genes, metabolites and drugs of interest. IIS works in four connected modules: (i) Submission module, which receives raw data derived from Sanger sequencing (e.g. two-hybrid system); (ii) Search module, which enables the user to search for the processed reads to be assembled into contigs/singlets, or for lists of proteins/genes, metabolites and drugs of interest, and add them to the project; (iii) Annotation module, which assigns annotations from several databases for the contigs/singlets or lists of proteins/genes, generating tables with automatic annotation that can be manually curated; and (iv) Interactome module, which maps the contigs/singlets or the uploaded lists to entries in our integrated database, building networks that gather novel identified interactions, protein and metabolite expression/concentration levels, subcellular localization and computed topological metrics, GO biological processes and KEGG pathways enrichment. This module generates a XGMML file that can be imported into Cytoscape or be visualized directly on the web. Conclusions We have developed IIS by the integration of diverse databases following the need of appropriate tools for a systematic analysis of physical, genetic and chemical-genetic interactions. IIS

  7. Follow-up observations at 16 and 33GHz of extragalactic sources from WMAP 3-yr data: II - Flux density variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Davies, Matthew L.; Davies, Rod D.; Davis, Richard J.; Feroz, Farhan; Génova-Santos, Ricardo; Grainge, Keith J. B.; Green, David A.; Hobson, Michael P.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Lasenby, Anthony N.; López-Caniego, Marcos; Olamaie, Malak; Padilla-Torres, Carmen P.; Pooley, Guy G.; Rebolo, Rafael; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Carmen; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Scott, Paul F.; Shimwell, Timothy W.; Titterington, David J.; Waldram, Elizabeth M.; Watson, Robert A.; Zwart, Jonathan T. L.

    2009-12-01

    Using the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) at 16GHz and the Very Small Array (VSA) at 33GHz to make follow-up observations of sources in the New Extragalactic WMAP Point Source catalogue, we have investigated the flux density variability in a complete sample of 97 sources over time-scales of a few months to ~1.5yr. We find that 53 per cent of the 93 sources, for which we have multiple observations, are variable, at the 99 per cent confidence level, above the flux density calibration uncertainties of ~4 per cent at 16GHz the fraction of sources having varied by more than 20 per cent is 15 per cent at 16GHz and 20 per cent at 33GHz. Not only is this common occurrence of variability at high frequency of interest for source physics, but also strategies for coping with source contamination in cosmic microwave background work must take this variability into account. There is no strong evidence of a correlation between variability and flux density for the sample as a whole. For those sources classified as variable, the mean fractional rms variation in flux density increases significantly with the length of time separating observation pairs. Using a maximum likelihood method, we calculate the correlation in the variability at the two frequencies in a subset of sources classified as variable from both the AMI and VSA data and find the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient to be very high (0.955 +/- 0.034). We also find the degree of variability at 16GHz (0.202 +/- 0.028) to be very similar to that at 33GHz (0.224 +/- 0.039). Finally, we have investigated the relationship between variability and spectral index, α33.7513.9 (where S ~ ν-α), and find a significant difference in the spectral indices of the variable sources (-0.06 +/- 0.05) and non-variable sources (0.13 +/- 0.04). We kindly request that any reference to this paper cites `AMI Consortium: Franzen et al. 2009'. Issuing author - email: t.franzen@mrao.cam.ac.uk ‡ E-mail: m.davies@mrao.cam.ac.uk

  8. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. PMID:26050092

  9. A new methodology to assess the performance and uncertainty of source apportionment models II: The results of two European intercomparison exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belis, C. A.; Karagulian, F.; Amato, F.; Almeida, M.; Artaxo, P.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Bernardoni, V.; Bove, M. C.; Carbone, S.; Cesari, D.; Contini, D.; Cuccia, E.; Diapouli, E.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Favez, O.; El Haddad, I.; Harrison, R. M.; Hellebust, S.; Hovorka, J.; Jang, E.; Jorquera, H.; Kammermeier, T.; Karl, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Mooibroek, D.; Nava, S.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Paatero, P.; Pandolfi, M.; Perrone, M. G.; Petit, J. E.; Pietrodangelo, A.; Pokorná, P.; Prati, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Quass, U.; Querol, X.; Saraga, D.; Sciare, J.; Sfetsos, A.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Vestenius, M.; Yubero, E.; Hopke, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    The performance and the uncertainty of receptor models (RMs) were assessed in intercomparison exercises employing real-world and synthetic input datasets. To that end, the results obtained by different practitioners using ten different RMs were compared with a reference. In order to explain the differences in the performances and uncertainties of the different approaches, the apportioned mass, the number of sources, the chemical profiles, the contribution-to-species and the time trends of the sources were all evaluated using the methodology described in Belis et al. (2015). In this study, 87% of the 344 source contribution estimates (SCEs) reported by participants in 47 different source apportionment model results met the 50% standard uncertainty quality objective established for the performance test. In addition, 68% of the SCE uncertainties reported in the results were coherent with the analytical uncertainties in the input data. The most used models, EPA-PMF v.3, PMF2 and EPA-CMB 8.2, presented quite satisfactory performances in the estimation of SCEs while unconstrained models, that do not account for the uncertainty in the input data (e.g. APCS and FA-MLRA), showed below average performance. Sources with well-defined chemical profiles and seasonal time trends, that make appreciable contributions (>10%), were those better quantified by the models while those with contributions to the PM mass close to 1% represented a challenge. The results of the assessment indicate that RMs are capable of estimating the contribution of the major pollution source categories over a given time window with a level of accuracy that is in line with the needs of air quality management.

  10. Ultra-luminous X-Ray Sources in HARO II and the Role of X-Ray Binaries in Feedback in Lyα Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestwich, A. H.; Jackson, F.; Kaaret, P.; Brorby, M.; Roberts, T. P.; Saar, S. H.; Yukita, M.

    2015-10-01

    Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs) are local proxies of high-redshift Lyman Break Galaxies. Spatially resolved studies of nearby starbursts have shown that Lyman continuum and line emission are absorbed by dust and that the Lyα is resonantly scattered by neutral hydrogen. In order to observe Lyα emission from star-forming regions, some source of feedback is required to blow the neutral gas away from the starburst to prevent scattering and allow the Lyα emission to escape. We show that there are two X-ray point sources embedded in the diffuse emission of the LBA galaxy Haro 11. CXOU J003652.4-333316 (abbreviated to Haro 11 X-1) is an extremely luminous (L{}{{X}}˜ {10}41 erg s-1), spatially compact source with a hard-X-ray spectrum. We suggest that the X-ray emission from Haro 11 X-1 is dominated by a single accretion source. This might be an active galactic nucleus or a source similar to the extreme black hole binary (BHB) M82 X-1. The hard X-ray spectrum indicates that Haro 11 X-1 may be a BHB in a low accretion state. In this case, the very high X-ray luminosity suggests an intermediate mass black hole that could be the seed for formation of a supermassive black hole. Source CXOU J003652.7-33331619.5 (abbreviated Haro 11 X-2) has an X-ray luminosity of {L}{{X}}˜ 5× {10}40 erg s-1 and a soft X-ray spectrum (power-law photon index Γ ˜ 2.2). This strongly suggests that Haro 11 X-2 is an X-ray binary in the ultra luminous state (i.e., an Ultra Luminous X-ray source, ULX). Haro 11 X-2 is coincident with the star-forming knot that is the source of the Lyα emission. The association of a ULX with Lyα emission raises the possibility that strong winds from X-ray binaries play an important role in injecting mechanical power into the interstellar medium, thus blowing away neutral material from the starburst region and allowing the Lyα to escape. We suggest that feedback from X-ray binaries may play a significant role in allowing Lyα emission to escape from galaxies in the

  11. Modeling air quality during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CPRAQS) using the UCD/CIT Source Oriented Air Quality Model - Part II. Regional source apportionment of primary airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qi; Lu, Jin; Kaduwela, Ajith; Kleeman, Michael

    A comprehensive air quality modeling project was carried out to simulate regional source contributions to primary airborne particle concentrations in California's central Valley. A 3-week stagnation episode lasting from December 15, 2000 to January 7, 2001, was chosen for study using the air quality and meteorological data collected during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS). The UCD/CIT source oriented air quality model was applied to this episode using both the source-oriented external mixture configuration and an internal mixture with artificial tracers so that source contribution information could be retrieved in less time. The majority of the predicted and measured primary airborne particulate matter mass was composed of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Previous work has shown that base case EC and OC predictions made by the UCD/CIT model are in good agreement with observations. Model results from the current study show that the highest EC and OC concentrations occur in urban areas and along transportation corridors where primary emissions are largest. Lower concentrations of primary EC and OC are predicted at rural locations in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Source contributions predicted by the UCD/CIT air quality model were compared to receptor-oriented source apportionment results produced by the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model at Fresno and Angiola. The relative contributions from major sources predicted by the UCD/CIT model agree with the CMB model results, building confidence in the accuracy of the UCD/CIT model predictions at locations where the CMB results are not available. Wood smoke was identified as the major regional source of primary OC in airborne particles in the winter SJV episode, accounting for approximately 50% of the total PM 2.5. Diesel engines were also found to be a significant contributor to primary PM 2.5 OC and the largest contributor to the predicted PM 2.5 EC averaged over a typical day

  12. Precise optical positions of radio sources in the FK 4-system. II - Results from 28 sources on the northern hemisphere and a preliminary comparison of the optical-radio reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vegt, C.; Gehlich, U. K.

    1982-09-01

    Precise optical positions of 28 optical counterparts of extragalactic radio sources in the northern hemisphere have been derived using different long focus telescopes. The source positions are referred to the FK 4-system by the AGK 3 RN reference star catalogue as a primary reference frame; a system of secondary reference stars of intermediate brightness mυ = 12-14 has been obtained from the 23-cm astrograph of the Hamburg Observatory. A preliminary comparison of the optical and quasi absolute radio reference frame has been performed using a provisional averaged catalogue of radio positions. Significant systematic differences with local amplitudes up to 0".2 have been found, mainly in declination.

  13. Ancient Rome II: The Theater, Sculpture & Painting, Religion, Everyday Life, the Roman at Home. Teaching with Primary Sources Series, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F.; Baker, Charles F., III

    Intended for teachers of grades 5 and up, this unit on ancient Rome introduces students to a variety of primary sources, all chosen with the idea that they can be used to form an accurate and informative picture of what it was like to be a Roman during ancient times, and the similarities and dissimilarities between life then and today. The unit…

  14. An Introduction to Gravitational Frenetics II: Detrmination of the Poynting-Like Flux Intensity of the Gravito-Frenetic Field of a Rotating Gravitational Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay

    2016-03-01

    Within the Classical framework established in my earlier presentation I consider the possible gravito-frenetic flux of a rotating gravitational source. Specifically, I examine the limited case of gravitationally locked orbital motion of a mass around a rotating source and then demonstrate first that the frenetic field is proportional to the angular momentum per unit volume of the source, and second that the velocity field that constrains the field may be expressed in terms of the Schwarzschild radius in a way that is qualitatively consistent with Relativistic predictions (through first-order). In the context of this proposed gauge-constrained field, these findings suggest that gravito-frenetic waves propagate from the rotating source. I then calculate the predicted Poynting-like gravito-frenetic flux intensity of the Sun on the Earth and find a value that is consistent with measurable variations in the electro-magnetic flux intensity value. The possible coupling of gravito-frenetic and electromagnetic waves at extremely small frequencies (e.g., f << 1Hz .) is considered and implications for the detection of gravitational waves are discussed.

  15. SOURCE RECEPTOR STUDY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE KANAWHA VALLEY, WV - PART II: ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO VOC AND PARTICLE EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kanawha Valley region of West Virginia includes a deep river valley with a large population living in close proximity to many potential sources of ambient volatile organics compounds (VOCs). he Valley runs approximately 100 km from Alloy to Nitro and is between 100 and 200 m ...

  16. [Evaluation of visualization of biological stains with the use of alternative light source (ALS) for the purpose of genetic identification. Part II. Semen samples analysis].

    PubMed

    Sackiewicz, Adam; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Pepiński, Witold; Skawrońska, Małgorzata; Szeremeta, Michał; Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Okłota, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Detection of seminal stains on items such as clothing and bedding is a significant element of investigation in sexual assault cases. The use of alternative light source may assist in their identification. The objective of the investigation was the evaluation of human semen visualization with the use of alternative light source for the purpose of genetic identification. The tests demonstrated that experimentally prepared semen stains on the bright base could be best seen in the natural light and white light when the semen was diluted at a ratio 1:10. The complete typeability of AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit loci was evaluated in semen which was diluted at a ratio 1:1750 and typeability of AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit loci was incomplete in semen diluted at a ratio 1:2000. After washing with laundry detergents, semen stains were still recognizable under ALS wavelength 455 nm, while wearing orange goggles. PMID:21863733

  17. Optical remote sensing to quantify fugitive particulate mass emissions from stationary short-term and mobile continuous sources: part II. Field applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Ke; Yuen, Wangki; Wang, Wei; Rood, Mark J; Varma, Ravi M; Hashmonay, Ram A; Kim, Byung J; Kemme, Michael R

    2011-01-15

    Quantification of emissions of fugitive particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere from military training operations is of interest by the United States Department of Defense. A new range-resolved optical remote sensing (ORS) method was developed to quantify fugitive PM emissions from puff sources (i.e., artillery back blasts), ground-level mobile sources (i.e., movement of tracked vehicles), and elevated mobile sources (i.e., airborne helicopters) in desert areas that are prone to generating fugitive dust plumes. Real-time, in situ mass concentration profiles for PM mass with particle diameters <10 μm (PM(10)) and <2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) were obtained across the dust plumes that were generated by these activities with this new method. Back blasts caused during artillery firing were characterized as a stationary short-term puff source whose plumes typically dispersed to <10 m above the ground with durations of 10-30 s. Fugitive PM emissions caused by artillery back blasts were related to the zone charge and ranged from 51 to 463 g PM/firing for PM(10) and 9 to 176 g PM/firing for PM(2.5). Movement of tracked vehicles and flying helicopters was characterized as mobile continuous sources whose plumes typically dispersed 30-50 m above the ground with durations of 100-200 s. Fugitive PM emissions caused by moving tracked vehicles ranged from 8.3 to 72.5 kg PM/km for PM(10) and 1.1 to 17.2 kg PM/km for PM(2.5), and there was no obvious correlation between PM emission and vehicle speed. The emission factor for the helicopter flying at 3 m above the ground ranged from 14.5 to 114.1 kg PM/km for PM(10) and 5.0 to 39.5 kg PM/km for PM(2.5), depending on the velocity of the helicopter and type of soil it flies over. Fugitive PM emissions by an airborne helicopter were correlated with helicopter speed for a particular soil type. The results from this range-resolved ORS method were also compared with the data obtained with another path-integrated ORS method and a Flux Tower

  18. Giant Radio Sources as a Probe of the Cosmological Evolution of the IGM. II. The Observational Constraint on the Model of Radio-Jets Propagation through the X-ray Halo-IGM Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuligowska, E.; Jamrozy, M.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Machalski, J.

    2009-12-01

    Three limited samples of high-redshift radio sources of FRII-type are used to constrain the dynamical model for the jets' propagation through the two-media environment: the X-ray emitting halo with the power-law density profile surrounding the parent galaxy and the much hotter intergalactic medium (IGM) of a constant density. The model, originally developed by Gopal-Krishna and Wiita, is modified adopting modern values of its free parameters taken from recent X-ray measurements with the XMM-Newton and Chandra Observatories. We find that (i) giant-sized radio sources (≍1 Mpc) exist at redshifts up to z≍2, (ii) all newly identified the largest radio sources with 1

  19. Six-degree-of-freedom near-source seismic motions II: examples of real seismogram analysis and S-wave velocity retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brokešová, Johana; Málek, Jiří

    2015-04-01

    Near-source records obtained by the mechanical seismic sensor Rotaphone are presented. The Rotaphone can measure six components of seismic movements, three translational and three rotational. The apparent S-wave phase velocity is determined and the possibility to obtain the wavepath S-wave velocity directly under the receiver is discussed. Rotation-to-translation ratios (RTRs) characterize the strength of rotations compared to translations. The Rotaphone records of local microearthquakes were obtained in various European seismoactive regions over the last few years. Three case studies, analyzed in detail, include various geological structures and seismograms recorded at various epicentral distances from 0.7 to 14.9 km. Also, the source depth varies from 4.8 to 10.4 km. The first case is an event from the West Bohemia intraplate seismic swarm region. The seismogram was recorded only 0.7 km from the epicenter. This case shows the complexity of rotation-to-translational relations near the epicenter. The second case is from the Corinthian Gulf active-rift region. The study confirms the expectation of the theory concerning rotations connected with the direct S wave; however, difficulties follow from a very complex 3D geological structure in the vicinity of the station, complicated by a distinctive topography with steep slopes of the hills. The third example is from South Iceland, near the active Katla volcano. The data in this case satisfy the rotation-to-translation relations very well, which is probably caused by the relatively simple geological setting and appropriate source-to-receiver configuration. The RTRs are computed for all three cases, and their frequency dependence is discussed.

  20. SIMULATIONS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS. II. ABLATION FROM HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS AS A SOURCE OF LOW-VELOCITY HIGH IONS

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, David B.; Kwak, Kyujin; Shelton, Robin L. E-mail: rls@physast.uga.edu

    2012-07-01

    In order to determine if the material ablated from high-velocity clouds (HVCs) is a significant source of low-velocity high ions (C IV, N V, and O VI) such as those found in the Galactic halo, we simulate the hydrodynamics of the gas and the time-dependent ionization evolution of its carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen ions. Our suite of simulations examines the ablation of warm material from clouds of various sizes, densities, and velocities as they pass through the hot Galactic halo. The ablated material mixes with the environmental gas, producing an intermediate-temperature mixture that is rich in high ions and that slows to the speed of the surrounding gas. We find that the slow mixed material is a significant source of the low-velocity O VI that is observed in the halo, as it can account for at least {approx}1/3 of the observed O VI column density. Hence, any complete model of the high ions in the halo should include the contribution to the O VI from ablated HVC material. However, such material is unlikely to be a major source of the observed C IV, presumably because the observed C IV is affected by photoionization, which our models do not include. We discuss a composite model that includes contributions from HVCs, supernova remnants, a cooling Galactic fountain, and photoionization by an external radiation field. By design, this model matches the observed O VI column density. This model can also account for most or all of the observed C IV, but only half of the observed N V.

  1. A new laser vibrometry-based 2D selective intensity method for source identification in reverberant fields: part II. Application to an aircraft cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, G. M.; Martarelli, M.; Chiariotti, P.

    2010-07-01

    The selective intensity technique is a powerful tool for the localization of acoustic sources and for the identification of the structural contribution to the acoustic emission. In practice, the selective intensity method is based on simultaneous measurements of acoustic intensity, by means of a couple of matched microphones, and structural vibration of the emitting object. In this paper high spatial density multi-point vibration data, acquired by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, have been used for the first time. Therefore, by applying the selective intensity algorithm, the contribution of a large number of structural sources to the acoustic field radiated by the vibrating object can be estimated. The selective intensity represents the distribution of the acoustic monopole sources on the emitting surface, as if each monopole acted separately from the others. This innovative selective intensity approach can be very helpful when the measurement is performed on large panels in highly reverberating environments, such as aircraft cabins. In this case the separation of the direct acoustic field (radiated by the vibrating panels of the fuselage) and the reverberant one is difficult by traditional techniques. The work shown in this paper is the application of part of the results of the European project CREDO (Cabin Noise Reduction by Experimental and Numerical Design Optimization) carried out within the framework of the EU. Therefore the aim of this paper is to illustrate a real application of the method to the interior acoustic characterization of an Alenia Aeronautica ATR42 ground test facility, Alenia Aeronautica being a partner of the CREDO project.

  2. Optimizing a neutron-beam focusing device for the direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the FRM II reactor source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, N. G.; Simeoni, G. G.; Lefmann, K.

    2016-04-01

    A dedicated beam-focusing device has been designed for the direct geometry thermal-cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the neutron facility FRM II (Garching, Germany). The prototype, based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept, benefits from the adaptive-optics technology (adjustable supermirror curvature) and the compact size (only 0.5 m long). We have simulated the neutron transport across the entire guide system. We present a detailed computer characterization of the existing device, along with the study of the factors mostly influencing the future improvement. We have optimized the simulated prototype as a function of the neutron wavelength, accounting also for all relevant features of a real instrument like the non-reflecting side edges. The results confirm the "chromatic" displacement of the focal point (flux density maximum) at fixed supermirror curvature, and the ability of a variable curvature to keep the focal point at the sample position. Our simulations are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and the experimentally measured beam profile. With respect to the possibility of a further upgrade, we find that supermirror coatings with m-values higher than 3.5 would have only marginal influence on the optimal behaviour, whereas comparable spectrometers could take advantage of longer focusing segments, with particular impact for the thermal region of the neutron spectrum.

  3. Bose-Einstein Correlations and Source Functions. II --- Analyses of Data in S + Pb Reaction at 200 GeV/c ---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, T.; Biyajima, M.; Kageya, T.

    1994-05-01

    We consider several source functions in the Bose-Einstein correlations and show their interrelations between 4-dimensional and 3-dimensional configuration spaces. We use two frameworks, i.e., a conventional one and that of the laser optical approach. The data of the correlations in S + Pb reaction at 200 GeV/c by NA44 Collaboration are analysed by our formulae. It is found that the correlations expressed by the Gaussian distribution, an exponential function and power functions of Lorentzian show almost the same χ2-values in both frameworks. From estimated values of the root mean square in the conventional formula, Rrms = sqrt{}, the following physical picture is obtained: 1.2A1/3T <=ssim Rrms(S + Pb at 200 GeV/c) <=ssim 1.2(A1/3T + A1/3P), where AT and AP are target and projectile masses. New results and data in S + S, S + Ag and S + Pb reactions at 200 GeV/c are also examined by the present framework. It is confirmed that the root mean square, Rrms, is more sensitive than the magnitudes of space region, R's, in physical interpretation of parameters contained in the source functions.

  4. Modeling of dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma sources utilizing a full-wave Maxwell solver: II. Scaling with pressure, power and electronegativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Kushner, Mark J.

    2010-10-01

    The trend in dielectric etching in microelectronics fabrication with capacitively coupled plasmas is the use of multiple frequencies where a high frequency (HF, tens to hundreds of MHz) dominates ionization and a low frequency (LF, a few to tens MHz) is used to control ion energy distributions to the wafer. Process parameters, such as pressure, gas mixture and LF and HF power deposition, are important to determining the uniformity of the plasma and properties of ions incident on the wafer. In this paper, we report on a computational investigation of the consequences of these parameters on uniformity and ion energy distributions to the wafer in a dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma reactor sustained in Ar/CF4 gas mixtures. Due to the coupling of finite wavelength, electromagnetic skin, electrostatic edge and electronegative effects, there are no simple scaling laws for plasma uniformity. The plasma uniformity is ultimately a function of conductivity and energy relaxation distance of electrons accelerated by electric fields in and near the sheath. There is a strong second-order effect on uniformity due to feedback from the electron energy distributions (EEDs) to ionization sources. The trends from our parametric study are correlated with the spatial variation of the HF electric field, to the total power deposition and to the spatial variation of EEDs and ionization sources.

  5. Physics of a magnetic filter for negative ion sources. II. E Ö- B drift through the filter in a real geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeuf, J. P.; Claustre, J.; Chaudhury, B.; Fubiani, G.

    2012-11-01

    The physics of a magnetic filter under conditions similar to those of the negative ion source for the ITER neutral beam injector is analyzed with the help of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo Collisions model. A detailed analysis of the different terms of the electron momentum equations shows how diamagnetic and drift currents can be dominant in different regions of the filter. Electron transport through the filter is due to an E × B drift current on one side of the chamber induced by the presence of the chamber walls perpendicular to the electron diamagnetic current. The filter design of the ITER negative ion source, which does not allow a closed electron diamagnetic current, induces an asymmetry of the plasma that is analyzed with the particle model. It is shown that electron transport through the filter in this geometry is very different from the transport in an ideal, one-dimensional magnetic filter often considered in the literature and described in detail in the companion paper [Boeuf et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 113509 (2012)].

  6. Physics of a magnetic filter for negative ion sources. II. E Multiplication-Sign B drift through the filter in a real geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Boeuf, J. P.; Claustre, J.; Chaudhury, B.; Fubiani, G.

    2012-11-15

    The physics of a magnetic filter under conditions similar to those of the negative ion source for the ITER neutral beam injector is analyzed with the help of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo Collisions model. A detailed analysis of the different terms of the electron momentum equations shows how diamagnetic and drift currents can be dominant in different regions of the filter. Electron transport through the filter is due to an E Multiplication-Sign B drift current on one side of the chamber induced by the presence of the chamber walls perpendicular to the electron diamagnetic current. The filter design of the ITER negative ion source, which does not allow a closed electron diamagnetic current, induces an asymmetry of the plasma that is analyzed with the particle model. It is shown that electron transport through the filter in this geometry is very different from the transport in an ideal, one-dimensional magnetic filter often considered in the literature and described in detail in the companion paper [Boeuf et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 113509 (2012)].

  7. A physically-derived nonquasi-static model of ferroelectric amplifiers for computer-aided device simulation - Part II: The ferroelectric common-source and common-gate amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyah, Rana; Hunt, Mitchell; Ho, Fat D.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, Part II of the authors' paper [1], the physically-derived nonquasi-static model presented in [1] is applied to the ferroelectric common-source and common-gate amplifiers. The model is based on the method of partitioned channel and ferroelectric layers and is valid in accumulation, depletion, and all three cases of inversion: weak, moderate, and strong. The equations of this model are based on the standard MOSFET equations that have been adapted to include the ferroelectric properties. The model code is written in MATLAB and outputs voltage plots with respect to time. The accuracy and effectiveness of the model are verified by two test cases, where the modeled results are compared to empirically-derived oscilloscope plots.

  8. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. II. MONITORING OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE REFERENCE SOURCES 3C 454.3, B2250+194, AND B2252+172

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, R. R.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Luca, P.; Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Lederman, J. I.

    2012-07-01

    We used 8.4 GHz very long baseline interferometry images obtained at up to 35 epochs between 1997 and 2005 to examine the radio structures of the main reference source, 3C 454.3, and two secondary reference sources, B2250+194 and B2252+172, for the guide star for the NASA/Stanford relativity mission Gravity Probe B (GP-B). For one epoch in 2004 May, we also obtained images at 5.0 and 15.4 GHz. The 35 8.4 GHz images for quasar 3C 454.3 confirm a complex, evolving, core-jet structure. We identified at each epoch a component, C1, near the easternmost edge of the core region. Simulations of the core region showed that C1 is located, on average, 0.18 {+-} 0.06 mas west of the unresolved 'core' identified in 43 GHz images. We also identified in 3C 454.3 at 8.4 GHz several additional components that moved away from C1 with proper motions ranging in magnitude between 0.9 c and 5 c. The detailed motions of the components exhibit two distinct bends in the jet axis located {approx}3 and {approx}5.5 mas west of C1. The spectra between 5.0 and 15.4 GHz for the 'moving' components are steeper than those for C1. The 8.4 GHz images of B2250+194 and B2252+172, in contrast to those of 3C 454.3, reveal compact structures. The spectrum between 5.0 and 15.4 GHz for B2250+194 is inverted while that for B2252+172 is flat. Based on its position near the easternmost edge of the 8.4 GHz radio structure, close spatial association with the 43 GHz core, and relatively flat spectrum, we believe 3C 454.3 component C1 to be the best choice for the ultimate reference point for the GP-B guide star. The compact structures and inverted-to-flat spectra of B2250+194 and B2252+172 make these objects valuable secondary reference sources.

  9. Effect of various sources of organic carbon and high nitrite and nitrate concentrations on the selection of denitrifying bacteria. II. Continuous cultures in packed bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, M

    1983-01-01

    The effect of different organic compounds, nitrites and nitrates at the concentration of 1,000 mg N/l on the quantitative and strain-specific selection of denitrifying bacteria was determined in anaerobic packed bed reactors. Both the source of carbon and nitrogen form influenced strain specificity and the frequency of occurrence of denitrifying bacteria. The frequency of denitrifying bacteria within packed bed reactor ranged in different media from 11% (glucose and nitrates) to 100% (methanol and ethanol with nitrates). A single species selection was observed in the presence of nitrites within packed bed reactor: Pseudomonas aeruginosa in medium with acetate. Pseudomonas stutzeri in medium with ethanol, Pseudomonas mendocina in medium with methanol and Pseudomonas fluorescens in medium with glucose. When nitrates were present in packed bed reactor, the dominating bacteria were: P. stutzeri in medium with acetate, P. fluorescens in medium with ethanol, Paracoccus denitrificans in medium with methanol and Alcaligenes faecalis in medium with glucose. PMID:6194668

  10. Optical spectroscopy of IRAS sources with infrared emission bands. II. IRAS 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.; Jones, B.F.; Walker, H.J.; Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA )

    1989-06-01

    The paper presents long-slit optical spectra and microwave CO spectra of four nebulous counterparts to IRAS sources showing PAH emission features: 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758. IRAS 22539+5758 is associated with a bipolar nebula. All are allied with B-type stars that suffer appreciable circumstellar extinction, and whose environs show atomic emission lines; three represent mixed reflection/emission nebulosities. Three show spectroscopic evidence for outflows at about 100 km/s. One, 06114+1745, exhibits indications of enhanced diffuse interstellar bands. It is concluded that extinction alone is insufficient to yield enhanced DIBs and that peculiar circumstellar abundances and/or physical conditions must play a role. 20 refs.

  11. Lead (II) detection and contamination routes in environmental sources, cookware and home-prepared foods from Zimatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, M; Merino-Sánchez, C; Hall, C; Grieshop, J; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, M E; Handley, M A

    2009-04-01

    An interdisciplinary investigation, involving environmental geochemists, epidemiologists, nurses, and anthropologists, was undertaken to determine the contamination source and pathway of an on-going outbreak of lead poisoning among migrants originating from Zimatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico and living in Seaside, California, and among their US-born children. An initial investigation in Seaside identified grasshopper foodstuff ("chapulines") imported from Mexico and consumed as snacks, as containing alarmingly high lead concentrations (up to 2300 mg/kg). The focus in the present work concentrates on the Oaxacan area of origin of the problem in Mexico, and two potential sources of contamination were investigated: wind-borne dusts from existing mine residues as potential contaminants of soil, plant, and fauna; and food preparation practices using lead-glazed ceramic cookware. Over a three year period, sampling was conducted in Oaxaca using community-level sampling and also targeted sampling with families of cases with lead poisoning in California. In addition to fresh field chapulines, we analyzed for total lead: soil, water, mine residues, and plant materials, both from areas adjacent to or at an abandoned waste site containing mine tailings, and from fields where chapulines are collected; foodstuffs gathered in community markets or in a food transport business; and foodstuffs and cookware gathered from relatives of case families in California. Also, selected new and used lead-glazed clay cookware was extracted for lead, using 0.02 M citric acid and with 4% acetic acid. The results indicated significant presence of lead in mine wastes, in specific foodstuffs, and in glazed cookware, but no extensive soil contamination was identified. In-situ experiments demonstrated that lead incorporation in food is made very efficient through grinding of spices in glazed cookware, with the combination of a harsh mechanical action and the frequent presence of acidic lime juice, but without

  12. The Hiroshima thermal-neutron discrepancy for (36)Cl at large distances. Part II: Natural in situ production as a source.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Eckehart; Huber, Thomas; Rühm, Werner; Kato, Kazuo; Lazarev, Vitali; Schultz, Ludolf

    2005-10-01

    For Hiroshima, a large discrepancy between calculated and measured thermal-neutron fluences had been reported in the past, for distances to the epicenter larger than about 1,000 m. To be more specific, measured (36)Cl concentrations in environmental samples from Hiroshima were too large at these distances, and the ratio of measured to calculated values reached about 70, at a distance of 1,800 m. In an attempt to identify other sources that might also produce (36)Cl in Hiroshima samples, the role of cosmic rays and of neutrons from natural terrestrial sources was investigated. Four reaction mechanisms were taken into account: spallation reactions of the nucleonic (hadronic) component of the cosmic rays on potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) in the sample material, particle emission after nuclear capture of negative muons by K and Ca, reactions of fast-muon induced electromagnetic, and hadronic showers with K and Ca, and neutron capture reactions with (35)Cl in the sample where the neutrons originate from the above three reaction mechanisms and from uranium and thorium decay. These mechanisms are physically described and mathematically quantified. It is shown that among those parameters important for the production of (36)Cl in granite, the chemical composition of the sample, the depth in the quarry where the sample had initially been taken, and the erosion rate at the site of the quarry are most important. Based on these physical, chemical, and geological parameters, (36)Cl concentrations were calculated for different types of granite that are typical for the Hiroshima area. In samples that were of these granite types and that had not been exposed to atomic bomb(A-bomb) neutrons, the (36)Cl concentration was also determined experimentally by means of accelerator mass spectrometry, and good agreement was found with the calculated values. The (36)Cl signal due to natural in situ production was also calculated in granite samples that had been exposed to A-bomb neutrons at

  13. THE OPTICAL SPECTRA OF SPITZER 24 mum GALAXIES IN THE COSMIC EVOLUTION SURVEY FIELD. II. FAINT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE zCOSMOS-BRIGHT 10k CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Caputi, K. I.; Lilly, S. J.; Maier, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Aussel, H.; Floc'h, E. Le; Frayer, D.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Coppa, G.; Bongiorno, A.

    2009-12-20

    We have used the zCOSMOS-bright 10k sample to identify 3244 Spitzer/MIPS 24 mum-selected galaxies with 0.06 mJy < S{sub 24{sub m}}u{sub m} approx< 0.50 mJy and I{sub AB} < 22.5, over 1.5 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, and studied different spectral properties, depending on redshift. At 0.2 < z < 0.3, we found that different reddening laws of common use in the literature explain the dust extinction properties of approx80% of our infrared (IR) sources, within the error bars. For up to 16% of objects, instead, the Halpha lambda6563/Hbeta lambda4861 ratios are too high for their IR/UV attenuations, which is probably a consequence of inhomogeneous dust distributions. In only a few of our galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.3, the IR emission could be mainly produced by dust heated by old rather than young stars. Besides, the line ratios of approx22% of our galaxies suggest that they might be star-formation/nuclear-activity composite systems. At 0.5 < z < 0.7, we estimated galaxy metallicities for 301 galaxies: at least 12% of them are securely below the upper-branch mass-metallicity trend, which is consistent with the local relation. Finally, we performed a combined analysis of the H{sub d}elta equivalent width versus D{sub n} (4000) diagram for 1722 faint and bright 24 mum galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.0, spanning two decades in mid-IR luminosity. We found that, while secondary bursts of star formation are necessary to explain the position of the most luminous IR galaxies in that diagram, quiescent, exponentially declining star formation histories can well reproduce the spectral properties of approx40% of the less luminous sources. Our results suggest a transition in the possible modes of star formation at total IR luminosities L{sub TIR} approx (3 +- 2) x 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}.

  14. Coronal hole boundaries evolution at small scales. II. XRT view. Can small-scale outflows at CHBs be a source of the slow solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, S.; Madjarska, M. S.; Doyle, J. G.

    2010-06-01

    Aims: We aim to further explore the small-scale evolution of coronal hole boundaries using X-ray high-resolution and high-cadence images. We intend to determine the fine structure and dynamics of the events causing changes of coronal hole boundaries and to explore the possibility that these events are the source of the slow solar wind. Methods: We developed an automated procedure for the identification of transient brightenings in images from the X-ray telescope on-board Hinode taken with an Al Poly filter in the equatorial coronal holes, polar coronal holes, and the quiet Sun with and without transient coronal holes. Results: We found that in comparison to the quiet Sun, the boundaries of coronal holes are abundant with brightening events including areas inside the coronal holes where closed magnetic field structures are present. The visual analysis of these brightenings revealed that around 70% of them in equatorial, polar and transient coronal holes and their boundaries show expanding loop structures and/or collimated outflows. In the quiet Sun only 30% of the brightenings show flows with most of them appearing to be contained in the solar corona by closed magnetic field lines. This strongly suggests that magnetic reconnection of co-spatial open and closed magnetic field lines creates the necessary conditions for plasma outflows to large distances. The ejected plasma always originates from pre-existing or newly emerging (at X-ray temperatures) bright points. Conclusions: The present study confirms our findings that the evolution of loop structures known as coronal bright points is associated with the small-scale changes of coronal hole boundaries. The loop structures show an expansion and eruption with the trapped plasma consequently escaping along the “quasi” open magnetic field lines. These ejections appear to be triggered by magnetic reconnection, e.g. the so-called interchange reconnection between the closed magnetic field lines (BPs) and the open

  15. A novel approach for the characterisation of transport and optical properties of aerosol particles near sources - Part II: Microphysics-chemistry-transport model development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdebenito B, Álvaro M.; Pal, Sandip; Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Lammel, Gerhard

    2011-06-01

    A new high-resolution microphysics-chemistry-transport model (LES-AOP) was developed and applied for the investigation of aerosol transformation and transport in the vicinity of a livestock facility in northern Germany (PLUS1 field campaign). The model is an extension of a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model. The PLUS1 field campaign included the first deployment of the new eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar system of the University of Hohenheim. In a combined approach, model and lidar results were used to characterise a faint aerosol source. The farm plume structure was investigated and the absolute value of its particle backscatter coefficient was determined. Aerosol optical properties were predicted on spatial and temporal resolutions below 100 m and 1 min, upon initialisation by measured meteorological and size-resolved particulate matter mass concentration and composition data. Faint aerosol plumes corresponding to a particle backscatter coefficient down to 10 -6 sr -1 m -1 were measured and realistically simulated. Budget-related quantities such as the emission flux and change of the particulate matter mass, were estimated from model results and ground measurements.

  16. Zircon age range and sources of alkaline rocks from the Kurgusul intrusion, Kuznetsk Alatau: The first U-Pb (SHRIMP II) and Sm-Nd isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Gertner, I. F.; Tishin, P. A.; Bayanova, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    U-Pb isotope analysis of basic feldspathoid rocks (juvites) of the Kurgusul intrusion, NE Kuznetsk Alatau, revealed three generations of zircons of various ages (˜1.3-1.5 Ga; 484.3 ± 5.5 and 393.6 ± 9.2Ma). This suggests several stages of regional alkaline basic magmatism in the Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician and Early-Middle Devonian and melting of the Mesoproterozoic continental crust, which form part of the basement of the Kuznetsk Alatau terrane. The trace element geochemical data indicate a continental margin setting characterized by the complex interaction of a plume-related, supra-subduction zone and crustal materials. A possible model of the magmatic evolution assumes that the ascent of a plume at the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary induced generation of the initial alkaline basaltic magmas and metasomatism and erosion of the lower lithosphere. Repeated partial melting of the lower crust after a 100 Myr period produced new magma batches of alkaline composition, which inherited zircons from the preceding episode of magma generation. The inherited juvenile magmatic source (PREMA + E-type MORB + EM) is confirmed by similarities in the Sm-Nd isotopic signatures (ɛNd( T) ≈ +4.5 to +5.7, T(Nd)DM ≈ 0.8-0.9 Ga) of derivatives of regional alkaline basic complexes of different ages.

  17. Spent fuel radionuclide source term model for assessing spent fuel performance in geological disposal. Part II: Matrix alteration model and global performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinssot, Christophe; Ferry, Cécile; Lovera, Patrick; Jegou, Christophe; Gras, Jean-Marie

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the research conducted on the long term evolution of spent nuclear fuel under geological disposal conditions, a source term model has been developed to evaluate the instantaneous release of radionuclides (RN) (instant release fraction, IRF) and the delayed release of the RN which are embedded within the matrix. This model takes into account most of the scientific results currently available except the effect of hydrogen and the current knowledge of the uncertainties. IRF was assessed by considering the evolution with time of the RN inventories located within the fuel microstructure to which no confinement properties can be allocated over the long term (gap, rim, grain boundaries). This allows for bounding values for the IRF as a function of time of canister breach and burnup. The matrix radiolytic dissolution was modeled by a simple kinetic model neglecting the recombination of radiolytic species and the influence of aqueous ligands. The oxidation of the UO 2 matrix was assumed not to be kinetically controlled. Spent fuel performance was therefore demonstrated to mainly depend on the reactive surface area.

  18. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase II).

    PubMed

    Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R

    2016-10-01

    To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404. PMID:27435616

  19. UV-TO-FIR ANALYSIS OF SPITZER/IRAC SOURCES IN THE EXTENDED GROTH STRIP. II. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, STELLAR MASSES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barro, G.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Kajisawa, M.; Yamada, T.; Miyazaki, S.

    2011-04-01

    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Paper I), we present a detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6 + 4.5 {mu}m selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] {<=} 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 deg{sup 2}. The typical photometric redshift accuracy is {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and initial mass functions in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic differences and goodness of the different SFR estimations using the deep FIDEL 70 {mu}m data available in the Extended Groth Strip. Typical random uncertainties of the IR-bases SFRs are a factor of two, with non-negligible systematic effects at z {approx}> 1.5 observed when only MIPS 24 {mu}m data are available. All data products (SEDs, postage stamps from imaging data, and different estimations of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and SFRs of each galaxy) described in this and the companion paper are publicly available, and they can be accessed through our the Web interface utility Rainbow-navigator.

  20. Seasonal and interannual variability of atmospheric heat sources and moisture sinks as determined from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis: Part II variability associated with ENSO

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Tomohiko; Yanai, Michio

    1997-11-01

    The link between the Asian monsoon and the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has been demonstrated by a number of studies. This study examines two ENSO withdrawal periods and discusses if the Asian monsoon played a role in the differences between them. The 1986 event occurred in the later half of 1986 and retreated in 1988. The 1951 and 1991 events were similar to each other and seemed to continue to the second year after onset and not to have the clear La Nina phase after the events. In the central and eastern Pacific, three variables progress in phase as the ENSO cycle: sea surface temperature (SST), heat source (Q1), and divergence. Correlation coefficients were calculated and examined with the mean SST on the equator and with the standard deviation of the interannual components of SST. In the central and eastern Pacific, the standard deviation is large and three correlation coefficients are large (over 0.6). Strong air-sea interaction associated with ENSO cycle is deduced. In the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific, the correlation coefficients with SST become small rapidly, while the correlation coefficient between Q1 and the divergence is still large. The interannual variability of SSt may not be crucial for those of Q1 and of the divergence in this region because of the potential to generate well organized convection through the high mean SST. This suggests that various factors, such as effects from mid-latitudes, may modify the interannual variability in the region. To examine the effects of the Asian winter monsoon, the anomalous wind field at 850 hPa was investigated. The conditions of the Asian winter monsoon were quite different between the withdrawal periods in the 1986 and 1991 ENSO events. The Asian winter monsoon seems to be a factor to modify the ENSO cycle, especially in the retreat periods. In addition, the SST from the tropical Indian Ocean to western Pacific may be important for the modulation of the ENSO/monsoon system. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Juno II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    The Juno II launch vehicle, shown here, was a modified Jupiter Intermediate-Range Ballistic missionile, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Between December 1958 and April 1961, the Juno II launched space probes Pioneer III and IV, as well as Explorer satellites VII, VIII and XI.

  2. An Extensive Census of Hubble Space Telescope Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae. II. Time Series and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Peter D.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Heinke, Craig O.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    2003-10-01

    We report time series and variability information for the optical identifications of X-ray sources in 47 Tucanae reported in Paper I (at least 22 cataclysmic variables [CVs] and 29 active binaries). The radial distribution of the CVs is indistinguishable from that of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) detected by Freire et al. A study of the eight CVs with secure orbital periods (two obtained from the Chandra study of Grindlay et al.) shows that the 47 Tuc CVs have fainter accretion disks, in the V band, than field CVs with similar periods. These faint disks and the faint absolute magnitudes (MV) of the 47 Tuc CVs suggests they have low accretion rates. One possible explanation is that the 47 Tuc objects may be a more representative sample of CVs, down to our detection threshold, than the CVs found in the field (where many low accretion rate systems are believed to be undiscovered), showing the advantages of deep globular cluster observations. The median FX/Fopt value for the 47 Tuc CVs is higher than that of all known classes of field CV, partly because of the faint MV values and partly because of the relatively high X-ray luminosities (LX). The latter are only seen in DQ Her systems in the field, but the 47 Tuc CVs are much fainter optically than most field DQ Her's. Previous work by Edmonds et al. has shown that the four brightest CVs in NGC 6397 have optical spectra and broadband colors that are consistent with DQ Her's having lower than average accretion rates. Some combination of magnetic behavior and low accretion rates may be able to explain our observations, but the results at present are ambiguous, since no class of field CV has distributions of both LX and MV that are consistent with those of the 47 Tuc CVs. The radial distribution of the X-ray detected active binaries is indistinguishable from that of the much larger sample of optical variables (eclipsing and contact binaries and BY Dra variables) detected in previous Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2

  3. Experiment Tgv II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermák, P.; Štekl, I.; Beneš, P.; Brudanin, V. B.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalík, A.; Salamatin, A. V.; Timkin, V. V.; Vylov, Ts.; Briancon, Ch.; Šimkovic, F.

    2004-07-01

    The project aims at the measurement of very rare processes of double-beta decay of 106Cd and 48Ca. The experimental facility TGV II (Telescope Germanium Vertical) makes use of 32 HPGe planar detectors mounted in one common cryostat. The detectors are interleaved with thin foils containing ββ sources. Besides passive shielding against background radiation made of pure copper, lead and boron dopped polyethylene additional techniques for background suppression based on digital pulse shape analysis are used. The experimental setup is located in Modane underground laboratory (France). A review of the TGV II facility, its performance parameters and capabilities are presented.

  4. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  5. An Observational and modeling strategy to investigate the impact of remote sources on local air quality: A Houston, Texas case study from the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS II)

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, W. W.; Pierce, R.; Sparling, L. C.; Osterman, G.; McCann, K.; Fischer, M. L.; Rappengluck, B.; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Kittaka, C.; Evans, K.; Biraud, S.; Lefer, Barry; Andrews, A.; Oltmans, S.

    2010-01-05

    Quantifying the impacts of remote sources on individual air quality exceedances remains a significant challenge for air quality forecasting. One goal of the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS II) was to assess the impact of distant sources on air quality in east Texas. From 23-30 August 2006, retrievals of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from NASA’s Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) reveal the transport of CO from fires in the United States Pacific Northwest to Houston, Texas. This transport occurred behind a cold front and contributed to the worst ozone exceedance period of the summer in the Houston area. We present supporting satellite observations from the NASA A-Train constellation of the vertical distribution of smoke aerosols and CO. Ground-based in situ CO measurements in Oklahoma and Texas track the CO plume as it moves south and indicate mixing of the aloft plume to the surface by turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer and convection during the day. Ground-based aerosol speciation and lidar observations do not find appreciable smoke aerosol transport for this case. However, MODIS aerosol optical depths and model simulations indicate some smoke aerosols were transported from the Pacific Northwest through Texas to the Gulf of Mexico. Chemical transport and forward trajectory models confirm the three major observations: (1) the AIRS envisioned CO transport, (2) the satellite determined smoke plume height, and (3) the timing of the observed surface CO increases. Further, the forward trajectory simulations find two of the largest Pacific Northwest fires likely had the most significant impact.

  6. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2010-09-01

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  7. Welding II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding II, a performance-based course offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to introduce students to out-of-position shielded arc welding with emphasis on proper heats, electrode selection, and alternating/direct currents. After introductory…

  8. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  9. Juno II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Wernher von Braun and his team were responsible for the Jupiter-C hardware. The family of launch vehicles developed by the team also came to include the Juno II, which was used to launch the Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959. Pioneer IV passed within 37,000 miles of the Moon before going into solar orbit.

  10. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  11. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  12. BORE II

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migratemore » upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.« less

  13. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

  14. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  15. NSLS-II RF SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Gash, W.; Holub, B.; Kawashima, Y.; Ma, H.; Towne, N.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II is a new third generation light source being constructed at Brookhaven Lab. The storage ring is optimized for low emittance by use of damping wigglers to reduce the emittance to below 1 nm-rad. The RF systems are designed to provide stable beam through tight RF phase and amplitude stability requirements.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Danish leafy crops. Part I: PAH in kale and beets relate to point sources of PAH. Part II: a survey of PAH in commercial grown fresh and deep-frozen kale

    SciTech Connect

    Vahl, M.; Beck, J.; Stoebet, M.

    1982-01-01

    Part I discusses the investigation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) has been to demonstrate the possible pollution of leafy vegetables from expected PAH-emmissions, and to compare with similar investigations in Scandinavia. Part II is a survey has been to establish levels of PAH to which consumers are normally exposed from intake of fruits and above ground parts of vegetables.

  17. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. Area source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon mon...

  18. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. rea source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon monox...

  19. The Amityville Experience During World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Historical Inquiry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    An historical journal compiled by advanced placement American history high school students contains 10 articles about the experiences of residents of Amityville, New York, during World War II. Students used secondary sources, first-hand newspaper accounts, oral interviews, and primary source documents to recreate Amityville as it was during those…

  20. The VVDS-VLA deep field. II. Optical and near infrared identifications of VLA S1.4 GHz > 80 μ Jy sources in the VIMOS VLT deep survey VVDS-02h field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciliegi, P.; Zamorani, G.; Bondi, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Gregorini, L.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Radovich, M.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Parma, P.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mathez, G.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Merluzzi, P.; Paltani, S.; Pollo, A.; Zucca, E.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Gavignaud, I.; Pellò, R.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper we present the optical and near-infrared identifications of the 1054 radio sources detected in the 20 cm deep radio survey down to a 5σ flux limit of ~80 μJy obtained with the VLA in the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey VVDS-02h deep field. Using U,B,V,R,I and K data, with limiting magnitudes of UAB˜25.4, BAB˜26.5, VAB˜26.2, RAB˜25.9 IAB˜25.0, JAB˜24.2, KAB˜23.9 (50% completeness) we identified 718 radio sources (~74% of the whole sample). The photometric redshift analysis shows that, in each magnitude bin, the radio sample has a higher median photometric redshift than the whole optical sample, while the median (V-I)AB color of the radio sources is redder than the median color of the whole optical sample. These results suggest that radio detection is preferentially selecting galaxies with higher intrinsic optical luminosity. From the analysis of the optical properties of the radio sources as function of the radio flux, we found that while about 35% of the radio sources are optically unidentified in the higher radio flux bin (S> 1.0 mJy), the percentage of unidentified sources decreases to about 25% in the faintest bins (S< 0.5 mJy). The median IAB magnitude for the total sample of radio sources, i.e. including also the unidentified ones, is brighter in the faintest radio bins than in the bin with higher radio flux. This suggests that most of the faintest radio sources are likely to be associated to relatively lower radio luminosity objects at relatively modest redshift, rather than radio-powerful, AGN type objects at high redshift. Using a classification in early-type and late-type galaxies based on the (B-I)AB color and the photometric redshift, we found that the majority of the radio sources below ~0.15 mJy are indeed late-type star forming galaxies. Finally, the radio sources without optical counterpart in our deep imaging have a median radio flux of 0.15 mJy, equal to that of identified sources. Given the very faint optical limits, these

  1. [C II] and [N II] from dense ionized regions in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The interstellar medium (ISM) consists of highly ionized and neutral atomic, as well as molecular, components. Knowledge of their distribution is important for tracing the structure and lifecycle of the ISM. Aims: To determine the properties of the highly ionized gas and neutral weakly ionized gas in the Galaxy traced by the fine-structure lines of ionized nitrogen, [N ii], and ionized carbon, [C ii]. Methods: We utilize observations of the [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm fine-structure lines taken with the high spectral resolution Heterodyne Instrument in the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory along ten lines of sight towards the inner Galaxy to analyze the ionized ISM. The [N ii] emission can be used to estimate the contribution of the highly ionized gas to the [C ii] emission and separate the contributions from highly ionized and weakly ionized neutral gas. Results: We find that [N ii] has strong emission in distinct spectral features along all lines of sight associated with strong [C ii] emission. The [N ii] arises from moderate density extended H ii regions or ionized boundary layers of clouds. Comparison of the [N ii] and [C ii] spectra in 31 separate kinematic features shows that many of the [C ii] spectra are affected by absorption from low excitation gas associated with molecular clouds, sometimes strongly so. The apparent fraction of the [C ii] associated with the [N ii] gas is unrealistically large in many cases, most likely due to the reduction of [C ii] by absorption. In a few cases the foreground absorption can be modeled to determine the true source intensity. In these sources we find that the foreground absorbing gas layer has C+ column densities of order 1018 cm-2. Conclusions: [C ii] emission arising from strong sources of [N ii] emission is frequently absorbed by low excitation foreground gas complicating the interpretation of the properties of the ionized and neutral gas components that give rise to [C ii] emission.

  2. Atmospheric discharge and dispersion of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Part II: verification of the source term and analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion.

    PubMed

    Terada, Hiroaki; Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-10-01

    Regional-scale atmospheric dispersion simulations were carried out to verify the source term of (131)I and (137)Cs estimated in our previous studies, and to analyze the atmospheric dispersion and surface deposition during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The accuracy of the source term was evaluated by comparing the simulation results with measurements of daily and monthly surface depositions (fallout) over land in eastern Japan from March 12 to April 30, 2011. The source term was refined using observed air concentrations of radionuclides for periods when there were significant discrepancies between the calculated and measured daily surface deposition, and when environmental monitoring data, which had not been used in our previous studies, were now available. The daily surface deposition using the refined source term was predicted mostly to within a factor of 10, and without any apparent bias. Considering the errors in the model prediction, the estimated source term is reasonably accurate during the period when the plume flowed over land in Japan. The analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion and deposition suggests that the present distribution of a large amount of (137)Cs deposition in eastern Japan was produced primarily by four events that occurred on March 12, 15-16, 20, and 21-23. The ratio of wet deposition to the total varied widely depending on the influence by the particular event. PMID:22721917

  3. Selection Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Ramona

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library collection development by school library media specialists and describes selection sources for new books and materials; retrospective selection sources for materials published in preceding years; and an acquisition source. Provides an overview of the selection process and includes 10 suggestions for selection. (LRW)

  4. Nonpoint Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, F. X.

    1978-01-01

    Presented a literature review of nonpoint source effects on water quality and pollution covering: (1) water quality effects; (2) watershed studies; (3) nonpoint source models; and nonpoint source controls. A list of 122 references published in 1976 and 1977 is also presented. (HM)

  5. NSLS-II Transport Line Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

    2012-05-20

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

  6. Nonpoint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Selzer, L.

    1994-12-31

    Nonpoint source pollution remains the most pervasive water quality issue faced today. Unlike pollution from point sources, nonpoint source pollution is diffuse both in terms of its origin and the manner in which it enters ground and surface waters. It results from a great variety of human activities that take place over a wide geographic area perhaps many hundreds or even thousands of acres. And unlike pollutants from point sources--which enter the environment at well-defined locations and in relatively even, continuous discharges--pollutants from nonpoint sources usually find their way into surface and ground waters in sudden surges associated with rainfall, thunderstorms, or snowmelt. The author discusses some of the most significant sources of nonpoint source pollution.

  7. NSLS-II Radio Frequency Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rose J.; Gao F.; Goel, A.; Holub, B.; Kulpin, J.; Marques, C.; Yeddulla, M.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a 3 GeV X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The NSLS-II RF system consists of the master oscillator, digital low level RF controllers, linac, booster and storage ring RF sub-systems, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system.

  8. NSLS-II Beam Diagnostics Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,O.; Alforque, R.; Bacha, B.; Blednykh, A.; Cameron, P.; Cheng, W.; Dalesio, L. B.; Della Penna, A. J.; doom, L.; Fliller, R. P.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H-C.; Johnson, E. D.; Kosciuk, b. N.; Kramer, S. L.; Krinsky, S.; Mead, J.; Ozaki, S.; Padrazo, D.; Pinayev, I.; Ravindranath, R. V.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Sharma, S.; Skaritka, J.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, Y.; Willeke, F. J.; Yu, L-H.

    2009-05-04

    A new 3rd generation light source (NSLS-II) is in the early stages of construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. It presents several challenges for diagnostics and instrumentation, related to the extremely small emittance. In this paper, we present an overview of all planned instrumentation systems, results from research and development activities; and then focus on other challenging aspects.

  9. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  10. Far Outer Galaxy H II Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, A. L.; deGues, E. J.; Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have made a multifrequency (6, 3.6, and 2 cm), high-resolution (3"-6"), radio continuum survey of IRAS selected sources from the catalogue of Wouterloot & Brand (1989) to search for and study H II regions in the far outer Galaxy. We identified 31 sources in this catalog with well determined galactocentric distances, and with R approx.. greater than 15 kpc and L(sub FIR) approx.greater than 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, indicating the presence of high-mass star-formation. We have observed 11 of these sources with the Very Large Array (VLA). We observed the sources at 6 and 2 cm using "scaled arrays", making possible a direct and reliable comparison of the data at these two wavelengths for the determination of spectral indices. We detected a total of 12 radio sources, of which 10 have spectral indices consistent with optically-thin free-free emission from H II regions. Combined with previous VLA observations by other investigators, we have data on a total of 15 H II regions at galactocentric distances of 15 to 18.2kpc, among the most remote H II regions found in our Galaxy. The sizes of the H II regions range from approx. less than 0.10 to 2.3 pc. Using the measured fluxes and sizes, we determine the electron densities, emission measures, and excitation parameters of the H II regions, as well as the fluxes of Lyman continuum photons needed to keep the nebulae ionized. The sizes and electron densities are consistent with most of the sources detected in this survey being compact or ultracompact H II regions. Seven of the fifteen H II regions have sizes approx. less than 0.20 pc. Assuming simple pressure-driven expansion of the H II regions, these sizes indicate ages approx. less than 5 x 10(exp 4) yr, or only 1% of the lifetime of an O star, which implies an unlikely overabundance of O stars in the outer Galaxy. Thus, the large number of compact H II regions suggests that the time these regions spend in a compact phase must be much longer than their dynamical